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Sample records for abnormal fluid homeostasis

  1. Neural Control Mechanisms and Body Fluid Homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Alan Kim

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the proposed research was to study the nature of afferent signals to the brain that reflect the status of body fluid balance and to investigate the central neural mechanisms that process this information for the activation of response systems which restore body fluid homeostasis. That is, in the face of loss of fluids from intracellular or extracellular fluid compartments, animals seek and ingest water and ionic solutions (particularly Na(+) solutions) to restore the intracellular and extracellular spaces. Over recent years, our laboratory has generated a substantial body of information indicating that: (1) a fall in systemic arterial pressure facilitates the ingestion of rehydrating solutions and (2) that the actions of brain amine systems (e.g., norepinephrine; serotonin) are critical for precise correction of fluid losses. Because both acute and chronic dehydration are associated with physiological stresses, such as exercise and sustained exposure to microgravity, the present research will aid in achieving a better understanding of how vital information is handled by the nervous system for maintenance of the body's fluid matrix which is critical for health and well-being.

  2. Energy Homeostasis and Abnormal RNA Metabolism in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Ju; Tsai, Po-Yi; Chern, Yijuang

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease that is clinically characterized by progressive muscle weakness and impaired voluntary movement due to the loss of motor neurons in the brain, brain stem and spinal cord. To date, no effective treatment is available. Ample evidence suggests that impaired RNA homeostasis and abnormal energy status are two major pathogenesis pathways in ALS. In the present review article, we focus on recent studies that report molecular insights of both pathways, and discuss the possibility that energy dysfunction might negatively regulate RNA homeostasis via the impairment of cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling in motor neurons and subsequently contribute to the development of ALS. PMID:28522961

  3. Neural mechanisms in body fluid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    DiBona, G F

    1986-12-01

    Under steady-state conditions, urinary sodium excretion matches dietary sodium intake. Because extracellular fluid osmolality is tightly regulated, the quantity of sodium in the extracellular fluid determines the volume of this compartment. The left atrial volume receptor mechanism is an example of a neural mechanism of volume regulation. The left atrial mechanoreceptor, which functions as a sensor in the low-pressure vascular system, is located in the left atrial wall, which has a well-defined compliance relating intravascular volume to filling pressure. The left atrial mechanoreceptor responds to changes in wall left atrial tension by discharging into afferent vagal fibers. These fibers have suitable central nervous system representation whose related efferent neurohumoral mechanisms regulate thirst, renal excretion of water and sodium, and redistribution of the extracellular fluid volume. Efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity undergoes appropriate changes to facilitate renal sodium excretion during sodium surfeit and to facilitate renal sodium conservation during sodium deficit. By interacting with other important determinants of renal sodium excretion (e.g., renal arterial pressure), changes in efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity can significantly modulate the final renal sodium excretion response with important consequences in pathophysiological states (e.g., hypertension, edema-forming states).

  4. The (pro)renin receptor and body fluid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has long been established as one of the major mechanisms of hypertension through the increased levels of angiotensin (ANG) II and its resulting effect on the sympathetic nerve activity, arterial vasoconstriction, water reabsorption, and retention, etc. In the central nervous system, RAS activation affects body fluid homeostasis through increases in sympathetic nerve activity, water intake, food intake, and arginine vasopressin secretion. Previous studies, however, have shown that ANG II can be made in the brain, and it could possibly be through a new component called the (pro)renin receptor. This review intends to summarize the central and peripheral effects of the PRR on body fluid homeostasis. PMID:23678024

  5. Abnormal vascularization in mouse retina with dysregulated retinal cholesterol homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Omarova, Saida; Charvet, Casey D.; Reem, Rachel E.; Mast, Natalia; Zheng, Wenchao; Huang, Suber; Peachey, Neal S.; Pikuleva, Irina A.

    2012-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest a link between age-related macular degeneration and retinal cholesterol maintenance. Cytochrome P450 27A1 (CYP27A1) is a ubiquitously expressed mitochondrial sterol 27-hydroxylase that plays an important role in the metabolism of cholesterol and cholesterol-related compounds. We conducted a comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation of mice lacking CYP27A1. We found that the loss of CYP27A1 led to dysregulation of retinal cholesterol homeostasis, including unexpected upregulation of retinal cholesterol biosynthesis. Cyp27a1–/– mice developed retinal lesions characterized by cholesterol deposition beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. Further, Cyp27a1-null mice showed pathological neovascularization, which likely arose from both the retina and the choroid, that led to the formation of retinal-choroidal anastomosis. Blood flow alterations and blood vessel leakage were noted in the areas of pathology. The Cyp27a1–/– retina was hypoxic and had activated Müller cells. We suggest a mechanism whereby abolished sterol 27-hydroxylase activity leads to vascular changes and identify Cyp27a1–/– mice as a model for one of the variants of type 3 retinal neovascularization occurring in some patients with age-related macular degeneration. PMID:22820291

  6. Importance of Abnormal Chloride Homeostasis in Stable Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Grodin, Justin L; Verbrugge, Frederik H; Ellis, Stephen G; Mullens, Wilfried; Testani, Jeffrey M; Tang, W H Wilson

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to determine the long-term prognostic value of lower serum chloride in patients with stable chronic heart failure. Electrolyte abnormalities are prevalent in patients with chronic heart failure. Little is known regarding the prognostic implications of lower serum chloride. Serum chloride was measured in 1673 consecutively consented stable patients with a history of heart failure undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography. All patients were followed for 5-year all-cause mortality, and survival models were adjusted for variables that confounded the chloride-risk relationship. The average chloride level was 102 ± 4 mEq/L. Over 6772 person-years of follow-up, there were 547 deaths. Lower chloride (per standard deviation decrease) was associated with a higher adjusted risk of mortality (hazard ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.49; P < 0.001). Chloride levels net-reclassified risk in 10.4% (P = 0.03) when added to a multivariable model (with a resultant C-statistic of 0.70), in which sodium levels were not prognostic (P = 0.30). In comparison to those with above first quartile chloride (≥ 101 mEq/L) and sodium (≥ 138 meq/L), subjects with first quartile chloride had a higher adjusted mortality risk, whether they had first quartile sodium (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.69; P = 0.008) or higher (hazard ratio 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.85; P = 0.005). However, subjects with first quartile sodium but above first quartile chloride had no association with mortality (P = 0.67). Lower serum chloride levels are independently and incrementally associated with increased mortality risk in patients with chronic heart failure. A better understanding of the biological role of serum chloride is warranted. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. The plasticity of extracellular fluid homeostasis in insects.

    PubMed

    Beyenbach, Klaus W

    2016-09-01

    In chemistry, the ratio of all dissolved solutes to the solution's volume yields the osmotic concentration. The present Review uses this chemical perspective to examine how insects deal with challenges to extracellular fluid (ECF) volume, solute content and osmotic concentration (pressure). Solute/volume plots of the ECF (hemolymph) reveal that insects tolerate large changes in all three of these ECF variables. Challenges beyond those tolerances may be 'corrected' or 'compensated'. While a correction simply reverses the challenge, compensation accommodates the challenge with changes in the other two variables. Most insects osmoregulate by keeping ECF volume and osmotic concentration within a wide range of tolerance. Other insects osmoconform, allowing the ECF osmotic concentration to match the ambient osmotic concentration. Aphids are unique in handling solute and volume loads largely outside the ECF, in the lumen of the gut. This strategy may be related to the apparent absence of Malpighian tubules in aphids. Other insects can suspend ECF homeostasis altogether in order to survive extreme temperatures. Thus, ECF homeostasis in insects is highly dynamic and plastic, which may partly explain why insects remain the most successful class of animals in terms of both species number and biomass. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid protein indices in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kirch, D G; Kaufmann, C A; Papadopoulos, N M; Martin, B; Weinberger, D R

    1985-10-01

    Determinations of albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were performed in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from 24 subjects with schizophrenia. These determinations allowed calculation of two indices, one that is an indicator of integrity of the blood-brain barrier and the other a measure of selective IgG production within the central nervous system (CNS). In comparison with previously determined reference values, 7 of 24 (29%) subjects showed increased blood-brain barrier permeability, and 8 of 24 (33%) demonstrated elevated endogenous CNS IgG production. One of these eight also demonstrated oligoclonal banding on high-resolution protein electrophoresis of the CSF.

  9. Homeostasis and the concept of 'interstitial fluids hierarchy': Relevance of cerebrospinal fluid sodium concentrations and brain temperature control (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Agnati, Luigi F.; Marcoli, Manuela; Leo, Giuseppina; Maura, Guido; Guidolin, Diego

    2017-01-01

    In this review, the aspects and further developments of the concept of homeostasis are discussed also in the perspective of their possible impact in the clinical practice, particularly as far as psychic homeostasis is concerned. A brief historical survey and comments on the concept of homeostasis and allostasis are presented to introduce our proposal that is based on the classical assumption of the interstitial fluid (ISF) as the internal medium for multicellular organisms. However, the new concept of a hierarchic role of ISF of the various organs is introduced. Additionally, it is suggested that particularly for some chemico-physical parameters, oscillatory rhythms within their proper set-ranges should be considered a fundamental component of homeostasis. Against this background, we propose that the brain ISF has the highest hierarchic role in human beings, providing the optimal environment, not simply for brain cell survival, but also for brain complex functions and the oscillatory rhythms of some parameters, such as cerebrospinal fluid sodium and brain ISF pressure waves, which may play a crucial role in brain physio-pathological states. Thus, according to this proposal, the brain ISF represents the real internal medium since the maintenance of its dynamic intra-set-range homeostasis is the main factor for a free and independent life of higher vertebrates. Furthermore, the evolutionary links between brain and kidney and their synergistic role in H2O/Na balance and brain temperature control are discussed. Finally, it is surmised that these two interrelated parameters have deep effects on the Central Nervous System (CNS) higher integrative actions such those linked to psychic homeostasis. PMID:28204813

  10. Bolus fluid therapy and sodium homeostasis in paediatric gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Stephen B; Geary, Denis F

    2013-03-01

    The study aims to assess the risk of developing hyponatraemia when large-volume bolus fluid rehydration therapy is administered. We conducted a prospective randomised study in a tertiary-care centre emergency department. Participants included children with gastroenteritis and dehydration requiring intravenous rehydration. They were randomised to receive 60 mL/kg (large) or 20 mL/kg (standard) 0.9% saline bolus followed by maintenance 0.9% saline for 3 h. Biochemical tests were performed at baseline and 4 h. The primary outcome measure was the development of hyponatraemia at 4 h. Secondary outcome measures were (i) change in sodium relative to baseline value; (ii) magnitude of decrease among those who experienced a decrease; (iii) risk of hypernatraemia; (iv) correlations between urine parameters and hyponatraemia; and (v) fluid overload. Eighty-four of 224 (38%) participants were hyponatraemic at baseline. At 4 h, 22% (48/217) had a dysnatraemia, and similar numbers of children were hyponatraemic in both groups: large (23% (26/112)) versus standard (21% (22/105)) (P = 0.69). Among initially hyponatraemic children, 63% (30/48) who received large-volume rehydration and 44% (15/34) of those administered standard rehydration were isonatraemic at 4 h (P = 0.10). Overall, children who received 60 mL/kg experienced a larger mean increase (1.6 ± 2.4 mEq/L vs. 0.9 ± 2.2 mEq/L; P = 0.04) and were less likely to experience a sodium decrease of ≥2 mEq/L (8/112 vs. 17/105; P = 0.04) than those administered 20 mL/kg. Large-volume bolus rehydration therapy with 0.9% saline is safe. It does not promote the development of hyponatraemia over the short term, but hastens the resolution of baseline hyponatraemia. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Disrupting mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis causes tumor-selective TRAIL sensitization through mitochondrial network abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Yohei; Takata, Natsuhiko; Suzuki-Karasaki, Miki; Yoshida, Yukihiro; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Suzuki-Karasaki, Yoshihiro

    2017-10-01

    The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has emerged as a promising anticancer agent with high tumor-selective cytotoxicity. The congenital and acquired resistance of some cancer types including malignant melanoma and osteosarcoma impede the current TRAIL therapy of these cancers. Since fine tuning of the intracellular Ca2+ level is essential for cell function and survival, Ca2+ dynamics could be a promising target for cancer treatment. Recently, we demonstrated that mitochondrial Ca2+ removal increased TRAIL efficacy toward malignant melanoma and osteosarcoma cells. Here we report that mitochondrial Ca2+ overload leads to tumor-selective sensitization to TRAIL cytotoxicity. Treatment with the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger inhibitor CGP-37157 and oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor antimycin A and FCCP resulted in a rapid and persistent mitochondrial Ca2+ rise. These agents also increased TRAIL sensitivity in a tumor-selective manner with a switching from apoptosis to a nonapoptotic cell death. Moreover, we found that mitochondrial Ca2+ overload led to increased mitochondrial fragmentation, while mitochondrial Ca2+ removal resulted in mitochondrial hyperfusion. Regardless of their reciprocal actions on the mitochondrial dynamics, both interventions commonly exacerbated TRAIL-induced mitochondrial network abnormalities. These results expand our previous study and suggest that an appropriate level of mitochondrial Ca2+ is essential for maintaining the mitochondrial dynamics and the survival of these cells. Thus, disturbing mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis may serve as a promising approach to overcome the TRAIL resistance of these cancers with minimally compromising the tumor-selectivity.

