Millán-Cayetano, José-Francisco; Yélamos, Oriol; Rossi, Anthony M.; Marchetti, Michael A.; Jain, Manu
Facial angiofibromas are benign tumors presenting as firm, dome-shaped, flesh-colored to pink papules, typically on the nose and adjoining central face. Clinically and dermoscopically they can mimic melanocytic nevi or basal cell carcinomas (BCC). Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a noninvasive imaging tool that is useful in diagnosing melanocytic and non-melanocytic facial lesions. To date no studies have described the RCM features of facial angiofibromas. Herein, we present two cases of facial angiofibromas that were imaged with RCM and revealed tumor island-like structures that mimicked BCC, leading to skin biopsy. PMID:28243496
Jemec, B.; Grobbelaar, A.; Harrison, D.
BACKGROUND—Congenital facial palsy (CFP) is clinically defined as facial palsy present at birth. It is associated with considerable disfigurement and causes functional and emotional problems for the affected child. The aetiology of the majority of cases however, remains elusive. AIMS—To investigate the role of a neuroanatomical abnormality as a cause of unilateral CFP. METHODS—Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed on 21 patients with unilateral CFP. Fifteen patients had unilateral CFP only; six suffered from syndromes which can include unilateral CFP. RESULTS—Of the 15 patients with unilateral CFP only, four (27%) had an abnormal nucleus or an abnormal weighting of this area on the MRI scan, compared to one (17%) of the remaining six patients. CONCLUSION—Developmental abnormalities of the facial nucleus itself constitute an important, and previously ignored, cause of monosymptomatic unilateral CFP. PMID:10952650
Lee, Eric; Whalen, Thomas; Sakalauskas, John; Baigent, Glen; Bisesar, Chandra; McCarthy, Andrew; Reid, Glenda; Wotton, Cynthia
Often during criminal investigations, witnesses must examine photographs of known offenders, colloquially called 'mug shots'. As witnesses view increasing numbers of mug shots that are presented in an arbitrary order, they become more likely to identify the wrong suspect. An alternative is a subjective feature-based mug shot retrieval system in which witnesses first complete a questionnaire about the appearance of the suspect, and then examine photographs in order of decreasing resemblance to their description. In the first experiment, this approach is found to be more efficient and more accurate than searching an album. The next three experiments show that it makes little difference if the witness has seen the suspect in person or only seen a photograph. In the last two experiments, it is shown that the feature-based retrieval system is effective even when the witness has seen the suspect in realistic natural settings. The results show that the main conclusions drawn from previous studies, where witnesses searched for faces seen only in photographs, also apply when witnesses are searching for a face that they saw live in naturalistic settings. Additionally, it is shown that is it better to have two raters than one create the database, but that more than two raters yield rapidly diminishing returns for the extra cost.
Chambers, John W., Jr.; And Others
Investigated relationships between perceived attractiveness, facial features, and African self-consciousness (ASC) among 149 African American college students. As predicted, high ASC subjects used more positive adjectives in descriptions of strong African facial features than did medium or low ASC subjects. Results are discussed in the context of…
AlKattan, Wael M.; Al-Qattan, Mohammad M.; Bafaqeeh, Sameer A.
Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I (OFDI) is an X-linked syndrome, which has several craniofacial and limb features; and hence, patients frequently present to craniofacial and plastic surgeons. Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I is caused by mutations in the CXORF5 gene. The gene product is one of the basal body proteins of a slim microtubule-based organelle called the “primary cilium”. Most of the clinical features of OFDI patients are related to dysfunctions of the primary cilium leading to abnormal Hedgehog signal transduction, depressed planar cell polarity pathway, and errors in cell cycle control. PMID:26593159
Crysdale, W S
Congenital hearing loss occurs in association with cranio-facial anomalies. Lay people and health professionals as well frequently regard individuals with cranio-facial anomalies as "stupid" or of lower than normal intelligence because of their odd appearance. Two case reports illustrate that this erroneous assumption will result in the delayed detection of significant hearing loss.
Valls-Solé, J; Valldeoriola, F; Tolosa, E; Marti, M J
Spontaneous and voluntary eyelid motility is often abnormal in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy. In contrast, their eyelid reflex responses are relatively preserved, and only those generated by an acoustic startle have been found absent or severely reduced. We hypothesized that, because of their relevant brainstem pathology, patients with progressive supranuclear palsy might have other brainstem reflex abnormalities which, on detection, could help with their neurophysiological characterization. In this study, we examined facial reflex responses in 14 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, 12 patients with multisystem atrophy, 10 patients with Parkinson's disease, six patients with corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, 11 patients with various non-parkinsonian neurological illnesses and 10 normal subjects. EMG activity was simultaneously recorded from the orbicularis oculi and mentalis muscles following electrical stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist. Mentalis responses were obtained in two normal subjects and in all patients except one with Parkinson's disease, one with progressive supranuclear palsy and one with corticobasal ganglionic degeneration; there were no differences between groups of subjects regarding latency or peak amplitude. Orbicularis oculi responses were always present in control subjects and patients who exhibited mentalis responses, with the significant exception of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, in whom only the response of mentalis was obtained. Blink-reflex responses to supraorbital nerve electrical stimuli were present at a normal latency and amplitude in all patients. An abnormally enhanced blink-reflex excitability recovery curve to paired stimuli was found in a similar percentage of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, multisystem atrophy and Parkinson's disease, but in only two patients with corticobasal ganglionic degeneration. Patients with progressive supranuclear palsy have a
Fasano, Alfonso; Valadas, Anabela; Bhatia, Kailash P; Prashanth, LK; Lang, Anthony E; Munhoz, Renato P; Morgante, Francesca; Tarsy, Daniel; Duker, Andrew P; Girlanda, Paolo; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Espay, Alberto J
The facial phenotype of psychogenic movement disorders has not been fully characterized. Seven tertiary-referral movement disorders centers using a standardized data collection on a computerized database performed a retrospective chart review of psychogenic movement disorders involving the face. Patients with organic forms of facial dystonia or any medical or neurological disorder known to affect facial muscles were excluded. Sixty-one patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for psychogenic facial movement disorders (91.8% females; age: 37.0 ± 11.3 years). Phasic or tonic muscular spasms resembling dystonia were documented in all patients most commonly involving the lips (60.7%), followed by eyelids (50.8%), perinasal region (16.4%), and forehead (9.8%). The most common pattern consisted of tonic, sustained, lateral, and/or downward protrusion of one side of the lower lip with ipsilateral jaw deviation (84.3%). Ipsi- or contralateral blepharospasm and excessive platysma contraction occurred in isolation or combined with fixed lip dystonia (60.7%). Spasms were reported as painful in 24.6% of cases. Symptom onset was abrupt in most cases (80.3%), with at least 1 precipitating psychological stress or trauma identified in 57.4%. Associated body regions involved included upper limbs (29.5%), neck (16.4%), lower limbs (16.4%), and trunk (4.9%). There were fluctuations in severity and spontaneous exacerbations and remissions (60%). Prevalent comorbidities included depression (38.0%) and tension headache (26.4%). Fixed jaw and/or lip deviation is a characteristic pattern of psychogenic facial movement disorders, occurring in isolation or in combination with other psychogenic movement disorders or other psychogenic features. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society PMID:23033125
Oliver, Lindsay D; Virani, Karim; Finger, Elizabeth C; Mitchell, Derek G V
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severely impaired social and emotional behaviour, including emotion recognition deficits. Though fear recognition impairments seen in particular neurological and developmental disorders can be ameliorated by reallocating attention to critical facial features, the possibility that similar benefits can be conferred to patients with FTD has yet to be explored. In the current study, we examined the impact of presenting distinct regions of the face (whole face, eyes-only, and eyes-removed) on the ability to recognize expressions of anger, fear, disgust, and happiness in 24 patients with FTD and 24 healthy controls. A recognition deficit was demonstrated across emotions by patients with FTD relative to controls. Crucially, removal of diagnostic facial features resulted in an appropriate decline in performance for both groups; furthermore, patients with FTD demonstrated a lack of disproportionate improvement in emotion recognition accuracy as a result of isolating critical facial features relative to controls. Thus, unlike some neurological and developmental disorders featuring amygdala dysfunction, the emotion recognition deficit observed in FTD is not likely driven by selective inattention to critical facial features. Patients with FTD also mislabelled negative facial expressions as happy more often than controls, providing further evidence for abnormalities in the representation of positive affect in FTD. This work suggests that the emotional expression recognition deficit associated with FTD is unlikely to be rectified by adjusting selective attention to diagnostic features, as has proven useful in other select disorders.
Cabrera, Raul; Puig, Susana; Larrondo, Jorge; Castro, Alex; Valenzuela, Karen; Sabatini, Natalia
The face has not been considered a common site of fixed drug eruption, and the authors lack dermatoscopic studies of this condition on the subject. The authors sought to characterize clinical and dermatoscopic features of 8 cases of an eruptive facial postinflammatory lentigo. The authors conducted a retrospective review of 8 cases with similar clinical and dermatoscopic findings seen from 2 medical centers in 2 countries during 2010-2014. A total of 8 patients (2 males and 6 females) with ages that ranged from 34 to 62 years (mean: 48) presented an abrupt onset of a single facial brown-pink macule, generally asymmetrical, with an average size of 1.9 cm. after ingestion of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs that lasted for several months. Dermatoscopy mainly showed a pseudonetwork or uniform areas of brown pigmentation, brown or blue-gray dots, red dots and/or telangiectatic vessels. In the epidermis, histopathology showed a mild hydropic degeneration and focal melanin hyperpigmentation. Melanin can be found freely in the dermis or laden in macrophages along with a mild perivascular mononuclear infiltrate. The authors describe eruptive facial postinflammatory lentigo as a new variant of a fixed drug eruption on the face.
Tan, Shuqiu; Chen, Dongyi; Guo, Chenggang; Huang, Zhiqi
Facial feature point detection has been receiving great research advances in recent years. Numerous methods have been developed and applied in practical face analysis systems. However, it is still a quite challenging task because of the large variability in expression and gestures and the existence of occlusions in real-world photo shoot. In this paper, we present a robust sparse reconstruction method for the face alignment problems. Instead of a direct regression between the feature space and the shape space, the concept of shape increment reconstruction is introduced. Moreover, a set of coupled overcomplete dictionaries termed the shape increment dictionary and the local appearance dictionary are learned in a regressive manner to select robust features and fit shape increments. Additionally, to make the learned model more generalized, we select the best matched parameter set through extensive validation tests. Experimental results on three public datasets demonstrate that the proposed method achieves a better robustness over the state-of-the-art methods.
Zhao, Xi; Dellandréa, Emmanuel; Chen, Liming; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A
Three-dimensional face landmarking aims at automatically localizing facial landmarks and has a wide range of applications (e.g., face recognition, face tracking, and facial expression analysis). Existing methods assume neutral facial expressions and unoccluded faces. In this paper, we propose a general learning-based framework for reliable landmark localization on 3-D facial data under challenging conditions (i.e., facial expressions and occlusions). Our approach relies on a statistical model, called 3-D statistical facial feature model, which learns both the global variations in configurational relationships between landmarks and the local variations of texture and geometry around each landmark. Based on this model, we further propose an occlusion classifier and a fitting algorithm. Results from experiments on three publicly available 3-D face databases (FRGC, BU-3-DFE, and Bosphorus) demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, in terms of landmarking accuracy and robustness, in the presence of expressions and occlusions.
Lyyra, Pessi; Mäkelä, Hanna; Hietanen, Jari K; Astikainen, Piia
Change blindness refers to the inability to detect visual changes if introduced together with an eye-movement, blink, flash of light, or with distracting stimuli. Evidence of implicit detection of changed visual features during change blindness has been reported in a number of studies using both behavioral and neurophysiological measurements. However, it is not known whether implicit detection occurs only at the level of single features or whether complex organizations of features can be implicitly detected as well. We tested this in adult humans using intact and scrambled versions of schematic faces as stimuli in a change blindness paradigm while recording event-related potentials (ERPs). An enlargement of the face-sensitive N170 ERP component was observed at the right temporal electrode site to changes from scrambled to intact faces, even if the participants were not consciously able to report such changes (change blindness). Similarly, the disintegration of an intact face to scrambled features resulted in attenuated N170 responses during change blindness. Other ERP deflections were modulated by changes, but unlike the N170 component, they were indifferent to the direction of the change. The bidirectional modulation of the N170 component during change blindness suggests that implicit change detection can also occur at the level of complex features in the case of facial stimuli.
Lyyra, Pessi; Mäkelä, Hanna; Hietanen, Jari K.; Astikainen, Piia
Change blindness refers to the inability to detect visual changes if introduced together with an eye-movement, blink, flash of light, or with distracting stimuli. Evidence of implicit detection of changed visual features during change blindness has been reported in a number of studies using both behavioral and neurophysiological measurements. However, it is not known whether implicit detection occurs only at the level of single features or whether complex organizations of features can be implicitly detected as well. We tested this in adult humans using intact and scrambled versions of schematic faces as stimuli in a change blindness paradigm while recording event-related potentials (ERPs). An enlargement of the face-sensitive N170 ERP component was observed at the right temporal electrode site to changes from scrambled to intact faces, even if the participants were not consciously able to report such changes (change blindness). Similarly, the disintegration of an intact face to scrambled features resulted in attenuated N170 responses during change blindness. Other ERP deflections were modulated by changes, but unlike the N170 component, they were indifferent to the direction of the change. The bidirectional modulation of the N170 component during change blindness suggests that implicit change detection can also occur at the level of complex features in the case of facial stimuli. PMID:24498165
Şimşek Kiper, Pelin Özlem; Utine, Gülen Eda; Alikaşifoğlu, Mehmet; Boduroğlu, Koray
Williams syndrome (OMIM #194050) is a rare, well-recognized, multisystemic genetic condition affecting approximately 1/7,500 individuals. There are no marked regional differences in the incidence of Williams syndrome. The syndrome is caused by a hemizygous deletion of approximately 28 genes, including ELN on chromosome 7q11.2. Prenatal-onset growth retardation, distinct facial appearance, cardiovascular abnormalities, and unique hypersocial behavior are among the most common clinical features. Here, we report the case of a patient referred to us with distinct facial features and intellectual disability, who was diagnosed with Williams syndrome at the age of 37 years. Our aim is to increase awareness regarding the diagnostic features and complications of this recognizable syndrome among adult health care providers. Williams syndrome is usually diagnosed during infancy or childhood, but in the absence of classical findings, such as cardiovascular anomalies, hypercalcemia, and cognitive impairment, the diagnosis could be delayed. Due to the multisystemic and progressive nature of the syndrome, accurate diagnosis is critical for appropriate care and screening for the associated morbidities that may affect the patient's health and well-being. PMID:28360987
Liewchavalit, Chalothorn; Akiba, Masakazu; Kanno, Tsuneo; Nagao, Tomoharu
Human faces contain a lot of demographic information such as identity, gender, age, race and emotion. Human being can perceive these pieces of information and use it as an important clue in social interaction with other people. Race perception is considered the most delicacy and sensitive parts of face perception. There are many research concerning image-base race recognition, but most of them are focus on major race group such as Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid. This paper focuses on how people classify race of the racial closely related group. As a sample of racial closely related group, we choose Japanese and Thai face to represents difference between Northern and Southern Mongoloid. Three psychological experiment was performed to study the strategies of face perception on race classification. As a result of psychological experiment, it can be suggested that race perception is an ability that can be learn. Eyes and eyebrows are the most attention point and eyes is a significant factor in race perception. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to extract facial features of sample race group. Extracted race features of texture and shape were used to synthesize faces. As the result, it can be suggested that racial feature is rely on detailed texture rather than shape feature. This research is a indispensable important fundamental research on the race perception which are essential in the establishment of human-like race recognition system.
Miyake, Tomoko; Kojima, Shota; Sugiyama, Tetsuya; Ueki, Mari; Sugasawa, Jun; Oku, Hidehiro; Tajiri, Kensuke; Shigemura, Yuka; Ueda, Koichi; Harada, Atsuko; Yamasaki, Mami; Yamanaka, Takumi; Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna; Ikeda, Tsunehiko
Introduction The incidence of facial cleft is rare and ranges between 1.43 and 4.85 per 100,000 births. To date, there have been few reports of detailed ophthalmologic examinations performed in cases of facial cleft. Here, we report a case of optic-nerve hypoplasia and anterior segment abnormality associated with facial cleft. Case report A 9-day-old female infant was delivered by cesarian section at 34 weeks of gestational age (the second baby of twins) and weighed 2,276 g upon presentation. She had a facial cleft and ectrodactyly at birth. Right eye-dominant blepharophimosis was obvious. Examination of the right eye revealed inferior corneal opacity with vascularization, downward corectopia, and optic-nerve hypoplasia. The corneal diameter was 8 mm in both eyes, and tonometry by use of a Tono-Pen® XL (Reichert Technologies, Depew, NY, USA) handheld applanation tonometer revealed that her intraocular pressure was 11–22 mmHg (Oculus Dexter) and 8 mmHg (Oculus Sinister). B-mode echo revealed no differences in axial length between her right and left eyes. When she was 15–16 months old, we attempted to examine her eyes before she underwent plastic surgery under general anesthesia. She had a small optic disc in both eyes and the right-eye disc was tilted. After undergoing canthotomy, gonioscopy and ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed that almost all directions were open except for the peripheral anterior synechia. Since magnetic resonance imaging revealed ventriculomegaly associated with an interhemispheric cyst at birth, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was inserted at 12 days of age. At 25 months of age, her condition suddenly deteriorated due to occlusion of the ventricular shunt catheter, and she died 5 days later. In this patient, amniotic band syndrome was presumed to be the primary cause due to the clinical findings. Conclusion We experienced a case of optic-nerve hypoplasia and anterior segment abnormality that occurred with facial cleft. The cause of these
Facial feature point detection has been receiving great research advances in recent years. Numerous methods have been developed and applied in practical face analysis systems. However, it is still a quite challenging task because of the large variability in expression and gestures and the existence of occlusions in real-world photo shoot. In this paper, we present a robust sparse reconstruction method for the face alignment problems. Instead of a direct regression between the feature space and the shape space, the concept of shape increment reconstruction is introduced. Moreover, a set of coupled overcomplete dictionaries termed the shape increment dictionary and the local appearance dictionary are learned in a regressive manner to select robust features and fit shape increments. Additionally, to make the learned model more generalized, we select the best matched parameter set through extensive validation tests. Experimental results on three public datasets demonstrate that the proposed method achieves a better robustness over the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:28316615
Wolffhechel, Karin; Fagertun, Jens; Jacobsen, Ulrik Plesner; Majewski, Wiktor; Hemmingsen, Astrid Sofie; Larsen, Catrine Lohmann; Lorentzen, Sofie Katrine; Jarmer, Hanne
Appearance is known to influence social interactions, which in turn could potentially influence personality development. In this study we focus on discovering the relationship between self-reported personality traits, first impressions and facial characteristics. The results reveal that several personality traits can be read above chance from a face, and that facial features influence first impressions. Despite the former, our prediction model fails to reliably infer personality traits from either facial features or first impressions. First impressions, however, could be inferred more reliably from facial features. We have generated artificial, extreme faces visualising the characteristics having an effect on first impressions for several traits. Conclusively, we find a relationship between first impressions, some personality traits and facial features and consolidate that people on average assess a given face in a highly similar manner. PMID:25233221
Wang, Sheng-Qiang; Li, Yun; Bai, Ya-Ping
In order to have a good grasp of rules of acupuncture for severe peripheral facial paralysis, the early clinical features of severe peripheral facial paralysis (Bell's palsy) are studied and analyzed from the aspect of injury level, injury degrees, clinical syndromes and symptoms; consequently, the treatment strategies with acupuncture are proposed. The severe peripheral facial paralysis is an important research area in clinic trials which verifies the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment.
Pisani, Francesco; Pavlidis, Elena; Cattani, Luca; Ferrari, Gianluigi; Raheli, Riccardo; Spagnoli, Carlotta
Objectives We retrospectively analyze the diagnostic accuracy for paroxysmal abnormal facial movements, comparing one camera versus multi-camera approach. Background Polygraphic video-electroencephalogram (vEEG) recording is the current gold standard for brain monitoring in high-risk newborns, especially when neonatal seizures are suspected. One camera synchronized with the EEG is commonly used. Methods Since mid-June 2012, we have started using multiple cameras, one of which point toward newborns' faces. We evaluated vEEGs recorded in newborns in the study period between mid-June 2012 and the end of September 2014 and compared, for each recording, the diagnostic accuracies obtained with one-camera and multi-camera approaches. Results We recorded 147 vEEGs from 87 newborns and found 73 episodes of paroxysmal facial abnormal movements in 18 vEEGs of 11 newborns with the multi-camera approach. By using the single-camera approach, only 28.8% of these events were identified (21/73). Ten positive vEEGs with multicamera with 52 paroxysmal facial abnormal movements (52/73, 71.2%) would have been considered as negative with the single-camera approach. Conclusions The use of one additional facial camera can significantly increase the diagnostic accuracy of vEEGs in the detection of paroxysmal abnormal facial movements in the newborns.
Sun, Bo; Li, Liandong; Zhou, Guoyan; He, Jun
Facial expression recognition in the wild is a very challenging task. We describe our work in static and continuous facial expression recognition in the wild. We evaluate the recognition results of gray deep features and color deep features, and explore the fusion of multimodal texture features. For the continuous facial expression recognition, we design two temporal-spatial dense scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) features and combine multimodal features to recognize expression from image sequences. For the static facial expression recognition based on video frames, we extract dense SIFT and some deep convolutional neural network (CNN) features, including our proposed CNN architecture. We train linear support vector machine and partial least squares classifiers for those kinds of features on the static facial expression in the wild (SFEW) and acted facial expression in the wild (AFEW) dataset, and we propose a fusion network to combine all the extracted features at decision level. The final achievement we gained is 56.32% on the SFEW testing set and 50.67% on the AFEW validation set, which are much better than the baseline recognition rates of 35.96% and 36.08%.
Averkin, Anton; Potapov, Alexey
The paper is devoted to facial image analysis and particularly deals with the problem of automatic evaluation of the attractiveness of human faces. We propose a new approach for automatic construction of feature space based on a modified principal component analysis. Input data sets for the algorithm are the learning data sets of facial images, which are rated by one person. The proposed approach allows one to extract features of the individual subjective face beauty perception and to predict attractiveness values for new facial images, which were not included into a learning data set. The Pearson correlation coefficient between values predicted by our method for new facial images and personal attractiveness estimation values equals to 0.89. This means that the new approach proposed is promising and can be used for predicting subjective face attractiveness values in real systems of the facial images analysis.
Sormaz, Mladen; Young, Andrew W; Andrews, Timothy J
Theoretical accounts of face processing often emphasise feature shapes as the primary visual cue to the recognition of facial expressions. However, changes in facial expression also affect the surface properties of the face. In this study, we investigated whether this surface information can also be used in the recognition of facial expression. First, participants identified facial expressions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, happiness) from images that were manipulated such that they varied mainly in shape or mainly in surface properties. We found that the categorization of facial expression is possible in either type of image, but that different expressions are relatively dependent on surface or shape properties. Next, we investigated the relative contributions of shape and surface information to the categorization of facial expressions. This employed a complementary method that involved combining the surface properties of one expression with the shape properties from a different expression. Our results showed that the categorization of facial expressions in these hybrid images was equally dependent on the surface and shape properties of the image. Together, these findings provide a direct demonstration that both feature shape and surface information make significant contributions to the recognition of facial expressions.
Plomp, A S; Reardon, W; Benton, S; Taylor, D; Larcher, V F; Sundrum, R; Winter, R M
A female patient is presented with infantile spasms, punched-out retinal lesions, facial dysmorphism, short upper arms, short thumbs, left lower limb hypoplasia with foot deformity, a hemivertebra, atrial septal defect, growth retardation and severe developmental delay. There is some similarity to patients with Aicardi syndrome (AS), but the retinal lesions in our patient are different and she does not have agenesis of the corpus callosum, one of the diagnostic features of AS. She might represent an atypical form of this syndrome with additional features, usually not present in AS. As there is no diagnostic test for AS yet, this diagnosis cannot be confirmed nor rejected with certainty. However, it might be more likely that our patient has another, possibly unique, condition.
Afifi, Hanan H; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed S; Eid, Maha M; Mostafa, Inas S; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H
A 13-year-old Egyptian girl with generalized hypertrichosis, gingival hyperplasia, coarse facial appearance, no cardiovascular or skeletal anomalies, keloid formation, and multiple labial frenula was referred to our clinic for counseling. Molecular analysis of the ABCC9 gene showed a de novo missense mutation located in exon 27, which has been described previously with Cantu syndrome. An overlap between Cantu syndrome, acromegaloid facial syndrome, and hypertrichosis acromegaloid facial features disorder is apparent at the phenotypic and molecular levels. The patient reported here gives further evidence that these syndromes are an expression of the ABCC9-related disorders, ranging from hypertrichosis and acromegaloid facies to the severe end of Cantu syndrome.
Expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with germline PIGA mutations: a child with developmental delay, accelerated linear growth, facial dysmorphisms, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and progressive CNS abnormalities.
van der Crabben, Saskia N; Harakalova, Magdalena; Brilstra, Eva H; van Berkestijn, Frédérique M C; Hofstede, Floris C; van Vught, Adrianus J; Cuppen, Edwin; Kloosterman, Wigard; Ploos van Amstel, Hans Kristian; van Haaften, Gijs; van Haelst, Mieke M
Phosphatidyl inositol glycan (PIG) enzyme subclasses are involved in distinct steps of glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol anchor protein biosynthesis. Glycolsyl phosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins have heterogeneous functions; they can function as enzymes, adhesion molecules, complement regulators and co-receptors in signal transduction pathways. Germline mutations in genes encoding different members of the PIG family result in diverse conditions with (severe) developmental delay, (neonatal) seizures, hypotonia, CNS abnormalities, growth abnormalities, and congenital abnormalities as hallmark features. The variability of clinical features resembles the typical diversity of other glycosylation pathway deficiencies such as the congenital disorders of glycosylation. Here, we report the first germline missense mutation in the PIGA gene associated with accelerated linear growth, obesity, central hypotonia, severe refractory epilepsy, cardiac anomalies, mild facial dysmorphic features, mildly elevated alkaline phosphatase levels, and CNS anomalies consisting of progressive cerebral atrophy, insufficient myelinization, and cortical MRI signal abnormalities. X-exome sequencing in the proband identified a c.278C>T (p.Pro93Leu) mutation in the PIGA gene. The mother and maternal grandmother were unaffected carriers and the mother showed 100% skewing of the X-chromosome harboring the mutation. These results together with the clinical similarity of the patient reported here and the previously reported patients with a germline nonsense mutation in PIGA support the determination that this mutation caused the phenotype in this family.
Muñoz-Reyes, José Antonio; Iglesias-Julios, Marta; Pita, Miguel; Turiegano, Enrique
Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness. PMID:26161954
Han, Dongxu; Al Jawad, Naseer; Du, Hongbo
Facial expression identification is an important part of face recognition and closely related to emotion detection from face images. Various solutions have been proposed in the past using different types of cameras and features. Microsoft Kinect device has been widely used for multimedia interactions. More recently, the device has been increasingly deployed for supporting scientific investigations. This paper explores the effectiveness of using the device in identifying emotional facial expressions such as surprise, smile, sad, etc. and evaluates the usefulness of 3D data points on a face mesh structure obtained from the Kinect device. We present a distance-based geometric feature component that is derived from the distances between points on the face mesh and selected reference points in a single frame. The feature components extracted across a sequence of frames starting and ending by neutral emotion represent a whole expression. The feature vector eliminates the need for complex face orientation correction, simplifying the feature extraction process and making it more efficient. We applied the kNN classifier that exploits a feature component based similarity measure following the principle of dynamic time warping to determine the closest neighbors. Preliminary tests on a small scale database of different facial expressions show promises of the newly developed features and the usefulness of the Kinect device in facial expression identification.
Mistry, Kamlesh; Zhang, Li; Neoh, Siew Chin; Lim, Chee Peng; Fielding, Ben
This paper proposes a facial expression recognition system using evolutionary particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based feature optimization. The system first employs modified local binary patterns, which conduct horizontal and vertical neighborhood pixel comparison, to generate a discriminative initial facial representation. Then, a PSO variant embedded with the concept of a micro genetic algorithm (mGA), called mGA-embedded PSO, is proposed to perform feature optimization. It incorporates a nonreplaceable memory, a small-population secondary swarm, a new velocity updating strategy, a subdimension-based in-depth local facial feature search, and a cooperation of local exploitation and global exploration search mechanism to mitigate the premature convergence problem of conventional PSO. Multiple classifiers are used for recognizing seven facial expressions. Based on a comprehensive study using within- and cross-domain images from the extended Cohn Kanade and MMI benchmark databases, respectively, the empirical results indicate that our proposed system outperforms other state-of-the-art PSO variants, conventional PSO, classical GA, and other related facial expression recognition models reported in the literature by a significant margin.
Liu, Pan; Montaser-Kouhsari, Leila; Xu, Hong
Prolonged exposure to a visual stimulus, such as a happy face, biases the perception of subsequently presented neutral face toward sad perception, the known face adaptation. Face adaptation is affected by visibility or awareness of the adapting face. However, whether it is affected by discriminability of the adapting face is largely unknown. In the current study, we used crowding to manipulate discriminability of the adapting face and test its effect on face adaptation. Instead of presenting flanking faces near the target face, we shortened the distance between facial features (internal feature crowding), and reduced the size of face contour (external contour crowding), to introduce crowding. We are interested in whether internal feature crowding or external contour crowding is more effective in inducing crowding effect in our first experiment. We found that combining internal feature and external contour crowding, but not either of them alone, induced significant crowding effect. In Experiment 2, we went on further to investigate its effect on adaptation. We found that both internal feature crowding and external contour crowding reduced its facial expression aftereffect (FEA) significantly. However, we did not find a significant correlation between discriminability of the adapting face and its FEA. Interestingly, we found a significant correlation between discriminabilities of the adapting and test faces. Experiment 3 found that the reduced adaptation aftereffect in combined crowding by the external face contour and the internal facial features cannot be decomposed into the effects from the face contour and facial features linearly. It thus suggested a nonlinear integration between facial features and face contour in face adaptation.
Cohen, M M
This paper examines how human face-to-face communications may be compromised by exposure to the microgravity environment of space. Although efficient face-to-face communications are acknowledged to be essential for astronauts to work safely and effectively, the space environment causes facial edema, and allows speakers and listeners to confront one another in multiple orientations that can potentially interfere with many important non-linguistic communication cues. In addition, high background noises in space shuttles and stations can mask auditory messages. Currently, the effects of spaceflight on the ability to identify facial features, to read lips, to integrate visual and auditory sensory information, and to interpret spoken messages in noisy environments while the speakers are at various orientations with respect to the listeners, are virtually unknown. Ground-based experiments conducted in our laboratory with computer-displayed facial images presented at various orientations have suggested how non-linguistic cues may be degraded by changes in the retinal orientations of facial images. The results of our ground-based studies illustrating impaired recognition of facial features in non-erect images are described, their implications for effective face-to-face communications among astronauts in space are discussed, and two experiments that can quantify the effects of microgravity on face-to-face communications in space are outlined.
Frowd, Charlie D.; Skelton, Faye; Atherton, Chris; Pitchford, Melanie; Hepton, Gemma; Holden, Laura; McIntyre, Alex H.; Hancock, Peter J. B.
Recognition memory for unfamiliar faces is facilitated when contextual cues (e.g., head pose, background environment, hair and clothing) are consistent between study and test. By contrast, inconsistencies in external features, especially hair, promote errors in unfamiliar face-matching tasks. For the construction of facial composites, as carried…
Rutherford, M. D.; Walsh, Jennifer A.; Lee, Vivian
Infants are interested in eyes, but look preferentially at mouths toward the end of the first year, when word learning begins. Language delays are characteristic of children developing with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We measured how infants at risk for ASD, control infants, and infants who later reached ASD criterion scanned facial features.…
Wong, Teresa K W; Fung, Peter C W; Chua, Siew E; McAlonan, Grainne M
Previous studies of face processing in autism suggest abnormalities in anatomical development, functioning and connectivity/coordination of distributed brain systems involved in social cognition, but the spatial sequence and time course of rapid (sub-second) neural responses to emotional facial expressions have not been examined in detail. Source analysis of high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) is an optimal means to examine both the precise temporal profile and spatial location of early electrical brain activity in response to emotionally salient stimuli. Therefore, we recorded 128-channel ERPs from high-functioning males with autism (aged 6-10 years), and age-, sex- and IQ-matched typically developing controls during explicit and implicit processing of emotion from pictures showing happy, angry, fearful, sad and neutral facial expressions. Children with autism showed normal patterns of behavioural and ERP (P1, N170 and P2) responses. However, dipole source analysis revealed that ERP responses relating to face detection (visual cortex) and configural processing of faces (fusiform gyrus), as well as mental state decoding (medial prefrontal lobe), were significantly weaker and/or slower in autism compared with controls during both explicit and implicit emotion-processing tasks. Slower- and larger-amplitude ERP source activity in the parietal somatosensory cortices possibly reflected more effortful compensatory analytical strategies used by the autism group to process facial gender and emotion. Such aberrant neurophysiological processing of facial emotion observed in children with autism within the first 300 ms of stimulus presentation suggests abnormal cortical specialization within social brain networks, which would likely disrupt the development of normal social-cognitive skills.
Turati, Chiara; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Simion, Francesca; Leo, Irene
Existing data indicate that newborns are able to recognize individual faces, but little is known about what perceptual cues drive this ability. The current study showed that either the inner or outer features of the face can act as sufficient cues for newborns' face recognition (Experiment 1), but the outer part of the face enjoys an advantage…
Fuentes, Christina T.; Runa, Catarina; Blanco, Xenxo Alvarez; Orvalho, Verónica; Haggard, Patrick
Despite extensive research on face perception, few studies have investigated individuals’ knowledge about the physical features of their own face. In this study, 50 participants indicated the location of key features of their own face, relative to an anchor point corresponding to the tip of the nose, and the results were compared to the true location of the same individual’s features from a standardised photograph. Horizontal and vertical errors were analysed separately. An overall bias to underestimate vertical distances revealed a distorted face representation, with reduced face height. Factor analyses were used to identify separable subconfigurations of facial features with correlated localisation errors. Independent representations of upper and lower facial features emerged from the data pattern. The major source of variation across individuals was in representation of face shape, with a spectrum from tall/thin to short/wide representation. Visual identification of one’s own face is excellent, and facial features are routinely used for establishing personal identity. However, our results show that spatial knowledge of one’s own face is remarkably poor, suggesting that face representation may not contribute strongly to self-awareness. PMID:24130790
Shu, Ting; Zhang, Bob
Blood tests allow doctors to check for certain diseases and conditions. However, using a syringe to extract the blood can be deemed invasive, slightly painful, and its analysis time consuming. In this paper, we propose a new non-invasive system to detect the health status (Healthy or Diseased) of an individual based on facial block texture features extracted using the Gabor filter. Our system first uses a non-invasive capture device to collect facial images. Next, four facial blocks are located on these images to represent them. Afterwards, each facial block is convolved with a Gabor filter bank to calculate its texture value. Classification is finally performed using K-Nearest Neighbor and Support Vector Machines via a Library for Support Vector Machines (with four kernel functions). The system was tested on a dataset consisting of 100 Healthy and 100 Diseased (with 13 forms of illnesses) samples. Experimental results show that the proposed system can detect the health status with an accuracy of 93 %, a sensitivity of 94 %, a specificity of 92 %, using a combination of the Gabor filters and facial blocks.
Rabiu, Habibu; Saripan, M. Iqbal; Mashohor, Syamsiah; Marhaban, Mohd Hamiruce
In recent years, facial expression recognition (FER) has become an attractive research area, which besides the fundamental challenges, it poses, finds application in areas, such as human-computer interaction, clinical psychology, lie detection, pain assessment, and neurology. Generally the approaches to FER consist of three main steps: face detection, feature extraction and expression recognition. The recognition accuracy of FER hinges immensely on the relevance of the selected features in representing the target expressions. In this article, we present a person and gender independent 3D facial expression recognition method, using maximum relevance minimum redundancy geometrical features. The aim is to detect a compact set of features that sufficiently represents the most discriminative features between the target classes. Multi-class one-against-one SVM classifier was employed to recognize the seven facial expressions; neutral, happy, sad, angry, fear, disgust, and surprise. The average recognition accuracy of 92.2% was recorded. Furthermore, inter database homogeneity was investigated between two independent databases the BU-3DFE and UPM-3DFE the results showed a strong homogeneity between the two databases.
Li, Dong; Zhou, Huiling; Lam, Kin-Man
Face recognition methods, which usually represent face images using holistic or local facial features, rely heavily on alignment. Their performances also suffer a severe degradation under variations in expressions or poses, especially when there is one gallery per subject only. With the easy access to high-resolution (HR) face images nowadays, some HR face databases have recently been developed. However, few studies have tackled the use of HR information for face recognition or verification. In this paper, we propose a pose-invariant face-verification method, which is robust to alignment errors, using the HR information based on pore-scale facial features. A new keypoint descriptor, namely, pore-Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-Scale Invariant Feature Transform (PPCASIFT)-adapted from PCA-SIFT-is devised for the extraction of a compact set of distinctive pore-scale facial features. Having matched the pore-scale features of two-face regions, an effective robust-fitting scheme is proposed for the face-verification task. Experiments show that, with one frontal-view gallery only per subject, our proposed method outperforms a number of standard verification methods, and can achieve excellent accuracy even the faces are under large variations in expression and pose.
Clark, Uraina S; Walker, Keenan A; Cohen, Ronald A; Devlin, Kathryn N; Folkers, Anna M; Pina, Matthew J; Tashima, Karen T
Impaired facial emotion recognition abilities in HIV+ patients are well documented, but little is known about the neural etiology of these difficulties. We examined the relation of facial emotion recognition abilities to regional brain volumes in 44 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 44 HIV-negative control (HC) adults. Volumes of structures implicated in HIV-associated neuropathology and emotion recognition were measured on MRI using an automated segmentation tool. Relative to HC, HIV+ patients demonstrated emotion recognition impairments for fearful expressions, reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes, and increased amygdala volumes. In the HIV+ group, fear recognition impairments correlated significantly with ACC, but not amygdala volumes. ACC reductions were also associated with lower nadir CD4 levels (i.e., greater HIV-disease severity). These findings extend our understanding of the neurobiological substrates underlying an essential social function, facial emotion recognition, in HIV+ individuals and implicate HIV-related ACC atrophy in the impairment of these abilities.
Chen, Yunhua; Liu, Weijian; Zhang, Ling; Yan, Mingyu; Zeng, Yanjun
Due to an absence of reliable biochemical markers, the diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) mainly relies on the clinical symptoms, and the experience and skill of the doctors currently. To improve objectivity and reduce work intensity, a hybrid facial feature is proposed. First, several kinds of appearance features are identified in different facial regions according to clinical observations of traditional Chinese medicine experts, including vertical striped wrinkles on the forehead, puffiness of the lower eyelid, the skin colour of the cheeks, nose and lips, and the shape of the mouth corner. Afterwards, such features are extracted and systematically combined to form a hybrid feature. We divide the face into several regions based on twelve active appearance model (AAM) feature points, and ten straight lines across them. Then, Gabor wavelet filtering, CIELab color components, threshold-based segmentation and curve fitting are applied to extract features, and Gabor features are reduced by a manifold preserving projection method. Finally, an AdaBoost based score level fusion of multi-modal features is performed after classification of each feature. Despite that the subjects involved in this trial are exclusively Chinese, the method achieves an average accuracy of 89.04% on the training set and 88.32% on the testing set based on the K-fold cross-validation. In addition, the method also possesses desirable sensitivity and specificity on CFS prediction.
Wang, Tian; Snoussi, Hichem
In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to detect abnormal events in video streams. The algorithm is based on the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor and the classification method. The details of the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor are illustrated for describing movement information of the global video frame or foreground frame. By combining one-class support vector machine and kernel principal component analysis methods, the abnormal events in the current frame can be detected after a learning period characterizing normal behaviors. The difference abnormal detection results are analyzed and explained. The proposed detection method is tested on benchmark datasets, then the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:25811227
Garrett, Amy S.; Reiss, Allan L.; Howe, Meghan E.; Kelley, Ryan G.; Singh, Manpreet K.; Adleman, Nancy E.; Karchemskiy, Asya; Chang, Kiki D.
Objective: Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) have reported greater amygdala and less dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation to facial expressions compared to healthy controls. The current study investigates whether these differences are associated with the early or late…
Popp, Susanne; Schulze, Birgit; Granzow, Martin; Keller, Monika; Holtgreve-Grez, Heidi; Schoell, Brigitte; Brough, Michaela; Hager, Hans-Dieter; Tariverdian, Gholamali; Brown, Jill; Kearney, Lyndal; Jauch, Anna
Cryptic subtelomeric chromosome rearrangements are a major cause of mild to severe mental retardation pointing out the necessity of sensitive screening techniques to detect such aberrations among affected patients. In this prospective study a group of 30 patients with unexplained developmental retardation and dysmorphic features or congenital abnormalities were analysed using the recently published multiplex FISH telomere (M-TEL) integrity assay in combination with conventional G-banding analysis. The patients were selected by one or more of the following criteria defined by de Vries et al.: (a) family history with two or more affected individuals, (b) prenatal onset growth retardation, (c) postnatal growth abnormalities, (d) facial dysmorphic features, (e) non-facial dysmorphism and congenital abnormalities. In addition, we included two patients who met these criteria and revealed questionable chromosome regions requiring further clarification. In four patients (13.3%) cryptic chromosome aberrations were successfully determined by the M-TEL integrity assay and in two patients with abnormal chromosome regions intrachromosomal aberrations were characterized by targetted FISH experiments. Our results accentuate the requirement of strict selection criteria prior to patient testing with the M-TEL integrity assay. Another essential precondition is high-quality banding analysis to identify structural abnormal chromosomes. The detection of familial balanced translocation carriers in 50% of the cases emphasizes the significance of such an integrated approach for genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis.
Rouabhia, C.; Tebbikh, H.
Face recognition is a specialized image processing which has attracted a considerable attention in computer vision. In this article, we develop a new facial recognition system from video sequences images dedicated to person identification whose face is partly occulted. This system is based on a hybrid image feature extraction technique called ACPDL2D (Rouabhia et al. 2007), it combines two-dimensional principal component analysis and two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis with neural network. We performed the feature extraction task on the eyes and the nose images separately then a Multi-Layers Perceptron classifier is used. Compared to the whole face, the results of simulation are in favor of the facial parts in terms of memory capacity and recognition (99.41% for the eyes part, 98.16% for the nose part and 97.25 % for the whole face).
Ahs, Fredrik; Davis, Caroline F; Gorka, Adam X; Hariri, Ahmad R
The amygdala plays a central role in processing facial affect, responding to diverse expressions and features shared between expressions. Although speculation exists regarding the nature of relationships between expression- and feature-specific amygdala reactivity, this matter has not been fully explored. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and principal component analysis (PCA) in a sample of 300 young adults, to investigate patterns related to expression- and feature-specific amygdala reactivity to faces displaying neutral, fearful, angry or surprised expressions. The PCA revealed a two-dimensional correlation structure that distinguished emotional categories. The first principal component separated neutral and surprised from fearful and angry expressions, whereas the second principal component separated neutral and angry from fearful and surprised expressions. This two-dimensional correlation structure of amygdala reactivity may represent specific feature-based cues conserved across discrete expressions. To delineate which feature-based cues characterized this pattern, face stimuli were averaged and then subtracted according to their principal component loadings. The first principal component corresponded to displacement of the eyebrows, whereas the second principal component corresponded to increased exposure of eye whites together with movement of the brow. Our results suggest a convergent representation of facial affect in the amygdala reflecting feature-based processing of discrete expressions.
Shu, I-Wei; Onton, Julie A; Prabhakar, Nitin; O'Connell, Ryan M; Simmons, Alan N; Matthews, Scott C
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) worsens prognosis following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Combat personnel with histories of mTBI exhibit abnormal activation of distributed brain networks-including emotion processing and default mode networks. How developing PTSD further affects these abnormalities has not been directly examined. We recorded electroencephalography in combat veterans with histories of mTBI, but without active PTSD (mTBI only, n=16) and combat veterans who developed PTSD after mTBI (mTBI+PTSD, n=16)-during the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), a validated test of empathy requiring emotional appraisal of facial features. Task-related event related potentials (ERPs) were identified, decomposed using independent component analysis (ICA) and localized anatomically using dipole modeling. We observed larger emotional face processing ERPs in veterans with mTBI+PTSD, including greater N300 negativity. Furthermore, greater N300 negativity correlated with greater PTSD severity, especially avoidance/numbing and hyperarousal symptom clusters. This correlation was dependent on contributions from the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Our results support a model where, in combat veterans with histories of mTBI, larger ERPs from over-active posterior-medial cortical areas may be specific to PTSD, and is likely related to negative self-referential activity.
Song, Fengxi; Zhang, David; Mei, Dayong; Guo, Zhongwei
Maximum scatter difference (MSD) discriminant criterion was a recently presented binary discriminant criterion for pattern classification that utilizes the generalized scatter difference rather than the generalized Rayleigh quotient as a class separability measure, thereby avoiding the singularity problem when addressing small-sample-size problems. MSD classifiers based on this criterion have been quite effective on face-recognition tasks, but as they are binary classifiers, they are not as efficient on large-scale classification tasks. To address the problem, this paper generalizes the classification-oriented binary criterion to its multiple counterpart--multiple MSD (MMSD) discriminant criterion for facial feature extraction. The MMSD feature-extraction method, which is based on this novel discriminant criterion, is a new subspace-based feature-extraction method. Unlike most other subspace-based feature-extraction methods, the MMSD computes its discriminant vectors from both the range of the between-class scatter matrix and the null space of the within-class scatter matrix. The MMSD is theoretically elegant and easy to calculate. Extensive experimental studies conducted on the benchmark database, FERET, show that the MMSD out-performs state-of-the-art facial feature-extraction methods such as null space method, direct linear discriminant analysis (LDA), eigenface, Fisherface, and complete LDA.
Jammu, Vinay B.; Danai, Kourosh; Lewicki, David G.
A new unsupervised pattern classifier is introduced for on-line detection of abnormality in features of vibration that are used for fault diagnosis of helicopter gearboxes. This classifier compares vibration features with their respective normal values and assigns them a value in (0, 1) to reflect their degree of abnormality. Therefore, the salient feature of this classifier is that it does not require feature values associated with faulty cases to identify abnormality. In order to cope with noise and changes in the operating conditions, an adaptation algorithm is incorporated that continually updates the normal values of the features. The proposed classifier is tested using experimental vibration features obtained from an OH-58A main rotor gearbox. The overall performance of this classifier is then evaluated by integrating the abnormality-scaled features for detection of faults. The fault detection results indicate that the performance of this classifier is comparable to the leading unsupervised neural networks: Kohonen's Feature Mapping and Adaptive Resonance Theory (AR72). This is significant considering that the independence of this classifier from fault-related features makes it uniquely suited to abnormality-scaling of vibration features for fault diagnosis.
Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Laureano, Maura Regina; Del'Aquilla, Marco Antonio; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Assuncao, Idaiane; Silva, Ivaldo; Schwartzman, Jose Salomao
Neuroimaging methods represent a critical tool in efforts to join the study of the neurobiology of genes with the neurobiology of behaviour, and to understand the neurodevelopmental pathways that give rise to cognitive and behavioural impairments. This article reviews the clinical features and highlights studies with a focus on the relevant…
Goodship, J.; Lynch, S.; Brown, J.
DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a congenital anomaly consisting of cardiac defects, aplasia or hypoplasia of the thymus and parathroid glands, and dysmorphic facial features. The majority of DGS cases have a submicroscopic deletion within chromosome 22q11. However there have been a number of reports of DGS in association with other chromosomal abnormalities including four cases with chromosome 10p deletions. We describe a further 10p deletion case and suggest that the facial features in children with DGS due to deletions of 10p are different from those associated with chromosome 22 deletions. The propositus was born at 39 weeks gestation to unrelated caucasian parents, birth weight 2580g (10th centile) and was noted to be dysmorphic and cyanosed shortly after birth. The main dysmorphic facial features were a broad nasal bridge with very short palpebral fissures. Echocardiography revealed a large subsortic VSD and overriding aorta. She had a low ionised calcium and low parathroid hormone level. T cell subsets and PHA response were normal. Abdominal ultrasound showed duplex kidneys and on further investigation she was found to have reflux and raised plasma creatinine. She had an anteriorly placed anus. Her karyotype was 46,XX,-10,+der(10)t(3;10)(p23;p13)mat. The dysmorphic facial features in this baby are strikingly similar to those noted by Bridgeman and Butler in child with DGS as the result of a 10p deletion and distinct from the face seen in children with DiGeorge syndrome resulting from interstitial chromosome 22 deletions.
Windhager, Sonja; Hutzler, Florian; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Schaefer, Katrin; Thorstensen, Truls; Leder, Helmut; Grammer, Karl
Humans' proneness to see faces even in inanimate structures such as cars has long been noticed, yet empirical evidence is scarce. To examine this tendency of anthropomorphism, participants were asked to compare specific features (such as the eyes) of a face and a car front presented next to each other. Eye movement patterns indicated on which visual information participants relied to solve the task and clearly revealed the perception of facial features in cars, such as headlights as eyes or grille as nose. Most importantly, a predominance of headlights was found in attracting and guiding people's gaze irrespective of the feature they were asked to compare--equivalent to the role of the eyes during face perception. This response to abstract configurations is interpreted as an adaptive bias of the respective inherent mechanism for face perception and is evolutionarily reasonable with regard to a "better safe than sorry" strategy.
Tüysüz, Beyhan; Bilguvar, Kaya; Koçer, Naci; Yalçınkaya, Cengiz; Çağlayan, Okay; Gül, Ece; Sahin, Sezgin; Çomu, Sinan; Günel, Murat
Adaptor protein complex-4 (AP4) is a component of intracellular transportation of proteins, which is thought to have a unique role in neurons. Recently, mutations affecting all four subunits of AP4 (AP4M1, AP4E1, AP4S1, and AP4B1) have been found to cause similar autosomal recessive phenotype consisting of tetraplegic cerebral palsy and intellectual disability. The aim of this study was analyzing AP4 genes in three new families with this phenotype, and discussing their clinical findings with an emphasis on neuroimaging and facial features. Using homozygosity mapping followed by whole-exome sequencing, we identified two novel homozygous mutations in AP4M1 and a homozygous deletion in AP4B1 in three pairs of siblings. Spastic tetraplegia, microcephaly, severe intellectual disability, limited speech, and stereotypic laughter were common findings in our patients. All patients also had similar facial features consisting of coarse and hypotonic face, bitemporal narrowing, bulbous nose with broad nasal ridge, and short philtrum which were not described in patients with AP4M1 and AP4B1 mutations previously. The patients presented here and previously with AP4M1, AP4B1, and AP4E1 mutations shared brain abnormalities including asymmetrical ventriculomegaly, thin splenium of the corpus callosum, and reduced white matter volume. The patients also had hippocampal globoid formation and thin hippocampus. In conclusion, disorders due to mutations in AP4 complex have similar neurological, facial, and cranial imaging findings. Thus, these four genes encoding AP4 subunits should be screened in patients with autosomal recessive spastic tetraplegic cerebral palsy, severe intellectual disability, and stereotypic laughter, especially with the described facial and cranial MRI features.
Cheng, Yong; Li, Zuoyong; Jiao, Liangbao; Lu, Hong; Cao, Xuehong
We improved classic retinal modeling to alleviate the adverse effect of complex illumination on face recognition and extracted robust image features. Our improvements on classic retinal modeling included three aspects. First, a combined filtering scheme was applied to simulate functions of horizontal and amacrine cells for accurate local illumination estimation. Second, we developed an optimal threshold method for illumination classification. Finally, we proposed an adaptive factor acquisition model based on the arctangent function. Experimental results on the combined Yale B; the Carnegie Mellon University poses, illumination, and expression; and the Labeled Face Parts in the Wild databases show that the proposed method can effectively alleviate illumination difference of images under complex illumination conditions, which is helpful for improving the accuracy of face recognition and that of facial feature point detection.
Mondloch, Catherine J; Robbins, Rachel; Maurer, Daphne
In previous studies we created 8 new versions of a single face: 4 differed only in the spacing among features and 4 differed in the shape of the eyes and mouth. Compared to the spacing set, results for this feature set indicated little impairment by inversion, earlier adult-like accuracy (Mondloch et al, 2002 Perception 31 553-566), and normal performance after a history of early visual deprivation from bilateral congenital cataract (Le Grand et al, 2001 Nature 410 890, 412 786). Here we addressed the possibility that this pattern might have resulted from our having inadvertently selected easily discriminated features or including some faces with make-up. We created 20 featural versions of a single female face and asked adults, 10-year-old children, and patients treated for bilateral congenital cataract to make same/different judgments for 120 pairings (half different). The results confirm that adults easily discriminate facial features, even after early visual deprivation from cataract, and that inversion has only a small effect. By the age of 10 years, children are close to, but not quite at, adult levels of accuracy. The previous findings cannot be attributed to our having inadvertently created a feature set that was unusually easy to discriminate.
Bagci, Ulas; Jaster-Miller, Kirsten; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel J.
