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Sample records for abnormal fdg accumulation

  1. Ophthalmologic abnormalities on FDG-PET/CT: a pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Muzaffar, Razi; Shousha, Mohamed A.; Sarajlic, Lejla

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Positron emission tomography (PET) using [18F]-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) diagnoses, stages, and restages many cancers and is often better than anatomic imaging alone. However, abnormalities within the orbit present a challenge in evaluation, mainly due to the subtle findings on PET/computed tomography (CT). In addition, this region is typically at the edge of the field of view for the standard base of skull to upper thigh FDG-PET/CT scans. The aim of this pictorial essay is to illustrate several subtle and apparent abnormalities within the orbit that can have a profound impact on patient management and follow-up. PMID:23524026

  2. Association of Heat Production with FDG Accumulation by Murine Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) After Stress

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Edward A.; Bonab, Ali A; Paul, Kasie; Yerxa, John; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Fischman, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cold stress results in increased accumulation of 18FDG in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Although it has been assumed that this effect is associated with increased thermogenesis by BAT, direct measurements of this phenomenon have not been reported. In the current investigation we evaluated the relationship between stimulation of 18FDG accumulation in BAT by three stressors and heat production measured in vivo by thermal imaging. Male SKH-1 hairless mice were subjected to full-thickness thermal injury (30% total body surface area), cold stress (4°C for 24 hours), or cutaneous wounds. Groups of 6 animals with each treatment were fasted over night and injected with 18FDG. Sixty minutes after injection the mice were sacrificed and biodistribution was measured. Other groups of six animals subjected to the three stressors were studied by thermal imaging and the difference in temperature between BAT and adjacent tissue was recorded (ΔT). Additional groups of 6 animals were studied by both thermal imaging and 18FDG biodistribution in the same animals. Accumulation of 18FDG by BAT was significantly (p <0.0001) increased by all 3 treatments (burn ~5 fold, cold: ~15 fold, and cutaneous wound ~15 fold) whereas accumulation by adjacent white adipose tissue (WAT) was unchanged. Compared with sham control mice; ΔTs in animals exposed to all three stressors showed significant (p<0.001) increases in temperature between BAT and adjacent tissue. The difference in ΔT between stressor groups was not significant, however, there was a highly significant linear correlation (r2=0.835, p<0.0001) between the ΔT measured in BAT vs. adjacent tissue and 18FDG accumulation. These results establish, for the first time, that changes in BAT temperature determined in vivo by thermal imaging parallel increases in 18FDG accumulation. PMID:21914754

  3. Alterations in 18F-FDG accumulation into neck-related muscles after neck dissection for patients with oral cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kito, Shinji; Koga, Hirofumi; Kodama, Masaaki; Habu, Manabu; Kokuryo, Shinya; Oda, Masafumi; Matsuo, Kou; Nishino, Takanobu; Matsumoto-Takeda, Shinobu; Uehara, Masataka; Yoshiga, Daigo; Tanaka, Tatsurou; Nishimura, Shun; Miyamoto, Ikuya; Sasaguri, Masaaki; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Yoshioka, Izumi; Morimoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Background 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) accumulations are commonly seen in the neck-related muscles of the surgical and non-surgical sides after surgery with neck dissection (ND) for oral cancers, which leads to radiologists having difficulty in diagnosing the lesions. To examine the alterations in 18F-FDG accumulation in neck-related muscles of patients after ND for oral cancer. Material and Methods 18F-FDG accumulations on positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) in neck-related muscles were retrospectively analyzed after surgical dissection of cervical lymph nodes in oral cancers. Results According to the extent of ND of cervical lymph nodes, the rate of patients with 18F-FDG-PET-positive areas increased in the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and posterior neck muscles of the surgical and/or non-surgical sides. In addition, SUVmax of 18F-FDG-PET-positive areas in the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles were increased according to the extent of the ND. Conclusions In evaluating 18F-FDG accumulations after ND for oral cancers, we should pay attention to the 18F-FDG distributions in neck-related muscles including the non-surgical side as false-positive findings. Key words:18F-FDG, PET-CT, oral cancers, muscles. PMID:27031062

  4. [18F]FDG Accumulation in Early Coronary Atherosclerotic Lesions in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tarkia, Miikka; Saraste, Antti; Stark, Christoffer; Vähäsilta, Tommi; Savunen, Timo; Strandberg, Marjatta; Saunavaara, Virva; Tolvanen, Tuula; Teuho, Jarmo; Teräs, Mika; Metsälä, Olli; Rinne, Petteri; Heinonen, Ilkka; Savisto, Nina; Pietilä, Mikko; Saukko, Pekka; Roivainen, Anne; Knuuti, Juhani

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inflammation is an important contributor to atherosclerosis progression. A glucose analogue 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) has been used to detect atherosclerotic inflammation. However, it is not known to what extent [18F]FDG is taken up in different stages of atherosclerosis. We aimed to study the uptake of [18F]FDG to various stages of coronary plaques in a pig model. Methods First, diabetes was caused by streptozotocin injections (50 mg/kg for 3 days) in farm pigs (n = 10). After 6 months on high-fat diet, pigs underwent dual-gated cardiac PET/CT to measure [18F]FDG uptake in coronary arteries. Coronary segments (n = 33) were harvested for ex vivo measurement of radioactivity and autoradiography (ARG). Results Intimal thickening was observed in 16 segments and atheroma type plaques in 10 segments. Compared with the normal vessel wall, ARG showed 1.7±0.7 times higher [18F]FDG accumulation in the intimal thickening and 4.1±2.3 times higher in the atheromas (P = 0.004 and P = 0.003, respectively). Ex vivo mean vessel-to-blood ratio was higher in segments with atheroma than those without atherosclerosis (2.6±1.2 vs. 1.3±0.7, P = 0.04). In vivo PET imaging showed the highest target-to-background ratio (TBR) of 2.7. However, maximum TBR was not significantly different in segments without atherosclerosis (1.1±0.5) and either intimal thickening (1.2±0.4, P = 1.0) or atheroma (1.6±0.6, P = 0.4). Conclusions We found increased uptake of [18F]FDG in coronary atherosclerotic lesions in a pig model. However, uptake in these early stage lesions was not detectable with in vivo PET imaging. Further studies are needed to clarify whether visible [18F]FDG uptake in coronary arteries represents more advanced, highly inflamed plaques. PMID:26120829

  5. Neurobehavioral Abnormalities in the HIV-1 Transgenic Rat Do Not Correspond to Neuronal Hypometabolism on 18F-FDG-PET.

    PubMed

    Reid, William C; Casas, Rafael; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Muthusamy, Siva; Lee, Dianne E; Ibrahim, Wael G; Nair, Anand; Koziol, Deloris; Maric, Dragan; Hammoud, Dima A

    2016-01-01

    Motor and behavioral abnormalities are common presentations among individuals with HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). We investigated whether longitudinal motor and behavioral performance in the HIV-1 transgenic rat (Tg), a commonly used neuro-HIV model, corresponded to in vivo neuronal death/dysfunction, by using rotarod and open field testing in parallel to [18F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We demonstrated that age-matched non-Tg wild type (WT) rats outperformed the HIV-1 Tg rats at most time points on rotarod testing. Habituation to rotarod occurred at 8 weeks of age (fifth weekly testing session) in the WT rats but it never occurred in the Tg rats, suggesting deficits in motor learning. Similarly, in open field testing, WT rats outperformed the Tg rats at most time points, suggesting defective exploratory/motor behavior and increased emotionality in the Tg rat. Despite the neurobehavioral abnormalities, there were no concomitant deficits in 18F-FDG uptake in Tg rats on PET compared to age-matched WT rats and no significant longitudinal loss of FDG uptake in either group. The negative PET findings were confirmed using 14C- Deoxy-D-glucose autoradiography in 32 week-old Tg and WT rats. We believe that the neuropathology in the HIV-1 Tg rat is more likely a consequence of neuronal dysfunction rather than overt neurodegeneration/neuronal cell death, similar to what is seen in HIV-positive patients in the post-ART era. PMID:27010205

  6. Neurobehavioral Abnormalities in the HIV-1 Transgenic Rat Do Not Correspond to Neuronal Hypometabolism on 18F-FDG-PET.

    PubMed

    Reid, William C; Casas, Rafael; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Muthusamy, Siva; Lee, Dianne E; Ibrahim, Wael G; Nair, Anand; Koziol, Deloris; Maric, Dragan; Hammoud, Dima A

    2016-01-01

    Motor and behavioral abnormalities are common presentations among individuals with HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). We investigated whether longitudinal motor and behavioral performance in the HIV-1 transgenic rat (Tg), a commonly used neuro-HIV model, corresponded to in vivo neuronal death/dysfunction, by using rotarod and open field testing in parallel to [18F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We demonstrated that age-matched non-Tg wild type (WT) rats outperformed the HIV-1 Tg rats at most time points on rotarod testing. Habituation to rotarod occurred at 8 weeks of age (fifth weekly testing session) in the WT rats but it never occurred in the Tg rats, suggesting deficits in motor learning. Similarly, in open field testing, WT rats outperformed the Tg rats at most time points, suggesting defective exploratory/motor behavior and increased emotionality in the Tg rat. Despite the neurobehavioral abnormalities, there were no concomitant deficits in 18F-FDG uptake in Tg rats on PET compared to age-matched WT rats and no significant longitudinal loss of FDG uptake in either group. The negative PET findings were confirmed using 14C- Deoxy-D-glucose autoradiography in 32 week-old Tg and WT rats. We believe that the neuropathology in the HIV-1 Tg rat is more likely a consequence of neuronal dysfunction rather than overt neurodegeneration/neuronal cell death, similar to what is seen in HIV-positive patients in the post-ART era.

  7. Neurobehavioral Abnormalities in the HIV-1 Transgenic Rat Do Not Correspond to Neuronal Hypometabolism on 18F-FDG-PET

    PubMed Central

    Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Muthusamy, Siva; Lee, Dianne E.; Ibrahim, Wael G.; Nair, Anand; Koziol, Deloris; Maric, Dragan; Hammoud, Dima A.

    2016-01-01

    Motor and behavioral abnormalities are common presentations among individuals with HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). We investigated whether longitudinal motor and behavioral performance in the HIV-1 transgenic rat (Tg), a commonly used neuro-HIV model, corresponded to in vivo neuronal death/dysfunction, by using rotarod and open field testing in parallel to [18F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We demonstrated that age-matched non-Tg wild type (WT) rats outperformed the HIV-1 Tg rats at most time points on rotarod testing. Habituation to rotarod occurred at 8 weeks of age (fifth weekly testing session) in the WT rats but it never occurred in the Tg rats, suggesting deficits in motor learning. Similarly, in open field testing, WT rats outperformed the Tg rats at most time points, suggesting defective exploratory/motor behavior and increased emotionality in the Tg rat. Despite the neurobehavioral abnormalities, there were no concomitant deficits in 18F-FDG uptake in Tg rats on PET compared to age-matched WT rats and no significant longitudinal loss of FDG uptake in either group. The negative PET findings were confirmed using 14C- Deoxy-D-glucose autoradiography in 32 week-old Tg and WT rats. We believe that the neuropathology in the HIV-1 Tg rat is more likely a consequence of neuronal dysfunction rather than overt neurodegeneration/neuronal cell death, similar to what is seen in HIV-positive patients in the post-ART era. PMID:27010205

  8. Abnormal 18F-FDG uptakes in the prostate due to two different conditions of urine reflux: a mimicker of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Inamura, Kensuke; Kaji, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Setsu; Masuda, Akinori; Kamai, Takao

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old man with lung cancer underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT for staging. FDG PET/CT showed high uptakes in the prostate gland with calcification, and magnetic resonance imaging was recommended to check the prostatic malignancy. T2-weighted images revealed midline cystic lesion at the base to midgland level and cystic lesion in right apical peripheral zone. We suspected urine reflux conditions. Voiding cystourethrography demonstrated those cystic lesions were communicating with the urethra. Therefore these lesions were diagnosed as the prostatic utricle cyst and the dilated prostatic duct in peripheral zone. We conclude that the urine reflux condition should be recognized as a prostate benign lesion with FDG accumulation.

  9. Reversal of brain metabolic abnormalities following treatment of AIDS dementia complex with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine): a PET-FDG study

    SciTech Connect

    Brunetti, A.; Berg, G.; Di Chiro, G.; Cohen, R.M.; Yarchoan, R.; Pizzo, P.A.; Broder, S.; Eddy, J.; Fulham, M.J.; Finn, R.D.

    1989-05-01

    Brain glucose metabolism was evaluated in four patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex using (/sup 18/F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans at the beginning of therapy with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine), and later in the course of therapy. In two patients, baseline, large focal cortical abnormalities of glucose utilization were reversed during the course of therapy. In the other two patients, the initial PET study did not reveal pronounced focal alterations, while the post-treatment scans showed markedly increased cortical glucose metabolism. The improved cortical glucose utilization was accompanied in all patients by immunologic and neurologic improvement. PET-FDG studies can detect cortical metabolic abnormalities associated with AIDS dementia complex, and may be used to monitor the metabolic improvement in response to AZT treatment.

  10. Spectrum of brain abnormalities detected on whole body F-18 FDG PET/CT in patients undergoing evaluation for non-CNS malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Jaimini, Abhinav; D’Souza, Maria M; Sharma, Rajnish; Jain, Jyotika; Garg, Gunjan; Singh, Dinesh; Kumar, Nitin; Mishra, Anil K; Grover, Rajesh K; Mondal, Anupam

    2011-01-01

    We present the pattern of metabolic brain abnormalities detected in patients undergoing whole body (WB) F-18 flurodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) examination for non-central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. Knowledge of the PET/CT appearance of various intracranial metabolic abnormalities enables correct interpretation of PET scans in oncological patients where differentiation of metastasis from benign intracranial pathologies is important and improves specificity of the PET study. A complete clinical history and correlation with CT and MRI greatly helps in arriving at a correct imaging diagnosis. PMID:22174526

  11. Abnormal hepatic copper accumulation of spheroid composed of liver cells from LEC rats in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ueno, K; Yoshizawa, M; Satoh, T; Yoneda, S; Ohmichi, M; Yamazaki, M; Mori, Y; Suzuki, K T

    1995-11-01

    The LEC rat is a mutant strain displaying hereditary hepatitis, and shows abnormal accumulation of copper (Cu) similar to that occurring in Wilson's disease. We prepared a multicellular spheroid composed of LEC rat liver cells to investigate the mechanism for abnormal accumulation of Cu. These multicellular spheroids were prepared by detaching the monolayer on the collagen-conjugated thermo-responsive polymer coated culture dish at a temperature below the critical solution temperature and culturing on the non-adhesive substratum. Long-term cultured spheroids of LEC rat liver cells as well as SD rat liver cells were attempted. Non-parenchymal cells obtained by collagenase perfusion from the LEC liver were fewer than those from the SD liver. Cells from the LEC rat, over 11 weeks of age, did not form a cell sheet; however, a mixture of parenchymal cells from LEC rats over aged 11 weeks and non-parenchymal cells from SD rats of any age yielded intact spheroids. We examined the toxicity, the accumulation and distribution of Cu in spheroids. The accumulation of Cu in LEC spheroids was higher than that in SD spheroids. Results suggest that spheroids consisting of LEC liver cells are useful as an alternative model to in vivo tests to investigate the mechanism for abnormal accumulation of Cu in liver.

  12. Distant subcutaneous recurrence of a parathyroid carcinoma: abnormal uptakes in the (99m)Tc-sestamibi scan and (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Soo; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Lee, Soo Hyung; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, In Ju

    2014-05-01

    We report a rare case of distant subcutaneous parathyroid carcinoma recurrence. A 50-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of sustained hypercalcemia despite surgical removal of a parathyroid carcinoma. A focal uptake in the upper mediastinal area was detected in a (99m)Tc-sestamibi scan, and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging demonstrated a subcutaneous mass. She underwent tumor resection, and the pathological findings were consistent with a parathyroid carcinoma. The postoperative serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level remained within normal limits. However, a new palpable solitary mass was identified in the upper portion of the left breast 1 year postoperatively. Both a (99m)Tc-sestamibi scan and (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging revealed an abnormal lesion in the upper breast, and subsequent pathology reports confirmed parathyroid carcinoma metastasis. Serum PTH and calcium levels fell within normal ranges after tumor resection. Two subcutaneous recurrent lesions appeared likely due to tumor seeding during the previous endoscopic operation at a local hospital.

  13. Accumulation of abnormal adult-generated hippocampal granule cells predicts seizure frequency and severity

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Michael S.; Danzer, Steve C.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of abnormally integrated, adult-born, hippocampal dentate granule cells (DGC) is hypothesized to contribute to the development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). DGCs have long been implicated in TLE, as they regulate excitatory signaling through the hippocampus and exhibit neuroplastic changes during epileptogenesis. Furthermore, DGCs are unusual in that they are continually generated throughout life, with aberrant integration of new cells underlying the majority of restructuring in the dentate during epileptogenesis. While it is known that these abnormal networks promote abnormal neuronal firing and hyperexcitability, it has yet to be established whether they directly contribute to seizure generation. If abnormal DGCs do contribute, a reasonable prediction would be that the severity of epilepsy will be correlated with the number or load of abnormal DGCs. To test this prediction, we utilized a conditional, inducible transgenic mouse model to fate-map adult-generated DGCs. Mossy cell loss, also implicated in epileptogenesis, was assessed as well. Transgenic mice rendered epileptic using the pilocarpine-status epilepticus model of epilepsy were monitored 24/7 by video/EEG for four weeks to determine seizure frequency and severity. Positive correlations were found between seizure frequency and: 1) the percentage of hilar ectopic DGCs, 2) the amount of mossy fiber sprouting and 3) the extent of mossy cell death. In addition, mossy fiber sprouting and mossy cell death were correlated with seizure severity. These studies provide correlative evidence in support of the hypothesis that abnormal DGCs contribute to the development of TLE, and also support a role for mossy cell loss. PMID:23699504

  14. FDG PET imaging in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Sobic-Saranovic, Dragana; Artiko, Vera; Obradovic, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this review is to highlight the clinical utility of FDG-PET/CT for evaluation of patients with chronic sarcoidosis. The emphasis was on the potential advantages and disadvantages of this technique in these patients based on which recommendations were made. The advantage of FDG-PET/CT technique is that it can visualize FDG accumulation in activated inflammatory cells and simultaneously provide PET and CT images. Of particular interest is the use of FDG-PET/CT for the staging and identification of occult sites and sites suitable for biopsy and for the assessment of inflammatory active sarcoidosis in patients with prolonged symptoms, especially when other markers of the disease are within normal values. FDG-PET/CT also provides a better visualization of extrathoracic sites of active sarcoidosis, such as in the bones, liver, spleen, and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The use of FDG-PET/CT is of special interest in cardiac sarcoidosis because this potentially life-threatening disease is sometimes present in asymptomatic patients. FDG-PET/CT also has a role in the clinical management of patients with chronic persistent sarcoidosis, such as for planning treatment, monitoring response, and long-term follow-up. The limitations of FDG-PET/CT in patients with sarcoidosis are discussed in the context of a "sarcoidosis-lymphoma syndrome" and potentially excessive radiation exposure. Further prospective multicentre studies are needed to refine the clinical applications of FDG-PET/CT in patients with sarcoidosis and drive the field forward.

  15. CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR ORIGIN OF ABNORMALLY PRESSURED GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN LOW-PERMEABILITY RESERVOIRS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Dickinson, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper suggests that overpressured and underpressured gas accumulations of this type have a common origin. In basins containing overpressured gas accumulations, rates of thermogenic gas accumulation exceed gas loss, causing fluid (gas) pressure to rise above the regional hydrostatic pressure. Free water in the larger pores is forced out of the gas generation zone into overlying and updip, normally pressured, water-bearing rocks. While other diagenetic processes continue, a pore network with very low permeability develops. As a result, gas accumulates in these low-permeability reservoirs at rates higher than it is lost. In basins containing underpressured gas accumulations, rates of gas generation and accumulation are less than gas loss. The basin-center gas accumulation persists, but because of changes in the basin dynamics, the overpressured accumulation evolves into an underpressured system.

  16. [Accumulation of abnormal psychosocial circumstances in juvenile delinquents with modified legal culpability].

    PubMed

    Brettel, Hauke; Poustka, Fritz

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate specific influence on the exclupation according the medical-legal certificate approved by the courts decision. 34 culpable young offenders have been compared with 40 young delinquents who have disorders of penal responsibility according to socio-demographic, anamnestic and diagnostic variables. A significant difference between the two compared groups was found in the associated, abnormal psychosocial situations. Those delinquents who were exculpated displayed more than three times higher scores in the abnormal psychosocial axis five of ICD-10 than among the non-exculpated group. The influence of actual abnormal psychosocial situations on a substantial general psychic vulnerability is discussed.

  17. The use of Diagnostic Imaging for Identifying Abnormal Gas Accumulations in Cetaceans and Pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Sophie; Fahlman, Andreas; Moore, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent dogma suggested that marine mammals are not at risk of decompression sickness due to a number of evolutionary adaptations. Several proposed adaptations exist. Lung compression and alveolar collapse that terminate gas-exchange before a depth is reached where supersaturation is significant and bradycardia with peripheral vasoconstriction affecting the distribution, and dynamics of blood and tissue nitrogen levels. Published accounts of gas and fat emboli and dysbaric osteonecrosis in marine mammals and theoretical modeling have challenged this view-point, suggesting that decompression-like symptoms may occur under certain circumstances, contrary to common belief. Diagnostic imaging modalities are invaluable tools for the non-invasive examination of animals for evidence of gas and have been used to demonstrate the presence of incidental decompression-related renal gas accumulations in some stranded cetaceans. Diagnostic imaging has also contributed to the recognition of clinically significant gas accumulations in live and dead cetaceans and pinnipeds. Understanding the appropriate application and limitations of the available imaging modalities is important for accurate interpretation of results. The presence of gas may be asymptomatic and must be interpreted cautiously alongside all other available data including clinical examination, clinical laboratory testing, gas analysis, necropsy examination, and histology results.

  18. The use of Diagnostic Imaging for Identifying Abnormal Gas Accumulations in Cetaceans and Pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Sophie; Fahlman, Andreas; Moore, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent dogma suggested that marine mammals are not at risk of decompression sickness due to a number of evolutionary adaptations. Several proposed adaptations exist. Lung compression and alveolar collapse that terminate gas-exchange before a depth is reached where supersaturation is significant and bradycardia with peripheral vasoconstriction affecting the distribution, and dynamics of blood and tissue nitrogen levels. Published accounts of gas and fat emboli and dysbaric osteonecrosis in marine mammals and theoretical modeling have challenged this view-point, suggesting that decompression-like symptoms may occur under certain circumstances, contrary to common belief. Diagnostic imaging modalities are invaluable tools for the non-invasive examination of animals for evidence of gas and have been used to demonstrate the presence of incidental decompression-related renal gas accumulations in some stranded cetaceans. Diagnostic imaging has also contributed to the recognition of clinically significant gas accumulations in live and dead cetaceans and pinnipeds. Understanding the appropriate application and limitations of the available imaging modalities is important for accurate interpretation of results. The presence of gas may be asymptomatic and must be interpreted cautiously alongside all other available data including clinical examination, clinical laboratory testing, gas analysis, necropsy examination, and histology results. PMID:22685439

  19. The use of Diagnostic Imaging for Identifying Abnormal Gas Accumulations in Cetaceans and Pinnipeds

    PubMed Central

    Dennison, Sophie; Fahlman, Andreas; Moore, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent dogma suggested that marine mammals are not at risk of decompression sickness due to a number of evolutionary adaptations. Several proposed adaptations exist. Lung compression and alveolar collapse that terminate gas-exchange before a depth is reached where supersaturation is significant and bradycardia with peripheral vasoconstriction affecting the distribution, and dynamics of blood and tissue nitrogen levels. Published accounts of gas and fat emboli and dysbaric osteonecrosis in marine mammals and theoretical modeling have challenged this view-point, suggesting that decompression-like symptoms may occur under certain circumstances, contrary to common belief. Diagnostic imaging modalities are invaluable tools for the non-invasive examination of animals for evidence of gas and have been used to demonstrate the presence of incidental decompression-related renal gas accumulations in some stranded cetaceans. Diagnostic imaging has also contributed to the recognition of clinically significant gas accumulations in live and dead cetaceans and pinnipeds. Understanding the appropriate application and limitations of the available imaging modalities is important for accurate interpretation of results. The presence of gas may be asymptomatic and must be interpreted cautiously alongside all other available data including clinical examination, clinical laboratory testing, gas analysis, necropsy examination, and histology results. PMID:22685439

  20. The abnormal isoform of the prion protein accumulates in late-endosome-like organelles in scrapie-infected mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Arnold, J E; Tipler, C; Laszlo, L; Hope, J; Landon, M; Mayer, R J

    1995-08-01

    The prion encephalopathies are characterized by accumulation in the brain of the abnormal form PrPsc of a normal host gene product PrPc. The mechanism and site of formation of PrPsc from PrPc are currently unknown. In this study, ME7 scrapie-infected mouse brain was used to show, both biochemically and by double-labelled immunogold electron microscopy, that proteinase K-resistant PrPsc is enriched in subcellular structures which contain the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, ubiquitin-protein conjugates, beta-glucuronidase, and cathepsin B, termed late endosome-like organelles. The glycosylinositol phospholipid membrane-anchored PrPc will enter such compartment for normal degradation and the organelles may therefore act as chambers for the conversion of PrPc into infectious PrPsc in this murine model of scrapie.

  1. Iron accumulation in deep cortical layers accounts for MRI signal abnormalities in ALS: correlating 7 tesla MRI and pathology.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Justin Y; Jeong, Suh Young; Van Gelderen, Peter; Deng, Han-Xiang; Quezado, Martha M; Danielian, Laura E; Butman, John A; Chen, Lingye; Bayat, Elham; Russell, James; Siddique, Teepu; Duyn, Jeff H; Rouault, Tracey A; Floeter, Mary Kay

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cortical and spinal motor neuron dysfunction. Routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have previously shown hypointense signal in the motor cortex on T(2)-weighted images in some ALS patients, however, the cause of this finding is unknown. To investigate the utility of this MR signal change as a marker of cortical motor neuron degeneration, signal abnormalities on 3T and 7T MR images of the brain were compared, and pathology was obtained in two ALS patients to determine the origin of the motor cortex hypointensity. Nineteen patients with clinically probable or definite ALS by El Escorial criteria and 19 healthy controls underwent 3T MRI. A 7T MRI scan was carried out on five ALS patients who had motor cortex hypointensity on the 3T FLAIR sequence and on three healthy controls. Postmortem 7T MRI of the brain was performed in one ALS patient and histological studies of the brains and spinal cords were obtained post-mortem in two patients. The motor cortex hypointensity on 3T FLAIR images was present in greater frequency in ALS patients. Increased hypointensity correlated with greater severity of upper motor neuron impairment. Analysis of 7T T(2)(*)-weighted gradient echo imaging localized the signal alteration to the deeper layers of the motor cortex in both ALS patients. Pathological studies showed increased iron accumulation in microglial cells in areas corresponding to the location of the signal changes on the 3T and 7T MRI of the motor cortex. These findings indicate that the motor cortex hypointensity on 3T MRI FLAIR images in ALS is due to increased iron accumulation by microglia.

  2. [A case of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma with high-grade uptake on FDG-PET mimicking metastatic lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Kaneta, Toshikado; Saito, Atsushi; Akiyama, Takayoshi; Takahashi, Youko; Takahashi, Ryuji; Kudou, Kazuhiro

    2009-10-01

    A 28-year-old man was referred to Hakodate Municipal Hospital for examination of multiple pulmonary nodules detected on a medical check-up. His chest CT demonstrated well-defined multiple nodules with random distribution. 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed abnormal uptake in the pulmonary nodules and the hilar, mediastinal lymph node. No other accumulation was observed outside the thorax. Transbronchial lung biopsy did not yield a diagnosis. Based on the high accumulation on FDG-PET, we suspected a malignant tumor and performed right S4 wedge resection under video assisted thoracoscopy. Considering the histologocal and immunohistological findings, we diagnosed pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. No treatment was given and subsequently stable disease was obtained on chest radiography. The follow-up FDG-PET showed standardized uptake value reduction. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma is infrequent and benign, but has been reported to possibly progress to lymphoproliferative disease. Consequently, FDG-PET is valuable to evaluate the activity of the disease itself and the possibility of transition. PMID:19882922

  3. FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of anal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cotter, Shane E.; Grigsby, Perry W. . E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu; Siegel, Barry A.

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: Surgical staging and treatment of anal carcinoma has been replaced by noninvasive staging studies and combined modality therapy. In this study, we compare computed tomography (CT) and physical examination to [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the staging of carcinoma of the anal canal, with special emphasis on determination of spread to inguinal lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Between July 2003 and July 2005, 41 consecutive patients with biopsy-proved anal carcinoma underwent a complete staging evaluation including physical examination, CT, and 2-FDG-PET/CT. Patients ranged in age from 30 to 89 years. Nine men were HIV-positive. Treatment was with standard Nigro regimen. Results: [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) detected 91% of nonexcised primary tumors, whereas CT visualized 59%. FDG-PET/CT detected abnormal uptake in pelvic nodes of 5 patients with normal pelvic CT scans. FDG-PET/CT detected abnormal nodes in 20% of groins that were normal by CT, and in 23% without abnormality on physical examination. Furthermore, 17% of groins negative by both CT and physical examination showed abnormal uptake on FDG-PET/CT. HIV-positive patients had an increased frequency of PET-positive lymph nodes. Conclusion: [{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography detects the primary tumor more often than CT. FDG-PET/CT detects substantially more abnormal inguinal lymph nodes than are identified by standard clinical staging with CT and physical examination.

  4. MRI and FDG PET/CT imaging manifestations of cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Sweiss, Nadera J

    2015-12-01

    A 52-year-old man had biopsy-proven sarcoidosis of mediastinal lymph nodes. Cardiac sarcoidosis was confirmed on cardiac MRI with typical imaging features as delayed gadolinium enhancement. Follow-up FDG PET/CT with a 3-day pretest diet modification showed suppression of overall myocardial uptake of FDG but with multifocal abnormal FDG uptake in the myocardium regions corresponding to the previous MRI findings. Additional noncardiac active sarcoidosis involving multiple organ and lymph nodes were also visualized on FDG PET/CT. PMID:26544904

  5. Lipofuscin accumulation, abnormal electrophysiology, and photoreceptor degeneration in mutant ELOVL4 transgenic mice: a model for macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Karan, G; Lillo, C; Yang, Z; Cameron, D J; Locke, K G; Zhao, Y; Thirumalaichary, S; Li, C; Birch, D G; Vollmer-Snarr, H R; Williams, D S; Zhang, K

    2005-03-15

    Macular degeneration is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by photoreceptor degeneration and atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the central retina. An autosomal dominant form of Stargardt macular degeneration (STGD) is caused by mutations in ELOVL4, which is predicted to encode an enzyme involved in the elongation of long-chain fatty acids. We generated transgenic mice expressing a mutant form of human ELOVL4 that causes STGD. In these mice, we show that accumulation by the RPE of undigested phagosomes and lipofuscin, including the fluorophore, 2-[2,6-dimethyl-8-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-1E,3E,5E,7E-octatetraenyl]-1-(2-hyydroxyethyl)-4-[4-methyl-6-(2,6,6,-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-1E,3E,5E-hexatrienyl]-pyridinium (A2E) is followed by RPE atrophy. Subsequently, photoreceptor degeneration occurs in the central retina in a pattern closely resembling that of human STGD and age-related macular degeneration. The ELOVL4 transgenic mice thus provide a good model for both STGD and dry age-related macular degeneration, and represent a valuable tool for studies on therapeutic intervention in these forms of blindness. PMID:15749821

  6. Bone marrow metastases from alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with impressive FDG PET/CT finding but less-revealing bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jigang; Zhen, Lishi; Zhuang, Hongming

    2013-12-01

    An 18F-FDG PET/CT scan was performed in a 26-year-old man with a known alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma for staging. The PET/CT scan showed abnormally increased FDG activity involving almost all bones in the imaged regions. In contrast, 99mTc-MDP whole-body bone scan demonstrated only very limited bone metastases.

  7. FDG PET/CT Findings in Abdominal Fat Necrosis After Treatment for Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Julien; Moreau, Aurélie; Sarkozy, Clémentine; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Skanjeti, Andrea; Salles, Gilles; Giammarile, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    FDG PET/CT is now validated in non-Hodgkin lymphoma for response assessment in interim and posttreatment lymphoma. We report the case of a 62-year-old man followed by FDG PET/CT for a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with initial stage III. The interim FDG PET/CT examination concluded in complete metabolic and morphological response of subdiaphragmatic lymphadenopathy but a persistent abnormal subdiaphragmatic uptake (SUVmax at 9 and Deauville 5-point scale at 5). Therefore, an abdominal biopsy of the corresponding nodules was conducted with a final diagnosis of diffuse fat necrosis. PMID:26825213

  8. 18F-FDG PET/CT findings in voltage-gated potassium channel limbic encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppuswamy; Iyer, Rajesh Shankar; Antony, Joppy; Radhakrishnan, Edathuruthy Kalarickal; Shinto, Ajit

    2013-05-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) can be associated with cancer, viral infection, or be idiopathic. One such rare but treatable form is associated with voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies. Typical abnormalities are seen in FDG PET/CT. We report a 39-year-old female patient who presented with 3 months of progressive faciobrachial dystonic seizures and limbic encephalitis. Her serum and cerebrospinal fluid Lgi1 antibody titers were elevated. FDG PET/CT showed basal ganglial hypermetabolism and associated abnormalities. Serial MRI demonstrated atrophic changes predominantly involving the temporal lobes. She is on immunosuppressive therapy and shows clinical improvement with lowering of antibody titers.

  9. Abnormal Intracellular Accumulation and Extracellular Aβ Deposition in Idiopathic and Dup15q11.2-q13 Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wegiel, Jerzy; Frackowiak, Janusz; Mazur-Kolecka, Bozena; Schanen, N. Carolyn; Cook, Edwin H.; Sigman, Marian; Brown, W. Ted; Kuchna, Izabela; Wegiel, Jarek; Nowicki, Krzysztof; Imaki, Humi; Ma, Shuang Yong; Chauhan, Abha; Chauhan, Ved; Miller, David L.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Flory, Michael; Cohen, Ira L.; London, Eric; Reisberg, Barry; de Leon, Mony J.; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been shown that amyloid ß (Aβ), a product of proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid β precursor protein (APP), accumulates in neuronal cytoplasm in non-affected individuals in a cell type–specific amount. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we found that the percentage of amyloid-positive neurons increases in subjects diagnosed with idiopathic autism and subjects diagnosed with duplication 15q11.2-q13 (dup15) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In spite of interindividual differences within each examined group, levels of intraneuronal Aβ load were significantly greater in the dup(15) autism group than in either the control or the idiopathic autism group in 11 of 12 examined regions (p<0.0001 for all comparisons; Kruskall-Wallis test). In eight regions, intraneuronal Aβ load differed significantly between idiopathic autism and control groups (p<0.0001). The intraneuronal Aβ was mainly N-terminally truncated. Increased intraneuronal accumulation of Aβ17–40/42 in children and adults suggests a life-long enhancement of APP processing with α-secretase in autistic subjects. Aβ accumulation in neuronal endosomes, autophagic vacuoles, Lamp1-positive lysosomes and lipofuscin, as revealed by confocal microscopy, indicates that products of enhanced α-secretase processing accumulate in organelles involved in proteolysis and storage of metabolic remnants. Diffuse plaques containing Aβ1–40/42 detected in three subjects with ASD, 39 to 52 years of age, suggest that there is an age-associated risk of alterations of APP processing with an intraneuronal accumulation of a short form of Aβ and an extracellular deposition of full-length Aβ in nonfibrillar plaques. Conclusions/Significance The higher prevalence of excessive Aβ accumulation in neurons in individuals with early onset of intractable seizures, and with a high risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy in autistic subjects with dup(15) compared to subjects with idiopathic

  10. PROTEIN L-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE2 is differentially expressed in chickpea and enhances seed vigor and longevity by reducing abnormal isoaspartyl accumulation predominantly in seed nuclear proteins.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pooja; Kaur, Harmeet; Petla, Bhanu Prakash; Rao, Venkateswara; Saxena, Saurabh C; Majee, Manoj

    2013-03-01

    PROTEIN l-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT) is a widely distributed protein-repairing enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of abnormal l-isoaspartyl residues in spontaneously damaged proteins to normal aspartyl residues. This enzyme is encoded by two divergent genes (PIMT1 and PIMT2) in plants, unlike many other organisms. While the biological role of PIMT1 has been elucidated, the role and significance of the PIMT2 gene in plants is not well defined. Here, we isolated the PIMT2 gene (CaPIMT2) from chickpea (Cicer arietinum), which exhibits a significant increase in isoaspartyl residues in seed proteins coupled with reduced germination vigor under artificial aging conditions. The CaPIMT2 gene is found to be highly divergent and encodes two possible isoforms (CaPIMT2 and CaPIMT2') differing by two amino acids in the region I catalytic domain through alternative splicing. Unlike CaPIMT1, both isoforms possess a unique 56-amino acid amino terminus and exhibit similar yet distinct enzymatic properties. Expression analysis revealed that CaPIMT2 is differentially regulated by stresses and abscisic acid. Confocal visualization of stably expressed green fluorescent protein-fused PIMT proteins and cell fractionation-immunoblot analysis revealed that apart from the plasma membrane, both CaPIMT2 isoforms localize predominantly in the nucleus, while CaPIMT1 localizes in the cytosol. Remarkably, CaPIMT2 enhances seed vigor and longevity by repairing abnormal isoaspartyl residues predominantly in nuclear proteins upon seed-specific expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), while CaPIMT1 enhances seed vigor and longevity by repairing such abnormal proteins mainly in the cytosolic fraction. Together, our data suggest that CaPIMT2 has most likely evolved through gene duplication, followed by subfunctionalization to specialize in repairing the nuclear proteome.

  11. 18F-FDG PET/CT Findings in Acute Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Mimicking Malignant Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ørbæk, Mathilde; Graff, Jesper; Markova, Elena; Kronborg, Gitte; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2016-01-01

    We present a case demonstrating the diagnostic work-up and follow-up of a patient with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in which the clinical picture and imaging on 18F-FDG PET/CT mimicked malignant lymphoma. Follow-up 18F-FDG PET/CT scan in the patient performed 7 weeks after the abnormal scan revealed complete resolution of the metabolically active disease in the neck, axillas, lung hili, and spleen. This case highlights inflammation as one of the most well established false positives when interpreting 18F-FDG PET/CT scans. PMID:27187482

  12. (18)F-FDG PET/CT Findings in Acute Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Mimicking Malignant Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ørbæk, Mathilde; Graff, Jesper; Markova, Elena; Kronborg, Gitte; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2016-01-01

    We present a case demonstrating the diagnostic work-up and follow-up of a patient with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in which the clinical picture and imaging on (18)F-FDG PET/CT mimicked malignant lymphoma. Follow-up (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan in the patient performed 7 weeks after the abnormal scan revealed complete resolution of the metabolically active disease in the neck, axillas, lung hili, and spleen. This case highlights inflammation as one of the most well established false positives when interpreting (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans. PMID:27187482

  13. Risk-Adapted Dose-Dense Immunochemotherapy Determined by Interim FDG-PET in Advanced-Stage Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Moskowitz, Craig H.; Schöder, Heiko; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Sima, Camelia; Iasonos, Alexia; Portlock, Carol S.; Straus, David; Noy, Ariela; Palomba, Maria L.; O'Connor, Owen A.; Horwitz, Steven; Weaver, Sarah A.; Meikle, Jessica L.; Filippa, Daniel A.; Caravelli, James F.; Hamlin, Paul A.; Zelenetz, Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In studies of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, positron emission tomography with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) performed after two to four cycles of chemotherapy has demonstrated prognostic significance. However, some patients treated with immunochemotherapy experience a favorable long-term outcome despite a positive interim FDG-PET scan. To clarify the significance of interim FDG-PET scans, we prospectively studied interim FDG-positive disease within a risk-adapted sequential immunochemotherapy program. Patients and Methods From March 2002 to November 2006, 98 patients at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center received induction therapy with four cycles of accelerated R-CHOP (rituximab + cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) followed by an interim FDG-PET scan. If the FDG-PET scan was negative, patients received three cycles of ICE (ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide) consolidation therapy. If residual FDG-positive disease was seen, patients underwent biopsy; if the biopsy was negative, they also received three cycles of ICE. Patients with a positive biopsy received ICE followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation. Results At a median follow-up of 44 months, overall and progression-free survival were 90% and 79%, respectively. Ninety-seven patients underwent interim FDG-PET scans; 59 had a negative scan, 51 of whom are progression free. Thirty-eight patients with FDG-PET–positive disease underwent repeat biopsy; 33 were negative, and 26 remain progression free after ICE consolidation therapy. Progression-free survival of interim FDG-PET–positive/biopsy-negative patients was identical to that in patients with a negative interim FDG-PET scan (P = .27). Conclusion Interim or post-treatment FDG-PET evaluation did not predict outcome with this dose-dense, sequential immunochemotherapy program. Outside of a clinical trial, we recommend biopsy confirmation of an abnormal interim FDG-PET scan before changing therapy. PMID

  14. Increased 18F-FDG uptake of heterotopic pancreatitis in the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Maomei; Liu, Min; Cheng, Lingxiao; Xie, Wenhui; Chen, Libo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Backgroud: Heterotopic pancreas (HP), a relatively uncommon congenital anomaly, is rarely noted during 18F-FDG positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan. Methods: A 60-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to a 10-day history of abdominal pain with elevated levels of serum amylase and lipase. Abdominal CT and ultrasound examinations were negative. In order to search for the cause, an 18F-FDG PET/CT whole body scan was suggested to an old woman revealing the presence of 18F-FDG accumulating nodule in small intestine. Results: Surgical findings and pathologic results confirmed the diagnosis of small intestinal heterotopic pancreas with active chronic inflammation. Conclusion: This uncommon case underscores the necessity of considering heterotopic pancreatitis in small intestine with focal 18F-FDG uptake as a possible differential diagnosis in intestinal tumor and tuberculosis. PMID:27603341

  15. The Values and Limitations of FDG-PET/CT for Diagnosis of Hibernoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Hoon; Ogura, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tomohiro; Nagano, Akihito; Numoto, Kunihiko; Terauchi, Takashi; Yoshida, Akihiko; Kawai, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Hibernoma is a rare benign lipogenic tumor of brown fat that develops in a wide variety of locations. Although the features of hibernoma demonstrated by MRI resemble those of liposarcoma, recent FDG-PET/CT studies have documented higher radiotracer uptake than liposarcoma, suggesting that FDG/PET/CT is useful for differentiating hibernoma from liposarcoma. Here we report two cases of hibernoma that showed relatively lower SUVs than those reported previously, lying within the range for liposarcoma. Our findings emphasize that hibernoma needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of any fat-containing tumor showing intense accumulation by FDG-PET/CT. Although it is unlikely that such a rare condition could be reasonably diagnosed on the basis of MRI and FDG-PET/CT alone due to possible SUV overlap between hibernoma and liposarcoma, it is important to recognize this extremely rare lipogenic tumor for accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:26783480

  16. 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with adult-onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Dong, Meng-Jie; Wang, Cai-Qin; Zhao, Kui; Wang, Guo-Lin; Sun, Mei-Ling; Liu, Zhen-Feng; Xu, Liqin

    2015-12-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) has become useful for the detection and diagnosis of inflammatory conditions, including rheumatic diseases, immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related disease and giant cell arteritis. However, few articles based on small sample sizes (n = 7) diagnosed as adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) have been published. The study aim was to observe the reliable characteristics and usefulness of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of consecutive patients with AOSD. Eligible patients were selected from among those who had undergone (18)F-FDG PET/CT between May 2007 and June 2014. Twenty-six consecutive AOSD patients were recruited retrospectively according to criteria set by Yamaguchi et al. All patients underwent evaluation by (18)F-FDG PET/CT. The characteristics and usefulness of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for evaluation of consecutive patients with AOSD were evaluated. All 26 patients had (18)F-FDG-avid lesion(s) related to their particular disease. Diffuse and homogeneous accumulation of (18)F-FDG was seen in the bone marrow (26/26; 100 %; maximum standardized uptake (SUVmax), 2.10-6.73) and spleen (25/26; 96.15 %). The SUVmax of affected lymph nodes was 1.3-9.53 (mean ± SD, 4.12 ± 2.24). The SUVmax and size factors (maximum diameter and areas) of affected lymph nodes were significantly different (P = 0.033 and P = 0.012, respectively). (18)F-FDG PET/CT showed the general distribution of (18)F-FDG accumulation. This factor helped to exclude malignant disease and aided the diagnosis of AOSD (42.3 %) in 11 cases when combined with clinical features and aided decisions regarding appropriate biopsy sites, such as the lymph nodes (n = 9) and bone marrow (n = 13). (18)F-FDG PET/CT is a unique imaging method for the assessment of metabolic activity throughout the body in subjects with AOSD. Characteristics or patterns of AOSD observed on (18)F-FDG PET/CT can be used for the

  17. Imaging of the myocardium using (18)F-FDG-PET/MRI.

    PubMed

    Ferda, Jiří; Hromádka, Milan; Baxa, Jan

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of the integrated hybrid PET/MRI equipment creates the possibility to perform PET and MRI simultaneously. Depending on the clinical question, the metabolic conversion to glycolytic activity or beta-oxidation is performed before the application of FDG. Since FDG aids to evaluate the energetic metabolism of the myocytes and myocardial MRI reaches the imaging capabilities of perfusion and tissue characterization in the daily routine, FDG-PET/MRI looks to be a promising method of PET/MRI exploitation in cardiac imaging. When myocardial FDG uptake should be evaluated in association with the perfusion distribution, the cross-evaluation of FDG accumulation distribution and perfusion distribution pattern is necessary. The different scenarios may be used in the assessment of myocardium, the conversion to glycolytic activity is used in the imaging of the viable myocardium, but the glycolytic activity suppression might be used in the indications of the identification of injured myocardium by ischemia or inflammation. FDG-PET/MRI might aid to answer the clinical tasks according to the structure, current function and possibilities to improve the function in ischemic heart disease or to display the extent or activity of myocardial inflammation in sarcoidosis. The tight coupling between metabolism, perfusion and contractile function offers an opportunity for the simultaneous assessment of cardiac performance using one imaging modality. PMID:27470994

  18. Imaging of the myocardium using (18)F-FDG-PET/MRI.

    PubMed

    Ferda, Jiří; Hromádka, Milan; Baxa, Jan

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of the integrated hybrid PET/MRI equipment creates the possibility to perform PET and MRI simultaneously. Depending on the clinical question, the metabolic conversion to glycolytic activity or beta-oxidation is performed before the application of FDG. Since FDG aids to evaluate the energetic metabolism of the myocytes and myocardial MRI reaches the imaging capabilities of perfusion and tissue characterization in the daily routine, FDG-PET/MRI looks to be a promising method of PET/MRI exploitation in cardiac imaging. When myocardial FDG uptake should be evaluated in association with the perfusion distribution, the cross-evaluation of FDG accumulation distribution and perfusion distribution pattern is necessary. The different scenarios may be used in the assessment of myocardium, the conversion to glycolytic activity is used in the imaging of the viable myocardium, but the glycolytic activity suppression might be used in the indications of the identification of injured myocardium by ischemia or inflammation. FDG-PET/MRI might aid to answer the clinical tasks according to the structure, current function and possibilities to improve the function in ischemic heart disease or to display the extent or activity of myocardial inflammation in sarcoidosis. The tight coupling between metabolism, perfusion and contractile function offers an opportunity for the simultaneous assessment of cardiac performance using one imaging modality.

  19. Discussion on the alteration of FDG uptake by the breast according to the menstrual cycle in 18F-FDG PET/CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H. H.; Park, M. S.; Lee, C. H.; Cho, J. H.; Dong, K. R.; Chung, W. K.

    2012-09-01

    18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) PET (positron emission tomography)/CT (computed tomography) is a useful modality for identifying high-glucose-consuming cells, such as cancer cells, by the glucose metabolism of FDG. FDG is taken up by cancer and inflammatory cells, but occasionally there is also some FDG uptake by normal tissues as a result of their individual physiological characteristics. In particular, in fertile females, unusual FDG uptake in the breast changes according to the stages in the menstrual cycle, which can adversely affect a diagnosis. Therefore, this study examined the change in breast FDG uptake in the menstrual cycle on 18F-FDG PET/CT. One hundred and sixty females (34±3.5 years old), who had not undergone a gynecologic anamnesis and had a regular menstrual cycle over the previous 6 months, were examined from March 2010 to February 2011. The subjects were divided into the following four groups (each with 40 patients): flow phase, proliferative phase, ovulatory phase and secretory phase using Pregnancy Calculator Ver. 0.14 and history taking. Discovery Ste was used as the PET/CT. The standardized uptake values (SUVs) on the accumulated region on the breast were analyzed, and three nuclear medicine specialists performed a blind test. The SUVs on the breast were the flow phase (1.64±0.25), proliferative phase (0.93±0.28), ovulatory phase (1.66±0.26) and secretory phase (1.77±0.28). A high uptake value was observed in the secretory, flow and ovulatory phases. The FDG accumulation of the breast was divided into the following three grades compared with the lung and liver by gross analysis: the breast uptake was equal to the lung (Grade I), between the lung and liver (Grade II) and equal to or greater than the liver (Grade III). These results showed a high uptake value in the secretory, flow and ovulatory phases. In fertile females, the FDG uptake of the breast showed changes according to the menstrual cycle, which can be used to improve the diagnosis

  20. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. FDG-PET and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms among Cognitively Normal Elderly Persons: The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Krell-Roesch, Janina; Ruider, Hanna; Lowe, Val J; Stokin, Gorazd B; Pink, Anna; Roberts, Rosebud O; Mielke, Michelle M; Knopman, David S; Christianson, Teresa J; Machulda, Mary M; Jack, Clifford R; Petersen, Ronald C; Geda, Yonas E

    2016-07-14

    One of the key research agenda of the field of aging is investigation of presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, abnormalities in brain glucose metabolism (as measured by FDG-PET) have been reported among cognitively normal elderly persons. However, little is known about the association of FDG-PET abnormalities with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in a population-based setting. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study derived from the ongoing population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging in order to examine the association between brain glucose metabolism and NPS among cognitively normal (CN) persons aged > 70 years. Participants underwent FDG-PET and completed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Cognitive classification was made by an expert consensus panel. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals after adjusting for age, sex, and education. For continuous variables, we used linear regression and Spearman rank-order correlations. Of 668 CN participants (median 78.1 years, 55.4% males), 205 had an abnormal FDG-PET (i.e., standardized uptake value ratio < 1.32 in AD-related regions). Abnormal FDG-PET was associated with depression as measured by NPI-Q (OR = 2.12; 1.23-3.64); the point estimate was further elevated for APOE ɛ4 carriers (OR = 2.59; 1.00-6.69), though marginally significant. Additionally, we observed a significant association between abnormal FDG-PET and depressive and anxiety symptoms when treated as continuous measures. These findings indicate that NPS, even in community-based samples, can be an important additional tool to the biomarker-based investigation of presymptomatic AD. PMID:27447426

  2. FDG-PET and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms among Cognitively Normal Elderly Persons: The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Krell-Roesch, Janina; Ruider, Hanna; Lowe, Val J.; Stokin, Gorazd B.; Pink, Anna; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Knopman, David S.; Christianson, Teresa J.; Machulda, Mary M.; Jack, Clifford R.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Geda, Yonas E.

    2016-01-01

    One of the key research agenda of the field of aging is investigation of presymptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Furthermore, abnormalities in brain glucose metabolism (as measured by FDG-PET) have been reported among cognitively normal elderly persons. However, little is known about the association of FDG-PET abnormalities with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in a population-based setting. Thus, we conducted a cross-sectional study derived from the ongoing population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging in order to examine the association between brain glucose metabolism and NPS among cognitively normal (CN) persons aged > 70 years. Participants underwent FDG-PET and completed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Cognitive classification was made by an expert consensus panel. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals after adjusting for age, sex, and education. For continuous variables, we used linear regression and Spearman rank-order correlations. Of 668 CN participants (median 78.1 years, 55.4% males), 205 had an abnormal FDG-PET (i.e., standardized uptake value ratio < 1.32 in AD-related regions). Abnormal FDG-PET was associated with depression as measured by NPI-Q (OR = 2.12; 1.23–3.64); the point estimate was further elevated for APOE ɛ4 carriers (OR = 2.59; 1.00–6.69), though marginally significant. Additionally, we observed a significant association between abnormal FDG-PET and depressive and anxiety symptoms when treated as continuous measures. These findings indicate that NPS, even in community-based samples, can be an important additional tool to the biomarker-based investigation of presymptomatic AD. PMID:27447426

  3. Longitudinal assessment of a transgenic animal model of tauopathy by FDG-PET imaging.

    PubMed

    de Cristóbal, Javier; García-García, Luis; Delgado, Mercedes; Pérez, Mar; Pozo, Miguel A; Medina, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal levels and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein have been proposed as the underlying cause of a group of neurodegenerative disorders collectively known as 'tauopathies'. The detrimental consequence is the loss of affinity between this protein and the microtubules, increased production of fibrillary aggregates, and the accumulation of insoluble intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. A similar phenotype can be observed in various preclinical models, which have been generated to study the role of tau protein in neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we have analyzed the brain metabolic activity in an animal model of tauopathy (tauVLW transgenic mice), which has been previously reported to mimic some of the phenotypic features of these disorders. By using a non-invasive technique, positron emission tomography (PET), a longitudinal non-clinical follow up study was carried out during most of the lifespan of these transgenic mice, from the youth to the senescence stages. The results obtained point out to an aging-dependent decrease in 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the cerebral areas analyzed, which was already significant at the adult age, i.e., 11 months, and became much more prominent in the oldest animals (19 months old). This observation correlates well with the histopathological observation of neurodegeneration in brain areas where there is overexpression of tau protein.

  4. FDG PET of the brain in pediatric patients: imaging spectrum with MR imaging correlation.

    PubMed

    Stanescu, Luana; Ishak, Gisele E; Khanna, Paritosh C; Biyyam, Deepa R; Shaw, Dennis W; Parisi, Marguerite T

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) of the brain is an important problem-solving tool in pediatric neuroimaging, neurology, and neurosurgery. Fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET or dual-modality PET and computed tomographic (CT) imaging (PET/CT), with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging correlation, can be used to evaluate childhood epilepsy and pediatric brain tumors, areas in which PET adds value in patient management. FDG PET has been widely used in pediatric temporal lobe epilepsy, most commonly manifesting as mesial temporal sclerosis, which demonstrates hypometabolism at interictal PET and hypermetabolism during seizures. Recently, FDG PET has shown added value for patients with extratemporal epilepsy, in whom FDG PET can help identify cortical foci of interictal hypometabolism that are undetectable or difficult to detect with MR imaging. These findings can then guide additional investigations and surgery. FDG PET also enhances medical decision making in children with brain tumors, in whom FDG PET can be used to (a) improve the diagnostic yield of stereotactic biopsies by detecting metabolically active areas of tumor, (b) help guide the surgeon in achieving total tumor resection, and (c) increase detection of residual or recurrent tumor. Technologic advances in the past decade have allowed fusion of PET and MR images, combining the high resolution of MR imaging with the low-resolution functional capability of PET. As dual-modality integrated PET/MR imaging systems become available, CT coregistration for PET can be eliminated, thus reducing patient radiation exposure. Increasing familiarity with normal and abnormal appearances of FDG PET brain images correlated with MR images can enhance diagnostic yield and improve the care of children with epilepsy and brain tumors.

  5. Tumor Response and Survival Predicted by Post-Therapy FDG-PET/CT in Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Julie K.; Siegel, Barry A.; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Myerson, Robert J.; Fleshman, James W.; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the response to therapy for anal carcinoma using post-therapy imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and to compare the metabolic response with patient outcome. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of 53 consecutive patients with anal cancer. All patients underwent pre- and post-treatment whole-body FDG-PET/computed tomography. Patients had been treated with external beam radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. Whole-body FDG-PET was performed 0.9-5.4 months (mean, 2.1) after therapy completion. Results: The post-therapy PET scan did not show any abnormal FDG uptake (complete metabolic response) in 44 patients. Persistent abnormal FDG uptake (partial metabolic response) was found in the anal tumor in 9 patients. The 2-year cause-specific survival rate was 94% for patients with a complete vs. 39% for patients with a partial metabolic response in the anal tumor (p = 0.0008). The 2-year progression-free survival rate was 95% for patients with a complete vs. 22% for patients with a partial metabolic response in the anal tumor (p < 0.0001). A Cox proportional hazards model of survival outcome indicated that a complete metabolic response was the most significant predictor of progression-free survival in our patient population (p = 0.0003). Conclusions: A partial metabolic response in the anal tumor as determined by post-therapy FDG-PET is predictive of significantly decreased progression-free and cause-specific survival after chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer.

  6. Feasibility of detecting small intestinal disease by FDG-PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Setsu; Tominaga, Keiichi; Nakano, Masakazu; Sugaya, Hitoshi; Hiraishi, Hideyuki

    2015-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is widely used for the diagnosis of malignant tumors. However, we occasionally encounter cases in which pathological accumulation is indistinguishable from physiological accumulation. We conducted a retrospective study of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and the distribution pattern of FDG accumulation in 80 evaluable patients with records of accumulation in the small intestine identified from data acquired at Dokkyo Medical University PET Center from March 2005 to December 2010. Our aim was to distinguish pathological accumulation from physiological accumulation. Nineteen of the 80 patients had lesions that required some form of treatment. These lesions were categorized as pathological accumulation, while other 65 lesions in 61 patients were categorized as physiological accumulation. Cases with diffuse accumulation in the intestinal tract were assigned to Group L (linear), all others to Group F (focal), in our analysis. Lesions were focal in 22 patients and linear in 62. The pathological accumulation group had a mean SUVmax of 12.2, which was higher than that of 5.0 in the physiological accumulation group, and included more lesions that were categorized into Group F (16 of 19 lesions). The sensitivity and specificity for detecting focal accumulation regarded as being pathological accumulation were 84% and 91%, respectively, and accuracy was 89%. The sensitivity and specificity with a cut-off SUVmax of 5.87 obtained in the ROC analysis were 84% and 78%, respectively, and accuracy was 80%. Evaluation of SUVmax in the small intestine and the distribution pattern of FDG accumulation may be useful for diagnosing lesions in the small intestine. PMID:26070746

  7. High liver FDG uptake on PET/CT in patient with lymphoma diagnosed with hereditary hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Infante, Jose R; Moreno, Manuel; Rayo, Juan I; Serrano, Justo; Dominguez, Maria L; Garcia, Lucia

    2015-06-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder of iron metabolism resulting in toxic accumulation of iron in vital organs. We present a 64-year-old white man with non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplant that was subsequently diagnosed with hereditary hemochromatosis. F-FDG PET/CT was performed as routine follow-up and showed a pathological finding of homogeneous increased liver glucose metabolism. Increased FDG avidity in the liver suggested the presence of damage caused by hemochromatosis.