  12. Abnormal oxygen homeostasis in the nucleus tractus solitarii of the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Hosford, Patrick S; Millar, Julian; Ramage, Andrew G; Marina, Nephtali

    2017-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? Arterial hypertension is associated with impaired neurovascular coupling in the somatosensory cortex. Abnormalities in activity-dependent oxygen consumption in brainstem regions involved in the control of cardiovascular reflexes have not been explored previously. What is the main finding and its importance? Using fast-cyclic voltammetry, we found that changes in local tissue PO2 in the nucleus tractus solitarii induced by electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve are significantly impaired in spontaneously hypertensive rats. This is consistent with previous observations showing that brainstem hypoxia plays an important role in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. The effects of arterial hypertension on cerebral blood flow remain poorly understood. Haemodynamic responses within the somatosensory cortex have been shown to be impaired in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model. However, it is unknown whether arterial hypertension affects oxygen homeostasis in vital brainstem areas that control cardiovascular reflexes. In this study, we assessed vagus nerve stimulation-induced changes in local tissue PO2 (PtO2) in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) of SHRs and normotensive Wistar rats. Measurements of PtO2 were performed using a novel application of fast-cyclic voltammetry, which allows higher temporal resolution of O 2 changes than traditional optical fluorescence techniques. Electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the vagus nerve (ESVN) caused profound reductions in arterial blood pressure along with biphasic changes in PtO2 in the cNTS, characterized by a rapid decrease in PtO2 ('initial dip') followed by a post-stimulus overshoot above baseline. The initial dip was found to be significantly smaller in SHRs compared with normotensive Wistar rats even after ganglionic blockade. The post-ESVN overshoot was similar in both groups but was reduced in Wistar rats after ganglionic blockade. In

  13. The Role of Follicular Fluid Thiol/Disulphide Homeostasis in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tola, Esra Nur; Köroğlu, Nadiye; Ergin, Merve; Oral, Hilmi Baha; Turgut, Abdülkadir; Erel, Özcan

    2018-04-04

    Oxidative stress is suggested as a potential triggering factor in the etiopathogenesis of Polycystic ovary syndrome related infertility. Thiol/disulphide homeostasis, a recently oxidative stress marker, is one of the antioxidant mechanism in human which have critical roles in folliculogenesis and ovulation. The aim of our study is to investigate follicular fluid thiol/disulphide homeostasis in the etiopathogenesis of Polycystic ovary syndrome and to determine its' association with in vitro fertilization outcome. The study procedures were approved by local ethic committee. Cross sectional design Methods: Follicular fluid of twenty-two Polycystic ovary syndrome women and twenty ovulatory controls undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment were recruited. Thiol/disulphide homeostasis was analyzed via a novel spectrophotometric method. Follicular native thiol levels were found to be lower in Polycystic ovary syndrome group than non- Polycystic ovary syndrome group (p=0.041) as well as native thiol/total thiol ratio (p<0.0001). Disulphide level, disulphide/native thiol and disulphide/total thiol ratios were increased in Polycystic ovary syndrome group (p<0.0001). A positive correlation between fertilization rate and native thiol (p=0.01, r=0.53) and total thiol (p=0.01, r=0.052) among Polycystic ovary syndrome patients was found. A positive predictive effect of native thiol on fertilization rate among Polycystic ovary syndrome group was also found (p=0.03, β=0.45, 95% CI=0.031-0.643). Deterioration in thiol/disulphide homeostasis, especially elevated disulphide levels could be one of the etiopathogenetic mechanism in Polycystic ovary syndrome. Increased native thiol levels is related to fertilization rate among Polycystic ovary syndrome patients and also positive predictor marker of fertilization rate among Polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Improvement of thiol/disulphide homeostasis could be of importance in the treatment of Polycystic ovary syndrome to increase in

  14. Copeptin in the diagnosis of vasopressin-dependent disorders of fluid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Fenske, Wiebke

    2016-03-01

    Copeptin and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are derived from a common precursor molecule and have equimolar secretion and response to osmotic, haemodynamic and stress-related stimuli. Plasma concentrations of copeptin and AVP in relation to serum osmolality are highly correlated. The physiological functions of AVP with respect to homeostasis of fluid balance, vascular tonus and regulation of the endocrine stress response are well known, but the exact function of copeptin is undetermined. Quantification of AVP can be difficult, but copeptin is stable in plasma and can be easily measured with a sandwich immunoassay. For this reason, copeptin has emerged as a promising marker for the diagnosis of AVP-dependent fluid disorders. Copeptin measurements can enable differentiation between various conditions within the polyuria-polydipsia syndrome. In the absence of prior fluid deprivation, baseline copeptin levels >20 pmol/l identify patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Conversely, copeptin levels measured upon osmotic stimulation differentiate primary polydipsia from partial central diabetes insipidus. In patients with hyponatraemia, low levels of copeptin together with low urine osmolality identify patients with primary polydipsia, and the ratio of copeptin to urinary sodium can distinguish the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion from other AVP-dependent forms of hyponatraemia.

  15. Systemic PPARγ deletion causes severe disturbance in fluid homeostasis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li; Panasiuk, Alexandra; Downton, Maicy; Zhao, Daqiang; Yang, Baoxue; Jia, Zhanjun

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacological action of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ in promoting sodium and water retention is well documented as highlighted by the major side-effect of body weight gain and edema associated with thiazolidinedione use. However, a possible physiological role of PPARγ in regulation of fluid metabolism has not been reported by previous studies. Here we analyzed fluid metabolism in inducible whole-body PPARγ knockout mice. The null mice developed severe polydipsia and polyuria, reduced urine osmolality, and modest hyperphagia. The phenomenon persisted during 3 days of pair feeding and pair drinking, accompanied by progressive weight loss. After 24 h water deprivation, the null mice had a lower urine osmolality, a higher urine volume, a greater weight loss, and a greater rise in hematocrit than the floxed control. Urinary vasopressin (AVP) excretion was not different between the genotypes under basal condition or after WD. The response of urine osmolality to acute and chronic 1-desamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin treatment was attenuated in the null mice, but the total abundance or phosphorylation of aquaporin 2 (AQP2) in the kidney or AVP-induced cAMP production in inner medullary collecting duct suspensions was unaffected. Overall, PPARγ participates in physiological control of fluid homeostasis through an unknown mechanism involving cAMP/AQP2-independent enhancement of AVP response. PMID:26330489

  16. Exacerbated immune stress response during experimental magnesium deficiency results from abnormal cell calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Malpuech-Brugère, C; Rock, E; Astier, C; Nowacki, W; Mazur, A; Rayssiguier, Y

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential mechanism underlying the enhanced inflammatory processes during magnesium deficit. In this study, exacerbated response to live bacteria and platelet activating factors was shown in rats fed a magnesium-deficient diet. Peritoneal cells from these animals also showed enhanced superoxide anion production and calcium mobilising potency following in vitro stimulation. The latter effect occurred very early in the course of magnesium deficiency. These studies first showed that an abnormal calcium handling induced by extracellular magnesium depression in vivo may be at the origin of exacerbated inflammatory response.

  17. Acute effects of head-down tilt and hypoxia on modulators of fluid homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Cintron, N. M.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Scotto, P.; Loeppky, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to understand the interaction between acute postural fluid shifts and hypoxia on hormonal regulation of fluid homeostasis, the authors measured the responses to head-down tilt with and without acute exposure to normobaric hypoxia. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), plasma aldosterone (ALD), and plasma renin activity (PRA) were measured in six healthy male volunteers who were exposed to a head-down tilt protocol during normoxia and hypoxia. The tilt protocol consisted of a 17 degrees head-up phase (30 minutes), a 28 degrees head-down phase (1 hour), and a 17 degrees head-up recovery period (2 hours, with the last hour normoxic in both experiments). Altitude equivalent to 14,828 ft was simulated by having the subjects breathe an inspired gas mixture with 13.9% oxygen. The results indicate that the postural fluid redistribution associated with a 60-minute head-down tilt induces the release of ANP and cGMP during both hypoxia and normoxia. Hypoxia increased cGMP, cAMP, ALD, and PRA throughout the protocol and significantly potentiated the increase in cGMP during head-down tilt. Hypoxia had no overall effect on the release of ANP, but appeared to attenuate the increase with head-down tilt. This study describes the acute effects of hypoxia on the endocrine response during fluid redistribution and suggests that the magnitude, but not the direction, of these changes with posture is affected by hypoxia.

  18. Abnormal cerebrospinal fluid biochemistry in biotinidase deficiency causing diagnostic conundrum.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, Deepa; Maw, Anna; Brown, Richard; Hogg, Sarah; Calvin, Jackie; Parker, Alasdair P J

    2014-01-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is a treatable cause of infantile epilepsy and the presentation can be nonspecific. The seizures are difficult to differentiate from other causes of epileptic encephalopathy, which generally have a poor prognosis. We report 2 infants who presented with seizures, and whose low cerebrospinal fluid glucose and high cerebrospinal lactate caused a diagnostic dilemma. Subsequent urine organic acids pointed to the correct diagnosis and avoided invasive investigation. The children had a good clinical outcome with resolution of their seizures on biotin treatment.

  19. High prevalence of abnormal glucose homeostasis secondary to decreased insulin secretion in individuals with hereditary haemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    McClain, D A; Abraham, D; Rogers, J; Brady, R; Gault, P; Ajioka, R; Kushner, J P

    2006-07-01

    The prevalence and mechanisms of diabetes in hereditary haemochromatosis are not known. We therefore measured glucose tolerance, insulin secretory capacity and insulin sensitivity in adults with haemochromatosis. Subjects recruited from referrals to a haemochromatosis clinic underwent OGTT and frequently sampled IVGTT. A chart review of former clinic patients was also performed. The prevalence of diabetes (23%) and IGT (30%) was increased in haemochromatosis compared with matched control subjects (0% diabetes and 14% IGT). Subjects with haemochromatosis and diabetes were overweight (14%) or obese (86%). The prevalence of diabetes, as determined by chart review of fasting glucose values, in subjects who had haemochromatosis and were in the 40-79 years age range was 26%. Overall, patients with haemochromatosis and control subjects had similar values for acute insulin response to glucose and insulin sensitivity. However, patients with haemochromatosis and IGT had a 68% decrease in acute insulin response to glucose (p<0.02) compared with those with NGT. They were not insulin-resistant, exhibiting instead a 62% increase in insulin sensitivity (NS). Haemochromatosis subjects with diabetes exhibited further declines in acute insulin response to glucose, insulin resistance, or both. Diabetes and IGT are common in haemochromatosis, justifying screening for diabetes and therapeutic phlebotomy. The major abnormality associated with IGT is decreased insulin secretory capacity. Diabetes is usually associated with obesity and concomitant insulin resistance.

  20. B-type natriuretic peptide and acute heart failure: Fluid homeostasis, biomarker and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Torres-Courchoud, I; Chen, H H

    2016-10-01

    Natriuretic peptides are a family of peptides with similar structures, but are genetically distinct with diverse actions in cardiovascular, renal and fluid homeostasis. The family consists of an atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and a brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) of myocardial cell origin, a C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) of endothelial origin, and a urodilatin (Uro) which is processed from a prohormone ANP in the kidney. Nesiritide, a human recombinant BNP, was approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the management of acute heart failure (AHF) in 2001. Human recombinant ANP (Carperitide) was approved for the same clinical indication in Japan in 1995, and human recombinant Urodilatin (Ularitide) is currently undergoing phase III clinical trial (TRUE AHF). This review will provide an update on important issues regarding the role of BNP in fluid hemostasis as a biomarker and therapeutics in AHF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  1. The Importance of Abnormal Chloride Homeostasis in Stable Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Grodin, Justin L.; Verbrugge, Frederik H.; Ellis, Stephen G.; Mullens, Wilfried; Testani, Jeffrey M.; Wilson Tang MD, W. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this analysis was to determine the long-term prognostic value of lower serum chloride in patients with stable chronic heart failure. Electrolyte abnormalities are prevalent in patients with chronic heart failure. Little is known regarding the prognostic implications of lower serum chloride. Methods and Results Serum chloride was measured in 1,673 consecutively consented stable patients with a history of heart failure undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography. All patients were followed for 5-year all-cause mortality, and survival models were adjusted for variables that confounded the chloride-risk relationship. The average chloride level was 102±4 mEq/L. Over 6,772 person-years of follow-up, there were 547 deaths. Lower chloride (per standard deviation decrease) was associated with a higher adjusted risk of mortality (HR 1.29, 95%CI 1.12–1.49, P<0.001). Chloride levels net-reclassified risk in 10.4% (P=0.03) when added to a multivariable model (with a resultant C-statistic of 0.70), in which sodium levels were not prognostic (P=0.30). In comparison to those with above first quartile chloride (≥101 mEq/L) and sodium (≥138 meq/L), subjects with first quartile chloride had a higher adjusted mortality risk, whether they had first quartile sodium (HR 1.35, 95%CI 1.08–1.69, P=0.008) or higher (HR 1.43, 95%CI 1.12–1.85, P=0.005). However, subjects with first quartile sodium but above first quartile chloride had no association with mortality (P=0.67). Conclusions Lower serum chloride levels are independently and incrementally associated with increased mortality risk in patients with chronic heart failure. A better understanding of the biological role of serum chloride is warranted. PMID:26721916

  2. Regulation of body fluid and salt homeostasis--from observations in space to new concepts on Earth.

    PubMed

    Gerzer, R; Heer, M

    2005-08-01

    The present manuscript summarizes recent discoveries that were made by studying salt and fluid homeostasis in weightlessness. These data indicate that 1. atrial natriuretic peptide appears not to play an important role in natriuresis in physiology, 2. the distribution of body fluids appears to be tightly coupled with hunger and thirst regulation, 3. intrathoracic pressure may be an important co-regulator of body fluid homeostasis, 4. a so far unknown low-affinity, high capacity osmotically inactive sodium storage mechanism appears to be present in humans that is acting through sodium/hydrogen exchange on glycosaminoglycans and might explain the pathophysiology, e.g., of salt sensitive hypertension. The surprising and unexpected data underline that weightlessness is an excellent tool to investigate the physiology of our human body: If we knew it, we should be able to predict changes that occur when gravity is absent. But, as data from space demonstrate, we do not.