We designed and tested a novel hybrid statistical model that accepts radiologic image features and clinical variables, and integrates this information in order to automatically predict abnormalities in chest computed-tomography (CT) scans and identify potentially important infectious disease biomarkers. In 200 patients, 160 with various pulmonary infections and 40 healthy controls, we extracted 34 clinical variables from laboratory tests and 25 textural features from CT images. From the CT scans, pleural effusion (PE), linear opacity (or thickening) (LT), tree-in-bud (TIB), pulmonary nodules, ground glass opacity (GGO), and consolidation abnormality patterns were analyzed and predicted through clinical, textural (imaging), or combined attributes. The presence and severity of each abnormality pattern was validated by visual analysis of the CT scans. The proposed biomarker identification system included two important steps: (i) a coarse identification of an abnormal imaging pattern by adaptively selected features (AmRMR), and (ii) a fine selection of the most important features from the previous step, and assigning them as biomarkers, depending on the prediction accuracy. Selected biomarkers were used to classify normal and abnormal patterns by using a boosted decision tree (BDT) classifier. For all abnormal imaging patterns, an average prediction accuracy of 76.15% was obtained. Experimental results demonstrated that our proposed biomarker identification approach is promising and may advance the data processing in clinical pulmonary infection research and diagnostic techniques. PMID:23930819
Sukno, Federico M; Waddington, John L; Whelan, Paul F
We present a method for the automatic localization of facial landmarks that integrates nonrigid deformation with the ability to handle missing points. The algorithm generates sets of candidate locations from feature detectors and performs combinatorial search constrained by a flexible shape model. A key assumption of our approach is that for some landmarks there might not be an accurate candidate in the input set. This is tackled by detecting partial subsets of landmarks and inferring those that are missing, so that the probability of the flexible model is maximized. The ability of the model to work with incomplete information makes it possible to limit the number of candidates that need to be retained, drastically reducing the number of combinations to be tested with respect to the alternative of trying to always detect the complete set of landmarks. We demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method in the face recognition grand challenge database, where we obtain average errors of approximately 3.5 mm when targeting 14 prominent facial landmarks. For the majority of these our method produces the most accurate results reported to date in this database. Handling of occlusions and surfaces with missing parts is demonstrated with tests on the Bosphorus database, where we achieve an overall error of 4.81 and 4.25 mm for data with and without occlusions, respectively. To investigate potential limits in the accuracy that could be reached, we also report experiments on a database of 144 facial scans acquired in the context of clinical research, with manual annotations performed by experts, where we obtain an overall error of 2.3 mm, with averages per landmark below 3.4 mm for all 14 targeted points and within 2 mm for half of them. The coordinates of automatically located landmarks are made available on-line.
Shah, Hitesh; Bens, Susanne; Caliebe, Almuth; Graham, John M; Girisha, Katta Mohan
We report on a 14-year-old girl with growth deficiency, microcephaly, intellectual disability, distinctive dysmorphic features (bulbous nose with wide nasal base, hypotelorism, deeply set eyes, protruding cupped ears, and thick lower lip), cataract, pigmentary retinopathy, hypoplastic thorax, kyphoscoliosis, and unusual skeletal changes but without chromosomal imbalances detected by array-CGH who probably represents a novel phenotype.
Ghimire, Deepak; Lee, Joonwhoan
Facial expressions are widely used in the behavioral interpretation of emotions, cognitive science, and social interactions. In this paper, we present a novel method for fully automatic facial expression recognition in facial image sequences. As the facial expression evolves over time facial landmarks are automatically tracked in consecutive video frames, using displacements based on elastic bunch graph matching displacement estimation. Feature vectors from individual landmarks, as well as pairs of landmarks tracking results are extracted, and normalized, with respect to the first frame in the sequence. The prototypical expression sequence for each class of facial expression is formed, by taking the median of the landmark tracking results from the training facial expression sequences. Multi-class AdaBoost with dynamic time warping similarity distance between the feature vector of input facial expression and prototypical facial expression, is used as a weak classifier to select the subset of discriminative feature vectors. Finally, two methods for facial expression recognition are presented, either by using multi-class AdaBoost with dynamic time warping, or by using support vector machine on the boosted feature vectors. The results on the Cohn-Kanade (CK+) facial expression database show a recognition accuracy of 95.17% and 97.35% using multi-class AdaBoost and support vector machines, respectively. PMID:23771158
Benjumea-Cuartas, Vanessa; Eisermann, Monika; Simonnet, Hina; Hully, Marie; Nabbout, Rima; Desguerre, Isabelle; Kaminska, Anna
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a treatable autoimmune disease characterized by cognitive, motor and psychiatric features that primarily affects young adults and children. We present a case of a 7-year-old boy with asymmetrical (mainly right hemibody) and abnormal polymorphic movements without concomitant scalpictal EEG changes but had background slowing predominating over the left hemisphere. This report illustrates previous descriptions of asymmetric presentation of abnormal movements in pediatric anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and emphasizes the importance of video-EEG interpreted within the overall clinical context, to differentiate epileptic from non-epileptic abnormal movements in patients with autoimmune encephalitis.
Rajaei, Karim; Khaligh-Razavi, Seyed-Mahdi; Ghodrati, Masoud; Ebrahimpour, Reza; Shiri Ahmad Abadi, Mohammad Ebrahim
The brain mechanism of extracting visual features for recognizing various objects has consistently been a controversial issue in computational models of object recognition. To extract visual features, we introduce a new, biologically motivated model for facial categorization, which is an extension of the Hubel and Wiesel simple-to-complex cell hierarchy. To address the synaptic stability versus plasticity dilemma, we apply the Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) for extracting informative intermediate level visual features during the learning process, which also makes this model stable against the destruction of previously learned information while learning new information. Such a mechanism has been suggested to be embedded within known laminar microcircuits of the cerebral cortex. To reveal the strength of the proposed visual feature learning mechanism, we show that when we use this mechanism in the training process of a well-known biologically motivated object recognition model (the HMAX model), it performs better than the HMAX model in face/non-face classification tasks. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our proposed mechanism is capable of following similar trends in performance as humans in a psychophysical experiment using a face versus non-face rapid categorization task. PMID:22719892
Frowd, Charlie; Bruce, Vicki; McIntyre, Alex; Hancock, Peter
Three experiments are reported that compare the quality of external with internal regions within a set of facial composites using two matching-type tasks. Composites are constructed with the aim of triggering recognition from people familiar with the targets, and past research suggests internal face features dominate representations of familiar faces in memory. However the experiments reported here show that the internal regions of composites are very poorly matched against the faces they purport to represent, while external feature regions alone were matched almost as well as complete composites. In Experiments 1 and 2 the composites used were constructed by participant-witnesses who were unfamiliar with the targets and therefore were predicted to demonstrate a bias towards the external parts of a face. In Experiment 3 we compared witnesses who were familiar or unfamiliar with the target items, but for both groups the external features were much better reproduced in the composites, suggesting it is the process of composite construction itself which is responsible for the poverty of the internal features. Practical implications of these results are discussed.
Berner, Juan Enrique; Castillo, Pablo; Rochefort, Günther; Loubies, Rodrigo
For years, the gold standard in facial rejuvenation has been the face lift. However, exploring new, less complex procedures for achieving the same goal is currently drawing interest. Rejuvenation of the perioral area is a difficult task for plastic surgeons because of the minimal effect that face lift procedures have over this region and the lack of published material on the subject. In this article, the descended mouth corner anguloplasty technique is presented. It is a 20-minutes lift technique that can correct this typical feature of the ageing mouth. The authors have treated 71 patients using the technique with consistently good results, with just one requiring revision. They conclude that this procedure by itself and in combination with other small operations or even a full face lift can rejuvenate the ageing face. PMID:24286055
Flack, Tessa R; Andrews, Timothy J; Hymers, Mark; Al-Mosaiwi, Mohammed; Marsden, Samuel P; Strachan, James W A; Trakulpipat, Chayanit; Wang, Liang; Wu, Tian; Young, Andrew W
The face-selective region of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) plays an important role in analysing facial expressions. However, it is less clear how facial expressions are represented in this region. In this study, we used the face composite effect to explore whether the pSTS contains a holistic or feature-based representation of facial expression. Aligned and misaligned composite images were created from the top and bottom halves of faces posing different expressions. In Experiment 1, participants performed a behavioural matching task in which they judged whether the top half of two images was the same or different. The ability to discriminate the top half of the face was affected by changes in the bottom half of the face when the images were aligned, but not when they were misaligned. This shows a holistic behavioural response to expression. In Experiment 2, we used fMR-adaptation to ask whether the pSTS has a corresponding holistic neural representation of expression. Aligned or misaligned images were presented in blocks that involved repeating the same image or in which the top or bottom half of the images changed. Increased neural responses were found in the right pSTS regardless of whether the change occurred in the top or bottom of the image, showing that changes in expression were detected across all parts of the face. However, in contrast to the behavioural data, the pattern did not differ between aligned and misaligned stimuli. This suggests that the pSTS does not encode facial expressions holistically. In contrast to the pSTS, a holistic pattern of response to facial expression was found in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Together, these results suggest that pSTS reflects an early stage in the processing of facial expression in which facial features are represented independently.
Zhu, Haogang; Poostchi, Ali; Vernon, Stephen A; Crabb, David P
Imaging and evaluation of the optic nerve head (ONH) plays an essential part in the detection and clinical management of glaucoma. The morphological characteristics of ONHs vary greatly from person to person and this variability means it is difficult to quantify them in a standardized way. We developed and evaluated a feature extraction approach using shift-invariant wavelet packet and kernel principal component analysis to quantify the shape features in ONH images acquired by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph [HRT]). The methods were developed and tested on 1996 eyes from three different clinical centers. A shape abnormality score (SAS) was developed from extracted features using a Gaussian process to identify glaucomatous abnormality. SAS can be used as a diagnostic index to quantify the overall likelihood of ONH abnormality. Maps showing areas of likely abnormality within the ONH were also derived. Diagnostic performance of the technique, as estimated by ROC analysis, was significantly better than the classification tools currently used in the HRT software - the technique offers the additional advantage of working with all images and is fully automated.
Li, Bo; Zhang, Yaqiong; Yin, Ping; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Tian'an
The present study aimed to investigate the value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) coexisting with a thyroid abnormality, and to improve the accuracy of PTMC diagnosis. The ultrasonic features of 38 PTMC nodules coexisting with a thyroid abnormality and 56 thyroid benign nodules, obtained by surgical resection and confirmed by pathological analysis, were retrospectively analyzed. All masses were ≤ 1.0 cm in diameter. Ultrasonic features that were analyzed included the shape, aspect ratio, boundary, margin, echo, uniformity, presence or absence of microcalcification and enlargement of the lymph nodes, as well as the blood flow of the nodules. Furthermore, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of PTMC were obtained. The following ultrasonic features of thyroid nodules were significantly (P<0.05) associated with PTMC coexisting with a thyroid abnormality: An irregular shape; an aspect ratio of ≥ 1; an unclear boundary; blurred margins; internal heterogeneous hypoechogenicity; and microcalcification. Therefore, thyroid nodules with these ultrasonic characteristics coexisting with a thyroid abnormality may be suspected as malignant PTMC. The present study demonstrated that ultrasound-guided biopsies are necessary to prevent misdiagnosis of PTMC. The sensitivities of enlarged neck lymph nodes and abundant blood flow are so low that they may be considered as references for the differentiation of PTMC from benign nodules. PMID:27698812
Tripathy, R K; Dandapat, S
The cardiac activities such as the depolarization and the relaxation of atria and ventricles are observed in electrocardiogram (ECG). The changes in the morphological features of ECG are the symptoms of particular heart pathology. It is a cumbersome task for medical experts to visually identify any subtle changes in the morphological features during 24 hours of ECG recording. Therefore, the automated analysis of ECG signal is a need for accurate detection of cardiac abnormalities. In this paper, a novel method for automated detection of cardiac abnormalities from multilead ECG is proposed. The method uses multiscale phase alternation (PA) features of multilead ECG and two classifiers, k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and fuzzy KNN for classification of bundle branch block (BBB), myocardial infarction (MI), heart muscle defect (HMD) and healthy control (HC). The dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) is used to decompose the ECG signal of each lead into complex wavelet coefficients at different scales. The phase of the complex wavelet coefficients is computed and the PA values at each wavelet scale are used as features for detection and classification of cardiac abnormalities. A publicly available multilead ECG database (PTB database) is used for testing of the proposed method. The experimental results show that, the proposed multiscale PA features and the fuzzy KNN classifier have better performance for detection of cardiac abnormalities with sensitivity values of 78.12 %, 80.90 % and 94.31 % for BBB, HMD and MI classes. The sensitivity value of proposed method for MI class is compared with the state-of-art techniques from multilead ECG.
Duan, Chaijie; Yuan, Kehong; Liu, Fanghua; Xiao, Ping; Lv, Guoqing; Liang, Zhengrong
This paper proposes a framework for detecting the suspected abnormal region of the bladder wall via magnetic resonance (MR) cystography. Volume-based features are used. First, the bladder wall is divided into several layers, based on which a path from each voxel on the inner border to the outer border is found. By using the path length to measure the wall thickness and a bent rate (BR) term to measure the geometry property of the voxels on the inner border, the seed voxels representing the abnormalities on the inner border are determined. Then, by tracing the path from each seed, a weighted BR term is constructed to determine the suspected voxels, which are on the path and inside the bladder wall. All the suspected voxels are grouped together for the abnormal region. This work is significantly different from most of the previous computer-aided bladder tumor detection reports on two aspects. First of all, the T (1)-weighted MR images are used which give better image contrast and texture information for the bladder wall, comparing with the computed tomography images. Second, while most previous reports detected the abnormalities and indicated them on the reconstructed 3-D bladder model by surface rendering, we further determine the possible region of the abnormality inside the bladder wall. This study aims at a noninvasive procedure for bladder tumor detection and abnormal region delineation, which has the potential for further clinical analysis such as the invasion depth of the tumor and virtual cystoscopy diagnosis. Five datasets including two patients and three volunteers were used to test the presented method, all the tumors were detected by the method, and the overlap rates of the regions delineated by the computer against the experts were measured. The results demonstrated the potential of the method for detecting bladder wall abnormal regions via MR cystography.
Meng, Rui; Xu, Hui-yun; Di, Sheng-meng; Shi, Dong-yan; Qian, Ai-rong; Wang, Jin-fu; Shang, Peng
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of abnormal gravity on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Strong magnetic field and magnetic field gradient generate a magnetic force that can add to or subtract from the gravitational force. In this study, this is defined as a high-magneto-gravitational environment (HMGE). The HMGE provides three apparent gravity levels, i.e. hypogravity (μg), hypergravity (2g) and normal gravity with strong magnetic field (1g) conditions. After hMSCs were subject to HMGE for 12 h, the proliferation, morphology, structure and apoptosis were investigated. Results showed that the proliferation of hMSCs was inhibited under μg condition. The abnormal gravity induced morphologic characteristics of apoptosis cells, such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear chromatin condensation and margination, decreased cell viability, and increased caspase-3/7 activity. The rate of apoptosis under μg condition is up to 56.95%. The F-actin stress fibers and microtubules were disrupted under abnormal gravity condition. Under μg-condition, the expression of p53 at mRNA and protein levels was up-regulated more than 9- and 6 folds, respectively. The Pifithrin-α, an specific inhibitor of p53, inhibited the apoptosis and prevented the disruption of cytoskeleton induced by abnormal gravity. These results implied that hMSCs were sensitive to abnormal gravity and exhibited classic apoptotic features, which might be associated with p53 signaling.
Vieira, Bruno B; Itikawa, Carla E; de Almeida, Leila A; Sander, Heidi H; Aragon, Davi C; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma T; Matsumoto, Mirian; Valera, Fabiana C P
The aim of the study was to evaluate facial features and hyoid bone position in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) by cephalometric radiography. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital. Twenty-nine children in the 3-6 year age bracket were evaluated: 14 children with OSAS and 15 nasal-breathing children. All children underwent otorhinolaryngologic examination, and those with OSAS also underwent in-laboratory polysomnography for diagnostic confirmation. The children were then submitted to orthodontic evaluation and cephalometry. Lateral cephalometric radiographs from children with OSAS were compared to those of nasal-breathing children. We found no differences between the two groups regarding the linear and angular measurements of the face. However, the children with OSAS presented, already at the preschool age, with an inferiorly positioned hyoid bone, thus increasing the pharyngeal area. In children with OSAS, the hyoid bone appears to be in a significantly inferior position at an early age. Our findings provide evidence that there is a relationship between the position of the hyoid bone and OSAS in children, which could contribute to the persistence of OSAS into adulthood.
Facial palsy is a daily challenge for the clinicians. Determining whether facial nerve palsy is peripheral or central is a key step in the diagnosis. Central nervous lesions can give facial palsy which may be easily differentiated from peripheral palsy. The next question is the peripheral facial paralysis idiopathic or symptomatic. A good knowledge of anatomy of facial nerve is helpful. A structure approach is given to identify additional features that distinguish symptomatic facial palsy from idiopathic one. The main cause of peripheral facial palsies is idiopathic one, or Bell's palsy, which remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The most common cause of symptomatic peripheral facial palsy is Ramsay-Hunt syndrome. Early identification of symptomatic facial palsy is important because of often worst outcome and different management. The prognosis of Bell's palsy is on the whole favorable and is improved with a prompt tapering course of prednisone. In Ramsay-Hunt syndrome, an antiviral therapy is added along with prednisone. We also discussed of current treatment recommendations. We will review short and long term complications of peripheral facial palsy.
Hicks, John; Wartchow, Eric; Mierau, Gary
Glycogen storage diseases (GSD) affect primarily the liver, skeletal muscle, heart, and sometimes the central nervous system and the kidneys. These unique diseases are quite varied in age of onset of symptoms, morbidity, and mortality. Glycogen storage diseases are classified according to their individual enzyme deficiency. Each of these enzymes regulates synthesis or degradation of glycogen. Interestingly, there is great phenotypic variation and variable clinical courses even when a specific enzyme is altered by mutation. Depending on the specific mutation in an enzyme, a GSD patient may have a favorable or unfavorable prognosis. With neonatal or infantile forms, some GSDs lead to death within the first year of life, whereas other glycogen storage diseases are relatively asymptomatic or may cause only exercise intolerance. The paper provides a brief review and update of glycogen storage diseases, with respect to clinical features, genetic abnormalities, pathologic features, and treatment.
Kaissi, Ali Al; Pospischill, Renata; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf
We describe a constellation of distinctive skeletal abnormalities in an 8-year-old boy who presented with the full clinical criteria of oro-facial-digital (OFD) type II (Mohr syndrome): bony changes of obtuse mandibular angle, bimanual hexadactyly and unilateral synostosis of the metacarpo-phalanges of 3-4, bilateral coxa valga associated with moderate hip subluxation, over-tubulation of the long bones, vertical talus of the left foot and talipes equinovarus of the right foot respectively. Interestingly, we encountered variable minor malformations in his parents, confirming the autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. There were no microdeletions or microduplications after performing array-CGH-analysis. We report what might be a constellation of unreported skeletal abnormalities in a child with OFD type II (Mohr syndrome). PMID:26566416
Li, Shuyu; Yuan, Xiankun; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Fan, Yubo; Wu, Liyong; Chao, Wang; Chen, Nan; He, Yong; Han, Ying
Previous studies have suggested that amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is associated with changes in cortical morphological features, such as cortical thickness, sulcal depth, surface area, gray matter volume, metric distortion, and mean curvature. These features have been proven to have specific neuropathological and genetic underpinnings. However, most studies primarily focused on mass-univariate methods, and cortical features were generally explored in isolation. Here, we used a multivariate method to characterize the complex and subtle structural changing pattern of cortical anatomy in 24 aMCI human participants and 26 normal human controls. Six cortical features were extracted for each participant, and the spatial patterns of brain abnormities in aMCI were identified by high classification weights using a support vector machine method. The classification accuracy in discriminating the two groups was 76% in the left hemisphere and 80% in the right hemisphere when all six cortical features were used. Regions showing high weights were subtle, spatially complex, and predominately located in the left medial temporal lobe and the supramarginal and right inferior parietal lobes. In addition, we also found that the six morphological features had different contributions in discriminating the two groups even for the same region. Our results indicated that the neuroanatomical patterns that discriminated individuals with aMCI from controls were truly multidimensional and had different effects on the morphological features. Furthermore, the regions identified by our method could potentially be useful for clinical diagnosis.
Tanaka, Akemi J.; Cho, Megan T.; Retterer, Kyle; Jones, Julie R.; Nowak, Catherine; Douglas, Jessica; Jiang, Yong-Hui; McConkie-Rosell, Allyn; Schaefer, G. Bradley; Kaylor, Julie; Rahman, Omar A.; Telegrafi, Aida; Friedman, Bethany; Douglas, Ganka; Monaghan, Kristin G.; Chung, Wendy K.
We identified five unrelated individuals with significant global developmental delay and intellectual disability (ID), dysmorphic facial features and frequent microcephaly, and de novo predicted loss-of-function variants in chromosome alignment maintaining phosphoprotein 1 (CHAMP1). Our findings are consistent with recently reported de novo mutations in CHAMP1 in five other individuals with similar features. CHAMP1 is a zinc finger protein involved in kinetochore–microtubule attachment and is required for regulating the proper alignment of chromosomes during metaphase in mitosis. Mutations in CHAMP1 may affect cell division and hence brain development and function, resulting in developmental delay and ID. PMID:27148580
Czeschik, Johanna Christina; Voigt, Claudia; Goecke, Timm O; Lüdecke, Hermann-Josef; Wagner, Nicholas; Kuechler, Alma; Wieczorek, Dagmar
We present two previously unreported and unrelated female patients, one with the tentative diagnosis of acromegaloid facial appearance (AFA), the other with the tentative diagnosis of hypertrichosis with acromegaloid facial appearance (HAFF) with or without gingival hyperplasia. Main clinical features of HAFF were generalized hypertrichosis terminalis and coarse facial features. In both patients, pregnancy was complicated by polyhydramnios, and both had hyperbilirubinemia and persistent fetal circulation. Development was normal in one patient and slightly delayed in the other. At 13 years, both had round faces with full cheeks, thick scalp hair and eyebrows, a low frontal hairline, hirsutism, hyperextensible joints and deep palmar creases. One of them additionally showed gingival hypertrophy and epicanthus, the other one was macrocephalic at birth and at the age of 13 years and suffered from repeated swelling of the soft tissue. Array analysis excluded a 17q24.2-q24.3 microdeletion, which has been reported in patients with hypertrichosis terminalis with or without gingival hyperplasia. Sequencing of the mutational hotspots of the ABCC9 gene revealed two different de novo missense mutations in the two patients. Recently, identical mutations have been found recurrently in patients with Cantú syndrome. Therefore, we propose that ABCC9 mutations lead to a spectrum of phenotypes formerly known as Cantú syndrome, HAFF and AFA, which may not be clearly distinguishable by clinical criteria, and that all patients with clinical signs belonging to this spectrum should be revisited and offered ABCC9 mutation analysis.
Demirkus, Meltem; Precup, Doina; Clark, James J; Arbel, Tal
Recent literature shows that facial attributes, i.e., contextual facial information, can be beneficial for improving the performance of real-world applications, such as face verification, face recognition, and image search. Examples of face attributes include gender, skin color, facial hair, etc. How to robustly obtain these facial attributes (traits) is still an open problem, especially in the presence of the challenges of real-world environments: non-uniform illumination conditions, arbitrary occlusions, motion blur and background clutter. What makes this problem even more difficult is the enormous variability presented by the same subject, due to arbitrary face scales, head poses, and facial expressions. In this paper, we focus on the problem of facial trait classification in real-world face videos. We have developed a fully automatic hierarchical and probabilistic framework that models the collective set of frame class distributions and feature spatial information over a video sequence. The experiments are conducted on a large real-world face video database that we have collected, labelled and made publicly available. The proposed method is flexible enough to be applied to any facial classification problem. Experiments on a large, real-world video database McGillFaces  of 18,000 video frames reveal that the proposed framework outperforms alternative approaches, by up to 16.96 and 10.13%, for the facial attributes of gender and facial hair, respectively.
Farrera, Arodi; García-Velasco, Maria; Villanueva, Maria
The present study describes the morphological variation of a large database of facial photographs. The database comprises frontal (386 female, 764 males) and lateral (312 females, 666 males) images of Mexican individuals aged 14-69 years that were obtained under controlled conditions. We used geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics to describe the phenotypic variation within the dataset as well as the variation regarding sex and age groups. In addition, we explored the correlation between facial traits in both views. We found a spectrum of variation that encompasses broad and narrow faces. In frontal view, the latter is associated to a longer nose, a thinner upper lip, a shorter lower face and to a longer upper face, than individuals with broader faces. In lateral view, antero-posteriorly shortened faces are associated to a longer profile and to a shortened helix, than individuals with longer faces. Sexual dimorphism is found in all age groups except for individuals above 39 years old in lateral view. Likewise, age-related changes are significant for both sexes, except for females above 29 years old in both views. Finally, we observed that the pattern of covariation between views differs in males and females mainly in the thickness of the upper lip and the angle of the facial profile and the auricle. The results of this study could contribute to the forensic practices as a complement for the construction of biological profiles, for example, to improve facial reconstruction procedures.
Facial nerve lesions are usually benign conditions even though patients may present with emotional distress. Facial palsy usually resolves in 3-6 weeks, but if axonal degeneration takes place, it is likely that the patient will end up with a postparalytic facial syndrome featuring synkinesis, myokymic discharges, and hemifacial mass contractions after abnormal reinnervation. Essential hemifacial spasm is one form of facial hyperactivity that must be distinguished from synkinesis after facial palsy and also from other forms of facial dyskinesias. In this condition, there can be ectopic discharges, ephaptic transmission, and lateral spread of excitation among nerve fibers, giving rise to involuntary muscle twitching and spasms. Electrodiagnostic assessment is of relevance for the diagnosis and prognosis of peripheral facial palsy and hemifacial spasm. In this chapter the most relevant clinical and electrodiagnostic aspects of the two disorders are reviewed, with emphasis on the various stages of facial palsy after axonal degeneration, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the various features of hemifacial spasm, and the cues for differential diagnosis between the two entities.
Etcoff, Nancy L.; Stock, Shannon; Haley, Lauren E.; Vickery, Sarah A.; House, David M.
Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural), to moderate (professional), to dramatic (glamorous). Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important signals at first
Párraga-Manzol, Gabriela; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Moreno-Arias, Gerardo
Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) photodepilation is usually performed as a hair removal method. The treatment is recommended to be indicated by a physician, depending on each patient and on its characteristics. However, the use of laser devices by medical laypersons is frequent and it can suppose a risk of damage for the patients. Most side effects associated to IPL photodepilation are transient, minimal and disappear without sequelae. However, permanent side effects can occur. Some of the complications are laser related but many of them are caused by an operator error or mismanagement. In this work, we report a clinical case of a patient that developed a chronic neuropathic facial pain following IPL hair removal for unwanted hair in the upper lip. The specific diagnosis was painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy, reference 184.108.40.206 according to the International Headache Society (IHS). Key words:Neuropathic facial pain, photodepilation, intense pulse light. PMID:26535105
Arvio, P.; Arvio, M.; Kero, M.; Pirinen, S.; Lukinmaa, P.
Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA). The main symptom is progressive mental retardation. A spectrum of different mutations has been reported in this disease, one missense mutation (Cys163Ser) being responsible for the majority of Finnish cases. We were able to examine 66 Finnish AGU patients for changes in the oral mucosa and 44 of these for changes in facial skin. Biopsy specimens of 16 oral lesions, 12 of them associated with the teeth, plus two facial lesions were studied histologically. Immunohistochemical staining for AGA was performed on 15 oral specimens. Skin was seborrhoeic in adolescent and adult patients, with erythema of the facial skin already common in childhood. Of 44 patients, nine (20%) had facial angiofibromas, tumours primarily occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis. Oedemic buccal mucosa (leucoedema) and gingival overgrowths were more frequent in AGU patients than in controls (p<0.001). Of 16 oral mucosal lesions studied histologically, 15 represented fibroepithelial or epithelial hyperplasias and were reactive in nature. Cytoplasmic vacuolisation was evident in four. Immunohistochemically, expression of AGA in AGU patients' mucosal lesions did not differ from that seen in corresponding lesions of normal subjects. Thus, the high frequency of mucosal overgrowth in AGU patients does not appear to be directly associated with lysosomal storage or with alterations in the level of AGA expression. Keywords: aspartylglucosaminidase; lysosomal storage disease; oral mucosa; skin tumours PMID:10353787
Byrd, Amy L; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A
A better understanding of what leads youth to initially engage in antisocial behavior (ASB) and more importantly persist with such behaviors into adulthood has significant implications for prevention and intervention efforts. A considerable number of studies using behavioral and neuroimaging techniques have investigated abnormalities in reward and punishment processing as potential causal mechanisms underlying ASB. However, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that systematically examine and synthesize these findings. The goal of the present review is twofold. The first aim is to examine the extent to which youth with ASB are characterized by abnormalities in (1) reward processing; (2) punishment processing; or (3) both reward and punishment processing. The second aim is to evaluate whether aberrant reward and/or punishment processing is specific to or most pronounced in a subgroup of antisocial youth with psychopathic features. Studies utilizing behavioral methods are first reviewed, followed by studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging. An integration of theory and research across multiple levels of analysis is presented in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of reward and punishment processing in antisocial youth. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental and contextual considerations, proposed future directions and implications for intervention.
Byrd, Amy L.; Loeber, Rolf; Pardini, Dustin A.
A better understanding of what leads youth to initially engage in antisocial behavior (ASB) and more importantly persist with such behaviors into adulthood has significant implications for prevention and intervention efforts. A considerable number of studies using behavioral and neuroimaging techniques have investigated abnormalities in reward and punishment processing as potential causal mechanisms underlying ASB. However, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that systematically examine and synthesize these findings. The goal of the present review is twofold. The first aim is to examine the extent to which youth with ASB are characterized by abnormalities in (1) reward processing; (2) punishment processing; or (3) both reward and punishment processing. The second aim is to evaluate whether aberrant reward and/or punishment processing is specific to or most pronounced in a subgroup of antisocial youth with psychopathic features. Studies utilizing behavioral methods are first reviewed, followed by studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging. An integration of theory and research across multiple levels of analysis is presented in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of reward and punishment processing in antisocial youth. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental and contextual considerations, proposed future directions and implications for intervention. PMID:24357109
Kim, Young Uhk; Park, Eun Sook; Jung, Soojin; Suh, Miri; Choi, Hyo Seon; Rha, Dong-Wook
Callosal anomalies are frequently associated with other central nervous system (CNS) and/or somatic anomalies. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features of corpus callosal agenesis/hypoplasia accompanying other CNS and/or somatic anomalies. We reviewed the imaging and clinical information of patients who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging in our hospital, between 2005 and 2012. Callosal anomalies were isolated in 13 patients, accompanied by other CNS anomalies in 10 patients, associated with only non-CNS somatic anomalies in four patients, and with both CNS and non-CNS abnormalities in four patients. Out of 31 patients, four developed normally, without impairments in motor or cognitive functions. Five of nine patients with cerebral palsy were accompanied by other CNS and/or somatic anomalies, and showed worse Gross Motor Function Classification System scores, compared with the other four patients with isolated callosal anomaly. In addition, patients with other CNS anomalies also had a higher seizure risk.
Yildiz, Ozcan; Buyuktas, Deram; Ekiz, Esra; Selcukbiricik, Fatih; Papila, Irfan; Papila, Cigdem
Lung cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world and is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women; it is responsible for 1.3 million deaths annually worldwide. It can metastasize to any organ. The most common site of metastasis in the head and neck region is the brain; however, it can also metastasize to the oral cavity, gingiva, tongue, parotid gland and lymph nodes. This article reports a case of small cell lung cancer presenting with metastasis to the facial nerve. PMID:21526004
Adhikari, Kaustubh; Fontanil, Tania; Cal, Santiago; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Chacón-Duque, Juan-Camilo; Al-Saadi, Farah; Johansson, Jeanette A.; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C.; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gonzalez-José, Rolando; Headon, Denis; López-Otín, Carlos; Tobin, Desmond J.; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés
We report a genome-wide association scan in over 6,000 Latin Americans for features of scalp hair (shape, colour, greying, balding) and facial hair (beard thickness, monobrow, eyebrow thickness). We found 18 signals of association reaching genome-wide significance (P values 5 × 10−8 to 3 × 10−119), including 10 novel associations. These include novel loci for scalp hair shape and balding, and the first reported loci for hair greying, monobrow, eyebrow and beard thickness. A newly identified locus influencing hair shape includes a Q30R substitution in the Protease Serine S1 family member 53 (PRSS53). We demonstrate that this enzyme is highly expressed in the hair follicle, especially the inner root sheath, and that the Q30R substitution affects enzyme processing and secretion. The genome regions associated with hair features are enriched for signals of selection, consistent with proposals regarding the evolution of human hair. PMID:26926045
Lo, L Y; Cheng, M Y
Detection of angry and happy faces is generally found to be easier and faster than that of faces expressing emotions other than anger or happiness. This can be explained by the threatening account and the feature account. Few empirical studies have explored the interaction between these two accounts which are seemingly, but not necessarily, mutually exclusive. The present studies hypothesised that prominent facial features are important in facilitating the detection process of both angry and happy expressions; yet the detection of happy faces was more facilitated by the prominent features than angry faces. Results confirmed the hypotheses and indicated that participants reacted faster to the emotional expressions with prominent features (in Study 1) and the detection of happy faces was more facilitated by the prominent feature than angry faces (in Study 2). The findings are compatible with evolutionary speculation which suggests that the angry expression is an alarming signal of potential threats to survival. Compared to the angry faces, the happy faces need more salient physical features to obtain a similar level of processing efficiency.
Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Persike, Malte; Meinhardt, Günter
Investigation of whole-part and composite effects in 4- to 6-year-old children gave rise to claims that face perception is fully mature within the first decade of life (Crookes & McKone, 2009). However, only internal features were tested, and the role of external features was not addressed, although external features are highly relevant for holistic face perception (Sinha & Poggio, 1996; Axelrod & Yovel, 2010, 2011). In this study, 8- to 10-year-old children and adults performed a same-different matching task with faces and watches. In this task participants attended to either internal or external features. Holistic face perception was tested using a congruency paradigm, in which face and non-face stimuli either agreed or disagreed in both features (congruent contexts) or just in the attended ones (incongruent contexts). In both age groups, pronounced context congruency and inversion effects were found for faces, but not for watches. These findings indicate holistic feature integration for faces. While inversion effects were highly similar in both age groups, context congruency effects were stronger for children. Moreover, children's face matching performance was generally better when attending to external compared to internal features. Adults tended to perform better when attending to internal features. Our results indicate that both adults and 8- to 10-year-old children integrate external and internal facial features into holistic face representations. However, in children's face representations external features are much more relevant. These findings suggest that face perception is holistic but still not adult-like at the end of the first decade of life.
Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman
Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery.
9 Mb familial duplication in chromosome band Xp22.2-22.13 associated with mental retardation, hypotonia and developmental delay, scoliosis, cardiovascular problems and mild dysmorphic facial features.
Sismani, Carolina; Anastasiadou, Violetta; Kousoulidou, Ludmila; Parkel, Sven; Koumbaris, George; Zilina, Olga; Bashiardes, Stavros; Spanou, Elena; Kurg, Ants; Patsalis, Philippos C
We report on a family with syndromic X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) caused by an Xp22.2-22.13 duplication. This family consists of a carrier mother and daughter and four affected sons, presenting with mental retardation, developmental delay, cardiovascular problems and mild dysmorphic facial features. Female carriers have normal intelligence and some common clinical features, as well as different clinical abnormalities. Cytogenetic analysis of the mother showed an Xp22.2 duplication which was passed to all her offspring. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using whole chromosome paint and Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones covering Xp22.12-Xp22.3 region, confirmed the X chromosome origin and the size of the duplication. Two different targeted microarray methodologies were used for breakpoint confirmation, resulting in the localization of the duplication to approximately 9.75-18.98 Mb. Detailed description of such rare duplications provides valuable data for the investigation of genetic disease etiology.
Gomes, S G Farias; Custodio, W; Faot, F; Del Bel Cury, A A; Garcia, R C M Rodrigues
It has been suggested that craniofacial morphology plays an important role in masticatory function, however, there are controversies and unsolved questions that still require elucidation. The aims of this study were to evaluate masticatory performance, mandibular movement, electromyographic (EMG) activity and muscle effort of masseter and anterior temporal muscles during mastication. Seventy-eight dentate subjects were selected and divided into three groups according to vertical facial pattern: brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial. Silicon-based material was used for chewing tests. Masticatory performance was determined by a 10-sieve method, and masticatory movements during mastication were assessed using a 3D mandibular tracking device. Electromyographic activities of masseter and anterior temporal muscles were evaluated during mastication, and muscle effort was calculated by the percentage of activity required for mastication based on maximum muscle effort. Data were analysed using anova and anova on-ranks tests. Dolichofacial subjects presented significantly poorer masticatory performance (6·64±2·04; 4·33±0·70 and 3·67±0·63), slower rate of chewing (1·34±0·27, 1·18±0·22 and 1·21±0·20 cycles per second) and larger posterior displacement during mastication (6·22±2·18; 5·18±1·87 and 5·13±1·89) than meso- and brachyfacial individuals, respectively. No statistical difference was detected among groups for the other masticatory movement parameters. There was no difference in absolute EMG amplitudes of masseter and anterior temporal muscles during mastication among groups, but the relative effort of both muscles was higher in dolichofacial, followed by meso- and brachyfacial subjects (masseter: 39·34± 2·25; 36·87±4·05 and 33·33±4·15; anterior temporal: 38·12±1·61; 38·20±8·01 and 35·75±2·48). It was concluded that the vertical facial pattern influences masticatory performance, mandibular movement during mastication and
Mondloch, Catherine J.; Thomson, Kendra
Four-year-olds' sensitivity to differences among faces in the spacing of features was tested under 4 task conditions: judging distinctiveness when the external contour was visible and when it was occluded, simultaneous match-to-sample, and recognizing the face of a friend. In each task, the foil differed only in the spacing of features, and…
Staff, Nathan P.; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Howe, Benjamin M.
Introduction MRI of peripheral nerve and muscle in patients with ALS may be performed to investigate alternative diagnoses including multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). MRI findings of peripheral nerve and muscle are not well described in these conditions, making interpretation of results difficult. Methods We examined systematically the peripheral nerve and muscle MRI findings in patients with ALS (n=60) and MMN (n=8). Results In patients with ALS and MMN, abnormal MRIs were common (85% and 75%, respectively) but did not correlate with disease severity. Peripheral nerve MRI abnormalities were similar in frequency (ALS: 58% vs. MMN: 63%) with most changes being of mild-to-moderate severity. Muscle MRI changes were more common in ALS (57% vs. 33%), and no muscle atrophy was seen in patients with MMN. Discussion MRI abnormalities of peripheral nerve and muscle in ALS and MMN are common and share some features. PMID:25736373
Wang, Wei; Wang, Runsheng; Chen, Yiwen
In this paper, a method to detect whether the behavior of a single person in video sequence is abnormal is proposed. Firstly, after the pre-processing, the background model is gotten based on the Mixture Gaussian Model(GMM), at the same time the shadow is eliminated; then use the color-shape information and the Random Hough Transform (RHT) to abstract the zebra crossing and segment the background; Lastly, we use the rectangle and the centroid to judge whether the person's behavior is abnormal.
Patton, Robert M; Potok, Thomas E
Diagnosing breast cancer from mammography reports is heavily dependant on the time sequences of the patient visits. In the work described, we take a longitudinal view of the text of a patient s mam- mogram reports to explore the existence of certain phrase patterns that indicate future abnormalities may exist for the patient. Our approach uses various text analysis techniques combined with Haar wavelets for the discovery and analysis of such precursor phrase patterns. We believe the results show significant promise for the early detection of breast can- cer and other breast abnormalities.
Malciu, Marius; Preteux, Francoise J.
This paper addresses the issue of computer vision-based face motion capture as an alternative to physical sensor-based technologies. The proposed method combines a deformable template-based tracking of mouth and eyes in arbitrary video sequences with a single speaking person with a global 3D head pose estimation procedure yielding robust initializations. Mathematical principles underlying deformable template matching together with definition and extraction of salient image features are presented. Specifically, interpolating cubic B-splines between the MPEG-4 Face Animation Parameters (FAPs) associated with the mouth and eyes are used as template parameterization. Modeling the template a network of springs interconnecting with the mouth and eyes FAPs, the internal energy is expressed as a combination of elastic and symmetry local constraints. The external energy function, which allows to enforce interactions with image data, involves contour, texture and topography properties properly combined within robust potential functions. Template matching is achieved by applying the downhill simplex method for minimizing the global energy cost. Stability and accuracy of the results are discussed on a set of 2000 frames corresponding to 5 video sequences of speaking people.
Rieth, K.G.; Comite, F.; Shawker, T.H.; Cutler, G.B. Jr.
In a random series of 97 children referred to the National Institutes of Health with a presumptive diagnosis of precocious puberty, eight girls were found to have features of the McCune-Albright syndrome, including fibrous dysplasia of bone and/or skin lesions resembling cafe au lait spots. Radiographic evaluation of these patients included computed tomography of the head and pelvic ultrasound. The pituitary glands were suspicious for abnormality in five of the eight girls. Seven girls underwent pelvic ultrasound, and in all of them the ovaries were considered to be abnormal for their chronological age; in addition, two had functional ovarian cysts. The role of diagnostic radiological studies in the diagnosis of this syndrome is discussed.
Choi, Ju Young; Park, Joon Min; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Park, Jun Seok; Shin, Dong Wun; Kim, Hoon; Jeon, Woo Chan; Kim, Hyun Jong
A 77-year-old woman was admitted to a local clinic for altered consciousness and presented with a suspected basal ganglion hemorrhage detected on brain computed tomography. The patient was stuporous, but her vital signs were stable. Her initial blood glucose was 607 mg/dL, and a hyperdense lesion was found in the right basal ganglion on brain computed tomography. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed high signal intensity in the right basal ganglion. Electroencephalography showed no seizure activity. The patient was treated with a fluid infusion, and serum glucose level was controlled with insulin. The patient gradually recovered consciousness and was alert within 24 hours as serum glucose level normalized. The basal ganglion lesion caused by hyperglycemia was not accompanied by involuntary limb movement. This is the first report of a patient presenting with decreased consciousness and typical neural radiographic changes associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia but without movement abnormalities. PMID:28168232
Zalev, Jason; Kolios, Michael C.
Photoacoustic systems can produce high-resolution, high-contrast images of vascular structures. To reconstruct images at very high-resolution, signals must be collected from many transducer locations, which can be time consuming due to limitations in transducer array technology. A method is presented to quickly discriminate between normal and abnormal tissue based on the structural morphology of vasculature. To demonstrate that the approach may be useful for cancer detection, a special simulator that produces photoacoustic signals from 3D models of vascular tissue is developed. Results show that it is possible to differentiate tissue classes even when it is not possible to resolve individual blood vessels. Performance of the algorithm remains strong as the number of transducer locations decreases and in the presence of noise.
Aghabeigi, B; Haque, M; Wasil, M; Hodges, S J; Henderson, B; Harris, M
Patients with chronic facial pain including those with facial arthromyalgia (TMJ dysfunction syndrome) were investigated for evidence of abnormal systemic and intra-articular free radical activity. Chronic facial pain patients showed significantly raised serum 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid after an oral dose of 1.2 g of aspirin which indicates increased systemic free radical activity. This was reflected in the TMJ aspirates of the facial arthromyalgia patients which contained thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBA-RS) which is also a product of free radical activity. The synovial aspirates also contained high levels of the hyperalgesic eicosanoid 15-HETE. However, there was no difference between the painful and symptom-free joints, which suggested that in part the clinical features are probably determined by asymmetrical masticatory function or as yet unknown algesic factors such as local cytokine production.
... otherwise healthy, facial paralysis is often due to Bell palsy . This is a condition in which the facial ... speech, or occupational therapist. If facial paralysis from Bell palsy lasts for more than 6 to 12 months, ...
Zhao, Qian; Rosenbaum, Kenneth; Sze, Raymond; Zand, Dina; Summar, Marshall; Linguraru, Marius George
Down syndrome is the most commonly occurring chromosomal condition; one in every 691 babies in United States is born with it. Patients with Down syndrome have an increased risk for heart defects, respiratory and hearing problems and the early detection of the syndrome is fundamental for managing the disease. Clinically, facial appearance is an important indicator in diagnosing Down syndrome and it paves the way for computer-aided diagnosis based on facial image analysis. In this study, we propose a novel method to detect Down syndrome using photography for computer-assisted image-based facial dysmorphology. Geometric features based on facial anatomical landmarks, local texture features based on the Contourlet transform and local binary pattern are investigated to represent facial characteristics. Then a support vector machine classifier is used to discriminate normal and abnormal cases; accuracy, precision and recall are used to evaluate the method. The comparison among the geometric, local texture and combined features was performed using the leave-one-out validation. Our method achieved 97.92% accuracy with high precision and recall for the combined features; the detection results were higher than using only geometric or texture features. The promising results indicate that our method has the potential for automated assessment for Down syndrome from simple, noninvasive imaging data.
Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Satoh, Kaneshige
Treacher Collins syndrome is a disorder characterized by various congenital soft tissue anomalies involving hypoplasia of the zygoma, maxilla, and mandible. A variety of treatments have been reported to date. These treatments can be classified into 2 major types. The first type involves osteotomy for hard tissue such as the zygoma and mandible. The second type involves plastic surgery using bone grafting in the malar region and soft tissue repair of eyelid deformities. We devised a new treatment to comprehensively correct hard and soft tissue deformities in the upper half of the face of Treacher Collins patients. The aim was to "change facial features and make it difficult to tell that the patients have this disorder." This innovative treatment strategy consists of 3 stages: (1) placement of dermal fat graft from the lower eyelid to the malar subcutaneous area, (2) custom-made synthetic zygomatic bone grafting, and (3) Z-plasty flap transposition from the upper to the lower eyelid and superior repositioning and fixation of the lateral canthal tendon using a Mitek anchor system. This method was used on 4 patients with Treacher Collins syndrome who had moderate to severe hypoplasia of the zygomas and the lower eyelids. Facial features of these patients were markedly improved and very good results were obtained. There were no major complications intraoperatively or postoperatively in any of the patients during the series of treatments. In synthetic bone grafting in the second stage, the implant in some patients was in the way of the infraorbital nerve. Thus, the nerve was detached and then sutured under the microscope. Postoperatively, patients had almost full restoration of sensory nerve torpor within 5 to 6 months. We devised a 3-stage treatment to "change facial features" of patients with hypoplasia of the upper half of the face due to Treacher Collins syndrome. The treatment protocol provided a very effective way to treat deformities of the upper half of the face
Mendoza, C E; Rosado, M F; Bernal, L
We performed this prospective study to evaluate the correlation of interleukin-6 serum levels with preoperative constitutional symptoms and immunologic abnormalities, and the possible role played by this cytokine in tumor recurrence. Eight patients with atrial myxoma were evaluated at our institution from July 1993 to November 1998. We measured their interleukin-6 serum levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method preoperatively and 1 and 6 months after surgery. Two of the cases involved recurrent tumor, 1 patient had undergone his 1st surgery at a different institution and died during the 2nd procedure, so his data were incomplete. Preoperatively the whole group of patients had elevated interleukin-6 serum levels. Although patients with a 1st occurrence of tumor demonstrated a positive correlation between interleukin-6 serum level and tumor size, the 2 patients with recurrent tumors appeared to have higher interleukin-6 levels regardless of tumor size. Once the tumor was surgically removed, interleukin-6 levels returned to normal values, and this was associated with regression of clinical manifestations and immunologic features. According to our study, the overproduction of interleukin-6 by cardiac myxomas is responsible for the constitutional symptoms and immunologic abnormalities observed in patients with such tumors and might also play a role as a marker of recurrence. This study also suggests that recurrent cardiac myxomas form a subgroup of cardiac myxomas with a highly intrinsic aggressiveness, as implied by their greater interleukin-6 production despite their smaller size. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.
Mendoza, Cesar Emilio; Rosado, Manuel Francisco; Bernal, Leon
We performed this prospective study to evaluate the correlation of interleukin-6 serum levels with preoperative constitutional symptoms and immunologic abnormalities, and the possible role played by this cytokine in tumor recurrence. Eight patients with atrial myxoma were evaluated at our institution from July 1993 to November 1998. We measured their interleukin-6 serum levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method preoperatively and 1 and 6 months after surgery. Two of the cases involved recurrent tumor; 1 patient had undergone his 1st surgery at a different institution and died during the 2nd procedure, so his data were incomplete. Preoperatively, the whole group of patients had elevated interleukin-6 serum levels. Although patients with a 1st occurrence of tumor demonstrated a positive correlation between interleukin-6 serum level and tumor size, the 2 patients with recurrent tumors appeared to have higher interleukin-6 levels regardless of tumor size. Once the tumor was surgically removed, interleukin-6 levels returned to normal values, and this was associated with regression of clinical manifestations and immunologic features. According to our study, the overproduction of interleukin-6 by cardiac myxomas is responsible for the constitutional symptoms and immunologic abnormalities observed in patients with such tumors and might also play a role as a marker of recurrence. This study also suggests that recurrent cardiac myxomas form a subgroup of cardiac myxomas with a highly intrinsic aggressiveness, as implied by their greater interleukin-6 production despite their smaller size. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:11330738
Thomas, C S; Goldberg, D P
Compared with surgical patients awaiting rhinoplasty and control subjects, dysmorphophobic patients were more dissatisfied with facial appearance, more anxious, more depressed, more neurotic and less extrovert. Morphanalysis, an objective measure of facial appearance, was applied to the first 11 dysmorphophobic and first 11 surgical subjects. The dysmorphophobic group had a variety of abnormal features that were not identified by medical practitioners or the patient. These subtle anomalies were often unrelated to the focus of dissatisfaction which was usually normal. A panel of lay judges rated the appearance of the dysmorphophobic group as being intermediate between the control and surgical groups but not significantly different from either.
Wynn, Jonathan K; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F
Schizophrenia patients show impairments in identifying facial affect; however, it is not known at what stage facial affect processing is impaired. We evaluated 3 event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore stages of facial affect processing in schizophrenia patients. Twenty-six schizophrenia patients and 27 normal controls participated. In separate blocks, subjects identified the gender of a face, the emotion of a face, or if a building had 1 or 2 stories. Three ERPs were examined: (1) P100 to examine basic visual processing, (2) N170 to examine facial feature encoding, and (3) N250 to examine affect decoding. Behavioral performance on each task was also measured. Results showed that schizophrenia patients' P100 was comparable to the controls during all 3 identification tasks. Both patients and controls exhibited a comparable N170 that was largest during processing of faces and smallest during processing of buildings. For both groups, the N250 was largest during the emotion identification task and smallest for the building identification task. However, the patients produced a smaller N250 compared with the controls across the 3 tasks. The groups did not differ in behavioral performance in any of the 3 identification tasks. The pattern of intact P100 and N170 suggest that patients maintain basic visual processing and facial feature encoding abilities. The abnormal N250 suggests that schizophrenia patients are less efficient at decoding facial affect features. Our results imply that abnormalities in the later stage of feature decoding could potentially underlie emotion identification deficits in schizophrenia.
Boudry-Labis, Elise; Demeer, Bénédicte; Le Caignec, Cédric; Isidor, Bertrand; Mathieu-Dramard, Michèle; Plessis, Ghislaine; George, Alice M; Taylor, Juliet; Aftimos, Salim; Wiemer-Kruel, Adelheid; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Annerén, Göran; Firth, Helen; Simonic, Ingrid; Vermeesch, Joris; Thuresson, Ann-Charlotte; Copin, Henri; Love, Donald R; Andrieux, Joris
The increased use of array-CGH and SNP-arrays for genetic diagnosis has led to the identification of new microdeletion/microduplication syndromes and enabled genotype-phenotype correlations to be made. In this study, nine patients with 9q21 deletions were investigated and compared with four previously Decipher reported patients. Genotype-phenotype comparisons of 13 patients revealed several common major characteristics including significant developmental delay, epilepsy, neuro-behavioural disorders and recognizable facial features including hypertelorism, feature-less philtrum, and a thin upper lip. The molecular investigation identified deletions with different breakpoints and of variable lengths, but the 750 kb smallest overlapping deleted region includes four genes. Among these genes, RORB is a strong candidate for a neurological phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of 9q21 microdeletions and our observations strongly suggest that these deletions are responsible for a new genetic syndrome characterised by mental retardation with speech delay, epilepsy, autistic behaviour and moderate facial dysmorphy.
Lipska, B S; Brzeskwiniewicz, M; Wierzba, J; Morzuchi, L; Piotrowski, A; Limon, J
We describe a 16-year-old boy with an 8.6Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome 4q 13.3q21.23 identified by oligo array-CGH. The patient presents psychomotor developmental delay, absent speech, marked progressive growth restriction, hearing loss, skeletal defects and minor facial anomalies. The patient required surgical treatment for cleft lip and palate, bilateral cryptorchidism and a neurofibroma. The analysis of the presented patient against previously published cases allowed us to expand further on the phenotype and to reevaluate previously proposed critical overlapping region at 4q21. As an addition to PRKG2 and RASGEFIB genes, we propose to include BMP3 gene as the principal determinant of the observed common phenotype. BMP3 haploinsufficiency appears to be causative of hearing loss and peculiar skeletal abnormalities including hemivertebrae and brachydactyly.