  8. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen: a case report with FDG-PET findings and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Yumi; Hatta, Kazuha; Seshimo, Akiyoshi; Sawada, Tatsuo; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    We report the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen. The patient was a 37-year-old woman with a splenic mass incidentally found on abdominal ultrasound. FDG-PET/CT showed weak FDG accumulation (maximum standardized uptake value = 3.65). An unenhanced CT scan showed a low density and well-circumscribed splenic tumor that demonstrated weak enhancement from the arterial to delayed phase. Although hemangioma or hamartoma of the spleen was preoperatively diagnosed, histopathological examination revealed SANT. Therefore, when a splenic tumor with weak contrast medium enhancement and low FDG accumulation is observed, SANT should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Although CT and magnetic resonance imaging features of SANT have been reported, there are few reports on FDG-PET/CT findings. We report the radiological features of SANT, including FDG-PET/CT, and review the literature on SANT. PMID:27570634

  9. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  10. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  11. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  12. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  13. Recurrent tumor vs radiation effects after Gamma Knife radiosurgery of intracerebral metastases: Diagnosis with PET-FDG

    SciTech Connect

    Mogard, J.; Kihlstroem, L.; Ericson, K. |

    1994-03-01

    Our objective was to differentiate radiation effects from tumor progression in metastases stereotaxically irradiated with the multicobalt unit (Gamma Knife). Eleven patients with stereotaxically irradiated cerebral metastases were examined with PET using [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to differentiate recurrent tumor from radiation effects. Six patients had increased uptake of FDG, and clinical, radiological, and pathological findings confirmed the diagnosis of recurrent metastases. These patients had an unfavorable prognosis and were all dead within 54 weeks after radiosurgery. Five patients had lesions without an increased accumulation of FDG. Four of these patients were alive after a total follow-up of 1.7 years, while one patient died of a peptic ulcer 56 weeks after radiosurgery. Positron emission tomography with FDG was of obvious prognostic value in this small series of patients and was clearly superior to CT and MR in the distinction between tumor recurrence and radiation effects (verified necrosis in one case). 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. FDG-PET imaging in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Valls, L; Badve, C; Avril, S; Herrmann, K; Faulhaber, P; O'Donnell, J; Avril, N

    2016-07-01

    The majority of aggressive lymphomas is characterized by an up regulated glycolytic activity, which enables the visualization by F-18 FDG-PET/CT. One-stop hybrid FDG-PET/CT combines the functional and morphologic information, outperforming both, CT and FDG-PET as separate imaging modalities. This has resulted in several recommendations using FDG-PET/CT for staging, restaging, monitoring during therapy, and assessment of treatment response as well as identification of malignant transformation. FDG-PET/CT may obviate the need for a bone marrow biopsy in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. FDG-PET/CT response assessment is recommended for FDG-avid lymphomas, whereas CT-based response evaluation remains important in lymphomas with low or variable FDG avidity. The treatment induced change in metabolic activity allows for assessment of response after completion of therapy as well as prediction of outcome early during therapy. The five-point scale Deauville Criteria allows the assessment of treatment response based on visual FDG-PET analysis. Although the use of FDG-PET/CT for prediction of therapeutic response is promising it should only be conducted in the context of clinical trials. Surveillance FDG-PET/CT after complete remission is discouraged due to the relative high number of false-positive findings, which in turn may result in further unnecessary investigations. Future directions include the use of new PET tracers such as F-18 fluorothymidine (FLT), a surrogate biomarker of cellular proliferation and Ga-68 CXCR4, a chemokine receptor imaging biomarker as well as innovative digital PET/CT and PET/MRI techniques. PMID:27090170

  15. Non-invasive imaging of atherosclerotic plaque macrophage in a rabbit model with F-18 FDG PET: a histopathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuangyu; Machac, Josef; Helft, Gerard; Worthley, Stephen G; Tang, Cheuk; Zaman, Azfar G; Rodriguez, Oswaldo J; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Fuster, Valentin; Badimon, Juan J

    2006-01-01

    Background Coronary atherosclerosis and its thrombotic complications are the major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the industrialized world. Thrombosis on disrupted atherosclerotic plaques plays a key role in the onset of acute coronary syndromes. Macrophages density is one of the most critical compositions of plaque in both plaque vulnerability and thrombogenicity upon rupture. It has been shown that macrophages have a high uptake of 18F-FDG (FDG). We studied the correlation of FDG uptake with histopathological macrophage accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques in a rabbit model. Methods Atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits (n = 6) by a combination of atherogenic diet and balloon denudation of the aorta. PET imaging was performed at baseline and 2 months after atherogenic diet and coregistered with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Normal (n = 3) rabbits served as controls. FDG uptake by the thoracic aorta was expressed as concentration (μCi/ml) and the ratio of aortic uptake-to-blood radioactivity. FDG uptake and RAM-11 antibody positive areas were analyzed in descending aorta. Results Atherosclerotic aortas showed significantly higher uptake of FDG than normal aortas. The correlation of aortic FDG uptake with macrophage areas assessed by histopathology was statistically significant although it was not high (r = 0.48, p < 0.0001). When uptake was expressed as the ratio of aortic uptake-to-blood activity, it correlated better (r = 0.80, p < 0.0001) with the macrophage areas, due to the correction for residual blood FDG activity. Conclusion PET FDG activity correlated with macrophage content within aortic atherosclerosis. This imaging approach might serve as a useful non-invasive imaging technique and potentially permit monitoring of relative changes in inflammation within the atherosclerotic lesion. PMID:16725052

  16. Abnormal accumulation of trace metals by plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, R.D.; Brooks, R.R.; Baker, A.J.M.

    1996-12-31

    The article describes the hyperaccumulation of metals by plants. Ranges for low, normal, high, and hyperaccumulating uptake are established. A partial list of hyperaccumulator species and their localities is included. Studies are reviewed and summarized for zinc, cadmium and lead, nickel, cobalt and copper, selenium, and cadmium and manganese hyperaccumulation.

  17. Progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Thomas; Powers, Jenny G; Nichols, Tracy; Balachandran, Aru; Cummings, Bruce; Wild, Margaret A; VerCauteren, Kurt; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein (PrP(CWD)) and spongiform degeneration in a single section of brain stem in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease (CWD). A section of obex from 85 CWD-positive elk was scored using the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration in 10 nuclear regions and the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) in 10 axonal tracts, the subependymal area of the fourth ventricle, and the thin subpial astrocytic layer (glial limitans). Data was placed in a formula to generate an overall obex score. Data suggests that PrP(CWD) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration has a unique and relatively consistent pattern of progression throughout a section of obex. This scoring technique utilizing a single section of obex may prove useful in future work for estimating the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) in peripheral tissues and the nervous system in elk with CWD. PMID:26185123

  18. Progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Thomas; Powers, Jenny G; Nichols, Tracy; Balachandran, Aru; Cummings, Bruce; Wild, Margaret A; VerCauteren, Kurt; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein (PrP(CWD)) and spongiform degeneration in a single section of brain stem in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease (CWD). A section of obex from 85 CWD-positive elk was scored using the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration in 10 nuclear regions and the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) in 10 axonal tracts, the subependymal area of the fourth ventricle, and the thin subpial astrocytic layer (glial limitans). Data was placed in a formula to generate an overall obex score. Data suggests that PrP(CWD) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration has a unique and relatively consistent pattern of progression throughout a section of obex. This scoring technique utilizing a single section of obex may prove useful in future work for estimating the presence and abundance of PrP(CWD) in peripheral tissues and the nervous system in elk with CWD.

  19. Evaluation of high-risk melanoma: comparison of [18F]FDG PET and high-dose 67Ga SPET.

    PubMed

    Kalff, Victor; Hicks, Rodney J; Ware, Robert E; Greer, Brett; Binns, David S; Hogg, Annette

    2002-04-01

    Recently the potential of whole-body positron emission tomography scanning using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET) has led to renewed interest in the use of functional imaging for the detection of occult metastatic melanoma. This study compared dedicated FDG PET with high-dose gallium-67 imaging incorporating whole-body scanning and comprehensive single-photon emission tomography (SPET) in 122 cases (121 patients) in which the two scans were performed <6 weeks apart. All patients were at high clinical risk of occult metastatic disease and 49 (40%) had abnormality suggestive of metastatic disease by at least one functional imaging technique. Discrepant scan findings were followed up to determine which technique more accurately reflected disease status. There were 23/122 (19%; 95% CI: 12%-26%) cases with discordant scan results in respect of either the presence of melanoma (11 cases) or the extent of disease (12 cases). PET correctly identified more disease than 67Ga SPET in 14 cases (including three incidental primary tumours) and was true negative in three further patients with abnormal 67Ga SPET. There were six patients with true positive 67Ga SPET in whom FDG PET was false negative (one small cutaneous deposit, one residual axillary node rated equivocal on FDG PET due to postoperative changes, one adrenal metastasis inseparable from renal activity on FDG PET and three cases in which sites missed on FDG PET were seen on 67Ga SPET. Thus, FDG PET provided incremental diagnostic information compared with 67Ga SPET in 17/23 patients, while 67Ga SPET provided incremental information compared with PET in 6/23 cases ( P=0.035). Based on Australian Medicare reimbursement levels, the net cost per patient with clinical management benefit of replacing 67Ga SPET with FDG PET was estimated to be less than EUR 1,750. These results suggest that FDG PET provides incremental and clinically important information in around 10% of patients at a low incremental cost which, combined

  20. Eosinophilic infiltration in the colon and liver mimicking primary colon cancer with hepatic metastases on (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Jo, Il; Won, Kyoung Sook; Choi, Byung Wook; Kim, Sung Hoon; Zeon, Seok Kil

    2013-06-01

    We describe the case of a 78-year-old man presenting with abdominal pain and a weight loss of 5 kg over 2 months. Colonoscopy and abdominal CT suggested colon cancer of hepatic flexure. F-FDG PET/CT scan showed moderate FDG uptake lesion at the hepatic flexure colon and multiple foci of FDG accumulation in the liver. These were considered as colon cancer with multiple hepatic metastases. However, the pathologic finding of colonoscopic biopsy and CT-guided liver biopsy showed only eosinophilic infiltration and no evidence of malignancy.

  1. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  2. Quantitative characterization of brain β-amyloid using a joint PiB/FDG PET image histogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jon J.; Hanson, Dennis P.; Holmes, David R.; Kemp, Bradley J.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Murray, Melissa E.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Parisi, Joseph; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lowe, Val J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2014-03-01

    A complex analysis performed by spatial registration of PiB and MRI patient images in order to localize the PiB signal to specific cortical brain regions has been proven effective in identifying imaging characteristics associated with underlying Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Lewy Body Disease (LBD) pathology. This paper presents an original method of image analysis and stratification of amyloid-related brain disease based on the global spatial correlation of PiB PET images with 18F-FDG PET images (without MR images) to categorize the PiB signal arising from the cortex. Rigid registration of PiB and 18F-FDG images is relatively straightforward, and in registration the 18F-FDG signal serves to identify the cortical region in which the PiB signal is relevant. Cortical grey matter demonstrates the highest levels of amyloid accumulation and therefore the greatest PiB signal related to amyloid pathology. The highest intensity voxels in the 18F-FDG image are attributed to the cortical grey matter. The correlation of the highest intensity PiB voxels with the highest 18F-FDG values indicates the presence of β-amyloid protein in the cortex in disease states, while correlation of the highest intensity PiB voxels with mid-range 18F-FDG values indicates only nonspecific binding in the white matter.

  3. Brain PET metabolic abnormalities in a case of varicella-zoster virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Coiffard, Benjamin; Guedj, Eric; Daumas, Aurélie; Leveque, Pierre; Villani, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    The role of brain 18F-FDG PET in the diagnostic evaluation of encephalitis has been recently suggested, especially in limbic encephalitis, but descriptions are mainly limited to small case reports. However, the evaluation of cerebral metabolism by 18F-FDG PET has never been described for varicella-zoster virus encephalitis. We report the first case of varicella-zoster virus encephalitis in which 18F-FDG PET revealed brain metabolic abnormalities. Brain metabolic PET imaging was analyzed by comparing the patient's brain 18F-FDG PET scans to that of 12 healthy subjects. Compared with healthy subjects, significant hypometabolism and hypermetabolism were found and evolved over time with treatment.

  4. 18F-FDG PET/CT in diagnosis and response evaluation in an unusual case of antisynthetase syndrome presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Jain, T K; Basher, R K; Bhattacharya, A; Mittal, B R; Shukla, J; Prakash, M

    2016-01-01

    Anti-histidyl (Jo-1) antibodies have been implicated in the pathogenesis of anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS). A case is presented of a 55-year-old male patient presenting with pyrexia of unknown origin and inconclusive routine investigations. (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed to locate any abnormal focus, which showed increased FDG uptake in the proximal shoulder muscles, as well as lung lesions. Subsequent investigation showed the presence of anti Jo-1 antibody, and diagnosed as an anti-synthetase syndrome. The patient was successfully treated with glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide, and the response was assessed with symptomatic relief and disappearance of FDG uptake in lung and muscle lesions on post-treatment FDG PET/CT.

  5. 18F-FDG PET/CT in diagnosis and response evaluation in an unusual case of antisynthetase syndrome presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Jain, T K; Basher, R K; Bhattacharya, A; Mittal, B R; Shukla, J; Prakash, M

    2016-01-01

    Anti-histidyl (Jo-1) antibodies have been implicated in the pathogenesis of anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS). A case is presented of a 55-year-old male patient presenting with pyrexia of unknown origin and inconclusive routine investigations. (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed to locate any abnormal focus, which showed increased FDG uptake in the proximal shoulder muscles, as well as lung lesions. Subsequent investigation showed the presence of anti Jo-1 antibody, and diagnosed as an anti-synthetase syndrome. The patient was successfully treated with glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide, and the response was assessed with symptomatic relief and disappearance of FDG uptake in lung and muscle lesions on post-treatment FDG PET/CT. PMID:26687469

  6. FDG-PET/CT is a pivotal imaging modality to diagnose rare intravascular large B-cell lymphoma: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Colavolpe, Cecile; Ebbo, Mikael; Trousse, Delphine; Khibri, Hajar; Franques, Jerome; Chetaille, Bruno; Coso, Diane; Ouvrier, Matthieu John; Gastaud, Lauris; Guedj, Eric; Schleinitz, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) remains a diagnostic challenge, because of non-specific findings on clinical, laboratory, and imaging studies. We present a case in which 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography was particularly useful to suspect the diagnosis, to detect unexpected locations, to guide contributive biopsy, and to assess the response to treatment. In case of initial negative results, FDG-PET should be repeated in the course of clinical evolution. In the presence of neurological or hormonal symptoms without brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormality, FDG-PET brain slices could depict additional pituitary and/or brain hypermetabolisms. We discuss the potential interests of FDG-PET in IVLBCL by a literature review.

  7. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  8. Diaphragm and Laryngeal FDG Uptake With Hiccups.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Madhur K; Jain, Avani S; Panneer, Venkat; Muthukrishnan, Indirani; Simon, Shelley

    2015-11-01

    F-FDG PET/CT study is a well-established investigation in diagnosis, treatment evaluation, and follow-up of malignant tumors. It is very important to know the normal biodistribution and physiologic uptake of F-FDG to prevent it from confusing as malignant disease. This article describes unusual but physiological uptake in the laryngeal and diaphragmatic muscles in a patient presenting as metastatic adenocarcinoma with unknown primary having hiccups. PMID:26204217

  9. Evaluation of muscle metabolic activity in the lower limb of a transfemoral amputee using a prosthesis by using (18)F-FDG PET imaging--an application of PET imaging to rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Keiko; Yamaji, Takehiko; Ichikawa, Akihiro; Inoue, Tomio; Takagishi, Kenji; Endo, Keigo

    2004-07-01

    This study used FDG PET to evaluate the lower limb muscles metabolic activities of transfemoral amputees during walking with prostheses. As a preliminary study, FDG PET was applied for two normal adult volunteers to evaluate muscle activity in the lower extremities after gait exercise. This same method was applied for two amputee volunteers with prostheses. We found that FDG accumulated more in both gluteus medius muscles after gait exercise compared to other muscles in normal adult volunteers. In the skilled amputee volunteer, FDG uptake increased in the adductor and gluteus medius in the amputated side, while in the unskilled the adductor, gluteus maximus, and gluteus medius showed increased FDG uptake only in the normal side. This result suggests that basic metabolic changes such as an increase in oxidative metabolism and less reliance on glycolytic activity would occur as a result of skeletal muscle training in amputees. PMID:15183449

  10. Spectrum of neurocognitive dysfunction in Indian population on FDG PET/CT imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajnish; Tripathi, Madhavi; D’Souza, Maria M; Jaimini, Abhinav; Varshney, Raunak; Panwar, Puja; Kaushik, Aruna; Saw, Sanjeev; Seher, Romana; Pandey, Santosh; Singh, Dinesh; Solanki, Yachna; Mishra, Anil K; Mondal, Anupam; Tripathi, RP

    2011-01-01

    Background: A variety of neurodegenerative disorders produce significant abnormal brain function which can be detected using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scan even when structural changes are not detected on CT or MRI Scan. A study was undertaken at our institute to evaluate the FDG PET/CT findings in Indian population suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), dementia with lewy body disease (DLBD) and other miscellaneous causes of dementia. Materials and Methods: 117 subjects having neurocognitive deficits and 36 normals were included in our study. All patients underwent a detailed history and clinical examination. This was followed by a mini mental state examination. Subsequently an FDG brain PET scan and an MRI were done. Results: In the patient population included in our study group 36 were normal, 39 had MCI, 40 had AD, 14 had FTD, and 13 had DLBD and 11 dementia due to other miscellaneous causes. MCI patients showed primarily reduced tracer uptake in the mesio-temporal cortex. AD patients showed reduced tracer concentration in temporo-parietal lobes, while patients with advanced diseases showed frontal lobe disease additionally. In subjects of FTD, reduced radiotracer uptake in the fronto-temporal lobes was noted. In addition, FTD patients also showed basal ganglia defects. In contrast the DLBD patients showed globally reduced FDG uptake including severely affecting the occipital cortices. Conclusion: In the current study the F18-FDG PET scans have been shown to be highly useful in the diagnosis of various neurocognitive disorders of the brain. AD was found to be the most common dementia in the Indian population followed by MCI. Diffuse Lewy body disease, FTD and other miscellaneous categories of dementia had a near similar incidence. PMID:22174510

  11. Statistical parametric mapping and cluster counting analysis of [18F] FDG-PET imaging in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Mitsis, Effie M; Chu, Kingwai; Newmark, Randall E; Hazlett, Erin A; Buchsbaum, Monte S

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated regional cerebral glucose metabolism abnormalities of [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in traumatic brain injury (TBI). PET images of 81 TBI patients and 68 normal controls were acquired and a word list learning task was administered during the uptake period. The TBI group included 35 patients with positive structural imaging (CT or MRI) findings soon after injury, 40 patients with negative findings, and 6 cases without structural imaging. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis was applied with several levels of spatial smoothing. Cluster counting analysis was performed for each subject to identify abnormal clusters with contiguous voxel values that deviated by two standard deviations or more from the mean of the normal controls, and to count the number of clusters in 10 size categories. SPM maps demonstrated that the 81 patients had significantly lower FDG uptake than normal controls, widely across the cortex (including bilateral frontal and temporal regions), and in the thalamus. Cluster counting results indicated that TBI patients had a higher proportion of larger clusters than controls. These large low-FDG-uptake clusters of the TBI patients were closer to the brain edge than those of controls. These results suggest that deficits of cerebral metabolism in TBI are spread over multiple brain areas, that they are closer to the cortical surface than clusters in controls, and that group spatial patterns of abnormal cerebral metabolism may be similar in TBI patients with cognitive deficits with and without obvious acute abnormalities identified on structural imaging.

  12. Use of FDG/PET CT to diagnose malignancy as the cause of mucocele of the appendix.

    PubMed

    Purandare, Nilendu C; Gandhi, Arun; Puranik, Ameya D; Agrawal, Archi; Shah, Sneha; Patil, Asawari; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Mucocele of the appendix is an uncommon condition characterized by luminal distension and accumulation of a mucoid material. Occasionally, it can be caused due to malignancy like cystadenocarcinoma, and the preoperative diagnosis of which is very rare. We report a case of a 64-year-old lady presenting with intermittent abdominal pain diagnosed on ultrasonography as a mucocele where preoperative (18)F-flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (FDG PET/CT) findings raised a strong suspicion of malignancy. FDG PET/CT findings brought about a change in therapeutic plan, and the patient was considered for a more extensive surgical resection. The final histopathology revealed cystadenocarcinoma as the cause of appendicular mucocele, a finding hitherto undescribed on FDG PET/CT.

  13. FDG uptake, a surrogate of tumour hypoxia?

    PubMed Central

    Van de Wiele, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Tumour hyperglycolysis is driven by activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) through tumour hypoxia. Accordingly, the degree of 2-fluro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) uptake by tumours might indirectly reflect the level of hypoxia, obviating the need for more specific radiopharmaceuticals for hypoxia imaging. Discussion In this paper, available data on the relationship between hypoxia and FDG uptake by tumour tissue in vitro and in vivo are reviewed. In pre-clinical in vitro studies, acute hypoxia was consistently shown to increase FDG uptake by normal and tumour cells within a couple of hours after onset with mobilisation or modification of glucose transporters optimising glucose uptake, followed by a delayed response with increased rates of transcription of GLUT mRNA. In pre-clinical imaging studies on chronic hypoxia that compared FDG uptake by tumours grown in rat or mice to uptake by FMISO, the pattern of normoxic and hypoxic regions within the human tumour xenografts, as imaged by FMISO, largely correlated with glucose metabolism although minor locoregional differences could not be excluded. In the clinical setting, data are limited and discordant. Conclusion Further evaluation of FDG uptake by various tumour types in relation to intrinsic and bioreductive markers of hypoxia and response to radiotherapy or hypoxia-dependent drugs is needed to fully assess its application as a marker of hypoxia in the clinical setting. PMID:18509637

  14. Diagnostic utility of FDG-PET in neurolymphomatosis: report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Hisanori; Yamakado, Hodaka; Kitano, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Akihiro; Yamashita, Hirofumi; Miyamoto, Masakazu; Hitomi, Takefumi; Okada, Tomohisa; Nakamoto, Yuji; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2016-09-01

    Neurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare condition involving the infiltration of lymphoma cells into the peripheral nervous system. NL can be primary or secondary in the setting of an unknown or known hematologic malignancy, respectively. Here, we report five cases in which F-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) had great value for diagnosing NL. Two cases were rare primary NL, and the other three were secondary NL. Clinical presentations were asymmetric sensorimotor disturbances in the extremities with or without involvement of cranial nerves. Furthermore, all patients experienced spontaneous pain in the face or affected extremities. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was cytologically negative in two of five cases. Gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected abnormalities in the cranial nerves, nerve roots, and cauda equina in all cases except case 1 and the recurrent stage of case 2. F-18 FDG-PET/CT showed clear visualization of almost all the lymphomatous involvement of peripheral nerves and other tissues in all patients. Furthermore, F-18 FDG-PET/CT detected abnormalities including asymptomatic lesions that were not detected with MRI, and also identified the appropriate lesion for diagnostic biopsy. However, as in case 3, the lesions in the left oculomotor nerve and the cauda equina were detected only with Gd-enhanced MRI, which has superior spatial resolution. In conclusion, F-18 FDG-PET/CT is a sensitive modality that can suggest the presence of malignancy and identify appropriate places for diagnostic biopsies. It is especially useful when combined with Gd-enhanced MRI, even in patients with primary NL that is usually difficult to diagnose. PMID:27286845

  15. What Is the Clinical Significance of FDG Unexpected Uptake in the Prostate in Patients Undergoing PET/CT for Other Malignancies?

    PubMed Central

    Bhosale, Priya; Balachandran, Aparna; Vikram, Raghu; Viswanathan, Chitra; Macapinlac, Homer; Rohren, Eric; Prativadi, Ramanujan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the clinical significance of unexpected, abnormal FDG uptake in the prostate in patients undergoing FDG-PET/CT for staging of other primary malignancies without a prior history of prostate carcinoma. Methods. Retrospective search of FDG-PET/CT studies to identify patients with unexpected, abnormal FDG uptake in the prostate gland, who underwent subsequent biopsy, was performed. 26 patients were identified. Images were reviewed to determine the pattern of uptake within the prostate (focal or diffuse) and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). PSA and Gleason scores were recorded. Results. 15/26 (58%) patients were found to have prostate carcinoma. Gleason scores ranged from 6 to 9.9. There was no statistical difference in the pattern of uptake (focal versus diffuse) or the SUVmax. Serum PSA levels with cancer (range, 2–26.8 ng; mean, 10.2 ng) and those without cancer (range, 2–10.5 ng; mean, 2.2 ng) were statistically significant (P < 0.007, Wilcoxon rank sum test). Conclusions. Patients with abnormal uptake in the prostate have a 58% likelihood of occult prostate cancer. In the setting of elevated serum PSA levels, abnormal prostate uptake should therefore be viewed with suspicion and a urology consult should be obtained; however, it is irrelevant in patients with underlying aggressive malignancies. PMID:24455242

  16. FDG PET/CT appearance of benign pilomatricoma.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Manoj Kumar; Sommerville, Ryan; Ravi Kumar, Aravind S

    2012-07-01

    A 56-year-old patient was referred for FDG PET/CT with a right preauricular lymph node fine-needle biopsy, suggesting poorly differentiated carcinoma and no obvious primary lesion. There was intense FDG uptake in the right preauricular nodule. The node was excised, and formal histology demonstrated a benign pilomatricoma rather than malignancy. Pilomatricoma is uncommon in adults and an unusual cause for marked FDG uptake, likely due to foreign body inflammation. Pilomatricoma can be either benign or malignant. The marked FDG uptake demonstrated in our patient with benign pilomatricoma also suggests that FDG PET cannot reliably grade this rare condition.

  17. Progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, has been reported in captive and free-ranging cervids. An abnormal isoform of a prion protein (PrP-CWD) has been associated with CWD in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and this prion protein can be detected with i...

  18. FDG and Amyloid PET in Cognitively Normal Individuals at Risk for Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murray, John; Tsui, Wai H.; Li, Yi; McHugh, Pauline; Williams, Schantel; Cummings, Megan; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Solnes, Lilja; Osorio, Ricardo; Glodzik, Lidia; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Drzezga, Alexander; Minoshima, Satoshi; de Leon, Mony J.; Mosconi, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Having a parent affected by late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a major risk factor for cognitively normal (NL) individuals. This study explores the potential of PET with 18F-FDG and the amyloid- β (Aβ) tracer 11C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) for detection of individual risk in NL adults with AD-parents. Methods FDG− and PiB-PET was performed in 119 young to late-middle aged NL individuals including 80 NL with positive family history of AD (FH+) and 39 NL with negative family history of any dementia (FH−). The FH+ group included 50 subjects with maternal (FHm) and 30 with paternal family history (FHp). Individual FDG and PiB scans were Z scored on a voxel-wise basis relative to modality-specific reference databases using automated procedures and rated as positive or negative (+/−) for AD-typical abnormalities using predefined criteria. To determine the effect of age, the cohort was separated into younger (49 ± 9 y) and older (68 ± 5 y) groups relative to the median age (60 y). Results Among individuals of age >60 y, as compared to controls, NL FH+ showed a higher frequency of FDG+ scans vs. FH− (53% vs. 6% p < 0.003), and a trend for PiB+ scans (27% vs. 11%; p = 0.19). This effect was observed for both FHm and FHp groups. Among individuals of age ≤60 y, NL FHm showed a higher frequency of FDG+ scans (29%) compared to FH− (5%, p = 0.04) and a trend compared to FHp (11%) (p = 0.07), while the distribution of PiB+ scans was not different between groups. In both age cohorts, FDG+ scans were more frequent than PiB+ scans among NL FH+, especially FHm (p < 0.03). FDG-PET was a significant predictor of FH+ status. Classification according to PiB status was significantly less successful. Conclusions Automated analysis of FDG− and PiB-PET demonstrates higher rates of abnormalities in at-risk FH+ vs FH− subjects, indicating potentially ongoing early AD-pathology in this population. The frequency of metabolic abnormalities was higher than that of A

  19. FDG-PET/CT and CT Findings of a Benign Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney; Correlation with Pathology.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Kondo, Tsunenori; Nagashima, Yoji; Kimura, Ken; Fukushima, Kenji; Momose, Mitsuru; Kondo, Chisato; Tanabe, Kazunari; Sakai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of a benign solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the kidney. The patient was a 63-year-old woman with a mass in the right kidney (10×9.7 cm), incidentally found on CT images. The CT scan showed a lobulated tumor arising from the hilum of the right kidney. The tumor consisted of two components with different patterns of enhancement. Most of the tumor demonstrated moderate enhancement from the corticomedullary to nephrographic phase. A small nodular component at the caudal portion of the tumor showed avid enhancement in the corticomedullary phase and rapid washout in the nephrographic phase in contrast-enhanced CT. FDG-PET/CT was performed and showed weak FDG accumulation (SUVmax=2.30 and 1.91 in the main and small caudal components). Although renal cell carcinoma was preoperatively diagnosed, histopathological examination revealed renal SFT, with no malignant potential. Therefore, when a renal tumor with contrast-medium enhancement and low FDG accumulation is demonstrated, SFT should be considered as a differential diagnosis in addition to renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27408891

  20. FDG-PET/CT and CT Findings of a Benign Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney; Correlation with Pathology.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Kondo, Tsunenori; Nagashima, Yoji; Kimura, Ken; Fukushima, Kenji; Momose, Mitsuru; Kondo, Chisato; Tanabe, Kazunari; Sakai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of a benign solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the kidney. The patient was a 63-year-old woman with a mass in the right kidney (10×9.7 cm), incidentally found on CT images. The CT scan showed a lobulated tumor arising from the hilum of the right kidney. The tumor consisted of two components with different patterns of enhancement. Most of the tumor demonstrated moderate enhancement from the corticomedullary to nephrographic phase. A small nodular component at the caudal portion of the tumor showed avid enhancement in the corticomedullary phase and rapid washout in the nephrographic phase in contrast-enhanced CT. FDG-PET/CT was performed and showed weak FDG accumulation (SUVmax=2.30 and 1.91 in the main and small caudal components). Although renal cell carcinoma was preoperatively diagnosed, histopathological examination revealed renal SFT, with no malignant potential. Therefore, when a renal tumor with contrast-medium enhancement and low FDG accumulation is demonstrated, SFT should be considered as a differential diagnosis in addition to renal cell carcinoma.

  1. FDG-PET/CT and CT Findings of a Benign Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Kidney; Correlation with Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Kondo, Tsunenori; Nagashima, Yoji; Kimura, Ken; Fukushima, Kenji; Momose, Mitsuru; Kondo, Chisato; Tanabe, Kazunari; Sakai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of a benign solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the kidney. The patient was a 63-year-old woman with a mass in the right kidney (10×9.7 cm), incidentally found on CT images. The CT scan showed a lobulated tumor arising from the hilum of the right kidney. The tumor consisted of two components with different patterns of enhancement. Most of the tumor demonstrated moderate enhancement from the corticomedullary to nephrographic phase. A small nodular component at the caudal portion of the tumor showed avid enhancement in the corticomedullary phase and rapid washout in the nephrographic phase in contrast-enhanced CT. FDG-PET/CT was performed and showed weak FDG accumulation (SUVmax=2.30 and 1.91 in the main and small caudal components). Although renal cell carcinoma was preoperatively diagnosed, histopathological examination revealed renal SFT, with no malignant potential. Therefore, when a renal tumor with contrast-medium enhancement and low FDG accumulation is demonstrated, SFT should be considered as a differential diagnosis in addition to renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27408891

  2. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  3. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  4. Stage-dependent agreement between cerebrospinal fluid proteins and FDG-PET findings in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, Igor; Muller, Matthias J; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Lang, Ulrike; Rossmann, Heidi; Hampel, Harald; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Cerebral hypometabolism and abnormal levels of amyloid beta (Aβ), total (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (ptau) proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are established biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the agreement between these biomarkers in a single center study of patients with AD of severity extending over a wide range. Forty seven patients (MMSE 21.4 ± 3.6, range 13-28 points) with incipient and probable AD underwent positron emission tomography with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) and lumbar puncture for CSF assays of Aβ1-42, p-tau181, and t-tau. All findings were classified as either positive or negative for AD. Statistical analyses were performed for the whole sample (n=47) and for the subgroups stratified as mild (MMSE > 20 points, n=30) and moderate (MMSE < 21 points, n=17) AD. In the whole patient sample, the agreement with the FDG-PET finding was 77% (chance-corrected kappa [κ]=0.34, p=0.016) for t-tau, 68% (κ=0.10, n.s.) for p-tau181, and 68% (κ=0.04, n.s.) for Aβ1-42. No significant agreement was found in the mild AD subgroup, while there was a strong agreement for t-tau (94%, κ=0.77, p=0.001) and p-tau181 (88%, κ=0.60, p=0.014) in the moderate AD group. A significant agreement between the FDG-PET and CSF tau findings in patients with AD supports the view that both are markers of neurodegeneration. CSF tau proteins and FDG-PET might substitute each other as supportive diagnostic tools in patients with suspected moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's dementia, while this is not the case in subjects at an earlier disease stage. PMID:22044023

  5. Radiation-induced osteosarcoma might mimic metastatic bone lesions: a case with bone scan and FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Masamichi; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Umayahara, Kenji; Takeshima, Nobuhiro; Takahashi, Shunji

    2015-05-01

    We report on a 53-year-old woman with osteosarcoma of the skull who underwent radiation therapy for metastatic brain tumor. She had a history of uterine endometrial cancer treated with chemotherapy and surgery 9 years previously. FDG PET/CT for surveillance showed nodular accumulation at the right suprainguinal region and very avid accumulation at the left side of the occipital bone. Bone scan showed increased accumulation at the same portion of the occipital bone. The occipital tumor was surgically removed and diagnosed as radiation-induced osteosarcoma.

  6. 11C-choline vs. 18F-FDG PET/CT in assessing bone involvement in patients with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Nanni, Cristina; Zamagni, Elena; Cavo, Michele; Rubello, Domenico; Tacchetti, Paola; Pettinato, Cinzia; Farsad, Mohsen; Castellucci, Paolo; Ambrosini, Valentina; Montini, Gian Carlo; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Franchi, Roberto; Fanti, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    Background Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a B cell neoplasm causing lytic or osteopenic bone abnormalities. Whole body skeletal survey (WBSS), Magnetic resonance (MR) and 18F-FDG PET/CT are imaging techniques routinely used for the evaluation of bone involvement in MM patients. Aim As MM bone lesions may present low 18F-FDG uptake; the aim of this study was to assess the possible added value and limitations of 11C-Choline to that of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients affected with MM. Methods Ten patients affected with MM underwent a standard 11C-Choline PET/CT and an 18F-FDG PET/CT within one week. The results of the two scans were compared in terms of number, sites and SUVmax of lesions. Results Four patients (40%) had a negative concordant 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans. Two patients (20%) had a positive 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans that identified the same number and sites of bone lesions. The remaining four patients (40%) had a positive 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan, but the two exams identified different number of lesions. Choline showed a mean SUVmax of 5 while FDG showed a mean SUVmax of 3.8 (P = 0.042). Overall, 11C-Choline PET/CT scans detected 37 bone lesions and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans detected 22 bone lesions but the difference was not significant (P = 0.8). Conclusion According to these preliminary data, 11C-Choline PET/CT appears to be more sensitive than 18F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of bony myelomatous lesions. If these data are confirmed in larger series of patients, 11C-Choline may be considered a more appropriate functional imaging in association with MRI for MM bone staging. PMID:17584499

  7. Polysplenia Syndrome With Splenic and Skeletal Muscle Metastases From Thyroid Carcinoma Evaluated by FDG PET/CT: Case Report and Literature Review: A Care-Compliant Article.

    PubMed

    Li, Zu-Gui; Lin, Zhi-Chun; Mu, Hai-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Polysplenia syndrome (PSS) is a rare congenital abnormality. Metastases to spleen and skeletal muscle from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) are also extremely rare. Our case report aims to present an interesting case of PSS associated with splenic metastasis (SM) and skeletal muscle metastasis (SMM) from advanced papillary thyroid carcinoma which was evaluated on fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). An 84-year-old Chinese man was admitted with the history of multiple enlarged masses in bilateral neck, right axillary, and inguinal areas for >2 months. The results of ultrasonography examination were highly suggestive of malignancy. The histological results of the following biopsy were consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma with involvement of multiple regional lymph nodes. He was referred for an FDG PET/CT imaging to evaluate the situation. FDG PET/CT showed that an intense FDG-avid thyroid mass with widespread regional lymph node involvement and distant metastases in the body. Unexpected sites of metastases were detected in the spleens and skeletal muscles. Most interestingly, FDG PET/CT imaging also described the typical imaging findings of PSS including the 2 right-sided spleens, azygos and hemiazygos continuation of inferior vena cava (IVC), right-sided stomach, middle line liver, a short pancreas, preduodenal portal vein (PPV), and malrotation of gut. Whole body FDG PET/CT imaging can accurately evaluate the situation of DTC by detecting regional lymph node involvement, common and rare sites of distant metastases which are closely related to staging, management, and prognosis of this disease. Whole-body FDG PET/CT is also valuable in demonstrating the typical imaging features of PSS. PMID:26825891

  8. Appropriateness criteria of FDG PET/CT in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Archi; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    18Fluorine-2-fluoro-2-Deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) is a well-established functional imaging method widely used in oncology. In this article, we have incorporated the various indications for 18FDG PET/CT in oncology based on available evidence and current guidelines. Growing body of evidence for use of 18FDG PET/CT in select tumors is also discussed. This article attempts to give the reader an overview of the appropriateness of using 18F-FDG PET/CT in various malignancies. PMID:25969632

  9. Allergic Reaction to Ginkgo Nut on FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Han, Eun Ji; Park, Hye Lim; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who previously underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. F FDG PET/CT images demonstrated multiple lymph nodes with increased FDG uptake in the neck, chest, and abdomen and diffusely increased FDG uptake in the spleen, which were highly suspicious findings for malignant lymphoma. However, subsequent biopsy of axillary lymph node presented reactive hyperplasia. Detailed history revealed that the patient had a history of generalized edema and severe arthralgia after contact with ginkgo nut one week ago. This case highlights allergic reaction mimicking lymphoma on FDG PET/CT. PMID:27276210

  10. Is (18)F-FDG PET really a promising marker for clinically relevant atherosclerosis?

    PubMed

    Brammen, Lindsay; Palumbo, Barbara; Lupattelli, Graziana; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    example, Lederman RJ et al (2001) reported a correlation between (18)FFDG uptake with intima/media ratio, whereas no correlation was established in a paper by Ogawa M et al (2004). On the other hand, Laitinen I et al (2006) described a correlation between (18)F-FDG-uptake and calcifications, however, Tatsumi M et al (2003) did not observe this in his paper. The claim that inflammation and macrophage uptake of (18)F-FDG may be able to characterize and identify early atherosclerotic lesions has never been substantiated. Earlier studies reveal a negative correlation between (18)F-FDG uptake and smooth muscle cells, but a positive one with macrophages. The extent of uptake by different vascular wall cells (e.g. endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, macrophages) in different atherosclerotic lesion types under various biochemical conditions has thus far not been extensively studied, neither in vitro nor in experimental or clinical work. Only one recent report does deal with this issue. Our preliminary studies show that the cellular uptake extremely varies depending on the local metabolic condition. For example, smooth muscle and endothelial cells, when exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines, exhibit an extremely enhanced (18)F-FDG uptake while local hypoxia results in an opposite behavior. This is not observed in macrophages. Furthermore, when cultured cells were studied, uptake was severely dependent on the duration of incubation and the type of stimulation. This data indicates that (18)F-FDG uptake is enhanced in early foam cell formation, as well as in activated smooth muscle cells that eventually reach, under certain conditions, a comparable uptake. In addition, there is a lack of standardization and of prospective studies preventing reliable clinical interpretation. There seems to be only one consensus. There is no abnormal uptake of (18)F-FDG as well as of conventional tracers in the intact vascular wall and intra individual therapeutic intervention is truly reflected

  11. Factors affecting bilateral temporal lobe hypometabolism on 18F-FDG PET brain scan in unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Srikijvilaikul, Teeradej; Vasavid, Pataramon

    2013-11-01

    Bilateral temporal lobe hypometabolism (BTH) on (18)F-FDG PET brain scan is frequently seen in unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). This study aimed to identify the factors that influence BTH in patients with mTLE in order to minimize the significant factor(s) prior to performing a FDG-PET brain scan. Forty patients with unilateral mTLE who underwent (18)F-FDG PET scan for presurgical epilepsy workup were included. Bilateral temporal lobe hypometabolism of the anterior and medial parts of the temporal lobe was identified by a semiquantitative visual scale. Lateralization of TLE was identified by either intracranial EEG (22/40 cases) and/or improvement of seizure 2 years after temporal lobectomy (37/40 cases). The factors analyzed included basic demographic characteristics (age, sex, occupation, years of education, and handedness), history related to seizure (age at epilepsy onset and epilepsy duration, history of febrile seizure and head injury, frequency of seizure with impaired cognition in the last 3 months, presence of secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure, automatism side, presence of postictal confusion, and side of MRI temporal abnormality), information during video-EEG monitoring (clinical lateralization, interictal scalp EEG lateralization (interictal epileptiform discharge), and ictal scalp EEG lateralization), and information during the FDG-PET study (duration from the last seizure (≤2 days or >2 days), last seizure type, and the presence of slow waves or sharp waves during the FDG uptake period). Significant factors related to BTH were analyzed using multivariate analysis. Only the ≤2-day duration from the last seizure to the PET scan shows a significant effect (p=0.021) on BTH finding with 15 times greater incidence compared to a duration >2 days. Bilateral temporal lobe hypometabolism, which causes conflict in lateralizing the epileptogenic zone in temporal lobe epilepsy, can be avoided by performing PET scan more than 2 days

  12. Medial thalamic 18-FDG uptake following inescapable shock correlates with subsequent learned helpless behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Mirrione,M.M.; Mirrione, M.M.; Schulz, D.; Dewey, S.L.; Henn, F.A.

    2009-12-06

    found in additional regions analyzed including the nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, substantia nigra, and amygdala. These data suggest that medial thalamic 18-FDG uptake during inescapable shock may contribute to subsequent escape deficits, and are not confounded by shock effects per se, since all animals received the same treatment prior to scanning. We have previously explored 18-FDG differences following the escape test session which also showed hyperactivity in the medial thalamus of learned helpless animals compared to non-learned helpless, and included additional cortical-limbic changes. Given the neuroanatomical connections between the medial thalamus (and habenula) with the prefrontal cortex and monoaminergic brain stem, one possible speculation is that abnormal neuronal activity in these areas during stress may set in motion circuitry changes that correlate with learned helpless behavior.

  13. (99m)Tc-DMSA (V) in Evaluation of Osteosarcoma: Comparative Studies with (18)F-FDG PET/CT in Detection of Primary and Malignant Lesions.

    PubMed

    Bandopadhyaya, G P; Gupta, Priyanka; Singh, Archana; Shukla, Jaya; Rastogi, S; Kumar, Rakesh; Malhotra, Arun

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the role of (99m)Tc-DMSA (V) and [(18)F]FDG PET-CT in management of patients with osteosarcoma, 22 patients were included in our study. All patients underwent both (99m)Tc-DMSA (V) and whole-body [(18)F]FDG PET-CT scans within an interval of 1 week. 555-740 MBq of (99m)Tc-DMSA (V) was injected i.v. the whole-body planar, SPECT images of primary site and chest were performed after 3-4 hours. [(18)F]FDG PET-CT images were obtained 60 minutes after i.v. injection of 370 MBq of F-18 FDG. Both FDG PET-CT (mean SUV(max) = 7.1) and DMSA (V) scans showed abnormal uptake at primary site in all the 22 patients (100% sensitivity for both). Whole-body PET-CT detected metastasis in 11 pts (lung mets in 10 and lung + bone mets in 1 patient). Whole-body planar DMSA (V) and SPECT detected bone metastasis in one patient, lung mets in 7 patients and LN in 1 patient. HRCT of chest confirmed lung mets in 10 patients and inflammatory lesion in one patient. 7 patients positive for mets on DMSA (V) scan had higher uptake in lung lesions as compared to FDG uptake on PET-CT. Three patients who did not show any DMSA uptake had subcentimeter lung nodule. Resuts of both (99m)Tc-DMSA (V) (whole-body planar and SPECT imaging) and [(18)F]FDG PET-CT were comparable in evaluation of primary site lesions and metastatic lesions greater than 1 cm. Though (99m)Tc-DMSA (V) had higher uptake in the lesions as compared to [(18)F]FDG PET-CT, the only advantage [(18)F]FDG PET-CT had was that it could also detect subcentimeter lesions.

  14. FDG-MicroPET and Diffusion-Weighted MR Image Evaluation of Early Changes After Radiofrequency Ablation in Implanted VX2 Tumors in Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Tomohiro Okuma, Tomohisa; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Wada, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kenji; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Inoue, Yuichi

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the early changes after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in VX2 rabbit tumors implanted into the back muscles by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET). Percutaneous CT-guided RFA was conducted in seven rabbits with implanted VX2 tumors. VX2 tumors on the other side were untreated and served as the control. MR imaging was performed with a clinical 1.5-T instrument 2 days after RFA, and FDG-PET, using a high-resolution PET scanner for small animals, was obtained 3 days after the procedure. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and radioactivity count of untreated and ablated tumors were calculated. Untreated VX2 tumors showed hyperintensity on T1-, T2-, and diffusion-weighted MR images, ring-enhanced on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, and ring-shaped FDG accumulation on FDG-PET. Ablated VX2 tumors showed slight hyperintensity on T1-, T2-, and diffusion-weighed images, slight enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, and low accumulation on FDG-PET. The ADC value of ablated VX2 tumors (1.52 {+-} 0.24 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) was significantly higher than that of untreated tumors (1.09 {+-} 0.12 x 10{sup -3}; p < 0.05). The tumor/muscle ratio of ablated tumors (0.5 {+-} 0.3) was significantly lower than that of untreated tumors (11.6 {+-} 3.2; p < 0.05). Histopathological examination confirmed the lack of viable tumor cells in the ablated lesions. The results indicate that both ADC value and FDG-PET are potentially useful markers for monitoring the early effects of RFA.

  15. Evaluation of Avulsion-Induced Neuropathology in Rat Spinal Cords with 18F-FDG Micro-PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ze-Min; Tang, Ying; Li, Ying-Qin; Luo, Hao-Xuan; Liu, Lin-Lin; Tu, Qing-Qiang; Zhou, Li-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Brachial plexus root avulsion (BPRA) leads to dramatic motoneuron death and glial reactions in the corresponding spinal segments at the late stage of injury. To protect spinal motoneurons, assessment of the affected spinal segments should be done at an earlier stage of the injury. In this study, we employed 18F-FDG small-animal PET/CT to assess the severity of BPRA-induced cervical spinal cord injuries. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly treated and divided into three groups: Av+NS (brachial plexus root avulsion (Av) treated with normal saline), Av+GM1 (treated with monosialoganglioside), and control. At time points of 3 day (d), 1 week (w), 2 w, 4 w and 8 w post-injury, 18F-FDG micro-PET/CT scans and neuropathology assessments of the injured spinal roots, as well as the spinal cord, were performed. The outcomes of the different treatments were compared. The results showed that BPRA induced local bleeding and typical Wallerian degeneration of the avulsed roots accompanied by 18F-FDG accumulations at the ipsilateral cervical intervertebral foramen. BPRA-induced astrocyte reactions and overexpression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the motoneurons correlated with higher 18F-FDG uptake in the ipsilateral cervical spinal cord during the first 2 w post-injury. The GM1 treatment reduced BPRA-induced astrocyte reactions and inhibited the de novo nNOS expressions in spinal motoneurons. The GM1 treatment also protected spinal motoneurons from avulsion within the first 4 w post-injury. The data from this study suggest that 18F-FDG PET/CT could be used to assess the severity of BPRA-induced primary and secondary injuries in the spinal cord. Furthermore, GM1 is an effective drug for reducing primary and secondary spinal cord injuries following BPRA. PMID:26010770

  16. Evaluation of Avulsion-Induced Neuropathology in Rat Spinal Cords with 18F-FDG Micro-PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying-Qin; Luo, Hao-Xuan; Liu, Lin-Lin; Tu, Qing-Qiang; Zhou, Li-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Brachial plexus root avulsion (BPRA) leads to dramatic motoneuron death and glial reactions in the corresponding spinal segments at the late stage of injury. To protect spinal motoneurons, assessment of the affected spinal segments should be done at an earlier stage of the injury. In this study, we employed 18F-FDG small-animal PET/CT to assess the severity of BPRA-induced cervical spinal cord injuries. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly treated and divided into three groups: Av+NS (brachial plexus root avulsion (Av) treated with normal saline), Av+GM1 (treated with monosialoganglioside), and control. At time points of 3 day (d), 1 week (w), 2 w, 4 w and 8 w post-injury, 18F-FDG micro-PET/CT scans and neuropathology assessments of the injured spinal roots, as well as the spinal cord, were performed. The outcomes of the different treatments were compared. The results showed that BPRA induced local bleeding and typical Wallerian degeneration of the avulsed roots accompanied by 18F-FDG accumulations at the ipsilateral cervical intervertebral foramen. BPRA-induced astrocyte reactions and overexpression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the motoneurons correlated with higher 18F-FDG uptake in the ipsilateral cervical spinal cord during the first 2 w post-injury. The GM1 treatment reduced BPRA-induced astrocyte reactions and inhibited the de novo nNOS expressions in spinal motoneurons. The GM1 treatment also protected spinal motoneurons from avulsion within the first 4 w post-injury. The data from this study suggest that 18F-FDG PET/CT could be used to assess the severity of BPRA-induced primary and secondary injuries in the spinal cord. Furthermore, GM1 is an effective drug for reducing primary and secondary spinal cord injuries following BPRA. PMID:26010770

  17. MicroPET/CT assessment of FDG uptake in brain after long-term methylphenidate treatment in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Newport, G D; Callicott, R; Liu, S; Thompson, J; Berridge, M S; Apana, S M; Slikker, W; Wang, C; Paule, M G

    2016-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a psychostimulant commonly used for the treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Since the long-term effects of this drug on the central nervous system (CNS) are not well understood, we conducted microPET/CT scans on young adult male rhesus monkeys (n=4/group) to gather information on brain metabolism using the uptake of [(18)F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-2-d-glucose (FDG) as a marker. Approximately two-year old, male rhesus monkeys were treated orally with MPH twice per day, five days per week (M-F) over a 6-year period. Subjects received MPH at either 2.5 or 12.5mg/kg/dose or vehicle (Prang). To minimize the acute effects of MPH on FDG uptake, microPET/CT scans were scheduled on Mondays before their first daily dosing of the week (approximately 68h since their last treatment). FDG (370±8.88MBq) was injected intravenously and 30min later microPET/CT images were obtained over 60min. Radiolabeled tracer accumulation in regions of interest (ROIs) in the prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, striatum and cerebellum were converted into Standard Uptake Values (SUVs). Compared to the control group, the uptake of FDG in the cerebellum was significantly decreased in both the low and high dose groups. These preliminary data demonstrate that microPET imaging is capable of distinguishing differences in retention of FDG in the brains of NHPs treated chronically with MPH and suggests that this approach may provide a minimally invasive biomarker for exploring the effects of chronic MPH treatment on aspects of brain function. PMID:27307090

  18. MicroPET/CT assessment of FDG uptake in brain after long-term methylphenidate treatment in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Newport, G D; Callicott, R; Liu, S; Thompson, J; Berridge, M S; Apana, S M; Slikker, W; Wang, C; Paule, M G

    2016-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a psychostimulant commonly used for the treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Since the long-term effects of this drug on the central nervous system (CNS) are not well understood, we conducted microPET/CT scans on young adult male rhesus monkeys (n=4/group) to gather information on brain metabolism using the uptake of [(18)F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-2-d-glucose (FDG) as a marker. Approximately two-year old, male rhesus monkeys were treated orally with MPH twice per day, five days per week (M-F) over a 6-year period. Subjects received MPH at either 2.5 or 12.5mg/kg/dose or vehicle (Prang). To minimize the acute effects of MPH on FDG uptake, microPET/CT scans were scheduled on Mondays before their first daily dosing of the week (approximately 68h since their last treatment). FDG (370±8.88MBq) was injected intravenously and 30min later microPET/CT images were obtained over 60min. Radiolabeled tracer accumulation in regions of interest (ROIs) in the prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, striatum and cerebellum were converted into Standard Uptake Values (SUVs). Compared to the control group, the uptake of FDG in the cerebellum was significantly decreased in both the low and high dose groups. These preliminary data demonstrate that microPET imaging is capable of distinguishing differences in retention of FDG in the brains of NHPs treated chronically with MPH and suggests that this approach may provide a minimally invasive biomarker for exploring the effects of chronic MPH treatment on aspects of brain function.

  19. Predictive and prognostic value of FDG-PET

    PubMed Central

    Oyen, Wim J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The predictive and prognostic value of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) in non-small-cell lung carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma and lymphoma is discussed. The degree of FDG uptake is of prognostic value at initial presentation, after induction treatment prior to resection and in the case of relapse of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In locally advanced and advanced stages of NSCLC, FDG-PET has been shown to be predictive for clinical outcome at an early stage of treatment. In colorectal carcinoma, limited studies are available on the prognostic value of FDG-PET, however, the technique appears to have great potential in monitoring the success of local ablative therapies soon after intervention and in the prediction and evaluation of response to radiotherapy, systemic therapy, and combinations thereof. The prognostic value of end-of treatment FDG-PET for FDG-avid lymphomas has been established, and the next step is to define how to use this information to optimize patient outcome. In Hodgkin's lymphoma, FDG-PET has a high negative predictive value, however, histological confirmation of positive findings should be sought where possible. For non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, the opposite applies. The newly published standardized guidelines for interpretation formulates specific criteria for visual interpretation and for defining PET positivity in the liver, spleen, lung, bone marrow and small residual lesions. The introduction of these guidelines should reduce variability among studies. Interim PET offers a reliable method for early prediction of long-term remission, however it should only be performed in prospective randomized controlled trials. Many of the diagnostic and management questions considered in this review are relevant to other tumour types. Further research in this field is of great importance, since it may lead to a change in the therapeutic concept of cancer. The preliminary findings call for systematic inclusion of FDG

  20. 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT for the detection of inflammation of large arteries: correlation with18F-FDG, calcium burden and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ga-[1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N′,N″,N′″-tetraacetic acid]-d-Phe1,Tyr3-octreotate (DOTATATE) positron emission tomography (PET) is commonly used for the visualization of somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive neuroendocrine tumors. SSTR is also known to be expressed on macrophages, which play a major role in inflammatory processes in the walls of coronary arteries and large vessels. Therefore, imaging SSTR expression has the potential to visualize vulnerable plaques. We assessed 68Ga-DOTATATE accumulation in large vessels in comparison to 18F-2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake, calcified plaques (CPs), and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods Sixteen consecutive patients with neuroendocrine tumors or thyroid cancer underwent both 68Ga-DOTATATE and 18F-FDG PET/CT for staging or restaging purposes. Detailed clinical data, including common cardiovascular risk factors, were recorded. For a separate assessment, they were divided into a high-risk and a low-risk group. In each patient, we calculated the maximum target-to-background ratio (TBR) of eight arterial segments. The correlation of the TBRmean of both tracers with risk factors including plaque burden was assessed. Results The mean TBR of 68Ga-DOTATATE in all large arteries correlated significantly with the presence of CPs (r = 0.52; p < 0.05), hypertension (r = 0.60; p < 0.05), age (r = 0.56; p < 0.05), and uptake of 18F-FDG (r = 0.64; p < 0.01). There was one significant correlation between 18F-FDG uptake and hypertension (0.58; p < 0.05). Out of the 37 sites with the highest focal 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake, 16 (43.2%) also had focal 18F-FDG uptake. Of 39 sites with the highest 18F-FDG uptake, only 11 (28.2%) had a colocalized 68Ga-DOTATATE accumulation. Conclusions In this series of cancer patients, we found a stronger association of increased 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake with known risk factors of cardiovascular disease as compared to 18F-FDG, suggesting a potential

  1. FDG PET/CT in serous psammocarcinoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Zuo, Changjing

    2014-05-01

    Serous psammocarcinoma of the ovary is a rare variant of ovarian serous carcinoma with a favorable prognosis. We present a case of bilateral ovarian serous psammocarcinoma showing extensive calcification in the primary and disseminated lesions with intense FDG uptake on FDG PET/CT. It may be difficult to differentiate the extensively calcified omental and peritoneal metastases from benign calcified lesions on CT images. This case indicates FDG PET/CT may have an advantage over conventional CT in differentiating malignant calcification from benign calcification based on glucose metabolic activity, and may be helpful for diagnosis and staging of this rare ovarian tumor.