  3. Perilymph Kinetics of FITC-Dextran Reveals Homeostasis Dominated by the Cochlear Aqueduct and Cerebrospinal Fluid.

    PubMed

    Salt, A N; Gill, R M; Hartsock, J J

    2015-06-01

    Understanding how drugs are distributed in perilymph following local applications is important as local drug therapies are increasingly used to treat disorders of the inner ear. The potential contribution of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) entry to perilymph homeostasis has been controversial for over half a century, largely due to artifactual contamination of collected perilymph samples with CSF. Measures of perilymph flow and of drug distribution following round window niche applications have both suggested a slow, apically directed flow occurs along scala tympani (ST) in the normal, sealed cochlea. In the present study, we have used fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran as a marker to study perilymph kinetics in guinea pigs. Dextran is lost from perilymph more slowly than other substances so far quantified. Dextran solutions were injected from pipettes sealed into the lateral semicircular canal (SCC), the cochlear apex, or the basal turn of ST. After varying delays, sequential perilymph samples were taken from the cochlear apex or lateral SCC, allowing dextran distribution along the perilymphatic spaces to be quantified. Variability was low and findings were consistent with the injection procedure driving volume flow towards the cochlear aqueduct, and with volume flow during perilymph sampling driven by CSF entry at the aqueduct. The decline of dextran with time in the period between injection and sampling was consistent with both a slow volume influx of CSF (~30 nL/min) entering the basal turn of ST at the cochlear aqueduct and a CSF-perilymph exchange driven by pressure-driven fluid oscillation across the cochlear aqueduct. Sample data also allowed contributions of other processes, such as communications with adjacent compartments, to be quantified. The study demonstrates that drug kinetics in the basal turn of ST is complex and is influenced by a considerable number of interacting processes.

  4. Homeostasis and the concept of 'interstitial fluids hierarchy': Relevance of cerebrospinal fluid sodium concentrations and brain temperature control (Review).

    PubMed

    Agnati, Luigi F; Marcoli, Manuela; Leo, Giuseppina; Maura, Guido; Guidolin, Diego

    2017-03-01

    In this review, the aspects and further developments of the concept of homeostasis are discussed also in the perspective of their possible impact in the clinical practice, particularly as far as psychic homeostasis is concerned. A brief historical survey and comments on the concept of homeostasis and allostasis are presented to introduce our proposal that is based on the classical assumption of the interstitial fluid (ISF) as the internal medium for multicellular organisms. However, the new concept of a hierarchic role of ISF of the various organs is introduced. Additionally, it is suggested that particularly for some chemico‑physical parameters, oscillatory rhythms within their proper set‑ranges should be considered a fundamental component of homeostasis. Against this background, we propose that the brain ISF has the highest hierarchic role in human beings, providing the optimal environment, not simply for brain cell survival, but also for brain complex functions and the oscillatory rhythms of some parameters, such as cerebrospinal fluid sodium and brain ISF pressure waves, which may play a crucial role in brain physio‑pathological states. Thus, according to this proposal, the brain ISF represents the real internal medium since the maintenance of its dynamic intra-set-range homeostasis is the main factor for a free and independent life of higher vertebrates. Furthermore, the evolutionary links between brain and kidney and their synergistic role in H2O/Na balance and brain temperature control are discussed. Finally, it is surmised that these two interrelated parameters have deep effects on the Central Nervous System (CNS) higher integrative actions such those linked to psychic homeostasis.

  5. Effects of 30 day simulated microgravity and recovery on fluid homeostasis and renal function in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Bryan J.; Mendonca, Margarida M.

    1995-01-01

    Transition from a normal gravitational environment to that of microgravity eventually results in decreased plasma and blood volumes, increasing with duration of exposure to microgravity. This loss of vascular fluid is presumably due to negative fluid and electrolyte balance and most likely contributes to the orthostatic intolerance associated with the return to gravity. The decrease in plasma volume is presumed to be a reflection of a concurrent decrease in extracellular fluid volume with maintenance of normal plasma-interstitial fluid balance. In addition, the specific alterations in renal function contributing to these changes in fluid and electrolyte homeostasis are potentially responding to neuro-humoral signals that are not consistent with systemic fluid volume status. We have previously demonstrated an early increase in both glomerular filtration rate and extracellular fluid volume and that this decreases towards control values by 7 days of simulated microgravity. However, longer duration studies relating these changes to plasma volume alterations and the response to return to orthostasis have not been fully addressed. Male Wistar rats were chronically cannulated, submitted to 30 days heat-down tilt (HDT) and followed for 7 days after return to orthostasis from HDT. Measurements of renal function and extracellular and blood volumes were performed in the awake rat.

  6. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery: correlations of hippocampal cell densities with signal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Diehl, B; Najm, I; Mohamed, A; Wyllie, E; Babb, T; Ying, Z; Hilbig, A; Bingaman, W; Lüders, H O; Ruggieri, P

    2001-09-25

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is characterized by hippocampal atrophy and increased signal on T2-weighted images and on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. To quantitate cell loss and compare it with signal abnormalities on FLAIR images. Thirty-one patients with temporal lobe resection, pathologically proven HS, and Engel class I and II outcome were included: 20 with HS only and 11 with HS associated with pathologically proven cortical dysplasia (dual pathology). The signal intensity on FLAIR was rated as present or absent in the hippocampus and correlated with the neuronal losses in the hippocampus. FLAIR signal increases were present in 77% (24/31) of all patients studied. In patients with isolated HS, 90% (18/20) had ipsilateral signal increases, but in patients with dual pathology, only 55% (6/11; p < 0.02) showed FLAIR signal increase. Hippocampal cell losses were significantly higher in the isolated HS group. The average cell loss in patients with FLAIR signal abnormalities was 64.8 +/- 8.0% as compared with only 32.7 +/- 5.1% in patients with no FLAIR signal abnormalities. There was a significant positive correlation between the presence of signal abnormality and average hippocampal cell loss in both pathologic groups. Ipsilateral FLAIR signal abnormalities occur in the majority of patients with isolated HS but are less frequent in those with dual pathology. The presence of increased FLAIR signal is correlated with higher hippocampal cell loss.

  7. Aging-related anatomical and biochemical changes in lymphatic collectors impair lymph transport, fluid homeostasis, and pathogen clearance

    PubMed Central

    Zolla, Valerio; Nizamutdinova, Irina Tsoy; Scharf, Brian; Clement, Cristina C; Maejima, Daisuke; Akl, Tony; Nagai, Takashi; Luciani, Paola; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Halin, Cornelia; Stukes, Sabriya; Tiwari, Sangeeta; Casadevall, Arturo; Jacobs, William R; Entenberg, David; Zawieja, David C; Condeelis, John; Fooksman, David R; Gashev, Anatoliy A; Santambrogio, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The role of lymphatic vessels is to transport fluid, soluble molecules, and immune cells to the draining lymph nodes. Here, we analyze how the aging process affects the functionality of the lymphatic collectors and the dynamics of lymph flow. Ultrastructural, biochemical, and proteomic analysis indicates a loss of matrix proteins, and smooth muscle cells in aged collectors resulting in a decrease in contraction frequency, systolic lymph flow velocity, and pumping activity, as measured in vivo in lymphatic collectors. Functionally, this impairment also translated into a reduced ability for in vivo bacterial transport as determined by time-lapse microscopy. Ultrastructural and proteomic analysis also indicates a decrease in the thickness of the endothelial cell glycocalyx and loss of gap junction proteins in aged lymph collectors. Redox proteomic analysis mapped an aging-related increase in the glycation and carboxylation of lymphatic’s endothelial cell and matrix proteins. Functionally, these modifications translate into apparent hyperpermeability of the lymphatics with pathogen escaping from the collectors into the surrounding tissue and a decreased ability to control tissue fluid homeostasis. Altogether, our data provide a mechanistic analysis of how the anatomical and biochemical changes, occurring in aged lymphatic vessels, compromise lymph flow, tissue fluid homeostasis, and pathogen transport. PMID:25982749

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities in patients with neoplastic meningitis. An evaluation using /sup 111/In-DTPA ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, S.A.; Trump, D.L.; Chen, D.C.

    1982-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics were evaluated by /sup 111/In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 111/In-DTPA) ventriculography in 27 patients with neoplastic meningitis. Nineteen patients (70 percent) had evidence of cerebrospinal fluid flow disturbances. These occurred as ventricular outlet obstructions, abnormalities of flow in the spinal canal, or flow distrubances over the cortical convexities. Tumor histology, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, myelograms, and computerized axial tomographic scans were not sufficient to predict cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns. These data indicate that cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities are common in patients with neoplastic meningitis and that /sup 111/In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging is useful in characterizingmore » these abnormalities. This technique provides insight into the distribution of intraventricularly administered chemotherapy and may provide explanations for treatment failure and drug-induced neurotoxicity in patients with neoplastic meningitis.« less

  9. Abnormal myocardial fluid retention as an early manifestation of ischemic injury.

    PubMed Central

    Willerson, J. T.; Scales, F.; Mukherjee, A.; Platt, M.; Templeton, G. H.; Fink, G. S.; Buja, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    Fifty-seven isolated, blood perfused, continuously weighed canine hearts have been utilized to study the development of abnormal myocardial fluid retention during early myocardial ischemic injury. Inflatable balloon catheters were positioned around the left anterior descending coronary arteries (LAD) of 54 hearts or the proximal left circumflex coronary arteries of three hearts for study of the following intervals of coronary occlusion: a) 10 minutes followed by 20 minutes of reflow, b) 40 minutes followed by either no reflow or by 20 minutes of reflow, and c) 60 minutes without reflow. After 60 minutes of fixed coronary occlusion, histologic and ultrastructural examination revealed mild swelling of many ischemic cardiac muscle cells in the absence of interstitial edema, cardiac weight gain, and obvious structural defects in cell membrane integrity. After 40 minutes of coronary occlusion and 20 minutes of reflow, significant cardiac weight gain occurred in association with characteristic alterations in the ischemic region, including widespread interstitial edema and focal vascular congestion and hemorrhage and swelling of cardiac muscle cells. Focal structural defects in cell membrane integrity were also noted. The development of abnormal myocardial fluid retention after 40 minutes of LAD occlusion occurred in association with a significant reduction in sodium-potassium-ATPase activity in the ischemic area, but with no significant alteration in either creatine phosphokinase or citrate synthase activity in the same region. Despite the abnormal myocardial fluid retention in these hearts, it was possible pharmacologically to vasodilate coronary vessels with adenosine and nitroglycerin infusion to maintain a consistently high coronary flow following release of the coronary occlusion after 40 minutes and to even exceed initial hyperemic flow values following release of the occlusion when adenosine and nitroglycerin infusion was delayed until 15 minutes after reflow

  10. Abnormal Chloride Homeostasis in the Substancia Nigra Pars Reticulata Contributes to Locomotor Deficiency in a Model of Acute Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yan-Yan; Chen, Jing; Dou, Ke-Feng; Wang, Ya-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Background Altered chloride homeostasis has been thought to be a risk factor for several brain disorders, while less attention has been paid to its role in liver disease. We aimed to analyze the involvement and possible mechanisms of altered chloride homeostasis of GABAergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in the motor deficit observed in a model of encephalopathy caused by acute liver failure, by using glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 - green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice. Methods Alterations in intracellular chloride concentration in GABAergic neurons within the SNr and changes in the expression of two dominant chloride homeostasis-regulating genes, KCC2 and NKCC1, were evaluated in mice with hypolocomotion due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The effects of pharmacological blockade and/or activation of KCC2 and NKCC1 functions with their specific inhibitors and/or activators on the motor activity were assessed. Results In our mouse model of acute liver injury, chloride imaging indicated an increase in local intracellular chloride concentration in SNr GABAergic neurons. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of KCC2 were reduced, particularly on neuronal cell membranes; in contrast, NKCC1 expression remained unaffected. Furthermore, blockage of KCC2 reduced motor activity in the normal mice and led to a further deteriorated hypolocomotion in HE mice. Blockade of NKCC1 was not able to normalize motor activity in mice with liver failure. Conclusion Our data suggest that altered chloride homeostasis is likely involved in the pathophysiology of hypolocomotion following HE. Drugs aimed at restoring normal chloride homeostasis would be a potential treatment for hepatic failure. PMID:23741482

  11. Connective tissue spectrum abnormalities associated with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, Eyal; Pariani, Mitchel; Bannykh, Serguei; Rimoin, David L; Schievink, Wouter I

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to assess the frequency of connective tissue abnormalities among patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks in a prospective study using a large cohort of patients. We enrolled a consecutive group of 50 patients, referred for consultation because of CSF leak. All patients have been carefully examined for the presence of connective tissue abnormalities, and based on findings, patients underwent genetic testing. Ancillary diagnostic studies included echocardiography, eye exam, and histopathological examinations of skin and dura biopsies in selected patients. We identified nine patients with heritable connective tissue disorders, including Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and other unclassified forms. In seven patients, spontaneous CSF leak was the first noted manifestation of the genetic disorder. We conclude that spontaneous CSF leaks are associated with a spectrum of connective tissue abnormalities and may be the first noted clinical presentation of the genetic disorder. We propose that there is a clinical basis for considering spontaneous CSF leak as a clinical manifestation of heritable connective tissue disorders, and we suggest that patients with CSF leaks should be screened for connective tissue and vascular abnormalities.

  12. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Successfully Treated HIV Infection: Associations With Disease and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    van Zoest, Rosan A; Underwood, Jonathan; De Francesco, Davide; Sabin, Caroline A; Cole, James H; Wit, Ferdinand W; Caan, Matthan W A; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Fuchs, Dietmar; Zetterberg, Henrik; Majoie, Charles B L M; Portegies, Peter; Winston, Alan; Sharp, David J; Gisslén, Magnus; Reiss, Peter

    2017-12-27

    Brain structural abnormalities have been reported in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLWH) who are receiving suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but their pathophysiology remains unclear. We investigated factors associated with brain tissue volumes and white matter microstructure (fractional anisotropy) in 134 PLWH receiving suppressive cART and 79 comparable HIV-negative controls, aged ≥45 years, from the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS cohort, using multimodal neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. Compared with controls, PLWH had lower gray matter volumes (-13.7 mL; 95% confidence interval, -25.1 to -2.2) and fractional anisotropy (-0.0073; 95% confidence interval, -.012 to -.0024), with the largest differences observed in those with prior clinical AIDS. Hypertension and the soluble CD14 concentration in cerebrospinal fluid were associated with lower fractional anisotropy. These associations were independent of HIV serostatus (Pinteraction = .32 and Pinteraction = .59, respectively) and did not explain the greater abnormalities in brain structure in relation to HIV infection. The presence of lower gray matter volumes and more white matter microstructural abnormalities in well-treated PLWH partly reflect a combination of historical effects of AIDS, as well as the more general influence of systemic factors, such as hypertension and ongoing neuroinflammation. Additional mechanisms explaining the accentuation of brain structure abnormalities in treated HIV infection remain to be identified. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Castro-Sepulveda, Mauricio; Johannsen, Neil; Astudillo, Sebastián; Jorquera, Carlos; Álvarez, Cristian; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo

    2016-06-07

    Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W), beer (AB) or non-alcoholic beer (NAB). Body mass, plasma Na⁺ and K⁺ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG) were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p < 0.05) in W (-1.1%), AB (-1.0%) and NAB (-1.0%). In the last minutes of exercise, plasma Na⁺ was reduced (p < 0.05) in W (-3.9%) and AB (-3.7%), plasma K⁺ was increased (p < 0.05) in AB (8.5%), and USG was reduced in W (-0.9%) and NAB (-1.0%). Collectively, these results suggest that non-alcoholic beer before exercise could help maintain electrolyte homeostasis during exercise. Alcoholic beer intake reduced plasma Na⁺ and increased plasma K⁺ during exercise, which may negatively affect health and physical performance, and finally, the consumption of water before exercise could induce decreases of Na⁺ in plasma during exercise.