... Contact Us Trust your face to a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision Understanding Facial Scar Treatment When ... face like the eyes or lips. A facial plastic surgeon has many options for treating and improving facial ...
and default mode networks. How developing PTSD further affects these abnormalities has not been directly examined. We recorded electroencephalography ...has not been directly examined. We recorded electroencephalography in combat veterans with histories of mTBI, but without active PTSD (mTBI only, n
White, Lawrence M.; Marotta, Thomas R.; McLennan, Michael K.; Kassel, Edward E.
Appropriate clinical radiographic investigation, together with an understanding of the normal radiographic anatomy of the facial skeleton, allows for precise delineation of facial fracutres and associated soft tissue injuries encountered in clinical practice. A combination of multiple plain radiographic views and coronal and axial computed tomographic images allow for optimal delineation of fracture patterns. This information is beneficial in the clinical and surgical management patients with facial injuries
Chong, Jessica X.; Yu, Joon-Ho; Lorentzen, Peter; Park, Karen M.; Jamal, Seema M.; Tabor, Holly K.; Rauch, Anita; Saenz, Margarita Sifuentes; Boltshauser, Eugen; Patterson, Karynne E.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.
Purpose The pace of Mendelian gene discovery is slowed by the “n-of-1 problem” – the difficulty of establishing causality of a putatively pathogenic variant in a single person or family. Identification of an unrelated person with an overlapping phenotype and suspected pathogenic variant in the same gene can overcome this barrier but is often impeded by lack of a convenient or widely-available way to share data on candidate variants / genes among families, clinicians and researchers. Methods Social networking among families, clinicians and researchers was used to identify three children with variants of unknown significance in KDM1A and similar phenotypes. Results De novo variants in KDM1A underlie a new syndrome characterized by developmental delay and distinctive facial features. Conclusion Social networking is a potentially powerful strategy to discover genes for rare Mendelian conditions, particularly those with non-specific phenotypic features. To facilitate the efforts of families to share phenotypic and genomic information with each other, clinicians, and researchers, we developed the Repository for Mendelian Genomics Family Portal (RMD-FP). Design and development of a web-based tool, MyGene2, that enables families, clinicians and researchers to search for gene matches based on analysis of phenotype and exome data deposited into the RMD-FP is underway. PMID:26656649
Afifi, Hanan H; Fukai, Ryoko; Miyake, Noriko; Gamal El Din, Amina A; Eid, Maha M; Eid, Ola M; Thomas, Manal M; El-Badry, Tarek H; Tosson, Angie M S; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Matsumoto, Naomichi
Generalized hypertrichosis is a feature of several genetic disorders, and the nosology of these entities is still provisional. Recent studies have implicated chromosome 17q24.2-q24.3 microdeletion and the reciprocal microduplication in a very rare form of congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis (CGHT) with or without gingival hyperplasia. Here, we report on a 5-year-old Egyptian girl born to consanguineous parents. The girl presented with CGHT and gingival hyperplasia for whom we performed detailed clinical, pathological, and molecular studies. The girl had coarse facies characterized by bilateral epicanthic folds, thick and abundant eyelashes, a broad nose, full cheeks, and lips that constituted the distinctive facial features for this syndrome. Biopsy of the gingiva showed epithelial marked acanthosis and hyperkeratosis with hyperplastic thick collagen bundles and dense fibrosis in the underlying tissues. Array analysis indicated a 17q24.2-q24.3 chromosomal microdeletion. We validated this microdeletion by real-time quantitative PCR and confirmed a perfect co-segregation of the disease phenotype within the family. In summary, this study indicates that 17q24.2-q24.3 microdeletion caused CGHT with gingival hyperplasia and distinctive facies, which should be differentiated from the autosomal recessive type that lacks the distinctive facies.
... Contact Us Trust your face to a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision Understanding Facial Scar Treatment ... face like the eyes or lips. A facial plastic surgeon has many options for treating and improving ...
Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.
The Facial Action Coding System (FACS)  is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284
Carr, M. M.; Freiberg, A.; Martin, R. D.
Emergency room physicians frequently see facial fractures that can have serious consequences for patients if mismanaged. This article reviews the signs, symptoms, imaging techniques, and general modes of treatment of common facial fractures. It focuses on fractures of the mandible, zygomaticomaxillary region, orbital floor, and nose. Images p520-a p522-a PMID:8199509
Gupta, Sachin; Mends, Francine; Hagiwara, Mari; Fatterpekar, Girish; Roehm, Pamela C.
Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively. Ultrasound of the facial nerve has been used to predict functional outcomes in patients with Bell's palsy. More recently, diffusion tensor tractography has appeared as a new modality which allows three-dimensional display of facial nerve fibers. PMID:23766904
Mao, Shujiong; Sun, Liying; Tu, Miaoying; Zou, Chaochun; Wang, Xiumin
Abstract This study aimed to investigate the detection rate of chromosome abnormalities in children suspected with congenital disorders in 1 single center, identify any differences according to different classification criteria, and try to enlighten the medical professionals what clinical features should be transferred for cytogenetic analysis. From January 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014, children who were suspected with chromosomal disorders were included. All the cytogenetic analyses were performed in the Medical Biology and Genetic Department Laboratory in Zhejiang DIAN Diagnostics. We evaluated the variants of clinical indications, and incidence and types of chromosomal abnormalities among groups. During the study period, 4129 samples were collected and analyzed. Among them, 769 children were detected with chromosome abnormalities, accounting for 18.62% of all referral cases. The ratio of sex-linked chromosomal abnormalities to autosomal ones was 1:3.2. The detection rates were 19.66% (365/1857) for boys and 17.78% (404/2272) for girls. Most of trisomy 21 were found before the age of 1 year old, while most of children with Turner syndrome were found after 6 years old. The group presenting with specific clinical stigmata had highest detection rate of 59.1%. We demonstrated the detection rates of chromosome abnormalities in children who were suspected with chromosomal disorders. Combined with previous report, we established a database of common chromosomal anomalies and the clinical features that could be useful for genetic counseling and remind the medical professionals what kind of patients should be transferred to genetic analysis. PMID:26496335
Mao, Shujiong; Sun, Liying; Tu, Miaoying; Zou, Chaochun; Wang, Xiumin
This study aimed to investigate the detection rate of chromosome abnormalities in children suspected with congenital disorders in 1 single center, identify any differences according to different classification criteria, and try to enlighten the medical professionals what clinical features should be transferred for cytogenetic analysis.From January 1, 2011 to March 31, 2014, children who were suspected with chromosomal disorders were included. All the cytogenetic analyses were performed in the Medical Biology and Genetic Department Laboratory in Zhejiang DIAN Diagnostics. We evaluated the variants of clinical indications, and incidence and types of chromosomal abnormalities among groups.During the study period, 4129 samples were collected and analyzed. Among them, 769 children were detected with chromosome abnormalities, accounting for 18.62% of all referral cases. The ratio of sex-linked chromosomal abnormalities to autosomal ones was 1:3.2. The detection rates were 19.66% (365/1857) for boys and 17.78% (404/2272) for girls. Most of trisomy 21 were found before the age of 1 year old, while most of children with Turner syndrome were found after 6 years old. The group presenting with specific clinical stigmata had highest detection rate of 59.1%.We demonstrated the detection rates of chromosome abnormalities in children who were suspected with chromosomal disorders. Combined with previous report, we established a database of common chromosomal anomalies and the clinical features that could be useful for genetic counseling and remind the medical professionals what kind of patients should be transferred to genetic analysis.
Zheng, Qian; Chu, Lan; Tan, Liming; Zhang, Hainan
Facial onset sensory and motor neuronopathy (FOSMN) is a recently defined slowly progressive motor neuron disorder. It is characterized by facial onset sensory abnormalities which may spread to the scalp, neck, upper trunk and extremities, followed by lower motor neuron deficits. Bulbar symptoms, such as dysarthria and dysphagia, muscle weakness, cramps and fasciculations, can present later in the course of the disease. We search the PubMed database for articles published in English from 2006 to 2016 using the term of "Facial onset sensory and motor neuronopathy". Reference lists of the identified articles were selected and reviewed. Only 38 cases of FOSMN have been reported in the Pubmed database since it was first reported in 2006. Typically, FOSMN present with slowly evolving numbness of the face followed by neck and arm weakness. Reduced or absent of corneal reflexes and blink reflex is the main pathognomonic features of FOSMN. In this review, we summarize the epidemiology, clinical presentation, auxiliary examination, and treatment of all the reported cases of FOSMN. Moreover, we discuss the pathogenesis of this rare disorder. In addition, we propose diagnostic criteria for FOSMN.
Lintas, Carla; Picinelli, Chiara; Piras, Ignazio S; Sacco, Roberto; Gabriele, Stefano; Verdecchia, Magda; Persico, Antonio M
A novel 19.98-Mb duplication in chromosome Xp22.33p22.12 was detected by array CGH in a 30-year-old man affected by intellectual disability, congenital hypotonia and dysmorphic features. The duplication encompasses more than 100 known genes. Many of these genes (such as neuroligin 4, cyclin-dependent kinase like 5, and others) have already correlated with X-linked intellectual disability and/or neurodevelopmental disorders. Due to the high number of potentially pathogenic genes involved in the reported duplication, we cannot correlate the clinical phenotype to a single gene. Indeed, we suggest that the resulting clinical phenotype may have arisen from the overexpression and consequent perturbation of fine gene dosage.
Lintas, Carla; Picinelli, Chiara; Piras, Ignazio S.; Sacco, Roberto; Gabriele, Stefano; Verdecchia, Magda; Persico, Antonio M.
A novel 19.98-Mb duplication in chromosome Xp22.33p22.12 was detected by array CGH in a 30-year-old man affected by intellectual disability, congenital hypotonia and dysmorphic features. The duplication encompasses more than 100 known genes. Many of these genes (such as neuroligin 4, cyclin-dependent kinase like 5, and others) have already correlated with X-linked intellectual disability and/or neurodevelopmental disorders. Due to the high number of potentially pathogenic genes involved in the reported duplication, we cannot correlate the clinical phenotype to a single gene. Indeed, we suggest that the resulting clinical phenotype may have arisen from the overexpression and consequent perturbation of fine gene dosage. PMID:26997944
Bergman, R T
My objective is to present a cephalometric-based facial analysis to correlate with an article that was published previously in the American Journal of Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopedics. Eighteen facial or soft tissue traits are discussed in this article. All of them are significant in successful orthodontic outcome, and none of them depend on skeletal landmarks for measurement. Orthodontic analysis most commonly relies on skeletal and dental measurement, placing far less emphasis on facial feature measurement, particularly their relationship to each other. Yet, a thorough examination of the face is critical for understanding the changes in facial appearance that result from orthodontic treatment. A cephalometric approach to facial examination can also benefit the diagnosis and treatment plan. Individual facial traits and their balance with one another should be identified before treatment. Relying solely on skeletal analysis, assuming that the face will balance if the skeletal/dental cephalometric values are normalized, may not yield the desired outcome. Good occlusion does not necessarily mean good facial balance. Orthodontic norms for facial traits can permit their measurement. Further, with a knowledge of standard facial traits and the patient's soft tissue features, an individualized norm can be established for each patient to optimize facial attractiveness. Four questions should be asked regarding each facial trait before treatment: (1) What is the quality and quantity of the trait? (2) How will future growth affect the trait? (3) How will orthodontic tooth movement affect the existing trait (positively or negatively)? (4) How will surgical bone movement to correct the bite affect the trait (positively or negatively)?
Lee, Kwang Ho; Park, Eun Young; Jung, Sang Woo; Song, Seung Woo; Lim, Hyun Kyo
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is characterized by mental retardation, atypical facial features, broad thumbs and toes, and scoliosis. Polycystic ovaries are associated with chronic anovulation and abnormal uterine bleeding. A 15-year old female patient was diagnosed with Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome, and had prolonged abnormal uterine bleeding for 2 years, accompanied by a polycystic ovary. As she showed no improvement during hormonal therapy or medical treatment, a hysterectomy was performed to control the bleeding. PMID:27924288
Tic - facial; Mimic spasm ... Tics may involve repeated, uncontrolled spasm-like muscle movements, such as: Eye blinking Grimacing Mouth twitching Nose wrinkling Squinting Repeated throat clearing or grunting may also be ...
France, Emma F; Wyke, Sally; Ziebland, Sue; Entwistle, Vikki A; Hunt, Kate
There has been a striking growth in the availability of health-related information based on personal experience in recent years and internet users are often drawn towards other people's stories about their health. Accounts of other people's experiences might convey social and emotional information that is not otherwise available but little is known about how it is used or the implications of its use in practice. This paper examines how people refer to information about other people's experiences when accounting for decisions about antenatal diagnostic testing for foetal abnormality. We conducted a secondary analysis of 37 qualitative interviews undertaken across the UK with 36 women and nine of their male partners (eight couples were interviewed together) who talked about diagnostic testing for foetal abnormality in 55 pregnancies. When describing their decisions, respondents referred to examples of knowledge gleaned from their own and other individuals' experiences as well as information based on biomedical or clinical-epidemiological research (usually about the probabilities of having a child affected by health problems or the probability of diagnostic tests causing miscarriage). Both forms of knowledge were employed in people's accounts to illustrate the legitimacy and internal coherence of decisions taken. The analysis demonstrates the personally idiosyncratic ways that people reflect on and incorporate different types of information to add meaning to abstract ideas about risk, to imagine the consequences for their own lives and to help them to make sense of the decisions they faced.
Olmos, Carmen; Vilacosta, Isidre; Fernández, Cristina; Sarriá, Cristina; López, Javier; Del Trigo, María; Ferrera, Carlos; Vivas, David; Maroto, Luis; Hernández, Miguel; Rodríguez, Enrique; San Román, José Alberto
Native valve infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with normal valves has increased in the last decades. Whether patients with normal valves present a similar prognosis to those with pathologic valves is unresolved. Our aim is to describe epidemiologic and clinical differences between patients with left-sided IE and normal valves and those with native pathologic valves. We analyzed 945 consecutive episodes of IE, 435 of which involved left-sided nonprosthetic IE. They were classified into 2 groups: episodes in normal valves (normal group, n=173) and episodes in pathologic valves (abnormal group, n=262). Patients in the normal group were younger, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus bovis were more frequently isolated, and vegetations were more frequently found. Heart failure, septic shock, and the need for surgery or death were more common. Multivariate analysis identified the following as factors independently associated with normal valve IE: age<65 years, S bovis, S aureus, heart failure, and vegetation detection. Factors independently associated with in-hospital events included S aureus, periannular complications, heart failure, and septic shock development. In conclusion, compared with patients with abnormal valve IE, patients with IE on normal valves were younger, had a more virulent microbiological profile, developed heart failure and septic shock more frequently, needed more surgical procedures, and had worse prognosis.
Dai, Ying; Katahera, S.; Cai, D.
For realizing the flexible man-machine collaboration, understanding of facial expressions and gestures is not negligible. In our method, we proposed a hierarchical recognition approach, for the understanding of human emotions. According to this method, the facial AFs (action features) were firstly extracted and recognized by using histograms of optical flow. Then, based on the facial AFs, facial expressions were classified into two calsses, one of which presents the positive emotions, and the other of which does the negative ones. Accordingly, the facial expressions belonged to the positive class, or the ones belonged to the negative class, were classified into more complex emotions, which were revealed by the corresponding facial expressions. Finally, the system architecture how to coordinate in recognizing facil action features and facial expressions for man-machine collaboration was proposed.
Little, Anthony C
Facial attractiveness has important social consequences. Despite a widespread belief that beauty cannot be defined, in fact, there is considerable agreement across individuals and cultures on what is found attractive. By considering that attraction and mate choice are critical components of evolutionary selection, we can better understand the importance of beauty. There are many traits that are linked to facial attractiveness in humans and each may in some way impart benefits to individuals who act on their preferences. If a trait is reliably associated with some benefit to the perceiver, then we would expect individuals in a population to find that trait attractive. Such an approach has highlighted face traits such as age, health, symmetry, and averageness, which are proposed to be associated with benefits and so associated with facial attractiveness. This view may postulate that some traits will be universally attractive; however, this does not preclude variation. Indeed, it would be surprising if there existed a template of a perfect face that was not affected by experience, environment, context, or the specific needs of an individual. Research on facial attractiveness has documented how various face traits are associated with attractiveness and various factors that impact on an individual's judgments of facial attractiveness. Overall, facial attractiveness is complex, both in the number of traits that determine attraction and in the large number of factors that can alter attraction to particular faces. A fuller understanding of facial beauty will come with an understanding of how these various factors interact with each other. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:621-634. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1316 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Richoz, Anne-Raphaëlle; Jack, Rachael E; Garrod, Oliver G B; Schyns, Philippe G; Caldara, Roberto
The human face transmits a wealth of signals that readily provide crucial information for social interactions, such as facial identity and emotional expression. Yet, a fundamental question remains unresolved: does the face information for identity and emotional expression categorization tap into common or distinct representational systems? To address this question we tested PS, a pure case of acquired prosopagnosia with bilateral occipitotemporal lesions anatomically sparing the regions that are assumed to contribute to facial expression (de)coding (i.e., the amygdala, the insula and the posterior superior temporal sulcus--pSTS). We previously demonstrated that PS does not use information from the eye region to identify faces, but relies on the suboptimal mouth region. PS's abnormal information use for identity, coupled with her neural dissociation, provides a unique opportunity to probe the existence of a dichotomy in the face representational system. To reconstruct the mental models of the six basic facial expressions of emotion in PS and age-matched healthy observers, we used a novel reverse correlation technique tracking information use on dynamic faces. PS was comparable to controls, using all facial features to (de)code facial expressions with the exception of fear. PS's normal (de)coding of dynamic facial expressions suggests that the face system relies either on distinct representational systems for identity and expression, or dissociable cortical pathways to access them. Interestingly, PS showed a selective impairment for categorizing many static facial expressions, which could be accounted for by her lesion in the right inferior occipital gyrus. PS's advantage for dynamic facial expressions might instead relate to a functionally distinct and sufficient cortical pathway directly connecting the early visual cortex to the spared pSTS. Altogether, our data provide critical insights on the healthy and impaired face systems, question evidence of deficits
Shukla, Anju; Hebbar, Malavika; Harms, Frederike L; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Girisha, Katta M; Kutsche, Kerstin
Deletions of 6q are known to be associated with variable clinical phenotypes including facial dysmorphism, hand malformations, heart defects, microcephaly, intellectual disability, epilepsy, and other neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric conditions. Here, we report a 7-year-old boy evaluated for facial dysmorphism, trigonocephaly, microcephaly, global developmental delay, and behavioral abnormalities. Molecular karyotyping revealed a 13-Mb deletion within 6q21-q22.31, (chr6:105,771,520-119,130,805; hg19, GRch37) comprising 81 genes. Review of 15 cases with interstitial 6q21-q22.3 deletion from the literature showed that facial dysmorphism, intellectual disability, and corpus callosum abnormalities are the most consistent clinical features in these individuals. Deleted genes and breakpoints in the 6q21-q22 region of the patient reported here are similar to two earlier reported cases with the clinical diagnosis of Acro-Cardio-Facial syndrome. However, the present case lacks characteristic clinical findings of Acro-Cardio-Facial syndrome. We discuss, the considerable phenotypic variability seen in individuals with 6q21-q22 microdeletion and emphasize the need for further scrutiny into the hypothesis of Acro-Cardio-Facial syndrome being a microdeletion syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Solcà, Marco; Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Schnider, Armin; Leemann, Béatrice
Blindsight denotes unconscious residual visual capacities in the context of an inability to consciously recollect or identify visual information. It has been described for color and shape discrimination, movement or facial emotion recognition. The present study investigates a patient suffering from cortical blindness whilst maintaining select residual abilities in face detection. Our patient presented the capacity to distinguish between jumbled/normal faces, known/unknown faces or famous people’s categories although he failed to explicitly recognize or describe them. Conversely, performance was at chance level when asked to categorize non-facial stimuli. Our results provide clinical evidence for the notion that some aspects of facial processing can occur without perceptual awareness, possibly using direct tracts from the thalamus to associative visual cortex, bypassing the primary visual cortex. PMID:26483655
Lovio, Riikka; Näätänen, Risto; Kujala, Teija
The present study aimed to determine whether speech sound encoding and discrimination are affected in 6-year-old children having an elevated risk for dyslexia. Their event-related potentials (ERPs) for syllables and syllable changes critical in speech perception and language development (vowel, vowel-duration, consonant, frequency (F0), and intensity changes) were compared with those of children without a dyslexia risk. ERPs were recorded with a new linguistic multi-feature paradigm which enables one to assess the discrimination of five features in 20min. Also, an oddball condition with vowel and vowel-duration deviants was included. The amplitudes of the P1 response elicited by the standard stimuli were smaller in the at-risk group. Furthermore, the amplitudes of the mismatch negativity (MMN) were smaller for the vowel, vowel-duration, consonant, and intensity deviants in children at risk for dyslexia. These results are consistent with earlier studies reporting auditory processing difficulties in children at risk for dyslexia and diagnosed dyslexia. However, the current study, enabling the recording of MMN for multiple sound features, suggests the presence of wide-spread auditory difficulties in children at risk for dyslexia.
... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Congenital Abnormalities Page Content Article Body About 3% to 4% ... of congenital abnormalities earlier. 5 Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic ...
Liberati, Marco; Melchiorre, Karen; D'Emilio, Ilenia; Guanciali-Franchi, Paolo Emilio; Iezzi, Irene; Rotmensch, Sigfried; Celentano, Claudio
Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a sporadic chromosomal anomaly, caused by a tissue-specific mosaic distribution of an additional isochromosome 12p. About 60 cases of prenatal diagnosis of PKS have been reported. Only 1 case of PKS is described on the basis of prenatal screening, presenting increased nuchal translucency. An abnormal fetal facial profile is described prenatally as sonographic evidence of PKS. We report a case of prenatal diagnosis in a fetus undergoing second-level scan due to positive triple screen with ultrasound features of PKS.
The patient who has to sustain facial surgery is doubly concerned by the functional issues of his case and his cosmetic appearance. Fortunately, in the recent period of time, huge advancements have been done permitting to offer a solution in more and more difficult situations. The aim of the present article is to give a panorama of facial plastic surgery for non-specialized physicians. The main aspects of the specialty are approached through the surgical techniques born from the progress of technology and biology. This paper treats issues of orthognatic surgery, endoscopic techniques, osteogenic distraction, different types of graft, cosmetic surgery, skin expander-balloons.
Spiegel, Ronen; Horovitz, Yoseph; Peters, Hartmut; Erdogan, Fikret; Chervinsky, Ilana; Shalev, Stavit A
We report on three individuals of Muslim Arab origin from a village located in Northern Israel affected by an apparent autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by distinctive facial phenotype of which the most prominent feature is ocular hypertelorism. The other clinical features of the syndrome include variable degree of mental retardation, genital abnormalities dominated by short penis, and skeletal abnormalities including chest deformity (combination of upper pectus carinatum with lower pectus excavatum), and short palms with broad short fingers. Affected individuals displayed distinctive facial features including upslanting palpebral fissures, thick eyebrows, long philtrum, wide mouth with thin upper lip and upturned corners of the mouth, widow's peak, broad nasal bridge, and simple ears with fleshy overfolded helices. This phenotype does not fully meet typical diagnostic features of any known condition.
Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Tani, Akiko; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Omori, Koichi
Parotid lymphangioma is a relatively rare disease that is usually detected in infancy or early childhood, and which has typical features. Clinical reports of facial nerve paralysis caused by lymphangioma, however, are very rare. Usually, facial nerve paralysis in a child suggests malignancy. Here we report a very rare case of parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis. A 7-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a rapidly enlarging mass in the left parotid region. Left peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis was also noted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging also revealed multiple cystic lesions. Open biopsy was undertaken in order to investigate the cause of the facial nerve paralysis. The histopathological findings of the excised tumor were consistent with lymphangioma. Prednisone (40 mg/day) was given in a tapering dose schedule. Facial nerve paralysis was completely cured 1 month after treatment. There has been no recurrent facial nerve paralysis for eight years.
Makhinov, K A; Barinov, A N; Zhestikova, M G; Mingazova, L R; Parkhomenko, E V
Diagnosis and treatment of facial pain is a problem for physicians of different specialties (neurologists, dentists, surgeons, oculists, otolaryngologists and psychiatrists). A classification of this pathology is far from ideal and an interdisciplinary comprehensive approach is needed. Current approaches to etiotropic, symptomatic and pathogenetic treatment of patients with most frequent variants of orofacial pain are presented.
Komori, Masashi; Kawamura, Satoru; Ishihara, Shigekazu
Effects of sex-relevant and sex-irrelevant facial features on the evaluation of facial gender were investigated. Participants rated masculinity of 48 male facial photographs and femininity of 48 female facial photographs. Eighty feature points were measured on each of the facial photographs. Using a generalized Procrustes analysis, facial shapes…
Raffensperger, Zachary D.; Heike, Carrie L.; Cunningham, Michael L.; Hecht, Jacqueline T.; Kau, Chung How; Moreno, Lina M.; Wehby, George L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Laurie, Cecelia A.; Laurie, Cathy C.; Santorico, Stephanie; Klein, Ophir; Feingold, Eleanor; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Spritz, Richard A.; Marazita, Mary L.; Weinberg, Seth M.
Numerous lines of evidence point to a genetic basis for facial morphology in humans, yet little is known about how specific genetic variants relate to the phenotypic expression of many common facial features. We conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of 20 quantitative facial measurements derived from the 3D surface images of 3118 healthy individuals of European ancestry belonging to two US cohorts. Analyses were performed on just under one million genotyped SNPs (Illumina OmniExpress+Exome v1.2 array) imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel (Phase 3). We observed genome-wide significant associations (p < 5 x 10−8) for cranial base width at 14q21.1 and 20q12, intercanthal width at 1p13.3 and Xq13.2, nasal width at 20p11.22, nasal ala length at 14q11.2, and upper facial depth at 11q22.1. Several genes in the associated regions are known to play roles in craniofacial development or in syndromes affecting the face: MAFB, PAX9, MIPOL1, ALX3, HDAC8, and PAX1. We also tested genotype-phenotype associations reported in two previous genome-wide studies and found evidence of replication for nasal ala length and SNPs in CACNA2D3 and PRDM16. These results provide further evidence that common variants in regions harboring genes of known craniofacial function contribute to normal variation in human facial features. Improved understanding of the genes associated with facial morphology in healthy individuals can provide insights into the pathways and mechanisms controlling normal and abnormal facial morphogenesis. PMID:27560520
Csukly, Gábor; Stefanics, Gábor; Komlósi, Sarolta; Czigler, István; Czobor, Pál
Growing evidence suggests that abnormalities in the synchronized oscillatory activity of neurons in schizophrenia may lead to impaired neural activation and temporal coding and thus lead to neurocognitive dysfunctions, such as deficits in facial affect recognition. To gain an insight into the neurobiological processes linked to facial affect recognition, we investigated both induced and evoked oscillatory activity by calculating the Event Related Spectral Perturbation (ERSP) and the Inter Trial Coherence (ITC) during facial affect recognition. Fearful and neutral faces as well as nonface patches were presented to 24 patients with schizophrenia and 24 matched healthy controls while EEG was recorded. The participants' task was to recognize facial expressions. Because previous findings with healthy controls showed that facial feature decoding was associated primarily with oscillatory activity in the theta band, we analyzed ERSP and ITC in this frequency band in the time interval of 140-200 ms, which corresponds to the N170 component. Event-related theta activity and phase-locking to facial expressions, but not to nonface patches, predicted emotion recognition performance in both controls and patients. Event-related changes in theta amplitude and phase-locking were found to be significantly weaker in patients compared with healthy controls, which is in line with previous investigations showing decreased neural synchronization in the low frequency bands in patients with schizophrenia. Neural synchrony is thought to underlie distributed information processing. Our results indicate a less effective functioning in the recognition process of facial features, which may contribute to a less effective social cognition in schizophrenia.
Galella, Steve; Chow, Daniel; Jones, Earl; Enlow, Donald; Masters, Ari
Many practitioners find the complexity of facial growth overwhelming and thus merely observe and accept the clinical features of atypical growth and do not comprehend the long-term consequences. Facial growth and development is a strictly controlled biological process. Normal growth involves ongoing bone remodeling and positional displacement. Atypical growth begins when this biological balance is disturbed With the understanding of these processes, clinicians can adequately assess patients and determine the causes of these atypical facial growth patterns and design effective treatment plans. This is the first of a series of articles which addresses normal facial growth, atypical facial growth, patient assessment, causes of atypical facial growth, and guiding facial growth back to normal.
Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Ji Min; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No; Shim, Hyung Sup; Kim, Sang Wha
For the successful reconstruction of facial defects, various perforator flaps have been used in single-stage surgery, where tissues are moved to adjacent defect sites. Our group successfully performed perforator flap surgery on 17 patients with small to moderate facial defects that affected the functional and aesthetic features of their faces. Of four complicated cases, three developed venous congestion, which resolved in the subacute postoperative period, and one patient with partial necrosis underwent minor revision. We reviewed the literature on freestyle perforator flaps for facial defect reconstruction and focused on English articles published in the last five years. With the advance of knowledge regarding the vascular anatomy of pedicled perforator flaps in the face, we found that some perforator flaps can improve functional and aesthetic reconstruction for the facial defects. We suggest that freestyle facial perforator flaps can serve as alternative, safe, and versatile treatment modalities for covering small to moderate facial defects.
Kumar, Ishan; Verma, Ashish; Ojha, Ritu; Aggarwal, Priyanka
We report two infants presenting with unilateral congenital facial palsy since birth. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in both the cases revealed complete unilateral aplasia of facial nerve. To our knowledge, this is the first reported MR depiction of nonsyndromic isolated facial nerve aplasia. Imaging features and the pertinent anatomy is discussed along with a brief review of literature. PMID:28104950
Terstegge, K.; Hosten, N. ); Kunath, B. ); Felber, S.; Henkes, H. ); Speciali, J.G. )
To gain further insight into the pathogenesis of progressive facial hemiatrophy, a sporadic disease of unclear etiology characterized by shrinking and deformation of one side of the face. We investigated possible brain involvement. MR of the head and face was performed in three female patients with progressive facial hemiatrophy. The central-nervous-system findings were correlated to a clinical protocol and a review of the literature. One patient with epilepsy had abnormal brain findings confined to the cerebral hemisphere homolateral to the facial hemiatrophy. These consisted of monoventricular enlargement, meningocortical dysmorphia, and white-matter changes. These MR findings, and corresponding neuroradiologic data disclosed by the review, indicate that homolateral hemiatrophy occasionally occurs in a subgroup of patients with progressive facial hemiatrophy. The MR features do not seem consistent with an underlying simple or nutritive atrophic process. We propose chronic localized meningoencephalitis with vascular involvement as a possible underlying cause of the occasional brain involvement in progressive facial hemiatrophy. 29 refs., 2 figs.
Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah
This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.
Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua
Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.
Kim, Sae Yong; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun; Kang, Ju Hee; Kim, Kang Hyuk; Moon, Hong-Beom
Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the facial dimensions of young adult women with a preferred facial appearance and compare the results with those from the general population. Methods Twenty-five linear, nine angular, and three area measurements were made and four ratios were calculated using a sample of standardized frontal and lateral photographs of 46 young adult women with a preferred facial appearance (Miss Korea group) and 44 young adult women from the general population (control group). Differences between the two groups were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Results Compared with the control group, the Miss Korea group exhibited a significantly greater facial height, total facial height (TFH; trichion-menton), facial width (tragus right-tragus left), facial depth (tragus-true vertical line), and trichion-nasion/TFH ratio and smaller subnasale-menton/TFH and facial width/TFH ratios. Furthermore, the control group had smaller intercanthal and interpupillary widths. Conclusions The Miss Korea group exhibited longer, wider, and deeper faces compared with those from the general population. Furthermore, the Miss Korea group had larger eyes, longer but less protruded noses, longer and more retruded lower lips and chins, larger lip vermilion areas, and smaller labiomental angles. These results suggest that the latest trends in facial esthetics should be considered during diagnosis and treatment planning for young women with dentofacial abnormalities. PMID:26445720
Pawar, Sunil Jayaram; Sharma, Deepak Kumar; Srilakshmi, Sela; Reddy Chejeti, Suguna; Pandita, Aakash
Introduction: Cayler cardio-facial syndrome is a rare syndrome associated with asymmetric crying faces with congenital heart disease. We report a newborn that was diagnosed as case of Cayler Cardio-facial syndrome based on clinical features and was confirmed with FISH analysis. Case Presentation: A term male baby, born to non-consanguineous couple through normal vaginal delivery was diagnosed to have asymmetric crying faces with deviation of angle of mouth to left side at the time of birth. The baby had normal faces while sleeping or silent. Mother was known case of hypothyroidism and was on treatment. Baby was diagnosed as case of Cayler Cardio-facial Syndrome and was investigated with echocardiogram, brain ultrasound, total body X-ray examination, X-ray of cervico-thoracic vertebral column and fundus examination. Echocardiogram showed muscular VSD, brain ultrasound was normal and fundus examination showed tortuous retinal vessels. Whole body X-ray and lateral X-ray of cervico-thoracic vertebral column were not suggestive of any skeletal abnormalities. The other associated malformation was right ear microtia. Baby FISH karyotype analysis showed deletion of 22q11.2 deletion. Baby was discharged and now on follow-up. Conclusions: Cayler syndrome is a rare syndrome which must be suspected if a baby has asymmetrical cry pattern and normal facies when baby sleeps. Patient must be evaluated with echocardiography to find out associated cardiac malformations. These infants should undergo FISH analysis for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. PMID:26196008
Leonardi, R; Gallone, M; Sorge, G; Greco, F
Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I (OFDI) is a congenital X-linked dominant disorder characterized by anomalies of the oral cavity, face and digits sometimes associated to cerebral malformations and polycystic kidney disease. The gene, responsible for this syndrome, is ofd1. Clinically it is seen only in females. Lesions of the mouth include median pseudoclefting of the upper lip, clefts of the palate and tongue, and dental anomalies (missing or supernumerary teeth, enamel hypoplasia, and teeth malpositions). Dysmorphic features affecting the head include hypertelorism, frontal bossing, micrognathia, facial asymmetry and broadened nasal ridge. The digital abnormalities are syndactyly, clinodactyly, brachydactyly and, rarely, pre or post-axial polydactyly. Less frequently ex-pressed phenotypic anomalies include skin milia, alopecia, deafness and trembling. Sometimes the diagnosis of OFDI can be difficult because there is an overlap with other types of oral-facial-digital syndromes. A sporadic case of OFDI, with 7 lower incisors, both in the primary and permanent dentition, is reported. This dental anomaly is very unusual because in literature only supernumerary cuspids are reported. In the light of this case, the authors discuss the oral phenotypic expression of ofd1 gene and its role in human odontogenesis.
Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.
The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)
Ogawa, Y; Wada, B; Taniguchi, K; Miyasaka, S; Imaizumi, K
This study clarifies the anthropometric variations of the Japanese face by presenting large-sample population data of photo anthropometric measurements. The measurements can be used as standard reference data for the personal identification of facial images in forensic practices. To this end, three-dimensional (3D) facial images of 1126 Japanese individuals (865 male and 261 female Japanese individuals, aged 19-60 years) were acquired as samples using an already validated 3D capture system, and normative anthropometric analysis was carried out. In this anthropometric analysis, first, anthropological landmarks (22 items, i.e., entocanthion (en), alare (al), cheilion (ch), zygion (zy), gonion (go), sellion (se), gnathion (gn), labrale superius (ls), stomion (sto), labrale inferius (li)) were positioned on each 3D facial image (the direction of which had been adjusted to the Frankfort horizontal plane as the standard position for appropriate anthropometry), and anthropometric absolute measurements (19 items, i.e., bientocanthion breadth (en-en), nose breadth (al-al), mouth breadth (ch-ch), bizygomatic breadth (zy-zy), bigonial breadth (go-go), morphologic face height (se-gn), upper-lip height (ls-sto), lower-lip height (sto-li)) were exported using computer software for the measurement of a 3D digital object. Second, anthropometric indices (21 items, i.e., (se-gn)/(zy-zy), (en-en)/(al-al), (ls-li)/(ch-ch), (ls-sto)/(sto-li)) were calculated from these exported measurements. As a result, basic statistics, such as the mean values, standard deviations, and quartiles, and details of the distributions of these anthropometric results were shown. All of the results except "upper/lower lip ratio (ls-sto)/(sto-li)" were normally distributed. They were acquired as carefully as possible employing a 3D capture system and 3D digital imaging technologies. The sample of images was much larger than any Japanese sample used before for the purpose of personal identification. The
Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...
Neaux, Dimitri; Guy, Franck; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Coudyzer, Walter; Vignaud, Patrick; Ducrocq, Stéphane
The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hypotheses in a sample of adult specimens belonging to three extant hominid genera (Homo, Pan and Gorilla). Intraspecific variation and covariation patterns are analyzed using geometric morphometric methods and multivariate statistics, such as partial least squared on three-dimensional landmarks coordinates. Our results indicate significant intraspecific covariation between facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. Hominids share similar characteristics in the relationship between anterior facial shape and facial block orientation. Modern humans exhibit a specific pattern in the covariation between anterior facial shape and basicranial flexion. This peculiar feature underscores the role of modern humans' highly-flexed basicranium in the overall integration of the cranium. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a relationship between the reduction of the value of the cranial base angle and a downward rotation of the facial block in modern humans, and to a lesser extent in chimpanzees. PMID:23441232
Iwamura, Hitoshi; Kondo, Kenji; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Baba, Shintaro; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Yamasoba, Tatsuya
The association between congenital facial paralysis and visual development has not been thoroughly studied. Of 27 pediatric cases of congenital facial paralysis, we identified 3 patients who developed amblyopia, a visual acuity decrease caused by abnormal visual development, as comorbidity. These 3 patients had facial paralysis in the periocular region and developed amblyopia on the paralyzed side. They started treatment by wearing an eye patch immediately after diagnosis and before the critical visual developmental period; all patients responded to the treatment. Our findings suggest that the incidence of amblyopia in the cases of congenital facial paralysis, particularly the paralysis in the periocular region, is higher than that in the general pediatric population. Interestingly, 2 of the 3 patients developed anisometropic amblyopia due to the hyperopia of the affected eye, implying that the periocular facial paralysis may have affected the refraction of the eye through yet unspecified mechanisms. Therefore, the physicians who manage facial paralysis should keep this pathology in mind, and when they see pediatric patients with congenital facial paralysis involving the periocular region, they should consult an ophthalmologist as soon as possible.
Liu, Christopher; Ulualp, Seckin O; Koral, Korgun
Objective: The dehiscent facial nerve canal has been well documented in histopathological studies of temporal bones as well as in clinical setting. We describe clinical and radiologic features of a child with recurrent facial nerve palsy and dehiscent facial nerve canal. Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: A 5-year-old male was referred to the otolaryngology clinic for evaluation of recurrent acute otitis media and hearing loss. He also developed recurrent left peripheral FN palsy associated with episodes of bilateral acute otitis media. High resolution computed tomography of the temporal bones revealed incomplete bony coverage of the tympanic segment of the left facial nerve. Conclusions: Recurrent peripheral FN palsy may occur in children with recurrent acute otitis media in the presence of a dehiscent facial nerve canal. Facial nerve canal dehiscence should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children with recurrent peripheral FN palsy. PMID:28228958
Kuryliszyn-Moskal, Anna; Kita, Jacek; Dakowicz, Agnieszka; Chwieśko-Minarowska, Sylwia; Moskal, Diana; Kosztyła-Hojna, Bożena; Jabłońska, Ewa; Klimiuk, Piotr Adrian
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the Multiwave Locked System (MLS) laser therapy on clinical features, microvascular changes in nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) and circulating modulators releasing as a consequence of vascular endothelium injury such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2) in patients with primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. Seventy-eight RP patients and 30 healthy volunteers were recruited into the study. All patients with RP received MLS laser irradiation for 3 weeks. Clinical, NVC and laboratory investigations were performed before and after the MLS laser therapy. The serum concentration of VEGF and Ang-2 were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After 3 weeks of MLS laser therapy, the clinical improvement manifested by decreasing of the number of RP attacks, mean duration of Raynaud's attack and pain intensity in RP patients was observed. After MLS laser therapy in 65% of patients with primary and in 35% with secondary RP, an increase in the loop number and/or a reduction in avascular areas in NVC were observed. In comparison with a control group, higher serum concentration of VEGF and Ang-2 in RP patients was demonstrated. After MLS laser therapy, a reduction of Ang-2 in both groups of RP patients was found. Our results suggest that NVC may reflect microvascular changes associated with clinical improvement after MLS laser therapy in patients with primary and secondary RP. Ang-2 serum levels may be a useful marker of microvascular abnormalities in RP patients treated with MLS laser therapy.
Claes, Peter; Liberton, Denise K; Daniels, Katleen; Rosana, Kerri Matthes; Quillen, Ellen E; Pearson, Laurel N; McEvoy, Brian; Bauchet, Marc; Zaidi, Arslan A; Yao, Wei; Tang, Hua; Barsh, Gregory S; Absher, Devin M; Puts, David A; Rocha, Jorge; Beleza, Sandra; Pereira, Rinaldo W; Baynam, Gareth; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Wagner, Jennifer K; Boster, James S; Shriver, Mark D
Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, genomic ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The facial effects of these variables are summarized as response-based imputed predictor (RIP) variables, which are validated using self-reported sex, genomic ancestry, and observer-based facial ratings (femininity and proportional ancestry) and judgments (sex and population group). By jointly modeling sex, genomic ancestry, and genotype, the independent effects of particular alleles on facial features can be uncovered. Results on a set of 20 genes showing significant effects on facial features provide support for this approach as a novel means to identify genes affecting normal-range facial features and for approximating the appearance of a face from genetic markers.
Claes, Peter; Liberton, Denise K.; Daniels, Katleen; Rosana, Kerri Matthes; Quillen, Ellen E.; Pearson, Laurel N.; McEvoy, Brian; Bauchet, Marc; Zaidi, Arslan A.; Yao, Wei; Tang, Hua; Barsh, Gregory S.; Absher, Devin M.; Puts, David A.; Rocha, Jorge; Beleza, Sandra; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Baynam, Gareth; Suetens, Paul; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Wagner, Jennifer K.; Boster, James S.; Shriver, Mark D.
Human facial diversity is substantial, complex, and largely scientifically unexplained. We used spatially dense quasi-landmarks to measure face shape in population samples with mixed West African and European ancestry from three locations (United States, Brazil, and Cape Verde). Using bootstrapped response-based imputation modeling (BRIM), we uncover the relationships between facial variation and the effects of sex, genomic ancestry, and a subset of craniofacial candidate genes. The facial effects of these variables are summarized as response-based imputed predictor (RIP) variables, which are validated using self-reported sex, genomic ancestry, and observer-based facial ratings (femininity and proportional ancestry) and judgments (sex and population group). By jointly modeling sex, genomic ancestry, and genotype, the independent effects of particular alleles on facial features can be uncovered. Results on a set of 20 genes showing significant effects on facial features provide support for this approach as a novel means to identify genes affecting normal-range facial features and for approximating the appearance of a face from genetic markers. PMID:24651127
Khanna, Neena; Rasool, Seemab
Facial melanoses (FM) are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl's melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP), erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl's melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ), which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion.
Miya, Kazushi; Shimojima, Keiko; Sugawara, Midori; Shimada, Shino; Tsuri, Hiroyuki; Harai-Tanaka, Tomomi; Nakaoka, Sachiko; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Miyawaki, Toshio; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki
The contiguous gene syndrome involving 8p11.2 is recognized as a combined phenotype of both Kallmann syndrome and hereditary spherocytosis, because the genes responsible for these 2 clinical entities, the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and ankyrin 1 (ANK1) genes, respectively, are located in this region within a distance of 3.2Mb. We identified a 3.7Mb deletion of 8p11.2 in a 19-month-old female patient with hereditary spherocytosis. The identified deletion included ANK1, but not FGFR1, which is consistent with the absence of any phenotype or laboratory findings of Kallmann syndrome. Compared with the previous studies, the deletion identified in this study was located on the proximal end of 8p, indicating a pure interstitial deletion of 8p11.21. This patient exhibited mild developmental delay and distinctive facial findings in addition to hereditary spherocytosis. Thus, some of the genes included in the deleted region would be related to these symptoms.
So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author
Jaman, Nazreen B K; Al-Sayegh, Abeer
Congenital contractural arachnodactyly, commonly known as Beal's syndrome, is an extremely rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the fibrillin-2 (FBN2) gene located on chromosome 5q23. It is an autosomal dominant inherited connective tissue disorder characterised by a Marfan-like body habitus, contractures, abnormally shaped ears and kyphoscoliosis. We report a seven-year-old Omani male who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in 2014 with seizures. He was noted to have certain distinctive facial features and musculoskeletal manifestations; he was subsequently diagnosed with Beal's syndrome. Sequencing of the FBN2 gene revealed that the patient had a novel mutation which was also present in his mother; however, she had only a few facial features indicative of Beal's syndrome and no systemic involvement apart from a history of childhood seizures. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Beal's syndrome with seizure symptoms as a potential feature.
Havle, A; Shedge, S; Malashetti, S; Jain, V
We present a case of oro-facial-digital syndrome type II (Mohr's syndrome) which is characterized by malformations of the oral cavity, face and digits. The facial and oral features include tongue nodules, cleft or high-arched palate, missing teeth, broad nose; cleft lip. The digital features include clinodactyly, polydactyly, syndactyly, brachydactyly and duplication of the hallux.
Takehara, Takuma; Ochiai, Fumio; Suzuki, Naoto
Various models have been proposed to increase understanding of the cognitive basis of facial emotions. Despite those efforts, interactions between facial emotions have received minimal attention. If collective behaviours relating to each facial emotion in the comprehensive cognitive system could be assumed, specific facial emotion relationship patterns might emerge. In this study, we demonstrate that the frameworks of complex networks can effectively capture those patterns. We generate 81 facial emotion images (6 prototypes and 75 morphs) and then ask participants to rate degrees of similarity in 3240 facial emotion pairs in a paired comparison task. A facial emotion network constructed on the basis of similarity clearly forms a small-world network, which features an extremely short average network distance and close connectivity. Further, even if two facial emotions have opposing valences, they are connected within only two steps. In addition, we show that intermediary morphs are crucial for maintaining full network integration, whereas prototypes are not at all important. These results suggest the existence of collective behaviours in the cognitive systems of facial emotions and also describe why people can efficiently recognize facial emotions in terms of information transmission and propagation. For comparison, we construct three simulated networks--one based on the categorical model, one based on the dimensional model, and one random network. The results reveal that small-world connectivity in facial emotion networks is apparently different from those networks, suggesting that a small-world network is the most suitable model for capturing the cognitive basis of facial emotions.
Ginat, D T; Bhama, P; Cunnane, M E; Hadlock, T A
Various facial reanimation procedures can be performed for treating patients with chronic facial nerve paralysis. The radiologic imaging features of static and dynamic techniques are reviewed in this article with clinical correlation, including brow lift, eyelid weights and springs, gracilis free flaps, fascia lata grafts, temporalis flaps, and Gore-Tex suspension slings. Although the anatomic alterations resulting from facial reanimation surgery may not necessarily be the focus of the imaging examination, it is important to recognize such changes and be familiar with MR imaging compatibility of the associated implanted materials. Furthermore, imaging is sometimes used to specifically evaluate the postoperative results, such as vessel patency following free gracilis transfer.
Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...
Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Reddy, Sashank; Redett, Richard
Facial paralysis can have devastating physical and psychosocial consequences. These are particularly severe in children in whom loss of emotional expressiveness can impair social development and integration. The etiologies of facial paralysis, prospects for spontaneous recovery, and functions requiring restoration differ in children as compared with adults. Here we review contemporary management of facial paralysis with a focus on special considerations for pediatric patients.
Lajevardi, Seyed Mehdi; Wu, Hong Ren
This paper introduces a tensor perceptual color framework (TPCF) for facial expression recognition (FER), which is based on information contained in color facial images. The TPCF enables multi-linear image analysis in different color spaces and demonstrates that color components provide additional information for robust FER. Using this framework, the components (in either RGB, YCbCr, CIELab or CIELuv space) of color images are unfolded to two-dimensional (2- D) tensors based on multi-linear algebra and tensor concepts, from which the features are extracted by Log-Gabor filters. The mutual information quotient (MIQ) method is employed for feature selection. These features are classified using a multi-class linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The effectiveness of color information on FER using low-resolution and facial expression images with illumination variations is assessed for performance evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that color information has significant potential to improve emotion recognition performance due to the complementary characteristics of image textures. Furthermore, the perceptual color spaces (CIELab and CIELuv) are better overall for facial expression recognition than other color spaces by providing more efficient and robust performance for facial expression recognition using facial images with illumination variation.
Leakey, M G; Leakey, R E; Richtsmeier, J T; Simons, E L; Walker, A C
Recently discovered cranial fossils from the Oligocene deposits of the Fayum depression in Egypt provide many details of the facial morphology of Aegyptopithecus zeuxis. Similar features are found in the Miocene hominoid Afropithecus turkanensis. Their presence is the first good evidence of a strong phenetic link between the Oligocene and Miocene hominoids of Africa. A comparison of trait lists emphasizes the similarities of the two fossil species, and leads us to conclude that the two fossil genera share many primitive facial features. In addition, we studied facial morphology using finite-element scaling analysis and found that the two genera show similarities in morphological integration, or the way in which biological landmarks relate to one another in three dimensions to define the form of the organism. Size differences between the two genera are much greater than the relatively minor shape differences. Analysis of variability in landmark location among the four Aegyptopithecus specimens indicates that variability within the sample is not different from that found within two samples of modern macaques. We propose that the shape differences found among the four Aegyptopithecus specimens simply reflect individual variation in facial characteristics, and that the similarities in facial morphology between Aegyptopithecus and Afropithecus probably represent a complex of primitive facial features retained over millions of years.
effective in identifying those feature vectors which are of most importance in the recognition process . Thus the training procedure generally produces...ga Ente#lodI- i COMPUTER RECOGNITTON OF FACIAL PROFILES iU A Thesis i Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of... thesis , the suggestion that the state of the art in pattern recognition was sufficient to enable a machine capable of recognizing human faces to be built
So, Ikken; Nakamura, Osamu; Minami, Toshi
A model-based coding system has come under serious consideration for the next generation of image coding schemes, aimed at greater efficiency in TV telephone and TV conference systems. In this model-based coding system, the sender's model image is transmitted and stored at the receiving side before the start of the conversation. During the conversation, feature points are extracted from the facial image of the sender and are transmitted to the receiver. The facial expression of the sender facial is reconstructed from the feature points received and a wireframed model constructed at the receiving side. However, the conventional methods have the following problems: (1) Extreme changes of the gray level, such as in wrinkles caused by change of expression, cannot be reconstructed at the receiving side. (2) Extraction of stable feature points from facial images with irregular features such as spectacles or facial hair is very difficult. To cope with the first problem, a new algorithm based on isodensity lines which can represent detailed changes in expression by density correction has already been proposed and good results obtained. As for the second problem, we propose in this paper a new algorithm to reconstruct facial images by transmitting other feature points extracted from isodensity maps.
The improvement of a patient's facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP). Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions. PMID:24701166
Argaud, Soizic; Delplanque, Sylvain; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Auffret, Manon; Duprez, Joan; Vérin, Marc; Grandjean, Didier; Sauleau, Paul
According to embodied simulation theory, understanding other people’s emotions is fostered by facial mimicry. However, studies assessing the effect of facial mimicry on the recognition of emotion are still controversial. In Parkinson’s disease (PD), one of the most distinctive clinical features is facial amimia, a reduction in facial expressiveness, but patients also show emotional disturbances. The present study used the pathological model of PD to examine the role of facial mimicry on emotion recognition by investigating EMG responses in PD patients during a facial emotion recognition task (anger, joy, neutral). Our results evidenced a significant decrease in facial mimicry for joy in PD, essentially linked to the absence of reaction of the zygomaticus major and the orbicularis oculi muscles in response to happy avatars, whereas facial mimicry for expressions of anger was relatively preserved. We also confirmed that PD patients were less accurate in recognizing positive and neutral facial expressions and highlighted a beneficial effect of facial mimicry on the recognition of emotion. We thus provide additional arguments for embodied simulation theory suggesting that facial mimicry is a potential lever for therapeutic actions in PD even if it seems not to be necessarily required in recognizing emotion as such. PMID:27467393
Trainor, Paul A.; Andrews, Brian T.