  2. Increased FDG activity in a dermatofibroma in esophageal cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Brigid A; Hatef, Daniel A; Chevez-Barrios, Patricia; Blackmon, Shanda H; Kim, Min P

    2013-03-01

    PET using the radiotracer (18)F-FDG is used for staging patients with esophageal cancer. Nonmalignant conditions, mainly inflammation and some benign tumors, however, can cloud the clinical picture by taking up FDG and producing a false-positive result. We report the case of a 46 year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus who underwent combined PET/CT and had false-positive uptake in a chest wall dermatofibroma. Dermatofibroma is a benign skin lesion with a characteristic large presence of fibroblasts and macrophages. Macrophage uptake of FDG is likely responsible for the false-positive result on PET/CT. PMID:23357820

  3. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  4. Stereotactic Comparison Study of (18)F-Alfatide and (18)F-FDG PET Imaging in an LLC Tumor-Bearing C57BL/6 Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Chun; Gao, Yongsheng; Zhang, Jianbo; Fu, Zheng; Zheng, Jinsong; Liu, Ning; Hu, Xudong; Hou, Wenhong; Yu, Jinming; Yuan, Shuanghu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to stereotactically compare the PET imaging performance of (18)F-Alfatide ((18)F-ALF-NOTA-PRGD2, denoted as (18)F-Alfatide) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mouse model. (18)F-FDG standard uptake values (SUVs) were higher than (18)F-Alfatide SUVs in tumors, most of the normal tissues and organs except for the bladder. Tumor-to-brain, tumor-to-lung, and tumor-to-heart ratios of (18)F-Alfatide PET were significantly higher than those of (18)F-FDG PET (P < 0.001). The spatial heterogeneity of the tumors was detected, and the tracer accumulation enhanced from the outer layer to the inner layer consistently using the two tracers. The parameters of the tumors were significantly correlated with each other between (18)F-FDG SUV and GLUT-1 (R = 0.895, P < 0.001), (18)F-Alfatide SUV and αvβ3 (R = 0.595, P = 0.019), (18)F-FDG SUV and (18)F-Alfatide SUV (R = 0.917, P < 0.001), and GLUT-1 and αvβ3 (R = 0.637, P = 0.011). Therefore, (18)F-Alfatide PET may be an effective tracer for tumor detection, spatial heterogeneity imaging and an alternative supplement to (18)F-FDG PET, particularly for patients with enhanced characteristics in the brain, chest tumors or diabetes, meriting further study. PMID:27350554

  5. Stereotactic Comparison Study of 18F-Alfatide and 18F-FDG PET Imaging in an LLC Tumor-Bearing C57BL/6 Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yu-Chun; Gao, Yongsheng; Zhang, Jianbo; Fu, Zheng; Zheng, Jinsong; Liu, Ning; Hu, Xudong; Hou, Wenhong; Yu, Jinming; Yuan, Shuanghu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to stereotactically compare the PET imaging performance of 18F-Alfatide (18F-ALF-NOTA-PRGD2, denoted as 18F-Alfatide) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mouse model. 18F-FDG standard uptake values (SUVs) were higher than 18F-Alfatide SUVs in tumors, most of the normal tissues and organs except for the bladder. Tumor-to-brain, tumor-to-lung, and tumor-to-heart ratios of 18F-Alfatide PET were significantly higher than those of 18F-FDG PET (P < 0.001). The spatial heterogeneity of the tumors was detected, and the tracer accumulation enhanced from the outer layer to the inner layer consistently using the two tracers. The parameters of the tumors were significantly correlated with each other between 18F-FDG SUV and GLUT-1 (R = 0.895, P < 0.001), 18F-Alfatide SUV and αvβ3 (R = 0.595, P = 0.019), 18F-FDG SUV and 18F-Alfatide SUV (R = 0.917, P < 0.001), and GLUT-1 and αvβ3 (R = 0.637, P = 0.011). Therefore, 18F-Alfatide PET may be an effective tracer for tumor detection, spatial heterogeneity imaging and an alternative supplement to 18F-FDG PET, particularly for patients with enhanced characteristics in the brain, chest tumors or diabetes, meriting further study. PMID:27350554

  6. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  7. Management of Large-Vessel Vasculitis With FDG-PET

    PubMed Central

    Soussan, Michael; Nicolas, Patrick; Schramm, Catherine; Katsahian, Sandrine; Pop, Gabriel; Fain, Olivier; Mekinian, Arsene

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to clarify the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the management of large-vessel vasculitis (LVV), focusing on 3 issues which are as follows: describe and determine the different FDG-PET criteria for the diagnosis of vascular inflammation, the performance of FDG-PET for the diagnosis of large-vessel inflammation in giant cell arteritis (GCA) patients, and the performance of FDG-PET to evaluate the disease inflammatory activity in Takayasu arteritis (TA) patients. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE database were searched for articles that evaluated the value of FDG-PET in LVV, from January 2000 to December 2013. Inclusion criteria were American College of Rheumatology criteria for GCA or TA, definition PET positivity threshold, and >4 cases included. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of FDG-PET for the diagnosis of large-vessel inflammation were calculated from each included individual study, and then pooled for meta-analysis with a random-effects model. Twenty-one studies (413 patients, 299 controls) were included in the systematic review. FDG-PET showed FDG vascular uptake in 70% (288/413) of patients and 7% (22/299) of controls. Only vascular uptake equal to or higher than the liver uptake was significantly different between GCA/TA patients and controls (P < 0.001). The meta-analysis of GCA patients (4 studies, 57 patients) shows that FDG-PET has high Se and Sp for the diagnosis of large-vessel inflammation in GCA patients in comparison to controls, with a pooled Se at 90% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79%–93%) and a pooled Sp at 98% (95% CI, 94%–99%). The meta-analysis of TA patients (7 studies, 191 patients) shows that FDG-PET has a pooled Se at 87% (95% CI, 78%–93%) and Sp at 73% (95% CI, 63%–81%) for the assessment of disease activity in TA, with up to 84% Sp, with studies using National Institutes of Health criteria as the disease activity assessment scale. FDG-PET showed good

  8. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J. )

    1990-06-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

  9. The mediational effects of FDG hypometabolism on the association between cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and neurocognitive function.

    PubMed

    Dowling, N Maritza; Johnson, Sterling C; Gleason, Carey E; Jagust, William J

    2015-01-15

    Positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of tau and amyloid beta42 suggest possible active underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) including neurometabolic dysfunction and neurodegeneration leading to eventual cognitive decline. But the temporal relationship between CSF, imaging markers of neural function, and cognition has not been described. Using a statistical mediation model, we examined relationships between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analytes (hyperphosphorylated tau (p-Tau(181p)), β-amyloid peptides 1-42 (Aβ(1-42)), total tau (t-Tau), and their ratios); change in cognitive function; and change in [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake using positron emission tomography (PET). We hypothesized that a) abnormal CSF protein values at baseline, result in cognitive declines by decreasing neuronal glucose metabolism across time, and b) the role of altered glucose metabolism in the assumed causal chain varies by brain region and the nature of CSF protein alteration. Data from 412 individuals participating in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging (ADNI) cohort studies were included in analyses. At baseline, individuals were cognitively normal (N = 82), or impaired: 241 with mild cognitive impairment, and 89 with Alzheimer's disease. A parallel-process latent growth curve model was used to test mediational effects of changes in regional FDG-PET uptake over time in relation to baseline CSF biomarkers and changes in cognition, measured with the 13-item Alzheimer Disease's Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog). Findings suggested a causal sequence of events; specifically, FDG hypometabolism acted as a mediator between antecedent CSF biomarker alterations and subsequent cognitive impairment. Higher baseline concentrations of t-Tau, and p-Tau(181p) were more predictive of decline in cerebral glucose metabolism than lower baseline concentrations of Aβ(1-42). FDG-PET changes appeared to mediate t-Tau or t-Tau/Aβ(1-42)-associated cognitive change across all brain

  10. The Mediational Effects of FDG Hypometabolism on the Association between Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers and Neurocognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, N. Maritza; Johnson, Sterling C.; Gleason, Carey E.; Jagust, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of tau and amyloid beta42 suggest possible active underlying Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) including neurometabolic dysfunction and neurodegeneration leading to eventual cognitive decline. But the temporal relationship between CSF, imaging markers of neural function, and cognition has not been described. Using a statistical mediation model, we examined relationships between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analytes (hyperphosphorylated tau (p-Tau181p), β-amyloid 1–42 (Aβ1–42), total tau (t-Tau), and their ratios); change in cognitive function; and change in [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake using positron emission tomography (PET). We hypothesized that a) abnormal CSF protein values at baseline, result in cognitive declines by decreasing neuronal glucose metabolism across time, and b) the role of altered glucose metabolism in the assumed causal chain varies by brain region and the nature of CSF protein alteration. Data from 412 individuals participating in Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging (ADNI) cohort studies were included in analyses. At baseline, individuals were cognitively normal (N = 82), or impaired: 241 with mild cognitive impairment, and 89 with Alzheimer’s disease. A parallel-process latent growth curve model was used to test mediational effects of changes in regional FDG-PET uptake over time in relation to baseline CSF biomarkers and changes in cognition, measured with the 13-item Alzheimer Disease’s Assessment Scale–cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog). Findings suggested a causal sequence of events; specifically, FDG hypometabolism acted as a mediator between antecedent CSF biomarker alterations and subsequent cognitive impairment. Higher baseline concentrations of t-Tau, and p-Tau181p were more predictive of decline in cerebral glucose metabolism than lower baseline concentrations of Aβ1–42. FDG-PET changes appeared to mediate t-Tau or t-Tau/Aβ1–42 -associated cognitive change across all brain

  11. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Estimated radiation dose to the newborn in FDG-PET studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ruotsalainen, U.; Suhonen-Polvi, H.; Eronen, E.; Kinnala, A.

    1996-02-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the radiation dose due to intravenous injection of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) for infants studied with PET. The radioactivity concentration in the brain and bladder content was measured with PET to determine the cumulated activity in these organs in 21 infant FDG studies. The individual organ masses were estimated according to the whole-body and brain masses, and they were used to calculate the absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity (S values). For organs other than brain and bladder, the cumulated activity was defined from adult studies. For each individual patient, the absorbed dose to the brain, bladder wall and selected organs were calculated. An estimation of the effective dose was determined. Whole-body distribution of FDG in the infants differed from adults: a greater proportion of the injected activity accumulated into the brain (9% versus 7%) and less was excreted to urine (7% versus 20% respectively). The measured cumulated activity in the brain was 0.25 MBq {center_dot} h/MBq and in the bladder content 0.04 MBq {center_dot}h/MBq with a large individual variation in latter. The calculated absorbed dose was 0.24 mGy/MBq to the brain and 1.03 mGy/MBq to the bladder wall. The estimated effective dose was 0.43 mSv/MBq. The dose to the bladder wall was lower in infants as compared to adults with ordinary amounts of injected activity. The greater amount of activity remaining in the body may increase the dose to other organs. The effective dose was lower compared to adults and conventional nuclear medicine studies of infants. PET can be a valuable tool in pediatric nuclear medicine because of good resolution images, sensitive radiation measurement and a variety of tracers labeled with short-lived isotopes. 27 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  14. FDG PET/CT imaging in canine cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anders E; McEvoy, Fintan; Engelholm, Svend A; Law, Ian; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2011-01-01

    2-Deoxy-2-[¹⁸F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) is becoming increasingly available as an imaging modality in veterinary medicine. The purpose of this study was to report semiquantitative standard uptake values (SUV) of malignant and nonmalignant tissues and organs in canine cancer patients. FDG PET/CT was performed in 14 dogs including, nine mesenchymal tumors, four carcinomas, and one incompletely excised mast cell tumor. A generally higher FDG uptake was observed in carcinomas relative to sarcomas. Maximum SUV of carcinomas ranged from 7.6 to 27.0, and for sarcomas from 2.0 to 10.6. The FDG SUV of several organs and tissues, including regional brain uptake is reported, to serve as a reference for future FDG PET studies in canine cancer patients. Several potential pitfalls have been recognized in interpretation of FDG PET images of human patients, a number of these were also observed in this study.

  15. [A case report of surgical treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma with a Hugely swollen lymph node that showed high FDG uptake].

    PubMed

    Hatano, Hisanori; Masuike, Yasunori; Noda, Takehiro; Tanida, Tsukasa; Oshima, Kazuteru; Komori, Takamichi; Imamura, Hiroshi; Morita, Shunji; Iwazawa, Takashi; Akagi, Kenzo; Yasumoto, Taku; Adachi, Shiro; Dono, Keizo

    2014-11-01

    A 74-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C was diagnosed with liver tumors. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) revealed hepatocellular carcinomas(HCC) in segments 8 (S8)and 5/8 (S5/8), and detected a lymph node (LN) swelling of 75 mm diameter in the posterior aspect of the pancreatic head. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) was positive for the swollen LN (SUVmax 12.3), but negative for the intrahepatic HCCs. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) values were elevated, and soluble interleukin- 2 receptor levels were also increased (1,440 U/mL). Based on a diagnosis of HCCs with either LN metastasis, or with malignant lymphoma, partial hepatectomy (S8 and S5/8), lymphadenectomy (#13LN), and cholecystectomy were performed. Histopathological examination indicated well differentiated HCC in S5/8, and moderately to poorly differentiated HCC in S8, while poorly differentiated HCC was detected in the LN. Therefore, the final diagnosis was HCCs with metastasis to #13LN originating from the HCC in S8. At present, the patient is alive without further extrahepatic recurrence. The extent of FDG accumulation is related to the degree of differentiation of the HCC; furthermore, there are discrepancies between the FDG uptake in intrahepatic and extrahepatic lesions. PMID:25731447

  16. IMPROVED DERIVATION OF INPUT FUNCTION IN DYNAMIC MOUSE [18F]FDG PET USING BLADDER RADIOACTIVITY KINETICS

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Koon-Pong; Zhang, Xiaoli; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Accurate determination of the plasma input function (IF) is essential for absolute quantification of physiological parameters in positron emission tomography (PET). However, it requires an invasive and tedious procedure of arterial blood sampling that is challenging in mice because of the limited blood volume. In this study, a hybrid modeling approach is proposed to estimate the plasma IF of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) in mice using accumulated radioactivity in urinary bladder together with a single late-time blood sample measurement. Methods Dynamic PET scans were performed on nine isoflurane-anesthetized male C57BL/6 mice after a bolus injection of [18F]FDG at the lateral caudal vein. During a 60- or 90-min scan, serial blood samples were taken from the femoral artery. Image data were reconstructed using filtered backprojection with CT-based attenuation correction. Total accumulated radioactivity in the urinary bladder was fitted to a renal compartmental model with the last blood sample and a 1-exponential function that described the [18F]FDG clearance in blood. Multiple late-time blood sample estimates were calculated by the blood [18F]FDG clearance equation. A sum of 4-exponentials was assumed for the plasma IF that served as a forcing function to all tissues. The estimated plasma IF was obtained by simultaneously fitting the [18F]FDG model to the time-activity curves (TACs) of liver and muscle and the forcing function to early (0–1 min) left-ventricle data (corrected for delay, dispersion, partial-volume effects and erythrocytes uptake) and the late-time blood estimates. Using only the blood sample acquired at the end of the study to estimate the IF and the use of liver TAC as an alternative IF were also investigated. Results The area under the plasma TACs calculated for all studies using the hybrid approach was not significantly different from that using all blood samples. [18F]FDG uptake constants in brain, myocardium, skeletal

  17. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with low fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in PET/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Günay, Ersin; Özcan, Aysenaz; Günay, Sibel; Tatci, Ebru; Keyf, Atila Ihsan; Simsek, Cebrail

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is an uncommon lung disease characterized by accumulation of intraalveolar calcifications. The disease can be diagnosed based on the radiological findings. We present a 27-year-old women with five-year history of shortness of breath. She was diagnosed with PAM due to the presence of the characteristic chest X-ray and thorax computed tomography (CT) findings. We performed 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT imaging in order to detect any evidence of inflamation in the lung before deciding an anti-inflammatory treatment. The lung regions with dense calcifications revealed low FDG uptakes (SUVmax: 2.7) and the lung regions without calcifications showed lower FDG uptakes. No further treatment modality was planned besides inhaler salbutamol. Herein, we discuss this rare entity with literature search. PMID:21977072

  18. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  19. A Unique Case of Pulmonary Hyalinizing Granuloma Associated With FDG-avid PET Scan and Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Imran; Stone, Chad; Kvale, Paul

    2009-04-01

    An 83-year-old obese woman with a 60-pack-year smoking history was referred for evaluation of an abnormal chest radiograph [chest x-ray (CXR)]. Her past medical history was significant for recurrent deep venous thrombosis without any predisposing factors. CXR showed a large mass in the right mid lung and another nodule at the right apex, highly suspicious for a neoplastic process. These were not present on a CXR from 2 years earlier. An fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scan revealed that all lesions were strongly FDG-avid. Six CT-guided core-needle lung biopsy specimens were obtained from the lung mass and all contained dense, lamellar, or "ropy" keloid-like collagen bundles arranged in a haphazard pattern. The biopsy specimens lacked significant necrosis and granulomas. Congo red stain with polarization was also negative for amyloid. The diagnosis of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma (PHG) was made. A complete hypercoagulable workup was performed but no underlying abnormalities were found, including a negative lupus anticoagulant and malignancy workup. The patient was maintained on warfarin and followed with serial CT scans for 1 year, with spontaneous regression in the lung mass. The case is unique as it is the first case that reports an association of PHG with recurrent deep venous thrombosis in the absence of autoimmune or procoagulant factors and emphasizes the need for life-long anticoagulation in such scenarios. Also, we report the FDG-avid PET scan findings here that are novel for this disease in adults and add PHG to the list of diseases causing false-positive PET scans when malignancy is suspected. PMID:23168510

  20. Heat accumulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, A.

    1981-09-29

    A heat accumulator comprises a thermally-insulated reservoir full of paraffin wax mixture or other flowable or meltable heat storage mass, heat-exchangers immersed in the mass, a heat-trap connected to one of the heat-exchangers, and a heat user connected to the other heat-exchanger. Pumps circulate fluids through the heat-trap and the heat-using means and the respective heat-exchangers, and a stirrer agitates and circulates the mass, and the pumps and the stirrer and electric motors driving these devices are all immersed in the mass.

  1. Comparative Analysis between [(18)F]Fludarabine-PET and [(18)F]FDG-PET in a Murine Model of Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hovhannisyan, Narinée; Dhilly, Martine; Guillouet, Stéphane; Leporrier, Michel; Barré, Louisa

    2016-06-01

    Lymphoma research has advanced thanks to introduction of [(18)F]fludarabine, a positron-emitting tool. This novel radiotracer has been shown to display a great specificity for lymphoid tissues. However, in a benign process such as inflammation, the uptake of this tracer has not been questioned. Indeed, in inflammatory zones, elevated glucose metabolism rate may result in false-positives with [(18)F]FDG-PET Imaging. In the present investigation, it has been argued that cells, involved in inflammation, might be less avid of [(18)F]fludarabine. To generate inflammation, Swiss mice were intramuscularly injected with 0.1 mL of turpentine oil into the right front paw. Imaging sessions with (18)F-labeled tracers named above were conducted on days 5 and 25 after inoculation. For each animal, volumes of interest (VOI), delineating the muscle of the inflamed (IP) and normal paws (NP), were determined on PET scans. For characterization of inflammation, muscle samples from IP and NP were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). In early (day 5) inflammation, [(18)F]FDG accumulation was 4.00 ± 1.65 times greater in the IP than in the contralateral NP; for [(18)F]fludarabine, this IP/NP ratio was 1.31 ± 0.28, resulting in a significant difference between radiotracer groups (p < 0.01). In late (day 25) inflammation, the IP/NP ratios were 2.07 ± 0.49 and 1.03 ± 0.07, for [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]fludarabine, respectively (p < 0.001). [(18)F]Fludarabine showed significantly weaker uptake in inflammation when compared with [(18)F]FDG. This encouraging finding suggests that [(18)F]fludarabine-PET might well be a robust approach for distinguishing tumor from inflammatory tissue, avoiding false-positive PET results and thus enabling an accurate imaging of lymphoma.

  2. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  3. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  4. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  5. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  6. FDG-PET evaluation of indeterminate pancreatic masses

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Chi-Lai; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Griffeth, L.K.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the-ability of PET with 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) to differentiate benign from malignant pancreatic masses in patients with indeterminate findings on CT. We performed FDG-PET on 12 patients with indeterminate mass lesions and 2 patients with CT findings typical for malignancy. Eight were found to have pancreatic carcinoma and six had benign lesions. The final diagnosis was histopathologically confirmed in all patients but two with a presumed diagnosis of focal pancreatitis based on stable clinical follow-up for at least 12 months. Lesion uptake of FDG was evaluated qualitatively and semi-quantitatively by determination of the standardized uptake value (SUV). With use of a 2.5 cutoff value for SUV, all eight malignant and four of six benign lesions were correctly categorized. Qualitative evaluation gave the same results. The two false-positive lesions had elevated SUV values of 3.4 and 3.8, respectively. Our results indicate that FDG-PET has potential value for assessing patients with CT findings that are indeterminate for pancreatic carcinoma. FDG-PET may obviate invasive diagnostic procedures in many patients with benign disease. 36 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. FDG-PET/CT in pediatric solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Franzius, C

    2010-08-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become an important imaging modality in the non-invasive evaluation and monitoring of children with known or suspected malignant diseases. In sarcoma patients, [18F]FDG (FDG) PET and FDG PET/CT is useful in staging, therapy monitoring, and detection of relapse. However, FDG PET has been proven to be less sensitive than chest CT in the detection of pulmonary metastases derived from sarcoma. This disadvantage has been overcome using a PET/CT scanner. In neuroblastoma patients, PET using FDG is indicated in MIBG-negative cases. Furthermore, there are specific PET tracers for tumors of the sympathetic nervous system, such as [11C]Hydroxyephedrine (HED) and [18F]-labeled dihydrophenylalanine (F-DOPA), which can be used for PET/CT imaging for detection of disease, staging and monitoring therapy. However, there are only few studies using specific PET tracers in neuroblastoma patients. In other pediatric malignancies including germ cell tumors and hepatoblastoma PET and PET/CT may be helpful in individual cases, but the literature in these entities is limited so far. Although publications on the additional value of the combined PET/CT compared to both stand-alone modalities are still limited in pediatrics, it can already be anticipated that the combination of morphological and functional information obtained by integrated PET/CT will improve the accuracy of staging and will change patient management in a significant number of pediatric patients.

  8. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  9. Pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis (PLC): spectrum of FDG-PET findings.

    PubMed

    Acikgoz, Gunsel; Kim, Sung M; Houseni, Mohamed; Cermik, Tevfik F; Intenzo, Charles M; Alavi, Abass

    2006-11-01

    The lungs are among the most common sites for metastases from a multitude of cancers. The majority of pulmonary metastases appear nodular on radiologic images. Interstitial spread of tumor through pulmonary lymphatics, also known as pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis (PLC), is not uncommon and constitutes approximately 7% of pulmonary metastases. PLC is most often seen with adenocarcinoma of a variety of histologies such as thyroid carcinoma, and melanoma. It is usually noted in late stages of malignancy and therefore is indicative of a poor prognosis. Diagnosis of PLC is usually based on a combination of clinical and radiologic findings. However, the diagnosis is difficult when patients have limited clinical findings or have a history of or the possibility of other interstitial lung diseases. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has been the modality of choice in the radiologic diagnosis of PLC. Imaging features of PLC on HRCT include thickening of interlobular septa, fissures, and bronchovascular bundles. Distribution of PLC may be focal or diffuse, unilateral or bilateral, and symmetric or asymmetric. Although FDG-PET has been extensively used in primary or secondary lung malignancies, its role and appearance in PLC have not been well determined in the literature. In this communication, we describe a spectrum of FDG-PET and CT findings in 5 cases with PLC. Similar to CT, the distribution of PLC can be extensive or limited on the FDG-PET. Diffuse, lobar, or segmental FDG uptake in the lungs is seen in extensive PLC. In limited PLC, a linear or a hazy area of FDG uptake extending from the tumor can be seen. Recognition of various patterns related to PLC on FDG-PET may allow accurate diagnosis of disease and could potentially influence the management of these patients.

  10. SU-E-J-122: Detecting Treatment-Induced Metabolic Abnormalities in Craniopharyngioma Patients Undergoing Surgery and Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, C; Shulkin, B; Li, Y; LI, X; Merchant, T; Indelicato, D; Boop, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To identify treatment-induced defects in the brain of children with craniopharyngioma receiving surgery and proton therapy using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Methods: Forty seven patients were enrolled on a clinical trial for craniopharyngioma with serial imaging and functional evaluations. Proton therapy was delivered using the double-scattered beams with a prescribed dose of 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent. FDG tracer uptake in each of 63 anatomical regions was computed after warping PET images to a 3D reference template in Talairach coordinates. Regional uptake was deemed significantly low or high if exceeding two standard deviations of normal population from the mean. For establishing the normal ranges, 132 children aged 1–20 years with noncentral nervous system related diseases and normal-appearing cerebral PET scans were analyzed. Age- and gender-dependent regional uptake models were developed by linear regression and confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Most common PET abnormality before proton therapy was significantly low uptake in the frontal lobe, the occipital lobe (particularly in cuneus), the medial and ventral temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, caudate nuclei, and thalamus. They were related to injury from surgical corridors, tumor mass effect, insertion of a ventricular catheter, and the placement of an Ommaya reservoir. Surprisingly a significantly high uptake was observed in temporal gyri and the parietal lobe. In 13 patients who already completed 18-month PET scans, metabolic abnormalities improved in 11 patients from baseline. One patient had persistent abnormalities. Only one revealed new uptake abnormalities in thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and insula. Conclusion: Postoperative FDG PET of craniopharyngioma patients revealed metabolic abnormalities in specific regions of the brain. Proton therapy did not appear to exacerbate these surgery- and tumor-induced defects. In patients with persistent and

  11. The Basic Principles of FDG-PET/CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sandip; Hess, Søren; Nielsen Braad, Poul-Erik; Olsen, Birgitte Brinkmann; Inglev, Signe; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2014-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) forms the basis of molecular imaging. FDG-PET imaging is a multidisciplinary undertaking that requires close interdisciplinary collaboration in a broad team comprising physicians, technologists, secretaries, radio-chemists, hospital physicists, molecular biologists, engineers, and cyclotron technicians. The aim of this review is to provide a brief overview of important basic issues and considerations pivotal to successful patient examinations, including basic physics, instrumentation, radiochemistry, molecular and cell biology, patient preparation, normal distribution of tracer, and potential interpretive pitfalls. PMID:26050942

  12. High Uptake of FDG Along a Biliary Stent

    PubMed Central

    Nagasaki, Yasunari; Yamane, Hiromichi; Ochi, Nobuaki; Honda, Yoshihiro; Takigawa, Nagio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 66-year-old woman presented with abdominal discomfort. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed a mass in the pancreas and multiple liver metastases. Pathological examination confirmed the mass to be primary pancreatic cancer. Endoscopic insertion of a biliary stent was performed to prevent common bile duct obstruction. Subsequently, she received combination chemotherapy, which resulted in a complete response. FDG-PET-CT after chemotherapy revealed a high uptake of FDG along the outline of the biliary stent, with complete disappearance of both the primary and metastatic tumors. PMID:27607171

  13. Measurements of glucose phosphorylation with FDG and PET are not reduced by dephosphorylation of FDG-6-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwabara, H.; Gjedde, A. )

    1991-04-01

    To improve the measurements of glucose metabolism in the human brain, we imposed biologic constraints on the deoxyglucose model with and without dephosphorylation of FDG-6-phosphate (the k4*- and k3*-models). The constraints included constant transport and phosphorylation ratios (tau and phi) and a common partition volume (K1/k2) for tracer ({sup 18}F)FDG and glucose. In the presence of significant dephosphorylation, the k3*-model yielded time-dependent estimates of the phosphorylation coefficient (k3*), while the K4*-model yielded time-independent estimates. However, the two models yielded practically identical measurements of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in PET studies of six normal volunteers when the phosphorylation affinity ratio (the k3*/k3 ratio of FDG and glucose) and tracer circulation time were 0.30 and 20 min for the k3*-model and 0.33 and 45 min for the k4*-model.

  14. 123I-Mibg scintigraphy and 18F-Fdg-Pet imaging for diagnosing neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bleeker, Gitta; Tytgat, Godelieve Am; Adam, Judit A; Caron, Huib N; Kremer, Leontien Cm; Hooft, Lotty; van Dalen, Elvira C

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma is an embryonic tumour of childhood that originates in the neural crest. It is the second most common extracranial malignant solid tumour of childhood. Neuroblastoma cells have the unique capacity to accumulate Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG), which can be used for imaging the tumour. Moreover, 123I-MIBG scintigraphy is not only important for the diagnosis of neuroblastoma, but also for staging and localization of skeletal lesions. If these are present, MIBG follow-up scans are used to assess the patient's response to therapy. However, the sensitivity and specificity of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy to detect neuroblastoma varies according to the literature. Prognosis, treatment and response to therapy of patients with neuroblastoma are currently based on extension scoring of 123I-MIBG scans. Due to its clinical use and importance, it is necessary to determine the exact diagnostic accuracy of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy. In case the tumour is not MIBG avid, fluorine-18-fluorodeoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is often used and the diagnostic accuracy of this test should also be assessed. Objectives Primary objectives: 1.1 To determine the diagnostic accuracy of 123I-MIBG (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), with or without computed tomography (CT)) scintigraphy for detecting a neuroblastoma and its metastases at first diagnosis or at recurrence in children from 0 to 18 years old. 1.2 To determine the diagnostic accuracy of negative 123I-MIBG scintigraphy in combination with 18F-FDG-PET(-CT) imaging for detecting a neuroblastoma and its metastases at first diagnosis or at recurrence in children from 0 to 18 years old, i.e. an add-on test. Secondary objectives: 2.1 To determine the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET(-CT) imaging for detecting a neuroblastoma and its metastases at first diagnosis or at recurrence in children from 0 to 18 years old. 2.2 To compare the diagnostic accuracy of 123I

  15. FDG-PET Contributions to the Pathophysiology of Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    Segobin, Shailendra; La Joie, Renaud; Ritz, Ludivine; Beaunieux, Hélène; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël; Pitel, Anne Lise; Eustache, Francis

    2015-09-01

    Measurement of synaptic activity by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and its relation to cognitive functions such as episodic memory, working memory and executive functions in healthy humans and patients with neurocognitive disorders have been well documented. In this review, we introduce the concept of PET imaging that allows the observation of a particular biological process in vivo through the use of radio-labelled compounds, its general use to the medical world and its contributions to the understanding of memory systems. We then focus on [(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET), the radiotracer that is used to measure local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose that is indicative of synaptic activity in the brain. FDG-PET at rest has been at the forefront of functional neuroimaging over the past 3 decades, contributing to the understanding of cognitive functions in healthy humans and how these functional patterns change with cognitive alterations. We discuss methodological considerations that are important for optimizing FDG-PET imaging data prior to analysis. We then highlight the contribution of FDG-PET to the understanding of the patterns of functional differences in non-degenerative pathologies, normal ageing, and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Through reasonable temporal and spatial resolution, its ability to measure synaptic activity in the whole brain, independently of any specific network and disease, makes it ideal to observe regional functional changes associated with memory impairment. PMID:26319237

  16. FDG-PET Contributions to the Pathophysiology of Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    Segobin, Shailendra; La Joie, Renaud; Ritz, Ludivine; Beaunieux, Hélène; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël; Pitel, Anne Lise; Eustache, Francis

    2015-09-01

    Measurement of synaptic activity by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and its relation to cognitive functions such as episodic memory, working memory and executive functions in healthy humans and patients with neurocognitive disorders have been well documented. In this review, we introduce the concept of PET imaging that allows the observation of a particular biological process in vivo through the use of radio-labelled compounds, its general use to the medical world and its contributions to the understanding of memory systems. We then focus on [(18)F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET), the radiotracer that is used to measure local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose that is indicative of synaptic activity in the brain. FDG-PET at rest has been at the forefront of functional neuroimaging over the past 3 decades, contributing to the understanding of cognitive functions in healthy humans and how these functional patterns change with cognitive alterations. We discuss methodological considerations that are important for optimizing FDG-PET imaging data prior to analysis. We then highlight the contribution of FDG-PET to the understanding of the patterns of functional differences in non-degenerative pathologies, normal ageing, and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Through reasonable temporal and spatial resolution, its ability to measure synaptic activity in the whole brain, independently of any specific network and disease, makes it ideal to observe regional functional changes associated with memory impairment.

  17. [Interest of FDG-PET for lung cancer radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Thureau, S; Mezzani-Saillard, S; Modzelewski, R; Edet-Sanson, A; Dubray, B; Vera, P

    2011-10-01

    The recent advances in medical imaging have profoundly altered the radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). A meta-analysis has confirmed the superiority of FDG PET-CT over CT for initial staging. FDG PET-CT improves the reproducibility of target volume delineation, especially close to the mediastinum or in the presence of atelectasia. Although not formally validated by a randomized trial, the reduction of the mediastinal target volume, by restricting the irradiation to FDG-avid nodes, is widely accepted. The optimal method of delineation still remains to be defined. The role of FDG PET-CT in monitoring tumor response during radiotherapy is under investigation, potentially opening the way to adapting the treatment modalities to tumor radiation sensitivity. Other tracers, such as F-miso (hypoxia), are also under clinical investigation. To avoid excessive delays, the integration of PET-CT in routine practice requires quick access to the imaging equipment, technical support (fusion and image processing) and multidisciplinary delineation of target volumes. PMID:21880535

  18. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  19. Bone marrow abnormalities and early bone lesions in multiple myeloma and its precursor disease: a prospective study using functional and morphologic imaging.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Manisha; Turkbey, Baris; Tan, Esther; Korde, Neha; Kwok, Mary; Manasanch, Elisabet E; Tageja, Nishant; Mailankody, Sham; Roschewski, Mark; Mulquin, Marcia; Carpenter, Ashley; Lamping, Elizabeth; Minter, Alex R; Weiss, Brendan M; Mena, Esther; Lindenberg, Liza; Calvo, Katherine R; Maric, Irina; Usmani, Saad Z; Choyke, Peter L; Kurdziel, Karen; Landgren, Ola

    2016-05-01

    The incidence and importance of bone marrow involvement and/or early bone lesions in multiple myeloma (MM) precursor diseases is largely unknown. This study prospectively compared the sensitivity of several imaging modalities in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) and MM. Thirty patients (10 each with MGUS, SMM and MM) were evaluated with skeletal survey, [18F]FDG-PET/CT, [18F]NaF-PET/CT and morphologic dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI. An additional 16 SMM patients had skeletal surveys and FDG-PET/CT. Among MGUS patients, DCE-MRI found only one focal marrow abnormality; other evaluations were negative. Among 26 SMM patients, five (19%) were re-classified as MM based on lytic bone lesions on CT and six had unifocal or diffuse marrow abnormality. Among MM, marrow abnormalities were observed on FDG-PET/CT in 8/10 patients and on DCE-MRI in nine evaluable patients. Abnormal NaF uptake was observed only in MM patients with lytic lesions on CT, providing no additional clinical information. PMID:26690712

  20. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  1. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  2. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Infiltrating Limb Bones With a Few Lymphadenopathy Revealed on Whole-Body 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Zhanwen; Zhu, Yan; Wen, Qinglian

    2015-07-01

    A 74-year-old man presented to our hospital for a 2-month history of worsening feet and left hand swelling pain. Computed tomography reconstruction image and sagittal images of the left foot demonstrated multiple and irregular bone destruction. Orthopedic surgeon suspected tuberculosis or primary skeletal malignancy. ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT revealed bone destruction and abnormal activity mainly in bones of both upper and lower extremities and a few lymphadenopathy at the region of left axilla and groin. Diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was eventually made. Subsequently, the patient was transferred to the department of oncology and responded well to antilymphoma therapy.

  3. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  4. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  5. Cardiac ⁹⁹mTc sestamibi SPECT and ¹⁸F FDG PET as viability markers in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Thomas Emil; Bang, Lia Evi; Holmvang, Lene; Ghotbi, Adam Ali; Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Andersen, Flemming; Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Andersson, Hedvig; Grande, Peer; Kjaer, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip

    2014-10-01

    In patients with heart failure (HF) due to coronary disease, a combined evaluation of perfusion and glucose metabolism by cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to distinguish viable from non-viable myocardium, and current guidelines recommend cardiac SPECT and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET for viability assessment. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a disease characterized by acute but reversible HF leaving no scarring. To explore how robust the semi-quantitative viability criteria used in cardiac SPECT and FDG PET stands their ground in a population with TTC. From 1 September 2009 to 1 October 2012, 24 patients suspected of TTC were enrolled in a multimodality cardiac imaging research project. Echocardiography, (99m)Tc SPECT, and (18)F FDG PET were performed during the acute admission and at follow-up 4 months later. Nineteen patients had a final diagnosis of TTC consistent with Mayo Clinic Diagnostic Criteria. Three of these patients were excluded from further analysis, since wall motion abnormalities were not persistent at the time of nuclear imaging. The remaining sixteen patients exhibited a distinct pattern with HF, "apical ballooning" and a perfusion-metabolism defect in the midventricular/apical region. When viability criteria were applied, they identified significant scarring/limited hibernation in the akinetic part of the left ventricle. However, full recovery was found in all TTC patients on follow-up. Using the current guideline-endorsed viability criteria for semiquantitative cardiac SPECT and FDG PET, these modalities failed to demonstrate the presence of viability in the acute state of TTC.

  6. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  8. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  9. Noninvasive image derived heart input function for CMRglc measurements in small animal slow infusion FDG PET studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Guoming; Cumming, Paul; Todica, Andrei; Hacker, Marcus; Bartenstein, Peter; Böning, Guido

    2012-12-01

    Absolute quantitation of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) can be obtained in positron emission tomography (PET) studies when serial measurements of the arterial [18F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) input are available. Since this is not always practical in PET studies of rodents, there has been considerable interest in defining an image-derived input function (IDIF) by placing a volume of interest (VOI) within the left ventricle of the heart. However, spill-in arising from trapping of FDG in the myocardium often leads to progressive contamination of the IDIF, which propagates to underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc. We therefore developed a novel, non-invasive method for correcting the IDIF without scaling to a blood sample. To this end, we first obtained serial arterial samples and dynamic FDG-PET data of the head and heart in a group of eight anaesthetized rats. We fitted a bi-exponential function to the serial measurements of the IDIF, and then used the linear graphical Gjedde-Patlak method to describe the accumulation in myocardium. We next estimated the magnitude of myocardial spill-in reaching the left ventricle VOI by assuming a Gaussian point-spread function, and corrected the measured IDIF for this estimated spill-in. Finally, we calculated parametric maps of CMRglc using the corrected IDIF, and for the sake of comparison, relative to serial blood sampling from the femoral artery. The uncorrected IDIF resulted in 20% underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc relative to the gold standard arterial input method. However, there was no bias with the corrected IDIF, which was robust to the variable extent of myocardial tracer uptake, such that there was a very high correlation between individual CMRglc measurements using the corrected IDIF with gold-standard arterial input results. Based on simulation, we furthermore find that electrocardiogram-gating, i.e. ECG-gating is not necessary for IDIF quantitation using our approach.

  10. Noninvasive image derived heart input function for CMRglc measurements in small animal slow infusion FDG PET studies.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Guoming; Paul, Cumming; Todica, Andrei; Hacker, Marcus; Bartenstein, Peter; Böning, Guido

    2012-12-01

    Absolute quantitation of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) can be obtained in positron emission tomography (PET) studies when serial measurements of the arterial [(18)F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) input are available. Since this is not always practical in PET studies of rodents, there has been considerable interest in defining an image-derived input function (IDIF) by placing a volume of interest (VOI) within the left ventricle of the heart. However, spill-in arising from trapping of FDG in the myocardium often leads to progressive contamination of the IDIF, which propagates to underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc. We therefore developed a novel, non-invasive method for correcting the IDIF without scaling to a blood sample. To this end, we first obtained serial arterial samples and dynamic FDG-PET data of the head and heart in a group of eight anaesthetized rats. We fitted a bi-exponential function to the serial measurements of the IDIF, and then used the linear graphical Gjedde-Patlak method to describe the accumulation in myocardium. We next estimated the magnitude of myocardial spill-in reaching the left ventricle VOI by assuming a Gaussian point-spread function, and corrected the measured IDIF for this estimated spill-in. Finally, we calculated parametric maps of CMRglc using the corrected IDIF, and for the sake of comparison, relative to serial blood sampling from the femoral artery. The uncorrected IDIF resulted in 20% underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc relative to the gold standard arterial input method. However, there was no bias with the corrected IDIF, which was robust to the variable extent of myocardial tracer uptake, such that there was a very high correlation between individual CMRglc measurements using the corrected IDIF with gold-standard arterial input results. Based on simulation, we furthermore find that electrocardiogram-gating, i.e. ECG-gating is not necessary for IDIF quantitation using our approach. PMID:23160517

  11. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  12. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  13. The Place of FDG PET/CT in Renal Cell Carcinoma: Value and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiyan

    2016-01-01

    Unlike for most other malignancies, application of FDG PET/CT is limited for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), mainly due to physiological excretion of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-2-d-glucose (FDG) from the kidneys, which decreases contrast between renal lesions and normal tissue, and may obscure or mask the lesions of the kidneys. Published clinical observations were discordant regarding the role of FDG PET/CT in diagnosing and staging RCC, and FDG PET/CT is not recommended for this purpose based on current national and international guidelines. However, quantitative FDG PET/CT imaging may facilitate the prediction of the degree of tumor differentiation and allows for prognosis of the disease. FDG PET/CT has potency as an imaging biomarker to provide useful information about patient’s survival. FDG PET/CT can be effectively used for postoperative surveillance and restaging with high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, as early diagnosis of recurrent/metastatic disease can drastically affect therapeutic decision and alter outcome of patients. FDG uptake is helpful for differentiating benign or bland emboli from tumor thrombosis in RCC patients. FDG PET/CT also has higher sensitivity and accuracy when compared with bone scan to detect RCC metastasis to the bone. FDG PET/CT can play a strong clinical role in the management of recurrent and metastatic RCC. In monitoring the efficacy of new target therapy such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) treatment for advanced RCC, FDG PET/CT has been increasingly used to assess the therapeutic efficacy, and change in FDG uptake is a strong indicator of biological response to TKI. PMID:27656421

  14. The Place of FDG PET/CT in Renal Cell Carcinoma: Value and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiyan

    2016-01-01

    Unlike for most other malignancies, application of FDG PET/CT is limited for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), mainly due to physiological excretion of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-2-d-glucose (FDG) from the kidneys, which decreases contrast between renal lesions and normal tissue, and may obscure or mask the lesions of the kidneys. Published clinical observations were discordant regarding the role of FDG PET/CT in diagnosing and staging RCC, and FDG PET/CT is not recommended for this purpose based on current national and international guidelines. However, quantitative FDG PET/CT imaging may facilitate the prediction of the degree of tumor differentiation and allows for prognosis of the disease. FDG PET/CT has potency as an imaging biomarker to provide useful information about patient’s survival. FDG PET/CT can be effectively used for postoperative surveillance and restaging with high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, as early diagnosis of recurrent/metastatic disease can drastically affect therapeutic decision and alter outcome of patients. FDG uptake is helpful for differentiating benign or bland emboli from tumor thrombosis in RCC patients. FDG PET/CT also has higher sensitivity and accuracy when compared with bone scan to detect RCC metastasis to the bone. FDG PET/CT can play a strong clinical role in the management of recurrent and metastatic RCC. In monitoring the efficacy of new target therapy such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) treatment for advanced RCC, FDG PET/CT has been increasingly used to assess the therapeutic efficacy, and change in FDG uptake is a strong indicator of biological response to TKI.

  15. (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging in granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    PubMed

    De Geeter, Frank; Gykiere, Pieterjan

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the literature data on uptake of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) into the different tissue lesions which may occur in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly called Wegener's syndrome). It discusses the cellular mechanisms of such (18)F-FDG uptake, which provide a basis for its interpretation in the context of (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) for inflammatory conditions. PMID:26929934

  16. The Place of FDG PET/CT in Renal Cell Carcinoma: Value and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiyan

    2016-01-01

    Unlike for most other malignancies, application of FDG PET/CT is limited for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), mainly due to physiological excretion of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-2-d-glucose (FDG) from the kidneys, which decreases contrast between renal lesions and normal tissue, and may obscure or mask the lesions of the kidneys. Published clinical observations were discordant regarding the role of FDG PET/CT in diagnosing and staging RCC, and FDG PET/CT is not recommended for this purpose based on current national and international guidelines. However, quantitative FDG PET/CT imaging may facilitate the prediction of the degree of tumor differentiation and allows for prognosis of the disease. FDG PET/CT has potency as an imaging biomarker to provide useful information about patient's survival. FDG PET/CT can be effectively used for postoperative surveillance and restaging with high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, as early diagnosis of recurrent/metastatic disease can drastically affect therapeutic decision and alter outcome of patients. FDG uptake is helpful for differentiating benign or bland emboli from tumor thrombosis in RCC patients. FDG PET/CT also has higher sensitivity and accuracy when compared with bone scan to detect RCC metastasis to the bone. FDG PET/CT can play a strong clinical role in the management of recurrent and metastatic RCC. In monitoring the efficacy of new target therapy such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) treatment for advanced RCC, FDG PET/CT has been increasingly used to assess the therapeutic efficacy, and change in FDG uptake is a strong indicator of biological response to TKI. PMID:27656421

  17. Preoperative Standardized Uptake Value of Metastatic Lymph Nodes Measured by 18F-FDG PET/CT Improves the Prediction of Prognosis in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bong-Il; Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Ryu, Seung Wan; Sohn, Soo Sang; Kang, Yu Na

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study assessed whether preoperative maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) measured by 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) could improve the prediction of prognosis in gastric cancer. One hundred fifty-one patients with gastric cancer and pathologically confirmed LN involvement who had undergone preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT prior to curative surgical resection were retrospectively enrolled. To obtain nodal SUVmax, a transaxial image representing the highest 18F-FDG uptake was carefully selected, and a region of interest was manually drawn on the highest 18F-FDG accumulating LN. Conventional prognostic parameters and PET findings (primary tumor and nodal SUVmax) were analyzed for prediction of recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Furthermore, prognostic accuracy of survival models was assessed using c-statistics. Of the 151 patients, 38 (25%) experienced recurrence and 34 (23%) died during follow-up (median follow-up, 48 months; range, 5–74 months). Twenty-seven patients (18%) showed positive 18F-FDG nodal uptake (range, 2.0–22.6). In these 27 patients, a receiver-operating characteristic curve demonstrated a nodal SUVmax of 2.8 to be the optimal cutoff for predicting RFS and OS. The univariate and multivariate analyses showed that nodal SUVmax (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.71, P < 0.0001), pathologic N (pN) stage (HR = 2.58, P = 0.0058), and pathologic T (pT) stage (HR = 1.77, P = 0.0191) were independent prognostic factors for RFS. Also, nodal SUVmax (HR = 2.80, P < 0.0001) and pN stage (HR = 2.28, P = 0.0222) were independent prognostic factors for OS. A predictive survival model incorporating conventional risk factors (pT/pN stage) gave a c-statistic of 0.833 for RFS and 0.827 for OS, whereas a model combination of nodal SUVmax with pT/pN stage gave a c-statistic of 0.871 for RFS (P = 0

  18. Normal variations and benign findings in pediatric 18F-FDG-PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Grant, Frederick D

    2014-04-01

    (18)F-FDG PET and PET/CT have a wide variety of indications in children and young adults. Oncologic indications are the most common, but others include neurology, sports medicine, cardiology, and infection imaging. Accurate interpretation of pediatric (18)F-FDG PET and PET/CT requires a technically adequate study and knowledgeable interpretation of the images. A successful pediatric (18)F-FDG PET requires age-appropriate patient preparation and consideration of patient age and developmental stage. Accurate interpretation of the study requires familiarity with normal patterns of physiologic (18)F-FDG uptake in children at all stages of development. PMID:25030282

  19. Myocardial metabolism of 123I-BMIPP during low-flow ischaemia in an experimental model: comparison with myocardial blood flow and 18F-FDG.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, R; Nohara, R; Fujibayashi, Y; Hirai, T; Fujita, M; Magata, Y; Tadamura, E; Konishi, J; Sasayama, S

    2001-11-01

    Risk stratification of coronary artery disease may provide a basis for selection of treatment to prevent myocardial events and to assist functional recovery. Iodine-123 (rho-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) is a radioiodinated fatty acid analogue for single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) imaging, and several reports have demonstrated that the abnormal uptake of 123I-BMIPP is associated with wall motion abnormality and severe coronary artery stenosis. Clarification of the contribution of fatty acids to myocardial metabolism would be highly valuable in recognising this critical condition. In this study, we investigated the myocardial uptake of 123I-BMIPP under low-flow ischaemia, and compared it with the uptake of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). Using open chest dogs, the flow of the left anterior descending coronary artery was controlled using a pneumatic occluder in order to maintain a 30%-40% reduction of Doppler flow. 123I-BMIPP and 18F-FDG were injected into the left atrium after 90 min of ischaemia (protocols 1 and 3). Canine hearts were excised after 120 min of ischaemia for the measurement of radioactivity. In protocol 2, 123I-BMIPP alone was injected and hearts were excised 8 min after the injection. A time-course biopsy study was also performed at the same time (protocol 3). Wall thickening was evaluated using a wall tracker module. The uptake of 18F-FDG increased significantly in the ischaemic region (232%+/-135% vs non-ischaemic, P<0.05 in protocol 1) even on mild reduction of myocardial blood flow (MBF). The increased uptake of 18F-FDG did not correlate well with the severity of MBF. On the other hand, 123I-BMIPP uptake decreased gradually (78.9%+/-23.6%, P<0.05 in protocol 1, and 85.9%+/-24.3% in protocol 2) in the ischaemic region, specifically in the endocardium (64.0%+/-28.9%, P<0.05 in protocol 1, and 75.1%+/-28.8%, P<0.05 in protocol 2), and correlated strongly with MBF (r=0.93 in protocol 1 and r=0.97 in

  20. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  1. Wilson's disease studied with FDG and positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, R.A.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Phelps, M.E.

    1987-11-01

    Four patients with Wilson's disease and eight normal controls were studied with 2-deoxy-2-(/sup 18/F)fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET). The patients had diffusely reduced glucose metabolism in all brain regions evaluated compared with controls, with the exception of the thalamus. The ratio of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose in the lenticular nuclei to hemispheres declined from 1.23 (+/- 0.14 SD) in controls to 1.03 (+/- 0.06) (p less than 0.025) in Wilson's disease patients. Compared with Huntington's disease, the PET FDG results in Wilson's disease indicate relatively less focal involvement of the caudate nucleus, more severe focal changes in the lenticular nuclei, and more significant global changes in glucose metabolism.

  2. Clinical, FDG and amyloid PET imaging in posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tarun D; Josephs, Keith A; Machulda, Mary M; Drubach, Daniel A; Apostolova, Liana G; Lowe, Val J; Whitwell, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical, [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and amyloid-PET findings in a large cohort of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) patients, to examine the neural correlates of the classic features of PCA, and to better understand the features associated with early PCA. We prospectively recruited 25 patients who presented to the Mayo Clinic between March 2013 and August 2014 and met diagnostic criteria for PCA. All patients underwent a standardized set of tests and amyloid imaging with [(11)C] Pittsburg compound B (PiB). Seventeen (68 %) underwent FDG-PET scanning. We divided the cohort at the median disease duration of 4 years in order to assess clinical and FDG-PET correlates of early PCA (n = 13). The most common clinical features were simultanagnosia (92 %), dysgraphia (68 %), poly-mini-myoclonus (64 %) and oculomotor apraxia (56.5 %). On FDG-PET, hypometabolism was observed bilaterally in the lateral and medial parietal and occipital lobes. Simultanagnosia was associated with hypometabolism in the right occipital lobe and posterior cingulum, optic ataxia with hypometabolism in left occipital lobe, and oculomotor apraxia with hypometabolism in the left parietal lobe and posterior cingulate gyrus. All 25 PCA patients were amyloid positive. Simultanagnosia was the only feature present in 85 % of early PCA patients. The syndrome of PCA is associated with posterior hemisphere hypometabolism and with amyloid deposition. Many of the classic features of PCA show associated focal, but not widespread, areas of involvement of these posterior hemispheric regions. Simultanagnosia appears to be the most common and hence sensitive feature of early PCA. PMID:25862483

  3. Eyeblink Conditioning Deficits Indicate Timing and Cerebellar Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, S.M.; Kieffaber, P.D.; Carroll, C.A.; Vohs, J.L.; Tracy, J.A.; Shekhar, A.; O'Donnell, B.F.; Steinmetz, J.E.; Hetrick, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that individuals with schizophrenia manifest abnormalities in structures (cerebellum and basal ganglia) and neurotransmitter systems (dopamine) linked to internal-timing processes. A single-cue tone delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm comprised of 100 learning and 50 extinction trials was used to examine cerebellar…

  4. Hepatosplenic Candidiasis Detected by (18)F-FDG-PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Albano, Domenico; Bosio, Giovanni; Bertoli, Mattia; Petrilli, Giulia; Bertagna, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Hepatosplenic candidiasis is a fungal infection, which mostly affects patients with hematologic malignancies such as leukemia. The pathogenesis of this infection is not clear yet, and the liver is the most commonly affected organ. Diagnosis of hepatosplenic candidiasis can be only established via biopsy, since computed tomography (CT) scan, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yield non-specific results. The role of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography /computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) in diagnosis of hepatosplenic candidiasis remains undetermined, considering a few evidences in the literature. In this case report, we present the case of a 47-year-old patient, affected by acute myeloid leukemia, which was treated with three cycles of chemotherapy, resulting in the development of neutropenia and fever following the last cycle. The (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan showed some foci of intense FDG uptake in the liver and spleen. The subsequent diagnostic investigations (i.e., abdominal CT scan and biopsy) were suggestive of hepatosplenic candidiasis. The patient was started on antifungal treatment with fluconazole. After one month, the clinical conditions were resolved, and the subsequent abdominal CT scan was negative. PMID:27408899

  5. Pulmonary intravascular lymphoma detected by FDG PET-CT: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kohan, A A; Paganini, L; Biedak, P; Arma, J I; Dalurzo, M C L; Garcia-Monaco, R D

    2013-01-01

    Intravascular lymphoma is a rare subtype of extranodal Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Its prognosis is poor in a high percentage of cases due to its insidious appearance and low clinical suspicion. Its diagnosis is usually only reached after an autopsy. It may affect different organs as a whole or only one organ. It is extremely rare that the lung is the only damaged organ. Its diagnosis depends of the clinician's suspicion and proper evaluation with imaging studies as well as correct selection of the organ to be biopsied. When detected on time, the treatment of choice is a combination of a series of chemotherapy associated to a monoclonal antibody (anti-CD20). We present the case of a male patient who underwent a positron emission tomography-computed tomography with 2-[F-18]-fluoro-2 deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) due to symptoms suggestive of a lymphoproliferative disease with no clear structural abnormalities. The images led to a diagnosis of pulmonary intravascular large B cell lymphoma.

  6. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

  7. Potential Pitfall in the Assessment of Lung Cancer with FDG-PET/CT: Talc Pleurodesis Causes Intrathoracic Nodal FDG Avidity

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Brett W.; Muse, Victorine; Digumarthy, Subba; Shepard, Jo-Anne; Sharma, Amita

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Talc pleurodesis is a common procedure performed to treat complications related to lung cancer. The purpose of our study was to characterize any thoracic nodal findings on FDG PET/CT associated with prior talc pleurodesis. Materials and Methods. The electronic medical record identified 44 patients who underwent PET/CT between January 2006 and December 2010 and had a history of talc pleurodesis. For each exam, we evaluated the distribution pattern, size, and attenuation of intrathoracic lymph nodes and the associated standardized uptake value. Results. High-attenuation intrathoracic lymph nodes were noted in 11 patients (25%), and all had corresponding increased FDG uptake (range 2–9 mm). Involved nodal groups were anterior peridiaphragmatic (100%), paracardiac (45%), internal mammary (25%), and peri-IVC (18%) nodal stations. Seven of the 11 patients (63%) had involvement of multiple lymph nodal groups. Mean longitudinal PET/CT and standalone CT followups of 15 ± 11 months showed persistence of both high-attenuation and increased uptake at these sites, without increase in nodal size suggesting metastatic disease involvement. Conclusions. FDG avid, high-attenuation lymph nodes along the lymphatic drainage pathway for parietal pleura are a relatively common finding following talc pleurodesis and should not be mistaken for nodal metastases during the evaluation of patients with history of lung cancer. PMID:26316941

  8. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  9. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  10. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  11. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  12. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  13. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  14. Causes of (18)F-FDG uptake on white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Doh Yu; Lee, Jeong Won; Lee, Sang Mi; Kim, Soon

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue usually shows negligible fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake. In certain clinical conditions this (18)F-FDG uptake has been reported to be increased like in HIV patients under treatment, in exogenous Cushing's syndrome, in cases related to premedication and other cases. PMID:26929935

  15. Comparison of autologous 111In-leukocytes, 18F-FDG, 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195 and 68Ga-citrate for diagnostic nuclear imaging in a juvenile porcine haematogenous staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis model

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Ole L; Afzelius, Pia; Bender, Dirk; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Leifsson, Páll S; Nielsen, Karin M; Larsen, Jytte O; Jensen, Svend B; Alstrup, Aage KO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 111In-labeled leukocyte single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to PET with tracers that potentially could improve detection of osteomyelitis. We chose 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195 and 68Ga-citrate and validated their diagnostic utility in a porcine haematogenous osteomyelitis model. Four juvenile 14-15 weeks old female pigs were scanned seven days after intra-arterial inoculation in the right femoral artery with a porcine strain of Staphylococcus aureus using a sequential scan protocol with 18F-FDG, 68Ga-citrate, 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195, 99mTc-Nanocoll and 111In-labelled autologous leukocytes. This was followed by necropsy of the pigs and gross pathology, histopathology and microbial examination. The pigs developed a total of five osteomyelitis lesions, five lesions characterized as abscesses/cellulitis, arthritis in three joints and five enlarged lymph nodes. None of the tracers accumulated in joints with arthritis. By comparing the 10 infectious lesions, 18F-FDG accumulated in nine, 111In-leukocytes in eight, 11C-methionine in six, 68Ga-citrate in four and 11C-PK11195 accumulated in only one lesion. Overall, 18F-FDG PET was superior to 111In-leukocyte SPECT in marking infectious and proliferative, i.e. hyperplastic, lesions. However, leukocyte SPECT was performed as early scans, approximately 6 h after injection of the leukocytes, to match the requirements of the 18 h long scan protocol. 11C-methionine and possibly 68Ga-citrate may be useful for diagnosis of soft issue lesions. PMID:25973338

  16. Spectrum of the Breast Lesions With Increased 18F-FDG Uptake on PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Lu, Jianping; Zuo, Changjing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Interpretation of 18F-FDG PET/CT studies in breast is challenging owing to nonspecific FDG uptake in various benign and malignant conditions. Benign conditions include breast changes in pregnancy and lactation, gynecomastia, mastitis, fat necrosis, fibroadenoma, intraductal papilloma, and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Among malignancies, invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma are common histological types of breast carcinoma. Rarely, other unusual histological types of breast carcinomas (eg, intraductal papillary carcinoma, invasive micropapillary carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, and metaplastic carcinoma), lymphoma, and metastasis can be the causes. Knowledge of a wide spectrum of hypermetabolic breast lesions on FDG PET/CT is essential in accurate reading of FDG PET/CT. The purpose of this atlas article is to demonstrate features of various breast lesions encountered at our institution, both benign and malignant, which can result in hypermetabolism on FDG PET/CT imaging. PMID:26975010

  17. Spectrum of the Breast Lesions With Increased 18F-FDG Uptake on PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Lu, Jianping; Zuo, Changjing

    2016-07-01

    Interpretation of F-FDG PET/CT studies in breast is challenging owing to nonspecific FDG uptake in various benign and malignant conditions. Benign conditions include breast changes in pregnancy and lactation, gynecomastia, mastitis, fat necrosis, fibroadenoma, intraductal papilloma, and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Among malignancies, invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma are common histological types of breast carcinoma. Rarely, other unusual histological types of breast carcinomas (eg, intraductal papillary carcinoma, invasive micropapillary carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, and metaplastic carcinoma), lymphoma, and metastasis can be the causes. Knowledge of a wide spectrum of hypermetabolic breast lesions on FDG PET/CT is essential in accurate reading of FDG PET/CT. The purpose of this atlas article is to demonstrate features of various breast lesions encountered at our institution, both benign and malignant, which can result in hypermetabolism on FDG PET/CT imaging. PMID:26975010

  18. A novel description of FDG excretion in the renal system: application to metformin-treated models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbarino, S.; Caviglia, G.; Sambuceti, G.; Benvenuto, F.; Piana, M.