  14. Fluid and electrolyte homeostasis during spaceflight: Elucidation of mechanisms in a primate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Churchill, Susanne

    1990-01-01

    Although it is now well accepted that exposure to the hypogravic environment of space induces a shift of fluid from the lower extremities toward the upper body, the actual physiological responses to this central volume expansion have not been well characterized. Because it is likely that the fluid and electrolyte response to hypogravity plays a critical role in the development of Cardiovascular Deconditioning, elucidation of these mechanisms is of critical importance. The goal of flight experiment 223, scheduled to fly on SLS-2, is the definition of the basic renal, fluid and electrolyte response to spaceflight in four instrumented squirrel monkeys. The studies were those required to support the development of flight hardware and optimal inflight procedures, and to evaluate a ground-based model for weightlessness, lower body positive pressure (LBPP).

  15. Alternative indices of glucose homeostasis as biochemical diagnostic tests for abnormal glucose tolerance in an African setting.

    PubMed

    Kengne, Andre Pascal; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Levitt, Naomi S; Matsha, Tandi E

    2017-04-01

    Accurate diabetes diagnosis is important in Africa, where rates are increasing, and the disease largely undiagnosed. The cumbersome oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) remains the reference standard, while alternative diagnostic methods are not yet established in Africans. We assessed the ability of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c and fructosamine, to diagnose OGTT-based abnormal glucose tolerance in mixed-ancestry South Africans. Mixed-ancestry adults, residing in Cape Town were examined between February and November 2015. OGTT values were used to classify glucose tolerance status as: screen-detected diabetes, prediabetes, dysglycaemia (combination of diabetes and prediabetes) and normal glucose tolerance. Of the 793 participants included, 65 (8.2%) had screen-detected diabetes, 157 (19.8%) prediabetes and 571 (72.0%) normal glucose tolerance. Correlations of FPG and 2-h glucose with HbA1c (r=0.51 and 0.52) were higher than those with fructosamine (0.34 and 0.30), both p<0.0001. The highest c-statistic for the prediction of abnormal glucose tolerance was recorded with 2-h glucose [c-statistic=0.997 (screen-detected diabetes), 0.979 (prediabetes) and 0.984 (dysglycaemia)] and the lowest with fructosamine (0.865, 0.596 and 0.677). At recommended or data-specific optimal cut-offs, no combination of FPG, HbA1c and fructosamine did better than 2-h glucose, while FPG was better than HbA1c and fructosamine on a range of performance measures. Abnormal glucose tolerance in this population is overwhelmingly expressed through 2-h glucose's abnormalities; and no combination of FPG, HbA1c and fructosamine was effective at accurately discriminating OGTT-defined abnormal glucose tolerance. Tested non-glucose based strategies are unreliable alternatives to OGTT for dysglycaemia diagnosis in this population. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Amniotic fluid-AFP in Down syndrome and other chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Crandall, B F; Matsumoto, M; Perdue, S

    1988-05-01

    80.2 Per cent of 111 Down syndrome pregnancies had anmiotic fluid (AF) alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels on or below the median and 10.8 per cent at or below 0.5 MoM compared with 41.9 and 1.4 per cent of controls. These differences were even more striking when the gestational age was less than 18 weeks compared with greater than or equal to 18 weeks. No such association was seen for other chromosome abnormalities including trisomy 18,45,X and mosaics, 47,XXY,47,XXX, and other structural abnormalities and triploidy, even when high levels due to defects such as omphalocele and cystic hygroma were excluded. All cases of trisomy 13 and 80 per cent with 47,XYY had AF-AFP levels above the median. Selection of cases for karyotyping by a low level of AF-AFP would clearly fail to detect aneuploidies other than Down syndrome and is not recommended. A possible weak association between low maternal serum (MS) and AF-AFPs in Down syndrome was most evident at less than 18 weeks, suggesting that MS screening between 16 and 18 weeks may be the most informative time.

  17. Does fluid resuscitation with balanced solutions induce electrolyte and metabolic abnormalities? An in vitro assessment.

    PubMed

    Krzych, Łukasz J; Czempik, Piotr F

    2017-01-01

    Popular intravenous fluids in clinical use may have an impact on electrolyte concentration and metabolic balance and should be considered as powerful pharmacological agents. There is a growing body of evidence that fluid therapy should be more individualised and preferably based on balanced solutions. We sought to investigate the impact of three commonly used balanced fluids on electrolytes and metabolic equilibrium in an in vitro setting. Study group comprised 32 healthy male volunteers (without history of any acute/chronic disorder or known metabolic abnormality), aged 21-35 (29 ± 4) years, weight 59-103 (81.2 ± 9.8) kg, from whom blood samples were withdrawn. The whole blood was diluted in 4:1 ratio with the study solutions to make an end-concentration of 20 vol.% of each solution. The test solutions included balanced crystalloid (Plasmalyte®, Baxter, Poland [PL]), succinylated gelatin (Geloplasma®, Fresenius Kabi, Poland [GEL]) and 6% HES 130/0.4 (Volulyte®, Fresenius Kabi, Poland [HES]). All fluids caused comparable degree of haemodilution. PL and GEL decreased (104 mmol/L, interquartile range [IQR] 103-105; and 106 mmol/L, IQR 105-107.5, respectively), whereas HES increased the concentration of Cl- to 109 (IQR 108-110) mmol/L. PL and HES decreased (136, IQR 136-137 mmol/L; and 138 mmol/L, IQR 137-139, respectively), whereas GEL increased the Na+ level to 140.5 (IQR 140-141) mmol/L. PL and HES decreased osmolality (277.2 mOsm/kg, IQR 275.7-278.4; and 280.9 mOsm/kg, IQR 279.3-282.0, respectively). GEL increased it to 285.7 (IQR 283.7-286.8) mOsm/kg. All test solutions caused a similar statistically significant (p < 0.05) drop in base excess and bicarbonate concentration, and these fell outside the reference values. Due to its composition, GEL caused a significant increase in lactate concentration. HES and GEL caused a statistically significant drop in strong ion difference value. Due to high lactate level, the effect of GEL was most pronounced. Balanced

  18. Clinically severe Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis with mild cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities in an immunocompetent adolescent: a case report.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Ilka; Nasser, Hala; Belmiloudi, Soufien; Le Guern, Rémi; Dewilde, Anny; Vallée, Louis; Hober, Didier

    2013-06-01

    A 15-year-old boy developed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis, a rare complication of infectious mononucleosis. The severe clinical picture and the marked neuroimaging changes were in contrast with mild cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities: leukocyte count was normal and protein level was only slightly elevated. EBV DNA was detected in cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of abnormalities of glucose homeostasis on the expression and binding of muscarinic receptors in cerebral cortex of rats.

    PubMed

    Sherin, Antony; Peeyush, Kumar T; Naijil, George; Nandhu, Mohan Sobhana; Jayanarayanan, Sadanandan; Jes, Paul; Paulose, Cheramadathikudiyil Skaria

    2011-01-25

    Glucose homeostasis in humans is an important factor for the functioning of nervous system. Both hypo and hyperglycemia contributes to neuronal functional deficit. In the present study, effect of insulin induced hypoglycemia and streptozotocin induced diabetes on muscarinic receptor binding, cholinergic enzymes; AChE, ChAT expression and GLUT3 in the cerebral cortex of experimental rats were analysed. Total muscarinic, muscarinic M(1) receptor showed a significant decrease and muscarinic M(3) receptor subtype showed a significant increased binding in the cerebral cortex of hypoglycemic rats compared to diabetic and control. Real-Time PCR analysis of muscarinic M(1), M(3) receptor subtypes confirmed the receptor binding studies. Immunohistochemistry of muscarinic M(1), M(3) receptors using specific antibodies were also carried out. AChE and GLUT3 expression up regulated and ChAT expression down regulated in hypoglycemic rats compared to diabetic and control rats. Our results showed that hypo/hyperglycemia caused impaired glucose transport in neuronal cells as shown by altered expression of GLUT3. Increased AChE and decreased ChAT expression is suggested to alter cortical acetylcholine metabolism in experimental rats along with altered muscarinic receptor binding in hypo/hyperglycemic rats, impair cholinergic transmission, which subsequently lead to cholinergic dysfunction thereby causing learning and memory deficits. We observed a prominent cholinergic functional disturbance in hypoglycemic condition than in hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia exacerbated the neurochemical changes in cerebral cortex induced by hyperglycemia. These findings have implications for both therapy and identification of causes contributing to neuronal dysfunction in diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reevaluation of the non-lesional dry skin in atopic dermatitis by acute barrier disruption: an abnormal permeability barrier homeostasis with defective processing to generate ceramide.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Ayumi; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Atsuko; Imokawa, Genji

    2014-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis is characterized by disruption of the cutaneous barrier due to reduced ceramide levels even in non-lesional dry skin. Following further acute barrier disruption by repeated tape strippings, we re-characterized the non-lesional dry skin of subjects with atopic dermatitis, which shows significantly reduced levels of barrier function and ceramide but not of beta-glucocerebrosidase activity. For the first time, we report an abnormal trans-epidermal water loss homeostasis in which delayed recovery kinetics of trans-epidermal water loss occurred on the first day during the 4 days after acute barrier disruption compared with healthy control skin. Interestingly, whereas the higher ceramide level in the stratum corneum of healthy control skin was further significantly up-regulated at 4 days post-tape stripping, the lower ceramide level in the stratum corneum of subjects with atopic dermatitis was not significantly changed. In a parallel study, whereas beta-glucocerebrosidase activity at 4 days post-tape stripping was significantly up-regulated in healthy control skin compared with before tape stripping, the level of that activity remained substantially unchanged in atopic dermatitis. These findings indicate that subjects with atopic dermatitis have a defect in sphingolipid-metabolic processing that generates ceramide in the interface between the stratum corneum and the epidermis. The results also support the notion that the continued disruption of barrier function in atopic dermatitis non-lesional skin is associated with the impaired homeostasis of a ceramide-generating process, which underscores an atopy-specific inflammation-triggered ceramide deficiency that is distinct from other types of dermatitis.

  1. Research into the Physiology of Cerebrospinal Fluid Reaches a New Horizon: Intimate Exchange between Cerebrospinal Fluid and Interstitial Fluid May Contribute to Maintenance of Homeostasis in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    MATSUMAE, Mitsunori; SATO, Osamu; HIRAYAMA, Akihiro; HAYASHI, Naokazu; TAKIZAWA, Ken; ATSUMI, Hideki; SORIMACHI, Takatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis of the central nervous system. The functions of CSF include: (1) buoyancy of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; (2) volume adjustment in the cranial cavity; (3) nutrient transport; (4) protein or peptide transport; (5) brain volume regulation through osmoregulation; (6) buffering effect against external forces; (7) signal transduction; (8) drug transport; (9) immune system control; (10) elimination of metabolites and unnecessary substances; and finally (11) cooling of heat generated by neural activity. For CSF to fully mediate these functions, fluid-like movement in the ventricles and subarachnoid space is necessary. Furthermore, the relationship between the behaviors of CSF and interstitial fluid in the brain and spinal cord is important. In this review, we will present classical studies on CSF circulation from its discovery over 2,000 years ago, and will subsequently introduce functions that were recently discovered such as CSF production and absorption, water molecule movement in the interstitial space, exchange between interstitial fluid and CSF, and drainage of CSF and interstitial fluid into both the venous and the lymphatic systems. Finally, we will summarize future challenges in research. This review includes articles published up to February 2016. PMID:27245177

  2. Extrastriatal dopaminergic abnormalities of DA homeostasis in Parkinson’s patients with medication-induced pathological gambling: A [11C] FLB-457 and PET study

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Nicola J.; Miyasaki, Janis M.; Zurowski, Mateusz; Ko, Ji Hyun; Cho, Sang Soo; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Antonelli, Francesca; Houle, Sylvain; Lang, Anthony E.; Strafella, Antonio P.

    2012-01-01

    Impulse control disorders such as pathological gambling (PG) are a serious and common adverse effect of dopamine (DA) replacement medication in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Patients with PG have increased impulsivity and abnormalities in striatal DA, in common with behavioural and substance addictions in the non-PD population. To date, no studies have investigated the role of extrastriatal dopaminergic abnormalities in PD patients with PG. We used the PET radiotracer, [11C] FLB-457, with high-affinity for extrastriatal DA D2/3 receptors. 14 PD patients on DA agonists were imaged while they performed a gambling task involving real monetary reward and a control task. Trait impulsivity was measured with the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Seven of the patients had a history of PG that developed subsequent to DA agonist medication. Change in [11C] FLB-457 binding potential (BP) during gambling was reduced in PD with PG patients in the midbrain, where D2/D3 receptors are dominated by autoreceptors. The degree of change in [11C] FLB-457 binding in this region correlated with impulsivity. In the cortex, [11C] FLB-457 BP was significantly greater in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in PD patients with PG during the control task, and binding in this region was also correlated with impulsivity. Our findings provide the first evidence that PD patients with PG have dysfunctional activation of DA autoreceptors in the midbrain and low DA tone in the ACC. Thus, altered striatal and cortical DA homeostasis may incur vulnerability for the development of PG in PD, linked with the impulsive personality trait. PMID:22766031

  3. Fluid shear stress as a regulator of gene expression in vascular cells: possible correlations with diabetic abnormalities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadaki, M.; Eskin, S. G.; Ruef, J.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    1999-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased frequency, severity and more rapid progression of cardiovascular diseases. Metabolic perturbations from hyperglycemia result in disturbed endothelium-dependent relaxation, activation of coagulation pathways, depressed fibrinolysis, and other abnormalities in vascular homeostasis. Atherosclerosis is localized mainly at areas of geometric irregularity at which blood vessels branch, curve and change diameter, and where blood is subjected to sudden changes in velocity and/or direction of flow. Shear stress resulting from blood flow is a well known modulator of vascular cell function. This paper presents what is currently known regarding the molecular mechanisms responsible for signal transduction and gene regulation in vascular cells exposed to shear stress. Considering the importance of the hemodynamic environment of vascular cells might be vital to increasing our understanding of diabetes.