Approximately 1% of all live births exhibit a minor or major congenital anomaly. Of these approximately one-third display craniofacial abnormalities which are a significant cause of infant mortality and dramatically affect national health care budgets. To date, more than 700 distinct craniofacial syndromes have been described and in this review, we discuss the etiology, pathogenesis and management of facial dysostoses with a particular emphasis on Treacher Collins, Nager and Miller syndromes. As we continue to develop and improve medical and surgical care for the management of individual conditions, it is essential at the same time to better characterize their etiology and pathogenesis. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of the development of facial dysostosis with a view towards early in-utero identification and intervention which could minimize the manifestation of anomalies prior to birth. The ultimate management for any craniofacial anomaly however, would be prevention and we discuss this possibility in relation to facial dysostosis. PMID:24123981
Ishihara, T; Hirata, K; Yuki, N; Sato, T
Bilateral facial paralysis(facial diplesia) is often observed in Guillain-Barré syndrome(GBS) and Fisher's syndrome (FS). We tried to observe injured facial nerves using three-dimensional(3-D) MRI in facial diplesia due to GBS and its variants and examined function of blood nerve barrier and clinical use of 3-D MRI for detecting injured facial nerves. In the four patients with GBS and its variants(GBS three cases, FS one case), while routine brain MRI did not show any abnormal findings, contrast-enhanced 3-D MRI revealed Gd-enhancement of the facial nerves. On the other hand, only one case showed visualization using contrast-enhanced 3-D MRI in twelve cases of Bell's palsy. Therefore, it may be presumed that the reason why the significantly higher rate of visualization in facial paralysis in GBS and its variants than in Bell's palsy is attributable to a difference in the mechanism of injury or the extreme seriousness of the disease. In conclusion, the observation of facial nerve using 3-D MRI was very useful to know the condition of the facial diplesia in GBS and its variants.
Rachdi, Radhouane; Kaabi, Mahdi; M'Hamdi, Hichem; Chtioui, Ines; Basly, Mohamed; Messaoudi, Fethi; Zayene, Houcine; Messaoudi, Lotfi; Chibani, Mounir; Gaigi, Soumaya
Potter's reno-facial syndrome is a rare innate abnormality. We bring 4 observations repertoried at the maternity of military hospital of Tunis over a period of 6 years (1997 - 2002). The purpose of our work is to determine after a review of the literature the echographic and foetopathologic characteristics, and the forecast of this syndrome. The frequency of the bilateral renale agenesis is of 0.27 per thousand. Positive diagnosis bases essentially on the ultrasound of the 2th, or the 3-th trimester. The signs of appeal are essentially the oligoamnios associated to an hypotrophy. The caryotype is systematic to eliminate an associeted chromosomic abnormality. Foetopathologic exam is usefull for the diagnosis. Main abnormality except the urinary pathology is the lung hypoplasia. Therapeutic interruption of the pregnancy in this situation not compatible with the extra-uterine life., only type IV authorize the development of the pregnancy according to echographic data and of foetal urinaire biochemistry. We insist on the early practice of the morphological ultrasound between 20 - 22 weeks for the diagnosis of foetal abnormalities and the place of the genetic advice in association with the geneticist in the coverage of the couple.
The management of facial paralysis is one of the most complex areas of reconstructive surgery. Given the wide variety of functional and cosmetic deficits in the facial paralysis patient, the reconstructive surgeon requires a thorough understanding of the surgical techniques available to treat this condition. This review article will focus on surgical management of facial paralysis and the treatment options available for acute facial paralysis (<3 weeks duration), intermediate duration facial paralysis (3 weeks to 2 yr) and chronic facial paralysis (>2 yr). For acute facial paralysis, the main surgical therapies are facial nerve decompression and facial nerve repair. For facial paralysis of intermediate duration, nerve transfer procedures are appropriate. For chronic facial paralysis, treatment typically requires regional or free muscle transfer. Static techniques of facial reanimation can be used for acute, intermediate, or chronic facial paralysis as these techniques are often important adjuncts to the overall management strategy. PMID:19434284
Wilson, C. Ellie; Palermo, Romina; Brock, Jon
Background Previous research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have impaired facial identity recognition, and also exhibit abnormal visual scanning of faces. Here, two hypotheses accounting for an association between these observations were tested: i) better facial identity recognition is associated with increased gaze time on the Eye region; ii) better facial identity recognition is associated with increased eye-movements around the face. Methodology and Principal Findings Eye-movements of 11 children with ASD and 11 age-matched typically developing (TD) controls were recorded whilst they viewed a series of faces, and then completed a two alternative forced-choice recognition memory test for the faces. Scores on the memory task were standardized according to age. In both groups, there was no evidence of an association between the proportion of time spent looking at the Eye region of faces and age-standardized recognition performance, thus the first hypothesis was rejected. However, the ‘Dynamic Scanning Index’ – which was incremented each time the participant saccaded into and out of one of the core-feature interest areas – was strongly associated with age-standardized face recognition scores in both groups, even after controlling for various other potential predictors of performance. Conclusions and Significance In support of the second hypothesis, results suggested that increased saccading between core-features was associated with more accurate face recognition ability, both in typical development and ASD. Causal directions of this relationship remain undetermined. PMID:22666378
Sumer, Omer; Gunes, Ece O.
This study compares the performance of local binary patterns (LBP) and scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) with support vector machines (SVM) in automatic classification of discrete facial expressions. Facial expression recognition is a multiclass classification problem and seven classes; happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, surprise, fear and comtempt are classified. Using SIFT feature vectors and linear SVM, 93.1% mean accuracy is acquired on CK+ database. On the other hand, the performance of LBP-based classifier with linear SVM is reported on SFEW using strictly person independent (SPI) protocol. Seven-class mean accuracy on SFEW is 59.76%. Experiments on both databases showed that LBP features can be used in a fairly descriptive way if a good localization of facial points and partitioning strategy are followed.
Paththinige, C S; Sirisena, N D; Kariyawasam, U G I U; Saman Kumara, L P C; Dissanayake, V H W
A female child born preterm with intrauterine growth retardation and presenting with facial dysmorphism with clefts, microcephaly, limb deformities, and congenital abnormalities involving cardiovascular and urinary systems is described. Chromosomal analysis showed a de novo 46,XX,r(4)(p15.3q35) karyotype. The clinical features of the patient were compared with the phenotypic characteristics of 17 previously reported cases with ring chromosome 4 and those with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (4p-). Clinical features observed in this case are consistent with the consensus phenotype in ring chromosome 4. Patent ductus arteriosus and bilateral talipes equinovarus observed in this baby widen the phenotypic spectrum associated with ring chromosome 4.
Hess, Ursula; Adams, Reginald B.; Kleck, Robert E.
Faces are not simply blank canvases upon which facial expressions write their emotional messages. In fact, facial appearance and facial movement are both important social signalling systems in their own right. We here provide multiple lines of evidence for the notion that the social signals derived from facial appearance on the one hand and facial movement on the other interact in a complex manner, sometimes reinforcing and sometimes contradicting one another. Faces provide information on who a person is. Sex, age, ethnicity, personality and other characteristics that can define a person and the social group the person belongs to can all be derived from the face alone. The present article argues that faces interact with the perception of emotion expressions because this information informs a decoder's expectations regarding an expresser's probable emotional reactions. Facial appearance also interacts more directly with the interpretation of facial movement because some of the features that are used to derive personality or sex information are also features that closely resemble certain emotional expressions, thereby enhancing or diluting the perceived strength of particular expressions. PMID:19884144
Hess, Ursula; Adams, Reginald B; Kleck, Robert E
Faces are not simply blank canvases upon which facial expressions write their emotional messages. In fact, facial appearance and facial movement are both important social signalling systems in their own right. We here provide multiple lines of evidence for the notion that the social signals derived from facial appearance on the one hand and facial movement on the other interact in a complex manner, sometimes reinforcing and sometimes contradicting one another. Faces provide information on who a person is. Sex, age, ethnicity, personality and other characteristics that can define a person and the social group the person belongs to can all be derived from the face alone. The present article argues that faces interact with the perception of emotion expressions because this information informs a decoder's expectations regarding an expresser's probable emotional reactions. Facial appearance also interacts more directly with the interpretation of facial movement because some of the features that are used to derive personality or sex information are also features that closely resemble certain emotional expressions, thereby enhancing or diluting the perceived strength of particular expressions.
Trontel, Haley G.; Duffield, Tyler C.; Bigler, Erin D.; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly B.D.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Travers, Brittany G.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Zielinski, Brandon A.; Alexander, Andrew; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E.
Prior studies have shown that performance on standardized measures of memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is substantially reduced in comparison to matched typically developing controls (TDC). Given reported deficits in face processing in autism, the current study compared performance on an immediate and delayed facial memory task for individuals with ASD and TDC. In addition, we examined volumetric differences in classic facial memory regions of interest (ROI) between the two groups, including the fusiform, amygdala, and hippocampus. We then explored the relationship between ROI volume and facial memory performance. We found larger volumes in the autism group in the left amygdala and left hippocampus compared to TDC. In contrast, TDC had larger left fusiform gyrus volumes when compared with ASD. Interestingly, we also found significant negative correlations between delayed facial memory performance and volume of the left and right fusiform and the left hippocampus for the ASD group but not for TDC. The possibility of larger fusiform volume as a marker of abnormal connectivity and decreased facial memory is discussed. PMID:24761228
Uluduz, Derya; Kiziltan, Meral E; Akalin, Mehmet Ali
The aim of this study was to investigate trigeminal nerve involvement in patients with peripheral facial palsy. In total, 25 patients with facial nerve palsy and 19 controls were tested by electrophysiological methods regarding their facial and trigeminal nerve functions within 1 month after disease onset. The presence of an abnormal blink reflex was determined in patients with peripheral facial palsy by comparing paralytic and non-paralytic sides (12.3+/-1.1 and 10.8+/-1.3, respectively; p=0.001). However, the average masseter inhibitory reflex difference between the paretic and non-paralytic sides of patients compared with the corresponding side-to-side comparison for controls was not statistically significant. The masseter inhibitory reflex response was abnormal in some cases. These findings suggest that the masseter inhibitory reflex, a trigemino-trigeminal reflex, was normal in most of our patients with peripheral facial palsy, but may be abnormal in individual cases. Our study showed that subclinical disorders affecting the trigeminal pathways occur in individual patients with idiopathic facial palsy, while the majority of patients have no trigeminal nerve involvement.
Potgieser, Adriaan R E; van Dijk, J Marc C; Elting, Jan Willem J; de Koning-Tijssen, Marina A J
Facial tics and spasms are socially incapacitating, but effective treatment is often available. The clinical picture is sufficient for distinguishing between the different diseases that cause this affliction.We describe three cases of patients with facial tics or spasms: one case of tics, which are familiar to many physicians; one case of blepharospasms; and one case of hemifacial spasms. We discuss the differential diagnosis and the treatment possibilities for facial tics and spasms. Early diagnosis and treatment is important, because of the associated social incapacitation. Botulin toxin should be considered as a treatment option for facial tics and a curative neurosurgical intervention should be considered for hemifacial spasms.
Thorstenson, Christopher A; Pazda, Adam D; Elliot, Andrew J; Perrett, David I
Past research has shown that peripheral and facial redness influences perceptions of attractiveness for men viewing women. The current research investigated whether a parallel effect is present when women rate men with varying facial redness. In four experiments, women judged the attractiveness of men's faces, which were presented with varying degrees of redness. We also examined perceived healthiness and other candidate variables as mediators of the red-attractiveness effect. The results show that facial redness positively influences ratings of men's attractiveness. Additionally, perceived healthiness was documented as a mediator of this effect, independent of other potential mediator variables. The current research emphasizes facial coloration as an important feature of social judgments.
Gabig, T G
Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.
Hong, Sang Wook; Yoon, K Lira; Peaco, Sophia
Previous research indicates that women are better at recognizing facial expressions than men. In the current study, we examined whether this female advantage in the processing of facial expressions also occurs at the unconscious level. In two studies, participants performed a simple detection task and a 4-AFC task while faces were rendered invisible by continuous flash suppression. When faces with full intensity expressions were suppressed, there was no significant sex difference in the time of breakup of suppression (Study 1). However, when suppressed faces depicted low intensity expressions, suppression broke up earlier in men than women, indicating that men may be more sensitive to facial features related to mild facial expressions (Study 2). The current findings suggest that the female advantage in processing of facial expressions is absent in unconscious processing of emotional information. The female advantage in facial expression processing may require conscious perception of faces.
Chatterjee, Garga; Nakayama, Ken
Developmental prosopagnosia is characterized by a severe deficit in face-identity recognition. Most developmental prosopagnosics do not report deficits of facial age or gender perception. We developed tasks for evaluating facial age and gender processing and used them in the largest group of developmental prosopagnosics (N = 18) tested on facial age and gender perception. Care was taken to ensure that the tests were sufficiently sensitive to subtle deficits and required holistic processing as assessed by strong inversion effects in control subjects. Despite severe facial identity deficits, developmental prosopagnosics largely performed these discriminations comparably to controls. The common descriptor "faceblind" implied by the term prosopagnosia is inaccurate as certain kinds of nonidentity facial information, which we call physiognomic features, are processed well by both prosopagnosics and age-matched controls alike. Normal facial age and gender perception in developmental prosopagnosics is consistent with parallel processing models in the cognitive architecture of face processing.
Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-zheng; Li, Fufeng; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Chang
Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss). However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as qualitative analysis in our perspective. For quantitative analysis expectation, the severity or degree of facial complexion has not been reported yet. This paper aims to make both qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion. We propose a novel feature representation of facial complexion from the whole face of patients. The features are established with four chromaticity bases splitting up by luminance distribution on CIELAB color space. Chromaticity bases are constructed from facial dominant color using two-level clustering; the optimal luminance distribution is simply implemented with experimental comparisons. The features are proved to be more distinctive than the previous facial complexion feature representation. Complexion recognition proceeds by training an SVM classifier with the optimal model parameters. In addition, further improved features are more developed by the weighted fusion of five local regions. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed features achieve highest facial color recognition performance with a total accuracy of 86.89%. And, furthermore, the proposed recognition framework could analyze both color and gloss degrees of facial complexion by learning a ranking function. PMID:24967342
Bourke, Cecilia; Douglas, Katie; Porter, Richard
Processing of facial expressions of emotion is central to human interaction, and has important effects on behaviour and affective state. A range of methods and paradigms have been used to investigate various aspects of abnormal processing of facial expressions in major depression, including emotion specific deficits in recognition accuracy, response biases and attentional biases. The aim of this review is to examine and interpret data from studies of facial emotion processing in major depression, in the context of current knowledge about the neural correlates of facial expression processing of primary emotions. The review also discusses the methodologies used to examine facial expression processing. Studies of facial emotion processing and facial emotion recognition were identified up to December 2009 utilizing MEDLINE and Web of Science. Although methodological variations complicate interpretation of findings, there is reasonably consistent evidence of a negative response bias towards sadness in individuals with major depression, so that positive (happy), neutral or ambiguous facial expressions tend to be evaluated as more sad or less happy compared with healthy control groups. There is also evidence of increased vigilance and selective attention towards sad expressions and away from happy expressions, but less evidence of reduced general or emotion-specific recognition accuracy. Data is complicated by the use of multiple paradigms and the heterogeneity of major depression. Future studies should address methodological problems, including variations in patient characteristics, testing paradigms and procedures, and statistical methods used to analyse findings.
Eker, Hatice Koçak; Derinkuyu, Betül Emine; Ünal, Sevim; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Drunat, Séverine; Verloes, Alain
Baraitser-Winter syndrome (BRWS) is a rare condition affecting the development of the brain and the face. The most common characteristics are unusual facial appearance including hypertelorism and ptosis, ocular colobomas, hearing loss, impaired neuronal migration and intellectual disability. BRWS is caused by mutations in the ACTB and ACTG1 genes. Cerebro-fronto-facial syndrome (CFFS) is a clinically heterogeneous condition with distinct facial dysmorphism, and brain abnormalities. Three subtypes are identified. We report a female infant with striking facial features and brain anomalies (included polymicrogyria) that fit into the spectrum of the CFFS type 3 (CFFS3). She also had minor anomalies on her hands and feet, heart and kidney malformations, and recurrent infections. DNA investigations revealed c.586C>T mutation (p.Arg196Cys) in ACTB. This mutation places this patient in the spectrum of BRWS. The same mutation has been detected in a polymicrogyric patient reported previously in literature. We expand the malformation spectrum of BRWS/CFFS3, and present preliminary findings for phenotype-genotype correlation in this spectrum.
Nabatian, Adam S; Milgraum, Sandy S; Hess, Christopher P; Mancini, Anthony J; Krol, Alfons; Frieden, Ilona J
Infantile hemangiomas can be associated with congenital anomalies such as PHACE syndrome with facial hemangiomas and genitourinary and spinal anomalies in the setting of lower body hemangiomas. We describe five infants in whom segmental hemangiomas involving the upper torso and extremities with absent or small facial hemangiomas were associated with structural anomalies similar to those reported with PHACE syndrome, including three with structural arterial anomalies of the subclavian arteries, three with aortic arch anomalies (right sided or narrowed arch), two with congenital heart disease (atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect; tetralogy of Fallot), one with a retinal scar, and one with a sternal defect (scar). Two of five had small facial hemangiomas of the lower lip, but none had large segmental hemangiomas of the face. Three of five would have met diagnostic criteria for PHACE but lacked a facial hemangioma of 5 cm in diameter or greater. Patients with segmental arm and thorax hemangiomas may have associated structural abnormalities with overlapping features of PHACE, suggesting that a similar syndrome can occur in this clinical setting.
Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming
Existing research suggests that adults make effective trustworthiness judgments based on facial attractiveness during initial interactions. However, little is known about how children judge trustworthiness from faces. The present study examined the facial features that contributed to judgments of trustworthiness and attractiveness by three groups of Chinese children aged 8 years old (n=34; 17 boys), 10 years old (n=34; 17 boys), and 12 years old (n = 34; 17 boys) and a comparison group of 37 undergraduates (M age=20.2 yr.; 16 men). Using FaceGen Modeler 3.1, a total of 400 East Asian adult faces (200 male, 200 female) portraying neutral emotions with direct gazes were generated. The faces were represented by 61 shape features and were presented for a maximum of 3,000 msec. in the center of the computer screen in randomized order. The participants were asked to judge whether each person was trustworthy and to rate the level of trustworthiness; 1 month later, the attractiveness of the same faces was judged using a similar procedure. The children and the adults used similar facial features to judge trustworthiness (e.g., the brow ridge, nose, and chin). Some of the facial features used by the different age groups as the basis for the trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments were similar. Facial attractiveness accounted for roughly 30 to 60% of the variance in the groups' trustworthiness judgments. Thus, facial attractiveness may serve as a heuristic property that signals trustworthiness and guides adaptive social decisions. More importantly, even children as young as 8 years old use a strategy similar to that of adults to make trustworthiness judgments, although some differences in the use of specific facial features were observed among the age groups.
Ghent, John; McDonald, J.
This paper details a procedure for classifying facial expressions. This is a growing and relatively new type of problem within computer vision. One of the fundamental problems when classifying facial expressions in previous approaches is the lack of a consistent method of measuring expression. This paper solves this problem by the computation of the Facial Expression Shape Model (FESM). This statistical model of facial expression is based on an anatomical analysis of facial expression called the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We use the term Action Unit (AU) to describe a movement of one or more muscles of the face and all expressions can be described using the AU's described by FACS. The shape model is calculated by marking the face with 122 landmark points. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to analyse how the landmark points move with respect to each other and to lower the dimensionality of the problem. Using the FESM in conjunction with Support Vector Machines (SVM) we classify facial expressions. SVMs are a powerful machine learning technique based on optimisation theory. This project is largely concerned with statistical models, machine learning techniques and psychological tools used in the classification of facial expression. This holistic approach to expression classification provides a means for a level of interaction with a computer that is a significant step forward in human-computer interaction.
This study examined facial expression in the presentation of sarcasm. 60 responses (sarcastic responses = 30, nonsarcastic responses = 30) from 40 different speakers were coded by two trained coders. Expressions in three facial areas--eyebrow, eyes, and mouth--were evaluated. Only movement in the mouth area significantly differentiated ratings of sarcasm from nonsarcasm.
Guérin-Moreau, Morgane; Colin, Estelle; Nguyen, Sylvie; Andrieux, Joris; de Leersnyder, Hélène; Bonneau, Dominique; Martin, Ludovic
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is characterized by distinctive facial and skeletal features, developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and behavioral abnormalities, including self-injurious behaviors. We aimed to investigate whether cutaneous features are common in SMS. We performed a complete skin examination in 20 young SMS patients. Skin features secondary to self-injurious behavior, such as bites, abrasions, dystrophic scars, limited spots of hyperkeratosis, anomalies of the nails, and whitlows, were found in the majority of patients. Acral pachydermia and fissured plantar keratoderma were common. Xerosis was constant and associated with extensive keratosis pilaris in the majority of patients. Dermatofibromas were frequent in older patients. The hair was dense and shiny, with an unusual hairline. Eyelash trichomegaly and heavy brows were common, as well as folliculitis on the back. The skin features of SMS have rarely been reported in the literature. Some of these are the consequence of neurobehavioral features, but some cutaneous features and abnormalities of appendages have not been reported in other related syndromes. Skin manifestations of SMS are varied, sometimes induced by self-injurious behavior and sometimes more specific. It remains to be determined whether the combination of the two kinds of signs could contribute to early diagnosis of the syndrome.
Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko
Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…
Schenkel, Lindsay S.; Pavuluri, Mani N.; Herbener, Ellen S.; Harral, Erin M.; Sweeney, John A.
Objective: Past investigations indicate facial emotion-processing abnormalities in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) subjects. However, the extent to which these deficits represent state- and trait-related factors is unclear. We investigated facial affect processing in acutely ill and clinically stabilized children with PBD and matched healthy…
Huang, Yu-Shu; Guilleminault, Christian
Aims: Review of evidence in support of an oral-facial growth impairment in the development of pediatric sleep apnea in non-obese children. Method: Review of experimental data from infant monkeys with experimentally induced nasal resistance. Review of early historical data in the orthodontic literature indicating the abnormal oral-facial development associated with mouth breathing and nasal resistance. Review of the progressive demonstration of sleep-disordered-breathing (SDB) in children who underwent incomplete treatment of OSA with adenotonsillectomy, and demonstration of abnormal oral-facial anatomy that must often be treated in order for the resolution of OSA. Review of data of long-term recurrence of OSA and indication of oral-facial myofunctional dysfunction in association with the recurrence of OSA. Results: Presentation of prospective data on premature infants and SDB-treated children, supporting the concept of oral-facial hypotonia. Presentation of evidence supporting hypotonia as a primary element in the development of oral-facial anatomic abnormalities leading to abnormal breathing during sleep. Continuous interaction between oral-facial muscle tone, maxillary-mandibular growth and development of SDB. Role of myofunctional reeducation with orthodontics and elimination of upper airway soft tissue in the treatment of non-obese SDB children. Conclusion: Pediatric OSA in non-obese children is a disorder of oral-facial growth. PMID:23346072
DEHGHAN TEZERJANI, Masoud; MAROOFIAN, Reza; VAHIDI MEHRJARDI, Mohammad Yahya; CHIOZA, Barry A.; ZAMANINEJAD, Shiva; KALANTAR, Seyed Mehdi; NORI-SHADKAM, Mahmoud; GHADIMI, Hamidreza; BAPLE, Emma L.; CROSBY, Andrew H.; DEHGHANI, Mohammadreza
Oral-facial-digital syndrome as heterogeneous developmental conditions is characterized by abnormalities in the oral cavity, facial features and digits. Furthermore, central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities can also be part of this developmental disorder. At least 13 forms of OFDS based on their pattern of signs and symptoms have been identified so far. Type 1 which is now considered to be a ciliopathy accounts for the majority of cases. It is transmitted in an X-linked dominant pattern and caused by mutations in OFD1 gene, which can result in embryonic male lethality. In this study, we present a family suffering from orofaciodigital syndrome type I who referred to Medical Genetics Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2015. Two female siblings and their mother shared a novel 2-base pair deletion (c.1964-1965delGA) in exon 16 of OFD1 gene. Clinically, the sibling had oral, facial and brain abnormalities, whereas their mother is very mildly affected. She also had history of recurrent miscarriage of male fetus. PMID:27957444
Seegobin, Karan; Abdool, Kamille; Ramcharan, Kanterpersad; Dyaanand, Haramnauth; Rampersad, Fidel
We describe a case of Parry Romberg syndrome/en coupe de sabre in a woman whose disease started as seizures at age 8 but was diagnosed at the age 39. During these 31 years she got married, completed a first degree at university, had two successful pregnancies and has been gainfully employed. The features of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, autoimmune abnormalities, ocular abnormalities, morphea en coup de sabre and brain imaging abnormalities were present. Areas of parietal lobe cerebral calcification were encountered on the computed tomographic scan and bilateral periventricular white matter changes on the magnetic resonance imaging with frontal, temporal and parietal lobe brain atrophy ipsilateral to the facial hemiatrophy. Clinical, immunologic and neuroradiological abnormalities are discussed. In some cases, this illness can run a benign and stable course. PMID:27761227
Celenk, Mehmet; Al-Jarrah, Inad
Human face perception is the key to identify confirmation in security systems, video teleconference, picture telephony, and web navigation. Modeling of human faces and facial expressions for different persons can be dealt with by building a point distribution model (PDM) based on spatial (shape) information or a gray-level model (GLM) based on spectral (intensity) information. To avoid short-comings of the local modeling of PDM and GLM, we propose a new approach for recognizing human faces and discriminating expressions associated with them in color images. It is based on the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) edge detection, KL transformation, and auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) filtering. First, the KL transform is applied to the R, G, and B dimensions, and a facial image is described by its principal component. A LoG edge-detector is then used for line drawing schematic of a face. The resultant face silhouette is divided into 5 X 5 non-overlapping blocks, each of which is represented by the auto-regressive (AR) parameter vector a. The ensample average of a over the whole image is taken as the feature vector for the description of a facial pattern. Each face class is represented by such ensample average vector a. Efficacy of the ARMA model is evaluated by the non-metric similarity measure S equals a.b/a.b for two facial images whose feature vectors, and a and b, are the ensample average of their ARMA parameters. Our measurements show that the ARMA modeling is effective for discriminating facial features in color images, and has the potential of distinguishing the corresponding facial expressions.
Swift, Arthur; Remington, Kent
The recent availability of safe volumizing fillers has provided cosmetic physicians with the tools necessary to contour facial features non-surgically and cost-effectively. This review focuses on outlining objective parameters necessary for creating a template to maximize each individual's facial beauty. Phi relationships can be approached for all facial features and rely on the establishment of smooth ogee curves in all dimensions. Once goals have been determined and a budget established, a logical syntax is used to create an algorithm for selecting products and procedures. The methodology leads to consistent and pleasing results with a high rate of patient satisfaction.
Kim, Leslie; Byrne, Patrick J
Facial palsy is a devastating condition with profound functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial implications. Although the complexity of facial expression and intricate synergy of facial mimetic muscles are difficult to restore, the goal of management is to reestablish facial symmetry and movement. Facial reanimation surgery requires an individualized treatment approach based on the cause, pattern, and duration of facial palsy while considering patient age, comorbidities, motivation, and goals. Contemporary reconstructive options include a spectrum of static and dynamic procedures. Controversies in the evaluation of patients with facial palsy, timing of intervention, and management decisions for dynamic smile reanimation are discussed.
Traylor, Ryan N; Fan, Zheng; Hudson, Beth; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Torchia, Beth S; Ballif, Blake C
Background Of the fewer than 100 cases reported within the literature of constitutional deletions involving the long arm of chromosome 6, only five have been characterized using high-resolution microarray analysis. Reported 6q deletion patients show a high incidence of mental retardation, ear anomalies, hypotonia, and postnatal growth retardation. Results We report a 16-month-old male presenting with developmental delay and dysmorphic features who was found by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to have a ~2.16 Mb de novo deletion within chromosome band 6q16.1 that encompasses only two genes. Expression studies of the mouse homologue of one of the genes, the ephrin receptor 7 gene (EPHA7), have shown the gene functions during murine embryogenesis to form cortical domains, determine brain size and shape, and play a role in development of the central nervous system (CNS). Discussion Our results suggest that deletion of EPHA7 plays a role in the neurologic and dysmorphic features, including developmental delay, hypotonia, and ear malformations, observed in some 6q deletion patients. PMID:19664229
Buttle, Heather; East, Julie
Factors that are important to successful face recognition, such as features, configuration, and pigmentation/reflectance, are all subject to change when a face has been engraved with ink markings. Here we show that the application of facial tattoos, in the form of spiral patterns (typically associated with the Maori tradition of a Moko), disrupts face recognition to a similar extent as face inversion, with recognition accuracy little better than chance performance (2AFC). These results indicate that facial tattoos can severely disrupt our ability to recognise a face that previously did not have the pattern.
Skorska, Malvina N; Geniole, Shawn N; Vrysen, Brandon M; McCormick, Cheryl M; Bogaert, Anthony F
Biological models have typically framed sexual orientation in terms of effects of variation in fetal androgen signaling on sexual differentiation, although other biological models exist. Despite marked sex differences in facial structure, the relationship between sexual orientation and facial structure is understudied. A total of 52 lesbian women, 134 heterosexual women, 77 gay men, and 127 heterosexual men were recruited at a Canadian campus and various Canadian Pride and sexuality events. We found that facial structure differed depending on sexual orientation; substantial variation in sexual orientation was predicted using facial metrics computed by a facial modelling program from photographs of White faces. At the univariate level, lesbian and heterosexual women differed in 17 facial features (out of 63) and four were unique multivariate predictors in logistic regression. Gay and heterosexual men differed in 11 facial features at the univariate level, of which three were unique multivariate predictors. Some, but not all, of the facial metrics differed between the sexes. Lesbian women had noses that were more turned up (also more turned up in heterosexual men), mouths that were more puckered, smaller foreheads, and marginally more masculine face shapes (also in heterosexual men) than heterosexual women. Gay men had more convex cheeks, shorter noses (also in heterosexual women), and foreheads that were more tilted back relative to heterosexual men. Principal components analysis and discriminant functions analysis generally corroborated these results. The mechanisms underlying variation in craniofacial structure--both related and unrelated to sexual differentiation--may thus be important in understanding the development of sexual orientation.
De Marinis, M; Fraioli, B; Esposito, V; Gagliardi, F M; Agnoli, A
The features of histamine-induced headache and its associated vascular responses were studied in 52 patients with different surgical lesions of the gasserian ganglion and in 12 control subjects. Certain features of headache (eg, intensity, type, and duration) were similar in patients and control subjects. However, the pain was absent on the side of the trigeminal lesion in 26 (50%) of the patients. This unilateral absence of pain was not related to the hypoesthesia that was caused by the operation, and it was associated with a decrease in vascular responses (histamine-induced facial flushing and increase in temperature) on the side operated on. These abnormalities were more prevalent in patients who had undergone thermocoagulation and presented with more severe damage of the trigeminal ganglion than in those who were subjected to trigeminal compression or glycerolization. The trigemino-vascular system seems to control headache of a vascular type and associated craniofacial vasodilatation in human subjects.
Adamson, Peter A.
Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decrease the signs of aging includes the forehead lift, eyebrow and eyelid lift, rhytidectomy, liposuction and chemical peeling. Newer controversial trends in cosmetic facial surgery include collagen implantation and fat transfer for contour defects, and eyelid tattooing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263984
Lee, Linda N; Lyford-Pike, Sofia; Boahene, Kofi Derek O
Facial nerve trauma can be a devastating injury resulting in functional deficits and psychological distress. Deciding on the optimal course of treatment for patients with traumatic facial nerve injuries can be challenging, as there are many critical factors to be considered for each patient. Choosing from the great array of therapeutic options available can become overwhelming to both patients and physicians, and in this article, the authors present a systematic approach to help organize the physician's thought process.
Verma, Rajesh; Ram, Hari; Gupta, Mani; Vidhate, Mukund R
Progressive facial atrophy or Parry-Romberg syndrome is characterized by slowly progressive facial atrophy involving skin, subcutaneous tissue, cartilage and bony structures. Apart from facial atrophy, it can be associated with diverse clinical manifestations including headache, partial seizures, trigeminal neuralgia, cerebral hemiatrophy and ocular abnormalities. The exact etiology is unknown although sympathetic system dysfunction, autoimmune disorders, focal scleroderma, trauma and genetic factors have been postulated. We hereby report a patient having marked left-sided facial atrophy and wasting of the tongue. Such an extensive wasting is not previously reported in the literature. PMID:24163557
Zahanova, Stacy; Meaney, Brandon; Łabieniec, Beata; Verdin, Hannah; De Baere, Elfride; Nowaczyk, Małgorzata J M
Blepharophimosis-ptosis-epicanthus inversus syndrome(BPES; OMIM110100) is a genetic disorder usually inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Primarily, its diagnosis is based on four major features present at birth: short horizontal palpebral fissures (blepharophimosis), drooping of the eyelids (ptosis), a vertical fold of skin from the lower eyelid up either side of the nose (epicanthus inversus), and lateral displacement of the inner canthi with normal interpupillary distance(telecanthus; Oley and Baraitser, 1988). Two types of BPES are recognized: type I BPES includes the four major eyelid features and female infertility as a result of premature ovarian failure, whereas type II BPES consists only of eyelid abnormalities (Zlotogora et al., 1983). BPES is sometimes associated with developmental delay, but patients with BPES typically have a normal lifespan (Oley and Baraitser, 1988; Beysen et al., 2009). The clinical diagnosis of BPES is confirmed with demonstration of a FOXL2 mutation, subtle FOXL2 deletion or 3q23 microdeletion, or deletion of the FOXL2 regulatory region (Crisponi et al., 2001; De Baere et al., 2003; Beysen et al., 2005; D’haene et al., 2009). FOXL2, located at 3q23, is the only gene currently known to be associated with BPES (Beysen et al., 2009). It is possible to identify an underlying genetic defect in 88% of BPES cases diagnosed clinically (Beysen et al., 2009). Of the genetic defects found, approximately 81% are intragenic mutations of FOXL2, 10–12% are microdeletions of the gene or surrounding areas, and 5% are deletions in the regulatory areas (Beysen et al., 2009; D’haene et al., 2009,2010). In BPES-like patients (i.e. those displaying some,but not all four major features of BPES), other copy number changes can be detected in 33% of cases(Gijsbers et al., 2008). Patients with BPES carrying larger deletions encompassing FOXL2 present more frequently with associated clinical findings, such as mental retardation (D’haene et al
Wong, Danny K. C.; Shao, Angus; Campbell, Raewyn
In endoscopic sinus surgery, the anterior ethmoidal artery (AEA) is usually identified as it traverses obliquely across the fovea ethmoidalis, posterior to the bulla ethmoidalis and anterior to or within the ground lamella's attachment to the skull base. Injury to the AEA may result in hemorrhage, retraction of the AEA into the orbit, and a retrobulbar hematoma. The resulting increase in intraorbital pressure may threaten vision. Waardenburg's syndrome (WS) is a rare congenital, autosomal dominantly inherited disorder, distinguished by characteristic facial features, pigmentation abnormalities, and profound, congenital, sensorineural hearing loss. We present a case of AEAs located anterior to the bulla ethmoidalis in a 36-year-old male with WS and chronic rhinosinusitis. The anatomic abnormality was not obvious on a preoperative computed tomography scan and was discovered intraoperatively when the left AEA was injured, resulting in a retrobulbar hematoma. The hematoma was immediately identified and decompressed endoscopically without lasting complications. The AEA on the right was identified intraoperatively and preserved. The characteristic craniofacial features in WS were probably associated with the abnormal vascular anatomy. Endoscopic sinus surgeons should be aware of these potential anatomic anomalies in patients with abnormal craniofacial development. PMID:25565054
Bremer, Anna; Schoumans, Jacqueline; Nordenskjöld, Magnus; Anderlid, Britt-Marie; Giacobini, Maibritt
Seven cases with an interstitial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 6 involving the 6p22 region have previously been reported. The clinical phenotype of these cases includes developmental delay, brain-, heart-, and kidney defects, eye abnormalities, short neck, craniofacial malformations, hypotonia, as well as clinodactyly or syndactyly. Here, we report a patient with a 7.1Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome band 6p22.3, detected by genome-wide screening array CGH. The patient is a 4-year-old girl with developmental delay and dysmorphic features including eye abnormalities, short neck, and a ventricular septum defect. The deleted region at 6p22.3 in our patient overlaps with six out of the seven previously reported cases with a 6p22-24 interstitial deletion. This enabled us to further narrow down the critical region for the 6p22 deletion phenotype to 2.2Mb. Twelve genes are mapped to the overlapping deleted region, among them the gene encoding the ataxin-1 protein, the ATXN1 gene. Mice with homozygous deletions in ATXN1 are phenotypically normal but show cognitive delay. Haploinsufficiency of ATXN1 may therefore contribute to the learning difficulties observed in the patients harboring a 6p22 deletion.
Kim, J K; Oh, S Y; Sohn, E H; Hong, Y H; Jun, S M; Bae, J S
A variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) with predominant manifestation of facial diplegia (FD) has been described recently. This study aimed to characterize and determine the incidence of this FD-predominant GBS variant. The clinical and serological information of 900 consecutive patients were reviewed. In total, eight patients were identified between January 2007 and December 2010 as having FD accompanied by some features of GBS. These features were subjective sensory symptoms such as distal paresthesia (7/8, 88%), albumin-cytological (A/C) dissociation (7/8, 88%), antecedent infection (6/8, 75%), and minor nerve conduction study (NCS) abnormalities (5/7, 71%). One patient presented with the typical NCS feature of demyelinating neuropathy. Only two patients exhibited areflexia (2/8, 25%). None of the patients possessed any anti-ganglioside antibodies; however, the serum of two patients was positive for anti-mycoplasma antibody (2/6, 33%). FD variant of GBS occurred in less than 1% of our dataset. FD can be a regional variant of GBS when it is accompanied by supporting features, such as subjective tingling, A/C dissociation, and minor NCS abnormalities.
Kuniyada, Jun; Fukuda, Takahiro; Terada, Kenji
By carrying out marketing research, the managers of large-sized department stores or small convenience stores obtain the information such as ratio of men and women of visitors and an age group, and improve their management plan. However, these works are carried out in the manual operations, and it becomes a big burden to small stores. In this paper, the authors propose a method of men and women discrimination by extracting difference of the facial expression change from color facial images. Now, there are a lot of methods of the automatic recognition of the individual using a motion facial image or a still facial image in the field of image processing. However, it is very difficult to discriminate gender under the influence of the hairstyle and clothes, etc. Therefore, we propose the method which is not affected by personality such as size and position of facial parts by paying attention to a change of an expression. In this method, it is necessary to obtain two facial images with an expression and an expressionless. First, a region of facial surface and the regions of facial parts such as eyes, nose, and mouth are extracted in the facial image with color information of hue and saturation in HSV color system and emphasized edge information. Next, the features are extracted by calculating the rate of the change of each facial part generated by an expression change. In the last step, the values of those features are compared between the input data and the database, and the gender is discriminated. In this paper, it experimented for the laughing expression and smile expression, and good results were provided for discriminating gender.
Although people we meet in real life are usually seen in motion, research on facial attractiveness has predominantly been conducted on static facial images. This raises a question about ecological validity of results obtained in such studies. Recently, several studies endeavoured to determine the concordance between attractiveness of faces seen on photos and video clips, but their results are markedly divergent, frequently indicating no concordance. In the present study, the association between attractiveness of facial images and clips was tested on a larger sample than has previously been reported (106 females, 102 males), and features under the face owner's control (scalp and facial hair, makeup, mouth expression) were controlled for. Two types of facial images were used: photographs and frames extracted from films. Correlation coefficients between attractiveness of static and dynamic faces were high (about 0.7), did not depend on facial sex or image type (photograph/frame), and did not diminish when the covariates were controlled for. Furthermore, the importance of facial averageness, femininity/ masculinity, symmetry, fattiness, skin health, and mouth expression for attractiveness proved similar for static and dynamic stimuli. This leads to the optimistic conclusion that results of studies relying on attractiveness assessments of static facial images are ecologically valid.
Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... infant's facial nerve is also called the seventh cranial nerve. It can be damaged just before or at ...
Severely disfiguring facial injuries can have a devastating impact on the patient's quality of life. During the past decade, vascularized facial allotransplantation has progressed from an experimental possibility to a clinical reality in the fields of disease, trauma, and congenital malformations. This technique may now be considered a viable option for repairing complex craniofacial defects for which the results of autologous reconstruction remain suboptimal. Vascularized facial allotransplantation permits optimal anatomical reconstruction and provides desired functional, esthetic, and psychosocial benefits that are far superior to those achieved with conventional methods. Along with dramatic improvements in their functional statuses, patients regain the ability to make facial expressions such as smiling and to perform various functions such as smelling, eating, drinking, and speaking. The ideas in the 1997 movie "Face/Off" have now been realized in the clinical field. The objective of this article is to introduce this new surgical field, provide a basis for examining the status of the field of face transplantation, and stimulate and enhance facial transplantation studies in Korea.
Rutherford, M. D.; McIntosh, Daniel N.
When perceiving emotional facial expressions, people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) appear to focus on individual facial features rather than configurations. This paper tests whether individuals with ASD use these features in a rule-based strategy of emotional perception, rather than a typical, template-based strategy by considering…
Santana, Sharlene E; Dobson, Seth D; Diogo, Rui
Facial colour patterns and facial expressions are among the most important phenotypic traits that primates use during social interactions. While colour patterns provide information about the sender's identity, expressions can communicate its behavioural intentions. Extrinsic factors, including social group size, have shaped the evolution of facial coloration and mobility, but intrinsic relationships and trade-offs likely operate in their evolution as well. We hypothesize that complex facial colour patterning could reduce how salient facial expressions appear to a receiver, and thus species with highly expressive faces would have evolved uniformly coloured faces. We test this hypothesis through a phylogenetic comparative study, and explore the underlying morphological factors of facial mobility. Supporting our hypothesis, we find that species with highly expressive faces have plain facial colour patterns. The number of facial muscles does not predict facial mobility; instead, species that are larger and have a larger facial nucleus have more expressive faces. This highlights a potential trade-off between facial mobility and colour patterning in primates and reveals complex relationships between facial features during primate evolution.
Tang, Dorothy Y Y; Liu, Amy C Y; Lui, Simon S Y; Lam, Bess Y H; Siu, Bonnie W M; Lee, Tatia M C; Cheung, Eric F C
Impairment in facial emotion perception is believed to be associated with aggression. Schizophrenia patients with antisocial features are more impaired in facial emotion perception than their counterparts without these features. However, previous studies did not define the comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) using stringent criteria. We recruited 30 participants with dual diagnoses of ASPD and schizophrenia, 30 participants with schizophrenia and 30 controls. We employed the Facial Emotional Recognition paradigm to measure facial emotion perception, and administered a battery of neurocognitive tests. The Life History of Aggression scale was used. ANOVAs and ANCOVAs were conducted to examine group differences in facial emotion perception, and control for the effect of other neurocognitive dysfunctions on facial emotion perception. Correlational analyses were conducted to examine the association between facial emotion perception and aggression. Patients with dual diagnoses performed worst in facial emotion perception among the three groups. The group differences in facial emotion perception remained significant, even after other neurocognitive impairments were controlled for. Severity of aggression was correlated with impairment in perceiving negative-valenced facial emotions in patients with dual diagnoses. Our findings support the presence of facial emotion perception impairment and its association with aggression in schizophrenia patients with comorbid ASPD.
Tanbouzi Husseini, Sami; Kumar, David Victor; De Donato, Giuseppe; Almutair, Tamama; Sanna, Mario
To evaluate the results of facial nerve reanimation after facial nerve injury by means of hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis. Retrospective case review. Private neuro-otologic and cranial base quaternary referral center. Sixty patients underwent hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis for facial nerve reanimation between April 1987 and December 2010. Only forty patients completed a minimal follow up of 24 months at the time of evaluation and were included in the study population. Facial nerve paralysis was present for a mean duration of 11.3 months (range 2-42 months) and all the patients had a HB grade VI prior their surgery. Final facial nerve motor function. The most common cause of facial paralysis was vestibular Schwannoma surgery. All the patients achieved a postoperative HB grade III or IV after a mean follow-up time of 20 months. The facial movements were detected after a period that ranged from ranged from 5 to 9 months. Only 4 patients suffered from difficulties during eating and drinking and three of them had associated lower cranial nerve deficit. Despite the various techniques in facial reanimation following total facial nerve paralysis, the end to end of hypoglossal to facial nerve anastomosis remains one of the best treatments in cases of viable distal facial stump and nonatrophic musculature.
Wolf, S R
Although acute idiopathic facial paresis is often labelled "Bell's palsy", historical studies show that Nicolaus Anton Friedreich (1761-1836) from Würzburg was the first physician to describe the typical symptoms of the disorder in 1797, approximately 24 years prior to the paper published by Sir Charles Bell. Diagnostics has now improved to the extent that acute idiopathic facial palsy can more frequently be assigned to etiologies caused by inflammatory disorders. Herpes simplex virus type I and Borrelia burgdorferi are particularly relevant. Underestimation of the degree of paresis is, particularly in children, a drawback of the clinical examination. "Incomplete eyelid closure" is not a reliable indicator of remaining nerve function. For this reason complete electromyography (EMG) is recommended in all cases of severe facial paresis. Since electroneurography does not reliably reflect the degree of denervation present, needle EMG is preferred. The therapy of the facial palsy of unclear etiology is still not well defined. Nevertheless, we recommend that a combined treatment should be used early, at least in patients with disfiguring pareses. Combinations may consist of cortisone, virostatic agents and hemorrheologic substances and possibly antibiotics. Surgical decompression of the facial nerve remains controversial, since positive surgical results lack statistical support. Individual instructions for facial exercises, massage and muscle relaxation can support rehabilitation and possibly reduce the production of pathological synkinesia. Electrical stimulation should not be used. There are a number of possibilities available to reduce the effects of misdirected reinnervation, especially the use of botulinum-A-toxin. However, intensive diagnosis and therapy in the early phase of paresis are decisive in obtaining a favorable outcome. Further refinements in rehabilitation and comparative multicenter controlled studies are still required for future improvements in
Denmark, Tanya; Atkinson, Joanna; Campbell, Ruth; Swettenham, John
Facial expressions in sign language carry a variety of communicative features. While emotion can modulate a spoken utterance through changes in intonation, duration and intensity, in sign language specific facial expressions presented concurrently with a manual sign perform this function. When deaf adult signers cannot see facial features, their…
Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Wu, Jia; Heike, Carrie; Shapiro, Linda
3D imaging systems are used to construct high-resolution meshes of patient's heads that can be analyzed by computer algorithms. Our work starts with such 3D head meshes and produces both global and local descriptors of 3D shape. Since these descriptors are numeric feature vectors, they can be used in both classification and quantification of various different abnormalities. In this paper, we define these descriptors, describe our methodology for constructing them from 3D head meshes, and show through a set of classification experiments involving cases and controls for a genetic disorder called 22q11.2 deletion syndrome that they are suitable for use in craniofacial research studies. The main contributions of this work include: automatic generation of novel global and local data representations, robust automatic placement of anthropometric landmarks, generation of local descriptors for nasal and oral facial features from landmarks, use of local descriptors for predicting various local facial features, and use of global features for 22q11.2DS classification, showing their potential use as descriptors in craniofacial research.
Schwarzer, Gudrun; Zauner, Nicola; Jovanovic, Bianca
Two experiments examined whether 4-, 6-, and 10-month-old infants process natural looking faces by feature, i.e. processing internal facial features independently of the facial context or holistically by processing the features in conjunction with the facial context. Infants were habituated to two faces and looking time was measured. After…
Helin, Heidi; van der Walt, Jon; Holder, Muriel; George, Simi
We present a case of pure erythroleukemia, diagnosed at autopsy, in a dysmorphic premature infant who died of multiorgan failure within 24 hours of birth. Dysmorphic features included facial and limb abnormalities with long philtrum, microagnathia, downturned mouth, short neck as well as abnormal and missing nails, missing distal phalanx from the second toe, and overlapping toes. Internal findings included gross hepatomegaly and patchy hemorrhages in the liver, splenomegaly, and cardiomegaly; and subdural, intracerebral, and intraventricular hemorrhages. Histology revealed infiltration of bone marrow, kidney, heart, liver, adrenal, lung, spleen, pancreas, thyroid, testis, thymus, and placenta by pure erythroleukemia. Only 6 cases of congenital erythroleukemia have been previously reported with autopsy findings similar to those of this case. The dysmorphic features, although not fitting any specific syndrome, make this case unique. Congenital erythroleukemia and possible syndromes suggested by the dysmorphic features are discussed.
Dietemann, J L; Correia Bernardo, R; Bogorin, A; Abu Eid, M; Koob, M; Nogueira, Th; Vargas, M I; Fakhoury, W; Zöllner, G
The authors describe normal imaging of the meninges and meningeal spaces and MR (magnetic resonance) imaging findings in tumoral and nontumoral diseases. Dural or/and pial enhancement may be related to tumoral, infectious or granulomatous diseases.
Lange, Renata; Von Linsingen, Caoê; Mata, Fernanda; Moraes, Aline Barbosa; Arruda, Mariana
Summary Ring chromosomes (RCs) are uncommon cytogenetic findings, and RC11 has only been described in 19 cases in the literature. Endocrine abnormalities associated with RC11 were reported for two of these cases. The clinical features of RC11 can result from an alteration in the structure of the genetic material, ring instability, mosaicism, and various extents of genetic material loss. We herein describe a case of RC11 with clinical features of 11q-syndrome and endocrine abnormalities that have not yet been reported. A 20-year-old female patient had facial dysmorphism, short stature, psychomotor developmental delays, a ventricular septal defect, and thrombocytopenia. Karyotyping demonstrated RC11 (46,XX,r(11)(p15q25)). This patient presented with clinical features that may be related to Jacobsen syndrome, which is caused by partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. Regarding endocrine abnormalities, our patient presented with precocious puberty followed by severe hirsutism, androgenic alopecia, clitoromegaly, and amenorrhea, which were associated with overweight, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and hyperinsulinemia; therefore, this case meets the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocrine abnormalities are rare in patients with RC11, and the association of RC11 with precocious puberty, severe clinical hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and T2DM has not been reported previously. We speculate that gene(s) located on chromosome 11 might be involved in the pathogenesis of these conditions. Despite the rarity of RCs, studies to correlate the genes located on the chromosomes with the phenotypes observed could lead to major advances in the understanding and treatment of more prevalent diseases. Learning points We hypothesize that the endocrine features of precocious puberty, severe clinical hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and T2DM might be associated with 11q-syndrome.A karyotype study should be performed in patients with short
Thapa, L J; Pokharel, B R; Paudel, R; Rana, P V S
With the advances in neurogenetics association of epilepsy and intellectual disability with chromosomal abnormalities are being increasingly recognized. While onset of seizures with mental retardation at an early age indicate chromosomal abnormality, combination of characteristics facial dysmorphism and congenital abnormalities gives a clue of a particular syndrome. In addition MRI findings may help in confirming the diagnosis. A nine years old boy is presented where early onset seizure, mental retardation, delayed development of speech, presence of facial dysmorphism,, umbilical hernia and undescended testes suggested possibility of chromosomal 6q deletion disorder. Important deletion disorders are discussed and importance of clinical examination is stressed.
Xue, Henry; Gertner, Izidor
In the human-computer interaction (HCI) process it is desirable to have an artificial intelligent (AI) system that can identify and categorize human emotions from facial expressions. Such systems can be used in security, in entertainment industries, and also to study visual perception, social interactions and disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and autism). In this work we survey and compare the performance of different feature extraction algorithms and classification schemes. We introduce a faster feature extraction method that resizes and applies a set of filters to the data images without sacrificing the accuracy. In addition, we have enhanced SVM to multiple dimensions while retaining the high accuracy rate of SVM. The algorithms were tested using the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database and the Database of Faces (AT&T Faces).
Razfar, Ali; Lee, Matthew K; Massry, Guy G; Azizzadeh, Babak
Facial nerve paralysis is a devastating condition arising from several causes with severe functional and psychological consequences. Given the complexity of the disease process, management involves a multispecialty, team-oriented approach. This article provides a systematic approach in addressing each specific sequela of this complex problem.
... up after Facial trauma: A prospective study. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997: 117:72-75 Kim MK, Buchman ... trauma in children: An urban hospitals experience. Otolaryngoly–Head Neck Surgery 2000: 123: 439-43 Patient Health Home ...
Chakrabarti, Debaprasad; Roy, Mukut; Bhattacharyya, Amrit K
Bilateral facial paralysis is a rare clinical entity and presents as a diagnostic challenge. Unlike its unilateral counterpart facial diplegia is seldom secondary to Bell's palsy. Occurring at a frequency of 0.3% to 2% of all facial palsies it often indicates ominous medical conditions. Guillian-Barre syndrome needs to be considered as a differential in all given cases of facial diplegia where timely treatment would be rewarding. Here a case of bilateral facial palsy due to Guillian-Barre syndrome with atypical presentation is reported.
Soler, Caries; Kekäläinen, Jukka; Núñez, Manuel; Sancho, María; Núñez, Javier; Yaber, Iván; Gutiérrez, Ricardo
The symmetry and masculinity of the face are often considered important elements of male facial attractiveness. However, facial preferences are rarely studied on natural faces. We studied the effect of these traits and facial metric parameters on facial attractiveness in Spanish and Colombian raters. In total, 13 metric and 11 asymmetry parameters from natural, unmanipulated frontal face photographs of 50 Spanish men were measured with the USIA semiautomatic anthropometric software. All raters (women and men) were asked to rank these images as potential long-term partners for females. In both sexes, facial attractiveness was negatively associated with facial masculinity, and preference was not associated with facial symmetry. In Spanish raters, both sexes preferred male traits that were larger in the right side of the face, which may reflect a human tendency to prefer a certain degree of facial asymmetry. We did not find such preference in Colombian raters, but they did show stronger preference for facial femininity than Spanish raters. Present results suggest that facial relative femininity, which is expected to signal, eg good parenting and cooperation skills, may be an important signal of mate quality when females seek long-term partners. Facial symmetry appears unimportant in such long-term mating preferences.