    2014-05-01

    This paper introduces a novel compartmental model describing the excretion of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) in the renal system and a numerical method based on the maximum likelihood for its reduction. This approach accounts for variations in FDG concentration due to water re-absorption in renal tubules and the increase of the bladder’s volume during the FDG excretion process. From the computational viewpoint, the reconstruction of the tracer kinetic parameters is obtained by solving the maximum likelihood problem iteratively, using a non-stationary, steepest descent approach that explicitly accounts for the Poisson nature of nuclear medicine data. The reliability of the method is validated against two sets of synthetic data realized according to realistic conditions. Finally we applied this model to describe FDG excretion in the case of animal models treated with metformin. In particular we show that our approach allows the quantitative estimation of the reduction of FDG de-phosphorylation induced by metformin.

  19. ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT for Staging and Restaging of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Groheux, David; Cochet, Alexandre; Humbert, Olivier; Alberini, Jean-Louis; Hindié, Elif; Mankoff, David

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have pointed out the role of (18)F-FDG PET/CT (or (18)F-FDG PET) in patients with clinical stage III or II breast cancer. (18)F-FDG PET/CT might advantageously replace other staging procedures, such as bone scanning and possibly contrast-enhanced CT of the thorax or abdomen-pelvis. We discuss the findings, locoregional or distant, that can be expected in different categories of breast cancer and their impact on prognosis and management. We also discuss the role of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in restaging and how (18)F-FDG PET/CT compares with conventional techniques in restaging for patients with suspected disease recurrence. We conclude with some recommendations for clinical practice and future research. PMID:26834096

  20. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  1. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  2. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

  3. Accuracy of FDG-PET to diagnose lung cancer in a region of endemic granulomatous disease

    PubMed Central

    Deppen, Stephen; Putnam, Joe B.; Andrade, Gabriela; Speroff, Theodore; Nesbitt, Jonathan C.; Lambright, Eric S.; Massion, Pierre P.; Walker, Ron; Grogan, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    Background 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is used to evaluate suspicious pulmonary lesions due to its diagnostic accuracy. The southeastern United States has a high prevalence of infectious granulomatous lung disease, and the accuracy of FDGPET may be reduced in this population. We examined the diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET in patients with known or suspected NSCLC treated at our institution. Methods 279 patients identified through our prospective database, underwent an operation for known or suspected lung cancer. Preoperative FDG-PET in 211 eligible patients was defined by standardized uptake value, SUV > 2.5 or by description (“moderate” or “intense”) as avid. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios, and decision diagrams were calculated for FDG-PET in all patients and in patients with indeterminate nodules. Results In all eligible patients (n=211), sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET were 92% and 40%. Positive and negative predictive values were 86% and 55%. Overall FDG-PET accuracy to diagnose lung cancer was 81%. Preoperative positive likelihood ratio for FDG-PET diagnosis of lung cancer in this population was 1.5 compared to previously published values of 7.1. In 113 indeterminate lesions, 65% had lung cancer and the sensitivity and specificity were 89% and 40% respectively. 24 benign nodules (60%) had false positive FDG-PET scans. 22 of 43 benign nodules (51%) were granulomas. Conclusions In a region with endemic granulomatous diseases, the specificity of FDG-PET for diagnosis of lung cancer was 40%. Clinical decisions and future clinical predictive models for lung cancer must accommodate regional variation of FDG-PET scan results. PMID:21592456

  4. Endocrine abnormalities of obesity.

    PubMed

    Björntorp, P

    1995-09-01

    Studies have shown that patients with central obesity have increased cortisol secretion, probably because they have increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. A high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is associated with low production of sex steroids, such as testosterone in men, and a low rate of secretion of growth hormone. High levels of cortisol and insulin combined with low levels of growth hormone and sex steroid can cause lipid accumulation. These hormonal changes probably produce more deposition of visceral than subcutaneous fat. Patients who are deficient in either testosterone or growth hormone show a reduction in visceral adiposity when their hormone levels are normalized. Stress has been shown to activate the HPA axis and may cause the hormonal changes associated with obesity. Individuals with elevated WHR have indications of high levels of stress and anxiety. Monkeys that were stressed by social disruption were found to have increased cortisol levels and low sex steroid levels. Many of these animals had insulin resistance and visceral adiposity. Stimulants, such as alcohol and smoking, also increase the activity of the HPA axis.

  5. Human radiation dosimetry of 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG predicted from preclinical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Muzic, Raymond F.; Chandramouli, Visvanathan; Hatami, Ahmad; Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Wu, Chunying; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The authors are developing 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-6-deoxy-D-glucose (6-[{sup 18}F]FDG) as an in vivo tracer of glucose transport. While 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG has the same radionuclide half-life as 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-[{sup 18}F]FDG) which is ubiquitously used for PET imaging, 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG has special biologic properties and different biodistributions that make it preferable to 2-[{sup 18}F]FDG for assessing glucose transport. In preparation for 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG use in human PET scanning, the authors would like to determine the amount of 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG to inject while maintaining radiation doses in a safe range. Methods: Rats were injected with 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG, euthanized at specified times, and tissues were collected and assayed for activity content. For each tissue sample, the percent of injected dose per gram was calculated and extrapolated to that for humans in order to construct predicted time-courses. Residence times were calculated as areas under the curves and were used as inputs to OLINDA/EXM in order to calculate the radiation doses. Results: Unlike with 2-[{sup 18}F]FDG for which the urinary bladder wall receives the highest absorbed dose due to urinary excretion, with 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG there is little urinary excretion and osteogenic cells and the liver are predicted to receive the highest absorbed doses: 0.027 mGy/MBq (0.100 rad/mCi) and 0.018 mGy/MBq (0.066 rad/mCi), respectively. Also, the effective dose from 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG, i.e., 0.013 mSv/MBq (0.046 rem/mCi), is predicted to be approximately 30% lower than that from 2-[{sup 18}F]FDG. Conclusions: 6-[{sup 18}F]FDG will be safe for use in the PET scanning of humans.

  6. Heterogeneous 18F-FDG uptake in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, John-Paul J; Barajas, Ramon F; Olorunsola, Dare; Sugrue, Leo P; Hernandez-Pampaloni, Miguel

    2013-05-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) describes an infection of the upper aerodigestive tract by the human papilloma virus most commonly affecting the larynx with rare lung involvement in 1%-2% of affected patients. We describe an unusual case of a 28-year-old male patient with a longstanding history of RRP where a whole-body PET/CT obtained for disease staging revealed multiple cavitary pulmonary nodules in addition to the more typical tracheobronchial papillomas. In the case described herein, we report heterogeneous uptake of 18F-FDG among these RRP lesions, suggesting significant unexpected variability in the underlying metabolic behavior of these lesions. PMID:23486321

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  8. Dynamic functional imaging of brain glucose utilization using fPET-FDG

    DOE PAGES

    Villien, Marjorie; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Catana, Ciprian; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Sander, Christin Y.; Zürcher, Nicole R.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Rosen, Bruce R.; et al

    2014-06-14

    We report that glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and yet the dynamic response of glucose utilization to changes in brain activity is still not fully understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism using 2-[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, FDG PET in its current form provides an integral (or average) of glucose consumption over tens of minutes and lacks the temporal information to capture physiological alterations associated with changes in brain activity induced by tasks or drug challenges. Traditionally, changes in glucose utilization are inferred by comparing two separate scans, which significantly limits themore » utility of the method. We report a novel method to track changes in FDG metabolism dynamically, with higher temporal resolution than exists to date and within a single session. Using a constant infusion of FDG, we demonstrate that our technique (termed fPET-FDG) can be used in an analysis pipeline similar to fMRI to define within-session differential metabolic responses. We use visual stimulation to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Ultimately, this new method has a great potential to be used in research protocols and clinical settings since fPET-FDG imaging can be performed with most PET scanners and data acquisition and analysis are straightforward. fPET-FDG is a highly complementary technique to MRI and provides a rich new way to observe functional changes in brain metabolism.« less

  9. Dynamic functional imaging of brain glucose utilization using fPET-FDG

    SciTech Connect

    Villien, Marjorie; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Catana, Ciprian; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Sander, Christin Y.; Zürcher, Nicole R.; Chonde, Daniel B.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Hooker, Jacob M.

    2014-06-14

    We report that glucose is the principal source of energy for the brain and yet the dynamic response of glucose utilization to changes in brain activity is still not fully understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) allows quantitative measurement of glucose metabolism using 2-[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, FDG PET in its current form provides an integral (or average) of glucose consumption over tens of minutes and lacks the temporal information to capture physiological alterations associated with changes in brain activity induced by tasks or drug challenges. Traditionally, changes in glucose utilization are inferred by comparing two separate scans, which significantly limits the utility of the method. We report a novel method to track changes in FDG metabolism dynamically, with higher temporal resolution than exists to date and within a single session. Using a constant infusion of FDG, we demonstrate that our technique (termed fPET-FDG) can be used in an analysis pipeline similar to fMRI to define within-session differential metabolic responses. We use visual stimulation to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Ultimately, this new method has a great potential to be used in research protocols and clinical settings since fPET-FDG imaging can be performed with most PET scanners and data acquisition and analysis are straightforward. fPET-FDG is a highly complementary technique to MRI and provides a rich new way to observe functional changes in brain metabolism.

  10. The Potential Roles of 18F-FDG-PET in Management of Acute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Yuan, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Extensive efforts have recently been devoted to developing noninvasive imaging tools capable of delineating brain tissue viability (penumbra) during acute ischemic stroke. These efforts could have profound clinical implications for identifying patients who may benefit from tPA beyond the currently approved therapeutic time window and/or patients undergoing neuroendovascular treatments. To date, the DWI/PWI MRI and perfusion CT have received the most attention for identifying ischemic penumbra. However, their routine use in clinical settings remains limited. Preclinical and clinical PET studies with [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) have consistently revealed a decreased 18F-FDG uptake in regions of presumed ischemic core. More importantly, an elevated 18F-FDG uptake in the peri-ischemic regions has been reported, potentially reflecting viable tissues. To this end, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature on the utilization of 14C-2-DG and 18F-FDG-PET in experimental as well as human stroke studies. Possible cellular mechanisms and physiological underpinnings attributed to the reported temporal and spatial uptake patterns of 18F-FDG are addressed. Given the wide availability of 18F-FDG in routine clinical settings, 18F-FDG PET may serve as an alternative, non-invasive tool to MRI and CT for the management of acute stroke patients. PMID:23762852

  11. Incidental prostate ¹⁸F-FDG uptake without calcification indicates the possibility of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Seino, Hiroko; Ono, Shuichi; Miura, Hiroyuki; Morohashi, Satoko; Wu, Yunyan; Tsushima, Fumiyasu; Takai, Yoshihiro; Kijima, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Incidental 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in the prostate is often experienced in clinical practice; however, it is difficult to determine whether incidental uptake is indicative of a malignancy or benign state based on the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). In the present study, we investigated the clinical significance of incidental prostate uptake by 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, and examined the differences between malignant and benign uptake from a clinicopathological viewpoint. We reviewed 3,236 male subjects who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scans at Hirosaki University Hospital (Japan) from 2008 to 2012 in order to identify cases of incidental prostate FDG uptake. The final diagnosis was made by serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, biopsy, imaging studies and clinical follow-up with PET findings. Incidental FDG uptake of the prostate was observed in 53 cases (2%). Four cases were excluded due to insufficient clinical data, and 49 cases were included in the present study. Of the 49 cases, 8 (16%) had prostate cancer, while 41 (84%) were benign. All 8 malignant cases had high uptake areas, e.g. in the prostate peripheral zone, where there was no coexistence of calcification or FDG uptake. Of the 41 benign cases, 19 had high uptake in the inner zone, 17 in the peripheral zone, and 5 in both the inner and peripheral zones. Of the 41 cases, 18 (44%) showed FDG uptake coexisting with prostatic calcification. Incidental prostate 18F-FDG uptake infrequently signifies prostate cancer; however, FDG uptake not coexisting with calcification indicates the possibility of prostate cancer and should be included in the differential diagnosis for performing other clinical examinations.

  12. Role of FDG PET/CT in Baastrup's disease

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyam, Padma; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    Baastrup's disease is a benign condition, which presents as chronic low back pain. It is also known as “kissing spine syndrome” and refers to close approximation of adjacent spinous processes producing inflammation and back pain. This condition is often misdiagnosed, resulting in incorrect treatment and persistence of symptoms. Diagnosis of Baastrup's disease is verified with clinical examination and imaging studies. Conventionally, clinicians resort to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine rather than X-ray or computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of back pain. MRI can additionally identify flattening, sclerosis, enlargement, cystic lesions, and bone edema at the articulating surfaces of the two affected spinous processes. Studies have reported that 18Fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT (FDG-PET/CT) can detect a bursitis or an inflammation as a form of stress reaction despite a negative MRI and 99mTc Methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scan. PET/CT is usually not a recommended investigation for this condition. However, this case report highlights the benefit of FDG-PET/CT in identifying the site of inflammatory pathology. It is also known to identify the exact site of inflammation where steroid or local anesthetic injection can be administered to alleviate pain, especially in patients with multilevel vertebral involvement. PMID:27385901

  13. Utilization of CT images for the quantification of FDG uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karidioula, I.; De Freitas, D.; Cachin, F.; Geissler, B.; Jullien, Ph.; Maublant, J.

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an automatic method based on a computed tomography (CT) derived region of interest (ROI) to quantify the mean standardized uptake value (SUVm) of 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) in pulmonary lesions detected by positron emission tomography (PET). A total of 164 pairs of slices were selected in a series of PET/CT studies performed in 26 patients presenting lung tumours of various forms and complexities. On each matched CT slice, a ROI was obtained by growth-region segmentation starting from a pixel contained in the tumour. The obtained ROI was then applied to the PET image to calculate SUVm. Results were compared with the conventional manual method using a geometric ROI positioned directly on the PET lesion. The automatic delineation of the tumour from the CT image was successful in 136 sections (83%). The SUVm calculated by the manual and automatic method were respectively (mean±standard deviation) 5.05±2.39 and 6.70±3.18 ( p<0.05). The ROI size (in number of pixels) was respectively 28±23 and 21±17 ( p<0.05). The variability of the automatic method was 0% versus 20% for the manual method. SUV of FDG in PET/CT can be calculated with an excellent reproducibility by using the CT-derived limits of the lesion.

  14. Pelvis: normal variants and benign findings in FDG-PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Kohan, Andres; Avril, Norbert E

    2014-04-01

    With the widespread use of whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/computed tomography as a diagnostic tool in patients with cancer, incidental findings are of increasing importance. This is particularly true within the pelvis, where several benign findings might present with increased FDG uptake. In addition, physiologic excretion of radiotracer by way of the urinary tract can complicate image analysis. This article reviews potential incidental benign findings in the pelvis that one should be aware of when interpreting FDG-PET/computed tomography scans.

  15. 18F-FDG PET/CT Demonstrating Malignant Degeneration of a Uterine Fibroid.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Punit

    2016-10-01

    Whereas benign leiomyoma of the uterus (fibroid) is very common, malignant degeneration of such fibroids to leiomyosarcoma is rare. Anatomical imaging with CT or MRI cannot differentiate between larger leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma. Imaging with F-FDG PET/CT can be helpful in differentiating the two. High-grade F-FDG uptake in uterine fibroids is suspected and warrants surgical excision for further evaluation. We present such as case of a 42-year-old premenopausal woman where F-FDG PET/CT helped in making the diagnosis of malignant degeneration of uterine fibroid. PMID:27556790

  16. [A case of hepatocellular carcinoma with multiple lymph node metastases detected by FDG-PET].

    PubMed

    Ito, Tadao; Noguchi, Akinori; Shimizu, Takeshi; Tani, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Okano, Shinji; Yamane, Tetsuro; Kawabata, Kenji

    2012-11-01

    We report a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with multiple lymph node (LN) metastases. A 68-year-old man underwent hepatectomy at our hospital. Intrahepatic recurrence and swelling of multiple LNs were detected by enhanced CT 21 months later. FDG-PET was positive for multiple swollen LNs, but all were negative for the intrahepatic recurrences. Biopsy of para-aortic LNs was revealed LN metastases from HCC. Immunohistochemically, the LN metastases were composed of poorly differentiated HCC. The sensitivity of FDG-PET in patients with HCC varies in relation to degree of differentiation and decreased FDG uptake must be noted. PMID:23132040

  17. Deciphering PDT-induced inflammatory responses using real-time FDG-PET in a mouse tumour model.

    PubMed

    Cauchon, Nicole; Hasséssian, Haroutioun M; Turcotte, Eric; Lecomte, Roger; van Lier, Johan E

    2014-10-01

    Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET), combined with constant infusion of 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG), enables real-time monitoring of transient metabolic changes in vivo, which can serve to understand the underlying physiology. Here we investigated characteristic changes in the tumour FDG-uptake profiles in relation to acute localized inflammatory responses induced by photodynamic therapy (PDT). Dynamic PET imaging with constant FDG infusion was used with EMT-6 tumour bearing mice. FDG time-activity uptake curves were measured simultaneously, in treated and reference tumours, for 3 hours, before, during and after PDT light treatment. Inflammation was studied when evoked, either by PDT using a trisulfonated porphyrazine photosensitizer, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and inhibited using indomethacin. The distinct transient patterns, characterized by drops and subsequent recovery of tumour FDG uptake rates, were also analysed using immunohistochemical markers for apoptosis, necrosis, and inflammation. Typical profiles for tumour FDG-uptake, consisted of a drop during PDT, followed by a gradual recovery period. Tumours treated with LPS, but not with light, showed a continuous increase in FDG-uptake during the 3 h experimental period. Treatment with indomethacin, inhibited the rise in FDG-uptake observed with either LPS or PDT. Tumour FDG-uptake profiles correlated with necrosis markers during PDT, and inflammatory response markers post-PDT, but not with an apoptosis marker at any time during or after PDT. Dynamic FDG-PET imaging combined with indomethacin reveals that, the drop in the tumour FDG-uptake rate during the PDT illumination phase reflects vascular collapse and necrosis, while the increased tumour FDG-uptake rate immediately post-illumination involves an acute localized inflammatory response. Dynamic FDG infusion and PET imaging, combined with the use of selective inhibitors, provides unique insight for deciphering the complex underlying

  18. Endocrine Abnormalities in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease the alterations of the endocrine system may arise from several causes. The kidney is the site of degradation as well as synthesis of many different hormones. Moreover, a number of concomitant pathological conditions such as inflammation, metabolic acidosis and malnutrition may participate in the pathogenesis of endocrine abnormalities in this group of patients. The most pronounced endocrine abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease are the deficiencies of: calcitriol, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor and, erythropoietin (EPO). Additionally accumulation of several hormones, such as: prolactin, growth hormone and insulin frequently also occur. The clinical consequences of the abovementioned endocrine abnormalities are among others: anemia, infertility and bone diseases.

  19. [Consequences of abnormalities of chromosome structure in domestic animals].

    PubMed

    Popescu, C P

    1990-01-01

    Abnormalities in chromosome structure generally have no phenotypic expression but are very often associated with reproductive disorders. In cattle, sheep and goats, the robertsonian translocation seems to be the most frequent abnormality of chromosome structure. In the pig, reciprocal translocations are very common. The accumulation of data on the frequency of such abnormalities and their effects on reproductive performance prompted an evaluation of their economic consequences in cattle and pigs. In cattle, because of the negative effect of 1/29 translocation, an eradication program, based on the removal of carrier bulls from artificial insemination centers was established. In pig, the main effect of the reciprocal translocations was a reduction in the number of offspring, up to 50%, thus representing a considerable economic loss. PMID:2206288

  20. Endocrine Abnormalities in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease the alterations of the endocrine system may arise from several causes. The kidney is the site of degradation as well as synthesis of many different hormones. Moreover, a number of concomitant pathological conditions such as inflammation, metabolic acidosis and malnutrition may participate in the pathogenesis of endocrine abnormalities in this group of patients. The most pronounced endocrine abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease are the deficiencies of: calcitriol, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor and, erythropoietin (EPO). Additionally accumulation of several hormones, such as: prolactin, growth hormone and insulin frequently also occur. The clinical consequences of the abovementioned endocrine abnormalities are among others: anemia, infertility and bone diseases. PMID:27442377

  1. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  2. A Pilot Study Treatment of Malignant Tumors Using [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-18

    Radiosensitive Stage IV Solid and Hematological Tumors With High FDG Uptake Not Responding to Standard of Care; Lung Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, Breast Cancer, Gastric Cancer, Pancreatic Cancer, Colon Cancer, Lymphomas, Sarcomas, Etc

  3. False positivity of FDG-PET/CT in a child with Hodgkin disease.

    PubMed

    Beker, Dildar Bahar; Berrak, Su Gulsun; Canpolat, Cengiz; Tugtepe, Halil; Ones, Tunc; Tecimer, Tulay

    2008-04-01

    Role of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with F-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) in staging of Hodgkin disease is well established despite several controversies. We report a Stage III Hodgkin lymphoma patient with false positive FDG-PET/CT results. Seven-year-old male with Hodgkin lymphoma was in remission at end of chemotherapy. At third and fourth month of postchemotherapy follow-up, increased Gallium uptake and positive FDG-PET/CT in right lower quadrant of abdomen was observed. Open biopsy revealed lymphoid hyperplasia. He has been followed for 21 months without any evidence of disease. Despite its documented benefit, we believe that results of FDG-PET/CT should be interpreted with great caution in order to avoid unnecessary interventions. PMID:17417791

  4. Changes in Cervical Cancer FDG Uptake During Chemoradiation and Association With Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, Elizabeth A.; Thomas, Maria; Siegel, Barry A.; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research showed that pretreatment uptake of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), as assessed by the maximal standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and the variability of uptake (FDG{sub hetero}), predicted for posttreatment response in cervical cancer. In this pilot study, we evaluated the changes in SUV{sub max} and FDG{sub hetero} during concurrent chemoradiation for cervical cancer and their association with post-treatment response. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients with stage Ib1-IVa cervical cancer were enrolled. SUV{sub max}, FDG{sub hetero}, and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) were recorded from FDG-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans performed pretreatment and during weeks 2 and 4 of treatment and were evaluated for changes and association with response assessed on 3-month post-treatment FDG-PET/CT. Results: For all patients, the average pretreatment SUV{sub max} was 17.8, MTV was 55.4 cm{sup 3}, and FDG{sub hetero} was -1.33. A similar decline in SUV{sub max} was seen at week 2 compared with baseline and week 4 compared with week 2 (34%). The areas of highest FDG uptake in the tumor remained relatively consistent on serial scans. Mean FDG{sub hetero} decreased during treatment. For all patients, MTV decreased more from week 2 to week 4 than from pretreatment to week 2. By week 4, the average SUV{sub max} had decreased by 57% and the MTV had decreased by 30%. Five patients showed persistent or new disease on 3-month post-treatment PET. These poor responders showed a higher average SUV{sub max}, larger MTV, and greater heterogeneity at all 3 times. Week 4 SUV{sub max} (P=.037), week 4 FDG{sub hetero} (P=.005), pretreatment MTV (P=.008), and pretreatment FDG{sub hetero} (P=.008) were all significantly associated with post-treatment PET response. Conclusions: SUV{sub max} shows a consistent rate of decline during treatment and declines at a faster rate than MTV regresses. Based on this pilot study

  5. Clinical outcomes in cervical cancer patients treated by FDG-PET/CT-based 3-dimensional planning for the first brachytherapy session

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dongryul; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Ju, Sang Gyu; Nam, Heerim; Lee, Jeong Eun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes in cervical cancer patients treated with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT)-guided 3-dimensional brachytherapy (3D-BT) planning for the first brachytherapy session. We retrospectively analyzed 87 patients with cervical cancer who received definitive radiotherapy (RT). Primary tumor size was ≤4 cm in 22 patients (25.3%), >4 cm and ≤6 cm in 45 patients (51.7%), and >6 cm in 20 patients (23.0%). The median total dose of external beam RT was 50.4 (50.4–60.4) Gy. FDG-PET/CT-guided 3D-BT with an iridium-192 source was performed. The clinical target volume (CTV) for 3D-BT included the entire cervix and the abnormal FDG-uptake with a 1-cm expansion. A planned total dose was 24 Gy at 4 Gy per insertion 3 times per week using a tandem and 2 ovoids. The mean D95 and D90 for the CTV were 73.4 (±5.9) Gy and 77.9 (±6.9) Gy, respectively (EQD2, α/β=10). The D2cc for the rectum and bladder was 374 (±97.4) cGy and 394 (±107.6) cGy per fraction, respectively. The EQD2 (α/β=3) for the D2cc was 74.5 (±12.4) Gy for the rectum and 77.3 (±14.6) Gy for the bladder. The median follow-up period was 40 (8–61) months. The 3-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and local control (LC) rates were 84.7%, 72.1%, and 89.2%, respectively. The 3-year LC rate was 100% for tumors ≤ 4 cm, 91.1% for tumors > 4 cm and ≤ 6 cm, and 70.5% for tumors > 6 cm (P = 0.014). Local failure developed in 9 patients. Three patients had local failures outside of the CTV. Grade 1, 2, and 3 rectal bleeding developed in 5, 4, and 2 patients, respectively. One patient experienced rectovaginal fistula. FDG-PET/CT-guided 3D-BT planning is a feasible approach, which showed favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:27336876

  6. Metabolic super scan in F-FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Chang Guhn; Park, Soon-Ah; Jung, Sang-Ah; Yang, Sei-Hoon

    2010-08-01

    A 50-yr-old man presented with intermittent hemoptysis and was diagnosed small cell lung cancer. (18)F-FDG PET/CT for staging demonstrated extensive hypermetabolic lesions throughout the skeleton and liver. Interestingly, skeletal muscles of limbs, mediastinum, bowel, and especially brain showed very low FDG uptake. Because of some characteristics in common with super scan on skeletal scintigraphy, this case could be considered as 'metabolic super scan'.

  7. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  8. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  9. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed.

  10. Two years of experience with the [ 18F]FDG production module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Wook; Hur, Min Goo; Chai, Jong-Seo; Park, Jeong Hoon; Yu, Kook Hyun; Jeong, Cheol Ki; Lee, Goung Jin; Min, Young Don; Yang, Seung Dae

    2007-08-01

    Chemistry module for a conventional [18F]FDG production by using tetrabutylammonium bicarbonate (TBA) and an acidic hydrolysis has been manufactured and evaluated. In this experiment, 75 mM (pH 7.5-7.8) of TBA solution and a ca. 2-curies order of [18F]-fluoride have been used for the evaluation. The commercial acidic purification cartridge was purchased from GE or UKE. The operation system (OS) was programmed with Lab-View which was selected because of its easy customization of the OS. Small sized solenoid valves (Burkert; type 6124) were selected to reduce the module dimensions (W 350 × D 270 × H 250). The total time for the synthesis of [18F]FDG was 30 ± 3 min. The production yield of [18F]FDG was 60 ± 2% on an average at EOS, with the decay uncorrected. This experimental data show that the traditional chemistry module can provide a good [18F]FDG production yield by optimizing the operational conditions. The radiochemical purity, radionuclidic purity, acidity, residual solvent, osmolality and endotoxin were determined to assess the quality of [18F]FDG. The examined contents for the quality control of [18F]FDG were found to be suitable for a clinical application.

  11. Breast Sparganosis Incidentally Detected by FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Ha, Seunggyun; Oh, So Won; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yi, Ann; Ahn, Young Joon

    2013-06-01

    Sparganosis is a rare, parasitic infection that is caused by the plercercoid tapeworm larvae of the genus Spirometra. Sparganosis is transmitted by ingestion of larvae-containing water or intermediate hosts, such as raw amphibians, and usually presented with a subcutaneous nodule in the abdominal wall, extremities, and genital organs. Among the various involved organs, the breast is a seldom encountered site for sparganosis. However, breast sparganosis has clinical importance, since it is generally presented with an indolent palpable mass that mimics malignancy, even without evidence of inflammation. Herein, we report a case of breast sparganosis that was detected incidentally by FDG PET/CT during staging work ups in a patient with gall bladder cancer. PMID:24900094

  12. Neuroimaging in Animal Seizure Models with 18FDG-PET

    PubMed Central

    Mirrione, Martine M.; Tsirka, Stella E.

    2011-01-01

    Small animal neuroimaging has become increasingly available to researchers, expanding the breadth of questions studied with these methods. Applying these noninvasive techniques to the open questions underlying epileptogenesis is no exception. A major advantage of small animal neuroimaging is its translational appeal. Studies can be well controlled and manipulated, examining the living brain in the animal before, during, and after the disease onset or disease treatment. The results can also be compared to data collected on human patients. Over the past decade, we and others have explored metabolic patterns in animal models of epilepsy to gain insight into the circuitry underlying development of the disease. In this paper, we provide technical details on how metabolic imaging that uses 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) is performed and explain the strengths and limitations of these studies. We will also highlight recent advances toward understanding epileptogenesis through small animal imaging. PMID:22937232

  13. Increased FDG uptake of the bone marrow mimicking malignancy in a patient of eosinophilia secondary to Sparganum mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Gao, Lei; Zuo, Changjing

    2014-07-01

    Secondary eosinophilia is usually associated with parasitosis in Third World countries. We present a case of eosinophilia secondary to Sparganum mansoni infection showing multifocal FDG uptake in the axial bones mimicking malignancy. Bone marrow aspirations and biopsy revealed remarkable proliferation of eosinophils which may be related to the increased FDG uptake. This case indicates that secondary eosinophilia associated with parasitosis may be one cause of diffuse FDG uptake in the bone marrow.

  14. Pathogenesis of permeability barrier abnormalities in the ichthyoses: inherited disorders of lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.; Williams, Mary L.; Holleran, Walter M.; Jiang, Yan J.; Schmuth, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Many of the ichthyoses are associated with inherited disorders of lipid metabolism. These disorders have provided unique models to dissect physiologic processes in normal epidermis and the pathophysiology of more common scaling conditions. In most of these disorders, a permeability barrier abnormality “drives” pathophysiology through stimulation of epidermal hyperplasia. Among primary abnormalities of nonpolar lipid metabolism, triglyceride accumulation in neutral lipid storage disease as a result of a lipase mutation provokes a barrier abnormality via lamellar/nonlamellar phase separation within the extracellular matrix of the stratum corneum (SC). Similar mechanisms account for the barrier abnormalities (and subsequent ichthyosis) in inherited disorders of polar lipid metabolism. For example, in recessive X-linked ichthyosis (RXLI), cholesterol sulfate (CSO4) accumulation also produces a permeability barrier defect through lamellar/nonlamellar phase separation. However, in RXLI, the desquamation abnormality is in part attributable to the plurifunctional roles of CSO4 as a regulator of both epidermal differentiation and corneodesmosome degradation. Phase separation also occurs in type II Gaucher disease (GD; from accumulation of glucosylceramides as a result of to β-glucocerebrosidase deficiency). Finally, failure to assemble both lipids and desquamatory enzymes into nascent epidermal lamellar bodies (LBs) accounts for both the permeability barrier and desquamation abnormalities in Harlequin ichthyosis (HI). The barrier abnormality provokes the clinical phenotype in these disorders not only by stimulating epidermal proliferation, but also by inducing inflammation. PMID:18245815

  15. Applications of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) in Plant Imaging: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Fatangare, Amol; Svatoš, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to explore and establish the current status of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) applications in plant imaging. In the present article, we review the previous literature on its experimental merits to formulate a consistent and inclusive picture of FDG applications in plant-imaging research. 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose is a [18F]fluorine-labeled glucose analog in which C-2 hydroxyl group has been replaced by a positron-emitting [18F] radioisotope. As FDG is a positron-emitting radiotracer, it could be used in in vivo imaging studies. FDG mimics glucose chemically and structurally. Its uptake and distribution are found to be similar to those of glucose in animal models. FDG is commonly used as a radiotracer for glucose in medical diagnostics and in vivo animal imaging studies but rarely in plant imaging. Tsuji et al. (2002) first reported FDG uptake and distribution in tomato plants. Later, Hattori et al. (2008) described FDG translocation in intact sorghum plants and suggested that it could be used as a tracer for photoassimilate translocation in plants. These findings raised interest among other plant scientists, which has resulted in a recent surge of articles involving the use of FDG as a tracer in plants. There have been seven studies describing FDG-imaging applications in plants. These studies describe FDG applications ranging from monitoring radiotracer translocation to analyzing solute transport, root uptake, photoassimilate tracing, carbon allocation, and glycoside biosynthesis. Fatangare et al. (2015) recently characterized FDG metabolism in plants; such knowledge is crucial to understanding and validating the application of FDG in plant imaging research. Recent FDG studies significantly advance our understanding of FDG translocation and metabolism in plants but also raise new questions. Here, we take a look at all the previous results to form a comprehensive picture of FDG translocation, metabolism, and applications in

  16. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24 hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30 ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH.

  17. Calorie restriction limits the generation but not the progression of mitochondrial abnormalities in aging skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Bua, Entela; McKiernan, Susan H; Aiken, Judd M

    2004-03-01

    The effect of early-onset calorie restriction and aging on the accumulation of electron transport system (ETS) abnormalities was studied in rat skeletal muscle. Rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscle fibers were analyzed for cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme activities. Fibers displaying COX negative and SDH hyper reactive (COX-/SDH++) phenotype were followed through 1000-2000 micrometers to determine the frequency and length of these abnormalities as well as the physiological impact on fiber structure. Calorie restricted rats had fewer ETS abnormal muscle fibers. The mean length of ETS abnormal regions in ad libitum rat muscle fibers was similar to calorie restricted rat muscles. ETS abnormal fibers from both diet groups exhibited intra-fiber atrophy. A negative correlation between ETS abnormality length and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) ratio was observed in both ad libitum and calorie- restricted rats. Although calorie restriction reduced the number of ETS abnormalities, it did not affect the length or associated fiber atrophy of ETS abnormal regions once the abnormality was established. Thus, calorie restriction affects the onset but not the progression of electron transport system abnormalities, thereby, limiting a process that ultimately results in fiber breakage and fiber loss.

  18. 18F-FDG PET imaging for identifying the dynamics of intestinal disease caused by SFTSV infection in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hayasaka, Daisuke; Nishi, Kodai; Fuchigami, Takeshi; Shiogama, Kazuya; Onouchi, Takanori; Shimada, Satoshi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Morita, Kouichi

    2016-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging disease that causes fever, enteritis, thrombocytopenia, and leucopenia and can be fatal in up to 30% of cases. However, the mechanism of severe disease is not fully understood. Molecular imaging approaches, such as positron-emission tomography (PET), are functional in vivo imaging techniques that provide real-time dynamics of disease progression, assessments of pharmacokinetics, and diagnoses for disease progression. Molecular imaging also potentially provides useful approaches to explore the pathogenesis of viral infections. Thus, the purpose of this study was to image the pathological features of SFTSV infection in vivo by PET imaging. In a mouse model, we showed that 18F-FDG accumulations clearly identified the intestinal tract site as a pathological site. We also demonstrated that 18F-FDG PET imaging can assess disease progression and response to antiserum therapy within the same individual. This is the first report demonstrating a molecular imaging strategy for SFTSV infection. Our results provide potentially useful information for preclinical studies such as the elucidation of the mechanism of SFTSV infection in vivo and the assessment of drugs for SFTS treatment. PMID:26700962

  19. 18F-FDG PET imaging for identifying the dynamics of intestinal disease caused by SFTSV infection in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Hayasaka, Daisuke; Nishi, Kodai; Fuchigami, Takeshi; Shiogama, Kazuya; Onouchi, Takanori; Shimada, Satoshi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Morita, Kouichi

    2016-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging disease that causes fever, enteritis, thrombocytopenia, and leucopenia and can be fatal in up to 30% of cases. However, the mechanism of severe disease is not fully understood. Molecular imaging approaches, such as positron-emission tomography (PET), are functional in vivo imaging techniques that provide real-time dynamics of disease progression, assessments of pharmacokinetics, and diagnoses for disease progression. Molecular imaging also potentially provides useful approaches to explore the pathogenesis of viral infections. Thus, the purpose of this study was to image the pathological features of SFTSV infection in vivo by PET imaging. In a mouse model, we showed that 18F-FDG accumulations clearly identified the intestinal tract site as a pathological site. We also demonstrated that 18F-FDG PET imaging can assess disease progression and response to antiserum therapy within the same individual. This is the first report demonstrating a molecular imaging strategy for SFTSV infection. Our results provide potentially useful information for preclinical studies such as the elucidation of the mechanism of SFTSV infection in vivo and the assessment of drugs for SFTS treatment. PMID:26700962

  20. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    TONEKABONI, Seyed Hassan; MOLLAMOHAMMADI, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a group of neurodegenerative disorder with deposition of iron in the brain (mainly Basal Ganglia) leading to a progressive Parkinsonism, spasticity, dystonia, retinal degeneration, optic atrophy often accompanied by psychiatric manifestations and cognitive decline. 8 of the 10 genetically defined NBIA types are inherited as autosomal recessive and the remaining two by autosomal dominant and X-linked dominant manner. Brain MRI findings are almost specific and show abnormal brain iron deposition in basal ganglia some other related anatomical locations. In some types of NBIA cerebellar atrophy is the major finding in MRI. PMID:25657764

  1. Is there an added clinical value of "true"whole body(18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging in patients with malignant melanoma?

    PubMed

    Tan, Julie C; Chatterton, Barry E

    2012-01-01

    Accurate and reliable staging of disease extent in patients with malignant MM is essential to ensure appropriate treatment planning. The detection of recurrent or residual malignancy after primary treatment is important to allow for early intervention and to optimise patient survival. 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) PET or PET computed tomography (PET/CT) is indicated for surveillance of malignant MM due to its high sensitivity and specificity for soft-tissue or nodal recurrences and metastases. It has been claimed that including lower extremities and skull in addition to 'eyes to thigh' images in PET/CT evaluation of metastatic MM routinely is warranted. We have studied retrospectively the reports of whole-body PET/CT scans in all patients with MM scanned in our Department from April 2005 to December 2010. All PET abnormalities in the brain/scalp and lower extremities were tabulated by location and whether they were 'expected' or 'unexpected'. Findings were correlated with pathology, other imaging studies, and clinical follow-up. In this study, 398 PET/CT examinations in 361 patients with MM were included. Results showed that twelve of the 398 (3%) scans had brain/scalp abnormalities, with only 4 (1.0%) showing unexpected abnormalities. Twenty nine of the 398 (7.2%) scans showed lower extremity abnormalities, with only 5 (1.2%) showing unexpected abnormalities. In no case was an isolated unexpected malignant lesion identified in the brain/scalp or lower extremities. In conclusion, whole body PET/CT scan showed about 1% unexpected primary or metastatic MM lesions involving the head or lower extremities, which seldom offered significant additional clinical benefit and were unlikely to change clinical management. No clinically significant change in staging would have occurred. Routine 'eyes to thighs' images were adequate for this subset of patients. PMID:23106051

  2. Does Delayed-Time-Point Imaging Improve 18F-FDG-PET in Patients With MALT Lymphoma?

    PubMed Central

    Mayerhoefer, Marius E.; Giraudo, Chiara; Senn, Daniela; Hartenbach, Markus; Weber, Michael; Rausch, Ivo; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Herold, Christian J.; Hacker, Marcus; Pones, Matthias; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Müllauer, Leonhard; Dolak, Werner; Lukas, Julius; Raderer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether in patients with extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT), delayed–time-point 2-18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) performs better than standard–time-point 18F-FDG-PET. Materials and Methods Patients with untreated histologically verified MALT lymphoma, who were undergoing pretherapeutic 18F-FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) and consecutive 18F-FDG-PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using a single 18F-FDG injection, in the course of a larger-scale prospective trial, were included. Region-based sensitivity and specificity, and patient-based sensitivity of the respective 18F-FDG-PET scans at time points 1 (45–60 minutes after tracer injection, TP1) and 2 (100–150 minutes after tracer injection, TP2), relative to the reference standard, were calculated. Lesion-to-liver and lesion-to-blood SUVmax (maximum standardized uptake values) ratios were also assessed. Results 18F-FDG-PET at TP1 was true positive in 15 o f 23 involved regions, and 18F-FDG-PET at TP2 was true-positive in 20 of 23 involved regions; no false-positive regions were noted. Accordingly, region-based sensitivities and specificities were 65.2% (confidence interval [CI], 45.73%–84.67%) and 100% (CI, 100%-100%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP1; and 87.0% (CI, 73.26%–100%) and 100% (CI, 100%-100%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP2, respectively. FDG-PET at TP1 detected lymphoma in at least one nodal or extranodal region in 7 of 13 patients, and 18F-FDG-PET at TP2 in 10 of 13 patients; accordingly, patient-based sensitivity was 53.8% (CI, 26.7%–80.9%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP1, and 76.9% (CI, 54.0%–99.8%) for 18F-FDG-PET at TP2. Lesion-to-liver and lesion-to-blood maximum standardized uptake value ratios were significantly lower at TP1 (ratios, 1.05 ± 0.40 and 1.52 ± 0.62) than at TP2 (ratios, 1.67 ± 0.74 and 2.56 ± 1.10; P = 0.003 and P = 0.001). Conclusions Delayed–time-point imaging

  3. A pulmonary chondromatous hamartoma resembling multiple metastases in the (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Jiang, Chong; Tian, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Multiple pulmonary hamartomas (PH) occur rarely, are mostly seen in females, and are usually leiomyomatous hamartomas. Here, we report an extremely rare case of a 30 years old male patient diagnosed as multiple pulmonary chondromatous hamartomas. He was admitted on May 2015 to our hospital for a 3 months history of cough. Multiple nodules in the right lung were detected on chest X-rays during a routine checkup 9 months ago and in a subsequent chest computed tomography (CT). However, he abandoned medical follow-up because he was asymptomatic. Nine months later, rare and atypical CT findings with progression were observed during this visit so that pulmonary metastases from an unknown primary tumor was suspected. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan showed mild fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake in the lesions and no abnormal foci in any other part of his body. A posterolateral thoracotomy was performed. Pathologic features were consistent with those of pulmonary chondromatous hamartomas. PMID:27331216

  4. [Transient abnormal Q-waves].

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Hoeck, H C; Sørensen, J A

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of transient abnormal Q-waves (TAQ) and a review of the literature. TAQ are defined as abnormal Q-waves, which disappear within ten days. They are most often seen in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) but are also seen in other conditions. Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia giving rise to reversible biochemical and ultrastructural myocardial changes, resulting in transient ECG changes, provide an accepted theory for the pathogenesis of TAO. Investigations have shown that the occurrence of exercise-induced TAQ may be a symptom of IHD. It is impossible to distinguish TAQ from Q-waves induced by myocardial infarction. Appearance of TAQ during exercise-testing frequently indicates IHD. PMID:2301045

  5. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  6. Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chitty, L S

    1995-12-01

    Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities is increasingly becoming part of routine antenatal care in Europe and the UK. However, there has been very little formal evaluation of this practice. In this article reports of routine ultrasound screening are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages discussed. The majority of routine anomaly scanning is done in the second trimester but there may be a case for screening at other times in pregnancy and alternative anomaly screening policies are discussed. PMID:8710765

  7. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Verges, B; Chavanet, P; Desgres, J; Kisterman, J P; Waldner, A; Vaillant, G; Portier, H; Brun, J M; Putelat, R

    The finding of endocrine gland lesions at pathological examination in AIDS and reports of several cases of endocrine disease in patients with this syndrome have prompted us to study endocrine functions in 63 patients (51 men, 12 women) with HIV-1 infection. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) classification system, 13 of these patients were stage CDC II, 27 stage CDC III and 23 stage CDC IV. We explored the adrenocortical function (ACTH, immediate tetracosactrin test) and the thyroid function (free T3 and T4 levels, TRH on TSH test) in all 63 patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (testosterone levels, LHRH test) and prolactin secretion (THR test) were explored in the 51 men. The results obtained showed early peripheral testicular insufficiency at stage CDC II and early pituitary gland abnormalities with hypersecretion of ACTH and prolactin also at stage CDC II. On the other hand, adrenocortical and pituitary abnormalities were not frequently found. The physiopathology of the endocrine abnormalities observed in HIV-1-infected patients remains unclear, but one may suspect that it involves interleukin-1 since this protein factor has recently been shown to stimulate the corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion and to act directly on the glycoprotein capsule of the virus (gp 120) whose structure is similar to that of some neurohormones.

  8. The Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT Integrated Imaging in Distinguishing Malignant from Benign Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yajuan; Yu, Hongjuan; Ma, Jingquan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging in differentiating malignant from benign pleural effusion. Methods A total of 176 patients with pleural effusion who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT examination to differentiate malignancy from benignancy were retrospectively researched. The images of CT imaging, 18F-FDG PET imaging and 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging were visually analyzed. The suspected malignant effusion was characterized by the presence of nodular or irregular pleural thickening on CT imaging. Whereas on PET imaging, pleural 18F-FDG uptake higher than mediastinal activity was interpreted as malignant effusion. Images of 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging were interpreted by combining the morphologic feature of pleura on CT imaging with the degree and form of pleural 18F-FDG uptake on PET imaging. Results One hundred and eight patients had malignant effusion, including 86 with pleural metastasis and 22 with pleural mesothelioma, whereas 68 patients had benign effusion. The sensitivities of CT imaging, 18F-FDG PET imaging and 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging in detecting malignant effusion were 75.0%, 91.7% and 93.5%, respectively, which were 69.8%, 91.9% and 93.0% in distinguishing metastatic effusion. The sensitivity of 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging in detecting malignant effusion was higher than that of CT imaging (p = 0.000). For metastatic effusion, 18F-FDG PET imaging had higher sensitivity (p = 0.000) and better diagnostic consistency with 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging compared with CT imaging (Kappa = 0.917 and Kappa = 0.295, respectively). The specificities of CT imaging, 18F-FDG PET imaging and 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging were 94.1%, 63.2% and 92.6% in detecting benign effusion. The specificities of CT imaging and 18F-FDG PET/CT integrated imaging were higher than that of 18F-FDG PET imaging (p = 0.000 and p = 0.000, respectively), and CT imaging had better diagnostic consistency with

  9. FDG PET with contrast-enhanced CT: a critical imaging tool for laryngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chu, Mae Mae A Y; Kositwattanarerk, Arpakorn; Lee, David J; Makkar, Jasnit S; Genden, Eric M; Kao, Johnny; Packer, Stuart H; Som, Peter M; Kostakoglu, Lale

    2010-09-01

    Fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has evolved to be an essential imaging modality in the evaluation of laryngeal carcinoma. Although the modality has limited utility in assessing the extent of the primary tumor, FDG PET has proved to be superior to anatomic modalities in the detection of lymph node and distant metastases. The role of FDG PET in the evaluation of patients with laryngeal tumors that are clinically classified as N0 has not shown consistent usefulness because of the innate resolution limitations of the camera. In the posttherapy setting, however, FDG PET has consistently demonstrated a high negative predictive value in the identification of recurrent disease, both during the course of therapy and during long-term follow-up. In addition, contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in conjunction with FDG PET has demonstrated a complementary role by allowing for superior anatomic coregistration and therefore more definitive diagnosis. There is sufficient evidence that with further advances in PET technology, this modality will likely become more useful in the detection of small lesions and occult nodal disease, as well as in guiding the management of laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:20833855

  10. Differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias using metabolic phenotypes on F-18 FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Tripathi, Manjari; Damle, Nishikant; Kushwaha, Suman; Jaimini, Abhinav; D'Souza, Maria M; Sharma, Rajnish; Saw, Sanjiv; Mondal, Anupam

    2014-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) can be used as a downstream marker of neuronal injury, a hallmark of neurodegenerative dementias. Characteristic patterns of regional glucose metabolism have been used to classify the dementia subtypes, namely Alzheimer's dementia (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), diffuse Lewy body (DLBD) and vascular dementia (VD). We undertook this study to assess the utility of FDG-PET in the differential diagnosis of dementia subtypes. One hundred and twenty-five patients diagnosed with dementia were referred from cognitive disorders and memory clinics of speciality neurology centres for the FDG-PET study. Imaging-based diagnosis of dementia type was established in 101 patients by visual assessment of individual scans by a PET physician blinded to the clinical diagnosis. The results were compared with an 18-month follow-up clinical assessment made by the specialist neurologist. Concordance of visual evaluation of FDG-PET scans with clinical diagnosis of the dementia type was achieved in 90% of patients scanned. This concordance was 93.4% for AD, 88.8% for FTD, 66.6% for DLBD and 92.3% for the other dementia syndromes. FDG-PET performed after the initial work-up of dementias is useful for supporting the clinical diagnosis of dementia subtype. PMID:24571830

  11. Cerebral arterial inflow assessment with 18F-FDG PET: methodology and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Benathan-Tordjmann, Jennifer; Bailly, Pascal; Meyer, Marc-Etienne; Daouk, Joël

    2014-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) is increasingly used in neurology. The measurement of cerebral arterial inflow (QA) using 18F-FDG complements the information provided by standard brain PET imaging. Here, injections were performed after the beginning of dynamic acquisitions and the time to arrival (t0) of activity in the gantry's field of view was computed. We performed a phantom study using a branched tube (internal diameter: 4mm) and a 18F-FDG solution injected at 240 mL/min. Data processing consisted of (i) reconstruction of the first 3s after t0, (ii) vascular signal enhancement and (iii) clustering. This method was then applied in four subjects. We measured the volumes of the tubes or vascular trees and calculated the corresponding flows. In the phantom, the flow was calculated to be 244.2 mL/min. In each subject, our QA value was compared with that obtained by quantitative cine-phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging; the mean QA value of 581.4±217.5 mL/min calculated with 18F-FDG PET was consistent with the mean value of 593.3±205.8 mL/min calculated with quantitative cine-phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Our 18F-FDG PET method constitutes a novel, fully automatic means of measuring QA.

  12. Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation Information Page Synonym(s): Hallervorden-Spatz Disease, ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation? Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) ...

  13. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants. PMID:27485226

  14. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  15. F-18 FDG PET/CT Findings of a Patient with Takayasu Arteritis Before and After Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sağer, Sait; Yılmaz, Sabire; Özhan, Meftune; Halaç, Metin; Ergül, Nurhan; Çiftci, Hediye; Çermik, T. Fikret

    2012-01-01

    Vasculitis is defined as inflammation and necrosis with leukocytic infiltration of the blood vessel wall. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic inflammatory arteritis that primarily involves the aorta and its main branches. A 64-year-old female patient with a 2-month history of fever of unknown origin was presented to our clinic for F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging. Baseline PET/CT images demonstrated intense F-18 FDG uptake in the aorta, bilateral subclavian and brachiocephalic arteries consistent with Takayasu arteritis. After 2 months of immunosuppressive therapy, she was asymptomatic and follow-up FDG PET/CT scan showed almost complete disappearance of large vessels’ F-18 FDG uptake. FDG PET/CT is a sensitive technique for assessing presence of large-vessel vasculitis such as Takayasu arteritis, extent of large-vessel inflammation and disease activity after therapy. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23486556

  16. [Endocrine abnormalities in patients with chronic renal failure - part II].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Kędzia, Agnieszka; Krupej-Kędzierska, Joanna; Kowalska, Beata; Okopień, Bogusław

    2015-05-01

    The kidneys play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis of fluids and electrolytes, acid-base balance, and volume regulation. In subjects with chronic renal failure, particularly at its later stages, these adaptive responses are impaired and some of these alterations are of clinical relevance. The ways in which chronic renal failure affects function of endocrine organs include impaired secretion of kidney-derived hormones, altered peripheral hormone metabolism, disturbed binding to carrier proteins, accumulation of hormone inhibitors, as well as abnormal target organ responsiveness. Apart from secondary hyperparathyroidism, thyroid dysfunction and impaired growth, reviewed in our previous study, endocrine disturbances that most frequently affect this group of patients include: abnormal functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamicpituitary- gonadal axes, bone loss and gynecomastia. The clinical picture and laboratory findings of these endocrine disturbances depend on the treatment strategy.

  17. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

  18. [Erythrocyte membrane abnormalities - hereditary elliptocytosis].

    PubMed

    Kvezereli-Kopadze, M; Kvezereli-Kopadze, A; Mtvarelidze, Z; Bubuteishvili, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the 4 year old boy with Hereditary Elliptocitosis (HE). The diagnosis of this rare hemolytic anemia was based on detailed family history (positive in the 4-th generation), physical examination and Para-clinical data analyses. The vast majority of patients with HE are asymptomatic, severe forms are rare. The most important is examination of blood films, which is helpful to detect the morphology abnormalities of red cells. In case of HE a different approach is required. Positive family history and series of investigations should be conducted to determine the HE.

  19. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy.

  20. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  1. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  2. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  3. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  4. [Technical limits of PET/CT with 18FDG in prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    von Mallek, D; Backhaus, B; Müller, S C; Matthies, A; Palmedo, H; Jaeger, U; Biersack, H-J; Reinhardt, M

    2006-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that (18)FDG-PET is not useful for the imaging of primary prostate cancer. The aim of this examination was to prove whether or not these poor results are due to technical deficiencies of the examination method like older image reconstruction techniques, extensive (18)FDG-tracer activity in the bladder or improper contrast staining of the rectum. We examined three patients with primary prostate cancer using a modern combined PET/CT system, continuous irrigation of the bladder and an air-inflated rectal balloon catheter. PET/CT images show an exact depiction of both the prostate and all surrounding anatomic structures but no enhanced uptake of radiotracer in the tumour. Therefore, the mentioned poor results of (18)FDG-PET seem not to be due to technical deficiencies.