  4. The SH2B1 obesity locus and abnormal glucose homeostasis: lack of evidence for association from a meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry.

    PubMed

    Prudente, S; Copetti, M; Morini, E; Mendonca, C; Andreozzi, F; Chandalia, M; Baratta, R; Pellegrini, F; Mercuri, L; Bailetti, D; Abate, N; Frittitta, L; Sesti, G; Florez, J C; Doria, A; Trischitta, V

    2013-11-01

    The development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is influenced both by environmental and by genetic determinants. Obesity is an important risk factor for T2D, mostly mediated by obesity-related insulin resistance. Obesity and insulin resistance are also modulated by the genetic milieu; thus, genes affecting risk of obesity and insulin resistance might also modulate risk of T2D. Recently, 32 loci have been associated with body mass index (BMI) by genome-wide studies, including one locus on chromosome 16p11 containing the SH2B1 gene. Animal studies have suggested that SH2B1 is a physiological enhancer of the insulin receptor and humans with rare deletions or mutations at SH2B1 are obese with a disproportionately high insulin resistance. Thus, the role of SH2B1 in both obesity and insulin resistance makes it a strong candidate for T2D. However, published data on the role of SH2B1 variability on the risk for T2D are conflicting, ranging from no effect at all to a robust association. The SH2B1 tag SNP rs4788102 (SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism) was genotyped in 6978 individuals from six studies for abnormal glucose homeostasis (AGH), including impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or T2D, from the GENetics of Type 2 Diabetes in Italy and the United States (GENIUS T2D) consortium. Data from these studies were then meta-analyzed, in a Bayesian fashion, with those from DIAGRAM+ (n = 47,117) and four other published studies (n = 39,448). Variability at the SH2B1 obesity locus was not associated with AGH either in the GENIUS consortium (overall odds ratio (OR) = 0.96; 0.89-1.04) or in the meta-analysis (OR = 1.01; 0.98-1.05). Our data exclude a role for the SH2B1 obesity locus in the modulation of AGH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Abnormal Eu behavior at formation of H2O- and Cl-bearing fluids during degassing of granite magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukanin, Oleg

    2010-05-01

    One of the important features of REE behavior in the process of decompression degassing of granite melts is the presence of europium anomalies in REE spectrum of forming fluid phase. Negative Eu anomaly in REE spectrum of fluids enriched by chlorine that were formed under high pressures at early stages of degassing relative to REE spectrum of granite melts may take place. Negative Eu anomaly in fluid is replaced by positive one with pressure decrease and decline of Cl concentration in fluid [1, 2]. Observable unique features of europium redistribution between fluid and melt find an explanation in such a fact that Eu in contrast to the other REE under oxidation-reduction conditions, being typical for magmatic process, is present in acidic silica-alumina melts in two valency forms Eu3+ and Eu2+ whereas the dominant form for the other REE in such a melts is (REE)3+ [3, 4]. From the analysis of melt-fluid exchange reactions with participation of two valency forms of europium Eu3+ and Eu2+ follows that the total distribution coefficient of Eu between fluid and melt D(Eu)f-m is equal as a first approximation to [5, 6]: D(Eu)f-m = a1α [C(Cl)f]3 + a2 (1 - α)[C(Cl)f]2, where C(Cl)f - the concentration of Cl in fluid, α = Eu3+/(Eu3+ + Eu2+), i.e. fraction of Eu3+ from the general amount of europium in the melt, and, a1anda2- constants that can be approximately estimated from empirical data upon Eu fluid/melt distribution. The equation given allows to estimate the influence of oxidizing condition of europium on sign and size of Eu anomaly, which is expressed by Eu/Eu# ratio, where Eu is real concentration of europium in fluid being in equilibrium with melt with constant Eu3+/(Eu3+ + Eu2+) ratio, and Eu# is possible "virtual" concentration of europium that could be in the same fluid provided that all europium as other REE as well were exclusively present in trivalent form. The sign and size of Eu anomaly in fluid depends upon Cl concentration in fluid and Eu3+/Eu2+ ratio in

  6. Pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of fluid and electrolyte abnormalities during refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parli, Sara E; Ruf, Kathryn M; Magnuson, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome may occur after the reintroduction of carbohydrates in chronically malnourished or acutely hypermetabolic patients as a result of a rapid shift to glucose utilization as an energy source. Electrolyte abnormalities of phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium occur, leading to complications of various organ systems, and may result in death. Patients should be screened for risk factors of malnutrition to prevent refeeding syndrome. For those at risk, nutrition should be initiated and slowly advanced toward the patient's goal over several days. Electrolyte disturbances should be aggressively corrected.

  7. The Effects of High Level Magnesium Dialysis/Substitution Fluid on Magnesium Homeostasis under Regional Citrate Anticoagulation in Critically Ill

    PubMed Central

    Los, Ferdinand; Brodska, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Background The requirements for magnesium (Mg) supplementation increase under regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) because citrate acts by chelation of bivalent cations within the blood circuit. The level of magnesium in commercially available fluids for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) may not be sufficient to prevent hypomagnesemia. Methods Patients (n = 45) on CRRT (2,000 ml/h, blood flow (Qb) 100 ml/min) with RCA modality (4% trisodium citrate) using calcium free fluid with 0.75 mmol/l of Mg with additional magnesium substitution were observed after switch to the calcium-free fluid with magnesium concentration of 1.50 mmol/l (n = 42) and no extra magnesium replenishment. All patients had renal indications for CRRT, were treated with the same devices, filters and the same postfilter ionized calcium endpoint (<0.4 mmol/l) of prefilter citrate dosage. Under the high level Mg fluid the Qb, dosages of citrate and CRRT were consequently escalated in 9h steps to test various settings. Results Median balance of Mg was -0.91 (-1.18 to -0.53) mmol/h with Mg 0.75 mmol/l and 0.2 (0.06–0.35) mmol/h when fluid with Mg 1.50 mmol/l was used. It was close to zero (0.02 (-0.12–0.18) mmol/h) with higher blood flow and dosage of citrate, increased again to 0.15 (-0.11–0.25) mmol/h with 3,000 ml/h of high magnesium containing fluid (p<0.001). The arterial levels of Mg were mildly increased after the change for high level magnesium containing fluid (p<0.01). Conclusions Compared to ordinary dialysis fluid the mildly hypermagnesemic fluid provided even balances and adequate levels within ordinary configurations of CRRT with RCA and without a need for extra magnesium replenishment. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01361581 PMID:27391902

  8. Second-trimester IL-15 and IL-18 levels in the amniotic fluid of fetuses with normal karyotypes and with chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Klimkiewicz-Blok, Dominika; Florjański, Jerzy; Zalewski, Jerzy; Blok, Radosław

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the behavior of interleukin 15 (IL-15) and 18 (IL-18) in the amniotic fluid in the second trimester of gestations complicated by chromosomal defects in the fetus. Likewise, it has not yet been established whether a fetus with chromosome abnormalities creates its immunity mechanisms in the same way as a fetus with a normal karyotype. The aim of this work was to assess the concentration of IL-15 and IL-18 in the amniotic fluid in the second trimester of gestation in fetuses with normal karyotypes and with chromosome abnormalities. The material consisted of 51 samples of amniotic fluid obtained from genetic amniocenteses carried out between the 15th and the 19th weeks of gestation. On the basis of cytogenetic screening, two groups were singled out: Group I--45 fetuses with normal karyotypes, and Group II--6 fetuses with abnormal karyotypes. The concentrations of IL-15 and IL-18 in the amniotic fluid were assessed with ready-made assays and analyzed, and the results from both groups were compared. The differences between the IL-15 levels in the amniotic fluid from Groups I and II proved to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.054). However, the average IL-18 levels in the amniotic fluid of the fetuses with normal karyotypes were significantly higher than in the amniotic fluid of the fetuses with chromosome abnormalities (p = 0.032). Some defense mechanisms in the second trimester of gestation in fetuses with chromosome abnormalities may develop in a different way than in fetuses with normal karyotypes.

  9. 6-Mercaptopurine modifies cerebrospinal fluid T cell abnormalities in paediatric opsoclonus-myoclonus as steroid sparer.

    PubMed

    Pranzatelli, M R; Tate, E D; Allison, T J

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), a known immunosuppressant, to normalize cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocyte frequencies in opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) and function as a steroid sparer. CSF and blood lymphocytes were immunophenotyped in 11 children with OMS (without CSF B cell expansion) using a comprehensive panel of cell surface adhesion, activation and maturation markers by flow cytometry, and referenced to 18 paediatric controls. Drug metabolites, lymphocyte counts and liver function tests were used clinically to monitoring therapeutic range and toxicity. In CSF, adjunctive oral 6-MP was associated with a 21% increase in the low percentage of CD4 + T cells in OMS, restoring the CD4/CD8 ratio. The percentage of CD4 + T cells that were interferon (IFN)-γ + was reduced by 66%, shifting the cytokine balance away from T helper type 1 (Th1) (proinflammatory) predominance. The percentage of natural killer (NK) cells decreased significantly in CSF (-32%) and blood (-67 to -82%). Low blood absolute lymphocyte count was more predictive of improvement in CSF lymphocyte proportions (correlated with % CD4 + T cells) than the 6-thioguanine level (no correlation). 6-MP was difficult to titrate: 50% achieved the target absolute lymphocyte count (< 1·5 K/mm); 20%, the 'therapeutic' 6-thioguanine level; and 40% the non-toxic 6-methylmercaptopurine level. Side effects and transaminase elevation were mild and reversible. Clinical steroid-sparing properties and lowered relapse frequency were demonstrated. 6-MP displayed unique pharmacodynamic properties that may be useful in OMS and other autoimmune disorders. Its steroid sparer capacity is limited to children in whom the therapeutic window can be reached without limiting pharmacokinetic factors or side effects. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  10. Impaired embryonic development in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans due to abnormal redox homeostasis induced activation of calcium-independent phospholipase and alteration of glycerophospholipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Yang, Hung-Chi; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Ou, Meng-Hsin; Pan, Yi-Yun; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Stern, Arnold; Lo, Szecheng J; Chiu, Daniel Tsun-Yee

    2017-01-12

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a commonly pervasive inherited disease in many parts of the world. The complete lack of G6PD activity in a mouse model causes embryonic lethality. The G6PD-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans model also shows embryonic death as indicated by a severe hatching defect. Although increased oxidative stress has been implicated in both cases as the underlying cause, the exact mechanism has not been clearly delineated. In this study with C. elegans, membrane-associated defects, including enhanced permeability, defective polarity and cytokinesis, were found in G6PD-deficient embryos. The membrane-associated abnormalities were accompanied by impaired eggshell structure as evidenced by a transmission electron microscopic study. Such loss of membrane structural integrity was associated with abnormal lipid composition as lipidomic analysis revealed that lysoglycerophospholipids were significantly increased in G6PD-deficient embryos. Abnormal glycerophospholipid metabolism leading to defective embryonic development could be attributed to the increased activity of calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 (iPLA) in G6PD-deficient embryos. This notion is further supported by the fact that the suppression of multiple iPLAs by genetic manipulation partially rescued the embryonic defects in G6PD-deficient embryos. In addition, G6PD deficiency induced disruption of redox balance as manifested by diminished NADPH and elevated lipid peroxidation in embryos. Taken together, disrupted lipid metabolism due to abnormal redox homeostasis is a major factor contributing to abnormal embryonic development in G6PD-deficient C. elegans.

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging biomarker abnormalities suggest early neurological injury in a subset of individuals during primary HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Michael J; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Price, Richard W; Peterson, Julia; Lee, Evelyn; Young, Andrew C; Walter, Rudy; Fuchs, Dietmar; Brew, Bruce J; Cinque, Paola; Robertson, Kevin; Hagberg, Lars; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gisslén, Magnus; Spudich, Serena

    2013-06-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging abnormalities demonstrate neuronal injury during chronic AIDS, but data on these biomarkers during primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is limited. We compared CSF concentrations of neurofilament light chain, t-tau, p-tau, amyloid precursor proteins, and amyloid-beta 42 in 92 subjects with primary HIV infection and 25 controls. We examined relationships with disease progression and neuroinflammation, neuropsychological testing, and proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-based metabolites. Neurofilament light chain was elevated in primary HIV infection compared with controls (P = .0004) and correlated with CSF neopterin (r = 0.38; P = .0005), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (r = 0.39; P = .002), white blood cells (r = 0.32; P = .004), protein (r = 0.59; P < .0001), and CSF/plasma albumin ratio (r = 0.60; P < .0001). Neurofilament light chain correlated with decreased N-acteylaspartate/creatine and glutamate/creatine in the anterior cingulate (r = -0.35, P = .02; r = -0.40, P = .009, respectively), frontal white matter (r = -0.43, P = .003; r = -0.30, P = .048, respectively), and parietal gray matter (r = -0.43, P = .003; r = -0.47, P = .001, respectively). Beta-amyloid was elevated in the primary infection group (P = .0005) and correlated with time infected (r = 0.34; P = .003). Neither marker correlated with neuropsychological abnormalities. T-tau and soluble amyloid precursor proteins did not differ between groups. Elevated neurofilament light chain and its correlation with MRS-based metabolites suggest early neuronal injury in a subset of participants with primary HIV infection through mechanisms involving central nervous system inflammation.