Neumann, Dirk; Spezio, Michael L; Piven, Joseph; Adolphs, Ralph
People with autism are impaired in their social behavior, including their eye contact with others, but the processes that underlie this impairment remain elusive. We combined high-resolution eye tracking with computational modeling in a group of 10 high-functioning individuals with autism to address this issue. The group fixated the location of the mouth in facial expressions more than did matched controls, even when the mouth was not shown, even in faces that were inverted and most noticeably at latencies of 200-400 ms. Comparisons with a computational model of visual saliency argue that the abnormal bias for fixating the mouth in autism is not driven by an exaggerated sensitivity to the bottom-up saliency of the features, but rather by an abnormal top-down strategy for allocating visual attention.
The prevalence of human error in safety-critical occupations remains a major challenge to mission success despite increasing automation in control processes. Although various methods have been proposed to prevent incidences of human error, none of these have been developed to employ the detection and regulation of Operator Functional State (OFS), or the optimal condition of the operator while performing a task, in work environments due to drawbacks such as obtrusiveness and impracticality. A video-based system with the ability to infer an individual's emotional state from facial feature patterning mitigates some of the problems associated with other methods of detecting OFS, like obtrusiveness and impracticality in integration with the mission environment. This paper explores the utility of facial expression recognition as a technology for inferring OFS by first expounding on the intricacies of OFS and the scientific background behind emotion and its relationship with an individual's state. Then, descriptions of the feedback loop and the emotion protocols proposed for the facial recognition program are explained. A basic version of the facial expression recognition program uses Haar classifiers and OpenCV libraries to automatically locate key facial landmarks during a live video stream. Various methods of creating facial expression recognition software are reviewed to guide future extensions of the program. The paper concludes with an examination of the steps necessary in the research of emotion and recommendations for the creation of an automatic facial expression recognition program for use in real-time, safety-critical missions.
The prevalence of human error in safety-critical occupations remains a major challenge to mission success despite increasing automation in control processes. Although various methods have been proposed to prevent incidences of human error, none of these have been developed to employ the detection and regulation of Operator Functional State (OFS), or the optimal condition of the operator while performing a task, in work environments due to drawbacks such as obtrusiveness and impracticality. A video-based system with the ability to infer an individual's emotional state from facial feature patterning mitigates some of the problems associated with other methods of detecting OFS, like obtrusiveness and impracticality in integration with the mission environment. This paper explores the utility of facial expression recognition as a technology for inferring OFS by first expounding on the intricacies of OFS and the scientific background behind emotion and its relationship with an individual's state. Then, descriptions of the feedback loop and the emotion protocols proposed for the facial recognition program are explained. A basic version of the facial expression recognition program uses Haar classifiers and OpenCV libraries to automatically locate key facial landmarks during a live video stream. Various methods of creating facial expression recognition software are reviewed to guide future extensions of the program. The paper concludes with an examination of the steps necessary in the research of emotion and recommendations for the creation of an automatic facial expression recognition program for use in real-time, safety-critical missions
Sforza, Chiarella; de Menezes, Marcio; Ferrario, Virgilio
In the last few years, technology has provided new instruments for the three-dimensional analysis of human facial morphology. Currently, quantitative assessments of dimensions, spatial positions and relative proportions of distinctive facial features can be obtained for both soft- and hard- (skeletal and dental) tissues. New mathematical tools allow to fuse digital data obtained from various image analyzers, thus providing quantitative information for anatomical and nthropometric descriptions, medical evaluations (clinical genetics, orthodontics, maxillo-facial and plastic surgery), and forensic medicine.
Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies
INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978
Reissland, Nadja; Francis, Brian; Mason, James
Background With advances of research on fetal behavioural development, the question of whether we can identify fetal facial expressions and determine their developmental progression, takes on greater importance. In this study we investigate longitudinally the increasing complexity of combinations of facial movements from 24 to 36 weeks gestation in a sample of healthy fetuses using frame-by-frame coding of 4-D ultrasound scans. The primary aim was to examine whether these complex facial movements coalesce into a recognisable facial expression of pain/distress. Methodology/Findings Fifteen fetuses (8 girls, 7 boys) were observed four times in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Fetuses showed significant progress towards more complex facial expressions as gestational age increased. Statistical analysis of the facial movements making up a specific facial configuration namely “pain/distress” also demonstrates that this facial expression becomes significantly more complete as the fetus matures. Conclusions/Significance The study shows that one can determine the normal progression of fetal facial movements. Furthermore, our results suggest that healthy fetuses progress towards an increasingly complete pain/distress expression as they mature. We argue that this is an adaptive process which is beneficial to the fetus postnatally and has the potential to identify normal versus abnormal developmental pathways. PMID:23755245
Nguyen, Hung; Kotani, Kazunori; Chen, Fan; Le, Bac
In recent years, research on human emotion estimation using thermal infrared (IR) imagery has appealed to many researchers due to its invariance to visible illumination changes. Although infrared imagery is superior to visible imagery in its invariance to illumination changes and appearance differences, it has difficulties in handling transparent glasses in the thermal infrared spectrum. As a result, when using infrared imagery for the analysis of human facial information, the regions of eyeglasses are dark and eyes' thermal information is not given. We propose a temperature space method to correct eyeglasses' effect using the thermal facial information in the neighboring facial regions, and then use Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Eigen-space Method based on class-features (EMC), and PCA-EMC method to classify human emotions from the corrected thermal images. We collected the Kotani Thermal Facial Emotion (KTFE) database and performed the experiments, which show the improved accuracy rate in estimating human emotions.
Song, Kai-Tai; Han, Meng-Ju; Chang, Shuo-Hung
In recent years, one of the most attractive research areas in human-robot interaction is automated facial expression recognition. Through recognizing the facial expression, a pet robot can interact with human in a more natural manner. In this study, we focus on the facial pose-variant problem. A novel method is proposed in this paper to recognize pose-variant facial expressions. After locating the face position in an image frame, the active appearance model (AAM) is applied to track facial features. Fourteen feature points are extracted to represent the variation of facial expressions. The distance between feature points are defined as the feature values. These feature values are sent to a support vector machine (SVM) for facial expression determination. The pose-variant facial expression is classified into happiness, neutral, sadness, surprise or anger. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the performance for practical applications, this study also built a low resolution database (160x120 pixels) using a CMOS image sensor. Experimental results show that the recognition rate is 84% with the self-built database.
The face aftereffect (FAE; the illusion of faces after adaptation to a face) has been reported to occur without retinal overlap between adaptor and test, but recent studies revealed that the FAE is not constant across all test locations, which suggests that the FAE is also retinotopic. However, it remains unclear whether the characteristic of the retinotopy of the FAE for one facial aspect is the same as that of the FAE for another facial aspect. In the research reported here, an examination of the retinotopy of the FAE for facial expression indicated that the facial expression aftereffect occurs without retinal overlap between adaptor and test, and depends on the retinal distance between them. Furthermore, the results indicate that, although dependence of the FAE on adaptation-test distance is similar between facial expression and facial identity, the FAE for facial identity is larger than that for facial expression when a test face is presented in the opposite hemifield. On the basis of these results, I discuss adaptation mechanisms underlying facial expression processing and facial identity processing for the retinotopy of the FAE.
Yu, Hui; Garrod, Oliver; Jack, Rachael; Schyns, Philippe
Facial expressions reflect internal emotional states of a character or in response to social communications. Though much effort has been taken to generate realistic facial expressions, it still remains a challenging topic due to human being's sensitivity to subtle facial movements. In this paper, we present a method for facial animation generation, which reflects true facial muscle movements with high fidelity. An intermediate model space is introduced to transfer captured static AU peak frames based on FACS to the conformed target face. And then dynamic parameters derived using a psychophysics method is integrated to generate facial animation, which is assumed to represent natural correlation of multiple AUs. Finally, the animation sequence in the intermediate model space is mapped to the target face to produce final animation.
Peng, Grace Lee; Azizzadeh, Babak
Dynamic facial reanimation is the gold standard treatment for a paralyzed face. Over the last century, multiple nerves have been utilized for grafting to the facial nerve in an attempt to produce improved movement. However, in recent years, the use of cross facial nerve grafting with a second stage gracilis free flap has gained popularity due to the ability to generate a spontaneous smile and facial movement. Preoperative history taking and careful examination, as well as pre-surgical planning, are imperative to whether cross facial nerve grafting with a second stage gracilis free flap is appropriate for the patient. A sural nerve graft is ideal given the accessibility of the nerve, the length, as well as the reliability and ease of the nerve harvest. The nerve can be harvested using a small incision, which leaves the patient with minimal post operative morbidity. In this chapter, we highlight the pearls and pitfalls of cross facial nerve grafting.
Lee, Chien-Cheng; Huang, Shin-Sheng; Shih, Cheng-Yuan
This paper presents a novel and effective method for facial expression recognition including happiness, disgust, fear, anger, sadness, surprise, and neutral state. The proposed method utilizes a regularized discriminant analysis-based boosting algorithm (RDAB) with effective Gabor features to recognize the facial expressions. Entropy criterion is applied to select the effective Gabor feature which is a subset of informative and nonredundant Gabor features. The proposed RDAB algorithm uses RDA as a learner in the boosting algorithm. The RDA combines strengths of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA). It solves the small sample size and ill-posed problems suffered from QDA and LDA through a regularization technique. Additionally, this study uses the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to estimate optimal parameters in RDA. Experiment results demonstrate that our approach can accurately and robustly recognize facial expressions.
O'Neill, Francis; Nurmikko, Turo; Sommer, Claudia
Premise In this article we review some lesser known cranial neuralgias that are distinct from trigeminal neuralgia, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, or trigeminal neuropathies. Included are occipital neuralgia, superior laryngeal neuralgia, auriculotemporal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal and nervus intermedius neuralgia, and pain from acute herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia of the trigeminal and intermedius nerves. Problem Facial neuralgias are rare and many physicians do not see such cases in their lifetime, so patients with a suspected diagnosis within this group should be referred to a specialized center where multidisciplinary team diagnosis may be available. Potential solution Each facial neuralgia can be identified on the basis of clinical presentation, allowing for precision diagnosis and planning of treatment. Treatment remains conservative with oral or topical medication recommended for neuropathic pain to be tried before more invasive procedures are undertaken. However, evidence for efficacy of current treatments remains weak.
This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian), with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18–25). Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects’ evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI), Malaysian Chinese (MC) and Malaysian Malay (MM) were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; P<0.05) but no significant difference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1%) were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5%) short and 81 (28.3%) long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts. In conclusion: 1) Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%); 2) Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3) Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4) All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5) No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population. PMID:26562655
Rucker, Janet C
This chapter on lid function is comprised of two primary sections, the first on normal eyelid anatomy, neurological innervation, and physiology, and the second on abnormal eyelid function in disease states. The eyelids serve several important ocular functions, the primary objectives of which are protection of the anterior globe from injury and maintenance of the ocular tear film. Typical eyelid behaviors to perform these functions include blinking (voluntary, spontaneous, or reflexive), voluntary eye closure (gentle or forced), partial lid lowering during squinting, normal lid retraction during emotional states such as surprise or fear (startle reflex), and coordination of lid movements with vertical eye movements for maximal eye protection. Detailed description of the neurological innervation patterns and neurophysiology of each of these lid behaviors is provided. Abnormal lid function is divided by conditions resulting in excessive lid closure (cerebral ptosis, apraxia of lid opening, blepharospasm, oculomotor palsy, Horner's syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and mechanical) and those resulting in excessive lid opening (midbrain lid retraction, facial nerve palsy, and lid retraction due to orbital disease).
van Hooft, E; Becking, A G; van Spronsen, P H; Tuinzing, D B
In the treatment of patients with an oro-facial anomaly the functioning of the masticatory system and aesthetic aspects play a role. Recently, the software programme 'Facial Harmony', which analyzes the soft tissue contour of the face, appeared. Using this programme, a research project was carried out to find out if the result of the surgical treatment of 40 patients with an oro-facial anomaly satisfied the,facial harmony requirements. Only 65% of the treatment results met the requirements. It was especially the patients who had been treated for mandibular deficiency with mandibular and horizontal lines meeting at a wide angle who showed no facial harmony. Only 30% of those patients demonstrated facial harmony postoperatively. If the surgical treatment had been completed by a genioplasty, this percentage would very probably have risen to 85.
Sando, I; Orita, Y; Miura, M; Balaban, C D
This paper reviews the histopathologic features of vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders affecting the inner ear, based upon a comprehensive literature survey and a review of cases in our temporal bone collection. The review proceeds in three systematic steps. First, we surveyed associated diseases with the major phenotypic features of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear (including the internal auditory canal and otic capsule). Second, the vestibular anomalies are examined specifically. Finally, the anomalies are discussed from a developmental perspective. Among vestibular anomalies, a hypoplastic endolymphatic duct and sac are observed most frequently. Anomalies of the semicircular canals are also often observed. From embryological and clinical viewpoints, many of these resemble the structural features from fetal stages and appear to be associated with vestibular dysfunction. It is expected that progress in genetic analysis and accumulation of temporal bone specimens with vestibular abnormalities in congenital diseases will provide crucial information not only for pathology of those diseases, but also for genetic factors that are responsible for the specific vestibular abnormalities.
Venugopalan, S; Ariga, P; Aggarwal, P; Viswanath, A
Patients with orocutaneous fistulas suffer from discomfort in terms of facial esthetics, food spill over and lack of psychological confidence to present them socially. Prosthetic camouflaging of facial defects and use of silicone maxillofacial material are the alternatives to the surgical retreatment. Silicone elastomers provide more options to clinician for customization of the facial prosthesis which is simple, esthetically good when coupled with bio magnets for retention.
Brenton, D. P.
The skeletal changes of thirty-four patients with the biochemical and clinical features of cystathionine synthase deficiency are described. It is emphasized that there is clinical evidence of excessive bone growth and the formation for bone which is structurally weaker than normal. The similarities and differences between this condition and Marfan's syndrome are stressed and the possible nature of the connective tissue defect leading to the skeletal changes discussed. The most characteristic skeletal changes in homocystinuria are the skeletal disproportion (pubis-heel length greater than crown-pubis length), the abnormal vertebrae, sternal deformities, genu valgum and large metaphyses and epiphyses. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:917963
Claes, Peter; Hill, Harold; Shriver, Mark D
The potential of constructing useful DNA-based facial composites is forensically of great interest. Given the significant identity information coded in the human face these predictions could help investigations out of an impasse. Although, there is substantial evidence that much of the total variation in facial features is genetically mediated, the discovery of which genes and gene variants underlie normal facial variation has been hampered primarily by the multipartite nature of facial variation. Traditionally, such physical complexity is simplified by simple scalar measurements defined a priori, such as nose or mouth width or alternatively using dimensionality reduction techniques such as principal component analysis where each principal coordinate is then treated as a scalar trait. However, as shown in previous and related work, a more impartial and systematic approach to modeling facial morphology is available and can facilitate both the gene discovery steps, as we recently showed, and DNA-based facial composite construction, as we show here. We first use genomic ancestry and sex to create a base-face, which is simply an average sex and ancestry matched face. Subsequently, the effects of 24 individual SNPs that have been shown to have significant effects on facial variation are overlaid on the base-face forming the predicted-face in a process akin to a photomontage or image blending. We next evaluate the accuracy of predicted faces using cross-validation. Physical accuracy of the facial predictions either locally in particular parts of the face or in terms of overall similarity is mainly determined by sex and genomic ancestry. The SNP-effects maintain the physical accuracy while significantly increasing the distinctiveness of the facial predictions, which would be expected to reduce false positives in perceptual identification tasks. To the best of our knowledge this is the first effort at generating facial composites from DNA and the results are preliminary
Flynn, Jennifer; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik; Hanson, Mark D; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ronald
Facial transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of reconstructing otherwise unreconstructable adult faces. As this modality is made more available, we must turn our attention to pediatric patients who may benefit from facial transplantation. In the current article, the authors present and briefly examine the most pressing ethical challenges posed by the possibility of performing facial transplantation on pediatric patients. Furthermore, they issue a call for a policy statement on pediatric facial transplantation. The present article may serve as a first step in that direction, highlighting ethical issues that would need to be considered in the creation of such a statement. PMID:25114614
Marten, Timothy J; Elyassnia, Dino
Patients with significant facial atrophy and age-related loss of facial fat generally achieve suboptimal improvement from both surface treatments of facial skin and surgical lifts. Restoring lost facial volume by fat grafting is a powerful technique that is now acknowledged by most plastic surgeons and other physicians engaged in treating the aging face as one of the most important advances in aesthetic surgery. Properly performed, the addition of fat to areas of the face that have atrophied because of age or disease can produce a significant and sustained improvement in appearance that is unobtainable by other means.
This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.
Frowd, Charlie D.; Bruce, Vicki; Smith, Ashley J.; Hancock, Peter J. B.
Witnesses to and victims of serious crime are normally asked to describe the appearance of a criminal suspect, using a Cognitive Interview (CI), and to construct a facial composite, a visual representation of the face. Research suggests that focusing on the global aspects of a face, as opposed to its facial features, facilitates recognition and…
Jaman, Nazreen B. K.; Al-Sayegh, Abeer
Congenital contractural arachnodactyly, commonly known as Beal’s syndrome, is an extremely rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the fibrillin-2 (FBN2) gene located on chromosome 5q23. It is an autosomal dominant inherited connective tissue disorder characterised by a Marfan-like body habitus, contractures, abnormally shaped ears and kyphoscoliosis. We report a seven-year-old Omani male who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in 2014 with seizures. He was noted to have certain distinctive facial features and musculoskeletal manifestations; he was subsequently diagnosed with Beal’s syndrome. Sequencing of the FBN2 gene revealed that the patient had a novel mutation which was also present in his mother; however, she had only a few facial features indicative of Beal’s syndrome and no systemic involvement apart from a history of childhood seizures. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of Beal’s syndrome with seizure symptoms as a potential feature. PMID:27606123
Mayer, Christine; Windhager, Sonja; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp
Facial markers of body composition are frequently studied in evolutionary psychology and are important in computational and forensic face recognition. We assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with facial shape and texture (color pattern) in a sample of young Middle European women by a combination of geometric morphometrics and image analysis. Faces of women with high BMI had a wider and rounder facial outline relative to the size of the eyes and lips, and relatively lower eyebrows. Furthermore, women with high BMI had a brighter and more reddish skin color than women with lower BMI. The same facial features were associated with WHR, even though BMI and WHR were only moderately correlated. Yet BMI was better predictable than WHR from facial attributes. After leave-one-out cross-validation, we were able to predict 25% of variation in BMI and 10% of variation in WHR by facial shape. Facial texture predicted only about 3–10% of variation in BMI and WHR. This indicates that facial shape primarily reflects total fat proportion, rather than the distribution of fat within the body. The association of reddish facial texture in high-BMI women may be mediated by increased blood pressure and superficial blood flow as well as diet. Our study elucidates how geometric morphometric image analysis serves to quantify the effect of biological factors such as BMI and WHR to facial shape and color, which in turn contributes to social perception. PMID:28052103
Tobin, Alanna; Favelle, Simone; Palermo, Romina
There is evidence that facial expressions are perceived holistically and featurally. The composite task is a direct measure of holistic processing (although the absence of a composite effect implies the use of other types of processing). Most composite task studies have used static images, despite the fact that movement is an important aspect of facial expressions and there is some evidence that movement may facilitate recognition. We created static and dynamic composites, in which emotions were reliably identified from each half of the face. The magnitude of the composite effect was similar for static and dynamic expressions identified from the top half (anger, sadness and surprise) but was reduced in dynamic as compared to static expressions identified from the bottom half (fear, disgust and joy). Thus, any advantage in recognising dynamic over static expressions is not likely to stem from enhanced holistic processing, rather motion may emphasise or disambiguate diagnostic featural information.
Zhao, Kaili; Chu, Wen-Sheng; De la Torre, Fernando; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Zhang, Honggang
The face is one of the most powerful channel of nonverbal communication. The most commonly used taxonomy to describe facial behaviour is the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). FACS segments the visible effects of facial muscle activation into 30+ action units (AUs). AUs, which may occur alone and in thousands of combinations, can describe nearly all-possible facial expressions. Most existing methods for automatic AU detection treat the problem using one-vs-all classifiers and fail to exploit dependencies among AU and facial features. We introduce joint-patch and multi-label learning (JPML) to address these issues. JPML leverages group sparsity by selecting a sparse subset of facial patches while learning a multi-label classifier. In four of five comparisons on three diverse datasets, CK+, GFT, and BP4D, JPML produced the highest average F1 scores in comparison with state-of-the art. PMID:27382243
Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon
Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.
Lapresle, J; Desi, M
The authors report the case of a 28 year old woman suffering from a chronic polyarthritis with a linear sclerodermia and presenting a crossed atrophy involving the left side of the body and the right side of the face and neck. The polyarthritis began at age 6, with signs of systemic illness, resulting early in important joint disability and proceeding with exacerbations and remissions. From the onset of this polyarthritis the patient experienced in the left side of the body highly painful and frequent muscular cramps which became rarer with the occurrence and progression of atrophy on the same side. At age 15, the patient experienced similar cramps in the right face, followed by progressive right hemiatrophy. At age 28, examination showed crossed atrophy involving the left side of the body and the right side of the face, tongue and neck, associated in these territories with several atrophic plaques on the skin, circumscribed alopecia, as well as numerous joint sequella. The laboratory date yielded immunologic abnormalities. On the CT scan the brain was normal but the right facial hemiatrophy involving orbital region and pharynx was visible. On the muscular biopsy there were inflammatory changes in the atrophic territory. Skin biopsies were consistent with sclerodermia. Two clinical points should be emphasized. Firstly, the remarkably crossed topography of the atrophy: the upper limit of the left body atrophy corresponded with the lower limit of the right face and neck atrophy; secondly, the unusual features of the muscular cramps. The relationship between sclerodermic facial hemiatrophy and Parry Romberg syndrome are then discussed: the study of this case and the literature do not provide sufficient criteria to allow description of two separate entities. Finally, the pathogenesis of localized sclerodermia is considered; in this case the association with the immunologic abnormalities and chronic polyarthritis is in favor of the hypothesis of a systemic disorder.
Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming
This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness. PMID:27148111
Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming
This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness.
Rafailovich-Sokolov, Sara; Guan, E.; Afriat, Isablle; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan; Clark, Richard
Digital image analysis techniques have been extensively used in facial recognition. To date, most static facial characterization techniques, which are usually based on Fourier transform techniques, are sensitive to lighting, shadows, or modification of appearance by makeup, natural aging or surgery. In this study we have demonstrated that it is possible to uniquely identify faces by analyzing the natural motion of facial features with Digital Image Speckle Correlation (DISC). Human skin has a natural pattern produced by the texture of the skin pores, which is easily visible with conventional digital cameras of resolution greater than 4 mega pixels. Hence the application of the DISC method to the analysis of facial motion appears to be very straightforward. Here we demonstrate that the vector diagrams produced by this method for facial images are directly correlated to the underlying muscle structure which is unique for an individual and is not affected by lighting or make-up. Furthermore, we will show that this method can also be used for medical diagnosis in early detection of facial paralysis and other forms of skin disorders.
Andric, Sanja; Maric, Nadja P; Mihaljevic, Marina; Mirjanic, Tijana; van Os, Jim
Alterations in general intellectual ability and social cognition in schizophrenia are core features of the disorder, evident at the illness' onset and persistent throughout its course. However, previous studies examining cognitive alterations in siblings discordant for schizophrenia yielded inconsistent results. Present study aimed to investigate the nature of the association between facial emotion recognition and general IQ by applying genetically sensitive cross-trait cross-sibling design. Participants (total n=158; patients, unaffected siblings, controls) were assessed using the Benton Facial Recognition Test, the Degraded Facial Affect Recognition Task (DFAR) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. Patients had lower IQ and altered facial emotion recognition in comparison to other groups. Healthy siblings and controls did not significantly differ in IQ and DFAR performance, but siblings exhibited intermediate angry facial expression recognition. Cross-trait within-subject analyses showed significant associations between overall DFAR performance and IQ in all participants. Within-trait cross-sibling analyses found significant associations between patients' and siblings' IQ and overall DFAR performance, suggesting their familial clustering. Finally, cross-trait cross-sibling analyses revealed familial covariation of facial emotion recognition and IQ in siblings discordant for schizophrenia, further indicating their familial etiology. Both traits are important phenotypes for genetic studies and potential early clinical markers of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.
Gill, Daniel; Garrod, Oliver G B; Jack, Rachael E; Schyns, Philippe G
Animals use social camouflage as a tool of deceit to increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction. We tested whether humans can also strategically deploy transient facial movements to camouflage the default social traits conveyed by the phenotypic morphology of their faces. We used the responses of 12 observers to create models of the dynamic facial signals of dominance, trustworthiness, and attractiveness. We applied these dynamic models to facial morphologies differing on perceived dominance, trustworthiness, and attractiveness to create a set of dynamic faces; new observers rated each dynamic face according to the three social traits. We found that specific facial movements camouflage the social appearance of a face by modulating the features of phenotypic morphology. A comparison of these facial expressions with those similarly derived for facial emotions showed that social-trait expressions, rather than being simple one-to-one overgeneralizations of emotional expressions, are a distinct set of signals composed of movements from different emotions. Our generative face models represent novel psychophysical laws for social sciences; these laws predict the perception of social traits on the basis of dynamic face identities.
Parhizkar, Nooshin; Hiltzik, David H; Selesnick, Samuel H
Facial nerve rerouting techniques were developed to facilitate re-section of extensive tumors occupying the skull base. Facial nerve rerouting has its own limitations and risks, requiring microsurgical expertise, additional surgical time, and often some degree of facial nerve paresis. This article presents different degrees of anterior and posterior facial nerve rerouting, techniques of facial nerve rerouting, and a comprehensive review of outcomes. It then reviews anatomic and functional preservation of the facial nerve in acoustic neuroma resection, technical aspects of facial nerve dissection, intracranial facial nerve repair options, and outcomes for successful acoustic neuroma surgery.
Eleftheriadis, Stefanos; Rudovic, Ognjen; Pantic, Maja
Images of facial expressions are often captured from various views as a result of either head movements or variable camera position. Existing methods for multiview and/or view-invariant facial expression recognition typically perform classification of the observed expression using either classifiers learned separately for each view or a single classifier learned for all views. However, these approaches ignore the fact that different views of a facial expression are just different manifestations of the same facial expression. By accounting for this redundancy, we can design more effective classifiers for the target task. To this end, we propose a discriminative shared Gaussian process latent variable model (DS-GPLVM) for multiview and view-invariant classification of facial expressions from multiple views. In this model, we first learn a discriminative manifold shared by multiple views of a facial expression. Subsequently, we perform facial expression classification in the expression manifold. Finally, classification of an observed facial expression is carried out either in the view-invariant manner (using only a single view of the expression) or in the multiview manner (using multiple views of the expression). The proposed model can also be used to perform fusion of different facial features in a principled manner. We validate the proposed DS-GPLVM on both posed and spontaneously displayed facial expressions from three publicly available datasets (MultiPIE, labeled face parts in the wild, and static facial expressions in the wild). We show that this model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods for multiview and view-invariant facial expression classification, and several state-of-the-art methods for multiview learning and feature fusion.
Frühholz, Sascha; Trautmann-Lengsfeld, Sina A; Herrmann, Manfred
We examined interference effects of emotionally associated background colours during fast valence categorisations of negative, neutral and positive expressions. According to implicitly learned colour-emotion associations, facial expressions were presented with colours that either matched the valence of these expressions or not. Experiment 1 included infrequent non-matching trials and Experiment 2 a balanced ratio of matching and non-matching trials. Besides general modulatory effects of contextual features on the processing of facial expressions, we found differential effects depending on the valance of target facial expressions. Whereas performance accuracy was mainly affected for neutral expressions, performance speed was specifically modulated by emotional expressions indicating some susceptibility of emotional expressions to contextual features. Experiment 3 used two further colour-emotion combinations, but revealed only marginal interference effects most likely due to missing colour-emotion associations. The results are discussed with respect to inherent processing demands of emotional and neutral expressions and their susceptibility to contextual interference.
Rehabilitation takes an important part in the treatment of facial paralysis, especially when these are severe. It aims to lead the recovery of motor activity and prevent or reduce sequelae like synkinesis or spasms. It is preferable that it be proposed early in order to set up a treatment plan based on the results of the assessment, sometimes coupled with an electromyography. In case of surgery, preoperative work is recommended, especially in case of hypoglossofacial anastomosis or lengthening temporalis myoplasty (LTM). Our proposal is to present an original technique to enhance the sensorimotor loop and the cortical control of movement, especially when using botulinum toxin and after surgery.
Basinko, Audrey; Giovannucci Uzielli, Maria Luisa; Scarselli, Gloria; Priolo, Manuela; Timpani, Giuseppina; De Braekeleer, Marc
We report here a child with a ring chromosome 5 (r(5)) associated with facial dysmorphology and multiple congenital abnormalities. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones was performed to determine the breakpoints involved in the r(5). The 5p deletion extended from 5p13.2-3 to 5pter and measured 34.61 Mb (range: 33.7-35.52 Mb) while the 5q deletion extended from 5q35.3 to 5qter and measured 2.44 Mb (range: 2.31-2.57 Mb). The patient presented signs such as microcephaly, hypertelorism, micrognathia and epicanthal folds, partially recalling those of a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 and the "cri-du-chat" syndrome. The most striking phenotypic features were the congenital heart abnormalities which have been frequently reported in deletions of the distal part of the long arm of chromosome 5 and in rings leading to a 5q35-5qter deletion. However, the NKX2-5 gene, which has been related to congenital heart defects, was not deleted in our patient, nor presumably to some other patients with 5q35.3-5qter deletion. We propose that VEGFR3, deleted in our patient, could be a candidate gene for the congenital heart abnormalities observed.
Hadi, Helmi; Wilkinson, Caroline M
Ensuring uniformity in the nomenclature standardization of facial creases is important to enable the scholarly community to follow and debate the advancements in research. This review highlights the prevailing disparity in the nomenclature that refers to the same facial crease by researchers and laypeople, and suggests uniform names for the facial creases based on available literature. The previous and current trends in facial crease classification are also discussed. The nomenclature of the facial creases considered for this review include the following: the nasolabial fold, corner of the mouth lines, upper and lower lip creases around the mouth region, the mandibular folds, the bifid nose, the transverse nasal line, the vertical glabellar line, chin crease, the mental crease, four type of creases around the eyes, forehead creases, and periauricular creases. A figure illustrating the above facial creases is included as reference. It is hoped that the proposed standardization of nomenclature would ensure a more scientific referencing of facial creases enabling more effective scientific interaction among the scholarly community as well as the laypeople interested in the research and application of facial creases.
Girges, Christine; Spencer, Janine; O'Brien, Justin
Advances in marker-less motion capture technology now allow the accurate replication of facial motion and deformation in computer-generated imagery (CGI). A forced-choice discrimination paradigm using such CGI facial animations showed that human observers can categorize identity solely from facial motion cues. Animations were generated from motion captures acquired during natural speech, thus eliciting both rigid (head rotations and translations) and nonrigid (expressional changes) motion. To limit interferences from individual differences in facial form, all animations shared the same appearance. Observers were required to discriminate between different videos of facial motion and between the facial motions of different people. Performance was compared to the control condition of orientation-inverted facial motion. The results show that observers are able to make accurate discriminations of identity in the absence of all cues except facial motion. A clear inversion effect in both tasks provided consistency with previous studies, supporting the configural view of human face perception. The accuracy of this motion capture technology thus allowed stimuli to be generated that closely resembled real moving faces. Future studies may wish to implement such methodology when studying human face perception.
Ptucha, Raymond; Kloosterman, David; Mittelstaedt, Brian; Loui, Alexander
Personal consumer photography collections often contain photos captured by numerous devices stored both locally and via online services. The task of gathering, organizing, and assembling still and video assets in preparation for sharing with others can be quite challenging. Current commercial photobook applications are mostly manual-based requiring significant user interactions. To assist the consumer in organizing these assets, we propose an automatic method to assign a fitness score to each asset, whereby the top scoring assets are used for product creation. Our method uses cues extracted from analyzing pixel data, metadata embedded in the file, as well as ancillary tags or online comments. When a face occurs in an image, its features have a dominating influence on both aesthetic and compositional properties of the displayed image. As such, this paper will emphasize the contributions faces have on affecting the overall fitness score of an image. To understand consumer preference, we conducted a psychophysical study that spanned 27 judges, 5,598 faces, and 2,550 images. Preferences on a per-face and per-image basis were independently gathered to train our classifiers. We describe how to use machine learning techniques to merge differing facial attributes into a single classifier. Our novel methods of facial weighting, fusion of facial attributes, and dimensionality reduction produce stateof- the-art results suitable for commercial applications.
Gilani, Syed Zulqarnain; Rooney, Kathleen; Shafait, Faisal; Walters, Mark; Mian, Ajmal
Gender score is the cognitive judgement of the degree of masculinity or femininity of a face which is considered to be a continuum. Gender scores have long been used in psychological studies to understand the complex psychosocial relationships between people. Perceptual scores for gender and attractiveness have been employed for quality assessment and planning of cosmetic facial surgery. Various neurological disorders have been linked to the facial structure in general and the facial gender perception in particular. While, subjective gender scoring by human raters has been a tool of choice for psychological studies for many years, the process is both time and resource consuming. In this study, we investigate the geometric features used by the human cognitive system in perceiving the degree of masculinity/femininity of a 3D face. We then propose a mathematical model that can mimic the human gender perception. For our experiments, we obtained 3D face scans of 64 subjects using the 3dMDface scanner. The textureless 3D face scans of the subjects were then observed in different poses and assigned a gender score by 75 raters of a similar background. Our results suggest that the human cognitive system employs a combination of Euclidean and geodesic distances between biologically significant landmarks of the face for gender scoring. We propose a mathematical model that is able to automatically assign an objective gender score to a 3D face with a correlation of up to 0.895 with the human subjective scores.
Rahko, Jukka S.; Paakki, Jyri-Johan; Starck, Tuomo H.; Nikkinen, Juha; Pauls, David L.; Katsyri, Jari V.; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira M.; Carter, Alice S.; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja K.; Remes, Jukka J.; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna A.; Sams, Mikko E.; Bolte, Sven; Ebeling, Hanna E.; Moilanen, Irma K.; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa
FMRI was performed with the dynamic facial expressions fear and happiness. This was done to detect differences in valence processing between 25 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and 27 typically developing controls. Valence scaling was abnormal in ASDs. Positive valence induces lower deactivation and abnormally strong activity in ASD…
Williams, Christopher G.; Dellon, A. Lee; Rosson, Gedge D.
Pain persisting for at least 6 months is defined as chronic. Chronic facial pain conditions often take on lives of their own deleteriously changing the lives of the sufferer. Although much is known about facial pain, it is clear that those physicians who treat these conditions should continue elucidating the mechanisms and defining successful treatment strategies for these life-changing conditions. This article will review many of the classic causes of chronic facial pain due to the trigeminal nerve and its branches that are amenable to surgical therapies. Testing of facial sensibility is described and its utility introduced. We will also introduce some of the current hypotheses of atypical facial pain and headaches secondary to chronic nerve compressions and will suggest possible treatment strategies. PMID:22110799
Sundelin, Tina; Lekander, Mats; Kecklund, Göran; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Olsson, Andreas; Axelsson, John
Study Objective: To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Design: Experimental laboratory study. Setting: Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants: Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial photographs with respect to fatigue, 10 facial cues, and sadness. The stimulus material consisted of 10 individuals (five women) photographed at 14:30 after normal sleep and after 31 h of sleep deprivation following a night with 5 h of sleep. Measurements: Ratings of fatigue, fatigue-related cues, and sadness in facial photographs. Results: The faces of sleep deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes, darker circles under the eyes, paler skin, more wrinkles/fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth (effects ranging from b = +3 ± 1 to b = +15 ± 1 mm on 100-mm visual analog scales, P < 0.01). The ratings of fatigue were related to glazed eyes and to all the cues affected by sleep deprivation (P < 0.01). Ratings of rash/eczema or tense lips were not significantly affected by sleep deprivation, nor associated with judgements of fatigue. In addition, sleep-deprived individuals looked sadder than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results show that sleep deprivation affects features relating to the eyes, mouth, and skin, and that these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people. Because these facial regions are important in the communication between humans, facial cues of sleep deprivation and fatigue may carry social consequences for the sleep deprived individual in everyday life. Citation: Sundelin T; Lekander M; Kecklund G; Van Someren EJW; Olsson A; Axelsson J. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance. SLEEP 2013;36(9):1355-1360. PMID:23997369
... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...
A 40-year-old man presented in January 2001 with multiple purple plaques and nodules, which had been present on the back for approximately 3 years. The lesions had gradually extended over the face, trunk and proximal extremities. He had no symptoms except occasional mild pruritus. The patient was in good health and was on no medications. Physical examination revealed multiple violaceous to brown, indurated, 5-50-mm, round to oval plaques on the face, arms, shoulders, and back (Fig. 1), as well as a solitary lesion on the right thigh. Surface telangiectases were noted, especially on the shoulder lesions. There was no scaling or ulceration. Routine laboratory tests were unremarkable. In April 1999, another medical center performed a biopsy of what they thought was sarcoidosis. The results were reported as "possible angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia." With the possibility of granuoma faciale (GF) in mind, another skin biopsy was obtained from a facial lesion. This revealed a diffuse, relatively dense infiltrate of neutrophils, eosinophils and mononuclear inflammatory cells in dermis with an obvious Grenz zone (Fig. 2). Pilar units were intact, and endothelial cell swelling was present (Fig. 3). Retrospective evaluation of the initial biopsy, taken from the back, revealed the same changes, and helped confirm the diagnosis of GF. The patient was treated with liquid nitrogen for 20 s followed immediately by intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (5 mg/ml). This treatment was repeated every 4 weeks for three courses, resulting in partial resolution of the lesions.
Pierson, Diane M; Taboada, Eugenio; Butler, Merlin G
Fryns syndrome is a rare, generally lethal, autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly (MCA) syndrome first described in 1979. Patients with the syndrome present with the classical findings of cloudy cornea, brain malformations, diaphragmatic defects, and distal limb deformities. Over 70 patients have been reported revealing a wide variety of phenotypic features. Although initially considered a major feature of Fryns syndrome, cloudy cornea has been relegated as a minor diagnostic sign and not commonly reported in patients since the original description. However, eye findings per se are not uncommon. Abnormal eye findings occasionally reported in Fryns syndrome potentially result in amblyopia and blindness, profoundly affecting neurologic outcome of those who survive the neonatal period. We reviewed 77 reported patients with Fryns syndrome and summarized the abnormal eye findings identified in 12 of the reported cases. In addition, we contribute three new patients with Fryns syndrome, one of which demonstrated unilateral microphthalmia and cloudy cornea.
Cheng, Cheng; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Dai, Ning; Sun, Yuchun; Jiang, Xiaotong; Li, Weiwei
With the development of 3D printing and computer graphics technology, mouth rehabilitation has increasingly adopted digital methods. This research proposes a new method to transform the appearance of facial model after complete denture prosthesis. A feature template with few feature points is first constructed according to the facial muscle anatomy and facial deformation after complete denture prosthesis. Next, the traditional as-rigid-as-possible (ARAP) method is optimised by clustering based on facial muscles. The optimised ARAP method is then used for real-time and interactive simulations. Finally, by classifying the degrees of elasticity in the model with additional weights, the simulation can be customised to the skin of individual patients. Different degrees of elastic deformation and post-operative models are superimposed for match analysis. Compared with our previous study, the error is reduced by 24.05%. Results show that our method can deform facial models accurately and efficiently.
... PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... treat abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...
Hütteroth, T H; Litwin, S D; German, J
Bloom's syndrome is a rare autosmal recessive disorder, first characterized by growth retardation and asum-sensitive facial telangiectasia and more recently demonstarted to have increased chromosome instability, a predisposition to malignancy, and increased susecptibitily to infection. The present report ocncern the immune function of Bloom's syndrom lymphoctes in vitro. Four affected homozgotes and five heterozygotes were studied. An abnormal serum concentartion of at least one class of immunoglobin was present in three out of four homozgotes. Affected homozgotes were shown capable of both a humoral and cellular response after antigenic challenge, the responses in general being weak but detectable. Blood lymphocytes from Bloom's syndrome individuals were cultured in impaired proliferavite response and synthesized less immunoglobulin at the end of 5 days than did normal controls. In contrast, they had a normal proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin except at highest concentrations of the mitogen. In the mixed lymphocte culture, Bloom's syndrome lymphocytes proved to be poor responder cells but normal stimulator cells. Lmyphoctes from the heterozgotes produced normal responses in these three systems. Distrubed immunity appears to be on of several major consequences of homozygosity for the Bloom's syndrome gene. Although the explanation for this pleiotropism is at present obscure, the idea was advanced that the aberrant immune function is, along with the major clincial feature-small body size, amanifestation of defect in cellular proliferation. PMID:124745
Sestito, Mariateresa; Raballo, Andrea; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Amore, Mario; Maggini, Carlo; Gallese, Vittorio
Anomalous experiences such as Basic Symptoms (BS) are considered the first subjective manifestation of the neurobiological substrate of schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to explore whether a low or high emotional motor resonance occurring in Schizophrenia Spectrum (SzSp) patients was related to patients׳ clinical features and to their anomalous subjective experiences as indexed by the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS). To this aim, we employed a validated paradigm sensitive in evoking a congruent facial mimicry (measured by means of facial electromyographic activity, EMG) through multimodal positive and negative emotional stimuli presentation. Results showed that SzSp patients more resonating with negative emotional stimuli (i.e. Externalizers) had significantly higher scores in BSABS Cluster 3 (Vulnerability) and more psychotic episodes than Internalizers patients. On the other hand, SzSp patients more resonating with positive emotional stimuli (i.e. Externalizers) scored higher in BSABS Cluster 5 (Interpersonal irritation) than Internalizers. Drawing upon a phenomenological-based perspective, we attempted to shed new light on the abnormal experiences characterizing schizophrenia, explaining them in terms of a disruption of the normal self-perception conveyed by the basic, low-level emotional motor mechanisms.
Aviña-Fierro, Jorge Arturo; Hernández-Aviña, Daniel Alejandro
Neuhauser syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disease, most cases are sporadic by spontaneous mutation, but there are cases of autosomal recessive genetic transmission; the specific cause is unknown and has no diagnostic test. The disease is clinically characterized by primary megalocornea, congenital hypotonia, mental retardation of varying degree and delayed psychomotor development. The diagnosis in childhood is usually performed by oculo-neurological criteria. The patients have a peculiar face by specific craniofacial anomalies: round face, wide prominent forehead, hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, bulbous nose, wide philtrum nasolabial wide, thin elongated mouth, big and protuded ear "cup", jaw undersized (micrognathia) and abnormal posterior positioning of the mandible (retrognathia).The use of facial dysmorphism helps to delineate the phenotype and achieve the punctuation required for the diagnosis, allowing early management and prevention of complications.
Heppt, Werner J; Vent, Julia
Beauty has been an intriguing issue since the evolving of a culture in mankind. Even the Neanderthals are believed to have applied makeover to enhance facial structures and thus underline beauty. The determinants of beauty and aesthetics have been defined by artists and scientists alike. This article will give an overview of the evolvement of a beauty concept and the significance of the facial profile. It aims at sharpening the senses of the facial plastic surgeon for analyzing the patient's face, consulting the patient on feasible options, planning, and conducting surgery in the most individualized way.
Hönn, Mirjam; Göz, Gernot
In this review article we examine the question as to which parameters of facial attraction are amenable to measurement and which tools are available to perform these measurements. The evaluation of facial images, artistic standards, cephalometry, and anthropometry are discussed. Furthermore, we consider how the attractiveness of a face is influenced by symmetry, averageness and distinguishing features such as dental esthetics or gender specific characteristics. There is a shared concept of what constitutes an "ideal" face. Anthropometric methods are preferable to cephalometric methods in determining the "ideal" face's dimensions, since anthropometric methods are valid, three-dimensional, non-invasive, suitable for a great variety of purposes, and easy to implement. Symmetry and averageness play important roles in determining the attractiveness of a face; although distinguishing features make it extraordinarily beautiful. Such features make a female face appear both child like and mature as well as expressive. Women's preferences as to what constitutes a particularly attractive male face are controversial, since female observers are greatly influenced by their menstrual cycles or their environment when responding to male faces. Finally, allowance has to be made for the fact that the ideal of beauty is subject to certain fluctuations in fashion.
von Piekartz, H; Wallwork, S B; Mohr, G; Butler, D S; Moseley, G L
Alexithymia, or a lack of emotional awareness, is prevalent in some chronic pain conditions and has been linked to poor recognition of others' emotions. Recognising others' emotions from their facial expression involves both emotional and motor processing, but the possible contribution of motor disruption has not been considered. It is possible that poor performance on emotional recognition tasks could reflect problems with emotional processing, motor processing or both. We hypothesised that people with chronic facial pain would be less accurate in recognising others' emotions from facial expressions, would be less accurate in a motor imagery task involving the face, and that performance on both tasks would be positively related. A convenience sample of 19 people (15 females) with chronic facial pain and 19 gender-matched controls participated. They undertook two tasks; in the first task, they identified the facial emotion presented in a photograph. In the second, they identified whether the person in the image had a facial feature pointed towards their left or right side, a well-recognised paradigm to induce implicit motor imagery. People with chronic facial pain performed worse than controls at both tasks (Facially Expressed Emotion Labelling (FEEL) task P < 0·001; left/right judgment task P < 0·001). Participants who were more accurate at one task were also more accurate at the other, regardless of group (P < 0·001, r(2) = 0·523). Participants with chronic facial pain were worse than controls at both the FEEL emotion recognition task and the left/right facial expression task and performance covaried within participants. We propose that disrupted motor processing may underpin or at least contribute to the difficulty that facial pain patients have in emotion recognition and that further research that tests this proposal is warranted.
Mumtaz, Sehreen; Jensen, Matthew B
A young women developed unilateral facial neuropathy 2 weeks after a motor vehicle collision involving fractures of the skull and mandible. MRI showed contrast enhancement of the facial nerve. We review the literature describing facial neuropathy after trauma and facial nerve enhancement patterns with different causes of facial neuropathy. PMID:25574155
Giang, Trang; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel
Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces). A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system. PMID:23094095
Hofer, Stefan O P; Mureau, Marc A M
Aesthetic facial reconstruction is a challenging art. Improving outcomes in aesthetic facial reconstruction requires a thorough understanding of the basic principles of the functional and aesthetic requirements for facial reconstruction. From there, further refinement and attention to detail can be provided. This paper discusses basic principles of aesthetic facial reconstruction.
Pye, R J; Woods, G M; Kreiss, A
Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is an emergent transmissible cancer exclusive to Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and threatening the species with extinction in the wild. Research on DFTD began 10 years ago, when nothing was known about the tumor and little about the devils. The depth of knowledge gained since then is impressive, with research having addressed significant aspects of the disease and the devils' responses to it. These include the cause and pathogenesis of DFTD, the immune response of the devils and the immune evasion mechanisms of the tumor, the transmission patterns of DFTD, and the impacts of DFTD on the ecosystem. This review aims to collate this information and put it into the context of conservation strategies designed to mitigate the impacts of DFTD on the devil and the Tasmanian ecosystem.
Bhat, Yasmeen J; Baba, Asif Nazir; Manzoor, Sheikh; Qayoom, Seema; Javed, Sheikh; Ajaz, Hakeem
Ellis-van Creveld (EVC) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive congenital disorder characterized by chondrodysplasia and polydactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and congenital defects of the heart. We present here a case of a 16-year-old short-limbed dwarf with skeletal deformities and bilateral postaxial polydactyly, dysplastic nails and teeth, also having left-sided facial hemiatrophy. The diagnosis of EVC syndrome was made on the basis of clinical and radiological features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of EVC syndrome with facial hemiatrophy in the medical literature from India.
Cao, Chen; Weng, Yanlin; Zhou, Shun; Tong, Yiying; Zhou, Kun
We present FaceWarehouse, a database of 3D facial expressions for visual computing applications. We use Kinect, an off-the-shelf RGBD camera, to capture 150 individuals aged 7-80 from various ethnic backgrounds. For each person, we captured the RGBD data of her different expressions, including the neutral expression and 19 other expressions such as mouth-opening, smile, kiss, etc. For every RGBD raw data record, a set of facial feature points on the color image such as eye corners, mouth contour, and the nose tip are automatically localized, and manually adjusted if better accuracy is required. We then deform a template facial mesh to fit the depth data as closely as possible while matching the feature points on the color image to their corresponding points on the mesh. Starting from these fitted face meshes, we construct a set of individual-specific expression blendshapes for each person. These meshes with consistent topology are assembled as a rank-3 tensor to build a bilinear face model with two attributes: identity and expression. Compared with previous 3D facial databases, for every person in our database, there is a much richer matching collection of expressions, enabling depiction of most human facial actions. We demonstrate the potential of FaceWarehouse for visual computing with four applications: facial image manipulation, face component transfer, real-time performance-based facial image animation, and facial animation retargeting from video to image.
Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano
OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310
Howard, Monique L; Palmer, Stephen J; Taylor, Kylie M; Arthurson, Geoffrey J; Spitzer, Matthew W; Du, Xin; Pang, Terence Y C; Renoir, Thibault; Hardeman, Edna C; Hannan, Anthony J
Insufficiency of the transcriptional regulator GTF2IRD1 has become a strong potential explanation for some of the major characteristic features of the neurodevelopmental disorder Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS). Genotype/phenotype correlations in humans indicate that the hemizygous loss of the GTF2IRD1 gene and an adjacent paralogue, GTF2I, play crucial roles in the neurocognitive and craniofacial aspects of the disease. In order to explore this genetic relationship in greater detail, we have generated a targeted Gtf2ird1 mutation in mice that blocks normal GTF2IRD1 protein production. Detailed analyses of homozygous null Gtf2ird1 mice have revealed a series of phenotypes that share some intriguing parallels with WBS. These include reduced body weight, a facial deformity resulting from localised epidermal hyperplasia, a motor coordination deficit, alterations in exploratory activity and, in response to specific stress-inducing stimuli; a novel audible vocalisation and increased serum corticosterone. Analysis of Gtf2ird1 expression patterns in the brain using a knock-in LacZ reporter and c-fos activity mapping illustrates the regions where these neurological abnormalities may originate. These data provide new mechanistic insight into the clinical genetic findings in WBS patients and indicate that insufficiency of GTF2IRD1 protein contributes to abnormalities of facial development, motor function and specific behavioural disorders that accompany this disease.
Popov, Tzvetan G; Rockstroh, Brigitte S; Popova, Petia; Carolus, Almut M; Miller, Gregory A
Impaired facial affect recognition is characteristic of schizophrenia and has been related to impaired social function, but the relevant neural mechanisms have not been fully identified. The present study sought to identify the role of oscillatory alpha activity in that deficit during the process of facial emotion recognition. Neuromagnetic brain activity was monitored while 44 schizophrenia patients and 44 healthy controls viewed 5-s videos showing human faces gradually changing from neutral to fearful or happy expressions or from the neutral face of one poser to the neutral face of another. Recognition performance was determined separately by self-report. Relative to prestimulus baseline, controls exhibited a 10- to 15-Hz power increase prior to full recognition and a 10- to 15-Hz power decrease during the postrecognition phase. These results support recent proposals about the function of alpha-band oscillations in normal stimulus evaluation. The patients failed to show this sequence of alpha power increase and decrease and also showed low 10- to 15-Hz power and high 10- to 15-Hz connectivity during the prestimulus baseline. In light of the proposal that a combination of alpha power increase and functional disconnection facilitates information intake and processing, the finding of an abnormal association of low baseline alpha power and high connectivity in schizophrenia suggests a state of impaired readiness that fosters abnormal dynamics during facial affect recognition.
Nakajima, Kae; Minami, Tetsuto; Nakauchi, Shigeki
Facial color varies depending on emotional state, and emotions are often described in relation to facial color. In this study, we investigated whether the recognition of facial expressions was affected by facial color and vice versa. In the facial expression task, expression morph continua were employed: fear-anger and sadness-happiness. The morphed faces were presented in three different facial colors (bluish, neutral, and reddish color). Participants identified a facial expression between the two endpoints (e.g., fear or anger) regardless of its facial color. The results showed that the perception of facial expression was influenced by facial color. In the fear-anger morphs, intermediate morphs of reddish-colored and bluish colored faces had a greater tendency to be identified as angry faces and fearful faces, respectively. In the facial color task, two bluish-to-reddish colored face continua were presented in three different facial expressions (fear-neutral-anger and sadness-neutral-happiness). Participants judged whether the facial color was reddish or bluish regardless of its expression. The faces with sad expression tended to be identified as more bluish, while the faces with other expressions did not affect facial color judgment. These results suggest that an interactive but disproportionate relationship exists between facial color and expression in face perception. PMID:28117349
Stepanova, Elena V; Strube, Michael J
Participants (N = 106) performed an affective priming task with facial primes that varied in their skin tone and facial physiognomy, and, which were presented either in color or in gray-scale. Participants' racial evaluations were more positive for Eurocentric than for Afrocentric physiognomy faces. Light skin tone faces were evaluated more positively than dark skin tone faces, but the magnitude of this effect depended on the mode of color presentation. The results suggest that in affective priming tasks, faces might not be processed holistically, and instead, visual features of facial priming stimuli independently affect implicit evaluations.