  5. Growing applications of FDG PET-CT imaging in non-oncologic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Hongming; Codreanu, Ion

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As the number of clinical applications of 2-[fluorine 18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) grows, familiarity with the conditions that can be diagnosed by this modality and when relevant pieces of additional information can be obtained becomes increasingly important for both requesting physicians and nuclear medicine physicians or radiologists who interpret the findings. Apart from its heavy use in clinical oncology, FDG PET-CT is widely used in a variety of non-oncologic conditions interconnecting to such disciplines as general internal medicine, infectious diseases, cardiology, neurology, surgery, traumatology, orthopedics, pediatrics, endocrinology, rheumatology, psychiatry, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience. The aim of this review was to summarize the current evidence of FDG PET-CT applications in evaluating non-oncologic pathologies and the relevant information it can add to achieve a final diagnosis. PMID:26060443

  6. Detection of Diffuse Infiltrative Primary Hepatic Lymphoma on FDG PET-CT: Hallmarks of Hepatic Superscan.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Sonia; Kalra, Shefali; Chawla, Madhavi; Dougall, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is an extremely rare entity with scarce information in evidence-based literature. Few case reports have described the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG PET-CT) in the diagnosing and staging of PHL. We report the case of a 78-year-old man with PHL who initially presented with weight loss and nonspecific fatigue. FDG PET-CT proved to be a beneficial tool in arriving at the diagnosis of this patient with nonspecific clinical presentation and also in the staging of PHL. Physiological uptake of FDG in the liver can be a potential cause of misinterpretation in such cases. Hence, knowing the imaging hallmarks can increase the accuracy in PET image interpretation. PMID:27134567

  7. Unexpected FDG-PET uptake in the gastrointestinal tract: Endoscopic and histopathological correlations

    PubMed Central

    Goldin, Eran; Mahamid, Mahmud; Koslowsky, Benjamin; Shteingart, Shimon; Dubner, Yael; Lalazar, Gadi; Wengrower, Dov

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the nature and significance of unexpected positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) uptake within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). METHODS: Patients with unexpected FDG-PET findings in the GIT were evaluated. All patients had a previous confirmed malignancy, either solid or lymphoproliferative. The radiologic reports were performed by experienced radiologists with an exclusive PET expertise. Endoscopy, i.e., esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy, and histopathological evaluation of all findings was performed in all patients in accordance to the FDG-PET results. The findings from each of these modalities were compared to each other. Both clinically significant and insignificant findings were assessed. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients were endoscopically evaluated. Twenty-seven patients (37.5%) had primarily a lymphoproliferative tumor and 45 (62.5%) had solid tumors. In 50 patients (69.4%) the endoscopic examination revealed lesions in the same anatomical areas as the FDG-PET findings. Among these 50 patients, malignant and premalignant lesions i.e., adenomatous polyps were found in 16 (32%) and 9 (18%) patients, respectively. Inflammation was noted in an additional 20 patients (40%). Compared to primary solid tumors, a background of primary lymphoproliferative malignancy was more likely to reveal an additional primary malignancy (15.6% vs 33.3%, respectively, P < 0.01). EGD compared to colonoscopy, revealed altogether 11 (25.6%) new malignancies compared to 5 (17.2%), respectively, P = 0.12. No GIT clinically significant findings were overseen by the FDG-PET. CONCLUSION: Unexpected FDG uptake in the GIT is commonly encountered and may contain significant findings. Endoscopy evaluation is justified in order to detect these additional findings. PMID:24764676

  8. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  9. FDG-PET/CT for detection of the unknown primary head and neck tumor.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J; Petersen, H; Godballe, C; Loft, A; Grau, C

    2011-10-01

    The benefit of FDG-PET in addition to standard work-up for carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) and metastatic neck lesions has been widely described. However, most studies have been of retrospective nature with large heterogeneities in terms of workup standards and patient selection leaving several questions to be answered regarding the real value of PET in CUP. We here present an overview of the literature with focus on the current evidence of FDG-PET in detecting a primary in CUP and discuss the rationale of PET/CT in the diagnostic armamentarium of CUP. PMID:22019707

  10. Screening for occult malignancy with FDG-PET/CT in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Ana; Redondo, Margarita; Rubio, Tomás; Del Olmo, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Wilhelmi, Pablo; García-Velloso, María J; Richter, José A; Páramo, José A; Lecumberri, Ramón

    2013-11-01

    Extensive screening strategies to detect occult cancer in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) are complex and no benefit in terms of survival has been reported. FDG-PET/CT (2-[F-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography), a noninvasive technique for the diagnosis and staging of malignancies, could be useful in this setting. Consecutive patients ≥ 50 years with a first unprovoked VTE episode were prospectively included. Screening with FDG-PET/CT was performed 3-4 weeks after the index event. If positive, appropriate diagnostic work-up was programmed. Clinical follow-up continued for 2 years. Blood samples were collected to assess coagulation biomarkers. FDG-PET/CT was negative in 68/99 patients (68.7%), while suspicious FDG uptake was detected in 31/99 patients (31.3%). Additional diagnostic work-up confirmed a malignancy in 7/31 patients (22.6%), with six of them at early stage. During follow-up, two patients with negative FDG-PET/CT were diagnosed with cancer. Sensitivity (S), positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of FDG-PET/CT as single tool for the detection of occult malignancy were 77.8% (95% CI: 0.51-1), 22.6% (95% CI: 0.08-0.37) and 97.1% (95% CI: 0.93-1), respectively. Median tissue factor (TF) activity in patients with occult cancer was 5.38 pM vs. 2.40 pM in those without cancer (p = 0.03). Limitation of FDG-PET/CT screening to patients with TF activity > 2.8 pM would improve the PPV to 37.5% and reduce the costs of a single cancer diagnosis from 20,711€ to 11,670€. FDG-PET/CT is feasible for the screening of occult cancer in patients with unprovoked VTE, showing high S and NPV. The addition of TF activity determination may be useful for patient selection. PMID:23616232

  11. Segmental "misty mesentery" on FDG PET/CT: an uncommon manifestation of mesenteric lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Ameya D; Purandare, Nilendu C; Agrawal, Archi; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Mesenteric lymphomas are commonly seen as bulky hypermetabolic nodal masses on F-FDG PET/CT. Very rarely, these are seen as mesenteric haziness due to localized hyperattenuation of fat, known as "misty mesentery", which morphological imaging-wise has other differentials as well. We report a unique imaging finding of segmental misty mesentery with hypermetabolic mesenteric nodes on FDG PET/CT in a patient who was kept on observation due to inconclusive biopsy, which on follow-up imaging progressed to extensive lymphomatous involvement. Thus, in retrospect, this imaging feature on baseline PET/CT was diagnostic for mesenteric lymphoma. PMID:23797224

  12. Natural history of atherosclerotic disease progression as assessed by (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Hetterich, Holger; Rominger, Axel; Walter, Lisa; Habs, Maximilian; Volpers, Sarah; Hacker, Marcus; Reiser, Maximilian F; Bartenstein, Peter; Saam, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cardiovascular risk factors and plaque inflammation on the progression of atherosclerosis as assessed by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging with (18)F-radiolabled fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG). This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study. Patients who received a (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan and follow-up scan 9-24 months later without systemic inflammation or steroid medication were eligible for the study. (18)F-FDG PET/CT included a full diagnostic contrast enhanced CT scan. Cardiovascular risk factors and medication were documented. Calcified plaque volume, lumen area and (18)F-FDG uptake, quantified by the target-to-background ratio (TBR), were measured in the carotid arteries, aorta and iliac arteries. Influence of cardiovascular risk factors and vessel wall inflammation on atherosclerotic disease progression was analyzed. Ninety-four patients underwent baseline and follow-up whole body (18)F-FDG PET/CT (mean follow-up time 14.5 ± 3.5 months). Annualized calcified plaque volume increased by 15.4 % (p < 0.0001), carotid and aortic lumen area decreased by 10.5 % (p < 0.0001) and 1.7 % (p = 0.045). There was no significant difference in (18)F-FDG uptake at baseline and follow-up (mean TBR 1.44 ± 0.18 vs. 1.42 ± 0.19, p = 0.18). Multiple linear regression analysis identified hypertension as an independent predictor for total, aortic and iliac calcified plaque volume progression (all p < 0.04). Carotid lumen reduction was predicted by hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.008) while aortic lumen reduction was associated with BMI and mean (18)F-FDG uptake (p ≤ 0.005). Furthermore we observed a dose response relationship between the number of cardiovascular risk factors and calcified plaque volume progression in the aorta (p = 0.03). Findings from this study provide data on the natural history of atherosclerotic disease burden in multiple vascular beds and emphasize the value of

  13. Imaging of Hepatic Ectopic Pregnancy by 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jingwen; Cheng, Zhen; Hu, Na; Xiao, Lizhi; Wang, Yunhua

    2016-09-01

    Hepatic ectopic pregnancy is an uncommon form of extrauterine pregnancy. A 31-year-old woman had acute abdominal pain and distention. Laboratory examination showed significantly increased serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin level. Both ultrasound and MRI identified a lesion located at the right lobe of the liver. FDG PET/CT was performed to determine whether the other causes of elevated β-human chorionic gonadotropin level, which showed an oval mass with mid peripherally increased FDG activity. After surgery, pathological results confirmed a diagnosis of hepatic ectopic pregnancy. PMID:27454601

  14. Serial FDG PET/CT in autoimmune encephalitis with faciobrachial dystonic seizures.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Albrecht; Drescher, Robert; Kaiser, Katharina; Freesmeyer, Martin; Witte, Otto W; Axer, Hubertus

    2014-10-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is increasingly recognized as a nonparaneoplastic disorder with autoantibodies to neuronal proteins. Although MRI is frequently unremarkable, PET imaging might contribute to identification of affected brain regions in distinct AE. We report on serial FDG PET in a 72-year-old man with particular AE subtype, with potassium channel complex antibodies and prodromal stage with dystonic seizures. Serial FDG PET/CT revealed that besides limbic structures, basal ganglia are centrally involved and presumably play a key role in the generation of dystonic seizures.

  15. Accumulator with preclosing preventer

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, R.R.; Rice, B.J.

    1981-11-24

    A guided-float accumulator suitable for use with a hydraulic system for an oil well blowout preventer is provided with a wing shut-off valve. Radially inwardly directed outlet parts are aimed at the bottom of the valve wing to generate unbalanced reaction forces which oppose the bernoulli effect forces caused by rapid movement of fluid through the chamber of the shut-off valve, thus preventing premature closing of the valve.

  16. Phenotypic abnormalities observed in aged cloned mice from embryonic stem cells after long-term maintenance.

    PubMed

    Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Sotomaru, Yusuke; Eguchi, Natsuko; Suzuki, Shuzo; Hioki, Kyoji; Usui, Toshimi; Kono, Tomohiro; Ito, Mamoru

    2006-09-01

    Somatic/embryonic stem cell cloning has made it possible to produce an individual genomically identical to another individual. However, the cloned animals have a variety of abnormalities caused by the aberrant gene modification, with insufficient reprogramming in cloning. We previously reported abnormalities in cloned mice at birth. In this study, we examined what abnormalities could be seen in cloned mice after long-term maintenance. The aged cloned mice showed multiple abnormalities: increase of body weight, some phenotypic abnormalities in the kidneys, testes and thymus, and lower urea nitrogen in their serum biochemical values. The kidneys of all cloned mice were hypertrophied, with a metamorphic or whitish appearance. The multiple lesions, including the enlarged renal pelvis and distension of the renal veins in histology, might be the result of urine accumulation by urinary tract obstruction. The testes of the cloned mice were atrophied, and showed no sperm formation in histology. In contrast, the thymus was rather hypertrophied, and a comparably increased number of lymphocytes were observed in the medulla, consisting mainly of T cells. By conducting a progeny test between the cloned mice, it was confirmed that these abnormalities in the aged cloned mice were not transmitted to their offspring, indicating that the incomplete reprogramming in clones might be in part responsible for the abnormalities detected in aged clones. These results indicate that the postnatal abnormalities observed in aged cloned mice are varied and can be restored through the germ line. PMID:16940284

  17. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child.

  18. Nasal visualization on radioiodine whole-body scintigraphy due to benign abnormality.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xue; Wang, Qiao; Huang, Rui

    2015-04-01

    Nasal iodine activity can be observed on 123Iodine (123I) or 131I whole-body scintigraphy (WBS) commonly as a normal variant caused by nasal or salivary secretion of the tracer. We encountered 2 patients whose increased accumulation of 131I activity was associated with underlying abnormalities. One patient had a nasal polyp, whereas the other had an abscess.

  19. Biodistribution of the radionuclides 18F-FDG, 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195, and 68Ga-citrate in domestic juvenile female pigs and morphological and molecular imaging of the tracers in hematogenously disseminated Staphylococcus aureus lesions

    PubMed Central

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ole L; Alstrup, Aage KO; Bender, Dirk; Leifsson, Páll S; Jensen, Svend B; Schønheyder, Henrik C

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 5-7% of acute-care patients suffer from bacteremia. Bacteremia may give rise to bacterial spread to different tissues. Conventional imaging procedures as X-ray, Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and ultrasound are often first-line imaging methods for identification and localization of infection. These methods are, however, not always successful. Early identification and localization of infection is critical for the appropriate and timely selection of therapy. The aim of this study was thus; a head to head comparison of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to PET with tracers that potentially could improve uncovering of infectious lesions in soft tissues. We chose 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195, and 68Ga-citrate as tracers and besides presenting their bio-distribution we validated their diagnostic utility in pigs with experimental bacterial infection. Four juvenile 14-15 weeks old female domestic pigs were scanned seven days after intra-arterial inoculation in the right femoral artery with a porcine strain of S. aureus using a sequential scanning protocol with 18F-FDG, 11C-methionine, 11C-PK11195 and 68Ga-citrate. This was followed by necropsy of the pigs consisting of gross pathology, histopathology and microbial examination. The pigs primarily developed lesions in lungs and neck muscles. 18F-FDG had higher infection to background ratios and accumulated in most infectious foci caused by S. aureus, while 11C-methionine and particularly 11C-PK11195 and 68Ga-citrate accumulated to a lesser extent in infectious foci. 18F-FDG-uptake was seen in the areas of inflammatory cells and to a much lesser extent in reparative infiltration surrounding necrotic regions. PMID:27069765

  20. Radiation-induced DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness of 18F-FDG in wild-type mice

    DOE PAGES

    Taylor, Kristina; Lemon, Jennifer A.; Boreham, Douglas R.

    2014-05-28

    Clinically, the most commonly used positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer is the glucose analog 2-[18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG), however little research has been conducted on the biological effects of 18F-FDG injections. The induction and repair of DNA damage and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of radiation from 18F-FDG relative to 662 keV γ-rays were investigated. The study also assessed whether low-dose radiation exposure from 18F-FDG was capable of inducing an adaptive response. DNA damage to the bone marrow erythroblast population was measured using micronucleus formation and lymphocyte γH2A.X levels. To test the RBE of 18F-FDG, mice were injected with a rangemore » of activities of 18F-FDG (0–14.80 MBq) or irradiated with Cs-137 γ-rays (0–100 mGy). The adaptive response was investigated 24 h after the 18F-FDG injection by 1 Gy in vivo challenge doses for micronucleated reticulocyte (MN-RET) formation or 1, 2 and 4 Gy in vitro challenges doses for γH2A.X formation. A significant increase in MN-RET formation above controls occurred following injection activities of 3.70, 7.40 or 14.80 MBq (P < 0.001) which correspond to bone marrow doses of ~35, 75 and 150 mGy, respectively. Per unit dose, the Cs-137 radiation exposure induced significantly more damage than the 18F-FDG injections (RBE = 0.79 ± 0.04). A 20% reduction in γH2A.X fluorescence was observed in mice injected with a prior adapting low dose of 14.80 MBq 18F-FDG relative to controls (P < 0.019). A 0.74 MBq 18F-FDG injection, which gives mice a dose approximately equal to a typical human PET scan, did not cause a significant increase in DNA damage nor did it generate an adaptive response. Typical 18F-FDG injection activities used in small animal imaging (14.80 MBq) resulted in a decrease in DNA damage, as measured by γH2A.X formation, below spontaneous levels observed in control mice. Lastly, the 18F-FDG RBE was <1.0, indicating that the mixed radiation quality

  1. 18F-FDG PET imaging in a patient with late omental infarction after treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chassagnon, Guillaume; Metrard, Gilles; Besse, Hélène; Gauvain, Sabine

    2014-06-01

    We report a case of late omental infarction visualized by F-FDG PET/CT during follow-up for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The 65-year-old patient was referred for imaging 8 months after pancreaticoduodenectomy and 2 months after completion of a course of chemotherapy. PET/CT showed an FDG-avid omental lesion that suggested peritoneal carcinomatosis. The appearance and evolution at follow-up studies confirmed the diagnosis of omental infarction, a rare complication of pancreatic surgery. This case revealed the possibility of late FDG uptake in omental infarction.

  2. Historic images in nuclear medicine: 1976: the first issue of clinical nuclear medicine and the first human FDG study.

    PubMed

    Hess, Søren; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Alavi, Abass

    2014-08-01

    In 1976, 2 major molecular imaging events coincidentally took place: Clinical Nuclear Medicine was first published in June, and in August researchers at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania created the first images in humans with F-FDG. FDG was initially developed as part of an evolution set in motion by fundamental research studies with positron-emitting tracers in the 1950s by Michel Ter-Pegossian and coworkers at the Washington University. Today, Clinical Nuclear Medicine is a valued scientific contributor to the molecular imaging community, and FDG PET is considered the backbone of this evolving and exciting discipline.

  3. A solitary fibrous tumor arising in the parapharyngeal space, with MRI and FDG-PET findings.

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, Naohiro; Kondo, Satoru; Murono, Shigeyuki; Minato, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Mitsuru; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2009-06-01

    We present the imaging and pathological features of a 38-year-old man in whom a large parapharyngeal solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) on the left side was found. On MRI, the tumor showed a nodule-in-nodule appearance. The inner nodule revealed high signal intensities both on T1- and T2-weighted MR images. The entire tumor showed heterogeneous enhancement on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) identified heterogeneous radiotracer uptake of FDG in the inner nodule of the tumor. Histologic examinations revealed an admixture of growth patterns, including a "patternless pattern" and "haemangiopericytoma-like pattern". The tumor was positive for CD34. Imaging features of SFT arising in the parapharyngeal space are discussed with a review of literatures. This is the first report of FDG-PET finding of SFT arising in the head and neck. More cases are needed to achieve diagnostic significance from FDG-PET findings of parapharyngeal SFTs.

  4. A rare case of mature teratoma. Has FDG PET/CT a role to play?

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Tushar; Arora, Abhishek; Srikant, K; Snehalata; Kumar, Nandish

    2011-04-01

    Authors describe a very rare case of mature teratoma with malignant transformation, preoperatively suggested by FDG PET/CT study. So the role of CT component in elucidating three embryonal components and hypermetabolism evident on PET part suggesting possible malignant transformation makes PET/CT a valuable modality in evaluation of these rare tumors.

  5. F18-FDG-PET for recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer: a systematic meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Haslerud, Torjan; Brauckhoff, Katrin; Reisæter, Lars; Küfner Lein, Regina; Heinecke, Achim; Varhaug, Jan Erik

    2015-01-01

    Background Positron emission tomography (PET) with fluor-18-deoxy-glucose (FDG) is widely used for diagnosing recurrent or metastatic disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Purpose To assess the diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET for DTC in patients after ablative therapy. Material and Methods A systematic search was conducted in Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Open Grey looking for all English-language original articles on the performance of FDG-PET in series of at least 20 patients with DTC having undergone ablative therapy including total thyroidectomy. Diagnostic performance measures were pooled using Reitsma’s bivariate model. Results Thirty-four publications between 1996 and 2014 met the inclusion criteria. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 79.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73.9–84.1) and 79.4% (95% CI, 71.2–85.4), respectively, with an area under the curve of 0.858. Conclusion F18-FDG-PET is a useful method for detecting recurrent DTC in patients having undergone ablative therapy. PMID:26163534

  6. Different Scoring Methods of FDG PET/CT in Giant Cell Arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Stellingwerff, Menno D.; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Lensen, Karel-Jan D.F.; Rutgers, Abraham; Arends, Suzanne; van der Geest, Kornelis S.M.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most frequent form of vasculitis in persons older than 50 years. Cranial and systemic large vessels can be involved. [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to diagnose inflammation of the large arteries in GCA. Unfortunately, no consensus exists on the preferred scoring method. In the present study, we aim to define the optimal FDG PET/CT scoring method for GCA diagnosis using temporal artery biopsy and clinical diagnosis as the reference method. FDG PET/CT scans of GCA patients (12 glucocorticoid-naive, 6 on glucocorticoid treatment) and 3 control groups (inflammatory, atherosclerotic, and normal controls) were evaluated. We compared 2 qualitative visual methods (i.e. (1a) first impression and (1b) vascular uptake versus liver uptake) and 4 semiquantitative methods ((2a) SUVmax aorta, (2b) SUVmax aorta-to-liver ratio, (2c) SUVmax aorta-to-superior-caval-vein ratio, and (2d) SUVmax aorta-to-inferior-caval-vein ratio). FDG uptake pattern (diffuse or focal) and presence of arterial calcifications were also scored. Diagnostic accuracy of the visual method vascular versus liver uptake (1b) was highest when the cut-off point “vascular uptake higher than liver uptake” (sensitivity 83%, specificity 91%) was used. Sensitivity increased to 92% when patients on glucocorticoids were excluded from the analysis. Regarding the semiquantitative methods, the aorta-to-liver ratio (2b) with a cutoff of 1.03 had the highest diagnostic accuracy, with a sensitivity and specificity of 69% and 92%, respectively. Sensitivity increased to 90% when patients on glucocorticoids were excluded. The number of vascular segments with diffuse FDG uptake pattern was significantly higher in GCA patients without glucocorticoid use compared with all control patient groups. CRP was not significantly different between positive and negative FDG PET scans in the GCA group. Visual vascular

  7. Phenotypic abnormalities: terminology and classification.

    PubMed

    Merks, Johannes H M; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Caron, Hubert N; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2003-12-15

    Clinical morphology has proved essential for the successful delineation of hundreds of syndromes and as a powerful instrument for detecting (candidate) genes (Gorlin et al. [2001]; Syndromes of the Head and Neck; Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1 p]. The major approach to reach this has been careful clinical evaluations of patients, focused on congenital anomalies. A similar careful physical examination performed in patients, who have been treated for childhood cancer, may allow detection of concurrent patterns of anomalies and provide clues for causative genes. In the past, several studies were performed describing the prevalence of anomalies in patients with cancer. However, in most studies, it was not possible to indicate the biologic relevance of the recorded anomalies, or to judge their relative importance. Are the detected anomalies common variants, and should they thus be regarded as normal, or are they minor anomalies or true abnormalities, indicating a possible developmental cause? Classification of items in the categories of common variants (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence >4%), minor anomalies (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence abnormal physical findings by a nomenclature for errors of morphogenesis detectable on surface examination, and secondly a uniform classification system. This should allow investigators to evaluate systematically the presence of patterns in phenotypic anomalies, in the general population, and in patients with various disorders, suspected to be a developmental anomaly. Also

  8. Study of an image-derived SUV and a modified SUV using mouse FDG-PET

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiujuan; Yu, Chin-Lung; Sha, Wei; Radu, Caius; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Feng, Dagan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Standard uptake value (SUV) is calculated without consideration of the differences in plasma FDG clearance. Its variability can be affected by changes of the amount of excreted FDG by renal function. Moreover, the estimation of SUV is quite sensitive to errors in the measurements of body weight and injected dose. This study aims to develop an image-based method to obtain an image-derived SUV (iSUV) and a modified SUV (mSUV) to overcome these problems. Methods 31 tumor-planted SCID mice were scanned in microPET at ~60min post FDG injection, and then scanned in microCT. Using image-based method, the body weight and injected dose were derived from the microPET/CT images to calculate iSUV. The volumes and the total activities of FDG within the bladder and the whole-body were also obtained to calculate mSUV. For the selected targets, the iSUVs and mSUVs were compared against their corresponding SUVs. Results Compared with SUV factor (injected dose/body weight), iSUV factor had an average percentage error of −0.7%. The linear regressions between SUV and iSUV had a slope of 0.99 with correlation coefficient of 0.95. Compared with SUV and iSUV, CV% of mSUV decreased while the tumor-to-background separation of mSUV increased. Conclusions Using this image-based method, the iSUV can replace SUV when the actual measurements were missing or unreliable. The mSUV can reduce the inter-subject variability and enhance the tumor-to-background separation in mouse FDG-PET studies. PMID:21492784

  9. 18F-FDG positron autoradiography with a particle counting silicon pixel detector.

    PubMed

    Russo, P; Lauria, A; Mettivier, G; Montesi, M C; Marotta, M; Aloj, L; Lastoria, S

    2008-11-01

    We report on tests of a room-temperature particle counting silicon pixel detector of the Medipix2 series as the detector unit of a positron autoradiography (AR) system, for samples labelled with (18)F-FDG radiopharmaceutical used in PET studies. The silicon detector (1.98 cm(2) sensitive area, 300 microm thick) has high intrinsic resolution (55 microm pitch) and works by counting all hits in a pixel above a certain energy threshold. The present work extends the detector characterization with (18)F-FDG of a previous paper. We analysed the system's linearity, dynamic range, sensitivity, background count rate, noise, and its imaging performance on biological samples. Tests have been performed in the laboratory with (18)F-FDG drops (37-37 000 Bq initial activity) and ex vivo in a rat injected with 88.8 MBq of (18)F-FDG. Particles interacting in the detector volume produced a hit in a cluster of pixels whose mean size was 4.3 pixels/event at 11 keV threshold and 2.2 pixels/event at 37 keV threshold. Results show a sensitivity for beta(+) of 0.377 cps Bq(-1), a dynamic range of at least five orders of magnitude and a lower detection limit of 0.0015 Bq mm(-2). Real-time (18)F-FDG positron AR images have been obtained in 500-1000 s exposure time of thin (10-20 microm) slices of a rat brain and compared with 20 h film autoradiography of adjacent slices. The analysis of the image contrast and signal-to-noise ratio in a rat brain slice indicated that Poisson noise-limited imaging can be approached in short (e.g. 100 s) exposures, with approximately 100 Bq slice activity, and that the silicon pixel detector produced a higher image quality than film-based AR.

  10. Use of FDG-PET in differentiating benign from malignant compression fractures

    PubMed Central

    Essary, Brendan; Torriani, Martin; Ouellette, Hugue A.; Palmer, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The objective was to evaluate the use of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in differentiating benign from malignant compression fractures. Patients and methods In a retrospective analysis, we identified 33 patients with 43 compression fractures who underwent FDG-PET. On FDG-PET the uptake pattern was recorded qualitatively and semiquantitatively and fractures were categorized as benign or malignant. Standardized uptake values (SUV) were obtained. MRI, CT, and biopsy results as well as clinical follow-up for 1–3 years served as standards of reference. The Student’s t test was used to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between the SUV for benign and malignant compression fractures. Results There were 14 malignant and 29 benign compression fractures, including 5 acute benign fractures. On FDG-PET, 5 benign fractures were falsely classified as malignant (false-positive). Three of these patients underwent prior treatment with bone marrow-stimulating agents. There were two false-negative results. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of FDG-PET in differentiating benign from malignant compression fractures were 86%, 83%, 84%, 71%, and 92% respectively. The difference between SUV values of benign and malignant fractures was statistically significant (1.9 ± 0.97 for benign and 3.9 ± 1.52 for malignant fractures, p < 0.001). SUV of benign acute and chronic fractures were not statistically significant. Conclusion Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is useful in differentiating benign from malignant compression fractures. Therapy with bone marrow-stimulating agents can mimic malignant involvement. PMID:18278491

  11. Quantitative Assessment of Heterogeneity in Tumor Metabolism Using FDG-PET

    SciTech Connect

    Vriens, Dennis; Disselhorst, Jonathan A.; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee de; Visser, Eric P.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: [{sup 18}F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) images are usually quantitatively analyzed in 'whole-tumor' volumes of interest. Also parameters determined with dynamic PET acquisitions, such as the Patlak glucose metabolic rate (MR{sub glc}) and pharmacokinetic rate constants of two-tissue compartment modeling, are most often derived per lesion. We propose segmentation of tumors to determine tumor heterogeneity, potentially useful for dose-painting in radiotherapy and elucidating mechanisms of FDG uptake. Methods and Materials: In 41 patients with 104 lesions, dynamic FDG-PET was performed. On MR{sub glc} images, tumors were segmented in quartiles of background subtracted maximum MR{sub glc} (0%-25%, 25%-50%, 50%-75%, and 75%-100%). Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using an irreversible two-tissue compartment model in the three segments with highest MR{sub glc} to determine the rate constants of FDG metabolism. Results: From the highest to the lowest quartile, significant decreases of uptake (K{sub 1}), washout (k{sub 2}), and phosphorylation (k{sub 3}) rate constants were seen with significant increases in tissue blood volume fraction (V{sub b}). Conclusions: Tumor regions with highest MR{sub glc} are characterized by high cellular uptake and phosphorylation rate constants with relatively low blood volume fractions. In regions with less metabolic activity, the blood volume fraction increases and cellular uptake, washout, and phosphorylation rate constants decrease. These results support the hypothesis that regional tumor glucose phosphorylation rate is not dependent on the transport of nutrients (i.e., FDG) to the tumor.

  12. Validation of true low-dose 18F-FDG PET of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Fällmar, David; Lilja, Johan; Kilander, Lena; Danfors, Torsten; Lubberink, Mark; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Sörensen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The dosage of 18F-FDG must be sufficient to ensure adequate PET image quality. For younger patients and research controls, the lowest possible radiation dose should be used. The purpose of this study was to find a protocol for FDG-PET of the brain with reduced radiation dose and preserved quantitative characteristics. Eight patients with neurodegenerative disorders and nine controls (n=17) underwent FDG-PET/CT twice on separate occasions, first with normal-dose (3 MBq/kg), and second with low-dose (0.75 MBq/kg, 25% of the original). Five additional controls (total n=22) underwent FDG-PET twice, using normal-dose and ultra-low-dose (0.3 MBq/kg, 10% of original). All subjects underwent MRI. Ten-minute summation images were spatially normalized and intensity normalized. Regional standard uptake value ratios (SUV-r) were calculated using an automated atlas. SUV-r values from the normal- and low-dose images were compared pairwise. No clinically significant bias was found in any of the three groups. The mean absolute difference in regional SUV-r values was 0.015 (1.32%) in controls and 0.019 (1.67%) in patients. The ultra-low-dose protocol produced a slightly higher mean difference of 0.023 (2.10%). The main conclusion is that 0.75 MBq/kg (56 MBq for a 75-kg subject) is a sufficient FDG dose for evaluating regional SUV-ratios in brain PET scans in adults with or without neurodegenerative disease, resulting in a reduction of total PET/CT effective dose from 4.54 to 1.15 mSv. The ultra-low-dose (0.5 mSv) could be useful in research studies requiring serial PET in healthy controls or children. PMID:27766185

  13. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  14. FDG-PET mapping the brain substrates of visuo-constructive processing in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Förster, Stefan; Teipel, Stefan; Zach, Christian; Rominger, Axel; Cumming, Paul; Fougere, Christian la; Yakushev, Igor; Haslbeck, Marianne; Hampel, Harald; Bartenstein, Peter; Bürger, Katharina

    2010-05-01

    The anatomical basis of visuo-constructive impairment in AD is widely unexplored. FDG-PET can be used to determine functional neuronal networks underlying specific cognitive performance in the human brain. In the present study, we determined the pattern of cortical metabolism that was associated with visuo-constructive performance in AD. We employed two widely used visuo-constructive tests that differ in their demand on visual perception and processing capacity. Resting state FDG-PET scans were obtained in 29 probable AD patients, and cognitive tests were administered. We made a voxel-based regression analysis of FDG uptake to scores in visual test performance, using the SPM5 software. Performance in the CERAD Drawing test correlated with FDG uptake in the bilateral inferior temporal gyri, bilateral precuneus, right cuneus, right supramarginal gyrus and right middle temporal gyrus covering areas of dorsal and ventral visual streams. In contrast, performance in the more complex RBANS Figure Copy test correlated with FDG uptake in the bilateral fusiform gyri, right inferior temporal gyrus, left anterior cingulate gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus and right insula, encompassing the ventral visual stream and areas of higher-level visual processing. The study revealed neuronal networks underlying impaired visual test performance in AD. The extent of involvement of visual and higher order association cortex increased with greater test complexity. From a clinical point of view, both of these widely used visual tests evaluate the integrity of complementary cortical networks and may contribute complementary information on the integrity of visual processing in AD. PMID:19875130

  15. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  16. Cytoskeletal abnormalities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: beneficial or detrimental effects?

    PubMed

    Julien, J P; Beaulieu, J M

    2000-11-01

    Cytoskeletal abnormalities have been reported in cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) including abnormal inclusions containing neurofilaments (NFs) and/or peripherin, reduced mRNA levels for the NF light (NF-L) protein and mutations in the NF heavy (NF-H) gene. Recently, transgenic mouse approaches have been used to address whether cytoskeletal changes may contribute to motor neuron disease. Mice lacking one of the three NF subunits are viable and do not develop motor neuron disease. Nonetheless, mice with null mutations for NF-L or for both NF-M and NF-H genes developed severe atrophy of ventral and dorsal root axons. The atrophic process is associated with hind limb paralysis during aging in mice deficient for both NF-M and NF-H proteins. The overexpression in mice of transgenes coding for wild-type or mutant NF proteins can provoke abnormal NF accumulations, axonal atrophy and sometimes motor dysfunction. However, the perikaryal NF accumulations are generally well tolerated by motor neurons and, except for expression of a mutant NF-L transgene, they did not provoke massive motor neuron death. Increasing the levels of perikaryal NF proteins may even confer protection in motor neuron disease caused by ALS-linked mutations in the superoxide dismutase (SOD1). In contrast, the overexpression of wild-type peripherin, a type of IF gene upregulated by inflammatory cytokines, provoked the formation of toxic IF inclusions with the high-molecular-weight NF proteins resulting in the death of motor neurons during aging. These results together with the detection of peripherin inclusions at early stage of disease in mice expressing mutant SOD1 suggest that IF inclusions containing peripherin may play a contributory role in ALS pathogenesis.

  17. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  18. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. PMID:22520483

  19. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  20. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  1. Dorsal Striatum and Its Limbic Connectivity Mediate Abnormal Anticipatory Reward Processing in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hirvonen, Jussi; Hannukainen, Jarna C.; Immonen, Heidi; Lindroos, Markus M.; Salminen, Paulina; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by an imbalance in the brain circuits promoting reward seeking and those governing cognitive control. Here we show that the dorsal caudate nucleus and its connections with amygdala, insula and prefrontal cortex contribute to abnormal reward processing in obesity. We measured regional brain glucose uptake in morbidly obese (n = 19) and normal weighted (n = 16) subjects with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia and with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while anticipatory food reward was induced by repeated presentations of appetizing and bland food pictures. First, we found that glucose uptake rate in the dorsal caudate nucleus was higher in obese than in normal-weight subjects. Second, obese subjects showed increased hemodynamic responses in the caudate nucleus while viewing appetizing versus bland foods in fMRI. The caudate also showed elevated task-related functional connectivity with amygdala and insula in the obese versus normal-weight subjects. Finally, obese subjects had smaller responses to appetizing versus bland foods in the dorsolateral and orbitofrontal cortices than did normal-weight subjects, and failure to activate the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was correlated with high glucose metabolism in the dorsal caudate nucleus. These findings suggest that enhanced sensitivity to external food cues in obesity may involve abnormal stimulus-response learning and incentive motivation subserved by the dorsal caudate nucleus, which in turn may be due to abnormally high input from the amygdala and insula and dysfunctional inhibitory control by the frontal cortical regions. These functional changes in the responsiveness and interconnectivity of the reward circuit could be a critical mechanism to explain overeating in obesity. PMID:22319604

  2. Dynamic FDG PET/CT imaging with diuresis demonstrates an enterovesical fistula in a lymphoma patient with repeated colon diverticulitis.

    PubMed

    Kao, Pan-Fu; Ting, Wen-Chien; Hsiao, Pei-Ching; Kao, Yu-Lin; Chang, Pai-Jung; Lee, Jong-Kang

    2013-04-01

    A 43-year-old male patient with follicular B-cell lymphoma was referred for a FDG PET/CT scan due to severe left lower abdominal pain to rule out recurrent cancer. These FDG PET/CT images and previous FDG PET/CT images 5 months ago both revealed an air bubble in the urinary bladder on the CT images. He had a recurrent urinary tract infection history for 6 months. A list-mode dynamic data acquisition with diuresis intravenous injection revealed linear FDG activity extending from the upper-left portion of the bladder to a soft tissue mass in the lower-left pelvic region. An enterovesical fistula was confirmed by surgery.

  3. Serial 18F-FDG PET/CT Findings in a Patient With IgLON5 Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Niu, Na; Cui, Ruixue

    2016-10-01

    We presented the serial FDG PET/CT brain scans of a 64-year-old woman with IgLON5 encephalopathy, which is a novel syndrome in association with antibodies to a neuronal cell adhesion protein named IgLON5, and FDG PET findings have not been characterized previously. For our case, the relatively hypermetabolism in primary sensorimotor cortices, basal ganglia, and cerebrum comparing to other cortical regions on the pretreatment FDG PET/CT was partially recovered on the follow-up FDG PET/CT scan after immunotherapy, corresponding with the alleviation of clinical syndromes. The metabolic change pattern was not similar as other types of autoimmune encephalitis. PMID:27556794

  4. False Suggestion of Malignant Transformation of Benign Bone Tumor by 18F-FDG PET/CT: A Potential Pitfall.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Ren; Kuo, Yu-Cheng; Hsu, Cheng-Nan; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-10-01

    A 68-year-old man underwent serial F-FDG PET/CT scan follow-up for lung cancer. Then 5.5 years after the initial F-FDG PET/CT scan, the presumed benign bone tumor in the left clavicle showed markedly increased FDG uptake during follow-up; in contrast, the Tc-MDP bone scan paradoxically exhibited no apparent interval change since last bone scan 5.5 years earlier. He underwent a CT-guided biopsy, and the pathological diagnosis was benign fibrous histiocytoma. The result was consistent with the lack of progression in Tc-MDP bone scan, whereas the F-FDG PET/CT scan gave a false-positive impression of malignant transformation. PMID:27556801

  5. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  6. Diagnostic FDG and FDOPA positron emission tomography scans distinguish the genomic type and treatment outcome of neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsiu-Hao; Lu, Ching-Chu; Lin, Dong-Tsamn; Jou, Shiann-Tarng; Yang, Yung-Li; Lee, Ya-Ling; Huang, Shiu-Feng; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Lee, Hsinyu; Miser, James S.; Lin, Kai-Hsin; Liao, Yung-Feng; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Tzen, Kai-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a heterogeneous childhood cancer that requires multiple imaging modalities for accurate staging and surveillances. This study aims to investigate the utility of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and 18F-fluoro-dihydroxyphenylalanine (FDOPA) in determining the prognosis of NB. During 2007–2014, forty-two NB patients (male:female, 28:14; median age, 2.0 years) undergoing paired FDG and FDOPA PET scans at diagnosis were evaluated for the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of FDG or FDOPA by the primary tumor. Patients with older age, advanced stages, or MYCN amplification showed higher FDG and lower FDOPA SUVmax (all P < 0.02). Receiver operating characteristics analysis identified FDG SUVmax≥ 3.31 and FDOPA SUVmax < 4.12 as an ultra-high-risk feature (PET-UHR) that distinguished the most unfavorable genomic types, i.e. segmental chromosomal alterations and/or MYCN amplification, at a sensitivity of 81.3% (54.4%–96.0%) and a specificity of 93.3% (68.1%–99.8%). Considering with age, stage, MYCN status, and anatomical image-defined risk factor, PET-UHR was an independent predictor of inferior event-free survival (multivariate hazard ratio, 4.9 [1.9–30.1]; P = 0.012). Meanwhile, the ratio between FDG and FDOPA SUVmax (G:D) correlated positively with HK2 (Spearman's ρ = 0.86, P < 0.0001) and negatively with DDC (ρ = −0.58, P = 0.02) gene expression levels, which might suggest higher glycolytic activity and less catecholaminergic differentiation in NB tumors taking up higher FDG and lower FDOPA. In conclusion, the intensity of FDG and FDOPA uptake on diagnostic PET scans may predict the tumor behavior and complement the current risk stratification systems of NB. PMID:26959748

  7. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  8. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  9. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  10. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  11. Brentuximab vedotin administered to platinum-refractory, transplant-naïve Hodgkin lymphoma patients can increase the proportion achieving FDG PET negative status.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Maika; Graf, Solomon A; Holmberg, Leona; Behnia, Sanaz; Shustov, Andrei R; Schiavo, Karen; Philip, Mary; Libby, Edward N; Cassaday, Ryan D; Pagel, John M; Roden, Jennifer E; Maloney, David G; Green, Damian J; Till, Brian G; Press, Oliver W; Smith, Stephen D; Gopal, Ajay K

    2015-12-01

    Normalization of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) imaging prior to high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) improves outcomes in relapsed and refractory (RR) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), but many patients refractory to platinum-based salvage regimens are unable to achieve this goal. We therefore investigated whether brentuximab vedotin (BV) could normalize FDG PET in platinum-refractory HL prior to ASCT. Fifteen consecutive patients with RR HL and FDG PET positive disease after platinum-based salvage therapy were treated with a median of 4 cycles of BV. Normalization of FDG PET (Deauville ≤2) occurred in 8/15 (53%) patients but was only observed in patients that had achieved partial remission or stable disease after platinum-based salvage therapy. All patients eventually proceeded to ASCT, regardless of FDG PET status. Our data suggest that BV can normalize FDG PET in a subset of patients with platinum-refractory HL prior to ASCT.

  12. Skeletal Muscle Abnormalities in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Matsushima, Shouji; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Exercise capacity is lowered in patients with heart failure, which limits their daily activities and also reduces their quality of life. Furthermore, lowered exercise capacity has been well demonstrated to be closely related to the severity and prognosis of heart failure. Skeletal muscle abnormalities including abnormal energy metabolism, transition of myofibers from type I to type II, mitochondrial dysfunction, reduction in muscular strength, and muscle atrophy have been shown to play a central role in lowered exercise capacity. The skeletal muscle abnormalities can be classified into the following main types: 1) low endurance due to mitochondrial dysfunction; and 2) low muscle mass and muscle strength due to imbalance of protein synthesis and degradation. The molecular mechanisms of these skeletal muscle abnormalities have been studied mainly using animal models. The current review including our recent study will focus upon the skeletal muscle abnormalities in heart failure. PMID:26346520

  13. In vivo non-invasive serial monitoring of FDG-PET progression and regression in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Worthley, Stephen G; Zhang, Zhuang Y; Machac, Josef; Helft, Gérard; Tang, Cheuk; Liew, Gary Y H; Zaman, Azfar G; Worthley, Matthew I; Fayad, Zahi A; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Fuster, Valentin; Badimon, Juan J

    2009-03-01

    We investigated the ability of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) imaging to serially monitor macrophage content in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits (n = 8) by a combination of atherogenic diet and balloon denudation of the aorta. At the end of nine months, the rabbits were randomized to a further six months of the same atherogenic diet (progression group) or normal diet (regression group). In vivo uptake of FDG by the thoracic aorta was measured using aortic uptake-to-blood radioactivity ratios at the start and end of the randomized period. A significant increase in FDG uptake of the progression group after continued cholesterol feeding (aortic uptake-to-blood radioactivity: 0.57 +/- 0.02 to 0.68 +/- 0.02, P = 0.001), and a corresponding fall in FDG uptake of the regression group after returning to a normal chow diet (aortic uptake-to-blood radioactivity ratios: 0.67 +/- 0.02 to 0.53 +/- 0.02, P < 0.0001). FDG PET can quantify in vivo macrophage content and serially monitor changes in FDG activity in this rabbit model.

  14. Estimate of FDG excretion by means of compartmental analysis and ant colony optimization of nuclear medicine data.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, Sara; Caviglia, Giacomo; Brignone, Massimo; Massollo, Michela; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Piana, Michele

    2013-01-01

    [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is one of the most utilized tracers for positron emission tomography (PET) applications in oncology. FDG-PET relies on higher glycolytic activity in tumors compared to normal structures as the basis of image contrast. As a glucose analog, FDG is transported into malignant cells which typically exhibit an increased radioactivity. However, different from glucose, FDG is not reabsorbed by the renal system and is excreted to the bladder. The present paper describes a novel computational method for the quantitative assessment of this excretion process. The method is based on a compartmental analysis of FDG-PET data in which the excretion process is explicitly accounted for by the bladder compartment and on the application of an ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm for the determination of the tracer coefficients describing the FDG transport effectiveness. The validation of this approach is performed by means of both synthetic data and real measurements acquired by a PET device for small animals (micro-PET). Possible oncological applications of the results are discussed in the final section. PMID:24191175

  15. The role of FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of residual disease in paediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bhojwani, Deepa; McCarville, Mary B; Choi, John K; Sawyer, Jennifer; Metzger, Monika L; Inaba, Hiroto; Davidoff, Andrew M; Gold, Robert; Shulkin, Barry L; Sandlund, John T

    2015-03-01

    (18) F-labelled-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) findings are challenging to interpret for residual disease versus complete response in paediatric patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A biopsy is often warranted to confirm the presence or absence of viable tumour if there is clinical or radiographic evidence of residual disease. In this study, we compared conventional imaging and FDG-PET/computerized tomography (CT) findings with biopsy results in 18 children with NHL. Our goal was to provide additional data to establish more reliable criteria for response evaluation. Residual disease was suspected after conventional imaging alone in eight patients, after FDG-PET/CT alone in three and after both modalities in seven patients. Biopsy confirmed the presence of viable tumour in two patients. Two additional patients experienced progressive disease or relapse. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of FDG-PET/CT using the London criteria to indicate residual tumour detectable by biopsy were 100%, but specificity was low (60%), as was the positive predictive value (25%). Thus, in this study, a negative FDG-PET/CT finding was a good indicator of complete remission. However, because false-positive FDG-PET/CT findings are common, biopsy and close monitoring are required for accurate determination of residual disease in individual patients.

  16. Novel synthesis and initial preclinical evaluation of (18)F-[FDG] labeled rhodamine: a potential PET myocardial perfusion imaging agent.

    PubMed

    AlJammaz, Ibrahim; Al-Otaibi, Basim; AlHindas, Hussein; Okarvi, Subhani M

    2015-10-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging is one of the most commonly performed investigations in nuclear medicine studies. Due to the clinical importance of [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([(18)F]-FDG) and its availability in almost every PET center, a new radiofluorinated [(18)F]-FDG-rhodamine conjugate was synthesized using [(18)F]-FDG as a prosthetic group. In a convenient and simple one-step radiosynthesis, [(18)F]-FDG-rhodamine conjugate was prepared in quantitative radiochemical yields, with total synthesis time of nearly 20 min and radiochemical purity of greater than 98%, without the need for HPLC purification, which make these approaches amenable for automation. Biodistribution studies in normal rats at 60 min post-injection demonstrated a high uptake in the heart (>11% ID/g) and favorable pharmacokinetics. Additionally, [(18)F]-FDG-rhodamine showed an extraction value of 27.63%±5.12% in rat hearts. These results demonstrate that [(18)F]-FDG-rhodamine conjugate may be useful as an imaging agent for the positron emission tomography evaluation of myocardial perfusion. PMID:26160144

  17. Hepatocellular adenoma showing high uptake of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) via an increased expression of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2).

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Takaaki; Takayama, Yukihisa; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Baba, Shingo; Yamashita, Youichi; Shirabe, Ken; Kubo, Yuichiro; Hida, Tomoyuki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a benign liver neoplasm composed of hepatocytes. We experienced HCA demonstrating a high uptake of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) on positron emission tomography-computed tomography, mimicking a malignant tumor. The mechanism underlying the uptake of FDG has not been identified. Here, we discuss that an enhancement of glucose metabolism via an increased expression of glucose transporter 2 may have a role in the high uptake of FDG shown by HCAs.

  18. Use of [18F]FDG PET to Monitor The Development of Cardiac Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin P.; Dearling, Jason L. J.; Seto, Tatsuichiro; Dunning, Patricia; Fahey, Frederic; Packard, Alan B.; Briscoe, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has the potential to be a specific, sensitive and quantitative diagnostic test for transplant rejection. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated 18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) and 13N-labeled ammonia ([13N]NH3) small animal PET imaging in a well-established murine cardiac rejection model. Methods Heterotopic transplants were performed using minor MHC mismatched B6.C-H2bm12 donor hearts in C57BL/6(H-2b) recipients. C57BL/6 donor hearts into C57BL/6 recipients served as isograft controls. [18F]FDG PET imaging was performed weekly between post-transplant days 7 and 42 and the percent injected dose was computed for each graft. [13N]NH3 imaging was performed to evaluate myocardial perfusion. Results There was a significant increase in [18F]FDG uptake in allografts from day 14 to day 21 (1.6% to 5.2%; P<0.001) and uptake in allografts was significantly increased on post-transplant days 21 (5.2% vs. 0.9%; P=0.005) and 28 (4.8% vs. 0.9%; P=0.006) compared to isograft controls. Furthermore, [18F]FDG uptake correlated with an increase in rejection within allografts between days 14 and 28 post-transplant. Finally, the uptake of [13N]NH3 was significantly lower relative to the native heart in allografts with chronic vasculopathy compared to isograft controls on day 28 (P=0.01). Conclusions PET imaging with [18F]FDG can be used following transplantation to monitor the evolution of rejection. In addition, decreased uptake of [13N]NH3 in rejecting allografts may be reflective of decreased myocardial blood flow. These data suggest that combined [18F]FDG and [13N]NH3 PET imaging could be used as a non-invasive, quantitative technique for serial monitoring of allograft rejection and has potential application in human transplant recipients. PMID:25675207

  19. I-131 accumulation in a benign cystic mesothelioma in a patient with follicular thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    de Keizer, Bart; Arsos, Georgios; Smit, Jan W; Lam, Marnix G; Rinkes, Inne H Borel; Goldschmeding, Roel; van Isselt, Johannes W

    2008-03-01

    Focal I-131 accumulation is generally a reliable indicator of functioning normal thyroid tissue or a differentiated thyroid cancer metastasis. However, physiologic accumulation of activity may also be observed in organs such as the intestinal tract, liver, and salivary glands. Extrathyroidal I-131 accumulation has been reported in various sites, such as ectopic gastric mucosa, gastrointestinal and urinary tract abnormalities, cysts (mammary, liver, kidney, and ovaries), and inflammation and infection foci. We report a case of focal I-131 accumulation in a benign cystic mesothelioma in a patient with follicular thyroid cancer.

  20. Incidental detection of increased (18)F-FDG uptake and its follow-up in patients with granulomatous prostatitis after BCG treatment for urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choon-Young; Lee, Sang-Woo; Yoon, Ghilsuk; Jeong, Shin Young; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jaetae

    2014-01-01

    Incidental prostate uptake of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose in positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) may represent malignancies like prostate malignancy, inflammation or benign prostatic lesions. We report two cases of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-induced granulomatous prostatitis that showed (18)F-FDG uptake of the prostate gland on (18)F-FDG PET/CT in patients who had previously received intravesical BCG treatment for bladder cancer. The degree of (18)F-FDG uptake was decreased on the follow-up PET/CT scan after one year, without any specific treatment.

  1. Progressing Sclerosing Mesenteritis (Mesenteric Panniculitis) Mimics Progression of Malignancy After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Gastric Adenocarcinoma on Serial 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Makis, William

    2016-04-01

    A 62-year-old man was diagnosed with a moderately differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma in the proximal stomach. A staging 18F-FDG PET/CT showed an intensely FDG-avid gastric mass, as well as a mildly FDG-avid misty nodular mesentery. After 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, a follow-up PET/CT showed partial response of the gastric primary, with increase in the size of nodules in the mesentery and increased FDG uptake, raising concern of secondary malignancy. Biopsy of the mesentery revealed xanthogranulomatous inflammation, consistent with sclerosing mesenteritis. PMID:26359565

  2. IgG4-Related Kidney Disease in a Patient With History of Breast Cancer: Findings on 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Simone; Monti, Serena; Seshan, Surya; Fox, Josef; Mannelli, Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    A 64-year-old African American woman with history of stage III breast carcinoma, 3 years after complete response to therapy, presents with progressive fatigue, increasing arthralgia, and unintentional weight loss of 15 lb in 3 months. An F-FDG PET demonstrated new diffuse FDG avidity of the renal parenchyma, new FDG-avid foci in pancreas and lungs, and new FDG-avid lymph nodes above and below the diaphragm. While a retroperitoneal lymph node biopsy was inconclusive, a kidney biopsy resulted in diagnosis of diffuse, severe, IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis. Treatment with corticosteroid led to complete resolution of the symptoms and PET findings.

  3. A rare case of primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma in a pediatric patient evaluated by (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Treglia, Giorgio; Caldarella, Carmelo; Taralli, Silvia

    2014-02-01

    We describe a rare case of primary pulmonary synovial sarcoma (PPSS) that occurred in a pediatric patient and evaluated by 18F-FDG PET/CT. A 14-year-old male patient underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT for metabolic characterization of a left pulmonary mass which showed increased 18F-FDG uptake (SUVmax = 4.5). Based on this PET/CT finding, the patient underwent a CTguided biopsy which demonstrated the presence of a PPSS. Other sites of disease were excluded. 18F-FDG PET/CT may be useful for staging pediatric patients with PPSS. PMID:24536091

  4. IgG4-Related Kidney Disease in a Patient With History of Breast Cancer: Findings on 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Simone; Monti, Serena; Seshan, Surya; Fox, Josef; Mannelli, Lorenzo

    2016-08-01

    A 64-year-old African American woman with history of stage III breast carcinoma, 3 years after complete response to therapy, presents with progressive fatigue, increasing arthralgia, and unintentional weight loss of 15 lb in 3 months. An F-FDG PET demonstrated new diffuse FDG avidity of the renal parenchyma, new FDG-avid foci in pancreas and lungs, and new FDG-avid lymph nodes above and below the diaphragm. While a retroperitoneal lymph node biopsy was inconclusive, a kidney biopsy resulted in diagnosis of diffuse, severe, IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis. Treatment with corticosteroid led to complete resolution of the symptoms and PET findings. PMID:27187735

  5. Sugar Accumulation in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Gayler, K. R.; Glasziou, K. T.

    1972-01-01

    The rate-limiting reaction for glucose uptake in storage tissue of sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L., appears to be the movement of glucose across the boundary between the free space and the metabolic compartments. The mechanism for uptake of glucose across this boundary has been studied using 3-O-methyl glucose, an analogue of glucose which is not metabolized by sugar-cane tissue. This analogue is taken up by sugarcane storage tissue at a similar rate to glucose. Its rate of uptake follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, Km = 1.9 mm, and it is competitively inhibited by glucose, Ki = 2 to 3 mm. Glucose uptake is similarly inhibited by 3-O-methyl glucose. Uptake of 3-O-methyl glucose is energy-dependent and does not appear to be the result of counterflow of glucose. It is concluded that glucose and 3-O-methyl glucose uptake across the boundary between the free space and the metabolic compartment in this tissue is mediated by an energy-dependent carrier system capable of accumulating the sugars against a concentration gradient. PMID:16658002

  6. TTX accumulation in pufferfish.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu; Takatani, Tomohiro

    2006-03-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been detected in a variety of animals. The finding of TTX in the trumpet shell Charonia sauliae strongly suggested that its origin was its food, a TTX-bearing starfish Astropecten polyacanthus. Since then, the food chain has been consistently implicated as the principal means of TTX intoxication. To identify the primary producer of TTX, intestinal bacteria isolated from several TTX-bearers were investigated for their TTX production. The results demonstrated that some of them could produce TTX. Thus the primary TTX producers in the sea are concluded to be marine bacteria. Subsequently, detritus feeders and zooplankton can be intoxicated with TTX through the food chain, or in conjunction with parasitism or symbiosis. The process followed by small carnivores, omnivores or scavengers, and by organisms higher up the food chain would result in the accumulation of higher concentrations of TTX. Finally, pufferfish at the top of the food chain are intoxicated with TTX. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that net cage and land cultures produce non-toxic pufferfish that can be made toxic by feeding with a TTX-containing diet.

  7. Aberrant accumulation of phospholipase C-delta in Alzheimer brains.

    PubMed Central

    Shimohama, S.; Homma, Y.; Suenaga, T.; Fujimoto, S.; Taniguchi, T.; Araki, W.; Yamaoka, Y.; Takenawa, T.; Kimura, J.

    1991-01-01

    Since phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) is one of the key molecules in signal transduction, the authors assessed its involvement in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Immunostaining of a specific antibody against the PLC isozyme, PLC-delta, demonstrated that this enzyme was abnormally accumulated in neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), the neurites surrounding senile plaque (SP) cores, and neuropil threads in AD brains. Western blot analysis confirmed that PLC-delta was concentrated in the paired helical filament (PHF)-rich fraction of AD brains. Antibodies to other PLC isozymes did not produce positive immunostaining of these pathologic structures. Moreover, diffuse and amorphous deposits of PLC-delta were found to precede the accumulation of fibrillary deposits. These results suggest that PLC-delta accumulation is a crucial event that ultimately may contribute to the formation of PHF. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1928298

  8. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  9. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. In Vivo ¹⁸F-FDG-PET Imaging in Mouse Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Jesús; Bilbao, Izaskun; Vaquero, Juan José; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús; España, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an important technique in cardiovascular research. Vascular inflammation detected by fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET has been shown to predict cardiovascular (CV) events independent of traditional risk factors and is also highly associated with overall burden of atherosclerosis. The use of PET imaging in mouse models of atherosclerosis is challenged by the reduced size of the scanned organs. However, the last generation of dedicated PET scanners has an improved spatial resolution (<1 mm) and increased sensitivity allowing those studies to be performed. Here, we describe a procedure to perform FDG-PET experiments in atherosclerosis mouse models, the required equipment for animal handling and imaging, and the tools and procedures for image analysis and validation of the results.

  11. Increased 18F-FDG Uptake in the Spleen and Multiple Lymph Nodes in Dengue Fever.

    PubMed

    Jinguji, Megumi; Kajiya, Yoriko; Nakajo, Masatoyo; Nakajo, Masayuki; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    A 62-year-old man underwent a whole-body FDG PET/CT for annual cancer screening. By an interview, he had an epigastric pain, and his body temperature was 37.0°C on the day. He just came back home from a travel to Southeast Asia 1 week ago and had presented with chill, high fever (temperature, 39.6°C), arthralgia, myalgia, and skin rash a few days before. Dengue fever was diagnosed by detecting dengue virus type 1 genome and antibody to the virus accompanied by thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. PET/CT examination revealed increased FDG uptake in the spleen and multiple lymph nodes. PMID:26825211

  12. Design Features Of Microfluidic Reactor For [18F]FDG Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, J. H.; Lee, B. N.; Nam, K. R.; Attla, G. A.; Lee, K. C.; Cjai, J. S.

    2011-06-01

    Microfluidic reactor exhibits advantages for radiopharmaceutical synthesis. Microfluidic chips can reduce the time for radiosynthesis using tiny quantities of chemical compounds. It also has a good heat transfer, performance and provides an integrated system including synthesis, separation, and purification. These advantages make FDG production. So we have designed a microreactor chip which included the whole chemical processing; water evaporation, solvent exchange, radiofluorination and so on. It was designed by using a commercial 3D CAD modeling program CATIA V5, heat transfer performance was analyzed by ANSYS, and CFX was used for analyzing fluid performance. This paper described the design of FDG synthesis system on a microchip, the relevant locations of its parts, both heat and fluid performance efficiency analysis.

  13. Cholecystokinin-Assisted Hydrodissection of the Gallbladder Fossa during FDG PET/CT-guided Liver Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, Sanjit O.; Petre, Elena N.; Osborne, Joseph; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.

    2013-12-15

    A 68-year-old female with colorectal cancer developed a metachronous isolated fluorodeoxyglucose-avid (FDG-avid) segment 5/6 gallbladder fossa hepatic lesion and was referred for percutaneous ablation. Pre-procedure computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated a distended gallbladder abutting the segment 5/6 hepatic metastasis. In order to perform ablation with clear margins and avoid direct puncture and aspiration of the gallbladder, cholecystokinin was administered intravenously to stimulate gallbladder contraction before hydrodissection. Subsequently, the lesion was ablated successfully with sufficient margins, of greater than 1.0 cm, using microwave with ultrasound and FDG PET/CT guidance. The patient tolerated the procedure very well and was discharged home the next day.

  14. Long-term quality assurance of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Ludovit; Reich, Michal; Kassai, Zoltan; Macasek, Fedor; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter; Kovac, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nine years of experience with 2286 commercial synthesis allowed us to deliver comprehensive information on the quality of 18F-FDG production. Semi-automated FDG production line using Cyclone 18/9 machine (IBA Belgium), TRACERLab MXFDG synthesiser (GE Health, USA) using alkalic hydrolysis, grade “A” isolator with dispensing robotic unit (Tema Sinergie, Italy), and automatic control system under GAMP5 (minus2, Slovakia) was assessed by TQM tools as highly reliable aseptic production line, fully compliant with Good Manufacturing Practice and just-in-time delivery of FDG radiopharmaceutical. Fluoride-18 is received in steady yield and of very high radioactive purity. Synthesis yields exhibited high variance connected probably with quality of disposable cassettes and chemicals sets. Most performance non-conformities within the manufacturing cycle occur at mechanical nodes of dispensing unit. The long-term monitoring of 2286 commercial synthesis indicated high reliability of automatic synthesizers. Shewhart chart and ANOVA analysis showed that minor non-compliances occurred were mostly caused by the declinations of less experienced staff from standard operation procedures, and also by quality of automatic cassettes. Only 15 syntheses were found unfinished and in 4 cases the product was out-of-specification of European Pharmacopoeia. Most vulnerable step of manufacturing was dispensing and filling in grade “A” isolator. Its cleanliness and sterility was fully controlled under the investigated period by applying hydrogen peroxide vapours (VHP). Our experience with quality assurance in the production of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) at production facility of BIONT based on TRACERlab MXFDG production module can be used for bench-marking of the emerging manufacturing and automated manufacturing systems. PMID:27508102

  15. Long-term quality assurance of [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Ludovit; Reich, Michal; Kassai, Zoltan; Macasek, Fedor; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter; Kovac, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nine years of experience with 2286 commercial synthesis allowed us to deliver comprehensive information on the quality of (18)F-FDG production. Semi-automated FDG production line using Cyclone 18/9 machine (IBA Belgium), TRACERLab MXFDG synthesiser (GE Health, USA) using alkalic hydrolysis, grade "A" isolator with dispensing robotic unit (Tema Sinergie, Italy), and automatic control system under GAMP5 (minus2, Slovakia) was assessed by TQM tools as highly reliable aseptic production line, fully compliant with Good Manufacturing Practice and just-in-time delivery of FDG radiopharmaceutical. Fluoride-18 is received in steady yield and of very high radioactive purity. Synthesis yields exhibited high variance connected probably with quality of disposable cassettes and chemicals sets. Most performance non-conformities within the manufacturing cycle occur at mechanical nodes of dispensing unit. The long-term monitoring of 2286 commercial synthesis indicated high reliability of automatic synthesizers. Shewhart chart and ANOVA analysis showed that minor non-compliances occurred were mostly caused by the declinations of less experienced staff from standard operation procedures, and also by quality of automatic cassettes. Only 15 syntheses were found unfinished and in 4 cases the product was out-of-specification of European Pharmacopoeia. Most vulnerable step of manufacturing was dispensing and filling in grade "A" isolator. Its cleanliness and sterility was fully controlled under the investigated period by applying hydrogen peroxide vapours (VHP). Our experience with quality assurance in the production of [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) at production facility of BIONT based on TRACERlab MXFDG production module can be used for bench-marking of the emerging manufacturing and automated manufacturing systems.