  12. Cerebrospinal Fluid and Neuroimaging Biomarker Abnormalities Suggest Early Neurological Injury in a Subset of Individuals During Primary HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Peluso, Michael J.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Price, Richard W.; Peterson, Julia; Lee, Evelyn; Young, Andrew C.; Walter, Rudy; Fuchs, Dietmar; Brew, Bruce J.; Cinque, Paola; Robertson, Kevin; Hagberg, Lars; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gisslén, Magnus; Spudich, Serena

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging abnormalities demonstrate neuronal injury during chronic AIDS, but data on these biomarkers during primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is limited. Methods. We compared CSF concentrations of neurofilament light chain, t-tau, p-tau, amyloid precursor proteins, and amyloid-beta 42 in 92 subjects with primary HIV infection and 25 controls. We examined relationships with disease progression and neuroinflammation, neuropsychological testing, and proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)–based metabolites. Results. Neurofilament light chain was elevated in primary HIV infection compared with controls (P = .0004) and correlated with CSF neopterin (r = 0.38; P = .0005), interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (r = 0.39; P = .002), white blood cells (r = 0.32; P = .004), protein (r = 0.59; P < .0001), and CSF/plasma albumin ratio (r = 0.60; P < .0001). Neurofilament light chain correlated with decreased N-acteylaspartate/creatine and glutamate/creatine in the anterior cingulate (r = −0.35, P = .02; r = −0.40, P = .009, respectively), frontal white matter (r = −0.43, P = .003; r = −0.30, P = .048, respectively), and parietal gray matter (r = −0.43, P = .003; r = −0.47, P = .001, respectively). Beta-amyloid was elevated in the primary infection group (P = .0005) and correlated with time infected (r = 0.34; P = .003). Neither marker correlated with neuropsychological abnormalities. T-tau and soluble amyloid precursor proteins did not differ between groups. Conclusions. Elevated neurofilament light chain and its correlation with MRS-based metabolites suggest early neuronal injury in a subset of participants with primary HIV infection through mechanisms involving central nervous system inflammation. PMID:23460748

  13. A New Methodology of Viewing Extra-Axial Fluid and Cortical Abnormalities in Children with Autism via Transcranial Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Bradstreet, James Jeffrey; Pacini, Stefania; Ruggiero, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are developmental conditions of uncertain etiology which have now affected more than 1% of the school-age population of children in many developed nations. Transcranial ultrasonography (TUS) via the temporal bone appeared to be a potential window of investigation to determine the presence of both cortical abnormalities and increased extra-axial fluid (EAF). Methods: TUS was accomplished using a linear probe (10–5 MHz). Parents volunteered ASD subjects (N = 23; males 18, females 5) for evaluations (mean = 7.46 years ± 3.97 years), and 15 neurotypical siblings were also examined (mean = 7.15 years ± 4.49 years). Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS2®) scores were obtained and the ASD score mean was 48.08 + 6.79 (Severe). Results: Comparisons of the extra-axial spaces indicated increases in the ASD subjects. For EAF we scored based on the gyral summit distances between the arachnoid membrane and the cortical pia layer (subarachnoid space): (1) <0.05 cm, (2) 0.05–0.07 cm, (3) 0.08–0.10 cm, (4) >0.10 cm. All of the neurotypical siblings scored 1, whereas the ASD mean score was 3.41 ± 0.67. We also defined cortical dysplasia as the following: hypoechoic lesions within the substance of the cortex, or disturbed layering within the gray matter. For cortical dysplasia we scored: (1) none observed, (2) rare hypoechogenic lesions and/or mildly atypical cortical layering patterns, (3) more common, but separated areas of cortical hypoechogenic lesions, (4) very common or confluent areas of cortical hypoechogenicity. Again all of the neurotypical siblings scored 1, while the ASD subjects’ mean score was 2.79 ± 0.93. Conclusion: TUS may be a useful screening technique for children at potential risk of ASDs which, if confirmed with repeated studies and high resolution MRI, provides rapid, non-invasive qualification of EAF, and cortical lesions. PMID:24459462

  14. Resveratrol Ameliorates Abnormalities of Fluid and Electrolyte Secretion in a Hypoxia-Induced Model of Acquired CFTR Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, Bradford A.

    2015-01-01

    OCT). Results Hypoxia significantly decreased ΔISC (in μA/cm2) attributable to CFTR at 12 and 24 hours of exposure in both MNSE [13.55+/− 0.46 (12 hours);12.75+/−0.07(24 hours) vs. 19.23+/−0.18(control);p<0.05] and HSNE [19.55+/−0.56(12 hours);17.67+/− 1.13(24 hours) vs. 25.49+/−1.48(control);p<0.05]. We have shown that resveratrol (100μM) enhanced CFTR-dependent Cl− secretion in HSNE to an extent comparable to the recently FDA-approved CFTR potentiator, ivacaftor. Cl− transport across human sinonasal explants [78.42+/−1.75 vs. 1.75+/−1.5(control);p<0.05] and in vivo murine nasal epithelium [−4+/−1.8 vs. −0.8+/−1.7 mV(control);p<0.05] was also significantly increased by the drug. No increase in cellular cAMP or CFTR R-domain phosphorylation was detected. Inside out patches showed increased CFTR open probability [(NPo/N(N=channel number)] compared to controls in both MNSE [(0.329+/−0.116 vs. 0.119+/−0.059(control);p<0.05)] and HEK293 cells [(0.22+/−0.048 vs. 0.125+/−0.07(control);p<0.05). ASL thickness was decreased under hypoxic conditions when measured by CLSM [4.19+/−0.44 vs. 6.88+/−0.67(control);p<0.05]. A 30 minute apical application of resveratrol increased ASL depth in normal epithelium [8.08+/−1.68 vs. 6.11+/−0.47(control);p<0.05]. Furthermore, hypoxia-induced abnormalities of fluid and electrolyte secretion in sinonasal epithelium were restored with resveratrol treatment [5.55+/−0.74 vs. 3.13+/−0.17(control);p<0.05]. Conclusions CFTR activation with a leading edge Cl− secretagogue such as resveratrol represents an innovative approach to overcoming acquired CFTR defects in sinus and nasal airway disease. This exciting new strategy bears further testing in non-CF individuals with CRS. PMID:25946147

  15. Osmotic Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Zeidel, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in water homeostasis can disturb cell size and function. Although most cells can internally regulate cell volume in response to osmolar stress, neurons are particularly at risk given a combination of complex cell function and space restriction within the calvarium. Thus, regulating water balance is fundamental to survival. Through specialized neuronal “osmoreceptors” that sense changes in plasma osmolality, vasopressin release and thirst are titrated in order to achieve water balance. Fine-tuning of water absorption occurs along the collecting duct, and depends on unique structural modifications of renal tubular epithelium that confer a wide range of water permeability. In this article, we review the mechanisms that ensure water homeostasis as well as the fundamentals of disorders of water balance. PMID:25078421

  16. Texture Analysis of T1-Weighted and Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images Detects Abnormalities That Correlate With Cognitive Decline in Small Vessel Disease.

    PubMed

    Tozer, Daniel J; Zeestraten, Eva; Lawrence, Andrew J; Barrick, Thomas R; Markus, Hugh S

    2018-06-04

    Magnetic resonance imaging may be useful to assess disease severity in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), identify those individuals who are most likely to progress to dementia, monitor disease progression, and act as surrogate markers to test new therapies. Texture analysis extracts information on the relationship between signal intensities of neighboring voxels. A potential advantage over techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging, is that it can be used on clinically obtained magnetic resonance sequences. We determined whether texture parameters (TP) were abnormal in SVD, correlated with cognitive impairment, predicted cognitive decline, or conversion to dementia. In the prospective SCANS study (St George's Cognition and Neuroimaging in Stroke), we assessed TP in 121 individuals with symptomatic SVD at baseline, 99 of whom attended annual cognitive testing for 5 years. Conversion to dementia was recorded for all subjects during the 5-year period. Texture analysis was performed on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted images. The TP obtained from the SVD cohort were cross-sectionally compared with 54 age-matched controls scanned on the same magnetic resonance imaging system. There were highly significant differences in several TP between SVD cases and controls. Within the SVD population, TP were highly correlated to other magnetic resonance imaging parameters (brain volume, white matter lesion volume, lacune count). TP correlated with executive function and global function at baseline and predicted conversion to dementia, after controlling for age, sex, premorbid intelligence quotient, and magnetic resonance parameters. TP, which can be obtained from routine clinical images, are abnormal in SVD, and the degree of abnormality correlates with executive dysfunction and global cognition at baseline and decline during 5 years. TP may be useful to assess disease severity in clinically collected data. This needs testing in data clinically acquired

  17. Mechanisms of mammalian iron homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pantopoulos, Kostas; Porwal, Suheel Kumar; Tartakoff, Alan; Devireddy, L.

    2012-01-01

    Iron is vital for almost all organisms because of its ability to donate and accept electrons with relative ease. It serves as a cofactor for many proteins and enzymes necessary for oxygen and energy metabolism, as well as for several other essential processes. Mammalian cells utilize multiple mechanisms to acquire iron. Disruption of iron homeostasis is associated with various human diseases: iron deficiency resulting from defects in acquisition or distribution of the metal causes anemia; whereas iron surfeit resulting from excessive iron absorption or defective utilization causes abnormal tissue iron deposition, leading to oxidative damage. Mammals utilize distinct mechanisms to regulate iron homeostasis at the systemic and cellular levels. These involve the hormone hepcidin and iron regulatory proteins, which collectively ensure iron balance. This review outlines recent advances in iron regulatory pathways, as well as in mechanisms underlying intracellular iron trafficking, an important but less-studied area of mammalian iron homeostasis. PMID:22703180

  18. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  19. Abnormality in glutamine-glutamate cycle in the cerebrospinal fluid of cognitively intact elderly individuals with major depressive disorder: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, K; Bruno, D; Nierenberg, J; Marmar, C R; Zetterberg, H; Blennow, K; Pomara, N

    2016-03-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), common in the elderly, is a risk factor for dementia. Abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission via the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) have a key role in the pathophysiology of depression. This study examined whether depression was associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of NMDA-R neurotransmission-associated amino acids in cognitively intact elderly individuals with MDD and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. CSF was obtained from 47 volunteers (MDD group, N=28; age- and gender-matched comparison group, N=19) at baseline and 3-year follow-up (MDD group, N=19; comparison group, N=17). CSF levels of glutamine, glutamate, glycine, L-serine and D-serine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. CSF levels of amino acids did not differ across MDD and comparison groups. However, the ratio of glutamine to glutamate was significantly higher at baseline in subjects with MDD than in controls. The ratio decreased in individuals with MDD over the 3-year follow-up, and this decrease correlated with a decrease in the severity of depression. No correlations between absolute amino-acid levels and clinical variables were observed, nor were correlations between amino acids and other biomarkers (for example, amyloid-β42, amyloid-β40, and total and phosphorylated tau protein) detected. These results suggest that abnormalities in the glutamine-glutamate cycle in the communication between glia and neurons may have a role in the pathophysiology of depression in the elderly. Furthermore, the glutamine/glutamate ratio in CSF may be a state biomarker for depression.

  20. Abnormal placentation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Samuel T; Bonanno, Clarissa

    2009-04-01

    Abnormal placentation poses a diagnostic and treatment challenge for all providers caring for pregnant women. As one of the leading causes of postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation involves the attachment of placental villi directly to the myometrium with potentially deeper invasion into the uterine wall or surrounding organs. Surgical procedures that disrupt the integrity of uterus, including cesarean section, dilatation and curettage, and myomectomy, have been implicated as key risk factors for placenta accreta. The diagnosis is typically made by gray-scale ultrasound and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, which may better delineate the extent of placental invasion. It is critical to make the diagnosis before delivery because preoperative planning can significantly decrease blood loss and avoid substantial morbidity associated with placenta accreta. Aggressive management of hemorrhage through the use of uterotonics, fluid resuscitation, blood products, planned hysterectomy, and surgical hemostatic agents can be life-saving for these patients. Conservative management, including the use of uterine and placental preservation and subsequent methotrexate therapy or pelvic artery embolization, may be considered when a focal accreta is suspected; however, surgical management remains the current standard of care.

  1. Ecrg4 expression and its product augurin in the choroid plexus: impact on fetal brain development, cerebrospinal fluid homeostasis and neuroprogenitor cell response to CNS injury

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The content and composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is determined in large part by the choroid plexus (CP) and specifically, a specialized epithelial cell (CPe) layer that responds to, synthesizes, and transports peptide hormones into and out of CSF. Together with ventricular ependymal cells, these CPe relay homeostatic signals throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and regulate CSF hydrodynamics. One new candidate signal is augurin, a newly recognized 14 kDa protein that is encoded by esophageal cancer related gene-4 (Ecrg4), a putative tumor suppressor gene whose presence and function in normal tissues remains unexplored and enigmatic. The aim of this study was to explore whether Ecrg4 and its product augurin, can be implicated in CNS development and the response to CNS injury. Methods Ecrg4 gene expression in CNS and peripheral tissues was studied by in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR. Augurin, the protein encoded by Ecrg4, was detected by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The biological consequence of augurin over-expression was studied in a cortical stab model of rat CNS injury by intra-cerebro-ventricular injection of an adenovirus vector containing the Ecrg4 cDNA. The biological consequences of reduced augurin expression were evaluated by characterizing the CNS phenotype caused by Ecrg4 gene knockdown in developing zebrafish embryos. Results Gene expression and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that, the CP is a major source of Ecrg4 in the CNS and that Ecrg4 mRNA is predominantly localized to choroid plexus epithelial (CPe), ventricular and central canal cells of the spinal cord. After a stab injury into the brain however, both augurin staining and Ecrg4 gene expression decreased precipitously. If the loss of augurin was circumvented by over-expressing Ecrg4 in vivo, BrdU incorporation by cells in the subependymal zone decreased. Inversely, gene knockdown of Ecrg4 in developing zebrafish embryos caused

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of western blot testing of cerebrospinal fluid and serum for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses with and without neurologic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Daft, Barbara M; Barr, Bradd C; Gardner, Ian A; Read, Deryck; Bell, William; Peyser, Karen G; Ardans, Alex; Kinde, Hailu; Morrow, Jennifer K

    2002-10-01

    To determine sensitivity and specificity of western blot testing (WBT) of CSF and serum for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses with and without neurologic abnormalities. Prospective investigation. 65 horses with and 169 horses without neurologic abnormalities. CSF and serum from horses submitted for necropsy were tested for Sarcocystis neurona-specific antibody with a WBT. Results of postmortem examination were used as the gold standard against which results of the WBT were compared. Sensitivity of WBT of CSF was 87% for horses with and 88% for horses without neurologic abnormalities. Specificity of WBT of CSF was 44% for horses with and 60% for horses without neurologic abnormalities. Regardless of whether horses did or did not have neurologic abnormalities, sensitivity and specificity of WBT of serum were not significantly different from values for WBT of CSF. Ninety-four horses without EPM had histologic evidence of slight CNS inflammation. The low specificity of WBT of CSF indicated that it is inappropriate to diagnose EPM on the basis of a positive test result alone because of the possibility of false-positive test results. The high sensitivity, however, means that a negative result is useful in ruling out EPM. There was no advantage in testing CSF versus serum in horses without neurologic abnormalities. Slight CNS inflammation was common in horses with and without S neurona-specific antibodies in the CSF and should not be considered an indication of CNS infection with S neurona.