Mitnick, R.J.; Bello, J.A.; Shprintzen, R.J.
Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in 11 consecutively referred patients with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCF) showed anomalies in nine cases including small vermis, cysts adjacent to the frontal horns, and small posterior fossa. Focal signal hyperintensities in the white matter on long TR images were also noted. The nine patients showed a variety of behavioral abnormalities including mild development delay, learning disabilities, and characteristic personality traits typical of this common multiple anomaly syndrome which has been related to a microdeletion at 22q11. Analysis of the behavorial findings showed no specific pattern related to the brain anomalies, and the patients with VCF who did not have detectable brain lesions also had behavioral abnormalities consistent with VCF. The significance of the lesions is not yet known, but the high prevalence of anomalies in this sample suggests that structural brain abnormalities are probably common in VCF. 25 refs.
Thiesen, Guilherme; Gribel, Bruno Frazão; Freitas, Maria Perpétua Mota
Abstract The term "asymmetry" is used to make reference to dissimilarity between homologous elements, altering the balance between structures. Facial asymmetry is common in the overall population and is often presented subclinically. Nevertheless, on occasion, significant facial asymmetry results not only in functional, but also esthetic issues. Under these conditions, its etiology should be carefully investigated in order to achieve an adequate treatment plan. Facial asymmetry assessment comprises patient's first interview, extra- as well as intraoral clinical examination, and supplementary imaging examination. Subsequent asymmetry treatment depends on patient's age, the etiology of the condition and on the degree of disharmony, and might include from asymmetrical orthodontic mechanics to orthognathic surgery. Thus, the present study aims at addressing important aspects to be considered by the orthodontist reaching an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan of facial asymmetry, in addition to reporting treatment of some patients carriers of such challenging disharmony. PMID:26691977
Ariyaratnam, S; Rood, J P
It is essential to know the pattern of facial skin temperatures in normal subjects to be able to objectively assess differences in cases of nerve injury. Thirty healthy adults were selected at random to investigate the pattern of facial temperature using liquid crystal thermography and an electronic thermocouple system. The highest temperature of the face was in the forehead area (c, 34 degrees C) and the lowest (c. 32 degrees C) in the cheek area. If ambient temperature and humidity are controlled in a draught-free environment, symmetry of the facial skin temperature can be maintained. It is concluded that measurements of facial skin temperature may be used to investigate and assess lesions of peripheral branches of cranial nerves supplying the face.
Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul
Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)
Research into emotions has increased in recent decades, especially on the subject of recognition of emotions. However, studies of the facial expressions of emotion were compromised by technical problems with visible video analysis and electromyography in experimental settings. These have only recently been overcome. There have been new developments in the field of automated computerized facial recognition; allowing real-time identification of facial expression in social environments. This review addresses three approaches to measuring facial expression of emotion and describes their specific contributions to understanding emotion in the healthy population and in persons with mental illness. Despite recent progress, studies on human emotions have been hindered by the lack of consensus on an emotion theory suited to examining the dynamic aspects of emotion and its expression. Studying expression of emotion in patients with mental health conditions for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes will profit from theoretical and methodological progress. PMID:26869846
Research into emotions has increased in recent decades, especially on the subject of recognition of emotions. However, studies of the facial expressions of emotion were compromised by technical problems with visible video analysis and electromyography in experimental settings. These have only recently been overcome. There have been new developments in the field of automated computerized facial recognition; allowing real-time identification of facial expression in social environments. This review addresses three approaches to measuring facial expression of emotion and describes their specific contributions to understanding emotion in the healthy population and in persons with mental illness. Despite recent progress, studies on human emotions have been hindered by the lack of consensus on an emotion theory suited to examining the dynamic aspects of emotion and its expression. Studying expression of emotion in patients with mental health conditions for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes will profit from theoretical and methodological progress.
Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia
Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology. PMID:26677445
Cantalupo, Gaetano; Meletti, Stefano; Miduri, Alessia; Mazzotta, Silvia; Rios-Pohl, Loreto; Benuzzi, Francesca; Pisani, Francesco; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Cossu, Giuseppe
It has been documented that anteromedial temporal lobe dysfunction can cause impairment in emotional intelligence. In particular, medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is associated with disorders in emotion recognition from facial expressions. About one-third of patients with MTLE experienced febrile seizures (FSs) during childhood. In the present study, we investigated facial emotion recognition ability in a group of 38 school-aged children with antecedent FSs and in an age- and sex-matched control group. Children with abnormal general visuoperceptual abilities were excluded. Children with FSs showed lower recognition scores versus controls in both matching (28.64 vs 33.47; p<.0001) and labeling (21.25 vs 23.03; p=.001) facial emotions. Our findings support the hypothesis that FSs can be associated during childhood with a dysfunction within the neural network subserving the processing of facial expressions of the basic emotions.
Stough, D B; Schell, B J; Weyrich, R P
Facial aesthetics involve basic artistic principles that relate individual features to the face as a whole. These principles, such as balance and proportion, are key elements in the development of hair restoration surgery and can be applied to reconstructive procedures for the trauma or burn patient. This paper describes the application of anthropometric and artistic principles used in hair reconstruction. Attention has been directed to the procedures used to determine hairline contour and placement, and certain aspects of frontotemporal recession management. The frontal hair has a profound effect on facial balance because of the major role hair plays in framing and visually enhancing the face. The presence of frontal hair and facial framing also serves to retain a vital element of autonomy in appearance for the individual.
Federspil, Philipp A.
Craniofacial prostheses, also known as epistheses, are artificial substitutes for facial defects. The breakthrough for rehabilitation of facial defects with implant-retained prostheses came with the development of the modern silicones and bone anchorage. Following the discovery of the osseointegration of titanium in the 1950s, dental implants have been made of titanium in the 1960s. In 1977, the first extraoral titanium implant was inserted in a patient. Later, various solitary extraoral implant systems were developed. Grouped implant systems have also been developed which may be placed more reliably in areas with low bone presentation, as in the nasal and orbital region, or the ideally pneumatised mastoid process. Today, even large facial prostheses may be securely retained. The classical atraumatic surgical technique has remained an unchanged prerequisite for successful implantation of any system. This review outlines the basic principles of osseointegration as well as the main features of extraoral implantology. PMID:22073096
Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Santhanam, Aparna
External cutaneous photography involves photographic documentation, which helps in treatment planning, documentation of facial features, teaching, publishing and pre- and post-procedural comparisons. The key is not simply documenting, but documenting it the right way and ensuring that photography is standardised and reproducible. In this review, basic photography techniques, standardised and reproducible angles such as frontal, oblique and lateral views and specific photographic angles for conditions such as facial rejuvenation are discussed. Use of photography accessories and a few tips on how to click good photographs in the examination room and how to achieve consistency in standardised photography are also presented. External photography in ophthalmic and facial plastic surgery like any other speciality too has standardised guidelines. Even small variations cause a drastic change in the photos and it's clinical and research value. Unless stringent criteria are met, the photographs lose their relevance and impact.
Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Santhanam, Aparna
External cutaneous photography involves photographic documentation, which helps in treatment planning, documentation of facial features, teaching, publishing and pre- and post-procedural comparisons. The key is not simply documenting, but documenting it the right way and ensuring that photography is standardised and reproducible. In this review, basic photography techniques, standardised and reproducible angles such as frontal, oblique and lateral views and specific photographic angles for conditions such as facial rejuvenation are discussed. Use of photography accessories and a few tips on how to click good photographs in the examination room and how to achieve consistency in standardised photography are also presented. External photography in ophthalmic and facial plastic surgery like any other speciality too has standardised guidelines. Even small variations cause a drastic change in the photos and it's clinical and research value. Unless stringent criteria are met, the photographs lose their relevance and impact. PMID:27398013
Steinhoff, Martin; Schmelz, Martin; Schauber, Jürgen
Rosacea is a common chronic skin condition that displays a broad diversity of clinical manifestations. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms of the four subtypes are not completely elucidated, the key elements often present are augmented immune responses of the innate and adaptive immune system, and neurovascular dysregulation. The most common primary feature of all cutaneous subtypes of rosacea is transient or persistent facial erythema. Perilesional erythema of papules or pustules is based on the sustained vasodilation and plasma extravasation induced by the inflammatory infiltrates. In contrast, transient erythema has rapid kinetics induced by trigger factors independent of papules or pustules. Amongst the current treatments for facial erythema of rosacea, only the selective α2-adrenergic receptor agonist brimonidine 0.33% topical gel (Mirvaso®) is approved. This review aims to discuss the potential causes, different pathophysiologies and current treatment options to address the unmet medical needs of patients with facial erythema of rosacea.
Facial feminization surgery (FFS) is a group of surgical procedures; the objectives of which are to change the features of a male face to that of a female face. This surgery does not aim to rejuvenate the face. FFS is carried out almost exclusively on transsexual women (males who are transitioning into females) and who have gender dysphoria. Some non-transsexual women may undergo some feminizing surgical procedures if they feel that they have male facial characteristics. Most transsexual women will have lived in role for sometime and they often undergo FFS before any other form of gender reassignment surgery as it assists them in passing as a female and integrating into everyday society. Various specific facial surgical procedures are utilized to feminize the face, often involving sculpture and contouring of the facial skeleton. These include correction of the hairline by scalp advance, contouring the forehead, brow lift, rhinoplasty, cheek implants, resection of the buccal fat pads of Bichat, lip lift and lip augmentation with dermis graft, mandible angle reduction and taper, genioplasty and thyroid shave. This article discusses the current state of the art in facial feminization surgery.
Barrera-Pulido, Fernando; Gomez-Cia, Tomas; Sicilia-Castro, Domingo; Garcia-Perla-Garcia, Alberto; Gacto-Sanchez, Purificacion; Hernandez-Guisado, Jose-Maria; Lagares-Borrego, Araceli; Narros-Gimenez, Rocio; Gonzalez-Padilla, Juan D.
Objectives: Update on clinical results obtained by the first worldwide facial transplantation teams as well as review of the literature concerning the main surgical, immunological, ethical, and follow-up aspects described on facial transplanted patients. Study design: MEDLINE search of articles published on “face transplantation” until March 2012. Results: Eighteen clinical cases were studied. The mean patient age was 37.5 years, with a higher prevalence of men. Main surgical indication was gunshot injuries (6 patients). All patients had previously undergone multiple conventional surgical reconstructive procedures which had failed. Altogether 8 transplant teams belonging to 4 countries participated. Thirteen partial face transplantations and 5 full face transplantations have been performed. Allografts are varied according to face anatomical components and the amount of skin, muscle, bone, and other tissues included, though all were grafted successfully and remained viable without significant postoperative surgical complications. The patient with the longest follow-up was 5 years. Two patients died 2 and 27 months after transplantation. Conclusions: Clinical experience has demonstrated the feasibility of facial transplantation as a valuable reconstructive option, but it still remains considered as an experimental procedure with unresolved issues to settle down. Results show that from a clinical, technical, and immunological standpoint, facial transplantation has achieved functional, aesthetic, and social rehabilitation in severely facial disfigured patients. Key words:Face transplantation, composite tissue transplantation, face allograft, facial reconstruction, outcomes and complications of face transplantation. PMID:23229268
Guo, Kun; Shaw, Heather
Recent studies measuring the facial expressions of emotion have focused primarily on the perception of frontal face images. As we frequently encounter expressive faces from different viewing angles, having a mechanism which allows invariant expression perception would be advantageous to our social interactions. Although a couple of studies have indicated comparable expression categorization accuracy across viewpoints, it is unknown how perceived expression intensity and associated gaze behaviour change across viewing angles. Differences could arise because diagnostic cues from local facial features for decoding expressions could vary with viewpoints. Here we manipulated orientation of faces (frontal, mid-profile, and profile view) displaying six common facial expressions of emotion, and measured participants' expression categorization accuracy, perceived expression intensity and associated gaze patterns. In comparison with frontal faces, profile faces slightly reduced identification rates for disgust and sad expressions, but significantly decreased perceived intensity for all tested expressions. Although quantitatively viewpoint had expression-specific influence on the proportion of fixations directed at local facial features, the qualitative gaze distribution within facial features (e.g., the eyes tended to attract the highest proportion of fixations, followed by the nose and then the mouth region) was independent of viewpoint and expression type. Our results suggest that the viewpoint-invariant facial expression processing is categorical perception, which could be linked to a viewpoint-invariant holistic gaze strategy for extracting expressive facial cues.
Prattichizzo, Clelia; Macca, Marina; Novelli, Valeria; Giorgio, Giovanna; Barra, Adriano; Franco, Brunella
Oral-facial-digital type I (OFDI) syndrome is a male-lethal X-linked dominant developmental disorder belonging to the heterogeneous group of oral-facial-digital syndromes (OFDS). OFDI is characterized by malformations of the face, oral cavity, and digits. Central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities and cystic kidney disease can also be part of this condition. This rare genetic disorder is due to mutations in the OFD1 gene that encodes a centrosome/basal body protein necessary for primary cilium assembly and for left-right axis determination, thus ascribing OFDI to the growing number of disorders associated to ciliary dysfunction. We now report a mutation analysis study in a cohort of 100 unrelated affected individuals collected worldwide. Putative disease-causing mutations were identified in 81 patients (81%). We describe 67 different mutations, 64 of which represent novel mutations, including 36 frameshift, nine missense, 11 splice-site, and 11 nonsense mutations. Most of them concentrate in exons 3, 8, 9, 12, 13, and 16, suggesting that these exons may represent mutational hotspots. Phenotypic characterization of the patients provided a better definition of the clinical features of OFDI syndrome. Our results indicate that renal cystic disease is present in 60% of cases >18 years of age. Genotype-phenotype correlation did not reveal significant associations apart for the high-arched/cleft palate most frequently associated to missense and splice-site mutations. Our results contribute to further expand our knowledge on the molecular basis of OFDI syndrome.
Kariminejad, Ariana; Ajeawung, Norbert Fonya; Bozorgmehr, Bita; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Molidperee, Sirinart; Najafi, Kimia; Gibbs, Richard A; Lee, Brendan H; Hennekam, Raoul C; Campeau, Philippe M
Kaufman oculo-cerebro-facial syndrome (KOS) is caused by recessive UBE3B mutations and presents with microcephaly, ocular abnormalities, distinctive facial morphology, low cholesterol levels and intellectual disability. We describe a child with microcephaly, brachycephaly, hearing loss, ptosis, blepharophimosis, hypertelorism, cleft palate, multiple renal cysts, absent nails, small or absent terminal phalanges, absent speech and intellectual disability. Syndromes that were initially considered include DOORS syndrome, Coffin-Siris syndrome and Dubowitz syndrome. Clinical investigations coupled with karyotype analysis, array-comparative genomic hybridization, exome and Sanger sequencing were performed to characterize the condition in this child. Sanger sequencing was negative for the DOORS syndrome gene TBC1D24 but exome sequencing identified a homozygous deletion in UBE3B (NM_183415:c.3139_3141del, p.1047_1047del) located within the terminal portion of the HECT domain. This finding coupled with the presence of characteristic features such as brachycephaly, ptosis, blepharophimosis, hypertelorism, short palpebral fissures, cleft palate and developmental delay allowed us to make a diagnosis of KOS. In conclusion, our findings highlight the importance of considering KOS as a differential diagnosis for patients under evaluation for DOORS syndrome and expand the phenotype of KOS to include small or absent terminal phalanges, nails, and the presence of hallux varus and multicystic dysplastic kidneys.
Zhao, Shouqin; Han, Demin; Wang, Zhenchang; Li, Jie; Qian, Yanni; Ren, Yuanyuan; Dong, Jiyong
We conducted a prospective study to investigate the abnormalities of the facial nerve canal in patients with congenital aural atresia by computed tomography (CT). Our study population was made up of 99 patients--68 males and 31 females, aged 6 to 22 years (mean: 13.5)--who had unilateral congenital aural atresia without any inner ear malformations. We compared our findings in these patients with those in 50 controls-33 males and 17 females, aged 5 to 22 years (mean: 15.0)-who had normal ears. We classified the congenital aural atresia patients into three groups (A, B, and C) according to their Jahrsdoerfer grading scale score (≥8; 6 or 7; and ≤5, respectively). The course of the facial nerve canal in both the controls and the study patients was determined by temporal bone CT with multiplanar reconstruction. The distances from different parts of the facial nerve canal to surrounding structures were also measured. The course of the facial nerve canal in the normal ears did not vary much, and there were no statistically significant differences according to head side and sex. In groups B and C, the tympanic segment, mastoid segment, and angle of the second genu of the facial nerve canal were all significantly smaller than those of the controls (p < 0.01 in all cases). Statistically, the tympanic segment of the facial nerve canal in patients with congenital aural atresia was downwardly displaced. The mastoid segment of the facial nerve canal in these patients was more anterior than that of the controls. We conclude that congenital aural atresia is often accompanied by abnormalities of the facial nerve canal, especially in the tympanic segment, the mastoid segment, and the second genu. We found that the lower the Jahrsdoerfer score was, the shorter the tympanic segment was and the more forward the mastoid segment was.
LoBue, Vanessa; Thrasher, Cat
Emotional development is one of the largest and most productive areas of psychological research. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by how humans respond to, detect, and interpret emotional facial expressions. Much of the research in this area has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing various facial expressions. Here we introduce a new stimulus set of emotional facial expressions into the domain of research on emotional development-The Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE). The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for six emotional facial expressions-angry, fearful, sad, happy, surprised, and disgusted-and a neutral face. In the current work, we describe the set and report validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants.
LoBue, Vanessa; Thrasher, Cat
Emotional development is one of the largest and most productive areas of psychological research. For decades, researchers have been fascinated by how humans respond to, detect, and interpret emotional facial expressions. Much of the research in this area has relied on controlled stimulus sets of adults posing various facial expressions. Here we introduce a new stimulus set of emotional facial expressions into the domain of research on emotional development—The Child Affective Facial Expression set (CAFE). The CAFE set features photographs of a racially and ethnically diverse group of 2- to 8-year-old children posing for six emotional facial expressions—angry, fearful, sad, happy, surprised, and disgusted—and a neutral face. In the current work, we describe the set and report validity and reliability data on the set from 100 untrained adult participants. PMID:25610415
Dong, Yanchao; Wang, Yanming; Yue, Jiguang; Hu, Zhencheng
The paper proposes a robust framework for 3D facial movement tracking in real time using a monocular camera. It is designed to estimate the 3D face pose and local facial animation such as eyelid movement and mouth movement. The framework firstly utilizes the Discriminative Shape Regression method to locate the facial feature points on the 2D image and fuses the 2D data with a 3D face model using Extended Kalman Filter to yield 3D facial movement information. An alternating optimizing strategy is adopted to fit to different persons automatically. Experiments show that the proposed framework could track the 3D facial movement across various poses and illumination conditions. Given the real face scale the framework could track the eyelid with an error of 1 mm and mouth with an error of 2 mm. The tracking result is reliable for expression analysis or mental state inference. PMID:27463714
Dixson, B J W; Sulikowski, D; Gouda-Vossos, A; Rantala, M J; Brooks, R C
In many species, male secondary sexual traits have evolved via female choice as they confer indirect (i.e. genetic) benefits or direct benefits such as enhanced fertility or survival. In humans, the role of men's characteristically masculine androgen-dependent facial traits in determining men's attractiveness has presented an enduring paradox in studies of human mate preferences. Male-typical facial features such as a pronounced brow ridge and a more robust jawline may signal underlying health, whereas beards may signal men's age and masculine social dominance. However, masculine faces are judged as more attractive for short-term relationships over less masculine faces, whereas beards are judged as more attractive than clean-shaven faces for long-term relationships. Why such divergent effects occur between preferences for two sexually dimorphic traits remains unresolved. In this study, we used computer graphic manipulation to morph male faces varying in facial hair from clean-shaven, light stubble, heavy stubble and full beards to appear more (+25% and +50%) or less (-25% and -50%) masculine. Women (N = 8520) were assigned to treatments wherein they rated these stimuli for physical attractiveness in general, for a short-term liaison or a long-term relationship. Results showed a significant interaction between beardedness and masculinity on attractiveness ratings. Masculinized and, to an even greater extent, feminized faces were less attractive than unmanipulated faces when all were clean-shaven, and stubble and beards dampened the polarizing effects of extreme masculinity and femininity. Relationship context also had effects on ratings, with facial hair enhancing long-term, and not short-term, attractiveness. Effects of facial masculinization appear to have been due to small differences in the relative attractiveness of each masculinity level under the three treatment conditions and not to any change in the order of their attractiveness. Our findings suggest that
Ho, W S; Ying, S Y; Wong, T W
Child abuse and neglect account for a significant number of paediatric burn injuries. It is of great importance because of the high mortality, high frequency of repeated abuse, as well as the physical, psychological and social sequelae that it causes. Burn abuse is often under-recognized and under-reported because it is difficult to define non-accidental injury. On the other hand, false accusation of burn abuse is extremely damaging to the family. Bizarre and unusual burn injuries can be caused by accident and should not automatically be assumed to be deliberate injury. Three boys of age 1-7 years with bizarre facial burns were admitted to the Burns Unit at the Prince of Wales Hospital between February 1995 and July 1999. One was burned by his baby-sitter with hot water steam and the other two were burned by their mothers with hot boiled eggs. The unusual causes of their burns raised the suspicion of child abuse and formal investigations were carried out by the Social Services Department. Detail assessment including a developmental history of the child and the psychosocial assessment of the family revealed that these three boys were burned because of poor medical advice and innocent cultural belief.
Naumbaev, A N; Sharipov, A Sh; Iakhontov, B V
The authors describe a case of progressive facial hemiatrophy in a woman aged 26 years, coming from the Isfarin region of Tadzhikistan. The patient views herself as being ill for 14 years, since the moment of an epileptic attack with tonic and clonic convulsions. Approximately at the same time she noted a small dry ulcer on the left on the vertex. The ulcer slowly increased, followed by skin atrophy. The disease progressed for 4 to 5 years. At present to the left there are folds in the form of scars on the face. The skin is thinned, united with the bones in the frontal and parietal areas, the subcutaneous fat is atrophic. The lips and nose at the left are subatrophic. Negligible enophthalmos, hemiatrophy of the tongue at the left. Alopecia. A certain deterioration of memory and reduction of the critical attitude are recorded. The patient is in a state of euphoria. Left-sided anosmia. The left auricular floor is subatrophic, hearing is almost lacking. Diffuse elevation of the tendinous reflexes of the limbs on the left side. X-ray signs of osteoporosis of the bones of the cranial vault on the left.
Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Baek, Seung-Hak
Aesthetic units of the face can be divided into facial content (FC; eyes, nose, lips, and mouth), anterior facial frame (AFF; a contour line from the trichion, the temporal line of the frontal bone, the lateral orbital rim, the most lateral line of the anterior part of the zygomatic body, the anterior border of the masseter muscle, to the inferior border of the chin), and posterior facial frame (PFF; a contour line from the hairline, the zygomatic arch, to the ramus and gonial angle area of the mandible). The size and shape of each FC and the balance and proportion between FCs create a unique appearance for each person. The facial form can be determined through the combination of AFF and PFF. In the Asian population, clinicians frequently encounter problems of FC (eg, acute nasolabial angle, protrusive and everted lips, nonconsonant lip line, or lip canting), AFF (eg, midface hypoplasia, protrusive and asymmetric chin, vertical deficiency/excess of the anterior maxilla and symphysis, or prominent zygoma), and PFF (eg, square mandibular angle). These problems can be efficiently and effectively corrected through the combination of hard tissue surgery such as anterior segmental osteotomy, genioplasty, mandibular angle reduction, malarplasty, and orthognathic surgery. Therefore, the purposes of this article were to introduce the concepts of FC, AFF, and PFF, and to explain the effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics.
Simpson, Elizabeth A; Jakobsen, Krisztina V; Fragaszy, Dorothy M; Okada, Kazunori; Frick, Janet E
Learned attention models of perceptual discrimination predict that with age, sensitivity will increase for dimensions of stimuli useful for discrimination. We tested this prediction by examining the face dimensions 4- to 6-month-olds (n = 77), 9- to 12-month-olds (n = 66), and adults (n = 73) use for discriminating human, monkey, and sheep faces systematically varying in outer features (contour), inner features (eyes, mouth), or configuration (feature spacing). We controlled interindividual variability across species by varying faces within natural ranges and measured stimulus variability using computational image similarity. We found the most improvement with age in human face discrimination, and older participants discriminated more species and used more facial properties for discrimination, consistent with learned attention models. Older infants and adults discriminated human, monkey, and sheep faces; however, they used different facial properties for primates and sheep. Learned attention models may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying perceptual narrowing.
Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.
Mackenroth, Luisa; Hackmann, Karl; Beyer, Anke; Schallner, Jens; Novotna, Barbara; Klink, Barbara; Schröck, Evelin; Di Donato, Nataliya
Interstitial deletions on the long arm of chromosome six have been described for several regions including 6q16, 6q22.1, and 6q21q22.1, and with variable phenotypes such as intellectual disability/developmental delay, growth retardation, major and minor facial anomalies. However, an isolated microdeletion of the sub-band 6q22.33 has not been reported so far and thus, no information about the specific phenotype associated with such a copy number variant is available. Here, we define the clinical picture of an isolated 6q22.33 microdeletion based on the phenotype of six members of one family with loss of approximately 1 Mb in this region. Main clinical features include mild intellectual disability and behavioral abnormalities as well as microcephaly, heart defect, and cleft lip and palate.
Girard, Jeffrey M.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Jeni, László A.; Lucey, Simon; De la Torre, Fernando
By systematically varying the number of subjects and the number of frames per subject, we explored the influence of training set size on appearance and shape-based approaches to facial action unit (AU) detection. Digital video and expert coding of spontaneous facial activity from 80 subjects (over 350,000 frames) were used to train and test support vector machine classifiers. Appearance features were shape-normalized SIFT descriptors and shape features were 66 facial landmarks. Ten-fold cross-validation was used in all evaluations. Number of subjects and number of frames per subject differentially affected appearance and shape-based classifiers. For appearance features, which are high-dimensional, increasing the number of training subjects from 8 to 64 incrementally improved performance, regardless of the number of frames taken from each subject (ranging from 450 through 3600). In contrast, for shape features, increases in the number of training subjects and frames were associated with mixed results. In summary, maximal performance was attained using appearance features from large numbers of subjects with as few as 450 frames per subject. These findings suggest that variation in the number of subjects rather than number of frames per subject yields most efficient performance. PMID:27275131
Manion, Patrick J.
The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.
Jowett, Nate; Hadlock, Tessa A
The management of acute facial nerve insult may entail medical therapy, surgical exploration, decompression, or repair depending on the etiology. When recovery is not complete, facial mimetic function lies on a spectrum ranging from flaccid paralysis to hyperkinesis resulting in facial immobility. Through systematic assessment of the face at rest and with movement, one may tailor the management to the particular pattern of dysfunction. Interventions for long-standing facial palsy include physical therapy, injectables, and surgical reanimation procedures. The goal of the management is to restore facial balance and movement. This article summarizes a contemporary approach to the management of facial nerve insults.
Quintana, Javier; Lee, Junghee; Marcus, Michael; Kee, Kimmy; Wong, Tiffany; Yerevanian, Armen
Schizophrenia patients exhibit impaired facial affect perception, yet the exact nature of this impairment remains unclear. We investigated neural activity related to processing facial emotional and non-emotional information and complex images in 12 schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging. All subjects performed a facial information processing task with three conditions: matching facial emotion, matching facial identity, and matching complex visual patterns. Patients and controls showed comparable behavioral performance in all task conditions. The neural activation patterns in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls were distinctly different while processing affect-related facial information but not other non-emotional facial features. During emotion matching, orbital frontal cortex and left amydala activations were found in controls but not in patients. When comparing emotion versus identity matching, controls activated the fusiform and middle temporal gyri, left superior temporal gyrus, and right inferior and middle frontal gyrus, whereas schizophrenia patients only activated the middle and inferior frontal gyri, the frontal operculi and the right insular cortex. Our findings suggest that schizophrenia patients and healthy controls may utilize different neural networks when processing facial emotional information.
Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Otte, Ellen; Adigüzel, Kübra; Firk, Christine; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Koch, Iring; Konrad, Kerstin
It has been suggested that an early deficit in the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is an important feature of autism. Recent findings related to simple hand and finger movements do not support a general dysfunction of the MNS in autism. Studies investigating facial actions (e.g., emotional expressions) have been more consistent, however, mostly relied on passive observation tasks. We used a new variant of a compatibility task for the assessment of automatic facial mimicry responses that allowed for simultaneous control of attention to facial stimuli. We used facial electromyography in 18 children and adolescents with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 18 typically developing controls (TDCs). We observed a robust compatibility effect in ASD, that is, the execution of a facial expression was facilitated if a congruent facial expression was observed. Time course analysis of RT distributions and comparison to a classic compatibility task (symbolic Simon task) revealed that the facial compatibility effect appeared early and increased with time, suggesting fast and sustained activation of motor codes during observation of facial expressions. We observed a negative correlation of the compatibility effect with age across participants and in ASD, and a positive correlation between self-rated empathy and congruency for smiling faces in TDC but not in ASD. This pattern of results suggests that basic motor mimicry is intact in ASD, but is not associated with complex social cognitive abilities such as emotion understanding and empathy. Autism Res 2017, 10: 298-310. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zhao, Wei; Park, Jeong-Seon; Choi, Dong-You; Lee, Sang-Woong
In daily life, language is an important tool of communication between people. Besides language, facial action can also provide a great amount of information. Therefore, facial action recognition has become a popular research topic in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). However, facial action recognition is quite a challenging task due to its complexity. In a literal sense, there are thousands of facial muscular movements, many of which have very subtle differences. Moreover, muscular movements always occur simultaneously when the pose is changed. To address this problem, we first build a fully automatic facial points detection system based on a local Gabor filter bank and principal component analysis. Then, novel dynamic Bayesian networks are proposed to perform facial action recognition using the junction tree algorithm over a limited number of feature points. In order to evaluate the proposed method, we have used the Korean face database for model training. For testing, we used the CUbiC FacePix, facial expressions and emotion database, Japanese female facial expression database, and our own database. Our experimental results clearly demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.
Gungor, Kahraman; Bulut, Ozgur; Hizliol, Ismail; Hekimoglu, Baki; Gurcan, Safa
Facial reconstruction is a technique employed in a forensic investigation as a last resort to recreate an individual's facial appearance from his/her skull. Forensic anthropologists or artists use facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) measurements as a guide in facial reconstructions. The aim of this study was to develop FSTT values for Central Anatolian adults, taking into consideration sex and skeletal classes; first, to achieve better results obtaining the likenesses of deceased individuals in two or three-dimensional forensic facial reconstructions and, second, to compare these values to existing databases. Lateral cephalograms were used to determine FSTT values at 10 midline facial landmarks of 167 adults. Descriptive statistics were calculated for these facial soft tissue thickness values, and these values were compared to those reported in two other comparable databases. The majority of the landmarks showed sex-based differences. Males were found to have significantly larger landmark values than female subjects. These results point not only to the necessity to present data in accordance with sexual dimorphism, but also the need to consider that individuals from different geographical areas have unique facial features and that, as a result, geographical population-specific FSTT values are required.
de Tommaso, Marina; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Guido, Marco; Libro, Giuseppe; Specchio, Luigi Maria; Tonali, Pietro; Puca, Francomichele
Syndromes with chronic daily headache include chronic migraine (CM). The reason for the transformation of migraine into chronic daily headache is still unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate heat pain thresholds and event-related potentials following CO(2)-laser thermal stimulation (LEPS) in hand and facial regions in patients with CM, to show changes in nociceptive brain responses related to dysfunction of pain elaboration at the cortical level. The results were compared with findings from normal control subjects and from subjects who suffer from migraine without aura. The effects of stimulus intensity, subjective pain perception and attention were monitored and compared with features of the LEPS. Twenty-five CM patients, 15 subjects suffering from migraine without aura and 15 normal control subjects were enrolled in the study. LEPS amplitude variation was reduced in CM patients with respect to the perceived stimulus intensity, in comparison with migraine without aura patients and control subjects. In both headache groups, the distraction from the painful laser stimulus induced by an arithmetic task failed to suppress the LEPS amplitude, in comparison with control subjects. These results suggest an abnormal cortical processing of nociceptive input in CM patients, which could lead to the chronic state of pain. In both headache groups, an inability to reduce pain elaboration during an alternative cognitive task emerged as an abnormal behaviour probably predisposing to migraine.
Miniou, P.; Blanquet, V.; Viegas-Pequignot, E.
ICF syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by variable immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial abnormalities. Stretchings and frequent associations of centromeric or juxtacentromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 1 and 16 principally, and to a lesser degree, chromosome 9 mimic chromosome features of normal PHA-stimulated lymphocytes treated with 5-azacytidine, an inducer of demethylation. In fact, in these patients we have detected by DNA digestion with methyl-sensitive enzymes a hypomethylation of classical satellites 2 and 3, located in heterochromatin. To assess the role of other satellite DNA in the heterochromatin modifications and chromosome rearrangements, in situ fluorescent method using 5-methylcytosine (5-MeC) monoclonal antibody on chromosomes and nuclei were performed in parallel with Southern blot analysis of other satellite sequences located in heterochromatin. 5-MeC reveals that constitutive and facultative heterochromatin (X inactive chromosome) are hypomethylated. Alpha satellite sequences corresponding to centromeric heterochromatin of chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 9, 16, 18 and X are mostly methylated in patients G and R, and are undermethylated in patient S. Both molecular and cytogenetic analysis are in agreement. By in situ hybridization, breakpoints of rearranged chromosomes were located in stretched and hypomethylated classical satellites. In euchromatin, 5-MeC antibodies reveal an R-like banding pattern indicating an unequal distribution of DNA methylation, disclosing another aspect of chromosome organization. The underlying hypomethylation, associated with an abnormal chromatin structure, may predispose to chromosome instability.
Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M.
Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories—happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770
Facial paralysis has been a recognized condition since Antiquity, and was mentionned by Hippocratus. In the 17th century, in 1687, the Dutch physician Stalpart Van der Wiel rendered a detailed observation. It was, however, Charles Bell who, in 1821, provided the description that specified the role of the facial nerve. Facial nerve surgery began at the end of the 19th century. Three different techniques were used successively: nerve anastomosis, (XI-VII Balance 1895, XII-VII, Korte 1903), myoplasties (Lexer 1908), and suspensions (Stein 1913). Bunnell successfully accomplished the first direct facial nerve repair in the temporal bone, in 1927, and in 1932 Balance and Duel experimented with nerve grafts. Thanks to progress in microsurgical techniques, the first faciofacial anastomosis was realized in 1970 (Smith, Scaramella), and an account of the first microneurovascular muscle transfer published in 1976 by Harii. Treatment of the eyelid paralysis was at the origin of numerous operations beginning in the 1960s; including palpebral spring (Morel Fatio 1962) silicone sling (Arion 1972), upperlid loading with gold plate (Illig 1968), magnets (Muhlbauer 1973) and transfacial nerve grafts (Anderl 1973). By the end of the 20th century, surgeons had at their disposal a wide range of valid techniques for facial nerve surgery, including modernized versions of older techniques.
Müri, René M
The present Review deals with the motor control of facial expressions in humans. Facial expressions are a central part of human communication. Emotional face expressions have a crucial role in human nonverbal behavior, allowing a rapid transfer of information between individuals. Facial expressions can be either voluntarily or emotionally controlled. Recent studies in nonhuman primates and humans have revealed that the motor control of facial expressions has a distributed neural representation. At least five cortical regions on the medial and lateral aspects of each hemisphere are involved: the primary motor cortex, the ventral lateral premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area on the medial wall, and the rostral and caudal cingulate cortex. The results of studies in humans and nonhuman primates suggest that the innervation of the face is bilaterally controlled for the upper part and mainly contralaterally controlled for the lower part. Furthermore, the primary motor cortex, the ventral lateral premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area are essential for the voluntary control of facial expressions. In contrast, the cingulate cortical areas are important for emotional expression, because they receive input from different structures of the limbic system.
Gray, Alan W; Boothroyd, Lynda G
The current study addressed whether rated femininity, attractiveness, and health in female faces are associated with numerous indices of self-reported health history (number of colds/stomach bugs/frequency of antibiotic use) in a sample of 105 females. It was predicted that all three rating variables would correlate negatively with bouts of illness (with the exception of rates of stomach infections), on the assumption that aspects of facial appearance signal mate quality. The results showed partial support for this prediction, in that there was a general trend for both facial femininity and attractiveness to correlate negatively with the reported number of colds in the preceding twelve months and with the frequency of antibiotic use in the last three years and the last twelve months. Rated facial femininity (as documented in September) was also associated with days of flu experienced in the period spanning the November-December months. However, rated health did not correlate with any of the health indices (albeit one marginal result with antibiotic use in the last twelve months). The results lend support to previous findings linking facial femininity to health and suggest that facial femininity may be linked to some aspects of disease resistance but not others.
Zhang, Lin; Song, Yiying; Liu, Ling; Liu, Jia
The problem of emotion recognition has been tackled by researchers in both affective computing and cognitive neuroscience. While affective computing relies on analyzing visual features from facial expressions, it has been proposed that humans recognize emotions by internally simulating the emotional states conveyed by others' expressions, in addition to perceptual analysis of facial features. Here we investigated whether and how our internal feelings contributed to the ability to decode facial expressions. In two independent large samples of participants, we observed that individuals who generally experienced richer internal feelings exhibited a higher ability to decode facial expressions, and the contribution of internal feelings was independent of face recognition ability. Further, using voxel-based morphometry, we found that the gray matter volume (GMV) of bilateral superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the right inferior parietal lobule was associated with facial expression decoding through the mediating effect of internal feelings, while the GMV of bilateral STS, precuneus, and the right central opercular cortex contributed to facial expression decoding through the mediating effect of face recognition ability. In addition, the clusters in bilateral STS involved in the two components were neighboring yet separate. Our results may provide clues about the mechanism by which internal feelings, in addition to face recognition ability, serve as an important instrument for humans in facial expression decoding.
Ortube, Maria Carolina; Dipple, Katrina; Setoguchi, Yoshio; Kawamoto, Henry K.; Demer, Joseph L.
Introduction In the Tessier classification, craniofacial clefts are numbered from 0 to 14 and extend along constant axes through the eyebrows, eyelids, maxilla, nostrils, and the lips. We studied a patient with bilateral cleft 10 associated with ocular abnormalities. Method Clinical report with orbital and cranial computed tomography. Results After pregnancy complicated by oligohydramnios, digoxin, and lisinopril exposure, a boy was born with facial and ocular dysmorphism. Examination at age 26 months showed bilateral epibulbar dermoids, covering half the corneal surface, and unilateral morning glory anomaly of the optic nerve. Ductions of the right eye were normal, but the left eye had severely impaired ductions in all directions, left hypotropia, and esotropia. Under anesthesia, the left eye could not be rotated freely in any direction. Bilateral Tessier cleft number 10 was implicated by the presence of colobomata of the middle third of the upper eyelids and eyebrows. As the cleft continued into the hairline, there was marked anterior scalp alopecia. Computed x-ray tomography showed a left middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst and calcification of the reflected tendon of the superior oblique muscle, trochlea, and underlying sclera, with downward and lateral globe displacement. Discussion Tessier 10 clefts are very rare and usually associated with encephalocele. Bilateral 10 clefts have not been reported previously. In this case, there was coexisting unilateral morning glory anomaly and arachnoid cyst of the left middle cranial fossa but no encephalocele. Conclusions Bilateral Tessier facial cleft 10 may be associated with alopecia, morning glory anomaly, epibulbar dermoids, arachnoid cyst, and restrictive strabismus. PMID:20856062
Bruel, Ange-Line; Franco, Brunella; Duffourd, Yannis; Thevenon, Julien; Jego, Laurence; Lopez, Estelle; Deleuze, Jean-François; Doummar, Diane; Giles, Rachel H; Johnson, Colin A; Huynen, Martijn A; Chevrier, Véronique; Burglen, Lydie; Morleo, Manuela; Desguerres, Isabelle; Pierquin, Geneviève; Doray, Bérénice; Gilbert-Dussardier, Brigitte; Reversade, Bruno; Steichen-Gersdorf, Elisabeth; Baumann, Clarisse; Panigrahi, Inusha; Fargeot-Espaliat, Anne; Dieux, Anne; David, Albert; Goldenberg, Alice; Bongers, Ernie; Gaillard, Dominique; Argente, Jesús; Aral, Bernard; Gigot, Nadège; St-Onge, Judith; Birnbaum, Daniel; Phadke, Shubha R; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Eguether, Thibaut; Pazour, Gregory J; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; Goldstein, Jaclyn S; Pasquier, Laurent; Loget, Philippe; Saunier, Sophie; Mégarbané, André; Rosnet, Olivier; Leroux, Michel R; Wallingford, John B; Blacque, Oliver E; Nachury, Maxence V; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Faivre, Laurence; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel
Oral-facial-digital syndromes (OFDS) gather rare genetic disorders characterised by facial, oral and digital abnormalities associated with a wide range of additional features (polycystic kidney disease, cerebral malformations and several others) to delineate a growing list of OFDS subtypes. The most frequent, OFD type I, is caused by a heterozygous mutation in the OFD1 gene encoding a centrosomal protein. The wide clinical heterogeneity of OFDS suggests the involvement of other ciliary genes. For 15 years, we have aimed to identify the molecular bases of OFDS. This effort has been greatly helped by the recent development of whole-exome sequencing (WES). Here, we present all our published and unpublished results for WES in 24 cases with OFDS. We identified causal variants in five new genes (C2CD3, TMEM107, INTU, KIAA0753 and IFT57) and related the clinical spectrum of four genes in other ciliopathies (C5orf42, TMEM138, TMEM231 and WDPCP) to OFDS. Mutations were also detected in two genes previously implicated in OFDS. Functional studies revealed the involvement of centriole elongation, transition zone and intraflagellar transport defects in OFDS, thus characterising three ciliary protein modules: the complex KIAA0753-FOPNL-OFD1, a regulator of centriole elongation; the Meckel-Gruber syndrome module, a major component of the transition zone; and the CPLANE complex necessary for IFT-A assembly. OFDS now appear to be a distinct subgroup of ciliopathies with wide heterogeneity, which makes the initial classification obsolete. A clinical classification restricted to the three frequent/well-delineated subtypes could be proposed, and for patients who do not fit one of these three main subtypes, a further classification could be based on the genotype.
McCook, T A; Briley, C; Ravin, C E
Rock Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne rickettsial disease which produces a widespread vasculitis. A mortality of 7% to 13% has been reported in the United States which is due at least in part to delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The classic features of this disease include a history of tick bite with the clinical presentation of skin rash and fever in association with thrombocytopenia. Few reports have emphasized the radiologic chest abnormalities in this disease or their relationship to thrombocytopenia. We review 70 cases of RMSF with abnormal roentgenographic features and their pathologic correlation.
Turner, Wesley; Tu, Peter; Kelliher, Timothy; Brown, Rebecca
The 3D reconstruction of facial features from skeletal remains is a key component to the identification of missing persons and victims of violent crime. A comprehensive Computed Tomography (CT) head-scan database is currently being collected which will enable a new approach to forensic facial reconstruction. Using this unique resource, we show how a face space can be tailored to a specific unknown, or questioned skull. A set of database derived estimates of the questioned face is constructed by first computing non-rigid transformations between the known head-scan skulls and the questioned skull followed by application of these transformations to the known head-scan faces. This effectively factors out influences due to skeletal variation. A tailored face space is formed by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to this ensemble of estimates of the questioned face. Thus, the face space is a direct approximation of correlated soft tissue variance indicative of the population. Ours is the first mathematical representation of the face continuum associated with a given skull. Embedded in this space resides the elements needed for recognition.
Solomon, Christopher; Gibson, Stuart; Maylin, Matthew
A facial composite generated from an eyewitness’s memory often constitutes the first and only means available for police forces to identify a criminal suspect. To date, commercial computerised systems for constructing facial composites have relied almost exclusively on a feature-based, ‘cut-andpaste’ method whose effectiveness has been fundamentally limited by both the witness’s limited ability to recall and verbalise facial features and by the large dimensionality of the search space. We outline a radically new approach to composite generation which combines a parametric, statistical model of facial appearance with a computational search algorithm based on interactive, evolutionary principles. We describe the fundamental principles on which the new system has been constructed, outline recent innovations in the computational search procedure and also report on the real-world experience of UK police forces who have been using a commercial version of the system.
Schmidt, Karen L.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Tian, Yingli
The assumption that the smile is an evolved facial display suggests that there may be universal features of smiling in addition to the basic facial configuration. We show that smiles include not only a stable configuration of features, but also temporally consistent movement patterns. In spontaneous smiles from two social contexts, duration of lip corner movement during the onset phase was independent of social context and the presence of other facial movements, including dampening. These additional movements produced variation in both peak and offset duration. Both onsets and offsets had dynamic properties similar to automatically controlled movements, with a consistent relation between maximum velocity and amplitude of lip corner movement in smiles from two distinct contexts. Despite the effects of individual and social factors on facial expression timing overall, consistency in onset and offset phases suggests that portions of the smile display are relatively stereotyped and may be automatically produced. PMID:14638288
Cotes, Claudia; Riascos, Roy; Swischuk, Leonard E
Facial vein thrombophlebitis is an uncommon complication of sinusitis. In cases where periorbital swelling complicating sinusitis is diagnosed, clinical findings of swelling and erythema extending beyond the orbital region into the cheek should alert the physician about this unusual complication and the need for further contrast-enhanced imaging and venography. The radiologist must be particularly careful in the evaluation of vascular structures of the face and neck in these children. CT and MRI with contrast material and MR venography are studies that clearly demonstrate the vascular anatomy and possible complications. However, MR venography confirms flow abnormalities within the venous system with the advantage of avoiding radiation exposure to the pediatric patient.
Bach, Dominik R; Schmidt-Daffy, Martin; Dolan, Raymond J
Emotional stimuli (e.g., negative facial expressions) enjoy prioritized memory access when task relevant, consistent with their ability to capture attention. Whether emotional expression also impacts on memory access when task-irrelevant is important for arbitrating between feature-based and object-based attentional capture. Here, the authors address this question in 3 experiments using an attentional blink task with face photographs as first and second target (T1, T2). They demonstrate reduced neutral T2 identity recognition after angry or happy T1 expression, compared to neutral T1, and this supports attentional capture by a task-irrelevant feature. Crucially, after neutral T1, T2 identity recognition was enhanced and not suppressed when T2 was angry-suggesting that attentional capture by this task-irrelevant feature may be object-based and not feature-based. As an unexpected finding, both angry and happy facial expressions suppress memory access for competing objects, but only angry facial expression enjoyed privileged memory access. This could imply that these 2 processes are relatively independent from one another.
Keutzer, Carolin S.
Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)
Rives Bogart, Kathleen; Matsumoto, David
According to the reverse simulation model of embodied simulation theory, we recognize others' emotions by subtly mimicking their expressions, which allows us to feel the corresponding emotion through facial feedback. Previous studies examining whether facial mimicry is necessary for facial expression recognition were limited by potentially distracting manipulations intended to artificially restrict facial mimicry or very small samples of people with facial paralysis. We addressed these limitations by collecting the largest sample to date of people with Moebius syndrome, a condition characterized by congenital bilateral facial paralysis. In this Internet-based study, 37 adults with Moebius syndrome and 37 matched control participants completed a facial expression recognition task. People with Moebius syndrome did not differ from the control group or normative data in emotion recognition accuracy, and accuracy was not related to extent of ability to produce facial expressions. Our results do not support the hypothesis that reverse simulation with facial mimicry is necessary for facial expression recognition.
Gonzalez, J B
A review of the polyurethane elastomers used for facial prostheses has been presented. A description of the casting technique was given. The materials require accuracy and care in handling to insure the successful casting of a prosthesis. They seem to simulate the characteristics of the facial tissues and are more durable and comfortable than previously used materials. Over 300 patients have been exposed to or treated with these materials without evidencing significant adverse tissue reaction. In spite of the improvements that these materials present over previous ones (PVC and silicones), much work is still required to understand their behavior and their physical and mechanical characteristics and to compensate for the metameric phenomenon.
Balasubramanian, Ravikumar; Chew, Sheena; MacKinnon, Sarah E.; Kang, Peter B.; Andrews, Caroline; Chan, Wai-Man
Context: A heterozygous de novo c.1228G>A mutation (E410K) in the TUBB3 gene encoding the neuronal-specific β-tubulin isotype 3 (TUBB3) causes the TUBB3 E410K syndrome characterized by congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM), facial weakness, intellectual and social disabilities, and Kallmann syndrome (anosmia with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism). All TUBB3 E410K subjects reported to date are sporadic cases. Objective: This study aimed to report the clinical, genetic, and molecular features of a familial presentation of the TUBB3 E410K syndrome. Design: Case report of a mother and three affected children with clinical features of the TUBB3 E410K syndrome. Setting: Academic Medical Center. Main Outcome Measures: Genetic analysis of the TUBB3 gene and clinical evaluation of endocrine and nonendocrine phenotypes. Results: A de novo TUBB3 c.1228G>A mutation arose in a female proband who displayed CFEOM, facial weakness, intellectual and social disabilities, and anosmia. However, she underwent normal sexual development at puberty and had three spontaneous pregnancies with subsequent autosomal-dominant inheritance of the mutation by her three boys. All sons displayed nonendocrine features of the TUBB3 E410K syndrome similar to their mother but, in addition, had variable features suggestive of additional endocrine abnormalities. Conclusions: This first report of an autosomal-dominant inheritance of the TUBB3 c.1228G>A mutation in a family provides new insights into the spectrum and variability of endocrine phenotypes associated with the TUBB3 E410K syndrome. These observations emphasize the need for appropriate clinical evaluation and complicate genetic counseling of patients and families with this syndrome. PMID:25559402
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
This publication is one of a series of curriculum guides designed to direct and support instruction in vocational cosmetology programs in the State of Oklahoma. It contains seven units for the facial specialty: identifying enemies of the skin, using aromatherapy on the skin, giving facials without the aid of machines, giving facials with the aid…
Blazek, Joshua D; Abeysekera, Irushi; Li, Jiliang; Roper, Randall J
Trisomy 21 causes skeletal alterations in individuals with Down syndrome (DS), but the causative trisomic gene and a therapeutic approach to rescue these abnormalities are unknown. Individuals with DS display skeletal alterations including reduced bone mineral density, modified bone structure and distinctive facial features. Due to peripheral skeletal anomalies and extended longevity, individuals with DS are increasingly more susceptible to bone fractures. Understanding the genetic and developmental origin of DS skeletal abnormalities would facilitate the development of therapies to rescue these and other deficiencies associated with DS. DYRK1A is found in three copies in individuals with DS and Ts65Dn DS mice and has been hypothesized to be involved in many Trisomy 21 phenotypes including skeletal abnormalities. Return of Dyrk1a copy number to normal levels in Ts65Dn mice rescued the appendicular bone abnormalities, suggesting that appropriate levels of DYRK1A expression are critical for the development and maintenance of the DS appendicular skeleton. Therapy using the DYRK1A inhibitor epigallocatechin-3-gallate improved Ts65Dn skeletal phenotypes. These outcomes suggest that the osteopenic phenotype associated with DS may be rescued postnatally by targeting trisomic Dyrk1a.
Bastir, Markus; Rosas, Antonio
Facial prognathism and projection are important characteristics in human evolution but their three-dimensional (3D) architectonic relationships to basicranial morphology are not clear. We used geometric morphometrics and measured 51 3D-landmarks in a comparative sample of modern humans (N = 78) and fossil Pleistocene hominins (N = 10) to investigate the spatial features of covariation between basicranial and facial elements. The study reveals complex morphological integration patterns in craniofacial evolution of Middle and Late Pleistocene hominins. A downwards-orientated cranial base correlates with alveolar maxillary prognathism, relatively larger faces, and relatively larger distances between the anterior cranial base and the frontal bone (projection). This upper facial projection correlates with increased overall relative size of the maxillary alveolar process. Vertical facial height is associated with tall nasal cavities and is accommodated by an elevated anterior cranial base, possibly because of relations between the cribriform and the nasal cavity in relation to body size and energetics. Variation in upper- and mid-facial projection can further be produced by basicranial topology in which the midline base and nasal cavity are shifted anteriorly relative to retracted lateral parts of the base and the face. The zygomatics and the middle cranial fossae act together as bilateral vertical systems that are either projected or retracted relative to the midline facial elements, causing either midfacial flatness or midfacial projection correspondingly. We propose that facial flatness and facial projection reflect classical principles of craniofacial growth counterparts, while facial orientation relative to the basicranium as well as facial proportions reflect the complex interplay of head-body integration in the light of encephalization and body size decrease in Middle to Late Pleistocene hominin evolution. Developmental and evolutionary patterns of integration may
Chang, Y Connie; Anderson, Nancy; Soeprono, Fred
A 38-year-old man presented with a chief complaint of blue-speckled secretions on his cheeks, brought on by exertion. Based on the clinical features, a diagnosis of apocrine chromhidrosis was made. Histopathologic exam further supported this diagnosis. Possible treatment options for apocrine chromhidrosis are discussed.