  16. Long-term quality assurance of [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Ludovit; Reich, Michal; Kassai, Zoltan; Macasek, Fedor; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter; Kovac, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Nine years of experience with 2286 commercial synthesis allowed us to deliver comprehensive information on the quality of (18)F-FDG production. Semi-automated FDG production line using Cyclone 18/9 machine (IBA Belgium), TRACERLab MXFDG synthesiser (GE Health, USA) using alkalic hydrolysis, grade "A" isolator with dispensing robotic unit (Tema Sinergie, Italy), and automatic control system under GAMP5 (minus2, Slovakia) was assessed by TQM tools as highly reliable aseptic production line, fully compliant with Good Manufacturing Practice and just-in-time delivery of FDG radiopharmaceutical. Fluoride-18 is received in steady yield and of very high radioactive purity. Synthesis yields exhibited high variance connected probably with quality of disposable cassettes and chemicals sets. Most performance non-conformities within the manufacturing cycle occur at mechanical nodes of dispensing unit. The long-term monitoring of 2286 commercial synthesis indicated high reliability of automatic synthesizers. Shewhart chart and ANOVA analysis showed that minor non-compliances occurred were mostly caused by the declinations of less experienced staff from standard operation procedures, and also by quality of automatic cassettes. Only 15 syntheses were found unfinished and in 4 cases the product was out-of-specification of European Pharmacopoeia. Most vulnerable step of manufacturing was dispensing and filling in grade "A" isolator. Its cleanliness and sterility was fully controlled under the investigated period by applying hydrogen peroxide vapours (VHP). Our experience with quality assurance in the production of [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) at production facility of BIONT based on TRACERlab MXFDG production module can be used for bench-marking of the emerging manufacturing and automated manufacturing systems. PMID:27508102

  17. Preoperative Evaluation of Renal Cell Carcinoma by Using 18F-FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Miwako; Kume, Haruki; Koyama, Keitaro; Nakagawa, Tohru; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Morikawa, Teppei; Fukayama, Masashi; Homma, Yukio; Ohtomo, Kuni; Momose, Toshimitsu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to characterize the FDG uptake of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by the pathological subtype and nuclear grade. Patients and Methods We retrospectively identified patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET and subsequent partial or radical nephrectomy for renal tumors. The relationships of the SUV of renal tumor with subtypes, nuclear grade, and clinicopathological variables were investigated. Results Ninety-two tumors were analyzed, including 52 low-grade (G1 and G2) and 18 high-grade (G3 and G4) clear cell RCC; 7 chromophobe, 5 papillary, and 1 unclassified RCC; and 9 benign tumors (7 angiomyolipoma and 2 oncocytoma). The SUVs of high-grade clear cell RCC (mean ± SD, 6.8 ± 5.1) and papillary RCC (6.6 ± 3.7) were significantly higher than that of the controls (2.2 ± 0.3). The SUV of high-grade clear cell RCC was higher than that of low-grade tumors (median, 4.0 vs. 2.2; P < 0.001). The optimal SUV cutoff value of 3.0 helped to differentiate high-grade from low-grade clear cell RCC, with 89% sensitivity and 87% specificity. On multiple regression analysis, a high grade was the most significant predictor of SUV for clear cell RCC. Conclusions FDG uptake higher than that observed in normal kidney tissues suggests a high-grade clear cell RCC or papillary RCC subtype. FDG-PET using SUV may have a role in prediction of pathological grade of renal tumor. PMID:26164183

  18. (18)F-FDG PET/CT findings in a case with HIV (-) Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, E; Poyraz, N Y; Keskin, M; Kandemir, Z; Turkolmez, S

    2014-01-01

    Although mucocutaneous sites are the most frequently encountered sites of involvement, Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) may also occasionally involve the breast and the skeletal, endocrine, urinary and nervous systems.. Various imaging modalities may be used to delineate the extent of the disease by detecting unexpected sites of involvement. Herein, we report a case of classical type KS, in whom staging with (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging disclosed widespread disease and unexpected findings of bone and salivary gland involvement.

  19. FDG-PET imaging in mild traumatic brain injury: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Kimberly R.; Wilson, Colin M.; Brabazon, Fiona; von Leden, Ramona; Jurgens, Jennifer S.; Oakes, Terrence R.; Selwyn, Reed G.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects an estimated 1.7 million people in the United States and is a contributing factor to one third of all injury related deaths annually. According to the CDC, approximately 75% of all reported TBIs are concussions or considered mild in form, although the number of unreported mild TBIs (mTBI) and patients not seeking medical attention is unknown. Currently, classification of mTBI or concussion is a clinical assessment since diagnostic imaging is typically inconclusive due to subtle, obscure, or absent changes in anatomical or physiological parameters measured using standard magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) imaging protocols. Molecular imaging techniques that examine functional processes within the brain, such as measurement of glucose uptake and metabolism using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), have the ability to detect changes after mTBI. Recent technological improvements in the resolution of PET systems, the integration of PET with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the availability of normal healthy human databases and commercial image analysis software contribute to the growing use of molecular imaging in basic science research and advances in clinical imaging. This review will discuss the technological considerations and limitations of FDG-PET, including differentiation between glucose uptake and glucose metabolism and the significance of these measurements. In addition, the current state of FDG-PET imaging in assessing mTBI in clinical and preclinical research will be considered. Finally, this review will provide insight into potential critical data elements and recommended standardization to improve the application of FDG-PET to mTBI research and clinical practice. PMID:24409143

  20. Reference Cluster Normalization Improves Detection of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration by Means of FDG-PET

    PubMed Central

    Dukart, Juergen; Perneczky, Robert; Förster, Stefan; Barthel, Henryk; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Draganski, Bogdan; Obrig, Hellmuth; Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Drzezga, Alexander; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Frackowiak, Richard; Kurz, Alexander; Müller, Karsten; Sabri, Osama; Schroeter, Matthias L.; Yakushev, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) plays a well-established role in assisting early detection of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Here, we examined the impact of intensity normalization to different reference areas on accuracy of FDG-PET to discriminate between patients with mild FTLD and healthy elderly subjects. FDG-PET was conducted at two centers using different acquisition protocols: 41 FTLD patients and 42 controls were studied at center 1, 11 FTLD patients and 13 controls were studied at center 2. All PET images were intensity normalized to the cerebellum, primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC), cerebral global mean (CGM), and a reference cluster with most preserved FDG uptake in the aforementioned patients group of center 1. Metabolic deficits in the patient group at center 1 appeared 1.5, 3.6, and 4.6 times greater in spatial extent, when tracer uptake was normalized to the reference cluster rather than to the cerebellum, SMC, and CGM, respectively. Logistic regression analyses based on normalized values from FTLD-typical regions showed that at center 1, cerebellar, SMC, CGM, and cluster normalizations differentiated patients from controls with accuracies of 86%, 76%, 75% and 90%, respectively. A similar order of effects was found at center 2. Cluster normalization leads to a significant increase of statistical power in detecting early FTLD-associated metabolic deficits. The established FTLD-specific cluster can be used to improve detection of FTLD on a single case basis at independent centers – a decisive step towards early diagnosis and prediction of FTLD syndromes enabling specific therapies in the future. PMID:23451025

  1. Reference cluster normalization improves detection of frontotemporal lobar degeneration by means of FDG-PET.

    PubMed

    Dukart, Juergen; Perneczky, Robert; Förster, Stefan; Barthel, Henryk; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Draganski, Bogdan; Obrig, Hellmuth; Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Drzezga, Alexander; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Frackowiak, Richard; Kurz, Alexander; Müller, Karsten; Sabri, Osama; Schroeter, Matthias L; Yakushev, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) plays a well-established role in assisting early detection of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Here, we examined the impact of intensity normalization to different reference areas on accuracy of FDG-PET to discriminate between patients with mild FTLD and healthy elderly subjects. FDG-PET was conducted at two centers using different acquisition protocols: 41 FTLD patients and 42 controls were studied at center 1, 11 FTLD patients and 13 controls were studied at center 2. All PET images were intensity normalized to the cerebellum, primary sensorimotor cortex (SMC), cerebral global mean (CGM), and a reference cluster with most preserved FDG uptake in the aforementioned patients group of center 1. Metabolic deficits in the patient group at center 1 appeared 1.5, 3.6, and 4.6 times greater in spatial extent, when tracer uptake was normalized to the reference cluster rather than to the cerebellum, SMC, and CGM, respectively. Logistic regression analyses based on normalized values from FTLD-typical regions showed that at center 1, cerebellar, SMC, CGM, and cluster normalizations differentiated patients from controls with accuracies of 86%, 76%, 75% and 90%, respectively. A similar order of effects was found at center 2. Cluster normalization leads to a significant increase of statistical power in detecting early FTLD-associated metabolic deficits. The established FTLD-specific cluster can be used to improve detection of FTLD on a single case basis at independent centers - a decisive step towards early diagnosis and prediction of FTLD syndromes enabling specific therapies in the future. PMID:23451025

  2. Retroperitoneal Bronchogenic Cyst Presenting Paraadrenal Tumor Incidentally Detected by (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ye Ri; Choi, Jiyoun; Lee, Sang Mi; Kim, Yeo Joo; Cho, Hyun Deuk; Lee, Jeong Won; Jeon, Youn Soo

    2015-03-01

    A follow-up (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET/CT scan of a 57-year-old asymptomatic male who had undergone total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer revealed a 5.0 × 4.0-cm, well-defined, ovoid-shaped mass around the left adrenal gland without definite FDG uptake. On the adrenal CT scan, the left paraadrenal tumor showed high attenuation on the precontrast scan without enhancement. The average Hounsfield unit (HU) was 58.1 on the precontrast scan and 58.4 on the postcontrast scan. The patient underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for resection of the left paraadrenal tumor. The final histopathologic examination revealed a bronchogenic cyst. Although retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts are rare, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal cystic tumors. The preoperative diagnosis is difficult, but a contrast-enhanced CT scan or (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan may be useful for differentiating hyperattenuated cysts from other soft tissue masses.

  3. FDG PET and tumour markers in the diagnosis of recurrent and metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Siggelkow, Wulf; Rath, Werner; Buell, Udalrich; Zimny, Michael

    2004-06-01

    Breast cancer continues to be one of the most common cancers in North America and Western Europe. Positron emission tomography with 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG PET) represents a non-invasive functional imaging modality that is based on metabolic characteristics of malignant tumours. In breast cancer, FDG PET is more accurate than conventional methods for staging of distant metastases or local recurrences and enables early assessment of treatment response in patients undergoing primary chemotherapy. Recent data indicate a rationale for the use of FDG PET in cases of asymptomatically elevated tumour marker levels in the presence of uncertain results of conventional imaging. Despite the fact that PET cannot rule out microscopic disease, it does have particular value in providing, in a single examination, a reliable assessment of the true extent of the disease. This technique is complementary to morphological imaging for primary diagnosis, staging and re-staging. It may become the method of choice for the assessment of asymptomatic patients with elevated tumour marker levels. This method, however, cannot replace invasive procedures if microscopic disease is of clinical relevance. PMID:15146295

  4. Static and dynamic (18) FDG-PET in normal hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Souza, Marcy J; Wall, Jonathan S; Stuckey, Alan; Daniel, Gregory B

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is often used to stage and monitor human cancer and has recently been used in a similar fashion in veterinary medicine. The most commonly used radiopharmaceutical is 2-Deoxy-2-[(18) F]-Fluoro-d-glucose ((18) F-FDG), which is concentrated and trapped within cells that use glucose as their energy substrate. We characterized the normal distribution of (18) F-FDG in 10 healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) by performing whole body PET scans at steady state, 60min after injection. Significant variability was found in the intestinal activity. Avian species are known to reflux fluid and electrolytes from their cloaca into their colon. To evaluate reflux as the cause of variability in intestinal distribution of (18) F-FDG, dynamic PET scans were performed on the coelomic cavity of six Hispaniolan Amazon parrots from time 0 to 60min postinjection of radiotracer. Reflux of radioactive material from the cloaca into the colon occurred in all birds to varying degrees and occurred before 60min. To evaluate the intestinal tract of clinical avian patients, dynamic scans must be performed starting immediately after injection so that increased radioactivity due to metabolism or hypermetabolic lesions such as cancer can be differentiated from increased radioactivity due to reflux of fluid from the cloaca.

  5. Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

  6. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approach to abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-age women Differential diagnosis of genital tract bleeding in women Postmenopausal uterine bleeding The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  7. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  8. LOW COST METHODOLOGIES TO ANALYZE AND CORRECT ABNORMAL PRODUCTION DECLINE IN STRIPPER GAS WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry James; Gene Huck; Tim Knobloch

    2001-12-01

    A study group of 376 Clinton Sand wells in Ohio provided data to determine the historic frequency of the problem of abnormal production declines in stripper gas wells and the causes of the abnormal production decline. Analysis of the historic frequency of the problem indicates over 70% of the wells experienced abnormal production decline. The most frequently occurring causes of abnormal production declines were determined to be fluid accumulation (46%), gas gathering restrictions (24%), and mechanical failures (23%). Data collection forms and decision trees were developed to cost-effectively diagnose the abnormal production declines and suggest corrective action. The decision trees and data collection sheets were incorporated into a procedure guide to provide stripper gas well operators with a methodology to analyze and correct abnormal production declines. The systematic methodologies and techniques developed should increase the efficiency of problem well assessment and implementation of solutions for stripper gas wells. This final technical progress report provides a summary of the deliverables completed to date, including the results of the remediations, the procedure guide, and the technology transfer. Due to the successful results of the study to date and the efficiency of the methodology development, two additional wells were selected for remediation and included into the study. Furthermore, the remediation results of wells that were a part of the study group of wells are also described.

  9. LOW COST METHODOLOGIES TO ANALYZE AND CORRECT ABNORMAL PRODUCTION DECLINE IN STRIPPER GAS WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry James; Gene Huck; Tim Knobloch

    2001-10-01

    A study group of 376 Clinton Sand wells in Ohio provided data to determine the historic frequency of the problem of abnormal production declines in stripper gas wells and the causes of the abnormal production decline. Analysis of the historic frequency of the problem indicates over 70% of the wells experienced abnormal production decline. The most frequently occurring causes of abnormal production declines were determined to be fluid accumulation (46%), gas gathering restrictions (24%), and mechanical failures (23%). Data collection forms and decision trees were developed to cost-effectively diagnose the abnormal production declines and suggest corrective action. The decision trees and data collection sheets were incorporated into a procedure guide to provide stripper gas well operators with a methodology to analyze and correct abnormal production declines. The systematic methodologies and techniques developed should increase the efficiency of problem well assessment and implementation of solutions for stripper gas wells. This eight quarterly technical progress report provides a summary of the deliverables completed to date, including the results of the remediations, the procedure guide, and the technology transfer. Due to the successful results of the study to date and the efficiency of the methodology development, two to three additional wells will be selected for remediation for inclusion into the study. The results of the additional remediations will be included in the final report.

  10. 18F-FDG microPET imaging differentiates between septic and aseptic wound healing after orthopedic implant placement

    PubMed Central

    Odekerken, Jim C E; Brans, Boudewijn T; Welting, Tim J M; Walenkamp, Geert H I M

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose 18F-FDG PET is a widely used tool for molecular imaging of oncological, cardiovascular, and neurological disorders. We evaluated 18F-FDG microPET as an implant osteomyelitis imaging tool using a Staphylococcus aureus-induced peroperative implant infection in rabbits. Methods Intramedullary titanium nails were implanted in contaminated and uncontaminated (control) proximal right tibiae of rabbits. Tibiae were quantitatively assessed with microPET for 18F-FDG uptake before and sequentially at 1, 3, and 6 weeks after surgery. Tracer uptake was assessed in soft tissue and bone in both treatment groups with an additional comparison between the operated and unoperated limb. MicroPET analysis was combined with radiographic assessment and complementary histology of the tibiae. Results At the first postoperative week, the 18F-FDG uptake in the contaminated implant group was significantly higher than the preoperative measurement, without a significant difference between the contaminated and uncontaminated tibiae. From the third postoperative week onward, 18F-FDG uptake allowed discrimination between osteomyelitis and postoperative aseptic bone healing, as well as quantification of the infection at distinct locations around the implant. Interpretation 18F-FDG-based microPET imaging allows differentiation between deep infection and undisturbed wound healing after implantation of a titanium intramedullary nail in this rabbit model. Furthermore, our results indicate that 18F-FDG PET may provide a tool in human clinical diagnostics and for the evaluation of antimicrobial strategies in animal models of orthopedic implant infection. PMID:24673540

  11. Effectiveness of FDG-PET/CT for evaluating early response to induction chemotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    dos Anjos, Renata Fockink; dos Anjos, Dalton Alexandre; Vieira, Danielle Leal; Leite, André Ferreira; Figueiredo, Paulo Tadeu de Souza; de Melo, Nilce Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: 18F-Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography with Computed Tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) may be a powerful tool to predict treatment outcome. We aimed to review the effectiveness of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the assessment of early response to induction chemotherapy (IC) in patients with advanced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer (HNSCC) without previous treatment. Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Science Direct and Web of Science were searched to May 2016. Reference lists of the included articles and additional studies identified by one nuclear medicine expert were screened for potential relevant studies that investigated the effectiveness of 18F-FDG PET/CT performed before and after IC. Three authors independently screened all retrieved articles, selected studies that met inclusion criteria and extracted data. The methodology of the selected studies was evaluated by using the risk of bias checklist of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Results: Seven out of 170 eligible studies met our inclusion criteria. A total of 207 advanced HNSCC patients were evaluated with 18F-FDG PET/CT at baseline and after IC in the selected articles. Six from seven studies concluded that 18F-FDG PET/CT allowed early evaluation response to IC and predicted survival outcomes. Conclusion: The present systematic review confirms the potential value of 18F-FDG PET/CT as a diagnostic tool for early IV response assessment in HNSCC patients. However, the lack of standard definitions for response criteria and heterogeneous IC protocols indicate the need to further studies in order to better define the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in these patients. PMID:27512861

  12. Electrocardiography series. Electrocardiographic T wave abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiqin; Teo, Swee Guan; Poh, Kian Keong

    2013-11-01

    The causes of abnormal T waves on electrocardiography are multiple and varied. Careful clinical history taking and physical examination are necessary for accurate identification of the cause of such abnormalities. Subsequent targeted specialised cardiac investigations, such as echocardiography or coronary angiography, may be of importance in the diagnosis of the underlying cardiac pathology. We present two cases of T wave inversions with markedly different aetiologies.

  13. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  14. Positron Emission Tomography Reveals Abnormal Topological Organization in Functional Brain Network in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xiangzhe; Zhang, Yanjun; Feng, Hongbo; Jiang, Donglang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the topological organization of structural brain networks in diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the DM-related changes in the topological properties in functional brain networks are unexplored so far. We therefore used fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data to construct functional brain networks of 73 DM patients and 91 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs), followed by a graph theoretical analysis. We found that both DM patients and NCs had a small-world topology in functional brain network. In comparison to the NC group, the DM group was found to have significantly lower small-world index, lower normalized clustering coefficients and higher normalized characteristic path length. Moreover, for diabetic patients, the nodal centrality was significantly reduced in the right rectus, the right cuneus, the left middle occipital gyrus, and the left postcentral gyrus, and it was significantly increased in the orbitofrontal region of the left middle frontal gyrus, the left olfactory region, and the right paracentral lobule. Our results demonstrated that the diabetic brain was associated with disrupted topological organization in the functional PET network, thus providing functional evidence for the abnormalities of brain networks in DM. PMID:27303259

  15. Positron Emission Tomography Reveals Abnormal Topological Organization in Functional Brain Network in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiangzhe; Zhang, Yanjun; Feng, Hongbo; Jiang, Donglang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the topological organization of structural brain networks in diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the DM-related changes in the topological properties in functional brain networks are unexplored so far. We therefore used fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data to construct functional brain networks of 73 DM patients and 91 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs), followed by a graph theoretical analysis. We found that both DM patients and NCs had a small-world topology in functional brain network. In comparison to the NC group, the DM group was found to have significantly lower small-world index, lower normalized clustering coefficients and higher normalized characteristic path length. Moreover, for diabetic patients, the nodal centrality was significantly reduced in the right rectus, the right cuneus, the left middle occipital gyrus, and the left postcentral gyrus, and it was significantly increased in the orbitofrontal region of the left middle frontal gyrus, the left olfactory region, and the right paracentral lobule. Our results demonstrated that the diabetic brain was associated with disrupted topological organization in the functional PET network, thus providing functional evidence for the abnormalities of brain networks in DM. PMID:27303259

  16. Unilateral microfibrillar abnormalities in a case of asymmetric Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, M; Olson, S; Burgio, R G; Martini, A; Valli, M; Cetta, G; Hori, H; Hollister, D W

    1990-01-01

    The Marfan syndrome is a dominantly inherited connective-tissue disorder characterized by ocular, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Although the underlying biochemical and molecular defect(s) of this pleiotropic disease is currently unknown, we have consistently observed apparent diminished content of elastin-associated microfibrillar fibers accumulating in skin, or produced by cultured fibroblasts, from patients with the Marfan syndrome and have documented the cosegregation of these immunofluorescent abnormalities of microfibrillar fibers with the Marfan syndrome phenotype in family studies. Recently, an unusual patient has been described with unilateral phenotypic features of the Marfan syndrome, providing an unique opportunity to compare microfibrillar fibers and other connective-tissue components between the affected and nonaffected sides. In the present report, we demonstrate striking differences in apparent content of microfibrillar fibers, as determined by indirect immunofluorescence of skin and fibroblast cultures, that are revealed when multiple homologous samples derived from different sides of the patient's body are compared. In contrast, no differences in apparent content of type III collagen or in the biosynthesis and apparent structure of types I and III (pro)collagens were found. HLA types and chromosome heteromorphisms were identical in fibroblasts from both sides of the body, eliminating the formal possibility of chimerism and suggesting that a postzygotic mutation accounts for the asymmetric manifestation of the Marfan syndrome in this patient. The observation of striking decreases in microfibrillar fibers on the affected side of the body provides further evidence that abnormalities of this component of the elastic fiber system may be central to the pathogenesis and possibly the etiology of the Marfan syndrome. Images Figure 5 Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:2180285

  17. Intranuclear crystalloids associated with abnormal granules in eosinophilic leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Parmley, R T; Crist, W M; Roper, M; Takagi, M; Austin, R L

    1981-12-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of eosinophilic leukocytes from a 2-yr-old asymptomatic girl with chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) revealed a variety of morphological abnormalities. All eosinophils obtained from blood and marrow specimens contained multipole microcrystalloids in most of the mature cytoplasmic granules. An increase in crystalloid-free, immature granules in late (bilobed nuclei) eosinophils suggested a delay in granule maturation. The eosinophil granules appeared to be of normal size and demonstrated normal acid phosphatase reactivity. Eosinophilic myelocytes contained abnormal cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and lacked abundant elongated RER cisternae seen in normal cells. A few eosinophilic myelocytes in specimens of bone marrow from the child contained large intranuclear crystalloids measuring up to 3 mu in length. The intranuclear crystalloid contained as cubic lattice of dense material with a periodicity similar to that described for cytoplasmic crystalloids. The ultrastructural morphology of marrow neutrophils was normal, as described in other cases of CBN. Ultrastructural examination of blood eosinophils from the father demonstrated microcrystalloids in cytoplasmic granules identical to those seen in the child. The father was asymptomatic and had normal leukocyte counts. Thus, anomalous crystalloid granule genesis occurred in the father and daughter and was not necessarily associated with neutropenia or clinical symptomatology. This anomaly is associated with the accumulation of intranuclear crystalloid material in eosinophilic myelocytes, which do not appear to be released from the marrow compartment. PMID:7306702

  18. Intranuclear crystalloids associated with abnormal granules in eosinophilic leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Parmley, R.T.; Crist, W.M.; Roper, M.; Takagi, M.; Austin, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of eosinophilic leukocytes from a 2-yr-old asymptomatic girl with chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) revealed a variety of morphological abnormalities. All eosinophils obtained from blood and marrow specimens contained multiple microcrystalloids in most of the mature cytoplasmic granules. An increase in crystalloid-free, immature granules in late (bilobed nuclei) eosinophils suggested a delay in granule maturation. The eosinophil granules appeared to be of normal size and demonstrated normal acid phosphatase reactivity. Eosinophilic myelocytes contained abnormal cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and lacked abundant elongated RER cisternae seen in normal cells. A few eosinophilic myelocytes in specimens of bone marrow from the child contained large intranuclear crystalloids measuring up to 3 mu in length. The intranuclear crystalloid contained as cubic lattice of dense material with a periodicity similar to that described for cytoplasmic crystalloids. The ultrastructural morphology of marrow neutrophils was normal, as described in other cases of CBN. Ultrastructural examination of blood eosinophils from the father demonstrated microcrystalloids in cytoplasmic granules identical to those seen in the child. The father was asymptomatic and had normal leukocyte counts. Thus, anomalous crystalloid granule genesis occurred in the father and daughter and was not necessarily associated with neutropenia or clinical symptomatology. This anomaly is associated with the accumulation of intranuclear crystalloid material in eosinophilic myelocytes, which do not appear to be released from the marrow compartment.

  19. [Seed, aggregation and propagation of abnormal proteins could explain neurodegeneration?].

    PubMed

    Murayama, Shigeo

    2011-11-01

    Braak proposed propagation staging paradigm of Lewy- related alpha-synucleinopathy, which starts from medulla oblongata and extends rostrally to neocortex. Since this propagation shares that of bovine spongiformic encephalopathy, alpha- synuclein- prionopathy hypothesis was presented and augumented by pathological reports of Lewy body pathology in fetal tansplants of midbrain to patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The prionopathy hypothesis expanded to include tau and TDP- 43, is now receiving considerable attention world wide. Laterality of clinical symptoms can be explained with this hypothesis in PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis- TDP43, frontotemoral lobar degeneration- semantic dementia- TDP43 and tauopathy including corticobasal degeneration and argyrophilic grain dementia. Major cons of prionopathy hypothesis is how to explain cell to cell transmission of intracellular amyloid- like proteins. Several clinical and experimental data are now accumulated to answer this question. The difference in speed of spread between prion disease and neurodegenerative disease could be explained by aggregation size of abnormal proteins. The hypothesis could also explain glinoneuronal interaction, which is receiving another hot topic of neurodeneration. We propose that seed, aggregation propagation of abnormal protein should form one factor of clinical progression of neurodegenerative diseases and can be a therapeutic targets in future research.

  20. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  1. Association of Esophageal Inflammation, Obesity and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: From FDG PET/CT Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Chia; Wang, Shan-Ying; Chiu, Han-Mo; Tu, Chia-Hung; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Lin, Jaw-Town; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2014-01-01

    Objective Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with bothersome symptoms and neoplastic progression into Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. We aim to determine the correlation between GERD, esophageal inflammation and obesity with 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Methods We studied 458 subjects who underwent a comprehensive health check-up, which included an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, FDG PET/CT and complete anthropometric measures. GERD symptoms were evaluated with Reflux Disease Questionnaire. Endoscopically erosive esophagitis was scored using the Los Angeles classification system. Inflammatory activity, represented by standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of FDG at pre-determined locations of esophagus, stomach and duodenum, were compared. Association between erosive esophagitis, FDG activity and anthropometric evaluation, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes were analyzed. Results Subjects with erosive esophagitis (n = 178, 38.9%) had significantly higher SUVmax at middle esophagus (2.69±0.74 vs. 2.41±0.57, P<.001) and esophagogastric junction (3.10±0.89 vs. 2.38±0.57, P<.001), marginally higher at upper esophageal sphincter (2.29±0.42 vs. 2.21±0.48, P = .062), but not in stomach or duodenum. The severity of erosive esophagitis correlated with SUVmax and subjects with Barrett's esophagus had the highest SUVmax at middle esophagus and esophagogastric junction. Heartburn positively correlated with higher SUVmax at middle oesophagus (r = .262, P = .003). Using multivariate regression analyses, age (P = .027), total cholesterol level (P = .003), alcohol drinking (P = .03), subcutaneous adipose tissue (P<.001), BMI (P<.001) and waist circumference (P<.001) were independently associated with higher SUVmax at respective esophageal locations. Conclusions Esophageal inflammation

  2. The effect of the anti-allergic agent avil on abnormal scar fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, J; Ramakrishnan, M; Habibullah, C M; Babu, M

    1999-05-01

    Abnormal wound healing in humans leads to the formation of hypertrophic scar and keloids. These abnormal scars accumulate excessive extracellular matrix proteins through increased synthesis as well as decreased degradation. In order to find a therapeutic control for scar formation, we investigated the effect of avil (pheniramine maleate) on fibroblasts cultured from abnormal scars in comparison to normal skin. We observed a decrease in the proliferation rate in cells from normal skin (39%), hypertrophic scar (44%), keloid (63%) and in DNA synthesis in cells from normal skin (50%), hypertrophic scar (55%) and keloid (63%) treated with 8 mM avil (72 h). The rate of decrease in collagen synthesis in normal skin (44%), hypertrophic scar (74%) and keloid fibroblast (73%) correlated with changes in DNA synthesis.

  3. FDG-PET/CT Imaging Predicts Histopathologic Treatment Responses after Neoadjuvant Therapy in Adult Primary Bone Sarcomas

    DOE PAGES

    Benz, Matthias R.; Czernin, Johannes; Tap, William D.; Eckardt, Jeffrey J.; Seeger, Leanne L.; Allen-Auerbach, Martin S.; Dry, Sarah M.; Phelps, Michael E.; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Eilber, Fritz C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose . Tmore » he aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate whether FDG-PET allows an accurate assessment of histopathologic response to neoadjuvant treatment in adult patients with primary bone sarcomas. Methods . Twelve consecutive patients with resectable, primary high grade bone sarcomas were enrolled prospectively. FDG-PET/CT imaging was performed prior to the initiation and after completion of neoadjuvant treatment. Imaging findings were correlated with histopathologic response. Results . Histopathologic responders showed significantly more pronounced decreases in tumor FDG-SUVmax from baseline to late follow up than non-responders ( 64 ± 19 % versus 29 ± 30 %, resp.; P = .03 ). Using a 60% decrease in tumor FDG-uptake as a threshold for metabolic response correctly classified 3 of 4 histopathologic responders and 7 of 8 histopathologic non-responders as metabolic responders and non-responders, respectively (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 88%). Conclusion . These results suggest that changes in FDG-SUVmax at the end of neoadjuvant treatment can identify histopathologic responders and non-responders in adult primary bone sarcoma patients.« less

  4. Skeletal abnormalities in rats induced by simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    A hypokinetic model has been developed which attempts to simulate the weightlessness experienced during space flight. Male rats were suspended from the model with a head-down tilt for a two-week period. Total mechanical unloading of the hind limbs and partial unloading of the fore limbs occurred. In comparison to pair-fed control rats, the skeletal alterations in the proximal tibial and humeral metaphyses of suspended rats were determined to be a diminished rate of longitudinal bone growth, a reduced mass of mineralized tissue, and an accumulation of marrow fat. Also, suspended rats exhibited decreased numbers of osteoblasts and increased numbers of osteoclasts immediately adjacent to the growth plate-metaphyseal junction at both skeletal sites. Although the reduction in mineralized tissue and the fat accumulation were more marked in the tibia, the skeletal changes in the proximal tibial and humeral metaphyses were generally comparable. The observed abnormalities may be due to mechanical unloading and/or a hypersecretion of corticosteroids.

  5. Characterization of brown adipose tissue ¹⁸F-FDG uptake in PET/CT imaging and its influencing factors in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xiaonan; Shao, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaosong; Wang, Yuetao

    2016-01-01

    (18)F-FDG PET/CT has been widely applied for tumor imaging. However, it is reported that many normal tissues, e.g., brown adipose tissue, can also uptake (18)F-FDG. The purpose of this study was to determine the imaging characteristics of (18)F-FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in PET/CT. A total of 2,944 patients who underwent PET/CT from September 2011 to March 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Imaging features of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT were analyzed. Univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of age, gender, cancer status, body mass index (BMI), average daily maximum temperature of imaging month and fasting plasma glucose (Glu) on the positive rate of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. The results showed that 1.9% (57/2944) patients had (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. (18)F-FDG, manifested as flaky, nodular and beaded shape, was symmetrically distributed in the adipose tissues of cervical and supraclavicular, mediastinal, paravertebral, and perirenal areas. Uptake of (18)F-FDG within cervical/supraclavicular area was most common (89.5%, 51/57) with an SUVmax ranging from 2.8 to 31.4. Univariate analysis showed that gender and cancer status were not significantly correlated with the BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate. In contrast, age, BMI, Glu and average daily maximum temperature in the imaging month were significantly correlated with the BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate (P<0.05). Further logistic regression analysis showed that only age, BMI and average daily maximum temperature were significant (OR<1, P<0.05). Based on the value of OR, the most significant factor that affects BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate was age, followed by the average daily maximum temperature and BMI. We concluded that Chinese adult has low positive rate of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. Cervical/Supraclavicular is the most common area with BAT (18)F-FDG uptake. Age, average daily maximum temperature and BMI are independent factors affecting (18)F-FDG uptake. PMID:26702781

  6. Characterization of brown adipose tissue ¹⁸F-FDG uptake in PET/CT imaging and its influencing factors in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xiaonan; Shao, Xiaoliang; Wang, Xiaosong; Wang, Yuetao

    2016-01-01

    (18)F-FDG PET/CT has been widely applied for tumor imaging. However, it is reported that many normal tissues, e.g., brown adipose tissue, can also uptake (18)F-FDG. The purpose of this study was to determine the imaging characteristics of (18)F-FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in PET/CT. A total of 2,944 patients who underwent PET/CT from September 2011 to March 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Imaging features of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT were analyzed. Univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of age, gender, cancer status, body mass index (BMI), average daily maximum temperature of imaging month and fasting plasma glucose (Glu) on the positive rate of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. The results showed that 1.9% (57/2944) patients had (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. (18)F-FDG, manifested as flaky, nodular and beaded shape, was symmetrically distributed in the adipose tissues of cervical and supraclavicular, mediastinal, paravertebral, and perirenal areas. Uptake of (18)F-FDG within cervical/supraclavicular area was most common (89.5%, 51/57) with an SUVmax ranging from 2.8 to 31.4. Univariate analysis showed that gender and cancer status were not significantly correlated with the BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate. In contrast, age, BMI, Glu and average daily maximum temperature in the imaging month were significantly correlated with the BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate (P<0.05). Further logistic regression analysis showed that only age, BMI and average daily maximum temperature were significant (OR<1, P<0.05). Based on the value of OR, the most significant factor that affects BAT (18)F-FDG uptake rate was age, followed by the average daily maximum temperature and BMI. We concluded that Chinese adult has low positive rate of (18)F-FDG uptake in BAT. Cervical/Supraclavicular is the most common area with BAT (18)F-FDG uptake. Age, average daily maximum temperature and BMI are independent factors affecting (18)F-FDG uptake.

  7. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT and (18)F-NaF-PET/CT in men with castrate-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zukotynski, Katherine A; Kim, Chun K; Gerbaudo, Victor H; Hainer, Jon; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Kantoff, Philip; den Abbeele, Annick D Van; Seltzer, Steven; Sweeney, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate (18)F-labeled-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG-) and (18)F-labeled-sodium fluoride ((18)F-NaF-) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) as biomarkers in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Nine men (53-75 years) in a phase 1 trial of abiraterone and cabozantinib had (18)F-FDG-PET/CT, (18)F-NaF-PET/CT and standard imaging ((99m)Tc-labeled-methylene-diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone scan and abdominal/pelvic CT) at baseline and after 8 weeks of therapy. Baseline disease was classified as widespread (18)F-FDG-avid, oligometastatic (18)F-FDG-avid (1 site), or non-(18)F-FDG-avid. Metabolic response was classified using European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria. Treatment response using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1, Prostate Cancer Working Group 2 (PCWG2) guidelines and days on trial (DOT) were recorded. All men were followed for 1 year or until progression. Four men had (18)F-FDG-avid disease: two with widespread (DOT 53 and 76) and two with oligometastatic disease (DOT 231 and still on trial after 742+ days). Five men had non-(18)F-FDG-avid disease; three remained stable or improved (2 still on trial while one discontinued for non-oncologic reasons; DOT 225-563+), and 2 progressed (DOT 285 and 532). Despite the small sample size, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant difference in progression free survival (PFS) between men with widespread (18)F-FDG-avid, oligometastatic (18)F-FDG-avid and non-(18)F-FDG-avid disease (p < 0.01). All men had (18)F-NaF-avid disease. Neither (18)F-NaF-avid disease extent nor intensity was predictive of treatment response. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT may be superior to (18)F-NaF-PET/CT and standard imaging in men with mCRPC on abiraterone and cabozantinib. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT may have potential to stratify men into 3 groups (widespread vs. oligometastatic (18)F-FDG-avid vs. non-(18)F-FDG-avid mCRPC) to tailor therapy. Further evaluation is

  8. Evaluation of 18F-FDG PET and MRI Associations in Pediatric Diffuse Intrinsic Brain stem Glioma: A Report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Zukotynski, Katherine A.; Fahey, Frederic H.; Kocak, Mehmet; Alavi, Abass; Wong, Terence Z.; Treves, S. Ted; Shulkin, Barry L.; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.; Geyer, J. Russell; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Boyett, James M.; Kun, Larry E.; Poussaint, Tina Young

    2012-01-01

    Rationale To assess 18F-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) uptake in children with a newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic brainstem glioma (BSG) and to investigate associations with progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and MRI indices. Methods Two Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC) therapeutic trials in children with newly diagnosed BSG were designed to test radiation therapy combined with molecularly targeted agents (PBTC-007: Phase I/II study of gefitinib; PBTC-014: Phase I/II study of tipifarnib). Baseline brain 18F-FDG PET scans were obtained in 40 children in these trials. Images were evaluated by consensus of two PET experts for intensity and uniformity of tracer uptake. Associations of 18F-FDG uptake intensity and uniformity with both PFS and OS were evaluated as well as associations with tumor MRI indices at baseline (tumor volume on FLAIR, baseline intratumoral enhancement, diffusion and perfusion values. Results In the majority of children, BSG 18F-FDG uptake was less than gray matter uptake. Survival was poor irrespective of intensity of 18F-FDG uptake, with no association between intensity of 18F-FDG uptake and PFS or OS. However, hyperintense 18F-FDG uptake in tumor compared to gray matter suggested poorer survival rates. Patients with 18F-FDG uptake in ≥ 50% of the tumor had shorter PFS and OS compared to patients with 18F-FDG uptake in < 50% of tumor. There was some evidence that tumors with higher 18F-FDG uptake were more likely to show enhancement; and when the diffusion ratio was lower the uniformity of 18F- FDG uptake appeared higher. Conclusion Children with BSG where 18F-FDG uptake involves at least half the tumor appear to have inferior survival compared to children with uptake in <50% of tumor. A larger independent study is needed to verify this hypothesis. Intense tracer uptake in the tumors compared to gray matter suggests decreased survival. Higher 18F-FDG uptake within the tumor was associated with

  9. Is it practical and cost effective to detect differentiated thyroid carcinoma metastases by (18)F-FDG PET/CT, by (18)F-FDG SPET/CT or by (131)I SPET/CT?

    PubMed

    He, Xinjia; Wang, Xucai; Yu, Jinming; Ma, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Fluorine-18-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computerized tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) plays an important role in detecting differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) metastases with elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) and negative radioiodine ((131)I) uptake. In conclusion, (18)F-FDG PET/CT may fail to detect all DTC metastases, while (131)I WBS combined with (131)I SPET/CT may be a better cheaper and diagnostic tool as suggested by the case we presented here. Positive metastases in both (131)I and (18)F-FDG SPET/CT may indicate worse prognosis. Future research may add more evidence as to which is the best diagnostic imaging modality and relate it to the molecular mechanism of the uptake of the radionuclide used.

  10. Chromosomal abnormalities in the newborn period.

    PubMed

    Seashore, M R

    1993-10-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities account for a significant percentage of congenital malformations in the neonate. While some of the syndromes can be suspected on clinical grounds, the clinician will need to have a high index of suspicion based on the presence of multiple abnormalities that cannot be accounted for by other causes. Chromosome analysis should be performed promptly in these cases. Cultured lymphocytes are the standard preparation at present. However, new non-isotopic hybridization techniques are becoming available that allow analysis of interphase cells, and these may become more widely used as clinical experience with them is gained. Prognosis can usually be better defined once the chromosome analysis is complete. The information acquired may also be used to provide risk estimates for chromosomal abnormalities in future pregnancies of the parents of the affected infant and for other relatives. Empathetic counseling of the parents and family must be provided once the diagnosis is known. It must take into account the knowledge the chromosome analysis provides, be respectful of the parent's need for support, and be accurate as to prognosis of the condition diagnosed. When Down syndrome and Turner syndrome have been diagnosed, care must be taken to emphasize the positive aspects of the prognosis. When a chromosomal abnormality with an extremely poor prognosis is identified, support for withdrawal of medical intervention must be sensitively provided. The diagnosis and care of an infant with a chromosomal abnormality will challenge all of the pediatrician's diagnostic, therapeutic, and communication skills.

  11. Dysmorphometrics: the modelling of morphological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of typical morphological variations using quantitative, morphometric descriptors has always interested biologists in general. However, unusual examples of form, such as abnormalities are often encountered in biomedical sciences. Despite the long history of morphometrics, the means to identify and quantify such unusual form differences remains limited. Methods A theoretical concept, called dysmorphometrics, is introduced augmenting current geometric morphometrics with a focus on identifying and modelling form abnormalities. Dysmorphometrics applies the paradigm of detecting form differences as outliers compared to an appropriate norm. To achieve this, the likelihood formulation of landmark superimpositions is extended with outlier processes explicitly introducing a latent variable coding for abnormalities. A tractable solution to this augmented superimposition problem is obtained using Expectation-Maximization. The topography of detected abnormalities is encoded in a dysmorphogram. Results We demonstrate the use of dysmorphometrics to measure abrupt changes in time, asymmetry and discordancy in a set of human faces presenting with facial abnormalities. Conclusion The results clearly illustrate the unique power to reveal unusual form differences given only normative data with clear applications in both biomedical practice & research. PMID:22309623

  12. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  13. [Abnormalities of the penis in boys].

    PubMed

    Peycelon, M; Parmentier, B; Raquillet, C; Boubnova, J; Chouikh, T; Grosos, C; Honart, J-F; Pichon, A; Auber, F; Larroquet, M; Audry, G

    2012-12-01

    Abnormalities of the male genitalia have increased in the last 2 decades in numerous developed countries and remain a frequent reason of consultation in pediatric surgery. The diagnostic spectrum is wide, and surgeons should pay particular attention to these abnormalities because of their potential psychological effect. Anatomically, these abnormalities can affect one of three parts of the penis. First, the foreskin may not be fully retracted. This is normal at birth and can be caused by prepuce adherents that can continue until adolescence. Today, true phimosis is treated with topical corticoids from the age of 3 years. If medical treatment fails, a surgical procedure is required. Second, the urethra can be affected by hypospadia, which is the most frequent abnormality of the urethra. It is associated with ectopic urethral meatus, hypoplastic foreskin, and penis curvature. Its pathogenic background is not clearly understood. Surgery options differ according to the type of hypospadia and according to the surgeon's experience. It is sometimes hard to deal with, especially in a perineal form, where genetic and hormonal studies are recommended. These interventions can lead to complications ranging from stenosis to fistula. Therefore, parents have to be informed of the benefits and risks of the surgical procedures. Epispadias is rare but more serious because of the increasing risk of urinary incontinence. Finally, abnormalities of the corpora cavernosa - often associated with hypospadias - can include penis curvature and micropenis, for which an endocrinological analysis is essential. PMID:23121902

  14. 18F-FDG and 18F-NaF PET/CT Findings of a Multiple Myeloma Patient With Thyroid Cartilage Involvement.

    PubMed

    Oral, Aylin; Yazici, Bulent; Ömür, Özgür; Comert, Melda; Saydam, Guray

    2015-11-01

    Thyroid cartilage is a very rare extramedullary involvement location in multiple myeloma. We present both F-NaF and F-FDG PET/CT findings of a multiple myeloma patient with thyroid cartilage involvement. In this patient, increased FDG and more intensely increased NaF uptake were seen on thyroid cartilage. In addition, some bone lesions had more intense NaF than FDG uptake, and some were only NaF avid. Although F-FDG PET/CT has an important role in plasma cell neoplasms, we considered that F-NaF PET/CT is also very useful to detect small lytic lesions that might be overlooked on F-FDG PET/CT.

  15. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  16. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy.

  17. Laparoscopy for resolving Müllerian abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Motashaw, N D; Dastur, A; Vaidya, R A; Aloorkar, M

    1978-07-01

    One hundred thirty-five patients with various müllerian abnormalities underwent laparoscopy. At a glance the precise malformation was diagnosed correctly: 44 patients revealed a complete absence of the müllerian system; 35 were found to have a transverse ridge across the pelvis, the lateral ends of which were well developed; 33 patients had rudimentary uteri; 7, a median müllerian nodule; 5 belonged to the group with the testicular feminization syndrome; 4 were classified as having a bicornuate uterus; 3 had unicornuate uteri; and 3, septate uteri. One rare variety of müllerian abnormality is also described. Laparoscopy was found to be invaluable in the diagnosis of müllerian abnormalities.

  18. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24054776

  19. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  20. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  1. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

  2. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  3. Endocrine Abnormalities in Townes–Brocks Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Cara; Hong-McAtee, Irene; Hall, Bryan; Hartsfield, James; Rutherford, Andrew; Bonilla, Tracy; Bay, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Townes–Brocks syndrome is a recognizable variable pattern of malformation caused by mutations to the SALL1 gene located on chromosome 16q12.1. Only three known cases of Townes–Brocks syndrome with proven SALL1 gene mutation and concurrent endocrine abnormalities have been previously documented to our knowledge [Kohlhase et al., 1999; Botzenhart et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2010]. We report on two unrelated patients with Townes–Brocks syndrome who share an identical SALL1 mutation (c.3414_3415delAT), who also have endocrine abnormalities. Patient 1 appears to be the first known case of growth hormone deficiency, and Patient 2 extends the number of documented mutation cases with hypothyroidism to four. We suspect endocrine abnormalities, particularly treatable deficiencies, may be an underappreciated component to Townes–Brocks syndrome. PMID:23894113

  4. Echocardiographic abnormalities in the mucopolysaccharide storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Gross, D M; Williams, J C; Caprioli, C; Dominguez, B; Howell, R R

    1988-01-01

    The mucopolysaccharide storage diseases express themselves clinically with a wide variety of abnormalities, including growth and mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities, clouded corneas, nerve compression syndromes, upper airway obstruction and cardiovascular involvement, to name the most common. In most cases the cause of early death is cardiorespiratory failure secondary to cardiovascular involvement and upper airway obstruction. The findings of cardiac ultrasound examination in 29 children, adolescents and young adults are presented. In addition to the previously well-described abnormalities of the mitral and aortic valves in several types of mucopolysaccharide storage disease, we report patchy involvement in some cases, 3 instances of asymmetric septal hypertrophy not previously reported in mucopolysaccharide storage diseases, cardiac involvement in half of our patients with Sanfilippo syndrome and a lack of age-related severity of cardiac involvement even within the specific syndromes. PMID:3122547

  5. Visual perceptual abnormalities: hallucinations and illusions.

    PubMed

    Norton, J W; Corbett, J J

    2000-01-01

    Visual perceptual abnormalities may be caused by diverse etiologies which span the fields of psychiatry and neurology. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of visual perceptual abnormalities from both a neurological and a psychiatric perspective. Psychiatric etiologies include mania, depression, substance dependence, and schizophrenia. Common neurological causes include migraine, epilepsy, delirium, dementia, tumor, and stroke. The phenomena of palinopsia, oscillopsia, dysmetropsia, and polyopia among others are also reviewed. A systematic approach to the many causes of illusions and hallucinations may help to achieve an accurate diagnosis, and a more focused evaluation and treatment plan for patients who develop visual perceptual abnormalities. This article provides the practicing neurologist with a practical understanding and approach to patients with these clinical symptoms.

  6. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  7. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs.

    PubMed

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

  8. Isolated cholangiolitis revealed by 18F-FDG-PET/CT in a patient with fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Codreanu, Ion; Zhuang, Hongming

    2011-01-01

    Cholangiolitis, inflammation of the cholangioles, is difficult to diagnose by conventional imaging modalities. We report a case of cholangiolitis revealed by fluorine-18 fluoro desoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computerized tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) after about 9 months of recurrent fevers. A 20 years old girl with a history of recurrent fevers and repeated workups at different hospitals, which didn't diagnosed the source of fever, was admitted with a recent episode of fever. An (18)F-FDG-PET/CT was requested, which demonstrated focal hypermetabolic activity in the lateral segment of the left lobe of the liver. A liver biopsy showed inflammation of small biliary ducts consistent of cholangiolitis. Enterococcus casseliflavus was found on performed cultures. This represents the first case of cholangiolitis revealed by (18)F-FDG-PET/CT imaging. PMID:21512668

  9. Manganese As a Metal Accumulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese deposits in water distribution systems accumulate metals, radionuclides and oxyanions by a combination of surface complexation, adsorption and solid substitution, as well as a combination of oxidation followed by manganese reduction and sorption of the oxidized constitu...

  10. A SENSITIVE IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE ASSAY FOR DETECTION OF P53 PROTEIN ACCUMULATION IN SPUTUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    p53 mutations are common genetic alterations in lung cancers and usually result in p53 protein accumulation in tumor cells. Sputum is noninvasive to collect and ideal for screening p53 abnormalities. This study was to determine the feasibility of detecting p53 protein accumulatio...

  11. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  12. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  13. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  14. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research. PMID:26460794

  15. [Usefulness of Determining Acquisition Time by True Count Rate Measurement Method for Delivery 18F-FDG PET/CT].

    PubMed

    Miura, Shota; Odashima, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    A stable quality of delivery 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) requires suitable acquisition time, which can be obtained from an accurate true count of 18F-FDG. However, the true count is influenced by body mass index (BMI) and attenuation of 18F-FDG. In order to remove these influences, we have developed a new method (actual measurement method) to measure the actual true count rate based on sub-pubic thigh, which allows us to calculate a suitable acquisition time. In this study, we aimed to verify the acquisition count through our new method in terms of two categories: (1) the accuracy of acquisition count and (2) evaluation of clinical images using physical index. Our actual measurement method was designed to obtain suitable acquisition time through the following procedure. A true count rate of sub-pubic thigh was measured through detector of PET, and used as a standard true count rate. Finally, the obtained standard count rate was processed to acquisition time. This method was retrospectively applied to 150 patients, receiving 18F-FDG administration from 109.7 to 336.8 MBq, and whose body weight ranged from 37 to 95.4 kg. The accuracy of true count was evaluated by comparing relationships of true count, relative to BMI or to administered dose of 18F-FDG. The PET/CT images obtained by our actual measurement method were assessed using physical index. Our new method resulted in accurate true count, which was not influenced by either BMI or administered dose of 18F-FDG, as well as satisfied PET/CT images with recommended criteria of physical index in all patients.

  16. Cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx: FDG PET with contrast-enhanced CT in the posttreatment setting.

    PubMed

    King, Kevin G; Kositwattanarerk, Arpakorn; Genden, Eric; Kao, Johnny; Som, Peter M; Kostakoglu, Lale

    2011-01-01

    The combined use of fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) for posttreatment monitoring of cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx has steadily increased in recent years. FDG PET/CT offers many advantages for evaluating the effects of therapy, determining whether residual or recurrent disease is present, and assessing the extent of nodal disease. Because of the high negative predictive value of this imaging test, some have advocated the deferral of neck dissection in patients with negative findings at FDG PET/CT after chemotherapy and radiation therapy; positive findings may have a similarly heavy influence on the future course of treatment. Thus, the accuracy of image interpretation is crucial. However, the interpretation of posttreatment FDG PET images is challenging, with multiple potential pitfalls and limitations that could lead to an incorrect analysis. Accuracy depends on a detailed knowledge of the patient's treatment history and a thorough understanding of the kinds of changes that might result from treatment. Awareness of the principles underlying the selection of the optimal interval between the completion of treatment and the first follow-up FDG PET/CT examination is especially important, since an interval that is too short could lead to false-positive or false-negative findings. A period of 12 weeks or more is generally recommended, but the optimal waiting period depends on the extent of therapy and other factors. If recurrence or progression is suspected during the waiting period, contrast-enhanced CT or magnetic resonance imaging should be performed without FDG PET. PMID:21415184

  17. Relation between primary tumor FDG avidity and site of first distant metastasis in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chae Hong; Moon, Seung Hwan; Cho, Young Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Identification of tumor imaging features associated with metastatic pattern may allow better understanding of cancer dissemination. Here, we investigated how primary tumor 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity influences the first site of breast cancer metastasis. Subjects were 264 patients with advanced breast cancer who underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography at diagnosis and had metastasis at presentation (n = 193) or metastatic relapse after surgery (n = 71). Primary tumor FDG avidity (maximum SUV [SUVmax] ≥10.1) was compared with histology and first metastatic sites. The most common site of first metastasis was the bone, occurring in 62.7% of patients with metastasis at presentation and 38.0% of those with metastatic relapse. First metastasis to lung occurred in 30.1% and 35.2%, and to liver in 25.4% and 15.2% of respective groups. In patients with metastasis at presentation, primary tumors were FDG avid in 98/193 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (37.8% vs 22.1%; P = 0.018). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors were FDG avid in 31/71 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (48.4% vs 25.0%; P = 0.041) and liver (29.0% vs 5.0%; P = 0.008). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors that were FDG avid but hormone receptor negative had more first metastasis to lung (57.9% vs 26.9%; P = 0.016). FDG-avid primary breast tumors have favored first spread to the lung and liver, which suggests that tumor cells with heightened glycolytic activity better colonize these organs. PMID:27512840

  18. The role of FDG-PET in defining prognosis of Hodgkin lymphoma for early-stage disease

    PubMed Central

    Kostakoglu, Lale

    2014-01-01

    Given the excellent survival rates for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), the young age of many patients, and concerns regarding acute and late treatment-related toxicities, there is a desire to have a predictive tool that enables therapy to be tailored toward the individual patient. Early (or interim) 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computerized tomography (FDG-PET/CT), as a test of tumor sensitivity to ongoing/planned therapy, has been shown to be prognostic for survival in HL. Based on results of interim FDG-PET/CT, therapy may be subsequently modified through minimization or via intensification for low- and high-risk patient populations, respectively (ie, response-adapted therapy). Important data have been generated to standardize the interpretability and reproducibility of interim FDG-PET/CT (eg, the Deauville 5-point system), and observational and noncontrolled prospective studies have produced evidence supporting the hypothesis that response-adapted therapy may potentially serve as a predictive tool. Furthermore, results from noninferiority phase 3 clinical trials randomizing early-stage HL patients with negative interim FDG-PET/CT to combined modality therapy versus chemotherapy alone have been reported. The current collective findings from these randomized early-stage HL studies have shown that acute relapse rates are lower with combined modality therapy, even in patients with negative interim FDG-PET/CT. Additional randomized response-adapted studies are ongoing and novel FDG-PET/CT applications involving quantitative techniques and innovative imaging modalities are being investigated to identify more robust imaging biomarkers. Treatment of early-stage HL remains a clinical management choice for physicians and patients to make with consideration of acute and long-term outcomes. PMID:25428223

  19. Impact of FDG-PET/CT Imaging on Nodal Staging for Head-And-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Ryuji . E-mail: murakami@kaiju.medic.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Uozumi, Hideaki; Hirai, Toshinori; Nishimura, Ryuichi; Shiraishi, Shinya; Ota, Kazutoshi D.D.S.; Murakami, Daizo; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Oya, Natsuo; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging on nodal staging for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 23 patients with head-and-neck SCC who were evaluated with FDG-PET/CT and went on to neck dissection. Two observers consensually determined the lesion size and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and compared the results with pathologic findings on nodal-level involvement. Two different observers (A and B) independently performed three protocols for clinical nodal staging. Methods 1, 2, and 3 were based on conventional modalities, additional visual information from FDG-PET/CT images, and FDG-PET/CT imaging alone with SUV data, respectively. Results: All primary tumors were visualized with FDG-PET/CT. Pathologically, 19 positive and 93 negative nodal levels were identified. The SUV{sub max} overlapped in negative and positive nodes <15 mm in diameter. According to receiver operating characteristics analysis, the size-based SUV{sub max} cutoff values were 1.9, 2.5, and 3.0 for lymph nodes <10 mm, 10-15 mm, and >15 mm, respectively. These cutoff values yielded 79% sensitivity and 99% specificity for nodal-level staging. For Observer A, the sensitivity and specificity in Methods 1, 2, and 3 were 68% and 94%, 68% and 99%, and 84% and 99%, respectively, and Method 3 yielded significantly higher accuracy than Method 1 (p = 0.0269). For Observer B, Method 3 yielded the highest sensitivity (84%) and specificity (99%); however, the difference among the three protocols was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Imaging with FDG-PET/CT with size-based SUV{sub max} cutoff values is an important modality for radiation therapy planning.