  3. [Kidney, Fluid, and Acid-Base Balance].

    PubMed

    Shioji, Naohiro; Hayashi, Masao; Morimatsu, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Kidneys play an important role to maintain human homeostasis. They contribute to maintain body fluid, electrolytes, and acid-base balance. Especially in fluid control, we, physicians can intervene body fluid balance using fluid resuscitation and diuretics. In recent years, one type of fluid resuscitation, hydroxyl ethyl starch has been extensively studied in the field of intensive care. Although their effects on fluid resuscitation are reasonable, serious complications such as kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy occur frequently. Now we have to pay more attention to this important complication. Another topic of fluid management is tolvaptan, a selective vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist Recent randomized trial suggested that tolvaptan has a similar supportive effect for fluid control and more cost effective compared to carperitide. In recent years, Stewart approach is recognized as one important tool to assess acid-base balance in critically ill patients. This approach has great value, especially to understand metabolic components in acid-base balance. Even for assessing the effects of kidneys on acid-base balance, this approach gives us interesting insight. We should appropriately use this new approach to treat acid-base abnormality in critically ill patients.

  4. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Pleural fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of pleural fluid ... mixing it with a violet stain (called a Gram stain). A laboratory specialist uses a microscope to ... reveals an abnormal collection of pleural fluid. The Gram stain can help identify the bacteria that might ...

  6. Oxygen Sensing and Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Semenza, Gregg L.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of carotid bodies as sensory receptors for detecting arterial blood oxygen levels, and the identification and elucidation of the roles of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) in oxygen homeostasis have propelled the field of oxygen biology. This review highlights the gas-messenger signaling mechanisms associated with oxygen sensing, as well as transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms underlying the maintenance of oxygen homeostasis by HIFs and their relevance to physiology and pathology. PMID:26328879

  7. Homeostasis, singularities, and networks.

    PubMed

    Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Homeostasis occurs in a biological or chemical system when some output variable remains approximately constant as an input parameter [Formula: see text] varies over some interval. We discuss two main aspects of homeostasis, both related to the effect of coordinate changes on the input-output map. The first is a reformulation of homeostasis in the context of singularity theory, achieved by replacing 'approximately constant over an interval' by 'zero derivative of the output with respect to the input at a point'. Unfolding theory then classifies all small perturbations of the input-output function. In particular, the 'chair' singularity, which is especially important in applications, is discussed in detail. Its normal form and universal unfolding [Formula: see text] is derived and the region of approximate homeostasis is deduced. The results are motivated by data on thermoregulation in two species of opossum and the spiny rat. We give a formula for finding chair points in mathematical models by implicit differentiation and apply it to a model of lateral inhibition. The second asks when homeostasis is invariant under appropriate coordinate changes. This is false in general, but for network dynamics there is a natural class of coordinate changes: those that preserve the network structure. We characterize those nodes of a given network for which homeostasis is invariant under such changes. This characterization is determined combinatorially by the network topology.

  8. Abnormal organic-matter maturation in the Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea: Implications for hydrocarbon expulsion and fluid migration from overpressured systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hao, F.; Li, S.; Dong, W.; Hu, Z.; Huang, B.

    1998-01-01

    Three superimposed pressure systems are present in the Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea. A number of commercial, thermogenic gas accumulations have been found in an area in which shale diapirs occur. Because the reservoir intervals are shallow and very young, they must have filled with gas rapidly. The thick (up to 17 km) Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary succession is dominated by shales, and is not disrupted by major faulting in the study area, a factor which seems to have had an important effect on both hydrocarbon generation and fluid migration. Organic-matter maturation in the deepest, most overpressured compartment has been significantly retarded as a result of the combined effects of excess pressure, the presence of large volumes of water, and the retention of generated hydrocarbons. This retardation is indicated by both kerogen-related parameters (vitrinite reflectance and Rock-Eval T(max)); and also by parameters based on the analysis of soluble organic matter (such as the C15+ hydrocarbon content, and the concentration of isoprenoid hydrocarbons relative to adjacent normal alkanes). In contrast to this, organic-matter maturation in shallow, normally-pressured strata in the diapiric area has been enhanced by hydrothermal fluid flow, which is clearly not topography-driven in origin. As a result, the hydrocarbon generation 'window' in the basin is considerably wider than could be expected from traditional geochemical modelling. These two unusual and contrasting anomalies in organic-matter maturation, together with other lines of evidence, suggest that there was a closed fluid system in the overpressured compartment until shale diapirs developed. The diapirs developed as a result of the intense overpressuring, and their growth was triggered by regional extensional stresses. They served as conduits through which fluids (both water and hydrocarbons) retained in the closed system could rapidly migrate. Fluid migration led to the modification of the thermal

  9. Abnormal protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with a submicroscopic X-chromosomal deletion associated with Norrie disease: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Joy, J E; Poglod, R; Murphy, D L; Sims, K B; de la Chapelle, A; Sankila, E M; Norio, R; Merril, C R

    1991-01-01

    Norrie disease is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by congenital blindness and, in many cases, mental retardation. Some Norrie disease cases have been shown to be associated with a submicroscopic deletion in chromosomal region Xp11.3. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected from four male patients with an X-chromosomal deletion associated with Norrie disease. CSF proteins were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and then analyzed by computer using the Elsie V program. Our analysis revealed a protein that appears to be altered in patients with Norrie disease deletion.

  10. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  11. Serum and Glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1 in Sodium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yiyun; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Yuqin; Wang, Liya; Huang, Shisi; Jin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) is tightly regulated by osmotic and hormonal signals, including glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Recently, SGK1 has been implicated as a signal hub for the regulation of sodium transport. SGK1 modulates the activities of multiple ion channels and carriers, such as epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.5), sodium hydrogen exchangers 1 and 3 (NHE1 and NHE3), sodium-chloride symporter (NCC), and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (NKCC2); as well as the sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase) and type A natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR-A). Accordingly, SGK1 is implicated in the physiology and pathophysiology of Na+ homeostasis. Here, we focus particularly on recent findings of SGK1’s involvement in Na+ transport in renal sodium reabsorption, hormone-stimulated salt appetite and fluid balance and discuss the abnormal SGK1-mediated Na+ reabsorption in hypertension, heart disease, edema with diabetes, and embryo implantation failure. PMID:27517916

  12. Cellular Homeostasis and Aging.

    PubMed

    Hartl, F Ulrich

    2016-06-02

    Aging and longevity are controlled by a multiplicity of molecular and cellular signaling events that interface with environmental factors to maintain cellular homeostasis. Modulation of these pathways to extend life span, including insulin-like signaling and the response to dietary restriction, identified the cellular machineries and networks of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) and stress resistance pathways as critical players in the aging process. A decline of proteostasis capacity during aging leads to dysfunction of specific cell types and tissues, rendering the organism susceptible to a range of chronic diseases. This volume of the Annual Review of Biochemistry contains a set of two reviews addressing our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying aging in model organisms and humans.

  13. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  14. CFTR and lung homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Matalon, Sadis

    2014-01-01

    CFTR is a cAMP-activated chloride and bicarbonate channel that is critical for lung homeostasis. Decreases in CFTR expression have dire consequences in cystic fibrosis (CF) and have been suggested to be a component of the lung pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Decreases or loss of channel function often lead to mucus stasis, chronic bacterial infections, and the accompanying chronic inflammatory responses that promote progressive lung destruction, and, eventually in CF, lung failure. Here we discuss CFTR's functional role airway surface liquid hydration and pH, in regulation of other channels such as the epithelial sodium channel, and in regulating inflammatory responses in the lung. PMID:25381027

  15. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  16. Pain emotion and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Panerai, Alberto E

    2011-05-01

    Pain has always been considered as part of a defensive strategy, whose specific role is to signal an immediate, active danger. This definition partially fits acute pain, but certainly not chronic pain, that is maintained also in the absence of an active noxa or danger and that nowadays is considered a disease by itself. Moreover, acute pain is not only an automatic alerting system, but its severity and characteristics can change depending on the surrounding environment. The affective, emotional components of pain have been and are the object of extensive attention and research by psychologists, philosophers, physiologists and also pharmacologists. Pain itself can be considered to share the same genesis as emotions and as a specific emotion in contributing to the maintenance of the homeostasis of each unique subject. Interestingly, this role of pain reaches its maximal development in the human; some even argue that it is specific for the human primate.

  17. A Physiologist's View of Homeostasis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modell, Harold; Cliff, William; Michael, Joel; McFarland, Jenny; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Wright, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis is a core concept necessary for understanding the many regulatory mechanisms in physiology. Claude Bernard originally proposed the concept of the constancy of the "milieu interieur," but his discussion was rather abstract. Walter Cannon introduced the term "homeostasis" and expanded Bernard's notion of…

  18. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  20. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  1. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... up in the body. This is called fluid overload (volume overload). This can lead to edema (excess fluid in ... Water imbalance; Fluid imbalance - dehydration; Fluid buildup; Fluid overload; Volume overload; Loss of fluids; Edema - fluid imbalance; ...

  2. Concept analysis of family homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejung; Rose, Karen M

    2014-11-01

    To report a concept analysis of family homeostasis. As family members are a majority of informal caregivers, negative consequences from caregiving duty create a vicious cycle in the family unit resulting in ongoing health crises and care challenges. Concept analysis. Forty empirical studies published from 1956-2012 were selected by searching five electronic bibliographical databases and by a manual search conducted from 2012-2013. Search terms included 'family homeostasis', 'homeostasis in family', 'homeostatic care' and 'family equilibrium'. Clinical experiences in nursing practice were used for constructing cases and clinical implications. Walker and Avant's method guided this analysis. Family homeostasis is defined as the capacity and mechanisms by which equilibrium is re-established in the family after a change occurs. Five critical attributes are identified: (1) predetermined setpoint; (2) self-appraised antecedents; (3) interdependence; (4) tendency to stability; and (5) feedback mechanisms. Antecedents include any type of causative change beyond the tolerable limit, while consequences encompass intermediate and long-term outcomes as well as equilibrium itself. Family homeostasis provides a conceptual rationale of family caregiving. While care recipients remain the primary beneficiaries of healthcare provision, homeostatic mechanisms are required to support the family caregiver's valuable contribution in the caring process to enhance family well-being. Further study should expand the definition and settings of family to reflect healthcare needs of diverse types of families and from the perspectives of different healthcare providers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Diseases of Pulmonary Surfactant Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Wert, Susan E.; Weaver, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in physiology and biochemistry have provided fundamental insights into the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis and treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of the surfactant proteins, lipid transporters, and transcriptional networks regulating their expression has provided the tools and insights needed to discern the molecular and cellular processes regulating the production and function of pulmonary surfactant prior to and after birth. Mutations in genes regulating surfactant homeostasis have been associated with severe lung disease in neonates and older infants. Biophysical and transgenic mouse models have provided insight into the mechanisms underlying surfactant protein and alveolar homeostasis. These studies have provided the framework for understanding the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant, which has informed understanding of the pathogenesis of diverse pulmonary disorders previously considered idiopathic. This review considers the pulmonary surfactant system and the genetic causes of acute and chronic lung disease caused by disruption of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25621661

  4. Leptin and Hormones: Energy Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, Georgios A; Paschou, Stavroula A; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2016-09-01

    Leptin, a 167 amino acid adipokine, plays a major role in human energy homeostasis. Its actions are mediated through binding to leptin receptor and activating JAK-STAT3 signal transduction pathway. It is expressed mainly in adipocytes, and its circulating levels reflect the body's energy stores in adipose tissue. Recombinant methionyl human leptin has been FDA approved for patients with generalized non-HIV lipodystrophy and for compassionate use in subjects with congenital leptin deficiency. The purpose of this review is to outline the role of leptin in energy homeostasis, as well as its interaction with other hormones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tissue mechanics regulate brain development, homeostasis and disease

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, J. Matthew

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT All cells sense and integrate mechanical and biochemical cues from their environment to orchestrate organismal development and maintain tissue homeostasis. Mechanotransduction is the evolutionarily conserved process whereby mechanical force is translated into biochemical signals that can influence cell differentiation, survival, proliferation and migration to change tissue behavior. Not surprisingly, disease develops if these mechanical cues are abnormal or are misinterpreted by the cells – for example, when interstitial pressure or compression force aberrantly increases, or the extracellular matrix (ECM) abnormally stiffens. Disease might also develop if the ability of cells to regulate their contractility becomes corrupted. Consistently, disease states, such as cardiovascular disease, fibrosis and cancer, are characterized by dramatic changes in cell and tissue mechanics, and dysregulation of forces at the cell and tissue level can activate mechanosignaling to compromise tissue integrity and function, and promote disease progression. In this Commentary, we discuss the impact of cell and tissue mechanics on tissue homeostasis and disease, focusing on their role in brain development, homeostasis and neural degeneration, as well as in brain cancer. PMID:28043968

  6. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  7. Regulation of Blood Pressure and Salt Homeostasis by Endothelin

    PubMed Central

    KOHAN, DONALD E.; ROSSI, NOREEN F.; INSCHO, EDWARD W.; POLLOCK, DAVID M.