Shigemura, Yuka; Nuri, Takashi; Iwanaga, Hiroyuki; Seno, Takaya
Summary: Craniofacial clefts involve all soft tissue and skeletal elements throughout the cleft. Usefulness of tissue expansion in craniofacial clefts is reported. Surgery for a complex type of facial clefts is more difficult and more extensive than for a simple one. We experienced a primary case of complex facial clefts (Tessier No. 2 and 12 on the right and 3, 11, and 5 on the left). Soft-tissue closure of all clefts could be completed by using 4 tissue expanders and 7 operations. Because multiple tissue deficiencies and abnormalities exist in craniofacial clefts, especially complex type, a planned, staged, sequential approach by tissue expansion is necessary to produce ideal results. PMID:25587498
Maruthapillai, Vasanthan; Murugappan, Murugappan
In recent years, real-time face recognition has been a major topic of interest in developing intelligent human-machine interaction systems. Over the past several decades, researchers have proposed different algorithms for facial expression recognition, but there has been little focus on detection in real-time scenarios. The present work proposes a new algorithmic method of automated marker placement used to classify six facial expressions: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise. Emotional facial expressions were captured using a webcam, while the proposed algorithm placed a set of eight virtual markers on each subject's face. Facial feature extraction methods, including marker distance (distance between each marker to the center of the face) and change in marker distance (change in distance between the original and new marker positions), were used to extract three statistical features (mean, variance, and root mean square) from the real-time video sequence. The initial position of each marker was subjected to the optical flow algorithm for marker tracking with each emotional facial expression. Finally, the extracted statistical features were mapped into corresponding emotional facial expressions using two simple non-linear classifiers, K-nearest neighbor and probabilistic neural network. The results indicate that the proposed automated marker placement algorithm effectively placed eight virtual markers on each subject's face and gave a maximum mean emotion classification rate of 96.94% using the probabilistic neural network.
Maruthapillai, Vasanthan; Murugappan, Murugappan
In recent years, real-time face recognition has been a major topic of interest in developing intelligent human-machine interaction systems. Over the past several decades, researchers have proposed different algorithms for facial expression recognition, but there has been little focus on detection in real-time scenarios. The present work proposes a new algorithmic method of automated marker placement used to classify six facial expressions: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise. Emotional facial expressions were captured using a webcam, while the proposed algorithm placed a set of eight virtual markers on each subject’s face. Facial feature extraction methods, including marker distance (distance between each marker to the center of the face) and change in marker distance (change in distance between the original and new marker positions), were used to extract three statistical features (mean, variance, and root mean square) from the real-time video sequence. The initial position of each marker was subjected to the optical flow algorithm for marker tracking with each emotional facial expression. Finally, the extracted statistical features were mapped into corresponding emotional facial expressions using two simple non-linear classifiers, K-nearest neighbor and probabilistic neural network. The results indicate that the proposed automated marker placement algorithm effectively placed eight virtual markers on each subject’s face and gave a maximum mean emotion classification rate of 96.94% using the probabilistic neural network. PMID:26859884
Wang, Yuzhe; Zhu, Jian
Dielectric elastomer actuators have the advantage of mimicking the salient feature of life: movements in response to stimuli. In this paper we explore application of dielectric elastomer actuators to artificial muscles. These artificial muscles can mimic natural masseter to control jaw movements, which are key components in facial expressions especially during talking and singing activities. This paper investigates optimal design of the dielectric elastomer actuator. It is found that the actuator with embedded plastic fibers can avert electromechanical instability and can greatly improve its actuation. Two actuators are then installed in a robotic skull to drive jaw movements, mimicking the masseters in a human jaw. Experiments show that the maximum vertical displacement of the robotic jaw, driven by artificial muscles, is comparable to that of the natural human jaw during speech activities. Theoretical simulations are conducted to analyze the performance of the actuator, which is quantitatively consistent with the experimental observations.
Decety, Jean; Skelly, Laurie; Yoder, Keith J.; Kiehl, Kent A.
Facial expressions play a critical role in social interactions by eliciting rapid responses in the observer. Failure to perceive and experience a normal range and depth of emotion seriously impact interpersonal communication and relationships. As has been demonstrated across a number of domains, abnormal emotion processing in individuals with psychopathy plays a key role in their lack of empathy. However, the neuroimaging literature is unclear as to whether deficits are specific to particular emotions such as fear and perhaps sadness. Moreover, findings are inconsistent across studies. In the current experiment, eighty adult incarcerated males scoring high, medium, and low on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) underwent fMRI scanning while viewing dynamic facial expressions of fear, sadness, happiness and pain. Participants who scored high on the PCL-R showed a reduction in neuro-hemodynamic response to all four categories of facial expressions in the face processing network (inferior occipital gyrus, fusiform gyrus, STS) as well as the extended network (inferior frontal gyrus and orbitofrontal cortex), which supports a pervasive deficit across emotion domains. Unexpectedly, the response in dorsal insula to fear, sadness and pain was greater in psychopaths than non-psychopaths. Importantly, the orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, regions critically implicated in affective and motivated behaviors, were significantly less active in individuals with psychopathy during the perception of all four emotional expressions. PMID:24359488
Decety, Jean; Skelly, Laurie; Yoder, Keith J; Kiehl, Kent A
Facial expressions play a critical role in social interactions by eliciting rapid responses in the observer. Failure to perceive and experience a normal range and depth of emotion seriously impact interpersonal communication and relationships. As has been demonstrated across a number of domains, abnormal emotion processing in individuals with psychopathy plays a key role in their lack of empathy. However, the neuroimaging literature is unclear as to whether deficits are specific to particular emotions such as fear and perhaps sadness. Moreover, findings are inconsistent across studies. In the current experiment, 80 incarcerated adult males scoring high, medium, and low on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while viewing dynamic facial expressions of fear, sadness, happiness, and pain. Participants who scored high on the PCL-R showed a reduction in neuro-hemodynamic response to all four categories of facial expressions in the face processing network (inferior occipital gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and superior temporal sulcus (STS)) as well as the extended network (inferior frontal gyrus and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)), which supports a pervasive deficit across emotion domains. Unexpectedly, the response in dorsal insula to fear, sadness, and pain was greater in psychopaths than non-psychopaths. Importantly, the orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), regions critically implicated in affective and motivated behaviors, were significantly less active in individuals with psychopathy during the perception of all four emotional expressions.
Corre, Pierre; Arzul, Ludovic; Khonsari, Roman Hossein; Mercier, Jacques
The human face contains the sense organs and is responsible for essential functions: swallowing, chewing, speech, breathing and communication. It is also and most importantly the seat of a person's identity. Multiple trauma adds a life-threatening dimension to the physical and psychological impact of a facial trauma.
Eversole, L R; Stone, C E; Matheson, D; Kaplan, H
The myofacial pain-dysfunction syndrome and atypical facial pain are the most prevalent chronic pain disorders of the facial region. Previously, the myofacial pain-dysfunction syndrome included all TMJ/masticatory muscle pain, jaw dysfunction, and joint clicking. We have segregated two major subgroups subsumed within this diagnostic classification and have assigned them to a myogenic facial pain (MFP) group and a TMJ internal derangement (TMJID) group. Significant age and personality differences were uncovered when these subpopulations were compared to subjects with atypical facial pain (AFP). Both MFP and TMJID groups are relatively homologous, involving younger persons than AFP subjects. Alternatively, when MFP, TMJID, and AFP subjects were compared for differences in MMPI psychometric scales, MFP and AFP subjects exhibited significantly higher scores, particularly for hypochondriasis, depression, and hysteria, than did TMJID subjects. It is concluded that subcategorization of myofascial pain-dysfunction patients into a myogenic pain group and a TMJ internal derangement group is justified on the basis of psychometric differences. Furthermore, psychopathologic factors are more significant among MFP and AFP subjects than among TMJID patients.
Wolfe, Jason; Mende, Carolin; Brecht, Michael
We know much about how rats use their whiskers to discriminate simple tactile properties, but little about how they are used in natural settings. Here we studied whisker motion during social interactions between rats in order to gain a better understanding of natural whisker use in this model system for sensorimotor integration. In the first set of experiments, an intruder was placed in a second rat's home cage. Anogenital sniffing immediately ensued; later in the trial, facial interactions occurred at least as frequently. Whereas much previous work has focused on the importance of anogenital sniffing during social interactions, these facial interactions were accompanied by some of the most intense whisker behaviors described to date. Whisker trimming increased biting but reduced boxing. In addition, whiskers were more protracted and whisking amplitude was larger in aggressive than in nonaggressive interactions. In a second set of experiments, rats interacted facially across a gap. As rats approached each other, whisking amplitude decreased and whiskers were more protracted. Whisker trimming disrupted facial alignment and reduced the frequency of interactions, indicating that whisker use, and possibly whisker protraction, is important for rats to orient themselves with respect to one another. We also found that females whisked with smaller amplitude when interacting with males than with females, and that they held their whiskers less protracted than males. The natural whisker use described here should further our understanding of this important somatosensory system during social interactions.
Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.
Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…
McIntyre, Alex H; Hancock, Peter J B; Frowd, Charlie D; Langton, Stephen R H
Facial composite systems help eyewitnesses to show the appearance of criminals. However, likenesses created by unfamiliar witnesses will not be completely accurate, and people familiar with the target can find them difficult to identify. Faces are processed holistically; we explore whether this impairs identification of inaccurate composite images and whether recognition can be improved. In Experiment 1 (n = 64) an imaging technique was used to make composites of celebrity faces more accurate and identification was contrasted with the original composite images. Corrected composites were better recognized, confirming that errors in production of the likenesses impair identification. The influence of holistic face processing was explored by misaligning the top and bottom parts of the composites (cf. Young, Hellawell, & Hay, 1987). Misalignment impaired recognition of corrected composites but identification of the original, inaccurate composites significantly improved. This effect was replicated with facial composites of noncelebrities in Experiment 2 (n = 57). We conclude that, like real faces, facial composites are processed holistically: recognition is impaired because unlike real faces, composites contain inaccuracies and holistic face processing makes it difficult to perceive identifiable features. This effect was consistent across composites of celebrities and composites of people who are personally familiar. Our findings suggest that identification of forensic facial composites can be enhanced by presenting composites in a misaligned format.
Delorme, Arnaud; Pierce, Alan; Michel, Leena; Radin, Dean
Recent studies have shown that characteristics of the face contain a wealth of information about health, age and chronic clinical conditions. Such studies involve objective measurement of facial features correlated with historical health information. But some individuals also claim to be adept at gauging mortality based on a glance at a person’s photograph. To test this claim, we invited 12 such individuals to see if they could determine if a person was alive or dead based solely on a brief examination of facial photographs. All photos used in the experiment were transformed into a uniform gray scale and then counterbalanced across eight categories: gender, age, gaze direction, glasses, head position, smile, hair color, and image resolution. Participants examined 404 photographs displayed on a computer monitor, one photo at a time, each shown for a maximum of 8 s. Half of the individuals in the photos were deceased, and half were alive at the time the experiment was conducted. Participants were asked to press a button if they thought the person in a photo was living or deceased. Overall mean accuracy on this task was 53.8%, where 50% was expected by chance (p < 0.004, two-tail). Statistically significant accuracy was independently obtained in 5 of the 12 participants. We also collected 32-channel electrophysiological recordings and observed a robust difference between images of deceased individuals correctly vs. incorrectly classified in the early event related potential (ERP) at 100 ms post-stimulus onset. Our results support claims of individuals who report that some as-yet unknown features of the face predict mortality. The results are also compatible with claims about clairvoyance warrants further investigation. PMID:27242466
Sobreira, Nara Lygia Macena; Cernach, Mirlene Cecilia S P; Brunoni, Decio; Perez, Ana Beatriz Alvarez
Nonsyndromic syndactyly is a common, heterogeneous hereditary condition of webbed fingers and toes that can be cutaneous or bony, unilateral or bilateral. We describe a patient with complex toe syndactyly and oligodactyly, some interesting skeletal hand findings and atypical facial features without other case like this described before. Cenani-Lenz syndrome (CLS) is a rare disorder with total syndactyly and irregular synostosis of carpal, metacarpal and phalanges, it may involve ulna and radius and digital rays may be absent, some of these were described with atypical facial features and one patient had renal hypoplasia and vertebral anomalies but our patient does not have the oligodactyly or syndactyly of the hands that is consistently present in all patients with CLS. The atypical facial features of our patient resemble Kabuki syndrome but oligodactyly and complex syndactyly have not been described in Kabuki syndrome and this patient has normal intelligence, and extreme eyelid defect (resembling ablepharon). Therefore, for our patient, we suggested to treat in a new condition of limb anomalies and atypical face.
Malek, Obaidul; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios; Androutsos, Dimitrios
The main challenge of facial biometrics is its robustness and ability to adapt to changes in position orientation, facial expression, and illumination effects. This research addresses the predominant deficiencies in this regard and systematically investigates a facial authentication system in the Euclidean domain. In the proposed method, Euclidean geometry in 2D vector space is being constructed for features extraction and the authentication method. In particular, each assigned point of the candidates' biometric features is considered to be a 2D geometrical coordinate in the Euclidean vector space. Algebraic shapes of the extracted candidate features are also computed and compared. The proposed authentication method is being tested on images from the public "Put Face Database". The performance of the proposed method is evaluated based on Correct Recognition (CRR), False Acceptance (FAR), and False Rejection (FRR) rates. The theoretical foundation of the proposed method along with the experimental results are also presented in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko
To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system.
Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph
Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin  was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists . Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.
Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P
For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework.
Lee, Anthony J.; Mitchem, Dorian G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Keller, Matthew C.; Zietsch, Brendan P.
For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework. PMID:24379153
Thakkar, Mitesh; Biswas, T K; Desle, Hrishikesh B
Andersen-Tawil Syndrome (ATS) is a rare potassium channel disorder, characterized by episodic weakness, ventricular arrhythmias and dysmorphic features (short stature, scoliosis, clinodactyly, hypertelorism, small or prominent low set ears, micrognathia and broad forehead). We report a case of hypokalemic periodic paralysis with dysmorphic facial features and ventricular arrhythmia resembling Andersen-Tawil syndrome.
Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Szatkowska, Iwona
Facial mimicry is the tendency to imitate the emotional facial expressions of others. Increasing evidence suggests that the perception of dynamic displays leads to enhanced facial mimicry, especially for happiness and anger. However, little is known about the impact of dynamic stimuli on facial mimicry for fear and disgust. To investigate this issue, facial EMG responses were recorded in the corrugator supercilii, levator labii, and lateral frontalis muscles, while participants viewed static (photos) and dynamic (videos) facial emotional expressions. Moreover, we tested whether emotional empathy modulated facial mimicry for emotional facial expressions. In accordance with our predictions, the highly empathic group responded with larger activity in the corrugator supercilii and levator labii muscles. Moreover, dynamic compared to static facial expressions of fear revealed enhanced mimicry in the high-empathic group in the frontalis and corrugator supercilii muscles. In the low-empathic group the facial reactions were not differentiated between fear and disgust for both dynamic and static facial expressions. We conclude that highly empathic subjects are more sensitive in their facial reactions to the facial expressions of fear and disgust compared to low empathetic counterparts. Our data confirms that personal characteristics, i.e., empathy traits as well as modality of the presented stimuli, modulate the strength of facial mimicry. In addition, measures of EMG activity of the levator labii and frontalis muscles may be a useful index of empathic responses of fear and disgust.
Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Szatkowska, Iwona
Facial mimicry is the tendency to imitate the emotional facial expressions of others. Increasing evidence suggests that the perception of dynamic displays leads to enhanced facial mimicry, especially for happiness and anger. However, little is known about the impact of dynamic stimuli on facial mimicry for fear and disgust. To investigate this issue, facial EMG responses were recorded in the corrugator supercilii, levator labii, and lateral frontalis muscles, while participants viewed static (photos) and dynamic (videos) facial emotional expressions. Moreover, we tested whether emotional empathy modulated facial mimicry for emotional facial expressions. In accordance with our predictions, the highly empathic group responded with larger activity in the corrugator supercilii and levator labii muscles. Moreover, dynamic compared to static facial expressions of fear revealed enhanced mimicry in the high-empathic group in the frontalis and corrugator supercilii muscles. In the low-empathic group the facial reactions were not differentiated between fear and disgust for both dynamic and static facial expressions. We conclude that highly empathic subjects are more sensitive in their facial reactions to the facial expressions of fear and disgust compared to low empathetic counterparts. Our data confirms that personal characteristics, i.e., empathy traits as well as modality of the presented stimuli, modulate the strength of facial mimicry. In addition, measures of EMG activity of the levator labii and frontalis muscles may be a useful index of empathic responses of fear and disgust. PMID:27933022
Orr, David J A; Teeling, Emma C; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Finarelli, John A
A normal feature of the facial anatomy of many species of bat is the presence of bony discontinuities or clefts, which bear a remarkable similarity to orofacial clefts that occur in humans as a congenital pathology. These clefts occur in two forms: a midline cleft between the two premaxillae (analogous to the rare midline craniofacial clefts in humans) and bilateral paramedian clefts between the premaxilla and the maxillae (analogous to the typical cleft lip and palate in humans). Here, we describe the distribution of orofacial clefting across major bat clades, exploring the relationship of the different patterns of clefting to feeding mode, development of the vomeronasal organ, development of the nasolacrimal duct and mode of emission of the echolocation call in different bat groups. We also present the results of detailed radiographic and soft tissue dissections of representative examples of the two types of cleft. The midline cleft has arisen independently multiple times in bat phylogeny, whereas the paramedian cleft has arisen once and is a synapomorphy uniting the Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae. In all cases examined, the bony cleft is filled in by a robust fibrous membrane, continuous with the periosteum of the margins of the cleft. In the paramedian clefts, this membrane splits to enclose the premaxilla but forms a loose fold laterally between the premaxilla and maxilla, allowing the premaxilla and nose-leaf to pivot dorsoventrally in the sagittal plane under the action of facial muscles attached to the nasal cartilages. It is possible that this is a specific adaptation for echolocation and/or aerial insectivory. Given the shared embryological location of orofacial clefts in bats and humans, it is likely that aspects of the developmental control networks that produce cleft lip and palate in humans may also be implicated in the formation of these clefts as a normal feature in some bats. A better understanding of craniofacial development in bats with and
Kennedy, Daniel P; Adolphs, Ralph
SM is a patient with complete bilateral amygdala lesions who fails to fixate the eyes in faces and is consequently impaired in recognizing fear (Adolphs et al., 2005). Here we first replicated earlier findings in SM of reduced gaze to the eyes when seen in whole faces. Examination of the time course of fixations revealed that SM's reduced eye contact is particular pronounced in the first fixation to the face, and less abnormal in subsequent fixations. In a second set of experiments, we used a gaze-contingent presentation of faces with real time eye tracking, wherein only a small region of the face is made visible at the center of gaze. In essence, viewers explore the face by moving a small searchlight over the face with their gaze. Under such viewing conditions, SM's fixations to eye region of faces became entirely normalized. We suggest that this effect arises from the absence of bottom-up effects due to the facial features, allowing gaze location to be driven entirely by top-down control. Together with SM's failure to fixate the eyes in whole faces primarily at the very first saccade, the findings suggest that the saliency of the eyes normally attract our gaze in an amygdala-dependent manner. Impaired eye gaze is also a prominent feature of several psychiatric illnesses in which the amygdala has been hypothesized to be dysfunctional, and our findings and experimental manipulation may hold promise for interventions in such populations, including autism and fragile X syndrome.
Õiglane-Shlik, Eve; Puusepp, Sanna; Talvik, Inga; Vaher, Ulvi; Rein, Reet; Tammur, Pille; Reimand, Tiia; Teek, Rita; Žilina, Olga; Tomberg, Tiiu; Õunap, Katrin
Monosomy 1p36 is the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome seen in humans. Uniform features of the syndrome include early developmental delay and consequent intellectual disability, muscular hypotonia, and characteristic dysmorphic facial features. The gene-rich nature of the chromosomal band, inconsistent deletion sizes and overlapping clinical features have complicated relevant genotype-phenotype correlations. We describe four patients with isolated chromosome 1p36 deletions. All patients shared white matter abnormalities, allowing us to narrow the critical region for white matter involvement to the deletion size of up to 2.5 Mb from the telomere. We hypothesise that there might be a gene(s) responsible for myelin development in the 1p36 subtelomeric region. Other significant clinical findings were progressive spastic paraparesis, epileptic encephalopathy, various skeletal anomalies, Prader-Willi-like phenotype, neoplastic changes - a haemangioma and a benign skin tumour, and in one case, sleep myoclonus, a clinical entity not previously described in association with 1p36 monosomy. Combined with prior studies, our results suggest that the clinical features seen in monosomy 1p36 have more complex causes than a classical contiguous gene deletion syndrome.
Misra, Satya Ranjan; Mishra, Lora; Mohanty, Neeta; Mohanty, Susant
Cherubism is a progressive, hereditary fibro-osseous lesion exclusively affecting the jaw bones. It is caused by the abnormal functioning of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, leading to replacement of normal bone by cellular fibrous tissue and immature bone, which produces painless progressive growth of the jaw, with a round facial appearance. It was first described in 1933 by Jones as ‘familial multilocular cystic disease of the jaws’. The term ‘cherubism’ was later coined to describe the rounded facial appearance resulting from jaw hypertrophy that was reminiscent of cherubs depicted throughout Renaissance art. The bony lesions generally occur at an early age, affect one or both jaws symmetrically, and grow progressively until puberty. Spontaneous regression is seen in most cases, although surgical re-contouring may be required for others for aesthetic reasons. PMID:25301429
Auer, Roland N; Laganière, Janet L; Robitaille, Yves O; Richardson, John; Dion, Patrick A; Rouleau, Guy A; Shekarabi, Masoud
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC) is an autosomal recessive disease of the central and peripheral nervous system that presents as early-onset polyneuropathy. Patients are hypotonic and areflexic from birth, with abnormal facial features and atrophic muscles. Progressive peripheral neuropathy eventually confines them to a wheelchair in the second decade of life, and death occurs by the fourth decade. We here define the neuropathologic features of the disease in autopsy tissues from eight cases. Both developmental and neurodegenerative features were found. Hypoplasia or absence of the major telencephalic commissures and a hypoplasia of corticospinal tracts to half the normal size, were the major neurodevelopmental defects we observed. Despite being a neurodegenerative disease, preservation of brain weight and a conspicuous absence of neuronal or glial cell death were signal features of this disease. Small tumor-like overgrowths of axons, termed axonomas, were found in the central and peripheral nervous system, indicating attempted axonal regeneration. We conclude that the neurodegenerative deficits in HMSN/ACC are primarily caused by an axonopathy superimposed upon abnormal development, affecting peripheral but also central nervous system axons, all ultimately because of a genetic defect in the axonal cotransporter KCC3.
Lee, Jae-Gi; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Hyung-Jin; Seo, Jung-Hyuk; Choi, You-Jin; Bae, Hyun-Sook; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Hee-Jin
The topography of the facial muscles differs between males and females and among individuals of the same gender. To explain the unique expressions that people can make, it is important to define the shapes of the muscle, their associations with the skin, and their relative functions. Three-dimensional (3D) motion-capture analysis, often used to study facial expression, was used in this study to identify characteristic skin movements in males and females when they made six representative basic expressions. The movements of 44 reflective markers (RMs) positioned on anatomical landmarks were measured. Their mean displacement was large in males [ranging from 14.31 mm (fear) to 41.15 mm (anger)], and 3.35-4.76 mm smaller in females [ranging from 9.55 mm (fear) to 37.80 mm (anger)]. The percentages of RMs involved in the ten highest mean maximum displacement values in making at least one expression were 47.6% in males and 61.9% in females. The movements of the RMs were larger in males than females but were more limited. Expanding our understanding of facial expression requires morphological studies of facial muscles and studies of related complex functionality. Conducting these together with quantitative analyses, as in the present study, will yield data valuable for medicine, dentistry, and engineering, for example, for surgical operations on facial regions, software for predicting changes in facial features and expressions after corrective surgery, and the development of face-mimicking robots.
Cunha, K S; Rozza-de-Menezes, R E; Andrade, R M; Almeida, Lms; Janini, Mer; Geller, M
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal genetic disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 3,000 births. NF1 is a complex syndrome characterized by many abnormalities and may affect all organ systems. Oral manifestations of NF1 occur frequently, but reports including NF1 children with facial plexiform neurofibromas and oral alterations are scant. Facial plexiform neurofibroma may cause asymmetry, disfigurement and usually arises from the trigeminal nerve. The aim of this paper is to to report three pediatric NF1 cases with facial plexiform neurofibroma presenting with oral manifestations, which were evaluated clinically and radiographically, and also to briefly review the literature. Patients presented with changes in the oral soft tissues, jaws, and teeth ipsilateral to the tumor.
Chechko, Natalya; Pagel, Alena; Otte, Ellen; Koch, Iring; Habel, Ute
Spontaneous emotional expressions (rapid facial mimicry) perform both emotional and social functions. In the current study, we sought to test whether there were deficits in automatic mimic responses to emotional facial expressions in patients (15 of them) with stable schizophrenia compared to 15 controls. In a perception-action interference paradigm (the Simon task; first experiment), and in the context of a dual-task paradigm (second experiment), the task-relevant stimulus feature was the gender of a face, which, however, displayed a smiling or frowning expression (task-irrelevant stimulus feature). We measured the electromyographical activity in the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscle regions in response to either compatible or incompatible stimuli (i.e., when the required response did or did not correspond to the depicted facial expression). The compatibility effect based on interactions between the implicit processing of a task-irrelevant emotional facial expression and the conscious production of an emotional facial expression did not differ between the groups. In stable patients (in spite of a reduced mimic reaction), we observed an intact capacity to respond spontaneously to facial emotional stimuli. PMID:27303335
In the late 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, mental diseases and abnormal behavior was considered to be a great danger to culture and society. "Degeneration" was the buzzword of the time, used and misused by artists and scientists alike. At the same time, some scientists saw abnormity as the key to unlock the mysteries of the ordinary mind. Naturalistic curiosity left Pandoras box open when religion declined in Darwins wake. Two swedish scientists, the physician Bror Gadelius (1862-1938) and his friend the philosopher Axel Herrlin (1870-1937), inspired by the French psychologist Theodule Ribots (1839-1916) "psychology without a soul", denied all fixed demarcation lines between abnormity and normality. All humans are natures creatures ruled by physiological laws, not ruled by God or convention. Even ordinary morality was considered to be an utterly backward explanation and guideline for complex human behavior. Different forms of therapy, not various kinds of penalties for wicked and disturbing behavior, are the now the solution for lots of people, "normal" as well as "abnormal". Psychiatry is expanding.
Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T
Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.
Insider problems such as theft and sabotage can occur within the security and surveillance realm of operations when unauthorized people obtain access to sensitive areas. A possible solution to these problems is a means to identify individuals (not just credentials or badges) in a given sensitive area and provide full time personnel accountability. One approach desirable at Department of Energy facilities for access control and/or personnel identification is an Intelligent Facial Recognition System (IFRS) that is non-invasive to personnel. Automatic facial recognition does not require the active participation of the enrolled subjects, unlike most other biological measurement (biometric) systems (e.g., fingerprint, hand geometry, or eye retinal scan systems). It is this feature that makes an IFRS attractive for applications other than access control such as emergency evacuation verification, screening, and personnel tracking. This paper discusses current technology that shows promising results for DOE and other security applications. A survey of research and development in facial recognition identified several companies and universities that were interested and/or involved in the area. A few advanced prototype systems were also identified. Sandia National Laboratories is currently evaluating facial recognition systems that are in the advanced prototype stage. The initial application for the evaluation is access control in a controlled environment with a constant background and with cooperative subjects. Further evaluations will be conducted in a less controlled environment, which may include a cluttered background and subjects that are not looking towards the camera. The outcome of the evaluations will help identify areas of facial recognition systems that need further development and will help to determine the effectiveness of the current systems for security applications.
He, Shu; Soraghan, John J; O'Reilly, Brian F; Xing, Dongshan
Facial paralysis is the loss of voluntary muscle movement of one side of the face. A quantitative, objective, and reliable assessment system would be an invaluable tool for clinicians treating patients with this condition. This paper presents a novel framework for objective measurement of facial paralysis. The motion information in the horizontal and vertical directions and the appearance features on the apex frames are extracted based on the local binary patterns (LBPs) on the temporal-spatial domain in each facial region. These features are temporally and spatially enhanced by the application of novel block processing schemes. A multiresolution extension of uniform LBP is proposed to efficiently combine the micropatterns and large-scale patterns into a feature vector. The symmetry of facial movements is measured by the resistor-average distance (RAD) between LBP features extracted from the two sides of the face. Support vector machine is applied to provide quantitative evaluation of facial paralysis based on the House-Brackmann (H-B) scale. The proposed method is validated by experiments with 197 subject videos, which demonstrates its accuracy and efficiency.
Leyman, Lemke; De Raedt, Rudi; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M
Former research demonstrated that depression is associated with dysfunctional attentional processing of emotional information. Most studies examined this bias by registration of response latencies. The present study employed an ecologically valid measurement of attentive processing, using eye-movement registration. Dysphoric and non-dysphoric participants viewed slides presenting sad, angry, happy and neutral facial expressions. For each type of expression, three components of visual attention were analysed: the relative fixation frequency, fixation time and glance duration. Attentional biases were also investigated for inverted facial expressions to ensure that they were not related to eye-catching facial features. Results indicated that non-dysphoric individuals were characterised by longer fixating and dwelling on happy faces. Dysphoric individuals demonstrated a longer dwelling on sad and neutral faces. These results were not found for inverted facial expressions. The present findings are in line with the assumption that depression is associated with a prolonged attentional elaboration on negative information.
Özkale, Yasemin; Erol, İlknur; Saygı, Semra; Yılmaz, İsmail
Peripheral facial nerve paralysis in children might be an alarming sign of serious disease such as malignancy, systemic disease, congenital anomalies, trauma, infection, middle ear surgery, and hypertension. The cases of 40 consecutive children and adolescents who were diagnosed with peripheral facial nerve paralysis at Baskent University Adana Hospital Pediatrics and Pediatric Neurology Unit between January 2010 and January 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. We determined that the most common cause was Bell palsy, followed by infection, tumor lesion, and suspected chemotherapy toxicity. We noted that younger patients had generally poorer outcome than older patients regardless of disease etiology. Peripheral facial nerve paralysis has been reported in many countries in America and Europe; however, knowledge about its clinical features, microbiology, neuroimaging, and treatment in Turkey is incomplete. The present study demonstrated that Bell palsy and infection were the most common etiologies of peripheral facial nerve paralysis.
Sahin, Yavuz; Güngör, Olcay; Ayaz, Akif; Güngör, Gülay; Sahin, Bedia; Yaykasli, Kursad; Ceylaner, Serdar
Hereditary congenital facial paresis (HCFP) is characterized by isolated dysfunction of the facial nerve (CN VII) due to congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders. HCFP has genetic heterogeneity and HOXB1 is the first identified gene. We report the clinical, radiologic and molecular investigations of three patients admitted for HCFP in a large consanguineous Turkish family. High-throughput sequencing and Sanger sequencing of all patients revealed a novel homozygous mutation p.Arg230Trp (c.688C>T) within the HOXB1 gene. The report of the mutation brings the total number of HOXB1 mutations identified in HCFP to four. The results of this study emphasize that in individuals with congenital facial palsy accompanied by hearing loss and dysmorphic facial features, HOXB1 mutation causing HCFP should be kept in mind.
Farhadian, Joshua A; Bloom, Bradley S; Brauer, Jeremy A
Aesthetics continues to be a rapidly growing field within dermatology. In 2014, Americans spent 5 billion dollars on an estimated 9 million minimally invasive cosmetic procedures. Between 1997 and 2014, the number of aesthetic procedures performed on men increased by 273%. The approach to male aesthetics differs from that of females. Men have a squarer face, a more angled and larger jaw, and equally balanced upper and lower facial proportions. Facial muscle mass, subcutaneous tissue, and blood vessel density are also increased in men relative to women. While many of the same cosmetic procedures are performed in males and females, the approach, assessment, and treatment parameters are often different. Improper technique in a male patient can result in feminizing facial features and patient dissatisfaction. With an increasing number of men seeking aesthetic procedures, it behooves dermatologists to familiarize themselves with male facial anatomy and the practice of cosmetic dermatology in this population.
Strapasson, Raíssa Ananda Paim; Herrera, Lara Maria; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff
During forensic facial reconstruction, facial features may be predicted based on the parameters of the skull. This study evaluated the relationships between alar cartilage and piriform aperture and nose morphology and facial typology. Ninety-six cone beam computed tomography images of Brazilian subjects (49 males and 47 females) were used in this study. OsiriX software was used to perform the following measurements: nasal width, distance between alar base insertion points, lower width of the piriform aperture, and upper width of the piriform aperture. Nasal width was associated with the lower width of the piriform aperture, sex, skeletal vertical pattern of the face, and age. The current study contributes to the improvement of forensic facial guides by identifying the relationships between the alar cartilages and characteristics of the biological profile of members of a population that has been little studied thus far.
Capistrano, Anderson; Cordeiro, Aldir; Capelozza, Leopoldino; Almeida, Veridiana Correia; Silva, Priscila Izabela de Castro e; Martinez, Sandra; de Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues
Objective: This study aimed at assessing the relationship between facial morphological patterns (I, II, III, Long Face and Short Face) as well as facial types (brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients attending a center specialized in sleep disorders. Methods: Frontal, lateral and smile photographs of 252 patients (157 men and 95 women), randomly selected from a polysomnography clinic, with mean age of 40.62 years, were evaluated. In order to obtain diagnosis of facial morphology, the sample was sent to three professors of Orthodontics trained to classify patients' face according to five patterns, as follows: 1) Pattern I; 2) Pattern II; 3) Pattern III; 4) Long facial pattern; 5) Short facial pattern. Intraexaminer agreement was assessed by means of Kappa index. The professors ranked patients' facial type based on a facial index that considers the proportion between facial width and height. Results: The multiple linear regression model evinced that, when compared to Pattern I, Pattern II had the apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) worsened in 6.98 episodes. However, when Pattern II was compared to Pattern III patients, the index for the latter was 11.45 episodes lower. As for the facial type, brachyfacial patients had a mean AHI of 22.34, while dolichofacial patients had a significantly statistical lower index of 10.52. Conclusion: Patients' facial morphology influences OSA. Pattern II and brachyfacial patients had greater AHI, while Pattern III patients showed a lower index. PMID:26691971
Juckel, Georg; Mergl, R; Prässl, A; Mavrogiorgou, P; Witthaus, H; Möller, H J; Hegerl, U
In schizophrenic patients, motor functioning is substantially disturbed. Kinematic analysis is useful in examining this motor dysfunction. Using kinematic analysis, we aimed to investigate facial movement in schizophrenic patients responding to humorous film stimuli ("Mr. Bean"). Ultrasound markers were attached to pre-defined facial points while subjects watched a funny film sketch. The study included 21 schizophrenic in-patients (13 men, 8 women; mean (S.D.) age: 32.1 (10.4) years) and 30 healthy individuals (12 men, 18 women; mean (S.D.) age: 35.7 (11.0) years). Unmedicated schizophrenic patients showed an abnormally high initial velocity of laughing (IV), while patients treated with typical neuroleptics demonstrated an abnormally low IV. There was a significant positive correlation between severity of negative symptoms and IV. Kinematical analysis of facial movement using IV could help to distinguish subclinical Parkinsonian syndromes induced by typical neuroleptics from negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
Viðarsdóttir, Una Strand; O'Higgins, Paul; Stringer, Chris
This study examines interpopulation variations in the facial skeleton of 10 modern human populations and places these in an ontogenetic perspective. It aims to establish the extent to which the distinctive features of adult representatives of these populations are present in the early post natal period and to what extent population differences in ontogenetic scaling and allometric trajectories contribute to distinct facial forms. The analyses utilize configurations of facial landmarks and are carried out using geometric morphometric methods. The results of this study show that modern human populations can be distinguished based on facial shape alone, irrespective of age or sex, indicating the early presence of differences. Additionally, some populations have statistically distinct facial ontogenetic trajectories that lead to the development of further differences later in ontogeny. We conclude that population-specific facial morphologies develop principally through distinctions in facial shape probably already present at birth and further accentuated and modified to variable degrees during growth. These findings raise interesting questions regarding the plasticity of facial growth patterns in modern humans. Further, they have important implications in relation to the study of growth in the face of fossil hominins and in relation to the possibility of developing effective discriminant functions for the identification of population affinities of immature facial skeletal material. Such tools would be of value in archaeological, forensic and anthropological applications. The findings of this study underline the need to examine more deeply, and in more detail, the ontogenetic basis of other causes of craniometric variation, such as sexual dimorphism and hominin species differentiation. PMID:12363273
Robla-Costales, David; Robla-Costales, Javier; Socolovsky, Mariano; di Masi, Gilda; Fernández, Javier; Campero, Álvaro
Facial palsy is a relatively common condition, from which most cases recover spontaneously. However, each year, there are 127,000 new cases of irreversible facial paralysis. This condition causes aesthetic, functional and psychologically devastating effects in the patients who suffer it. Various reconstructive techniques have been described, but there is no consensus regarding their indication. While these techniques provide results that are not perfect, many of them give a very good aesthetic and functional result, promoting the psychological, social and labour reintegration of these patients. The aim of this article is to describe the indications for which each technique is used, their results and the ideal time when each one should be applied.
Shapiro, J; Lui, H
Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal.
Liu, B.; Rooker, S.M.; Helms, J.A.
We present a developmental perspective on the concept of phylotypic and phenotypic stages of craniofacial development. Within Orders of avians and mammals, a phylotypic period exists when the morphology of the facial prominences is minimally divergent. We postulate that species-specific facial variations arise as a result of subtle shifts in the timing and the duration of molecular pathway activity (e.g., heterochrony), and present evidence demonstrating a critical role for Wnt and FGF signaling in this process. The same molecular pathways that shape the vertebrate face are also implicated in craniofacial deformities, indicating that comparisons between and among animal species may represent a novel method for the identification of human craniofacial disease genes. PMID:19747977
Ben Amor, Boulbaba; Drira, Hassen; Berretti, Stefano; Daoudi, Mohamed; Srivastava, Anuj
In this paper, we present an automatic approach for facial expression recognition from 3-D video sequences. In the proposed solution, the 3-D faces are represented by collections of radial curves and a Riemannian shape analysis is applied to effectively quantify the deformations induced by the facial expressions in a given subsequence of 3-D frames. This is obtained from the dense scalar field, which denotes the shooting directions of the geodesic paths constructed between pairs of corresponding radial curves of two faces. As the resulting dense scalar fields show a high dimensionality, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) transformation is applied to the dense feature space. Two methods are then used for classification: 1) 3-D motion extraction with temporal Hidden Markov model (HMM) and 2) mean deformation capturing with random forest. While a dynamic HMM on the features is trained in the first approach, the second one computes mean deformations under a window and applies multiclass random forest. Both of the proposed classification schemes on the scalar fields showed comparable results and outperformed earlier studies on facial expression recognition from 3-D video sequences.
Ferguson, Eilidh; Wilkinson, Caroline
Age determination from images can be of vital importance, particularly in cases involving suspected child sexual abuse (CSA). It is imperative to determine if an individual depicted in such an image is indeed a child, with a more concise age often sought, as this may affect the severity of offender sentencing. The aims of this study were to establish the accuracy of visual age estimation of the juvenile face in children aged between 0 and 16years and to determine if varying levels of exposure to children affected an individual's ability to assess age from the face. An online questionnaire consisting of 30 juvenile face images was created using SurveyMonkey®. The overall results suggested poor accuracy for visual age estimation of juvenile faces. The age, sex, occupation and number of children of the participants did not affect the ability to estimate age from facial images. Similarly, the sex and age of the juvenile faces did not appear to affect the accuracy of age estimation. When specific age groups are considered, sex may have an influence on age estimation, with female faces being aged more accurately in the younger age groups and male faces more accurate after the age of 11years, however this is based on a small sample. This study suggests that the accuracy of juvenile age estimation from the face alone is poor using simple visual assessment of images. Further research is required to determine exactly how age is assessed from a facial image, if there are indicators, or features in particular that lead to over- or under-estimation of juvenile age.
Shenenberger, Donald W; Utecht, Lynn M
Unwanted facial hair is a common problem that is seldom discussed in the primary care setting. Although men occasionally request removal of unwanted facial hair, women most often seek help with this condition. Physicians generally neglect to address the problem if the patient does not first request help. The condition may be caused by androgen overproduction, increased sensitivity to circulating androgens, or other metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be properly evaluated. Options for hair removal vary in efficacy, degree of discomfort, and cost. Clinical studies on the efficacy of many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is electrolysis. However, the practice of electrolysis lacks standardization, and regulation of the procedure varies from state to state. Shaving, epilation, and depilation are the most commonly attempted initial options for facial hair removal. Although these methods are less expensive, they are only temporary. Laser hair removal, although better studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, has yet to be proved permanent in all patients. Eflornithine, a topical treatment, is simple to apply and has minimal side effects. By the time most patients consult a physician, they have tried several methods of hair removal. Family physicians can properly educate patients and recommend treatment for this common condition if they are armed with basic knowledge about the treatment options.
Zhao, Yi-jiao; Xiong, Yu-xue; Wang, Yong
In this study, the practical accuracy (PA) of optical facial scanners for facial deformity patients in oral clinic was evaluated. Ten patients with a variety of facial deformities from oral clinical were included in the study. For each patient, a three-dimensional (3D) face model was acquired, via a high-accuracy industrial “line-laser” scanner (Faro), as the reference model and two test models were obtained, via a “stereophotography” (3dMD) and a “structured light” facial scanner (FaceScan) separately. Registration based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm was executed to overlap the test models to reference models, and “3D error” as a new measurement indicator calculated by reverse engineering software (Geomagic Studio) was used to evaluate the 3D global and partial (upper, middle, and lower parts of face) PA of each facial scanner. The respective 3D accuracy of stereophotography and structured light facial scanners obtained for facial deformities was 0.58±0.11 mm and 0.57±0.07 mm. The 3D accuracy of different facial partitions was inconsistent; the middle face had the best performance. Although the PA of two facial scanners was lower than their nominal accuracy (NA), they all met the requirement for oral clinic use. PMID:28056044
Zhao, Yi-Jiao; Xiong, Yu-Xue; Wang, Yong
In this study, the practical accuracy (PA) of optical facial scanners for facial deformity patients in oral clinic was evaluated. Ten patients with a variety of facial deformities from oral clinical were included in the study. For each patient, a three-dimensional (3D) face model was acquired, via a high-accuracy industrial "line-laser" scanner (Faro), as the reference model and two test models were obtained, via a "stereophotography" (3dMD) and a "structured light" facial scanner (FaceScan) separately. Registration based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm was executed to overlap the test models to reference models, and "3D error" as a new measurement indicator calculated by reverse engineering software (Geomagic Studio) was used to evaluate the 3D global and partial (upper, middle, and lower parts of face) PA of each facial scanner. The respective 3D accuracy of stereophotography and structured light facial scanners obtained for facial deformities was 0.58±0.11 mm and 0.57±0.07 mm. The 3D accuracy of different facial partitions was inconsistent; the middle face had the best performance. Although the PA of two facial scanners was lower than their nominal accuracy (NA), they all met the requirement for oral clinic use.
Tashiro, Yasura; Oyabu, Akiko; Imura, Yoshio; Uchida, Atsuko; Narita, Naoko; Narita, Masaaki
Autism is often associated with multiple developmental anomalies including asymmetric facial palsy. In order to establish the etiology of autism with facial palsy, research into developmental abnormalities of the peripheral facial nerves is necessary. In the present study, to investigate the development of peripheral cranial nerves for use in an animal model of autism, rat embryos were treated with valproic acid (VPA) in utero and their cranial nerves were visualized by immunostaining. Treatment with VPA after embryonic day 9 had a significant effect on the peripheral fibers of several cranial nerves. Following VPA treatment, immunoreactivity within the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves was significantly reduced. Additionally, abnormal axonal pathways were observed in the peripheral facial nerves. Thus, the morphology of several cranial nerves, including the facial nerve, can be affected by prenatal VPA exposure as early as E13. Our findings indicate that disruption of early facial nerve development is involved in the etiology of asymmetric facial palsy, and may suggest a link to the etiology of autism.
Pham, Annette M; Tollefson, Travis T
Facial analysis is an integral part of the surgical planning process. Clinical photography has long been an invaluable tool in the surgeon's practice not only for accurate facial analysis but also for enhancing communication between the patient and surgeon, for evaluating postoperative results, for medicolegal documentation, and for educational and teaching opportunities. From 35-mm slide film to the digital technology of today, clinical photography has benefited greatly from technological advances. With the development of computer imaging software, objective facial analysis becomes easier to perform and less time consuming. Thus, while the original purpose of facial analysis remains the same, the process becomes much more efficient and allows for some objectivity. Although clinical judgment and artistry of technique is never compromised, the ability to perform objective facial photograph analysis using imaging software may become the standard in facial plastic surgery practices in the future.
Claes, P; Walters, M; Gillett, D; Vandermeulen, D; Clement, J G; Suetens, P
Evidence-based practice in oral and maxillofacial surgery would greatly benefit from an objective assessment of facial harmony or gestalt. Normal reference faces have previously been introduced, but they describe harmony in facial form as an average only and fail to report on harmonic variations found between non-dysmorphic faces. In this work, facial harmony, in all its complexity, is defined using a face-space, which describes all possible variations within a non-dysmorphic population; this was sampled here, based on 400 healthy subjects. Subsequently, dysmorphometrics, which involves the measurement of morphological abnormalities, is employed to construct the normal-equivalent within the given face-space of a presented dysmorphic face. The normal-equivalent can be seen as a synthetic identical but unaffected twin that is a patient-specific and population-based normal. It is used to extract objective scores of facial discordancy. This technique, along with a comparing approach, was used on healthy subjects to establish ranges of discordancy that are accepted to be normal, as well as on two patient examples before and after surgical intervention. The specificity of the presented normal-equivalent approach was confirmed by correctly attributing abnormality and providing regional depictions of the known dysmorphologies. Furthermore, it proved to be superior to the comparing approach.
Caplova, Zuzana; Obertova, Zuzana; Gibelli, Daniele M; Mazzarelli, Debora; Fracasso, Tony; Vanezis, Peter; Sforza, Chiarella; Cattaneo, Cristina
In humanitarian emergencies, such as the current deceased migrants in the Mediterranean, antemortem documentation needed for identification may be limited. The use of visual identification has been previously reported in cases of mass disasters such as Thai tsunami. This pilot study explores the ability of observers to match unfamiliar faces of living and dead persons and whether facial morphology can be used for identification. A questionnaire was given to 41 students and five professionals in the field of forensic identification with the task to choose whether a facial photograph corresponds to one of the five photographs in a lineup and to identify the most useful features used for recognition. Although the overall recognition score did not significantly differ between professionals and students, the median scores of 78.1% and 80.0%, respectively, were too low to consider this method as a reliable identification method and thus needs to be supported by other means.
Kohda, Masanori; Jordan, Lyndon Alexander; Hotta, Takashi; Kosaka, Naoya; Karino, Kenji; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Taniyama, Masami; Takeyama, Tomohiro
The theoretical underpinnings of the mechanisms of sociality, e.g. territoriality, hierarchy, and reciprocity, are based on assumptions of individual recognition. While behavioural evidence suggests individual recognition is widespread, the cues that animals use to recognise individuals are established in only a handful of systems. Here, we use digital models to demonstrate that facial features are the visual cue used for individual recognition in the social fish Neolamprologus pulcher. Focal fish were exposed to digital images showing four different combinations of familiar and unfamiliar face and body colorations. Focal fish attended to digital models with unfamiliar faces longer and from a further distance to the model than to models with familiar faces. These results strongly suggest that fish can distinguish individuals accurately using facial colour patterns. Our observations also suggest that fish are able to rapidly (≤ 0.5 sec) discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals, a speed of recognition comparable to primates including humans. PMID:26605789
Kohda, Masanori; Jordan, Lyndon Alexander; Hotta, Takashi; Kosaka, Naoya; Karino, Kenji; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Taniyama, Masami; Takeyama, Tomohiro
The theoretical underpinnings of the mechanisms of sociality, e.g. territoriality, hierarchy, and reciprocity, are based on assumptions of individual recognition. While behavioural evidence suggests individual recognition is widespread, the cues that animals use to recognise individuals are established in only a handful of systems. Here, we use digital models to demonstrate that facial features are the visual cue used for individual recognition in the social fish Neolamprologus pulcher. Focal fish were exposed to digital images showing four different combinations of familiar and unfamiliar face and body colorations. Focal fish attended to digital models with unfamiliar faces longer and from a further distance to the model than to models with familiar faces. These results strongly suggest that fish can distinguish individuals accurately using facial colour patterns. Our observations also suggest that fish are able to rapidly (≤ 0.5 sec) discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar individuals, a speed of recognition comparable to primates including humans.
Tos, T; Alp, M Y; Aksoy, A; Ceylaner, S; Hanauer, A
Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a rare X linked mental retardation syndrome characterised by severe psychomotor and growth retardation, distinct facial phenotype, and progressive skeletal malformations. It is caused by mutations in the RPS6KA3 gene located at Xp22.2. In this report we describe a family with CLS consists of three affected males, and two affected females, arising from c.898C>T mutation in RPS6KA3 gene. A 6 year-old, and a 3 year-old boy both had distinct clinical features of Coffin-Lowry syndrome; severe mental and motor retardation, microcephaly, prominent forehead, hypertelorism, large mouth, large ears, large soft hands, puffy tapered fingers, and pectus carinatum. In addition, they had multiple abnormal brain MRI findings. Other siblings presented with a mild and variable phenotype.
Christopher, Andrew N.; Griggs, Richard A.; Hagans, Chad L.
Provides feature and content analyses of 14 social and 17 abnormal psychology full-length textbooks from 1995-98 that are available for undergraduate psychology courses. Provides instructors of these courses a means for more informed text selection. (CMK)
Tornari, Chrysostomos; Pal, Surojit; Lingam, Ravi Kumar; Kalan, Ali
A man in his early 30s presented with right-sided preauricular swelling and facial oedema. He had a history of acid injury to his right ear as a child resulting in pinna deformity and subsequent blind sac closure of the external auditory canal. Imaging showed abnormal ear anatomy and abnormal density of the right parotid gland. Antibiotic therapy prevented progression but did not resolve the symptoms. Therefore, the infected area was surgically drained. This showed an underlying cholesteatoma, a benign but locally destructive condition where keratinising squamous epithelium grows in the middle ear and mastoid. The infected region was drained and the cholesteatoma was excised. This led to full resolution of the infection. The patient is awaiting a follow-up diffusion-weighted MRI. This case was unusual as the disease had extended beyond the ear and we therefore wish to alert clinicians to cholesteatoma as a possible cause of facial swelling. PMID:25795747
Gropman, Andrea L; Duncan, Wallace C; Smith, Ann C M
The Smith-Magenis syndrome is a rare, complex multisystemic disorder featuring, mental retardation and multiple congenital anomalies caused by a heterozygous interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. The phenotype of Smith-Magenis syndrome is characterized by a distinct pattern of features including infantile hypotonia, generalized complacency and lethargy in infancy, minor skeletal (brachycephaly, brachydactyly) and craniofacial features, ocular abnormalities, middle ear and laryngeal abnormalities including hoarse voice, as well as marked early expressive speech and language delays, psychomotor and growth retardation, and a 24-hour sleep disturbance. A striking neurobehavioral pattern of stereotypies, hyperactivity, polyembolokoilamania, onychotillomania, maladaptive and self-injurious and aggressive behavior is observed with increasing age. The diagnosis of Smith-Magenis syndrome is based upon the clinical recognition of a constellation of physical, developmental, and behavioral features in combination with a sleep disorder characterized by inverted circadian rhythm of melatonin secretion. Many of the features of Smith-Magenis syndrome are subtle in infancy and early childhood, and become more recognizable with advancing age. Infants are described as looking "cherubic" with a Down syndrome-like appearance, whereas with age the facial appearance is that of relative prognathism. Early diagnosis requires awareness of the often subtle clinical and neurobehavioral phenotype of the infant period. Speech delay with or without hearing loss is common. Most children are diagnosed in mid-childhood when the features of the disorder are most recognizable and striking. While improvements in cytogenetic analysis help to bring cases to clinical recognition at an earlier age, this review seeks to increase clinical awareness about Smith-Magenis syndrome by presenting the salient features observed at different ages including descriptions of the neurologic and behavioral
Nayak, Natasha V; Frohman, Larry P; Lambert, William C; Langer, Paul D
Granuloma faciale is a rare dermatopathologic condition that presents as brown-red plaques, nodules, or papules primarily on the face, with the potential for extrafacial and mucous membrane involvement. A case of an 83-year-old woman with periocular granuloma faciale accompanied by a marked anterior uveitis is presented; an association of periocular granuloma faciale with anterior uveitis has not been previously reported.