  20. Relation between primary tumor FDG avidity and site of first distant metastasis in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Hong; Moon, Seung Hwan; Cho, Young Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2016-08-01

    Identification of tumor imaging features associated with metastatic pattern may allow better understanding of cancer dissemination. Here, we investigated how primary tumor F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity influences the first site of breast cancer metastasis.Subjects were 264 patients with advanced breast cancer who underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography at diagnosis and had metastasis at presentation (n = 193) or metastatic relapse after surgery (n = 71). Primary tumor FDG avidity (maximum SUV [SUVmax] ≥10.1) was compared with histology and first metastatic sites.The most common site of first metastasis was the bone, occurring in 62.7% of patients with metastasis at presentation and 38.0% of those with metastatic relapse. First metastasis to lung occurred in 30.1% and 35.2%, and to liver in 25.4% and 15.2% of respective groups. In patients with metastasis at presentation, primary tumors were FDG avid in 98/193 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (37.8% vs 22.1%; P = 0.018). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors were FDG avid in 31/71 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (48.4% vs 25.0%; P = 0.041) and liver (29.0% vs 5.0%; P = 0.008). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors that were FDG avid but hormone receptor negative had more first metastasis to lung (57.9% vs 26.9%; P = 0.016).FDG-avid primary breast tumors have favored first spread to the lung and liver, which suggests that tumor cells with heightened glycolytic activity better colonize these organs.

  1. Post-PET ultrasound improves specificity of 18F-FDG-PET for recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer while maintaining sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kråkenes, Jostein; Brauckhoff, Katrin; Haugland, Hans Kristian; Heinecke, Achim; Akslen, Lars A; Varhaug, Jan Erik; Brauckhoff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Positron emission tomography (PET) using fluor-18-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) with or without computed tomography (CT) is generally accepted as the most sensitive imaging modality for diagnosing recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in patients with negative whole body scintigraphy with iodine-131 (I-131). Purpose To assess the potential incremental value of ultrasound (US) over 18F-FDG-PET-CT. Material and Methods Fifty-one consecutive patients with suspected recurrent DTC were prospectively evaluated using the following multimodal imaging protocol: (i) US before PET (pre-US) with or without fine needle biopsy (FNB) of suspicious lesions; (ii) single photon emission computed tomography (≥3 GBq I-131) with co-registered CT (SPECT-CT); (iii) 18F-FDG-PET with co-registered contrast-enhanced CT of the neck; (iv) US in correlation with the other imaging modalities (post-US). Postoperative histology, FNB, and long-term follow-up (median, 2.8 years) were taken as composite gold standard. Results Fifty-eight malignant lesions were identified in 34 patients. Forty lesions were located in the neck or upper mediastinum. On receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, 18F-FDG-PET had a limited lesion-based specificity of 59% at a set sensitivity of 90%. Pre-US had poor sensitivity and specificity of 52% and 53%, respectively, increasing to 85% and 94% on post-US, with knowledge of the PET/CT findings (P < 0.05 vs. PET and pre-US). Multimodal imaging changed therapy in 15 out of 51 patients (30%). Conclusion In patients with suspected recurrent DTC, supplemental targeted US in addition to 18F-FDG-PET-CT increases specificity while maintainin sensitivity, as non-malignant FDG uptake in cervical lesions can be confirmed. PMID:25770086

  2. Estimation of radiation dose to patients from 18FDG whole body PET/CT investigations using dynamic PET scan protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Aruna; Jaimini, Abhinav; Tripathi, Madhavi; D’Souza, Maria; Sharma, Rajnish; Mondal, Anupam; Mishra, Anil K.; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: There is a growing concern over the radiation exposure of patients from undergoing 18FDG PET/CT (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography) whole body investigations. The aim of the present study was to study the kinetics of 18FDG distributions and estimate the radiation dose received by patients undergoing 18FDG whole body PET/CT investigations. Methods: Dynamic PET scans in different regions of the body were performed in 49 patients so as to measure percentage uptake of 18FDG in brain, liver, spleen, adrenals, kidneys and stomach. The residence time in these organs was calculated and radiation dose was estimated using OLINDA software. The radiation dose from the CT component was computed using the software CT-Expo and measured using computed tomography dose index (CTDI) phantom and ionization chamber. As per the clinical protocol, the patients were refrained from eating and drinking for a minimum period of 4 h prior to the study. Results: The estimated residence time in males was 0.196 h (brain), 0.09 h (liver), 0.007 h (spleen), 0.0006 h (adrenals), 0.013 h (kidneys) and 0.005 h (stomach) whereas it was 0.189 h (brain), 0.11 h (liver), 0.01 h (spleen), 0.0007 h (adrenals), 0.02 h (kidneys) and 0.004 h (stomach) in females. The effective dose was found to be 0.020 mSv/MBq in males and 0.025 mSv/MBq in females from internally administered 18FDG and 6.8 mSv in males and 7.9 mSv in females from the CT component. For an administered activity of 370 MBq of 18FDG, the effective dose from PET/CT investigations was estimated to be 14.2 mSv in males and 17.2 mSv in females. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results did not demonstrate significant difference in the kinetics of 18FDG distribution in male and female patients. The estimated PET/CT doses were found to be higher than many other conventional diagnostic radiology examinations suggesting that all efforts should be made to clinically justify and

  3. Brain-Only Metastases Seen on FDG PET as First Relapse of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Two Years Post-Thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Naddaf, Sleiman Y; Syed, Ghulam Mustafa Shah; Hadb, Abdulrahman; Al-Thaqfi, Saif

    2016-09-01

    We report a case of a 60-year-old man diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer who had a relapse seen only in the brain at FDG PET on standard images. Total thyroidectomy was performed in July 2013 after initial diagnosis. Patient received I ablation in December 2013, followed by external beam radiotherapy to the neck. In September 2015, the patient presented with neurological symptoms. Brain MRI showed multiple brain metastases later confirmed on histopathology. An FDG PET/CT scan was performed to evaluate the whole body in November 2015. Multiple hypermetabolic lesions were identified in the brain with no other lesion up to mid thighs. PMID:27405041

  4. Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the Carcinoma of the Uterus: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Musto, Alessandra; Grassetto, Gaia; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Maffione, Anna Margherita; Rampin, Lucia; Fuster, David; Giammarile, Francesco; Colletti, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present review we reported the value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT in face of uterine cancer, in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Moreover, we made a comparison with the other imaging techniques currently used to evacuate these tumors including contrast-enhanced CT, contrast enhanced-MRI and transvaginal ultrasonography. FDG PET/CT has been reported to be of particular value in detecting occult metastatic lesions, in prediction of response to treatment and as a pro-gnostic factor. PMID:25323881

  5. Evaluation of lung lesions using FDG gamma-camera PET equipped with a one-inch crystal.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Hong-Wei; Cheng, Hai-Feng; Ye, Xiao-Juan; Zhao, Chun-Lei; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Hong-Biao; He, Gang-Qiang

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging with gamma-camera positron emission tomography (GCPET) equipped with a one-inch crystal for diagnosing lung lesions and determining the stage of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in regions with a high prevalence of inflammatory disease and tuberculosis. FDG-GCPET was used to examine 103 patients with suspected malignant lesions in the lung. The results of FDG-GCPET and conventional workup (CWU) including computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography and radionuclide bone scintigraphy were compared. The final diagnosis was based on the results of a histological analysis or follow-up of at least six months. The results showed 82 patients with malignant and 21 patients with benign lesions. If a lesion to background ratio > or = 2.0 was used as the threshold, then the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of FDG-GCPET for NSCLC were 93.9, 57.1, 86.4, 89.5 and 70.6%, respectively. In 36 patients who underwent open-chest surgery, the diagnostic positive values of FDG-GCPET and CT for lymph-node involvement were 85% (17/20) and 65% (13/20), respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV of FDG imaging were 85, 81.3, 83.3, 85 and 81.3%, respectively compared to the CT values of 65, 75, 69.4, 76.5 and 63.2%, respectively (NS). For the evaluation of distant metastases, 31 true-positive patients were identified during the follow-up. FDG imaging correctly identified 28 patients compared to 25 by CWU. In conclusion, FDG imaging with GCPET equipped with a one-inch crystal revealed a high lesion detection capability but a low level of clinical effectiveness for differentiating between malignant and benign lesions in the lung in regions with a high prevalence of inflammatory disease and tuberculosis. For N and M staging of NSCLC, this method may provide additional data that are not

  6. Additional value of F-18 FDG PET/CT for initial staging in breast cancer with clinically negative axillary nodes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do-Young; Yoon, Hyun Jin; Son, Hye Joo

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact of the preoperative ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT in the initial workup of breast cancer with clinically negative axillary nodes. Whether the status of the clinical axillary nodal involvement can be considered a parameter for making a decision to omit the preoperative ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT in the situation reported herein was also determined. A total of 178 patients who had newly diagnosed breast cancer and for whom the conventional diagnostic modalities showed no sign of axillary node metastasis were retrospectively enrolled in this study. All the patients underwent preoperative ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT. The images and histologic results that were obtained were analyzed. ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT detected primary lesions in 156 of the 178 patients, with an overall sensitivity of 87.6 %, and false negative results were obtained for 22 patients (12.4 %). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of axillary nodes were 20.8, 86.9, 37.0, 74.8, and 69.1 %, respectively. Extra-axillary node metastasis was identified in two patients (1.1 %) who had internal mammary nodes. There was no distant metastasis, but coexisting primary tumor was detected in five patients (2.8 %). In total, the therapeutic plan was changed based on ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT in seven (3.9 %) of the 178 patients, but considering only the cases confined to breast cancer, the change occurred in only two patients (1.1 %). ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT almost did not affect the initial staging and treatment plan in breast cancer with clinically negative axillary node. If the axillary node is clinically negative in the preoperative workup of breast cancer, then ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT can be omitted.

  7. Prognostic value of preoperative intratumoral FDG uptake heterogeneity in early stage uterine cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Noh-Hyun; Song, Yong Sang

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the prognostic value of intratumoral [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake heterogeneity (IFH) derived from positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods Patients with uterine cervical cancer of the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO) stage IB to IIA were imaged with [18F]FDG PET/CT before radical surgery. PET/CT parameters such as maximum and average standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVavg), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and IFH were assessed. Regression analyses were used to identify clinicopathological and imaging variables associated with progression-free survival (PFS). Results We retrospectively reviewed clinical data of 85 eligible patients. Median PFS was 32 months (range, 6 to 83 months), with recurrence observed in 14 patients (16.5%). IFH at an SUV of 2.0 was correlated with primary tumor size (p<0.001), SUVtumor (p<0.001), MTVtumor (p<0.001), TLGtumor (p<0.001), depth of cervical invasion (p<0.001), and negatively correlated with age (p=0.036). Tumor recurrence was significantly associated with TLGtumor (p<0.001), MTVtumor (p=0.001), SUVLN (p=0.004), IFH (p=0.005), SUVtumor (p=0.015), and FIGO stage (p=0.015). Multivariate analysis identified that IFH (p=0.028; hazard ratio, 756.997; 95% CI, 2.047 to 279,923.191) was the only independent risk factor for recurrence. The Kaplan-Meier survival graphs showed that PFS significantly differed in groups categorized based on IFH (p=0.013, log-rank test). Conclusion Preoperative IFH was significantly associated with cervical cancer recurrence. [18F]FDG based heterogeneity may be a useful and potential predicator of patient recurrence before treatment. PMID:26768781

  8. Generative FDG-PET and MRI model of aging and disease progression in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dukart, Juergen; Kherif, Ferath; Mueller, Karsten; Adaszewski, Stanislaw; Schroeter, Matthias L; Frackowiak, Richard S J; Draganski, Bogdan

    2013-04-01

    The failure of current strategies to provide an explanation for controversial findings on the pattern of pathophysiological changes in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) motivates the necessity to develop new integrative approaches based on multi-modal neuroimaging data that captures various aspects of disease pathology. Previous studies using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) report controversial results about time-line, spatial extent and magnitude of glucose hypometabolism and atrophy in AD that depend on clinical and demographic characteristics of the studied populations. Here, we provide and validate at a group level a generative anatomical model of glucose hypo-metabolism and atrophy progression in AD based on FDG-PET and sMRI data of 80 patients and 79 healthy controls to describe expected age and symptom severity related changes in AD relative to a baseline provided by healthy aging. We demonstrate a high level of anatomical accuracy for both modalities yielding strongly age- and symptom-severity- dependant glucose hypometabolism in temporal, parietal and precuneal regions and a more extensive network of atrophy in hippocampal, temporal, parietal, occipital and posterior caudate regions. The model suggests greater and more consistent changes in FDG-PET compared to sMRI at earlier and the inversion of this pattern at more advanced AD stages. Our model describes, integrates and predicts characteristic patterns of AD related pathology, uncontaminated by normal age effects, derived from multi-modal data. It further provides an integrative explanation for findings suggesting a dissociation between early- and late-onset AD. The generative model offers a basis for further development of individualized biomarkers allowing accurate early diagnosis and treatment evaluation.

  9. Diminished glucose transport and phosphorylation in Alzheimer`s disease determined by dynamic FDG-PET

    SciTech Connect

    Piert, M.; Koeppe, R.A.; Giordani, B.; Berent, S.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1996-02-01

    Using dynamic [{sup 18}F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and PET, kinetic rate constants that describe influx (K{sub 1}) and efflux (k{sub 2}) of FDG as well s phosphorylation (k{sub 3}) and dephosphorylation (k{sub 4}) were determined in patients with probable Alzheimer`s disease and similarly aged normal controls. The regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMR{sub glu}) was calculated from individually fitted rate constants in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cerebral cortex, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus and cerebellar cortex. Dynamic PET scans were obtained in normal controls (n = 10, mean age = 67) and Alzheimer`s disease patients (n = 8, mean age = 67) for 60 min following injection of 10 mCi of FDG. The Alzheimer`s disease group was characterized by decreases of the CMR{sub glu} ranging from 13.3% in the frontal to 40.9% in the parietal cortex, which achieved significance in all regions except the thalamus. K{sub 1} was significantly reduced in the parietal (p < 0.01) and temporal cortices (p < 0.005), temporal and occipital cortex, and in the putamen and cerebellum (p < 0.05). The rate constants k{sub 2} and k{sub 4} were unchanged in the Alzheimer`s disease group. These data suggest that hypometabolism in Alzheimer`s disease is related to reduced glucose phosphorylation activity as well as diminished glucose transport, particularly in the most metabolically affected areas of the brain, the parietal and temporal cortex. 60 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Correction for FDG PET dose extravasations: Monte Carlo validation and quantitative evaluation of patient studies

    SciTech Connect

    Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús Aguiar, Pablo; Sánchez, Manuel; Mosquera, Javier; Luna-Vega, Víctor; Cortés, Julia; Garrido, Miguel; Pombar, Miguel; Ruibal, Álvaro

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Current procedure guidelines for whole body [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) state that studies with visible dose extravasations should be rejected for quantification protocols. Our work is focused on the development and validation of methods for estimating extravasated doses in order to correct standard uptake value (SUV) values for this effect in clinical routine. Methods: One thousand three hundred sixty-seven consecutive whole body FDG-PET studies were visually inspected looking for extravasation cases. Two methods for estimating the extravasated dose were proposed and validated in different scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. All visible extravasations were retrospectively evaluated using a manual ROI based method. In addition, the 50 patients with higher extravasated doses were also evaluated using a threshold-based method. Results: Simulation studies showed that the proposed methods for estimating extravasated doses allow us to compensate the impact of extravasations on SUV values with an error below 5%. The quantitative evaluation of patient studies revealed that paravenous injection is a relatively frequent effect (18%) with a small fraction of patients presenting considerable extravasations ranging from 1% to a maximum of 22% of the injected dose. A criterion based on the extravasated volume and maximum concentration was established in order to identify this fraction of patients that might be corrected for paravenous injection effect. Conclusions: The authors propose the use of a manual ROI based method for estimating the effectively administered FDG dose and then correct SUV quantification in those patients fulfilling the proposed criterion.

  11. Abnormal Gephyrin Immunoreactivity Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease Pathologic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Chadwick M.; Rees, Howard; Seyfried, Nicholas T.; Dammer, Eric B.; Duong, Duc M.; Gearing, Marla; Montine, Thomas J.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Thambisetty, Madhav; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J; Wingo, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative disorders involve the abnormal accumulation of proteins. In addition to the well-known findings of neurofibrillary tangles and β-amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s disease, here we show that abnormal accumulations of gephyrin, an inhibitory receptor anchoring protein, are highly correlated with the neuropathologic diagnosis of AD (odds ratio of 72.7; p = 6.844 × 10−6 by Fisher’s exact test, n = 17 AD and n = 14 control cases). Furthermore, the gephyrin accumulations are specific for AD and not seen in other neurodegenerative diseases. Gephyrin accumulations overlap with β-amyloid plaques and, more rarely, neurofibrillary tangles. Follow-up biochemical and proteomic studies suggest alterations in the gephyrin solubility and reveal elevated levels of gephyrin lower-molecular-weight species in the AD insoluble fraction. Since gephyrin is involved in synaptic organization and synaptic dysfunction is an early event in AD, these findings point to a possible role for gephyrin in AD pathogenesis. PMID:24128675

  12. Prediction of Extracapsular Invasion at Metastatic Sentinel Nodes and Non-sentinel Lymph Nodal Metastases by FDG-PET in Cases with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takaaki; Yajima, Reina; Tatsuki, Hironori; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    We have previously reported that the presence of an extracapsular invasion (ECI) at sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) is a strong predictor of non-SLN metastasis in breast cancer. We hypothesized that(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake by metastatic SLNs reflects invasive disease, or ECI. In this study, we evaluated the association of FDG uptake with ECI on SLNs and the possibility of FDG-positron-emission tomography (PET) assessment of axillary non-SLN metastases. We retrospectively investigated the cases of 156 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer who underwent SLN biopsy and FDG-PET preoperatively. Among 35 patients (22.4%) in whom the presence of SLN metastases was diagnosed, 10 cases (28.6%) had FDG uptake in the axillary lesion. The sensitivity, specificity, overall accuracy, and false-negative rates in the diagnosis of SLN status by FDG-PET were 28.6%, 99.2%, 83.3%, and 71.4%, respectively. The false-positive rate of FDG-PET evaluation was 0.8%. The 35 cases with lymph node metastases were divided into two groups based on the presence of FDG uptake in the axillary lesions. None of the clinicopathological features of the primary tumor were significantly associated with FDG uptake in the axillary lesion. The present analysis revealed that only tumor size of the metastatic lymph node was significantly associated with FDG uptake in the axillary lesion. The two groups were not significantly different in terms of presence of ECI and non-SLN metastasis. Among the 35 cases with SLN metastases, 13 cases (37.1%) had non-SLN metastasis. Only ECI was a predictor of non-SLN involvement. FDG uptake in the axilla was not associated with non-SLN metastasis in this study. In conclusion, FDG-PET evaluation of lymph nodes is not a sufficient indicator of ECI at SLN metastasis or non-SLN metastasis, suggesting that axillary lymph node dissection cannot be avoided. However, since the positive predictive value for SLN metastasis is high, positive FDG uptake in the axillary

  13. [Computed tomography in endobronchial mucus accumulation].

    PubMed

    Gaeta, M; Barone, M; Loria, G; Minutoli, F; Stroscio, S

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the value of CT in depicting endobronchial mucoid collections, the authors retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of 22 patients, 14 with mucous plugs, 7 with mucoid pseudotumors, and one with a bronchocele due to bronchial atresia. Atelectasis could be seen in 11 of 14 patients with mucous plugs. In 12 of 14 patients with mucous plugs CT showed the involved bronchi filled by fluid representing abnormal mucus accumulation. In the patients with atelectasis CT showed mucus-filled bronchi as low-attenuation branching structures (mucoid bronchogram). All the mucoid pseudotumors appeared as low-attenuation (< 20 HU) polypoid wall lesions with no involvement of the bronchial walls. In a patient with bronchial atresia CT showed a solitary pulmonary nodule (representing the obstructed and dilated bronchus filled by mucus) surrounded by peripheral pulmonary hyperinflation. Characteristically, the endobronchial mucoid collections never enhanced after bolus contrast medium. Endobronchial mucoid collections had to be differentiated from endobronchial neoplasms. In some cases bronchoscopy was necessary to make the differential diagnosis. In conclusion, CT is a valuable tool with good sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing endobronchial mucoid collections.

  14. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  15. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  16. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  17. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  18. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  19. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  20. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  1. Pathways to abnormal revenge and forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2013-02-01

    The target article’s important point is easily misunderstood to claim that all revenge is adaptive. Revenge and forgiveness can overstretch (or understretch) the bounds of utility due to misperceptions, minimization of costly errors, a breakdown within our evolved revenge systems, or natural genetic and developmental variation. Together, these factors can compound to produce highly abnormal instances of revenge and forgiveness. PMID:23211704

  2. Abnormal Saccadic Eye Movements in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, C.; Verbaten, M. N.; Cuperus, J. M.; Camfferman, G.; van Engeland, H.

    1998-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements, generated during a visual oddball task, were compared for 10 autistic children, 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 10 dyslexic children, and 10 typically developing children. Several abnormal patterns of saccades were found in the autistic group. (DB)

  3. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mallapur, Avanti; Choudhury, B C

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research.

  4. Familial Precocious Fetal Abnormal Cortical Sulcation.

    PubMed

    Frassoni, Carolina; Avagliano, Laura; Inverardi, Francesca; Spaccini, Luigina; Parazzini, Cecilia; Rustico, Maria Angela; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Righini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The development of the human cerebral cortex is a complex and precisely programmed process by which alterations may lead to morphological and functional neurological abnormalities. We report familial cases of prenatally diagnosed abnormal brain, characterized by aberrant symmetrical mesial oversulcation of the parietooccipital lobes, in fetuses affected by abnormal skeletal features. Fetal brain anomalies were characterized by prenatal magnetic resonance imaging at 21 weeks of gestation and histologically evaluated at 22 weeks. Histological examination added relevant information showing some focal cortical areas of micropoligyria and heterotopic extension of the cortical plate into the marginal zone beneath the cortical surface. Genetic analysis of the fetuses excluded FGFR3 mutations known to be related to skeletal dysplasia and aberrant symmetrical oversulcation in other brain areas (temporal lobes). Hence, the present report suggests the existence of a class of rare syndromes of skeleton and brain development abnormality unrelated to FGFR3 mutations or related to other not described FGFR3 gene defects. Using magnetic resonance imaging, histopathology and molecular characterization we provide an example of a translational study of a rare and unreported brain congenital malformation. PMID:27177044

  5. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... LEEP) —A thin wire loop that carries an electric current is used to remove abnormal areas of the ... the cervix using a thin wire loop and electric energy. Pap ... this document sets forth current information and opinions related to women’s health. The ...

  6. Pancreatic abnormalities and AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    Teare, J P; Daly, C A; Rodgers, C; Padley, S P; Coker, R J; Main, J; Harris, J R; Scullion, D; Bray, G P; Summerfield, J A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Biliary tract abnormalities are well recognised in AIDS, most frequently related to opportunistic infection with Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, and cytomegalovirus. We noted a high frequency of pancreatic abnormalities associated with biliary tract disease. To define these further we reviewed the clinical and radiological features in these patients. METHODS: Notes and radiographs were available from two centres for 83 HIV positive patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the investigation of cholestatic liver function tests or abdominal pain. RESULTS: 56 patients had AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis (ARSC); 86% of these patients had epigastric or right upper quadrant pain and 52% had hepatomegaly. Of the patients with ARSC, 10 had papillary stenosis alone, 11 had intra- and extrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis alone, and 35 had a combination of the two. Ampullary biopsies performed in 24 patients confirmed an opportunistic infection in 16. In 15 patients, intraluminal polyps were noted on the cholangiogram. Pancreatograms were available in 34 of the 45 patients with papillary stenosis, in which 29 (81%) had associated pancreatic duct dilatation, often with associated features of chronic pancreatitis. In the remaining 27 patients, final diagnoses included drug induced liver disease, acalculous cholecystitis, gall bladder empyema, chronic B virus hepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic abnormalities are commonly seen with ARSC and may be responsible for some of the pain not relieved by biliary sphincterotomy. The most frequent radiographic biliary abnormality is papillary stenosis combined with ductal sclerosis. Images PMID:9389948

  7. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  8. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  9. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  10. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  11. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal…

  12. Ultrasonography of gallbladder abnormalities due to schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joachim; Azoulay, Daniel; Dong, Yi; Holtfreter, Martha C; Akpata, Robert; Calderaro, Julien; El-Scheich, Tarik; Breuer, Matthias; Neumayr, Andreas; Hatz, Christoph; Kircheis, Gerald; Botelho, Monica C; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-08-01

    After malaria, schistosomiasis remains the most important tropical parasitic disease in large parts of the world. Schistosomiasis has recently re-emerged in Southern Europe. Intestinal schistosomiasis is caused by most Schistosoma (S.) spp. pathogenic to humans and leads to chronic inflammation and fibrosis of the colon as well as to liver fibrosis. Gallbladder abnormalities usually occur in patients with advanced hepatic portal fibrosis due to Schistosoma mansoni infection. Occasionally, gallbladder abnormalities have been seen also in children and occurring without associated overt liver abnormalities.The specific S. mansoni-induced gallbladder abnormalities detectable by ultrasound include typical hyperechogenic wall thickening with external gallbladder wall protuberances. The luminal wall surface is smooth. The condition is usually clinically silent although some cases of symptomatic cholecystitis have been described. The ultrasonographic Murphy response is negative. Gallbladder contractility is impaired but sludge and calculi occur rarely. Contrary to other trematodes such as liver flukes, S. mansoni does not obstruct the biliary tract. Advanced gallbladder fibrosis is unlikely to reverse after therapy.

  13. Fireworks-induced chest wall granulomatous disease: 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Le, Stephanie T; Nguyen, Ba Duong

    2014-04-01

    The authors present a case of 18F-FDG-avid granulomatous reaction induced by fireworks injury of the chest wall in a patient with esophageal adenocarcinoma. This hypermetabolic lesion, involving the right pectoralis muscles, appeared slightly more prominent on restaging PET/CT imaging following chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Excisional biopsy of the lesion established the diagnosis of foreign-body granulomatous-type inflammation with surrounding foci of non-polarizable black foreign material and ruled out malignancy. The patient recalled accidentally shooting himself in the chest with a Roman candle at the age of 3.

  14. Fireworks-induced chest wall granulomatous disease: 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Le, Stephanie T; Nguyen, Ba Duong

    2014-04-01

    The authors present a case of 18F-FDG-avid granulomatous reaction induced by fireworks injury of the chest wall in a patient with esophageal adenocarcinoma. This hypermetabolic lesion, involving the right pectoralis muscles, appeared slightly more prominent on restaging PET/CT imaging following chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Excisional biopsy of the lesion established the diagnosis of foreign-body granulomatous-type inflammation with surrounding foci of non-polarizable black foreign material and ruled out malignancy. The patient recalled accidentally shooting himself in the chest with a Roman candle at the age of 3. PMID:23877517

  15. Effect of ¹⁸F-FDG administration on measurements of bone mineral density and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Seong Su; Mo, Eun Hee; Lee, Chun Ho; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antecedent administration of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) used in positron emission tomography (PET) scanning results in corruption of bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system. DXA measurements of BMD and body composition had been performed twice, before and after ¹⁸F-FDG PET scan in 30 patients. The comparison of pre-values and post-values of all BMD values showed a decrease after the injection. However, only the decrease of whole-body BMD (WB-BMD) was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Whole-body fat mass had increased and whole-body lean body mass had decreased after the injection of ¹⁸F-FDG, and these were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There is statistically significant correlation between the injected ¹⁸F-FDG dose and a decrease of WB-BMD (r = -0.405; p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that when both ¹⁸F-FDG PET and DXA measurements for whole-body composition are performed in close-time proximity, ¹⁸F-FDG PET scans should follow the DXA measurement. Otherwise, BMD measurements of total femur or lumbar spine could be followed by ¹⁸F-FDG PET in close-time proximity. PMID:23562363

  16. Effect of ¹⁸F-FDG administration on measurements of bone mineral density and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Seong Su; Mo, Eun Hee; Lee, Chun Ho; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antecedent administration of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) used in positron emission tomography (PET) scanning results in corruption of bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) system. DXA measurements of BMD and body composition had been performed twice, before and after ¹⁸F-FDG PET scan in 30 patients. The comparison of pre-values and post-values of all BMD values showed a decrease after the injection. However, only the decrease of whole-body BMD (WB-BMD) was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Whole-body fat mass had increased and whole-body lean body mass had decreased after the injection of ¹⁸F-FDG, and these were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There is statistically significant correlation between the injected ¹⁸F-FDG dose and a decrease of WB-BMD (r = -0.405; p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that when both ¹⁸F-FDG PET and DXA measurements for whole-body composition are performed in close-time proximity, ¹⁸F-FDG PET scans should follow the DXA measurement. Otherwise, BMD measurements of total femur or lumbar spine could be followed by ¹⁸F-FDG PET in close-time proximity.

  17. Exercise for hepatic fat accumulation in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Elisabetta; Moghetti, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by frequent ectopic fat accumulation in several tissues and organs. In particular, a number of studies showed that these subjects frequently have hepatic fat accumulation, which may play a role in the metabolic abnormalities typical of diabetes and has been also linked to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In the last decade, the effect of exercise on ectopic fat content of type 2 diabetic patients has raised growing interest. However, there are only a few small randomized controlled trials on this topic. Results from these intervention studies indicate that exercise training, independent of dietary modifications, may reduce hepatic fat content and serum transaminases in these patients, suggesting that exercise per se may be an effective strategy to be combined with the traditional dietary interventions. As regards the different training modalities, there is recent evidence that both aerobic and resistance exercise may equally reduce hepatic fat accumulation in type 2 diabetic subjects. However, information regarding the effect of exercise on liver histology and fat accumulation in other ectopic sites is still very limited.

  18. Maximum likelihood decoding analysis of Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    Repeat-Accumulate (RA) codes are the simplest turbo-like codes that achieve good performance. However, they cannot compete with Turbo codes or low-density parity check codes (LDPC) as far as performance is concerned. The Accumulate Repeat Accumulate (ARA) codes, as a subclass of LDPC codes, are obtained by adding a pre-coder in front of RA codes with puncturing where an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. These codes not only are very simple, but also achieve excellent performance with iterative decoding. In this paper, the performance of these codes with (ML) decoding are analyzed and compared to random codes by very tight bounds. The weight distribution of some simple ARA codes is obtained, and through existing tightest bounds we have shown the ML SNR threshold of ARA codes approaches very closely to the performance of random codes. We have shown that the use of precoder improves the SNR threshold but interleaving gain remains unchanged with respect to RA code with puncturing.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for detecting synchronous advanced colorectal neoplasia in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung Wook; Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bong-Il; Cho, Kwang Bum; Bae, Sung Uk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preoperative screening for synchronous colorectal neoplasia (CRN) has been recommended in patients with gastric cancer because patients with gastric cancer are at increased risk for synchronous CRN. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer. A total of 256 patients who underwent colonoscopy and 18F-FDG PET/CT for preoperative staging were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of focal colonic 18F-FDG uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT image was made based on histopathologic results from the colonoscopic biopsy. The 18F-FDG PET/CT result was considered as true positive for advanced CRN when focal 18F-FDG uptake matched colorectal carcinoma or adenoma with high-grade dysplasia in the same location on colonoscopy. Synchronous advanced CRN was detected in 21 of the 256 patients (4.7%). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT were 76.2%, 96.2%, and 94.5%. The size of CRN with a true positive result was significantly larger than that with a false negative result. 18F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer. Colonoscopy is recommended as the next diagnostic step for further evaluation of a positive 18F-FDG PET/CT result in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27603371

  20. Comparative study of ¹⁸F-FDG-PET/CT imaging and serum hTERT mRNA quantification in cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ping, Bingqiong; Tsuno, Satoshi; Wang, Xinhui; Ishihara, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Taro; Miura, Keigo; Miyoshi, Fuminori; Shinohara, Yuki; Matsuki, Tsutomu; Tanabe, Yoshio; Tanaka, Noriaki; Ogawa, Toshihide; Shiota, Goshi; Miura, Norimasa

    2015-10-01

    We have reported on the clinical usefulness of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA quantification in sera in patients with several cancers. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) using ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has recently become an excellent modality for detecting cancer. We performed a diagnostic comparative study of FDG-PET/CT and hTERT mRNA quantification in patients with cancer. Four hundred seventy subjects, including 125 healthy individuals and 345 outpatients with cancer who had received medical treatments for cancer in their own or other hospitals, were enrolled. The subjects were diagnosed by FDG-PET/CT, and we measured their serum hTERT mRNA levels using real-time RT-PCR, correlating the quantified values with the clinical course. In this prospective study, we statistically assessed the sensitivity and specificity, and their clinical significance. hTERT mRNA and FDG-PET/CT were demonstrated to be correlated with the clinical parameters of metastasis and recurrence (P < 0.001), and of recurrence and tumor number in cancer compared with noncancer patients, respectively. A multivariate analysis showed a significant difference in the detection by FDG-PET/CT, ¹⁸F-FDG uptake, the detection by hTERT mRNA, and age. The use of both FDG-PET/CT and hTERT mRNA resulted in a positivity of 94.4% (221/234) for the detection of viable tumor cells. FDG-PET/CT is superior to hTERT mRNA quantification in the early detection of cancer and combinative use of FDG-PET/CT and hTERT mRNA may improve the diagnostic accuracy of cancer.

  1. Prognostic Value and Clinical Impact of 18FDG-PET in the Management of Children with Burkitt Lymphoma after Induction Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Clément; Eugène, Thomas; Couec, Marie-Laure; Strullu, Marion; Frampas, Eric; Campion, Loïc; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Bodet-Milin, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a rare and aggressive form of B-cell lymphoma that is curable using intensive chemotherapy. Obtaining a complete response (CR) at the end of induction chemotherapy is a major prognostic factor. This study retrospectively evaluates the potential impact of 18FDG-PET in the management of children with BL after induction chemotherapy, and the prognostic performance of the Deauville criteria. Methods: Nineteen children with BL treated according to the French LMB2001 protocol between 2005 and 2012 were included. 18FDG-PET and conventional imaging (CI) were performed after induction chemotherapy to confirm CR. 18FDG-PET was interpreted according to Deauville criteria with follow-up and/or histology as the gold standard. Results: 18FDG-PET was negative in 15 cases, in agreement with CI in 9/15 cases. The six discordant cases confirmed to be negative by histology, were considered as true negative for 18FDG-PET. Negative predictive value (NPV) of CI and 18FDG-PET were 73 and 93%, respectively. The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly higher in patients with negative 18FDG-PET than those with positive 18FDG-PET (p = 0.011). Conclusion: 18FDG-PET interpreted using Deauville criteria can help confirm CR at the end of induction chemotherapy, with a prognostic impact on 5-year PFS. Its high NPV could limit the use of residual mass biopsy. Given the small size of our population, these results need to be confirmed by future prospective studies on a larger population. PMID:25593926

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT for detecting synchronous advanced colorectal neoplasia in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung Wook; Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Song, Bong-Il; Cho, Kwang Bum; Bae, Sung Uk

    2016-09-01

    Preoperative screening for synchronous colorectal neoplasia (CRN) has been recommended in patients with gastric cancer because patients with gastric cancer are at increased risk for synchronous CRN. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer.A total of 256 patients who underwent colonoscopy and F-FDG PET/CT for preoperative staging were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of focal colonic F-FDG uptake on F-FDG PET/CT image was made based on histopathologic results from the colonoscopic biopsy. The F-FDG PET/CT result was considered as true positive for advanced CRN when focal F-FDG uptake matched colorectal carcinoma or adenoma with high-grade dysplasia in the same location on colonoscopy.Synchronous advanced CRN was detected in 21 of the 256 patients (4.7%). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of F-FDG PET/CT were 76.2%, 96.2%, and 94.5%. The size of CRN with a true positive result was significantly larger than that with a false negative result.F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy for detecting synchronous advanced CRN in patients with gastric cancer. Colonoscopy is recommended as the next diagnostic step for further evaluation of a positive F-FDG PET/CT result in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27603371

  3. Automatic FDG-PET-based tumor and metastatic lymph node segmentation in cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbonès, Dídac R.; Jensen, Henrik G.; Loft, Annika; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Hansen, Anders Elias; Igel, Christian; Darkner, Sune

    2014-03-01

    Treatment of cervical cancer, one of the three most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide, often relies on delineations of the tumour and metastases based on PET imaging using the contrast agent 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). We present a robust automatic algorithm for segmenting the gross tumour volume (GTV) and metastatic lymph nodes in such images. As the cervix is located next to the bladder and FDG is washed out through the urine, the PET-positive GTV and the bladder cannot be easily separated. Our processing pipeline starts with a histogram-based region of interest detection followed by level set segmentation. After that, morphological image operations combined with clustering, region growing, and nearest neighbour labelling allow to remove the bladder and to identify the tumour and metastatic lymph nodes. The proposed method was applied to 125 patients and no failure could be detected by visual inspection. We compared our segmentations with results from manual delineations of corresponding MR and CT images, showing that the detected GTV lays at least 97.5% within the MR/CT delineations. We conclude that the algorithm has a very high potential for substituting the tedious manual delineation of PET positive areas.

  4. Primary peripheral neurolymphomatosis mimicking synovial sarcoma: FDG PETCT to the rescue.

    PubMed

    Padma, S; Sundaram, P Shanmuga; Praveen Kumar, S L G

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the association between synovial sarcoma and peripheral neurolymphomatosis is limited to a few case reports in literature. Delay in diagnosis or misdiagnosis is possible due to its insidious onset and varied presentation compounded by non-specific imaging findings. Needle biopsy also may not be confirmatory especially, in cases of biphasic sarcoma as in our case, and it may be necessary to proceed to open biopsy. Here, is a case of a non-tender right calf muscle mass, which was reported as biphasic synovial sarcoma by FNAC. Positron emission tomography computed tomography-computed tomography (PETCT) showed right sciatic nerve involvement and multiple infra diaphragmatic lymph nodal lesions. Intensity of (18)F FDG ((18)Flourine labeled fluro de oxy glucose) uptake and the infra diaphragmatic lymph nodal lesions distribution, was more in favour of a lymphoma diagnosis rather than a sarcoma, (which are usually low metabolically active tumors). Thus, this case highlights the usefulness of FDG PETCT in arriving at a diagnosis in the background of indeterminate clinicopathological and radiologic findings. PMID:25313768

  5. 18FDG synthesis and supply: a journey from existing centralized to future decentralized models.

    PubMed

    Uz Zaman, Maseeh; Fatima, Nosheen; Sajjad, Zafar; Zaman, Unaiza; Tahseen, Rabia; Zaman, Areeba

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) as the functional component of current hybrid imaging (like PET/ CT or PET/MRI) seems to dominate the horizon of medical imaging in coming decades. 18Flourodeoxyglucose (18FDG) is the most commonly used probe in oncology and also in cardiology and neurology around the globe. However, the major capital cost and exorbitant running expenditure of low to medium energy cyclotrons (about 20 MeV) and radiochemistry units are the seminal reasons of low number of cyclotrons but mushroom growth pattern of PET scanners. This fact and longer half-life of 18F (110 minutes) have paved the path of a centralized model in which 18FDG is produced by commercial PET radiopharmacies and the finished product (multi-dose vial with tungsten shielding) is dispensed to customers having only PET scanners. This indeed reduced the cost but has limitations of dependence upon timely arrival of daily shipments as delay caused by any reason results in cancellation or rescheduling of the PET procedures. In recent years, industry and academia have taken a step forward by producing low energy, table top cyclotrons with compact and automated radiochemistry units (Lab- on-Chip). This decentralized strategy enables the users to produce on-demand doses of PET probe themselves at reasonably low cost using an automated and user-friendly technology. This technological development would indeed provide a real impetus to the availability of complete set up of PET based molecular imaging at an affordable cost to the developing countries.

  6. FDG-PET for hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancer: Advances and current limitations.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Koji

    2011-05-10

    In Japan, the use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for some malignant tumors came to be covered by the National Health Insurance in 2002. In 2010, the health insurance coverage was expanded to all types of malignant tumors. However, since PET examination requires a large amount of capital investment, facilities at which PET is available are still limited. On the other hand, PET equipment has rapidly been introduced in large hospitals and in the diagnostic imaging centers of major cities during the past few years. Although numerous middle-sized and small hospitals cannot afford to perform PET, physicians can refer their patients to facilities where PET is available. Therefore, it is essential for general physicians to gain accurate knowledge on PET, including the appropriate indications for PET, in order to select patients for referral to PET facilities. PET is not always a useful tool, especially for lesions of the pancreas and hepatobiliary system, which is the main topic of this review. The indications of PET for lesions in these organs vary depending on the purpose of the examination. In this article, we review the indications for PET (or PET/computed tomography [CT]) using FDG of the liver, biliary tract, and pancreas.

  7. Carcinome cutané de Merkel: apport de la TEP-TDM au18FDG

    PubMed Central

    Amal, Guensi; Sara, Taleb; Ghofrane, Cherkaoui Salhi; Malika, Ait Idir; Majdouline, Houjami; Souha, Sahraoui; Abdelatif, Benider; Najoua, Touil; Ghita, Benmoussa; Zineb, Baroudi; Nabil, Chikhaoui

    2016-01-01

    Le carcinome à cellules de Merkel (CCM) est une tumeur cutanée neuroendocrinerare d’évolution imprévisible et à grand potentiel métastatique. Ce néoplasme survient habituellement chez le sujet âgé au niveau des zones photo exposées. L'avidité constante du CCM au 18 fluorodésoxyglucose (FDG) justifie l'intérêt de la tomographie par émission de positon (TEP) au cours de cette pathologie. Toutefois, aucun consensus n'est établi à ce jour. Cette étude rapporte le cas d'une patiente de 25 ans suivie pour CCM métastatique, afin d'attirer l'attention sur cette tumeur particulière et d'illustrer l'intérêt de la TEP au 18 FDG dans la prise en charge de cette entité rare. PMID:27303574

  8. Value of 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT for evaluation of pediatric malignancies.

    PubMed

    Uslu, Lebriz; Donig, Jessica; Link, Michael; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Quon, Andrew; Daldrup-Link, Heike E

    2015-02-01

    Successful management of solid tumors in children requires imaging tests for accurate disease detection, characterization, and treatment monitoring. Technologic developments aim toward the creation of integrated imaging approaches that provide a comprehensive diagnosis with a single visit. These integrated diagnostic tests not only are convenient for young patients but also save direct and indirect health-care costs by streamlining procedures, minimizing hospitalizations, and minimizing lost school or work time for children and their parents. (18)F-FDG PET/CT is a highly sensitive and specific imaging modality for whole-body evaluation of pediatric malignancies. However, recent concerns about ionizing radiation exposure have led to a search for alternative imaging methods, such as whole-body MR imaging and PET/MR. As we develop new approaches for tumor staging, it is important to understand current benchmarks. This review article will synthesize the current literature on (18)F-FDG PET/CT for tumor staging in children, summarizing questions that have been solved and providing an outlook on unsolved avenues.

  9. Method for combined FDG-PET and radiographic imaging of primary breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lee P; Weinberg, Irving N; Bradbury, Michelle S; Levine, Edward A; Lesko, Nadine M; Geisinger, Kim R; Berg, Wendie A; Freimanis, Rita I

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a hybrid functional/anatomic breast imaging platform with biopsy capability for facilitating lesion detection and diagnosis. This platform consists of an investigative dedicated positron emission mammography (PEM) device mounted on a stereotactic X-ray mammography system, permitting sequential acquisition of mammographic and emission images during a single breast compression. There is automatic coregistration of images from both modalities, and these results can be successfully correlated with histopathologic findings. The potential utility of functional images correlated to anatomic images would include noninvasively detecting clinically and radiographically occult cancers, assessing response to therapy, discriminating between benign and malignant breast masses, and ultimately reducing the number of invasive and costly surgical interventions. A spot-digital mammogram and subsequent PEM image, collected over a 4-minute period, were obtained in a single patient with the breast in compression after intravenous injection of (F-18)-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) at the time of stereotactic biopsy. The authors conclude that FDG-based lesion localization information may be combined with the lesion X-ray attenuation characteristics using this common imaging platform.

  10. FDG-PET/CT Brain Findings in a Patient With Macrophagic Myofasciitis.

    PubMed

    Van Der Gucht, Axel; Aoun-Sebaiti, Mehdi; Kauv, Paul; Guedj, Eric; Aouizerate, Jessie; Verger, Antoine; Gherardi, Romain K; Bachoud-Levi, Anne-Catherine; Authier, François-Jérôme; Itti, Emmanuel

    2016-03-01

    Brain Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET/CT) was performed in a 44-year-old woman with marked cognitive impairment, diffuse myalgias, sensory, memory and visual disorders, and chronic fatigue, presenting with histopathological features of macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) at deltoid muscle biopsy. Cerebromedullary Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), electromyography, ophthalmic examination, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were normal. Visual analysis of FDG PET/CT images showed an atypical pattern of hypometabolism, involving symmetrically the occipital cortex, temporal lobes, and limbic system (including in particular amygdalo-hippocampal complexes), and the cerebellum. Posterior cingulate cortex and parietal areas were preserved. This pattern was confirmed by a voxel-based procedure using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM12) that compared a patient's images to normal reference samples from six healthy subjects with adjustment to age obtained using the same PET/CT camera. These results provide a glucose metabolism substrate for cognitive complaints in patients with long-lasting aluminium hydroxide-induced MMF. PMID:26941864

  11. Human Organotypic Lung Tumor Models: Suitable For Preclinical 18F-FDG PET-Imaging.

    PubMed

    Fecher, David; Hofmann, Elisabeth; Buck, Andreas; Bundschuh, Ralph; Nietzer, Sarah; Dandekar, Gudrun; Walles, Thorsten; Walles, Heike; Lückerath, Katharina; Steinke, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Development of predictable in vitro tumor models is a challenging task due to the enormous complexity of tumors in vivo. The closer the resemblance of these models to human tumor characteristics, the more suitable they are for drug-development and -testing. In the present study, we generated a complex 3D lung tumor test system based on acellular rat lungs. A decellularization protocol was established preserving the architecture, important ECM components and the basement membrane of the lung. Human lung tumor cells cultured on the scaffold formed cluster and exhibited an up-regulation of the carcinoma-associated marker mucin1 as well as a reduced proliferation rate compared to respective 2D culture. Additionally, employing functional imaging with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) these tumor cell cluster could be detected and tracked over time. This approach allowed monitoring of a targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment in the in vitro lung tumor model non-destructively. Surprisingly, FDG-PET assessment of single tumor cell cluster on the same scaffold exhibited differences in their response to therapy, indicating heterogeneity in the lung tumor model. In conclusion, our complex lung tumor test system features important characteristics of tumors and its microenvironment and allows monitoring of tumor growth and -metabolism in combination with functional imaging. In longitudinal studies, new therapeutic approaches and their long-term effects can be evaluated to adapt treatment regimes in future. PMID:27501455

  12. [F-18] FDG-PET/CT parameters as predictors of outcome in inoperable NSCLC patients

    PubMed Central

    Nappi, Antonio; Gallicchio, Rosj; Simeon, Vittorio; Nardelli, Anna; Pelagalli, Alessandra; Zupa, Angela; Vita, Giulia; Venetucci, Angela; Di Cosola, Michele; Barbato, Francesco; Storto, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated the prognostic significance of standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumour volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) in [F-18] FDG PET/CT findings in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods. One hundred and three patients (mean age, 65.6 ± 16 years) underwent [F-18] FDG PET/CT before the chemotherapy. The SUVmax value, the MTV (cm3; 42% threshold) and the TLG (g) were registered. The patients were followed up to 18 months thereafter (range 12–55 months). Failure to respond without progression, progression and/or disease-related death constituted surrogate end-points. The optimal SUVmax, MTV and TLG cut-off to predict the patients’ outcome were estimated. PET/CT results were then related to disease outcome (progression free survival; PFS). Results The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for SUVmax showed a significant shorter PFS in patients presenting with lower values as compared to those with higher (p < 0.05, log-rank test). MTV and TLG were not suitable for predicting PFS apart from the subset of patients with mediastinal nodal involvement. Conclusions Despite the availability of new tools for the quantitative assessment of disease activity on PET/CT, the SUVmax rather than MTV and TLG remains the only predictor for PFS in NSCLC patients. MTV holds a value only when concomitant nodal involvement occurs. PMID:26834517

  13. Human Organotypic Lung Tumor Models: Suitable For Preclinical 18F-FDG PET-Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Fecher, David; Hofmann, Elisabeth; Buck, Andreas; Bundschuh, Ralph; Nietzer, Sarah; Dandekar, Gudrun; Walles, Thorsten; Walles, Heike; Lückerath, Katharina; Steinke, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Development of predictable in vitro tumor models is a challenging task due to the enormous complexity of tumors in vivo. The closer the resemblance of these models to human tumor characteristics, the more suitable they are for drug-development and –testing. In the present study, we generated a complex 3D lung tumor test system based on acellular rat lungs. A decellularization protocol was established preserving the architecture, important ECM components and the basement membrane of the lung. Human lung tumor cells cultured on the scaffold formed cluster and exhibited an up-regulation of the carcinoma-associated marker mucin1 as well as a reduced proliferation rate compared to respective 2D culture. Additionally, employing functional imaging with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) these tumor cell cluster could be detected and tracked over time. This approach allowed monitoring of a targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment in the in vitro lung tumor model non-destructively. Surprisingly, FDG-PET assessment of single tumor cell cluster on the same scaffold exhibited differences in their response to therapy, indicating heterogeneity in the lung tumor model. In conclusion, our complex lung tumor test system features important characteristics of tumors and its microenvironment and allows monitoring of tumor growth and -metabolism in combination with functional imaging. In longitudinal studies, new therapeutic approaches and their long-term effects can be evaluated to adapt treatment regimes in future. PMID:27501455

  14. 18F-FDG PET/CT Brain Imaging on a Patient With Paraneoplastic Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome Arising out of a Mature Cystic Teratoma.

    PubMed

    Na, Chang Ju; Jeong, Young Jin; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2016-02-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is an involuntary multidirectional eye movement accompanied by myoclonic jerks and a subtype of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. Clinical features of OMS include opsoclonus with myoclonic jerks and cerebellar ataxia. Although there have been a few studies on brain FDG PET in paraneoplastic neurological syndrome associated with some kinds of malignancies such as lung and gastric cancer, brain FDG PET of patients with OMS caused by a mature cystic teratoma has not been reported. Here, we described a case of brain FDG PET/CT studies performed in a woman with OMS provoked from a mature cystic teratoma.

  15. The Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Large-Vessel Vasculitis: Appropriateness of Current Classification Criteria?

    PubMed Central

    Balink, H.; Bennink, R. J.; van Eck-Smit, B. L. F.; Verberne, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with clinical suspicion of large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) may present with nonspecific signs and symptoms and increased inflammatory parameters and may remain without diagnosis after routine diagnostic procedures. Both the nonspecificity of the radiopharmaceutical 18F-FDG and the synergy of integrating functional and anatomical images with PET/CT offer substantial benefit in the diagnostic work-up of patients with clinical suspicion for LVV. A negative temporal artery biopsy, an ultrasonography without an arterial halo, or a MRI without aortic wall thickening or oedema do not exclude the presence of LVV and should therefore not exclude the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT when LVV is clinically suspected. This overview further discusses the notion that there is substantial underdiagnosis of LVV. Late diagnosis of LVV may lead to surgery or angioplasty in occlusive forms and is often accompanied by serious aortic complications and a fatal outcome. In contrast to the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for vasculitis, based on late LVV effects like arterial stenosis and/or occlusion, 18F-FDG PET/CT sheds new light on the classification of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis (TA). The combination of these observations makes the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the assessment of patients suspected for having LVV promising. PMID:25328890

  16. Diagnostic value of [18F] FDG-PET and PET/CT in urinary bladder cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huojun; Xing, Wei; Kang, Qinqin; Chen, Chao; Wang, Linhui; Lu, Jianping

    2015-05-01

    An early diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer is crucial for early treatment and management. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the overall diagnostic accuracy of 18 F FDG-PET and PET/CT in urinary bladder cancer with meta-analysis. The PubMed and CNKI databases were searched for the eligible studies published up to June 01, 2014. The sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of accuracy of 18 F FDG-PET and PET/CT in the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer were pooled along with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to summarize overall test performance. Ten studies met our inclusion criteria. The summary estimates for 18 F FDG-PET and PET/CT in the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer in meta-analysis were as follows: a pooled sensitivity, 0.82 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.88); a pooled specificity, 0.92 (95 % CI, 0.87 to 0.95); positive likelihood ratio, 6.80 (95 % CI, 4.31 to 10.74); negative likelihood ratio, 0.27 (95 % CI, 0.19 to 0.36); and diagnostic odds ratio, 25.18 (95 % CI, 17.58 to 70.4). The results indicate that 18 F FDG-PET and PET/CT are relatively high sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer.

  17. [18F]-FDG positron emission tomography--an established clinical tool opening a new window into exercise physiology.

    PubMed

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2015-05-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is an established clinical tool primarily used to diagnose and evaluate disease status in patients with cancer. PET imaging using FDG can be a highly valuable tool to investigate normal human physiology by providing a noninvasive, quantitative measure of glucose uptake into various cell types. Over the past years it has also been increasingly used in exercise physiology studies to identify changes in glucose uptake, metabolism, and muscle activity during different exercise modalities. Metabolically active cells transport FDG, an (18)fluorine-labeled glucose analog tracer, from the blood into the cells where it is then phosphorylated but not further metabolized. This metabolic trapping process forms the basis of this method's use during exercise. The tracer is given to a participant during an exercise task, and the actual PET imaging is performed immediately after the exercise. Provided the uptake period is of sufficient duration, and the imaging is performed shortly after the exercise; the captured image strongly reflects the metabolic activity of the cells used during the task. When combined with repeated blood sampling to determine tracer blood concentration over time, also known as the input function, glucose uptake rate of the tissues can be quantitatively calculated. This synthesis provides an accounting of studies using FDG-PET to measure acute exercise-induced skeletal muscle activity, describes the advantages and limitations of this imaging technique, and discusses its applications to the field of exercise physiology. PMID:25767034

  18. Clinical, pathological and (18)F-FDG PET/CT findings in synchronous primary vaginal and endometrial cancers.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Burcak Yilmaz; Akbayır, Ozgur; Demirci, Emre; Ozaydin, Ipek

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous primary gynecologic malignancies are infrequently seen. In this report, we describe the clinical, pathological and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) findings of a patient with synchronous primary vaginal and endometrial cancers. To our knowledge, this is the first such case described in the literature. PMID:27331214

  19. Cervix carcinoma and incidental finding of medullary thyroid carcinoma by 18F-FDG PET/CT--clinical case.

    PubMed

    Chaushev, Borislav; Bochev, Pavel; Klisarova, Anelia; Yordanov, Kaloyan; Encheva, Elitsa; Dancheva, Jivka; Yordanova, Cvetelina; Hristozov, Kiril; Krasnaliev, Ivan; Radev, Radoslav; Nenkov, Rumen

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are encountered in clinical practice during the diagnostic procedures or patients' follow-up due to other diseases quite far from the thyroid gland with prevalence 4-50% in general population, depending on age, diagnostic method and race. The prevalence of thyroid nodules increases with age and their clarification should be done for their adequate treatment. An 18F-FDG PET/CT was done with a PET/CT scanner (Philips Gemini TF), consisting of dedicated lutetium orthosilicate full ring PET scanner and 16 slice CT. The PET/CT scan of the whole-body revealed on the CT portion a hypodense nodular lesion in the left lobe of the thyroid gland with increased uptake of 18F-FDG on the PET with SUVmax 10.3 and demonstrated a complete response to the induction therapy of the main oncological disease of the patient--squamous cell carcinoma. This clinical case demonstrates that whole-body 18F-FDG-PET/CT has an increasingly important role in the early evaluation of thyroid cancer as a second independent malignant localization. Focal thyroid lesion with high risk of thyroid malignancy was incidentally found on 18F-FDG PET/CT. PMID:25088110

  20. [18F]-FDG positron emission tomography--an established clinical tool opening a new window into exercise physiology.

    PubMed

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2015-05-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is an established clinical tool primarily used to diagnose and evaluate disease status in patients with cancer. PET imaging using FDG can be a highly valuable tool to investigate normal human physiology by providing a noninvasive, quantitative measure of glucose uptake into various cell types. Over the past years it has also been increasingly used in exercise physiology studies to identify changes in glucose uptake, metabolism, and muscle activity during different exercise modalities. Metabolically active cells transport FDG, an (18)fluorine-labeled glucose analog tracer, from the blood into the cells where it is then phosphorylated but not further metabolized. This metabolic trapping process forms the basis of this method's use during exercise. The tracer is given to a participant during an exercise task, and the actual PET imaging is performed immediately after the exercise. Provided the uptake period is of sufficient duration, and the imaging is performed shortly after the exercise; the captured image strongly reflects the metabolic activity of the cells used during the task. When combined with repeated blood sampling to determine tracer blood concentration over time, also known as the input function, glucose uptake rate of the tissues can be quantitatively calculated. This synthesis provides an accounting of studies using FDG-PET to measure acute exercise-induced skeletal muscle activity, describes the advantages and limitations of this imaging technique, and discusses its applications to the field of exercise physiology.

  1. Radiofrequency Ablation of Non-Small-Cell Carcinoma of the Lung Under Real-Time FDG PET CT Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Schoellnast, Helmut; Larson, Steven M.; Nehmeh, Sadek A.; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Thornton, Raymond H.; Solomon, Stephen B.

    2011-02-15

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-established method in treatment of patients with lung carcinomas who are not candidates for surgical resection. Usually computed tomographic (CT) guidance is used for the procedure, thus enabling needle placement and permitting evaluation of complications such as pneumothorax and bleeding. {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is generally used for tumor activity assessment and is therefore useful in follow-up after tumor treatment. A method that provides real-time image-based monitoring of RFA to ensure complete tumor ablation would be a valuable tool. In this report, we describe the behavior of preinjected FDG during PET CT-guided RFA of a non-small-cell lung carcinoma and discuss the value of FDG as a tool to provide intraprocedure monitor ablation. The size and the form of the activity changed during ablation. Ablation led to increase of the size and blurring and irregularity of the contour compared to pretreatment imaging. The maximal standardized uptake value decreased only slightly during the procedure. Therefore, before RFA, FDG PET can guide initial needle placement, but it does not serve as a monitoring tool to evaluate residual viable tissue during the procedure.