Grossman, Alon; Ulanovski, David; Barenboim, Erez; Azaria, Bella; Goldstein, Liav
Facial baroparesis is facial nerve palsy secondary to barotrauma. This phenomenon is frequently seen in divers, but is under-reported there and has rarely been described in aviators or passengers aboard commercial aircraft. We describe a 24-yr-old healthy aviator who experienced an episode of facial nerve palsy during ascent while traveling as a passenger aboard a commercial flight. The probable pathogenesis of this phenomenon in this case is described.
Whitlock, B K; Kaiser, L; Maxwell, H S
The etiologies for congenital bovine fetal anomalies can be divided into heritable, toxic, nutritional, and infectious categories. Although uncommon in most herds, inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection that inadvertently results in propagation of the defect. In some herds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Anomalous traits can affect animals in a range of ways, some being lethal or requiring euthanasia on humane grounds, others altering structure, function, or performance of affected animals. Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the potential for inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal characteristics. This review will discuss the morphologic characteristics, mode of inheritance, breeding lines affected, and the availability of genetic testing for selected heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.
Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James
Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication.
Moore, A B M
A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.
Loria, R C; Wedner, H J
A patient with asthma presented with a history of recurrent episodes of facial swelling. The swelling occurred in the preauricular area and extended to the angle of the jaw. The patient attributed these episodes to a "food allergy" as they occurred during or immediately following meals. The only medication the patient was using was inhaled epinephrine (Primatene MistR), two puffs, ten to twenty times a day. Subsequent evaluation revealed that the patient had sarcoidosis. Differential diagnosis of the facial swelling included food-related angioedema, sarcoid parotitis, or catecholamine-induced sialadenosis, which is a rare complication associated with excessive catecholamine administration. A gallium-67 citrate scan demonstrated abnormal pulmonary and hilar uptake of the radiotracer, but not lacrimal or parotid gland uptake, strongly arguing against sarcoidosis as the cause of the facial swelling. Episodes of swelling completely abated when the patient stopped using the epinephrine inhalers. At 5 months of follow-up she has had two recurrent episodes of facial swelling, each time associated with the use of inhaled epinephrine. Thus this patient's facial swelling most likely represents catecholamine-induced sialadenosis. This adverse drug reaction, associated with excessive use of inhaled catecholamines must be kept in mind in patients who abuse inhaled beta-adrenergic agonists and report parotid swelling.
Facial paralysis remains a vexing problem in the treatment of posterior cranial fossa tumors in children. Fortunately, current techniques are available to reconstruct the paralyzed face in restoring balance, symmetry, and amelioration of functional sequelae. The restoration of structure and function of the paralyzed face is tantamount to proper social integration and psychosocial rehabilitation. In addition, the facial nerve is important in preventing drying of the eyes, drooling, and speech abnormalities, among other functions. The most visible evidence of facial paralysis is stark asymmetry, especially with animation. This is perhaps the most troubling aspect of facial paralysis and the one that leads to the greatest amount of psychosocial stress for the child and family members. Management strategies include early and late intervention. Early reconstructive goals focus on preservation and strengthening of intact motor end plates through native stimulatory pathways. Late reconstructive efforts are centered on surgically reconstructing permanently lost function based on each third of the face. Use of adjunct modalities such as chemical or surgical denervation and myectomies are also critical tools in restoring symmetry. Physical therapy plays a large role in both early and late facial nerve paralysis in optimizing cosmetic and functional outcome.
Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan
Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (∼1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old.
van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.
Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals with ASD remained emotionally unaffected. Thus, individuals with ASD do not experience feedback from activated facial expressions as controls do. This facial feedback-impairment enhances our understanding of the social and emotional lives of individuals with ASD. PMID:18293075
Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi
The rapid detection of emotional signals from facial expressions is fundamental for human social interaction. The personality factor of neuroticism modulates the processing of various types of emotional facial expressions; however, its effect on the detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. In this study, participants with high- and low-neuroticism scores performed a visual search task to detect normal expressions of anger and happiness, and their anti-expressions within a crowd of neutral expressions. Anti-expressions contained an amount of visual changes equivalent to those found in normal expressions compared to neutral expressions, but they were usually recognized as neutral expressions. Subjective emotional ratings in response to each facial expression stimulus were also obtained. Participants with high-neuroticism showed an overall delay in the detection of target facial expressions compared to participants with low-neuroticism. Additionally, the high-neuroticism group showed higher levels of arousal to facial expressions compared to the low-neuroticism group. These data suggest that neuroticism modulates the detection of emotional facial expressions in healthy participants; high levels of neuroticism delay overall detection of facial expressions and enhance emotional arousal in response to facial expressions.
Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru; Uono, Shota; Kochiyama, Takanori; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi
The rapid detection of emotional signals from facial expressions is fundamental for human social interaction. The personality factor of neuroticism modulates the processing of various types of emotional facial expressions; however, its effect on the detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. In this study, participants with high- and low-neuroticism scores performed a visual search task to detect normal expressions of anger and happiness, and their anti-expressions within a crowd of neutral expressions. Anti-expressions contained an amount of visual changes equivalent to those found in normal expressions compared to neutral expressions, but they were usually recognized as neutral expressions. Subjective emotional ratings in response to each facial expression stimulus were also obtained. Participants with high-neuroticism showed an overall delay in the detection of target facial expressions compared to participants with low-neuroticism. Additionally, the high-neuroticism group showed higher levels of arousal to facial expressions compared to the low-neuroticism group. These data suggest that neuroticism modulates the detection of emotional facial expressions in healthy participants; high levels of neuroticism delay overall detection of facial expressions and enhance emotional arousal in response to facial expressions. PMID:27073904
Joseph, Shannon S; Joseph, Andrew W; Douglas, Raymond S; Massry, Guy G
Facial paralysis can result in serious ocular consequences. All patients with orbicularis oculi weakness in the setting of facial nerve injury should undergo a thorough ophthalmologic evaluation. The main goal of management in these patients is to protect the ocular surface and preserve visual function. Patients with expected recovery of facial nerve function may only require temporary and conservative measures to protect the ocular surface. Patients with prolonged or unlikely recovery of facial nerve function benefit from surgical rehabilitation of the periorbital complex. Current reconstructive procedures are most commonly intended to improve coverage of the eye but cannot restore blink.
Scheider, Linda; Waller, Bridget M.; Oña, Leonardo; Burrows, Anne M.; Liebal, Katja
Non-human primates use various communicative means in interactions with others. While primate gestures are commonly considered to be intentionally and flexibly used signals, facial expressions are often referred to as inflexible, automatic expressions of affective internal states. To explore whether and how non-human primates use facial expressions in specific communicative interactions, we studied five species of small apes (gibbons) by employing a newly established Facial Action Coding System for hylobatid species (GibbonFACS). We found that, despite individuals often being in close proximity to each other, in social (as opposed to non-social contexts) the duration of facial expressions was significantly longer when gibbons were facing another individual compared to non-facing situations. Social contexts included grooming, agonistic interactions and play, whereas non-social contexts included resting and self-grooming. Additionally, gibbons used facial expressions while facing another individual more often in social contexts than non-social contexts where facial expressions were produced regardless of the attentional state of the partner. Also, facial expressions were more likely ‘responded to’ by the partner’s facial expressions when facing another individual than non-facing. Taken together, our results indicate that gibbons use their facial expressions differentially depending on the social context and are able to use them in a directed way in communicative interactions with other conspecifics. PMID:26978660
Petrocelli, Marzia; Sbordone, Carolina; Salzano, Giovanni; Cassandro, Francesco Maria; Chiarella, Giuseppe; Scarpa, Alfonso; Romano, Antonio; Iaconetta, Giorgio; Califano, Luigi; Cassandro, Ettore
The present study describes 3 patients of previous facial trauma who have subsequently been treated with functional endoscopic sinus surgery. The authors want pay attention on the possible correlation between facial trauma and sinusitis. Such fractures can be the cause of onset of paranasal sinusitis or of worsening of a previous sinusitis. The correlation between these 2 pathologies could be due to the fact that facial fractures concern the anatomic structures of paranasal sinuses. The damage to these structures during the facial trauma and tissue regeneration after injury or surgical treatment subverts the anatomy and function of the sinuses in a basically compromised situation.
Lassaletta, Luis; Roda, José María; Frutos, Remedios; Patrón, Mercedes; Gavilán, Javier
Facial nerve schwannomas are rare lesions that may involve any segment of the facial nerve. Because of their rarity and the lack of a consistent clinical and radiological pattern, facial nerve schwannomas located at the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and internal auditory canal (IAC) represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. In this report, a case of a CPA/IAC facial nerve schwannoma is presented. Contemporary diagnosis and management of this rare lesion are analyzed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17167683
Spangler, Sibylle M.; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Korell, Monika; Maier-Karius, Johanna
Four experiments were conducted with 5- to 11-year-olds and adults to investigate whether facial identity, facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction are processed independently of or in interaction with one another. In a computer-based, speeded sorting task, participants sorted faces according to facial identity while disregarding…
Shen, Hui; Chau, Desmond K P; Su, Jianpo; Zeng, Ling-Li; Jiang, Weixiong; He, Jufang; Fan, Jintu; Hu, Dewen
Brain responses to facial attractiveness induced by facial proportions are investigated by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in 41 young adults (22 males and 19 females). The subjects underwent fMRI while they were presented with computer-generated, yet realistic face images, which had varying facial proportions, but the same neutral facial expression, baldhead and skin tone, as stimuli. Statistical parametric mapping with parametric modulation was used to explore the brain regions with the response modulated by facial attractiveness ratings (ARs). The results showed significant linear effects of the ARs in the caudate nucleus and the orbitofrontal cortex for all of the subjects, and a non-linear response profile in the right amygdala for only the male subjects. Furthermore, canonical correlation analysis was used to learn the most relevant facial ratios that were best correlated with facial attractiveness. A regression model on the fMRI-derived facial ratio components demonstrated a strong linear relationship between the visually assessed mean ARs and the predictive ARs. Overall, this study provided, for the first time, direct neurophysiologic evidence of the effects of facial ratios on facial attractiveness and suggested that there are notable gender differences in perceiving facial attractiveness as induced by facial proportions.
Shen, Hui; Chau, Desmond K. P.; Su, Jianpo; Zeng, Ling-Li; Jiang, Weixiong; He, Jufang; Fan, Jintu; Hu, Dewen
Brain responses to facial attractiveness induced by facial proportions are investigated by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in 41 young adults (22 males and 19 females). The subjects underwent fMRI while they were presented with computer-generated, yet realistic face images, which had varying facial proportions, but the same neutral facial expression, baldhead and skin tone, as stimuli. Statistical parametric mapping with parametric modulation was used to explore the brain regions with the response modulated by facial attractiveness ratings (ARs). The results showed significant linear effects of the ARs in the caudate nucleus and the orbitofrontal cortex for all of the subjects, and a non-linear response profile in the right amygdala for only the male subjects. Furthermore, canonical correlation analysis was used to learn the most relevant facial ratios that were best correlated with facial attractiveness. A regression model on the fMRI-derived facial ratio components demonstrated a strong linear relationship between the visually assessed mean ARs and the predictive ARs. Overall, this study provided, for the first time, direct neurophysiologic evidence of the effects of facial ratios on facial attractiveness and suggested that there are notable gender differences in perceiving facial attractiveness as induced by facial proportions. PMID:27779211
Somppi, Sanni; Törnqvist, Heini; Kujala, Miiamaaria V.; Hänninen, Laura; Krause, Christina M.; Vainio, Outi
Appropriate response to companions’ emotional signals is important for all social creatures. The emotional expressions of humans and non-human animals have analogies in their form and function, suggesting shared evolutionary roots, but very little is known about how animals other than primates view and process facial expressions. In primates, threat-related facial expressions evoke exceptional viewing patterns compared with neutral or positive stimuli. Here, we explore if domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have such an attentional bias toward threatening social stimuli and whether observed emotional expressions affect dogs’ gaze fixation distribution among the facial features (eyes, midface and mouth). We recorded the voluntary eye gaze of 31 domestic dogs during viewing of facial photographs of humans and dogs with three emotional expressions (threatening, pleasant and neutral). We found that dogs’ gaze fixations spread systematically among facial features. The distribution of fixations was altered by the seen expression, but eyes were the most probable targets of the first fixations and gathered longer looking durations than mouth regardless of the viewed expression. The examination of the inner facial features as a whole revealed more pronounced scanning differences among expressions. This suggests that dogs do not base their perception of facial expressions on the viewing of single structures, but the interpretation of the composition formed by eyes, midface and mouth. Dogs evaluated social threat rapidly and this evaluation led to attentional bias, which was dependent on the depicted species: threatening conspecifics’ faces evoked heightened attention but threatening human faces instead an avoidance response. We propose that threatening signals carrying differential biological validity are processed via distinctive neurocognitive pathways. Both of these mechanisms may have an adaptive significance for domestic dogs. The findings provide a novel
Somppi, Sanni; Törnqvist, Heini; Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Hänninen, Laura; Krause, Christina M; Vainio, Outi
Appropriate response to companions' emotional signals is important for all social creatures. The emotional expressions of humans and non-human animals have analogies in their form and function, suggesting shared evolutionary roots, but very little is known about how animals other than primates view and process facial expressions. In primates, threat-related facial expressions evoke exceptional viewing patterns compared with neutral or positive stimuli. Here, we explore if domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have such an attentional bias toward threatening social stimuli and whether observed emotional expressions affect dogs' gaze fixation distribution among the facial features (eyes, midface and mouth). We recorded the voluntary eye gaze of 31 domestic dogs during viewing of facial photographs of humans and dogs with three emotional expressions (threatening, pleasant and neutral). We found that dogs' gaze fixations spread systematically among facial features. The distribution of fixations was altered by the seen expression, but eyes were the most probable targets of the first fixations and gathered longer looking durations than mouth regardless of the viewed expression. The examination of the inner facial features as a whole revealed more pronounced scanning differences among expressions. This suggests that dogs do not base their perception of facial expressions on the viewing of single structures, but the interpretation of the composition formed by eyes, midface and mouth. Dogs evaluated social threat rapidly and this evaluation led to attentional bias, which was dependent on the depicted species: threatening conspecifics' faces evoked heightened attention but threatening human faces instead an avoidance response. We propose that threatening signals carrying differential biological validity are processed via distinctive neurocognitive pathways. Both of these mechanisms may have an adaptive significance for domestic dogs. The findings provide a novel perspective on
Nummenmaa, Lauri; Calvo, Manuel G
Happy facial expressions are recognized faster and more accurately than other expressions in categorization tasks, whereas detection in visual search tasks is widely believed to be faster for angry than happy faces. We used meta-analytic techniques for resolving this categorization versus detection advantage discrepancy for positive versus negative facial expressions. Effect sizes were computed on the basis of the r statistic for a total of 34 recognition studies with 3,561 participants and 37 visual search studies with 2,455 participants, yielding a total of 41 effect sizes for recognition accuracy, 25 for recognition speed, and 125 for visual search speed. Random effects meta-analysis was conducted to estimate effect sizes at population level. For recognition tasks, an advantage in recognition accuracy and speed for happy expressions was found for all stimulus types. In contrast, for visual search tasks, moderator analysis revealed that a happy face detection advantage was restricted to photographic faces, whereas a clear angry face advantage was found for schematic and "smiley" faces. Robust detection advantage for nonhappy faces was observed even when stimulus emotionality was distorted by inversion or rearrangement of the facial features, suggesting that visual features primarily drive the search. We conclude that the recognition advantage for happy faces is a genuine phenomenon related to processing of facial expression category and affective valence. In contrast, detection advantages toward either happy (photographic stimuli) or nonhappy (schematic) faces is contingent on visual stimulus features rather than facial expression, and may not involve categorical or affective processing.
Guo, Hong; Luo, Na; Hao, Fei; Bai, Yun
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a typical presenile disorder, with mutation in the LMNA gene. Besides HGPS, mutations in LMNA gene have also been reported in atypical progeroid syndrome (APS). The objective of the study was to investigate the phenotype and molecular basis of APS in a Chinese family. LMNA gene mutations were also reviewed to identify the phenotypic and pathogenic differences among APS. Two siblings in a non-consanguineous Chinese family with atypical progeria were reported. The clinical features were observed, including presenile manifestations such as bird-like facial appearance, generalized lipodystrophy involving the extremities and mottled hyperpigmentation on the trunk and extremities. A heterozygous mutation c.11C>G (p.Pro4Arg) of the LMNA gene was detected in the two patients. 28 different variants of the LMNA gene have been reported in APS families, spreading over almost all the 12 exons of the LMNA gene with some hot-spot regions. This is the first detailed description of an APS family without metabolism abnormalities. APS patients share most of the clinical features, but there may be some distinct features in different ethnic groups.
... is the world's largest specialty association for facial plastic surgery. It represents more than 2,700 facial plastic ... the American Board of Otolaryngology , which includes facial plastic surgery. Others are certified in plastic surgery, ophthalmology, and ...
Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities
Leal, Evelia; Macías-Gómez, Nelly; Rodríguez, Lisa; Mercado, F Miguel; Barros-Núñez, Patricio
The femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome (FFS) is a very rare association of femoral and facial abnormalities. Maternal diabetes mellitus has been mainly involved as the causal agent. We report the second case of FFS with anomalies in the central nervous system (CNS) including corticosubcortical atrophy, colpocephaly, partial agenesis of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of the falx cerebri and absent septum pellucidum. The psychomotor development has been normal. We propose that the CNS defects observed in these patients are part of the spectrum of abnormalities in the FFS.
Fernald, Charles D.
Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…
Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno
This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…
Hamedi, M; Salleh, Sh-Hussain; Tan, T S; Ismail, K; Ali, J; Dee-Uam, C; Pavaganun, C; Yupapin, P P
The authors present a new method of recognizing different human facial gestures through their neural activities and muscle movements, which can be used in machine-interfacing applications. Human-machine interface (HMI) technology utilizes human neural activities as input controllers for the machine. Recently, much work has been done on the specific application of facial electromyography (EMG)-based HMI, which have used limited and fixed numbers of facial gestures. In this work, a multipurpose interface is suggested that can support 2-11 control commands that can be applied to various HMI systems. The significance of this work is finding the most accurate facial gestures for any application with a maximum of eleven control commands. Eleven facial gesture EMGs are recorded from ten volunteers. Detected EMGs are passed through a band-pass filter and root mean square features are extracted. Various combinations of gestures with a different number of gestures in each group are made from the existing facial gestures. Finally, all combinations are trained and classified by a Fuzzy c-means classifier. In conclusion, combinations with the highest recognition accuracy in each group are chosen. An average accuracy >90% of chosen combinations proved their ability to be used as command controllers.
Traldi, Aline; Valdrighi, Heloísa Cristina; de Souza, Luciane Zanin; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler
OBJECTIVE: To assess facial morphology (Pattern) and sagittal relationship between dental arches (Class), and establish a potential association between them and the variables sex, age and ethnicity, among schoolchildren aged between 4 and 9 years old (mean age of 6.7 years) in primary and mixed dentitions. METHODS: The sample comprised 875 children (457 males and 418 females) attending schools in Descalvado, São Paulo, Brazil. An attempt was made with a view to establish a potential association between children's morphological features with sex, age and ethnicity. RESULTS: Descriptive analysis revealed a predominance of facial Pattern I (69.9 %) and Class I (67.4 %). Statistical tests (p < 0.001) showed that Class I was more frequent among Pattern I children, whereas Class II prevailed among Pattern II, and Class III was frequent among Pattern I and III children. Ethnicity was the only variable associated with facial pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that facial pattern and sagittal relationship between dental arches tend to be correlated. Ethnicity was associated with facial pattern, with Pattern I being the most recurrent among Caucasians and facial Pattern II being recurrent among Afro-descendant subjects. PMID:26352847
Hamedi, M; Salleh, Sh-Hussain; Tan, TS; Ismail, K; Ali, J; Dee-Uam, C; Pavaganun, C; Yupapin, PP
The authors present a new method of recognizing different human facial gestures through their neural activities and muscle movements, which can be used in machine-interfacing applications. Human–machine interface (HMI) technology utilizes human neural activities as input controllers for the machine. Recently, much work has been done on the specific application of facial electromyography (EMG)-based HMI, which have used limited and fixed numbers of facial gestures. In this work, a multipurpose interface is suggested that can support 2–11 control commands that can be applied to various HMI systems. The significance of this work is finding the most accurate facial gestures for any application with a maximum of eleven control commands. Eleven facial gesture EMGs are recorded from ten volunteers. Detected EMGs are passed through a band-pass filter and root mean square features are extracted. Various combinations of gestures with a different number of gestures in each group are made from the existing facial gestures. Finally, all combinations are trained and classified by a Fuzzy c-means classifier. In conclusion, combinations with the highest recognition accuracy in each group are chosen. An average accuracy >90% of chosen combinations proved their ability to be used as command controllers. PMID:22267930
Chang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Shin, J. H.; Park, K. S.
Familiar facial identification is important to blind or visually impaired patients and can be achieved using a retinal prosthesis. Nevertheless, there are limitations in delivering the facial images with a resolution sufficient to distinguish facial features, such as eyes and nose, through multichannel electrode arrays used in current visual prostheses. This study verifies the feasibility of familiar facial identification under low-resolution prosthetic vision and proposes an edge-enhancement method to deliver more visual information that is of higher quality. We first generated a contrast-enhanced image and an edge image by applying the Sobel edge detector and blocked each of them by averaging. Then, we subtracted the blocked edge image from the blocked contrast-enhanced image and produced a pixelized image imitating an array of phosphenes. Before subtraction, every gray value of the edge images was weighted as 50% (mode 2), 75% (mode 3) and 100% (mode 4). In mode 1, the facial image was blocked and pixelized with no further processing. The most successful identification was achieved with mode 3 at every resolution in terms of identification index, which covers both accuracy and correct response time. We also found that the subjects recognized a distinctive face especially more accurately and faster than the other given facial images even under low-resolution prosthetic vision. Every subject could identify familiar faces even in very low-resolution images. And the proposed edge-enhancement method seemed to contribute to intermediate-stage visual prostheses.
Graham, B H; Bacino, C A
Turner syndrome is hypothesized to result from haplo-insufficiency of a gene or perhaps multiple genes present on the sex chromosomes; however, the frequent association of mosaicism with deletions of the sex chromosomes prevents establishing useful genotype/phenotype correlations. In this clinical report, we present a male with a de novo, non-mosaic deletion of the Y-chromosome. The phenotype of this patient is unlike any similar cases previously reported in the literature. This patient exhibits many classical clinical features of Turner syndrome including short stature, characteristic facial anomalies, and webbed neck with low posterior hairline, aortic valve abnormality, and hearing impairment. Detailed molecular characterization of this deleted Y-chromosome could provide important information towards establishing genotype/phenotype correlations in Turner syndrome.
Ozçelik, D; Toplu, G; Türkseven, A; Senses, D A; Yiğit, B
Transverse facial cleft is a very rare malformation. The Tessier no. 7 cleft is a lateral facial cleft which emanates from oral cavity and extends towards the tragus, involving both soft tissue and skeletal components. Here, we present a case having transverse facial cleft, accessory mandible having teeth, absent parotid gland and ipsilateral peripheral facial nerve weakness. After surgical repair of the cleft in 2-month of age, improvement of the facial nerve function was detected in 3-year of age. Resection of the accessory mandible was planned in 5-6 years of age.
Kariminejad, Ariana; Afroozan, Fariba; Bozorgmehr, Bita; Ghanadan, Alireza; Akbaroghli, Susan; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza; Mojahedi, Faezeh; Setoodeh, Aria; Loh, Abigail; Tan, Yu Xuan; Escande-Beillard, Nathalie; Malfait, Fransiska; Reversade, Bruno; Gardeitchik, Thatjana; Morava, Eva
Cutis laxa is a heterogeneous condition characterized by redundant, sagging, inelastic, and wrinkled skin. The inherited forms of this disease are rare and can have autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked inheritance. Three of the autosomal recessive cutis laxa syndromes, namely cutis laxa IIA (ARCL2A), cutis laxa IIB (ARCL2B), and geroderma osteodysplastica (GO), have very similar clinical features, complicating accurate diagnosis. Individuals with these conditions often present with cutis laxa, progeroid features, and hyperextensible joints. These conditions also share additional features, such as short stature, hypotonia, and congenital hip dislocation, but the severity and frequency of these findings are variable in each of these cutis laxa syndromes. The characteristic features for ARCL2A are abnormal isoelectric focusing and facial features, including downslanting palpebral fissures and a long philtrum. Rather, the clinical phenotype of ARCL2B includes severe wrinkling of the dorsum of the hands and feet, wormian bones, athetoid movements, lipodystrophy, cataract and corneal clouding, a thin triangular face, and a pinched nose. Normal cognition and osteopenia leading to pathological fractures, maxillary hypoplasia, and oblique furrowing from the outer canthus to the lateral border of the supraorbital ridge are discriminative features for GO. Here we present 10 Iranian patients who were initially diagnosed clinically using the respective features of each cutis laxa syndrome. Each patient’s clinical diagnosis was then confirmed with molecular investigation of the responsible gene. Review of the clinical features from the cases reported from the literature also supports our conclusions. PMID:28294978
Rucker, Janet C; Webb, Bryn D; Frempong, Tamiesha; Gaspar, Harald; Naidich, Thomas P; Jabs, Ethylin Wang
Congenital facial weakness is present in a heterogeneous group of conditions. Among them is Moebius syndrome, which has been defined as a disorder with congenital, non-progressive facial weakness and limited abduction of one or both eyes. It is typically attributed to agenesis of the abducens and facial cranial nerves. This paper details ocular motor findings of 40 subjects (23 months to 64 years; 24 females, 16 males) with congenital facial weakness: 38 presented at a Moebius Syndrome Conference and two were clinic patients. A new classification scheme of patterns based on ocular motor phenotype is presented. Of 40 subjects, 37 had bilateral and three had unilateral facial weakness. The most common ocular motor pattern (Pattern 1, n=17, 43%) was bilateral horizontal gaze palsy with intact vertical range. Pattern 2 (n=10, 26%) was bilateral horizontal gaze palsy with variable vertical limitations. Pattern 3, which was rare, was isolated abduction deficits (n=2, 5%). Others had full motility range and did not meet minimal criteria for the diagnosis of Moebius syndrome (Pattern 4, n=10, 26%). One subject was too severely affected to characterize. Abnormal vertical smooth pursuit was present in 17 (57%) of 30 subjects: nine with Pattern 1, five with Pattern 2, and three with Pattern 4. Abnormal vertical saccades were present in 10 (34%) of 29 subjects. Vertical saccades appeared slow in nine: six with Pattern 1 and three with Pattern 2. Vertical saccades were absent in one subject with Pattern 2. Abnormal vertical optokinetic nystagmus was present in 19 (68%) of 28 subjects: 10 with Pattern 1, six with Pattern 2, one with Pattern 3, and two with Pattern 4. Reduced convergence was present in 19 (66%) of 29 subjects: nine with Pattern 1, six with Pattern 2, one with Pattern 3, and three with Pattern 4. The most common pattern of ocular motor deficit in Moebius syndrome is bilateral horizontal gaze palsy from pontine abducens nuclear defects, rather than abducens nerve
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Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.
Zaman, Nur Atiqah Kamarul; Rahman, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abdul; Jumaat, Abdul Kadir; Yasiran, Siti Salmah
Classification is the process of recognition, differentiation and categorizing objects into groups. Breast abnormalities are calcifications which are tumor markers that indicate the presence of cancer in the breast. The aims of this research are to classify the types of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network (ANN) classifier and to evaluate the accuracy performance using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. The methods used in this research are ANN for breast abnormalities classifications and Canny edge detector as a feature extraction method. Previously the ANN classifier provides only the number of benign and malignant cases without providing information for specific cases. However in this research, the type of abnormality for each image can be obtained. The existing MIAS MiniMammographic database classified the mammogram images into three features only namely characteristic of background tissues, class of abnormality and radius of abnormality. However, in this research three other features are added-in. These three features are number of spots, area and shape of abnormalities. Lastly the performance of the ANN classifier is evaluated using ROC curve. It is found that ANN has an accuracy of 97.9% which is considered acceptable.
Höfel, Lea; Lange, Matthias; Jacobsen, Thomas
This study investigated the influence of changes in tooth color on judgments of facial attractiveness. Standardized photographs were presented, and teeth were digitally manipulated (main categories: original, whitened, colored; filler category: impaired). Participants were instructed to evaluate the faces for attractiveness. Additionally, they were asked to name facial features they found either positive or negative with regard to attractiveness. Whitened teeth were mentioned more often in a positive way but did not improve participants' assessment of attractiveness. A colored tooth did not attract attention, and the attractiveness judgment did not worsen. Tooth color is thus not necessarily perceived and does not have a major impact on facial attractiveness.
SCHMIDT, KAREN L.; COHN, JEFFREY F.
The importance of the face in social interaction and social intelligence is widely recognized in anthropology. Yet the adaptive functions of human facial expression remain largely unknown. An evolutionary model of human facial expression as behavioral adaptation can be constructed, given the current knowledge of the phenotypic variation, ecological contexts, and fitness consequences of facial behavior. Studies of facial expression are available, but results are not typically framed in an evolutionary perspective. This review identifies the relevant physical phenomena of facial expression and integrates the study of this behavior with the anthropological study of communication and sociality in general. Anthropological issues with relevance to the evolutionary study of facial expression include: facial expressions as coordinated, stereotyped behavioral phenotypes, the unique contexts and functions of different facial expressions, the relationship of facial expression to speech, the value of facial expressions as signals, and the relationship of facial expression to social intelligence in humans and in nonhuman primates. Human smiling is used as an example of adaptation, and testable hypotheses concerning the human smile, as well as other expressions, are proposed. PMID:11786989
Spangler, Sibylle M; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Korell, Monika; Maier-Karius, Johanna
Four experiments were conducted with 5- to 11-year-olds and adults to investigate whether facial identity, facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction are processed independently of or in interaction with one another. In a computer-based, speeded sorting task, participants sorted faces according to facial identity while disregarding facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction or, alternatively, according to facial speech, emotional expression, and gaze direction while disregarding facial identity. Reaction times showed that children and adults were able to direct their attention selectively to facial identity despite variations of other kinds of face information, but when sorting according to facial speech and emotional expression, they were unable to ignore facial identity. In contrast, gaze direction could be processed independently of facial identity in all age groups. Apart from shorter reaction times and fewer classification errors, no substantial change in processing facial information was found to be correlated with age. We conclude that adult-like face processing routes are employed from 5 years of age onward.
Preis, M; Soudry, E; Bachar, G; Shufel, H; Feinmesser, R; Shpitzer, T
We sought to define risk factors for facial nerve involvement in parotid gland carcinoma and assess the outcome of facial nerve reanimation. Medical records were reviewed of 66 patients who underwent surgery for parotid carcinoma in 2000–2007 at a tertiary hospital. Patient and tumor characteristics were compared between patients with and without facial nerve involvement and were analyzed on their influence on functional outcome following reanimation. Facial nerve involvement was verified intraoperatively in 24 patients, of whom 16 underwent reanimation during ablative surgery. Deep lobe invasion was significantly associated with intraoperative finding of facial nerve involvement. Tumors larger than 4 cm and salivary duct carcinoma had an obvious trend for facial nerve involvement. House-Brackmann score at 12 months was 3-4 in most patients. Deep lobe involvement and large tumor size may identify patients at risk of facial nerve involvement. Reanimation is associated with good functional outcome regardless of patient's age.
Seibt, Beate; Mühlberger, Andreas; Likowski, Katja U; Weyers, Peter
In interpersonal encounters, individuals often exhibit changes in their own facial expressions in response to emotional expressions of another person. Such changes are often called facial mimicry. While this tendency first appeared to be an automatic tendency of the perceiver to show the same emotional expression as the sender, evidence is now accumulating that situation, person, and relationship jointly determine whether and for which emotions such congruent facial behavior is shown. We review the evidence regarding the moderating influence of such factors on facial mimicry with a focus on understanding the meaning of facial responses to emotional expressions in a particular constellation. From this, we derive recommendations for a research agenda with a stronger focus on the most common forms of encounters, actual interactions with known others, and on assessing potential mediators of facial mimicry. We conclude that facial mimicry is modulated by many factors: attention deployment and sensitivity, detection of valence, emotional feelings, and social motivations. We posit that these are the more proximal causes of changes in facial mimicry due to changes in its social setting.
Monksfield, Peter; Whiteside, Olivia; Jaffé, Susan; Steventon, Nick; Milford, Chris
Pneumomediastinum is often an incidental finding following a blunt or penetrating trauma to the neck or chest. We report a rare case of pneumomediastinum following an isolated facial trauma that was diagnosed on imaging. We also review the clinical signs of this condition, its radiologic characteristics, and the 18 previously reported cases of pneumomediastinum following facial trauma.
Jablonka, Eric M; Sherris, David A; Gassner, Holger G
Chemoimmobilization with botulinum toxin A is an ideal biochemical agent that allows near-total elimination of muscle pull on the healing facial wound. The goal of chemoimmobilization of facial cutaneous wounds is to eliminate dynamic tension on the healing tissues to improve wound healing and minimize scarring for optimal aesthetic results.
Stel, Marielle; van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.
Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals…
Seibt, Beate; Mühlberger, Andreas; Likowski, Katja U.; Weyers, Peter
In interpersonal encounters, individuals often exhibit changes in their own facial expressions in response to emotional expressions of another person. Such changes are often called facial mimicry. While this tendency first appeared to be an automatic tendency of the perceiver to show the same emotional expression as the sender, evidence is now accumulating that situation, person, and relationship jointly determine whether and for which emotions such congruent facial behavior is shown. We review the evidence regarding the moderating influence of such factors on facial mimicry with a focus on understanding the meaning of facial responses to emotional expressions in a particular constellation. From this, we derive recommendations for a research agenda with a stronger focus on the most common forms of encounters, actual interactions with known others, and on assessing potential mediators of facial mimicry. We conclude that facial mimicry is modulated by many factors: attention deployment and sensitivity, detection of valence, emotional feelings, and social motivations. We posit that these are the more proximal causes of changes in facial mimicry due to changes in its social setting. PMID:26321970
Winston, Joel S.; O'Doherty, John; Kilner, James M.; Perrett, David I.; Dolan, Raymond J.
Attractiveness is a facial attribute that shapes human affiliative behaviours. In a previous study we reported a linear response to facial attractiveness in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in reward processing. There are strong theoretical grounds for the hypothesis that coding stimulus reward value also involves the amygdala. The…
Jääskeläinen, S K; Forssell, H; Tenovuo, O
To our knowledge, this is the first report on pain-related abnormalities of the eye blink reflex (BR) in a clinical pain patient population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible neuropathic mechanisms underlying the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), by means of objective electrophysiological examination of the trigemino-facial system. We studied the BR with stimulation of the supraorbital nerve (SON) with particular emphasis on the occurrence of the pain-related ultralate R3 components, and the habituation response of the R2 components. The subjects consisted of eleven BMS patients and 10 healthy control subjects. All patients underwent thorough clinical oral and neurological examinations. The motor function of the trigeminal nerve was assessed with a jaw reflex recording, and a needle-EMG examination of the facial and masticatory muscles was performed in the patients with abnormalities in the BR recordings. The jaw reflexes, the latencies of the BR components, and the needle-EMG examinations were normal in all patients. As a group, the BMS patients had statistically significantly higher stimulus thresholds for the tactile R 1 components of the BR compared with the control subjects. With non-noxious stimulation, the BMS patients showed more frequently pain-related R3 components (11/22 SONs) compared with the controls (3/20 SONs). In addition, four BMS patients had abnormal habituation of the R2 components. In two of these patients, the findings were segmental (i.e., unilateral), coinciding with the side of the subjective BM symptoms. The abnormalities of the BR tests appeared to be related to longer disease duration. Our results suggest a possible pathologic involvement of the nervous system in chronic BMS.
Klingenberg, C P; Wetherill, L; Rogers, J; Moore, E; Ward, R; Autti-Rämö, I; Fagerlund, A; Jacobson, S W; Robinson, L K; Hoyme, H E; Mattson, S N; Li, T K; Riley, E P; Foroud, T
Directional asymmetry, the systematic differences between the left and right body sides, is widespread in human populations. Changes in directional asymmetry are associated with various disorders that affect craniofacial development. Because facial dysmorphology is a key criterion for diagnosing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the question arises whether in utero alcohol exposure alters directional asymmetry in the face. Data on the relative position of 17 morphologic landmarks were obtained from facial scans of children who were classified as either FAS or control. Shape data obtained from the landmarks were analyzed with the methods of geometric morphometrics. Our analyses showed significant directional asymmetry of facial shape, consisting primarily of a shift of midline landmarks to the right and a displacement of the landmarks around the eyes to the left. The asymmetry of FAS and control groups differed significantly and average directional asymmetry was increased in those individuals exposed to alcohol in utero. These results suggest that the developmental consequences of fetal alcohol exposure affect a wide range of craniofacial features in addition to those generally recognized and used for diagnosis of FAS.
Boothroyd, Lynda G.; Gray, Alan W.; Headland, Thomas N.; Uehara, Ray T.; Waynforth, David; Burt, D. Michael; Pound, Nicholas
It has been hypothesised that facial traits such as masculinity and a healthy appearance may indicate heritable qualities in males (e.g. immunocompetence) and that, consequently, female preferences for such traits may function to increase offspring viability and health. However, the putative link between paternal facial features and offspring health has not previously been tested empirically in humans. Here we present data from two traditional societies with little or no access to modern medicine and family planning technologies. Data on offspring number and offspring survival were analysed for the Agta of the Philippines and the Maya of Belize, and archive facial photographs were assessed by observers for attractiveness and masculinity. While there was no association between attractiveness and offspring survival in either population, a quadratic relationship was observed between masculinity and offspring survival in both populations, such that intermediate levels of masculinity were associated with the lowest offspring mortality, with both high and low levels of masculinity being associated with increased mortality. Neither attractiveness nor masculinity were related to fertility (offspring number) in either population. We consider how these data may or may not reconcile with current theories of female preferences for masculinity in male faces and argue that further research and replication in other traditional societies should be a key priority for the field. PMID:28081562
Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Tominaga, Masafumi; Koshimizu, Hiroyasu
Face is the most effective visual media for supporting human interface and communication. We have proposed a typical KANSEI machine vision system to generate the facial caricature so far. The basic principle of this system uses the "mean face assumption" to extract individual features of a given face. This system did not provide for feedback from the gallery of the caricature; therefore, to allow for such feedback, in this paper, we propose a caricaturing system by using the KANSEI visual information acquired from the Eye-camera mounted on the head of a gallery, because it is well know that the gaze distribution represents not only where but also how he is looking at the face. The caricatures created in this way could be based on several measures which are provided from the distribution of the number of fixations to the facial parts, the number of times the gaze came to a particular area of the face, and the matrix of the transitions from a facial region to the other. These measures of the gallery"s KANSEI information were used to create caricatures with feedback from the gallery.
Mazumdar, Debasis; Mitra, Soma; Mitra, Sushmita
Elastic Bunch Graph Matching is a feature-based face recognition algorithm which has been used to determine facial attributes from an image. However the dimension of the feature vectors, in case of EBGM, is quite high. Feature selection is a useful preprocessing step for reducing dimensionality, removing irrelevant data, improving learning accuracy and enhancing output comprehensibility.
Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626
Aims and Objectives: To study wheather the facial features return to normal after surgery for muscular torticollis done in early childhood. Materials and Methods: This is a long-term study of the fate of facial asymmetry in four children who have undergone operation for muscular torticollis in early childhood. All the patients presented late, i.e., after the age of 4 years with a scarred sternomastoid and plagiocephaly, so conservative management with physiotherapy was not considered. All the patients had an x-ray of cervical spine and eye and dental checkup before making a diagnosis of muscular torticollis. Preoperative photograph of the patient's face was taken to counsel the parents about the secondary effect of short sternomastoid on facial features and the need for surgery. After division of sternomastoid muscle and release of cervical fascia when indicated, the head was maintained in a hyperextended position supported by sand bags for three days. Gradual physiotherapy was then started followed by wearing of a Minerva collar that the child wore for a maximum period of time in 24 h. Physiotherapy was continued three times a day till the range of movements of the head returned to normal. During the follow-up, serial photographs were taken to note the changes in the facial features. Results: In all four patients, the asymmetry of the face got corrected and the facial features returned to normal. Conclusion: Most of the deformity of facial asymmetry gets corrected in the first two years after surgery. By adolescence, the face returns to normal. PMID:27046975
Beer, Jenay M; Smarr, Cory-Ann; Fisk, Arthur D; Rogers, Wendy A
As technology advances, robots and virtual agents will be introduced into the home and healthcare settings to assist individuals, both young and old, with everyday living tasks. Understanding how users recognize an agent's social cues is therefore imperative, especially in social interactions. Facial expression, in particular, is one of the most common non-verbal cues used to display and communicate emotion in on-screen agents (Cassell, Sullivan, Prevost, & Churchill, 2000). Age is important to consider because age-related differences in emotion recognition of human facial expression have been supported (Ruffman et al., 2008), with older adults showing a deficit for recognition of negative facial expressions. Previous work has shown that younger adults can effectively recognize facial emotions displayed by agents (Bartneck & Reichenbach, 2005; Courgeon et al. 2009; 2011; Breazeal, 2003); however, little research has compared in-depth younger and older adults' ability to label a virtual agent's facial emotions, an import consideration because social agents will be required to interact with users of varying ages. If such age-related differences exist for recognition of virtual agent facial expressions, we aim to understand if those age-related differences are influenced by the intensity of the emotion, dynamic formation of emotion (i.e., a neutral expression developing into an expression of emotion through motion), or the type of virtual character differing by human-likeness. Study 1 investigated the relationship between age-related differences, the implication of dynamic formation of emotion, and the role of emotion intensity in emotion recognition of the facial expressions of a virtual agent (iCat). Study 2 examined age-related differences in recognition expressed by three types of virtual characters differing by human-likeness (non-humanoid iCat, synthetic human, and human). Study 2 also investigated the role of configural and featural processing as a possible
Beer, Jenay M.; Smarr, Cory-Ann; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.
As technology advances, robots and virtual agents will be introduced into the home and healthcare settings to assist individuals, both young and old, with everyday living tasks. Understanding how users recognize an agent’s social cues is therefore imperative, especially in social interactions. Facial expression, in particular, is one of the most common non-verbal cues used to display and communicate emotion in on-screen agents (Cassell, Sullivan, Prevost, & Churchill, 2000). Age is important to consider because age-related differences in emotion recognition of human facial expression have been supported (Ruffman et al., 2008), with older adults showing a deficit for recognition of negative facial expressions. Previous work has shown that younger adults can effectively recognize facial emotions displayed by agents (Bartneck & Reichenbach, 2005; Courgeon et al. 2009; 2011; Breazeal, 2003); however, little research has compared in-depth younger and older adults’ ability to label a virtual agent’s facial emotions, an import consideration because social agents will be required to interact with users of varying ages. If such age-related differences exist for recognition of virtual agent facial expressions, we aim to understand if those age-related differences are influenced by the intensity of the emotion, dynamic formation of emotion (i.e., a neutral expression developing into an expression of emotion through motion), or the type of virtual character differing by human-likeness. Study 1 investigated the relationship between age-related differences, the implication of dynamic formation of emotion, and the role of emotion intensity in emotion recognition of the facial expressions of a virtual agent (iCat). Study 2 examined age-related differences in recognition expressed by three types of virtual characters differing by human-likeness (non-humanoid iCat, synthetic human, and human). Study 2 also investigated the role of configural and featural processing as a
Jackson, Tate H; Clark, Kait; Mitroff, Stephen R
Assessing facial symmetry is an evolutionarily important process, which suggests that individual differences in this ability should exist. As existing data are inconclusive, the current study explored whether a group trained in facial symmetry assessment, orthodontists, possessed enhanced abilities. Symmetry assessment was measured using face and non-face stimuli among orthodontic residents and two control groups: university participants with no symmetry training and airport security luggage screeners, a group previously shown to possess expert visual search skills unrelated to facial symmetry. Orthodontic residents were more accurate at assessing symmetry in both upright and inverted faces compared to both control groups, but not for non-face stimuli. These differences are not likely due to motivational biases or a speed-accuracy tradeoff-orthodontic residents were slower than the university participants but not the security screeners. Understanding such individual differences in facial symmetry assessment may inform the perception of facial attractiveness.
Holmes, D K
Most of the facial trauma in the United States is treated in trauma centers in large urban or university medical centers, with limited trauma care taking place in our military medical treatment facilities. In many cases, active duty facial trauma surgeons may lack the current experience necessary for the optimal care of facial wounds of our inquired military personnel in the early stages of the conflict. Consequently, the skills of the reservist trauma surgeons who staff our civilian trauma centers and who care for facial trauma victims daily will be critical in caring for our wounded. These "trauma-current" reservists may act as a cadre of practiced surgeons to aid those with less experience. A plan for refresher training of active duty facial trauma surgeons is presented.
Davis, Joshua Ian; Senghas, Ann; Ochsner, Kevin N.
Contracting muscles involved in facial expressions (e.g. smiling or frowning) can make emotions more intense, even when unaware one is modifying expression (e.g. Strack, Martin, & Stepper, 1988). However, it is unresolved whether and how inhibiting facial expressions might weaken emotional experience. In the present study, 142 participants watched positive and negative video clips while either inhibiting their facial expressions or not. When hypothesis awareness and effects of distraction were experimentally controlled, inhibiting facial expressions weakened some emotional experiences. These findings provide new insight into ways that inhibition of facial expression can affect emotional experience: the link is not dependent on experimental demand, lay theories about connections between expression and experience, or the distraction involved in inhibiting one’s expressions. PMID:20160935
Jackson, Tate H.; Clark, Kait; Mitroff, Stephen R.
Assessing facial symmetry is an evolutionarily important process, which suggests that individual differences in this ability should exist. As existing data are inconclusive, the current study explored whether a group trained in facial symmetry assessment, orthodontists, possessed enhanced abilities. Symmetry assessment was measured using face and non-face stimuli among orthodontic residents and two control groups: university participants with no symmetry training and airport security luggage screeners, a group previously shown to possess expert visual search skills unrelated to facial symmetry. Orthodontic residents were more accurate at assessing symmetry in both upright and inverted faces compared to both control groups, but not for non-face stimuli. These differences are not likely due to motivational biases or a speed-accuracy tradeoff—orthodontic residents were slower than the university participants but not the security screeners. Understanding such individual differences in facial symmetry assessment may inform the perception of facial attractiveness. PMID:24319342
Drew, S J; Fullarton, A C; Glasby, M A; Mountain, R E; Murray, J A
The hypoglossal nerve has been used both entirely and in part to repair the facial nerve. Using the partial technique it may be difficult to obtain sufficient length and a free interposed graft is then required to extend the hypoglossal element. In six sheep the facial nerve was excised between its emergence from the stylomastoid foramen and its bifurcation in the parotid gland. The hypoglossal nerve was exposed and split longitudinally producing a limb which was reflected towards the distal stump of the facial nerve. This left a gap of 4-5 cm which was bridged with a freeze-thawed coaxially aligned skeletal muscle autograft. The sheep were examined at 8 months. Laser doppler blood-flow studies showed the blood-flow distal to the graft to be about 25% of that at an equivalent site on the normal side. Peak nerve conduction velocities were also reduced on the repaired side but stimulation of the proximal hypoglossal nerve was nevertheless capable of causing adequate contraction of both facial and tongue muscles. Histological comparison of the repaired facial nerves with equivalent sites on the normal side showed a reduction in mean axon and fibre diameters with normal myelin sheath thickness for the regenerated axon sizes. All of these features are to be expected in a regenerated nerve and are consistent with a good level of recovery of function.
Komwilaisak, Ratana; Ratanasiri, Thawalwong; Kleebkaow, Pilaiwan
The accurate diagnosis of fetal malformations in utero can provide both heath care providers and parents a number of management options. Three-dimensional ultrasonography is a new technique of diagnosis which has several potential advantages to allow for evaluation of specific anomalies by permitting high-quality views of body surface. We report 4 cases of fetal chromosomal abnormalities including 2 cases of trisomy 21, 1 case of trisomy 13 and 1 case of 48, XXY/+18. All cases were proved to have abnormal chromosomes by amniocentesis or percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling. After 3D reconstruction, we can identify specific facial abnormalities which can not be visualized by conventional two-dimensional ultrasound such as low set ear Mongolian's slant eyes, facial dysmorphism of trisomy 13 and trisomy 18. We also clearly visualized abnormalities of digits such as overlapping fingers, club hands and sandal gap. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the fetal body surface improves the antenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities characterized by a particular dysmorphism. Our report suggests that three-dimensional ultrasonography has the potential to provide novel informations on the fetal anatomy and be useful in visualization and identification of chromosomal abnormalities in utero.
Bayard, Sophie; Croisier Langenier, Muriel; Dauvilliers, Yves
Cataplexy is pathognomonic of narcolepsy with cataplexy, and defined by a transient loss of muscle tone triggered by strong emotions. Recent researches suggest abnormal amygdala function in narcolepsy with cataplexy. Emotion treatment and emotional regulation strategies are complex functions involving cortical and limbic structures, like the amygdala. As the amygdala has been shown to play a role in facial emotion recognition, we tested the hypothesis that patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy would have impaired recognition of facial emotional expressions compared with patients affected with central hypersomnia without cataplexy and healthy controls. We also aimed to determine whether cataplexy modulates emotional regulation strategies. Emotional intensity, arousal and valence ratings on Ekman faces displaying happiness, surprise, fear, anger, disgust, sadness and neutral expressions of 21 drug-free patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy were compared with 23 drug-free sex-, age- and intellectual level-matched adult patients with hypersomnia without cataplexy and 21 healthy controls. All participants underwent polysomnography recording and multiple sleep latency tests, and completed depression, anxiety and emotional regulation questionnaires. Performance of patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy did not differ from patients with hypersomnia without cataplexy or healthy controls on both intensity rating of each emotion on its prototypical label and mean ratings for valence and arousal. Moreover, patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy did not use different emotional regulation strategies. The level of depressive and anxious symptoms in narcolepsy with cataplexy did not differ from the other groups. Our results demonstrate that narcolepsy with cataplexy accurately perceives and discriminates facial emotions, and regulates emotions normally. The absence of alteration of perceived affective valence remains a major clinical interest in narcolepsy with cataplexy
Patil, Satishkumar G.; Patil, Bindu S.; Joshi, Udupikrishna; Allurkar, Soumya; Japatti, Sharanabasappa; Munnangi, Ashwini
Background: With the development of urban setting worldwide, the major issue of concern is the increase in the mortality rate in the population due to road traffic accidents. The face, being the most exposed region is susceptible to injuries and maybe associated with injuries to the adjacent neuro-cranium. The literature has conflicting views on the relationship between facial fractures and head injuries with some authors opining that the facial skeleton cushions the brain while some other authors claim that the facial fractures act as indicators for head injuries. Objectives: To analyze the correlation between the facial fractures and head injuries and to assess if the facial skeleton acts to protect the brain from injury. Patients and Methods: A prospective study that included patients who reported to the emergency department of Basaveswar Teaching and General Hospital, Gulbarga, during 2 years, between August 2013 and July 2015 was conducted. A total of 100 patients with facial fractures were enrolled in the study. Results: Head injuries were sustained by 51 patients in the study. Maximum number of patients was in the age group of 20–29 with a male to female ratio of 10.1:1. The mandible was the most frequently fractured bone in the facial skeleton followed by the zygomatico-maxillary complex. A majority (96%) of patients with head injuries had fractures of either the upper third or the middle third of the face. Contusions and pneumocephalus were the most common head injury encountered. The Glasgow Coma Scale score was significantly lower in patients with associated head injuries as compared to those patients with facial trauma alone. The mortality rate in the study was 2% with both the victims having sustained middle third and upper third fractures respectively with associated head injuries. Conclusion: The facial skeleton does not act to cushion the brain from injury but, in fact, the facial trauma victims should be considered potential head injury patients
Livingstone, Steven R.; Vezer, Esztella; McGarry, Lucy M.; Lang, Anthony E.; Russo, Frank A.
Background: Humans spontaneously mimic the facial expressions of others, facilitating social interaction. This mimicking behavior may be impaired in individuals with Parkinson's disease, for whom the loss of facial movements is a clinical feature. Objective: To assess the presence of facial mimicry in patients with Parkinson's disease. Method: Twenty-seven non-depressed patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 28 age-matched controls had their facial muscles recorded with electromyography while they observed presentations of calm, happy, sad, angry, and fearful emotions. Results: Patients exhibited reduced amplitude and delayed onset in the zygomaticus major muscle region (smiling response) following happy presentations (patients M = 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.15 to 0.18, controls M = 0.26, CI 0.14 to 0.37, ANOVA, effect size [ES] = 0.18, p < 0.001). Although patients exhibited activation of the corrugator supercilii and medial frontalis (frowning response) following sad and fearful presentations, the frontalis response to sad presentations was attenuated relative to controls (patients M = 0.05, CI −0.08 to 0.18, controls M = 0.21, CI 0.09 to 0.34, ANOVA, ES = 0.07, p = 0.017). The amplitude of patients' zygomaticus activity in response to positive emotions was found to be negatively correlated with response times for ratings of emotional identification, suggesting a motor-behavioral link (r = –0.45, p = 0.02, two-tailed). Conclusions: Patients showed decreased mimicry overall, mimicking other peoples' frowns to some extent, but presenting with profoundly weakened and delayed smiles. These findings open a new avenue of inquiry into the “masked face” syndrome of PD. PMID:27375505