  2. Abnormalities in signaling pathways in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Brosius, Frank C; Khoury, Charbel C; Buller, Carolyn L; Chen, Sheldon

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by a plethora of signaling abnormalities that together ultimately result in the clinical and pathologic hallmarks of DN, namely progressive albuminuria followed by a gradual decline in glomerular filtration rate leading to kidney failure, and accompanied by podocyte loss, progressive glomerular sclerosis and, ultimately, progressive tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Over the past few years, the general understanding of the abnormalities in signaling pathways that lead to DN has expanded considerably. In this review, some of the important pathways that appear to be involved in driving this process are discussed, with special emphasis on newer findings and insights. Newer concepts regarding signaling changes in bradykinin, mTOR, JAK/STAT, MCP-1, VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, activated protein C and other pathways are discussed. PMID:20224802

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. [Psychiatric manifestations due to abnormal glucocorticoid levels].

    PubMed

    Lommerse, K M; Dijkstra, F N; Boeke, A J P; Eekhoff, E M W; Jacobs, G E

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case presentation describes the disease trajectory in two patients who presented with psychiatric symptoms as a result of abnormal serum glucocorticoid levels. One case involves a 58-year-old man with hypercortisolism, the other case concerns a 55-year-old woman with hypocortisolism. In both cases there was a considerable diagnostic delay in recognizing the underlying adrenal gland pathology. Abnormal glucocorticoid levels, caused by endocrine disorders, often results in psychiatric symptoms. Delay in diagnosis may have adverse consequences. Hyper- or hypocortisolism should be considered in patients who present with an atypical presentation of psychiatric symptoms. Moreover, the absence of specific physical signs or symptoms at first presentation in such patients does not exclude an underlying endocrinological cause. Therefore, physical and psychiatric reassessment of such patients should be considered at regular intervals. PMID:27507414

  5. Lie algebroids and optimal control: abnormality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero-Liñán, M.; de Diego, D. Martín; Muñoz-Lecanda, M. C.

    2009-05-01

    Candidates to be solutions to optimal control problems, called extremals, are found using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle [9]. This Principle gives necessary conditions for optimality and, under suitable assumptions, starts a presymplectic constraint algorithm in the sense given in [3]. This procedure, first considered in optimal control theory in [6], can be adapted to characterize the different kinds of extremals [1]. In this paper, we describe the constraints given by the algorithm for the so-called abnormal extremals for optimal control problems defined on Lie algebroids [4, 7, 8]. The peculiarity of the abnormal extremals is their independence on the cost function to characterize them. In particular, we are interested in how useful the geometry provided by the Lie algebroid is to study the constraints obtained in the optimal control problems for affine connection control systems. These systems model the motion of different types of mechanical systems such as rigid bodies, nonholonomic systems and robotic arms [2].

  6. Practice and Educational Gaps in Abnormal Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Tasneem F; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2016-07-01

    Dyschromia refers to abnormal pigmentation and is one of the most common diagnoses in dermatology. However, there are many educational and practice gaps in this area, specifically in melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and vitiligo. This article aims to review the gold standard of care for these conditions as well as highlight common educational and practice gaps in these areas. Finally, possible solutions to these gaps are addressed. PMID:27363886

  7. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2013-02-08

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  8. CT of trauma to the abnormal kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Rhyner, P.; Federle, M.P.; Jeffrey, R.B.

    1984-04-01

    Traumatic injuries to already abnormal kidneys are difficult to assess by excretory urography and clinical evaluation. Bleeding and urinary extravasation may accompany minor trauma; conversely, underlying tumors, perirenal hemorrhage, and extravasation may be missed on urography. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in eight cases including three neoplasms, one adult polycystic disease, one simple renal cyst, two hydronephrotic kidneys, and one horseshoe kidney. CT provided specific and clinically useful information in each case that was not apparent on excretory urography.

  9. Ocular abnormalities in thin basement membrane disease

    PubMed Central

    Colville, D.; Savige, J.; Branley, P.; Wilson, D.

    1997-01-01

    AIM/BACKGROUND—Alport syndrome is an X linked disease that results in renal failure, deafness, and ocular abnormalities including a dot and fleck retinopathy and anterior lenticonus. The ultrastructural appearance of the glomerular basement membrane in thin basement membrane disease (TBMD) resembles that seen in some patients with Alport syndrome, and in some cases this disease is inherited too. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with TBMD have any ocular abnormalities.
METHODS—The eyes of 17 unrelated individuals with TBMD were studied by slit-lamp, including biomicroscopic fundus examination with a 78 D lens, by direct ophthalmoscopy, and by fundal photographs. The findings were compared with those in patients with IgA glomerulonephritis or Alport syndrome, and in normals.
RESULTS—No patient with TBMD had a dot and fleck retinopathy or anterior lenticonus. A corneal dystrophy (n = 2) or pigmentation (n = 1), and retinal pigment epithelial clumping and maculopathy (n = 1) were noted. Corneal, lens, and retinal dots were found in five (29%), three (18%), and 16 (94%) patients, respectively, but these were also demonstrated in individuals with other renal diseases and in normal individuals.
CONCLUSIONS—The dot and fleck retinopathy and anterior lenticonus typical of Alport syndrome do not occur in TBMD. The protein abnormality and genetic defect in TBMD are not known, but the lack of ocular lesions suggests that the abnormal protein in this disease is more sparsely distributed or less important in the basement membranes of the eye than of the kidney. Alternatively, the protein may be less affected by the mutations responsible for TBMD.

 PMID:9227202

  10. Varenicline and Abnormal Sleep Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015

  11. Pensions and Household Wealth Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Gary V.; Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    Economists have long suggested that higher private pension benefits "crowd out" other sources of household wealth accumulation. We exploit detailed information on pensions and lifetime earnings for older workers in the 1992 wave of the Health and Retirement Study and employ an instrumental-variable (IV) identification strategy to estimate…

  12. Abnormal dynamics of language in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Massoud; Kuskowski, Michael; Gundel, Jeanette

    2014-05-30

    Language could be conceptualized as a dynamic system that includes multiple interactive levels (sub-lexical, lexical, sentence, and discourse) and components (phonology, semantics, and syntax). In schizophrenia, abnormalities are observed at all language elements (levels and components) but the dynamic between these elements remains unclear. We hypothesize that the dynamics between language elements in schizophrenia is abnormal and explore how this dynamic is altered. We, first, investigated language elements with comparable procedures in patients and healthy controls. Second, using measures of reaction time, we performed multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the inter-relationships among language elements and the effect of group on these relationships. Patients significantly differed from controls with respect to sub-lexical/lexical, lexical/sentence, and sentence/discourse regression coefficients. The intercepts of the regression slopes increased in the same order above (from lower to higher levels) in patients but not in controls. Regression coefficients between syntax and both sentence level and discourse level semantics did not differentiate patients from controls. This study indicates that the dynamics between language elements is abnormal in schizophrenia. In patients, top-down flow of linguistic information might be reduced, and the relationship between phonology and semantics but not between syntax and semantics appears to be altered.

  13. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process. PMID:27271632

  14. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Daniel L.; Pedrazas, Nicholas A.; Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2013-11-01

    A new abnormal grain growth phenomenon that occurs only during continuous plastic straining, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed in molybdenum (Mo) at elevated temperature. DAGG was produced in two commercial-purity molybdenum sheets and in a commercial-purity molybdenum wire. Single crystals, centimeters in length, were created in these materials through the DAGG process. DAGG was observed only at temperatures of 1713 K (1440 °C) and above and occurred across the range of strain rates investigated, ~10-5 to 10-4 s-1. DAGG initiates only after a critical plastic strain, which decreases with increasing temperature but is insensitive to strain rate. Following initiation of an abnormal grain, the rate of boundary migration during DAGG is on the order of 10 mm/min. This rapid growth provides a convenient means of producing large single crystals in the solid state. When significant normal grain growth occurs prior to DAGG, island grains result. DAGG was observed in sheet materials with two very different primary recrystallization textures. DAGG grains in Mo favor boundary growth along the tensile axis in a <110> direction, preferentially producing single crystals with orientations from an approximately <110> fiber family of orientations. A mechanism of boundary unpinning is proposed to explain the dependence of boundary migration on plastic straining during DAGG.

  15. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven R.; Nikolajsen, Lone; Finnerup, Nanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent postsurgical pain is a well-recognized problem after a number of common surgical procedures, such as amputation, thoracotomy, and inguinal hernia repair. Less is known about persistent pain after cosmetic surgical procedures. We, therefore, decided to study the incidence and characteristics of persistent pain after abdominoplasty, which is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgical procedures. Methods: In September 2014, a link to a web-based questionnaire was mailed to 217 patients who had undergone abdominoplasty between 2006 and 2014 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. Results: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire. Fourteen patients (8.2%) reported pain within the past 7 days related to the abdominoplasty. Abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common and reported by 138 patients (81%). Sensory hypersensitivity was associated with the presence of persistent pain. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 149 (88%) patients. The majority of patients reported improvement on all physical and psychological factors. Patients with pain were more often disappointed with the surgery and unwilling to recommend the surgery. Conclusions: Overall, patients were satisfied with the procedure, although abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common. However, there is a risk of developing persistent neuropathic pain after abdominoplasty, and patients should be informed about this before surgery. PMID:26893986

  16. Schizophrenia, abnormal connection, and brain evolution.

    PubMed

    Randall, P L

    1983-03-01

    Abnormalities of functional connection between specialized areas in the human brain may underlie the symptoms which constitute the schizophrenia syndrome. Callosal and intrahemispheric fibres may be equally involved. The clinical emergence of symptoms in the later stages of brain maturation may be dependent on myelination of these fibre groups, both of which have extended myelination cycles. Ontogenetically earlier variants of the same mechanism could theoretically result in dyslexia and the syndromes of Kanner and Gilles de la Tourette. As new and unique extensions of specialized function emerge within the evolving brain, biological trial and error of connection both within and between them may produce individuals possessing phylogenetically advanced abilities, or equally, others possessing a wide range of abnormalities including those which comprise the schizophrenia syndrome. A dormant phenotypic potential for schizophrenia may exist in individuals who never develop symptoms during the course of a lifetime though some of these may become clinically apparent under the influence of various precipitating factors. It is concluded that abnormal functional connection and its normal and "supernormal" counterparts may be natural, essential, and inevitable consequences of brain evolution, and that this may have been so throughout the history of vertebrate brain evolution.

  17. Chemical induction of sperm abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wyrobek, A J; Bruce, W R

    1975-01-01

    The sperm of (C57BL X C3H)F1 mice were examined 1, 4, and 10 weeks after a subacute treatment with one of 25 chemicals at two or more dose levels. The fraction of sperm that were abnormal in shape was elevated above control values of 1.2-3.4% for methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, griseofulvin, benzo[a]pyrene, METEPA [tris(2-methyl-l-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide], THIO-TEPA [tris(l-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide], mitomycin C, myleran, vinblastine sulphate, hydroxyurea, 3-methylcholanthrene, colchicine, actinomycin D, imuran, cyclophosphamide, 5-iododeoxyuridine, dichlorvos, aminopterin, and trimethylphosphate. Dimethylnitrosamine, urethane, DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, caffeine, and calcium cyclamate did not induce elevated levels of sperm abnormalities. The results suggest that sperm abnormalities might provide a rapid inexpensive mammalian screen for agents that lead to errors in the differentiation of spermatogenic stem cells in vivo and thus indicate agents which might prove to be mutagenic, teratogenic, or carcinogenic. Images PMID:1060122

  18. Abnormal Asymmetry of Brain Connectivity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ribolsi, Michele; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown a significant reduction of leftward asymmetry in some key white-matter tracts in SCZ. In this paper, we review the studies that investigated both structural brain asymmetry and asymmetry of functional connectivity in healthy subjects and SCZ. From an analysis of the existing literature on this topic, we can hypothesize an overall generally attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in SCZ compared to healthy controls. Such attenuated asymmetry increases with the duration of the disease and correlates with psychotic symptoms. Finally, we hypothesize that structural deficits across the corpus callosum may contribute to the abnormal asymmetry of intra-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia. PMID:25566030

  19. Acute iron overload leads to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis abnormalities in female rats.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Emilly M; Marques, Vinicius B; Nunes, Dieli de O; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Podratz, Priscila L; Merlo, Eduardo; dos Santos, Leonardo; Graceli, Jones B

    2016-01-01

    Iron plays a critical role in a mammal's physiological processes. However, iron tissue deposits have been shown to act as endocrine disrupters. Studies that evaluate the effect of acute iron overload on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis health are particularly sparse. This study demonstrates that acute iron overload leads to HPG axis abnormalities, including iron accumulation and impairment in reproductive tract morphology. Female rats were treated with iron-dextran (Fe rats) to assess their HPG morphophysiology. The increasing serum iron levels due to iron-dextran treatment were positively correlated with higher iron accumulation in the HPG axis and uterus of Fe rats than in control rats. An increase in the production of superoxide anions was observed in the pituitary, uterus and ovary of Fe rats. Morphophysiological reproductive tract abnormalities, such as abnormal ovarian follicular development and the reduction of serum estrogen levels, were observed in Fe rats. In addition, a significant negative correlation was obtained between ovary superoxide anion and serum estrogen levels. Together, these data provide in vivo evidence that acute iron overload is toxic for the HPG axis, a finding that may be associated with the subsequent development of the risk of reproductive dysfunction.

  20. Abnormal corneal epithelial maintenance in mice heterozygous for the micropinna microphthalmia mutation Mp.

    PubMed

    Douvaras, Panagiotis; Dorà, Natalie J; Mort, Richard L; Lodge, Emily J; Hill, Robert E; West, John D

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the corneal morphology of adult Mp/+ mice, which are heterozygous for the micropinna microphthalmia mutation, and identified several abnormalities, which implied that corneal epithelial maintenance was abnormal. The Mp/+ corneal epithelium was thin, loosely packed and contained goblet cells in older mice. Evidence also suggested that the barrier function was compromised. However, there was no major effect on corneal epithelial cell turnover and mosaic patterns of radial stripes indicated that radial cell movement was normal. Limbal blood vessels formed an abnormally wide limbal vasculature ring, K19-positive cells were distributed more widely than normal and K12 was weakly expressed in the peripheral cornea. This raises the possibilities that the limbal-corneal boundary was poorly defined or the limbus was wider than normal. BrdU label-retaining cell numbers and quantitative clonal analysis suggested that limbal epithelial stem cell numbers were not depleted and might be higher than normal. However, as corneal epithelial homeostasis was abnormal, it is possible that Mp/+ stem cell function was impaired. It has been shown recently that the Mp mutation involves a chromosome 18 inversion that disrupts the Fbn2 and Isoc1 genes and produces an abnormal, truncated fibrillin-2(MP) protein. This abnormal protein accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of cells that normally express Fbn2 and causes ER stress. It was also shown that Fbn2 is expressed in the corneal stroma but not the corneal epithelium, suggesting that the presence of truncated fibrillin-2(MP) protein in the corneal stroma disrupts corneal epithelial homeostasis in Mp/+ mice. PMID:27235794

  1. Metabolic disease prevention and suppression of fat accumulation by Salacia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Eiichi; Harasawa, Yukiko; Akase, Tomoko; Aburada, Takashi; Iizuka, Seiichi; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Aburada, Masaki

    2010-07-01

    In Ayurvedic medicine, Salacia reticulata is known to be useful against various metabolic diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this study, we attempted to clarify the antiobesity mechanism and the safety of S. reticulata in vivo and in vitro. We gave ordinary MF feed, alone or mixed with S. reticulata (0.3 or 1.0%), to Tsumura Suzuki obesity diabetes (TSOD) mice (spontaneous obese type II diabetes model mice) and Tsumura Suzuki non-obese (TSNO) mice (the corresponding reference animals), ad libitum for 2 months. As compared with the TSNO control mice, the TSOD control mice became obese due to fat accumulation and developed various signs of metabolic diseases. The TSOD mouse group receiving S. reticulata showed the following effects: suppression of body weight increase and fat accumulation, alleviation of abnormal lipid metabolism and abnormal glucose tolerance, and suppression of intrahepatic fat accumulation. Also, S. reticulata prevented the mesenteric adipocyte hypertrophy recognized in TSOD mice. In the TSNO controls, the feed containing 1.0% S. reticulata exerted a suppressing effect on body weight increase and fat accumulation, but the feed containing 0.3% S. reticulata did not show any effect at all. In an in vitro experiment using mouse-derived adipocyte precursor 3T3-L1 cells, S. reticulata significantly suppressed fat accumulation in the differentiation induction phase and maturation phase. This suggested that the metabolic disease-preventing effects of S. reticulata, including the antiobesity effect, may involve suppression of differentiation and accumulation in the adipocytes. PMID:20225078

  2. Physiologic variants, benign processes, and artifacts from 106 canine and feline FDG-PET/computed tomography scans.

    PubMed

    Randall, Elissa; Loeber, Samantha; Kraft, Susan

    2014-01-01

    18F-Fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is an emerging diagnostic imaging modality in veterinary medicine; however, little published information is available on physiologic variants, benign processes, and artifacts. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the number of occurrences of non-neoplastic disease-related FDG-PET/CT lesions in a group of dogs and cats. Archived FDG-PET/CT scans were retrieved and interpreted based on a consensus opinion of two board-certified veterinary radiologists. Non-neoplastic disease-related lesions were categorized as physiologic variant, benign activity, or equipment/technology related artifact. If the exact cause of hypermetabolic areas could not be determined, lesions were put into an indeterminate category. A total of 106 canine and feline FDG-PET/CT scans were included in the study. In 104 of the 106 scans, a total of 718 occurrences of physiologic variant, areas of incidental benign activity, and artifacts were identified. Twenty-two of 23 feline scans and 82 of 83 canine scans had at least one artifact. Previously unreported areas of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake included foci associated with the canine gall bladder, linear uptake along the canine mandible, and focal uptake in the gastrointestinal tract. Benign activity was often seen and related to healing, inflammation, and indwelling implants. Artifacts were most often related to injection or misregistration. Further experience in recognizing the common veterinary FDG physiologic variation, incidental radiopharmaceutical uptake, and artifacts is important to avoid misinterpretation and false-positive diagnoses.

  3. The impact of high-dose vitamin C on blood glucose testing in ¹⁸F-FDG PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Rebekah L; Wilson, Don C

    2015-03-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies in addition to standard oncology protocols are commonly sought by cancer patients; however, few patients disclose their complementary treatments to their cancer care team. A lack of communication may result in unforeseen side effects and the potential for some alternative therapies to interfere with or inhibit conventional treatment. High-dose vitamin C therapy, in particular, may lead to an inability to measure a patient's blood glucose level before (18)F-FDG injection for PET/CT scanning. We report a case of a 52-y-old woman referred for (18)F-FDG PET/CT to evaluate the extent of recurrent colorectal cancer. The PET/CT scan immediately followed a single intravenous dose of 25 g of ascorbic acid from her naturopath. A glucometer that applies the glucose oxidase method for measuring fasting blood glucose was used, for which high doses of vitamin C are listed as a contraindication. The high concentration of ascorbic acid in the patient's blood sample interfered with the chemical reaction on the glucose strip, and therefore no blood glucose measurement could be attained. With more patients receiving alternative and complementary cancer therapies, it is important to know what the implications of orthomolecular therapy might be on routine blood glucose testing for (18)F-FDG PET scans. (18)F-FDG is in direct competition with glucose; therefore, elevated blood glucose levels will cause a decrease in (18)F-FDG absorption and may lead to a false-negative scan. PMID:25104819

  4. Prognostic Value of Metabolic and Volumetric Parameters of Preoperative FDG-PET/CT in Patients With Resectable Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Im, Hyung-Jun; Oo, Suthet; Jung, Woohyun; Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun-Whe; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June-Key; Kim, E. Edmund; Lee, Dong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we aimed to evaluate prognostic value of metabolic and volumetric parameters measured from 18F fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer. Fifty-one patients with resectable pancreatic cancer who underwent FDG-PET/CT and curative operation were retrospectively enrolled. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured from FDG-PET/CT. Association between FDG-PET/CT and clinicopathologic parameters was evaluated. The prognostic values of the FDG-PET/CT and clinicopathologic parameters for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The 51 enrolled patients were followed up for a median of 21 months (mean ± SD: 23 ± 16 months, range: 1–78 months) with 33 (65%) recurrences and 30 (59%) deaths during the period. SUVmax, MTV, and TLG were associated with Tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage and presence of lymph node metastasis. MTV and TLG were associated with presence of lymphovascular invasion, whereas SUVmax was not. On the univariate analysis, SUVmax, MTV, and TLG were associated with RFS and OS. Also, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage were associated with OS on the univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, MTV and TLG were independent prognostic factors for RFS and OS. SUVmax was an independent prognostic factor for OS, but not for RFS. Metabolic tumor volume and TLG were independently predictive of RFS and OS in resectable pancreatic cancer. SUVmax was an independent factor for OS, but not for RFS. PMID:27175707

  5. Role of FDG-PET in the Implementation of Involved-Node Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Girinsky, Théodore; Aupérin, Anne; Ribrag, Vincent; Elleuch, Manel; Fermé, Christophe; Bonniaud, Guillaume; Ruelle, Claude; Alberini, Jean-Louis; Celebic, Aljosa; Edeline, Véronique

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: This study examines the role of {sup 18}F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the implementation of involved-node radiation therapy (INRT) in patients treated for clinical stages (CS) I/II supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Methods and Material: Patients with untreated CS I/II HL enrolled in the randomized EORTC/LYSA/FIL Intergroup H10 trial and participating in a real-time prospective quality assurance program were prospectively included in this study. Data were electronically obtained from 18 French cancer centers. All patients underwent APET-computed tomography (PET-CT) and a post-chemotherapy planning CT scanning. The pre-chemotherapy gross tumor volume (GTV) and the postchemotherapy clinical target volume (CTV) were first delineated on CT only by the radiation oncologist. The planning PET was then co-registered, and the delineated volumes were jointly analyzed by the radiation oncologist and the nuclear medicine physician. Lymph nodes undetected on CT but FDG-avid were recorded, and the previously determined GTV and CTV were modified according to FDG-PET results. Results: From March 2007 to February 2010, 135 patients were included in the study. PET-CT identified at least 1 additional FDG-avid lymph node in 95 of 135 patients (70.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 61.9%-77.9%) and 1 additional lymph node area in 55 of 135 patients (40.7%; 95% CI: 32.4%-49.5%). The mean increases in the GTV and CTV were 8.8% and 7.1%, respectively. The systematic addition of PET to CT led to a CTV increase in 60% of the patients. Conclusions: Pre-chemotherapy FDG-PET leads to significantly better INRT delineation without necessarily increasing radiation volumes.

  6. Very low-dose adult whole-body tumor imaging with F-18 FDG PET/CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, Andrzej; Naveed, Muhammad; McGrath, Mary; Lisi, Michele; Lavalley, Cathy; Feiglin, David

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if effective radiation dose due to PET component in adult whole-body tumor imaging with time-of-flight F-18 FDG PET/CT could be significantly reduced. We retrospectively analyzed data for 10 patients with the body mass index ranging from 25 to 50. We simulated F-18 FDG dose reduction to 25% of the ACR recommended dose via reconstruction of simulated shorter acquisition time per bed position scans from the acquired list data. F-18 FDG whole-body scans were reconstructed using time-of-flight OSEM algorithm and advanced system modeling. Two groups of images were obtained: group A with a standard dose of F-18 FDG and standard reconstruction parameters and group B with simulated 25% dose and modified reconstruction parameters, respectively. Three nuclear medicine physicians blinded to the simulated activity independently reviewed the images and compared diagnostic quality of images. Based on the input from the physicians, we selected optimal modified reconstruction parameters for group B. In so obtained images, all the lesions observed in the group A were visible in the group B. The tumor SUV values were different in the group A, as compared to group B, respectively. However, no significant differences were reported in the final interpretation of the images from A and B groups. In conclusion, for a small number of patients, we have demonstrated that F-18 FDG dose reduction to 25% of the ACR recommended dose, accompanied by appropriate modification of the reconstruction parameters provided adequate diagnostic quality of PET images acquired on time-of-flight PET/CT.

  7. Evaluation of thoracic tumors with (18)F-FMT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT: a clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Kaira, Kyoichi; Oriuchi, Noboru; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Ishikita, Tomohiro; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Imai, Hisao; Yanagitani, Noriko; Sunaga, Noriaki; Hisada, Takeshi; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Endou, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Takashi; Endo, Keigo; Mori, Masatomo

    2009-03-01

    L-[3-(18)F]-alpha-methyltyrosine ((18)F-FMT) is an aminoacid tracer for positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this study was to determine whether PET-CT with (18)F-FMT provides additional information for the preoperative diagnostic workup as compared with (18)F-FDG PET. PET-CT studies with (18)F-FMT and (18)F-FDG were performed as a part of the preoperative workup in 36 patients with histologically confirmed bronchial carcinoma, 6 patients with benign lesions and a patient with atypical carcinoid. Expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), CD98, Ki-67 labeling index, VEGF, CD31 and CD34 of the resected tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining, and correlated with the uptake of PET tracers. For the detection of pulmonary malignant tumors, (18)F-FMT PET exhibited a sensitivity of 84% whereas the sensitivity for (18)F-FDG PET was 89% (p = 0.736). (18)F-FMT PET-CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT agreed with pathological staging in 85 and 68%, respectively (p = 0.151). (18)F-FMT uptake was closely correlated with LAT1, CD98, cell proliferation and angiogenesis. The specificity of (18)F-FMT PET for diagnosing thoracic tumors was higher than that of (18)F-FDG PET. Our results suggest that coexpression of LAT1 and CD98 in addition to cell proliferation and angiogenesis is relavant for the progression and metastasis of lung cancer.

  8. Differential diagnosis for bilateral abnormalities of the basal ganglia and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Amogh N; Mohan, Suyash; Lath, Narayan; Lim, C C Tchoyoson

    2011-01-01

    The basal ganglia and thalamus are paired deep gray matter structures that may be involved by a wide variety of disease entities. The basal ganglia are highly metabolically active and are symmetrically affected in toxic poisoning, metabolic abnormalities, and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Both the basal ganglia and thalamus may be affected by other systemic or metabolic disease, degenerative disease, and vascular conditions. Focal flavivirus infections, toxoplasmosis, and primary central nervous system lymphoma may also involve both deep gray matter structures. The thalamus is more typically affected alone by focal conditions than by systemic disease. Radiologists may detect bilateral abnormalities of the basal ganglia and thalamus in different acute and chronic clinical situations, and although magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the modality of choice for evaluation, the correct diagnosis can be made only by taking all relevant clinical and laboratory information into account. The neuroimaging diagnosis is influenced not only by detection of specific MR imaging features such as restricted diffusion and the presence of hemorrhage, but also by detection of abnormalities involving other parts of the brain, especially the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and white matter. Judicious use of confirmatory neuroimaging investigations, especially diffusion-weighted imaging, MR angiography, MR venography, and MR spectroscopy during the same examination, may help improve characterization of these abnormalities and help narrow the differential diagnosis.

  9. Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones.

  10. Calorie Restriction Prevents Metabolic Aging Caused by Abnormal SIRT1 Function in Adipose Tissues.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Cai, Yu; Fan, Pengcheng; Bai, Bo; Chen, Jie; Deng, Han-Bing; Che, Chi-Ming; Xu, Aimin; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Wang, Yu

    2015-05-01

    Adipose tissue is a pivotal organ determining longevity, due largely to its role in maintaining whole-body energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. SIRT1 is a NAD-dependent protein deacetylase possessing antiaging activities in a wide range of organisms. The current study demonstrates that mice with adipose tissue-selective overexpression of hSIRT1(H363Y), a dominant-negative mutant that disrupts endogenous SIRT1 activity, show accelerated development of metabolic aging. These mice, referred to as Adipo-H363Y, exhibit hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, ectopic lipid deposition, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance at a much younger age than their wild-type littermates. The metabolic defects of Adipo-H363Y are associated with abnormal epigenetic modifications and chromatin remodeling in their adipose tissues, as a result of excess accumulation of biotin, which inhibits endogenous SIRT1 activity, leading to increased inflammation, cellularity, and collagen deposition. The enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 plays an important role in biotin accumulation within adipose tissues of Adipo-H363Y. Calorie restriction prevents biotin accumulation, abolishes abnormal histone biotinylation, and completely restores the metabolic and adipose functions of Adipo-H363Y. The effects are mimicked by short-term restriction of biotin intake, an approach potentially translatable to humans for maintaining the epigenetic and chromatin remodeling capacity of adipose tissues and preventing aging-associated metabolic disorders.

  11. Talc Pleurodesis With Intense 18F-FDG Activity But No 68Ga-DOTA-TATE Activity on PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Millo, Corina; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2015-10-01

    Talc pleurodesis (TP) is a technique, widely employed in the management of patients with persistent pleural effusions or pneumothoraces not amenable to other treatment options. It is well documented that talc deposits produce areas of highly increased F-FDG uptake, because of talc-induced inflammation. We present a case of a patient with history of TP who was evaluated with both F-FDG and Ga-DOTA-TATE. The hypermetabolic area seen on F-FDG-PET-CT in the region of talc placement showed no uptake by Ga-DOTA-TATE, suggesting the potential role of Ga-DOTA-TATE-PET-CT in elucidating F-FDG-postitive lesions in patients with history of both neuroendocrine malignancy and TP.

  12. ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT and contrast enhanced CT in differential diagnosis between leiomyoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yasumitus; Kaida, Hayato; Kawahara, Akihiko; Kurata, Seiji; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Abe, Toshi

    2015-01-01

    In a 49 years old woman a large abdominal tumor was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) showed a large tumor with minute calcification and poor contrast enhancement in the left abdominal cavity. The fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT) scan showed low ¹⁸F-FDG uptake in the tumor. The SUV max (early image) was 1.90, and that of the delayed image was 2.86. A gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) was suspected. Tumor resection revealed that it was a leiomyoma originating in the major curvature of the stomach. In conclusion, the findings of low ¹⁸F-FDG uptake on ¹⁸F-FDG PET and poor contrast enhancement on CECT in a gastric submucosal tumor suggested of a gastric leiomyoma rather than GIST. PMID:26574696

  13. Inter-modality variation in gross tumor volume delineation in 18FDG-PET guided IMRT treatment planning for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Yulin; Chan, Maria; Burman, Chandra; Cann, Donald

    2006-01-01

    Rapid advances in 18FDG-PET/CT technology and novel co-registration algorithms have created a strong interest in 18FDG-PET/CT's application in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Accurate target volume delineation, particularly identification of pathologically positive lymph nodes, could translate into favorable treatment outcome. However, gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation on both CT and 18FDG-PET is very sensitive to observer variation. The objectives of the study were to investigate the inter-modality variation in gross tumor volume delineation defined by two imaging modalities for lung cancer: CT and 18FDG-PET/CT and its dosimetric implications in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). PMID:17946204

  14. Talc Pleurodesis With Intense 18F-FDG Activity But No 68Ga-DOTA-TATE Activity on PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Millo, Corina; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2015-10-01

    Talc pleurodesis (TP) is a technique, widely employed in the management of patients with persistent pleural effusions or pneumothoraces not amenable to other treatment options. It is well documented that talc deposits produce areas of highly increased F-FDG uptake, because of talc-induced inflammation. We present a case of a patient with history of TP who was evaluated with both F-FDG and Ga-DOTA-TATE. The hypermetabolic area seen on F-FDG-PET-CT in the region of talc placement showed no uptake by Ga-DOTA-TATE, suggesting the potential role of Ga-DOTA-TATE-PET-CT in elucidating F-FDG-postitive lesions in patients with history of both neuroendocrine malignancy and TP. PMID:26018715

  15. Chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui

    2013-11-15

    Chromoplasts are special organelles that possess superior ability to synthesize and store massive amounts of carotenoids. They are responsible for the distinctive colors found in fruits, flowers, and roots. Chromoplasts exhibit various morphologies and are derived from either pre-existing chloroplasts or other non-photosynthetic plastids such as proplastids, leucoplasts or amyloplasts. While little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying chromoplast biogenesis, research progress along with proteomics study of chromoplast proteomes signifies various processes and factors important for chromoplast differentiation and development. Chromoplasts act as a metabolic sink that enables great biosynthesis and high storage capacity of carotenoids. The formation of chromoplasts enhances carotenoid metabolic sink strength and controls carotenoid accumulation in plants. The objective of this review is to provide an integrated view on our understanding of chromoplast biogenesis and carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  16. Conditioned Place Preference to Acetone Inhalation and the Effects on Locomotor Behavior and 18FDG Uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, J.C.; Dewey, S.L.; Schiffer, W.; Lee, D.

    2006-01-01

    Acetone is a component in many inhalants that have been widely abused. While other solvents have addictive potential, such as toluene, it is unclear whether acetone alone contains addictive properties. The locomotor, relative glucose metabolism and abusive effects of acetone inhalation were studied in animals using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and [18F]2-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (18FDG) imaging. The CPP apparatus contains two distinct conditioning chambers and a middle adaptation chamber, each lined with photocells to monitor locomotor activity. Adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16; 90-110 g) were paired with acetone in least preferred conditioning chamber, determined on the pretest day. The animals were exposed to a 10,000 ppm dose for an hour, alternating days with air. A CPP test was conducted after the 3rd, 6th and 12th pairing. In these same animals, the relative glucose metabolism effects were determined using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18FDG. Following the 3rd pairing, there was a significant aversion to the acetone paired chamber (190.9 ± 13.7 sec and 241.7 ± 16.9 sec, acetone and air, respectively). After the 6th pairing, there was no significant preference observed with equal time spent in each chamber (222 ± 21 sec and 207 ± 20 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). A similar trend was observed after the 12th pairing (213 ± 21 sec and 221 ± 22 sec, acetone and air-paired, respectively). Locomotor analysis indicated a significant decrease (p<0.05) from air pairings to acetone pairings on the first and sixth pairings. The observed locomotor activity was characteristic of central nervous system (CNS) depressants, without showing clear abusive effects in this CPP model. In these studies, acetone vapors were not as reinforcing as other solvents, shown by overall lack of preference for the acetone paired side of the chamber. PET imaging indicated a regionally specific distribution of 18FDG uptake following

  17. 18F FDG PET/CT Evaluation of Patients with Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mittra, Erik S.; McDougall, I. Ross; Quon, Andrew; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The role of 18F FDG PET has been studied in ovarian carcinoma, but its sensitivity and specificity calculations are based on dedicated PET acquisition, not PET/CT in the majority of the published studies. Therefore, we were prompted to review our experience with PET/CT in the management of patients with ovarian carcinoma. Materials and methods This is a retrospective study of 43 women with ovarian carcinoma, 27–80 years old (average: 53.9 ± 7.8), who had whole-body PET/CT at our institution from Jan 1st, 2003 to Aug 31st, 2006. We reviewed the patients’ outcomes from medical records and compared them to the interpretation of the PET/CT scans. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using a 2 × 2 table with pathology results (79.1% of the patients) or clinical follow-up (20.9% of the cases) as the gold standard. Confidence interval (CI) estimations were performed using the Wilson score method. Results All patients had advanced stage ovarian cancer and the study was requested for re-staging. A total of 60 scans were performed: 30 pts had 1 scan, 9 pts had 2 scans and 4 pts had 3 scans. The administered doses of 18F FDG ranged 381.1 – 769.6 MBq (average: 569.8 ± 73.3). PET/CT had a sensitivity of 88.4% (95% CI: 75.1–95.4) and a specificity of 88.2% (95% CI: 64.4–97.9) for detection of ovarian cancer. The SUV max of the detected lesions ranged 3–27 (average: 9.4±5.9). The CA-125 tumor marker ranged 3–935 kU/ml (average: 265.2) in patients with positive scans and 4–139 kU/ml (average: 17.1) in patients with negative scans. This difference was statistically significant (P value: 0.0242). Conclusion This study confirms the good results of 18F FDG PET/CT for identification of residual/recurrent ovarian cancer, as well as for distant metastases localization. PET/CT should be an integral part in evaluation of patients with high risk ovarian cancer or rising values of tumor markers (CA-125), prior to selection of the most appropriate therapy

  18. Down's Syndrome and Leukemia: Mechanism of Additional Chromosomal Abnormalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Goh, Kong-oo

    1978-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities, some appearing in a stepwise clonal evoluation, were found in five Down's syndrome patients (35 weeks to 12 years old), four with acute leukemia and one with abnormal regulation of leukopoiesis. (Author/SBH)

  19. Chromosomal abnormalities as a cause of recurrent abortions in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Dahtory, Faeza Abdel Mogib

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 4%-8% of couples with recurrent abortion, at least one of the partners has chromosomal abnormality. Most spontaneous miscarriages which happen in the first and second trimesters are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. These chromosomal abnormalities may be either numerical or structural. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cytogenetic study was done for 73 Egyptian couples who presented with recurrent abortion at Genetic Unit of Children Hospital, Mansoura University. RESULTS: We found that the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was not significantly different from that reported worldwide. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 9 (6.1%) of 73 couples. Seven of chromosomal abnormalities were structural and two of them were numerical. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that 6.1% of the couples with recurrent abortion had chromosomal abnormalities, with no other abnormalities. We suggest that it is necessary to perform cytogenetic in vestigation for couples who have recurrent abortion. PMID:22090718

  20. Atlas of computed body tomography: normal and abnormal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, L.C.; Schapiro, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas contains comparative sections on normal and abnormal computed tomography of the neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, upper and lower limbs, fascia, and peritoneum. Also included is a subject index to aid in the identification of abnormal scans. (DLS)

  1. FDG-PET is a good biomarker of both early response and acquired resistance in BRAFV600 mutant melanomas treated with vemurafenib and the MEK inhibitor GDC-0973

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, has recently been approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma in patients harboring BRAFV600 mutations. Currently, dual BRAF and MEK inhibition are ongoing in clinical trials with the goal of overcoming the acquired resistance that has unfortunately developed in some vemurafenib patients. FDG-PET measures of metabolic activity are increasingly employed as a pharmacodynamic biomarker for guiding single-agent or combination therapies by gauging initial drug response and monitoring disease progression. However, since tumors are inherently heterogeneous, investigating the effects of BRAF and MEK inhibition on FDG uptake in a panel of different melanomas could help interpret imaging outcomes. Methods 18 F-FDG uptake was measured in vitro in cells with wild-type and mutant (V600) BRAF, and in melanoma cells with an acquired resistance to vemurafenib. We treated the cells with vemurafenib alone or in combination with MEK inhibitor GDC-0973. PET imaging was used in mice to measure FDG uptake in A375 melanoma xenografts and in A375 R1, a vemurafenib-resistant derivative. Histological and biochemical studies of glucose transporters, the MAPK and glycolytic pathways were also undertaken. Results We demonstrate that vemurafenib is equally effective at reducing FDG uptake in cell lines harboring either heterozygous or homozygous BRAFV600 but ineffective in cells with acquired resistance or having WT BRAF status. However, combination with GDC-0973 results in a highly significant increase of efficacy and inhibition of FDG uptake across all twenty lines. Drug-induced changes in FDG uptake were associated with altered levels of membrane GLUT-1, and cell lines harboring RAS mutations displayed enhanced FDG uptake upon exposure to vemurafenib. Interestingly, we found that vemurafenib treatment in mice bearing drug-resistant A375 xenografts also induced increased FDG tumor uptake, accompanied by increases in Hif-1α, Sp1 and Ksr

  2. 18F-FDG PET and MR Imaging Associations Across a Spectrum of Pediatric Brain Tumors: A Report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Zukotynski, Katherine; Fahey, Frederic; Kocak, Mehmet; Kun, Larry; Boyett, James; Fouladi, Maryam; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Treves, Ted; Poussaint, Tina Y.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe 18F-FDG uptake across a spectrum of pediatric brain tumors and correlate 18F-FDG PET with MR imaging variables, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted of children enrolled in phase I/II clinical trials through the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium from August 2000 to June 2010. PET variables were summarized within diagnostic categories using descriptive statistics. Associations of PET with MR imaging variables and PFS and OS by tumor types were evaluated. Results Baseline 18F-FDG PET was available in 203 children; 66 had newly diagnosed brain tumors, and 137 had recurrent/refractory brain tumors before enrolling in a Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium trial. MR imaging was performed within 2 wk of PET and before therapy in all cases. The 18F-FDG uptake pattern and MR imaging contrast enhancement (CE) varied by tumor type. On average, glioblastoma multiforme and medulloblastoma had uniform, intense uptake throughout the tumor, whereas brain stem gliomas (BSGs) had low uptake in less than 50% of the tumor and ependymoma had low uptake throughout the tumor. For newly diagnosed BSG, correlation of 18F-FDG uptake with CE portended reduced OS (P = 0.032); in refractory/recurrent BSG, lack of correlation between 18F-FDG uptake and CE suggested decreased PFS (P = 0.023). In newly diagnosed BSG for which more than 50% of the tumor had 18F-FDG uptake, there was a suggestion of lower apparent diffusion coefficient (P = 0.061) and decreased PFS (P = 0.065). Conclusion 18F-FDG PET and MR imaging showed a spectrum of patterns depending on tumor type. In newly diagnosed BSG, the correlation of 18F-FDG uptake and CE suggested decreased OS, likely related to more aggressive disease. When more than 50% of the tumor had 18F-FDG uptake, the apparent diffusion coefficient was lower, consistent with increased cellularity. In refractory/recurrent BSG, poor correlation between 18F-FDG

  3. Novel perforin mutation in a patient with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and CD45 abnormal splicing.

    PubMed

    McCormick, James; Flower, Darren R; Strobel, Stephan; Wallace, Diana L; Beverley, Peter C L; Tchilian, Elma Z

    2003-03-15

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) composes a group of rare heterogenous disorders characterized by uncontrolled accumulation and infiltration of activated T lymphocytes and macrophages. Cytotoxic T and natural killer cell activity is significantly reduced or absent in these patients. Mutations in the important mediator of lymphocyte cytotoxicity perforin were identified in a number of HLH individuals. Here we report a novel missense mutation thr435met in the conserved Ca(2+) binding domain of perforin in a patient with HLH. Prediction of the 3-dimensional structure of the thr435met perforin mutant using comparative molecular modeling indicates that the protein's ability to bind Ca(2+), and therefore its cytolytic function, would be strongly compromised. In addition, this patient exhibited abnormal CD45 splicing caused by a C77G mutation in the gene encoding CD45 (PTPRC). Our findings suggest a combined role for perforin mutation and abnormal CD45 splicing as significant contributory factors in the pathogenesis of HLH. PMID:12599189

  4. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  5. Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

  6. Fetal MR Imaging of Gastrointestinal Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Furey, Elizabeth A; Bailey, April A; Twickler, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an increasing and valuable role in antenatal diagnosis and perinatal management of fetal gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. Advances in MR imaging data acquisition and use of motion-insensitive techniques have established MR imaging as an important adjunct to obstetric ultrasonography (US) for fetal diagnosis. In this regard, MR imaging provides high diagnostic accuracy for antenatal diagnosis of common and uncommon GI pathologic conditions. In the setting of fetal GI disease, T1-weighted images demonstrate the amount and distribution of meconium, which is crucial to the diagnostic capability of fetal MR imaging. Specifically, knowledge of the T1 signal intensity characteristics of fetal meconium, the normal pattern of meconium with advancing gestational age, and the expected caliber of small and large bowel in the fetus is key to diagnosis of abnormalities of the GI tract. Use of ultrafast T2-weighted sequences for evaluation of the expected location and morphology of fluid-containing structures, including the stomach and small bowel, in the fetal abdomen further aids in diagnostic confidence. Uncommonly encountered fetal GI pathologic conditions, especially cloacal dysmorphology, may demonstrate characteristic MR imaging patterns, which may add additional information to that from fetal US, allowing improved fetal and neonatal management. This article discusses common indications for fetal MR imaging of the GI tract, imaging protocols for fetal GI MR imaging, the normal appearance of the fetal GI tract with advancing gestational age, and the imaging appearances of common fetal GI abnormalities, as well as uncommon fetal GI conditions with characteristic appearances. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27163598

  7. 18F-FDG PET/CT as a central tool in the shift from chronic Q fever to Coxiella burnetii persistent focalized infection: A consecutive case series.

    PubMed

    Eldin, Carole; Melenotte, Cléa; Million, Matthieu; Cammilleri, Serge; Sotto, Albert; Elsendoorn, Antoine; Thuny, Franck; Lepidi, Hubert; Roblot, France; Weitten, Thierry; Assaad, Souad; Bouaziz, Anissa; Chapuzet, Claire; Gras, Guillaume; Labussiere, Anne-Sophie; Landais, Cécile; Longuet, Pascale; Masseau, Agathe; Mundler, Olivier; Raoult, Didier

    2016-08-01

    Because Q fever is mostly diagnosed serologically, localizing a persistent focus of Coxiella burnetii infection can be challenging. F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-FDG PET/CT) could be an interesting tool in this context.We performed a retrospective study on patients diagnosed with C burnetii infection, who had undergone F-FDG PET/CT between 2009 and 2015. When positive F-FDG PET/CT results were obtained, we tried to determine if it changed the previous diagnosis by discovering or confirming a suspected focus of C burnetii infection.One hundred sixty-seven patients benefited from F-FDG PET/CT. The most frequent clinical subgroup before F-FDG PET/CT was patients with no identified focus of infection, despite high IgG1 serological titers (34%). For 59% (n = 99) of patients, a hypermetabolic focus was identified. For 62 patients (62.6%), the positive F-FDG PET/CT allowed the diagnosis to be changed. For 24 of them, (38.7%), a previously unsuspected focus of infection was discovered. Forty-two (42%) positive patients had more than 1 hypermetabolic focus. We observed 21 valvular foci, 34 vascular foci, and a high proportion of osteoarticular localizations (n = 21). We also observed lymphadenitis (n = 27), bone marrow hypermetabolism (n = 11), and 9 pulmonary localizations.We confirmed thatF-FDG PET/CT is a central tool in the diagnosis of C burnetii focalized persistent infection. We proposed new diagnostic scores for 2 main clinical entities identified using F-FDG PET/CT: osteoarticular persistent infections and lymphadenitis. PMID:27559944

  8. The influence of tumor oxygenation on 18F-FDG (Fluorine-18 Deoxyglucose) uptake: A mouse study using positron emission tomography (PET)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Linda W; Hapdey, Sebastien; English, Sean; Seidel, Jurgen; Carson, Joann; Sowers, Anastasia L; Krishna, Murali C; Green, Michael V; Mitchell, James B; Bacharach, Stephen L

    2006-01-01

    Background This study investigated whether changing a tumor's oxygenation would alter tumor metabolism, and thus uptake of 18F-FDG (fluorine-18 deoxyglucose), a marker for glucose metabolism using positron emission tomography (PET). Results Tumor-bearing mice (squamous cell carcinoma) maintained at 37°C were studied while breathing either normal air or carbogen (95% O2, 5% CO2), known to significantly oxygenate tumors. Tumor activity was measured within an automatically determined volume of interest (VOI). Activity was corrected for the arterial input function as estimated from image and blood-derived data. Tumor FDG uptake was initially evaluated for tumor-bearing animals breathing only air (2 animals) or only carbogen (2 animals). Subsequently, 5 animals were studied using two sequential 18F-FDG injections administered to the same tumor-bearing mouse, 60 min apart; the first injection on one gas (air or carbogen) and the second on the other gas. When examining the entire tumor VOI, there was no significant difference of 18F-FDG uptake between mice breathing either air or carbogen (i.e. air/carbogen ratio near unity). However, when only the highest 18F-FDG uptake regions of the tumor were considered (small VOIs), there was a modest (21%), but significant increase in the air/carbogen ratio suggesting that in these potentially most hypoxic regions of the tumor, 18F-FDG uptake and hence glucose metabolism, may be reduced by increasing tumor oxygenation. Conclusion Tumor 18F-FDG uptake may be reduced by increases in tumor oxygenation and thus may provide a means to further enhance 18F-FDG functional imaging. PMID:16722588

  9. Incidental finding of silent appendicitis on (18)F-FDG PET/CT in a patient with small cell lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Sophie; Van Den Berghe, Ivo; De Geeter, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We report the incidental diagnosis of acute asymptomatic appendicitis on a fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) performed for staging of a non small cell lung carcinoma. The patient was asymptomatic and laboratory tests were normal. The case illustrates: a) the possibility to diagnose appendicitis on (18)F-FDG PET/CT and b) the possibility of silent acute appendicitis, although this is a rare occurrence. PMID:27331212

  10. Evaluation of [18F]-FDG-Based Hybrid Imaging Combinations for Assessment of Bone Marrow Involvement in Lymphoma at Initial Staging

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the value of different hybrid imaging combinations for the detection of focal and diffuse bone marrow infiltration in lymphoma. Patients with histologically proven lymphoma, who underwent both [18F]-FDG-PET/CT and whole-body MRI (including T1- and diffusion-weighted [DWI] sequences) within seven days, and a subsequent bone marrow biopsy, were retrospectively included. Three hybrid imaging combinations were evaluated: (1) [18F]-FDG-PET/CT; (2) [18F]-FDG-PET/T1; and (3) [18F]-FDG-PET/DWI. The presence of focal or diffuse bone marrow infiltration was assessed by two rater teams. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the detection of overall, focal, and diffuse bone marrow involvement were compared between the three hybrid imaging combinations. Overall, lymphomatous bone marrow involvement was found in 16/60 patients (focal, 8; diffuse, 8). Overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 81.3%, 95.5%, and 91.7% for [18F]-FDG-PET/CT; 81.3%, 97.7%, and 93.3% for [18F]-FDG-PET/T1; and 81.3%, 95.5%, and 91.7% for [18F]-FDG-PET/DWI. No statistically significant differences between the three imaging combinations were observed, based on overall bone marrow involvement, focal involvement, or diffuse involvement. The sensitivity of all three imaging combinations for detecting diffuse bone marrow involvement was only moderate (62.5% for all three combinations). Although the combination of [18F]-FDG-PET and T1-weighted MRI generally showed the best diagnostic performance for the detection of bone marrow involvement in lymphoma, it was not significantly superior to the two other hybrid imaging combinations. Since the sensitivity of all imaging combinations for the detection of diffuse bone marrow involvement was only moderate, bone marrow biopsy cannot be replaced by imaging as yet. PMID:27723817

  11. Incidental finding of silent appendicitis on (18)F-FDG PET/CT in a patient with small cell lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Sophie; Van Den Berghe, Ivo; De Geeter, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We report the incidental diagnosis of acute asymptomatic appendicitis on a fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) performed for staging of a non small cell lung carcinoma. The patient was asymptomatic and laboratory tests were normal. The case illustrates: a) the possibility to diagnose appendicitis on (18)F-FDG PET/CT and b) the possibility of silent acute appendicitis, although this is a rare occurrence.

  12. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Glass, J.P.; Geoffray, A.; Wallace, S.

    1984-11-01

    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise.

  13. Radiological abnormalities in electric-arc welders.

    PubMed Central

    Attfield, M D; Ross, D S

    1978-01-01

    Chest radiographs of 661 British electric-arc welders have been examined by three film readers experienced in the radiology of pneumoconiosis. About 7% of the welders showed signs of small rounded opacities of category 0/1 or greater. No definite evidence of large opacities (Progressive Massive Fibrosis) was seen. The prevalence of chest abnormalities other than pneumoconiosis was 7%. A clear association between prevalence of small rounded opacities of category 0/1 or greater and years of exposure to fumes was established, although few signs of severe grades of simple pneumoconiosis were seen. PMID:656335

  14. Index finger abnormalities in Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Day, Ruth; Fryer, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is an X linked recessive overgrowth disorder in which digital abnormalities are a well-described aspect of the phenotype. We report a case with marked index finger hypoplasia and a congenital abnormality of the proximal phalanx and review the literature detailing index finger abnormalities in this condition.

  15. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  16. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings... shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal... in accordance with section 203 of the Act (see 30 CFR part 90). Positive findings with regard...

  17. Abnormal Activation of BMP Signaling Causes Myopathy in Fbn2 Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sengle, Gerhard; Carlberg, Valerie; Tufa, Sara F.; Charbonneau, Noe L.; Smaldone, Silvia; Carlson, Eric J.; Ramirez, Francesco; Keene, Douglas R.; Sakai, Lynn Y.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrillins are large extracellular macromolecules that polymerize to form the backbone structure of connective tissue microfibrils. Mutations in the gene for fibrillin-1 cause the Marfan syndrome, while mutations in the gene for fibrillin-2 cause Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly. Both are autosomal dominant disorders, and both disorders affect musculoskeletal tissues. Here we show that Fbn2 null mice (on a 129/Sv background) are born with reduced muscle mass, abnormal muscle histology, and signs of activated BMP signaling in skeletal muscle. A delay in Myosin Heavy Chain 8, a perinatal myosin, was found in Fbn2 null forelimb muscle tissue, consistent with the notion that muscle defects underlie forelimb contractures in these mice. In addition, white fat accumulated in the forelimbs during the early postnatal period. Adult Fbn2 null mice are already known to demonstrate persistent muscle weakness. Here we measured elevated creatine kinase levels in adult Fbn2 null mice, indicating ongoing cycles of muscle injury. On a C57Bl/6 background, Fbn2 null mice showed severe defects in musculature, leading to neonatal death from respiratory failure. These new findings demonstrate that loss of fibrillin-2 results in phenotypes similar to those found in congenital muscular dystrophies and that FBN2 should be considered as a candidate gene for recessive congenital muscular dystrophy. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence associated muscle abnormalities and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice with abnormally activated BMP signaling. Genetic rescue of reduced muscle mass and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice was accomplished by deleting a single allele of Bmp7. In contrast to other reports that activated BMP signaling leads to muscle hypertrophy, our findings demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of BMP signaling to the fibrillin-2 extracellular environment during early postnatal muscle development. New evidence presented here suggests that fibrillin-2 can

  18. Abnormal Activation of BMP Signaling Causes Myopathy in Fbn2 Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Sengle, Gerhard; Carlberg, Valerie; Tufa, Sara F; Charbonneau, Noe L; Smaldone, Silvia; Carlson, Eric J; Ramirez, Francesco; Keene, Douglas R; Sakai, Lynn Y

    2015-06-01

    Fibrillins are large extracellular macromolecules that polymerize to form the backbone structure of connective tissue microfibrils. Mutations in the gene for fibrillin-1 cause the Marfan syndrome, while mutations in the gene for fibrillin-2 cause Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly. Both are autosomal dominant disorders, and both disorders affect musculoskeletal tissues. Here we show that Fbn2 null mice (on a 129/Sv background) are born with reduced muscle mass, abnormal muscle histology, and signs of activated BMP signaling in skeletal muscle. A delay in Myosin Heavy Chain 8, a perinatal myosin, was found in Fbn2 null forelimb muscle tissue, consistent with the notion that muscle defects underlie forelimb contractures in these mice. In addition, white fat accumulated in the forelimbs during the early postnatal period. Adult Fbn2 null mice are already known to demonstrate persistent muscle weakness. Here we measured elevated creatine kinase levels in adult Fbn2 null mice, indicating ongoing cycles of muscle injury. On a C57Bl/6 background, Fbn2 null mice showed severe defects in musculature, leading to neonatal death from respiratory failure. These new findings demonstrate that loss of fibrillin-2 results in phenotypes similar to those found in congenital muscular dystrophies and that FBN2 should be considered as a candidate gene for recessive congenital muscular dystrophy. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence associated muscle abnormalities and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice with abnormally activated BMP signaling. Genetic rescue of reduced muscle mass and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice was accomplished by deleting a single allele of Bmp7. In contrast to other reports that activated BMP signaling leads to muscle hypertrophy, our findings demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of BMP signaling to the fibrillin-2 extracellular environment during early postnatal muscle development. New evidence presented here suggests that fibrillin-2 can

  19. Abnormal Activation of BMP Signaling Causes Myopathy in Fbn2 Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Sengle, Gerhard; Carlberg, Valerie; Tufa, Sara F; Charbonneau, Noe L; Smaldone, Silvia; Carlson, Eric J; Ramirez, Francesco; Keene, Douglas R; Sakai, Lynn Y

    2015-06-01

    Fibrillins are large extracellular macromolecules that polymerize to form the backbone structure of connective tissue microfibrils. Mutations in the gene for fibrillin-1 cause the Marfan syndrome, while mutations in the gene for fibrillin-2 cause Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly. Both are autosomal dominant disorders, and both disorders affect musculoskeletal tissues. Here we show that Fbn2 null mice (on a 129/Sv background) are born with reduced muscle mass, abnormal muscle histology, and signs of activated BMP signaling in skeletal muscle. A delay in Myosin Heavy Chain 8, a perinatal myosin, was found in Fbn2 null forelimb muscle tissue, consistent with the notion that muscle defects underlie forelimb contractures in these mice. In addition, white fat accumulated in the forelimbs during the early postnatal period. Adult Fbn2 null mice are already known to demonstrate persistent muscle weakness. Here we measured elevated creatine kinase levels in adult Fbn2 null mice, indicating ongoing cycles of muscle injury. On a C57Bl/6 background, Fbn2 null mice showed severe defects in musculature, leading to neonatal death from respiratory failure. These new findings demonstrate that loss of fibrillin-2 results in phenotypes similar to those found in congenital muscular dystrophies and that FBN2 should be considered as a candidate gene for recessive congenital muscular dystrophy. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence associated muscle abnormalities and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice with abnormally activated BMP signaling. Genetic rescue of reduced muscle mass and accumulation of white fat in Fbn2 null mice was accomplished by deleting a single allele of Bmp7. In contrast to other reports that activated BMP signaling leads to muscle hypertrophy, our findings demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of BMP signaling to the fibrillin-2 extracellular environment during early postnatal muscle development. New evidence presented here suggests that fibrillin-2 can

  20. Direct mapping of 19F in 19FDG-6P in brain tissue at subcellular resolution using soft X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitry-Yamate, C.; Gianoncelli, A.; Kourousias, G.; Kaulich, B.; Lepore, M.; Gruetter, R.; Kiskinova, M.

    2013-10-01

    Low energy x-ray fluorescence (LEXRF) detection was optimized for imaging cerebral glucose metabolism by mapping the fluorine LEXRF signal of 19F in 19FDG, trapped as intracellular 19F-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate (19FDG-6P) at 1μm spatial resolution from 3μm thick brain slices. 19FDG metabolism was evaluated in brain structures closely resembling the general cerebral cytoarchitecture following formalin fixation of brain slices and their inclusion in an epon matrix. 2-dimensional distribution maps of 19FDG-6P were placed in a cytoarchitectural and morphological context by simultaneous LEXRF mapping of N and O, and scanning transmission x-ray (STXM) imaging. A disproportionately high uptake and metabolism of glucose was found in neuropil relative to intracellular domains of the cell body of hypothalamic neurons, showing directly that neurons, like glial cells, also metabolize glucose. As 19F-deoxyglucose-6P is structurally identical to 18F-deoxyglucose-6P, LEXRF of subcellular 19F provides a link to in vivo 18FDG PET, forming a novel basis for understanding the physiological mechanisms underlying the 18FDG PET image, and the contribution of neurons and glia to the PET signal.