    2011-01-01

    Endothelin (ET) peptides and their receptors are intimately involved in the physiological control of systemic blood pressure and body Na homeostasis, exerting these effects through alterations in a host of circulating and local factors. Hormonal systems affected by ET include natriuretic peptides, aldosterone, catecholamines, and angiotensin. ET also directly regulates cardiac output, central and peripheral nervous system activity, renal Na and water excretion, systemic vascular resistance, and venous capacitance. ET regulation of these systems is often complex, sometimes involving opposing actions depending on which receptor isoform is activated, which cells are affected, and what other prevailing factors exist. A detailed understanding of this system is important; disordered regulation of the ET system is strongly associated with hypertension and dysregulated extracellular fluid volume homeostasis. In addition, ET receptor antagonists are being increasingly used for the treatment of a variety of diseases; while demonstrating benefit, these agents also have adverse effects on fluid retention that may substantially limit their clinical utility. This review provides a detailed analysis of how the ET system is involved in the control of blood pressure and Na homeostasis, focusing primarily on physiological regulation with some discussion of the role of the ET system in hypertension. PMID:21248162

  8. Three-component homeostasis control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin; Hong, Hyunsuk; Jo, Junghyo

    2014-03-01

    Two reciprocal components seem to be sufficient to maintain a control variable constant. However, pancreatic islets adapt three components to control glucose homeostasis. They are α (secreting glucagon), β (insulin), and δ (somatostatin) cells. Glucagon and insulin are the reciprocal hormones for increasing and decreasing blood glucose levels, while the role of somatostatin is unknown. However, it has been known how each hormone affects other cell types. Based on the pulsatile hormone secretion and the cellular interactions, this system can be described as coupled oscillators. In particular, we used the Landau-Stuart model to consider both amplitudes and phases of hormone oscillations. We found that the presence of the third component, δ cell, was effective to resist under glucose perturbations, and to quickly return to the normal glucose level once perturbed. Our analysis suggested that three components are necessary for advanced homeostasis control.

  9. Neuronal control of energy homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qian; Horvath, Tamas L.

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal control of body energy homeostasis is the key mechanism by which animals and humans regulate their long-term energy balance. Various hypothalamic neuronal circuits (which include the hypothalamic melanocortin, midbrain dopamine reward and caudal brainstem autonomic feeding systems) control energy intake and expenditure to maintain body weight within a narrow range for long periods of a life span. Numerous peripheral metabolic hormones and nutrients target these structures providing feedback signals that modify the default “settings” of neuronal activity to accomplish this balance. A number of molecular genetic tools for manipulating individual components of brain energy homeostatic machineries, in combination with anatomical, electrophysiological, pharmacological and behavioral techniques, have been developed, which provide a means for elucidating the complex molecular and cellular mechanisms of feeding behavior and metabolism. This review will highlight some of these advancements and focus on the neuronal circuitries of energy homeostasis. PMID:18061579

  10. Cortical firing and sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Olcese, Umberto; Lazimy, Yaniv M; Faraguna, Ugo; Esser, Steve K; Williams, Justin C; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2009-09-24

    The need to sleep grows with the duration of wakefulness and dissipates with time spent asleep, a process called sleep homeostasis. What are the consequences of staying awake on brain cells, and why is sleep needed? Surprisingly, we do not know whether the firing of cortical neurons is affected by how long an animal has been awake or asleep. Here, we found that after sustained wakefulness cortical neurons fire at higher frequencies in all behavioral states. During early NREM sleep after sustained wakefulness, periods of population activity (ON) are short, frequent, and associated with synchronous firing, while periods of neuronal silence are long and frequent. After sustained sleep, firing rates and synchrony decrease, while the duration of ON periods increases. Changes in firing patterns in NREM sleep correlate with changes in slow-wave activity, a marker of sleep homeostasis. Thus, the systematic increase of firing during wakefulness is counterbalanced by staying asleep.

  11. Physiology of leptin: energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeong-Kyu; Ahima, Rexford S.

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and regulates energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, metabolism, immune function and other systems through its effects on the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Leptin administration has been shown to restore metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities in individuals with leptin-deficient states, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and lipoatrophy. In contrast, obese individuals are resistant to leptin. Recombinant leptin is beneficial in patients with congenital leptin deficiency or generalized lipodystrophy. However, further research on molecular mediators of leptin resistance is needed for the development of targeted leptin sensitizing therapies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:25199978

  12. Physiology of leptin: energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeong-Kyu; Ahima, Rexford S

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and regulates energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, metabolism, immune function and other systems through its effects on the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Leptin administration has been shown to restore metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities in individuals with leptin-deficient states, including hypothalamic amenorrhea and lipoatrophy. In contrast, obese individuals are resistant to leptin. Recombinant leptin is beneficial in patients with congenital leptin deficiency or generalized lipodystrophy. However, further research on molecular mediators of leptin resistance is needed for the development of targeted leptin sensitizing therapies for obesity and related metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Homeostasis: Beyond Curt Richter1

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen C.; Ramsay, Douglas S.

    2007-01-01

    Curt Richter introduced behavioral control into the concept of homeostasis, thereby opening entire fields of research. The prevailing dogma, and the techniques he used, conspired to lead Richter and others to interpret regulation in strict negative feedback terms. Although this point of view continues to be embraced by many contemporary biologists, we believe that prevailing sentiment favors a broader view in which organisms integrate anticipatory pre-emptive control over regulated variables whenever possible. PMID:17524521

  14. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  15. Anchored phosphatases modulate glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hinke, Simon A; Navedo, Manuel F; Ulman, Allison; Whiting, Jennifer L; Nygren, Patrick J; Tian, Geng; Jimenez-Caliani, Antonio J; Langeberg, Lorene K; Cirulli, Vincenzo; Tengholm, Anders; Dell'Acqua, Mark L; Santana, L Fernando; Scott, John D

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine release of insulin principally controls glucose homeostasis. Nutrient-induced exocytosis of insulin granules from pancreatic β-cells involves ion channels and mobilization of Ca2+ and cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling pathways. Whole-animal physiology, islet studies and live-β-cell imaging approaches reveal that ablation of the kinase/phosphatase anchoring protein AKAP150 impairs insulin secretion in mice. Loss of AKAP150 impacts L-type Ca2+ currents, and attenuates cytoplasmic accumulation of Ca2+ and cAMP in β-cells. Yet surprisingly AKAP150 null animals display improved glucose handling and heightened insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. More refined analyses of AKAP150 knock-in mice unable to anchor protein kinase A or protein phosphatase 2B uncover an unexpected observation that tethering of phosphatases to a seven-residue sequence of the anchoring protein is the predominant molecular event underlying these metabolic phenotypes. Thus anchored signalling events that facilitate insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis may be set by AKAP150 associated phosphatase activity. PMID:22940692

  16. Iron homeostasis in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Erik R; Shah, Yatrik M

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient that is tightly regulated. A principal function of the liver is the regulation of iron homeostasis. The liver senses changes in systemic iron requirements and can regulate iron concentrations in a robust and rapid manner. The last 10 years have led to the discovery of several regulatory mechanisms in the liver which control the production of iron regulatory genes, storage capacity, and iron mobilization. Dysregulation of these functions leads to an imbalance of iron, which is the primary causes of iron-related disorders. Anemia and iron overload are two of the most prevalent disorders worldwide and affect over a billion people. Several mutations in liver-derived genes have been identified, demonstrating the central role of the liver in iron homeostasis. During conditions of excess iron, the liver increases iron storage and protects other tissues, namely the heart and pancreas from iron-induced cellular damage. However, a chronic increase in liver iron stores results in excess reactive oxygen species production and liver injury. Excess liver iron is one of the major mechanisms leading to increased steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23720289

  17. Homeostasis, inflammation, and disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Kotas, Maya E; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2015-02-26

    While modernization has dramatically increased lifespan, it has also witnessed the increasing prevalence of diseases such as obesity, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. Such chronic, acquired diseases result when normal physiologic control goes awry and may thus be viewed as failures of homeostasis. However, while nearly every process in human physiology relies on homeostatic mechanisms for stability, only some have demonstrated vulnerability to dysregulation. Additionally, chronic inflammation is a common accomplice of the diseases of homeostasis, yet the basis for this connection is not fully understood. Here we review the design of homeostatic systems and discuss universal features of control circuits that operate at the cellular, tissue, and organismal levels. We suggest a framework for classification of homeostatic signals that is based on different classes of homeostatic variables they report on. Finally, we discuss how adaptability of homeostatic systems with adjustable set points creates vulnerability to dysregulation and disease. This framework highlights the fundamental parallels between homeostatic and inflammatory control mechanisms and provides a new perspective on the physiological origin of inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fluid and Electrolyte Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Leach, Carolyn S.; Rice, Barbara L.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis have been completed since the early human space flight programs, with comprehensive research completed on the Spacelab Life Sciences missions SLS-1 and SLS-2 flights, and more recently on the Mir 18 mission. This work documented the known shifts in fluids, the decrease in total blood volume, and indications of reduced thirst. Data from these flights was used to evaluate the nutritional needs for water, sodium, and potassium. Interpretations of the data are confounded by the inadequate energy intakes routinely observed during space flight. This in turn results in reduced fluid intake, as food provides approximately 70% water intake. Subsequently, body weight, lean body mass, total body water, and total body potassium may decrease. Given these issues, there is evidence to support a minimum required water intake of 2 L per day. Data from previous Shuttle flights indicated that water intake is 2285 +/- 715 ml/day (mean +/- SD, n=26). There are no indications that sodium intake or homeostasis is compromised during space flight. The normal or low aldosterone and urinary sodium levels suggest adequate sodium intake (4047 +/- 902 mg/day, n=26). Because excessive sodium intake is associated with hypercalciuria, the recommended maximum amount of sodium intake during flight is 3500 mg/day (i.e., similar to the Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA). Potassium metabolism appears to be more complex. Data indicate loss of body potassium related to muscle atrophy and low dietary intake (2407 +/- 548 mg/day, n=26). Although possibly related to measurement error, the elevations in blood potassium suggest alterations in potassium homeostasis. The space RDA for minimum potassium intake is 3500 mg/day. With the documented inadequate intakes, efforts are being made to increase dietary consumption of potassium.

  19. Syndrome of transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL) in a patient with confusional symptoms, diffuse EEG abnormalities, and bilateral vasospasm in transcranial Doppler ultrasound: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo de la Cruz, M; Domínguez Rubio, R; Luque Buzo, E; Díaz Otero, F; Vázquez Alén, P; Orcajo Rincón, J; Prieto Montalvo, J; Contreras Chicote, A; Grandas Pérez, F

    2017-04-17

    HaNDL syndrome (transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis) is characterised by one or more episodes of headache and transient neurological deficits associated with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. To date, few cases of HaNDL manifesting with confusional symptoms have been described. Likewise, very few patients with HaNDL and confusional symptoms have been evaluated with transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). TCD data from patients with focal involvement reveal changes consistent with vasomotor alterations. We present the case of a 42-year-old man who experienced headache and confusional symptoms and displayed pleocytosis, diffuse slow activity on EEG, increased blood flow velocity in both middle cerebral arteries on TCD, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings suggestive of diffuse involvement, especially in the left hemisphere. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a patient with HaNDL, confusional symptoms, diffuse slow activity on EEG, and increased blood flow velocity in TCD. Our findings suggest a relationship between cerebral vasomotor changes and the pathophysiology of HaNDL. TCD may be a useful tool for early diagnosis of HaNDL. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  1. Inflammasome, Inflammation, and Tissue Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rathinam, Vijay A K; Chan, Francis Ka-Ming

    2018-03-01

    Organismal fitness demands proper response to neutralize the threat from infection or injury. At the mammalian intestinal epithelium barrier, the inflammasome coordinates an elaborate tissue repair response marked by the induction of antimicrobial peptides, wound-healing cytokines, and reparative proliferation of epithelial stem cells. The inflammasome in myeloid and intestinal epithelial compartments exerts these effects in part through maintenance of a healthy microbiota. Disease-associated mutations and elevated expression of certain inflammasome sensors have been identified. In many cases, inhibition of inflammasome activity has dramatic effects on disease outcome in mouse models of experimental colitis. Here, we discuss recent studies on the role of distinct inflammasome sensors in intestinal homeostasis and how this knowledge may be translated into a therapeutic setting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CHF: circulatory homeostasis gone awry.

    PubMed

    Weber, Karl T; Burlew, Brad S; Davis, Richard C; Newman, Kevin P; D'Cruz, Ivan A; Hawkins, Ralph G; Wall, Barry M; Parker, Robert B

    2002-01-01

    The role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is integral to salt and water retention, particularly by the kidneys. Over time, positive sodium balance leads first to intra- and then to extravascular volume expansion, with subsequent symptomatic heart failure. This report examines the role of the RAAS in regulating a less well recognized component essential to circulatory homeostasis--central blood volume. The regulation of central blood volume draws on integrative cardiorenal physiology and a key role played by the RAAS in its regulation. In presenting insights into the role of the RAAS in regulating central blood volume, this review also addresses other sodium-retaining states with a predisposition to edema formation, such as cirrhosis and nephrosis. (c)2002 CHF, Inc

  3. Lenticular abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agarwal, Tushar; Kumar, Gaurav; Kushmesh, Rakhi; Tejwani, Lalit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    To study the lenticular problems in children presenting at an apex institute. Retrospective analysis of records (< 14 years) of new lens clinic cases was done. Of 1,047 children, 687 were males. Mean age at presentation was 6.35 ± 4.13 years. Developmental cataract was seen in 45.6% and posttraumatic cataract in 29.7% of patients. Other abnormalities were cataract with retinal detachment, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, subluxated lens, micro/spherophakia, cataract secondary to uveitis, intraocular lens complications, cataract with choroidal coloboma, and visual axis opacification. Developmental and posttraumatic cataracts were the most common abnormalities. Delayed presentation is of concern. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Pancreatic regulation of glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Röder, Pia V; Wu, Bingbing; Liu, Yixian; Han, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    In order to ensure normal body function, the human body is dependent on a tight control of its blood glucose levels. This is accomplished by a highly sophisticated network of various hormones and neuropeptides released mainly from the brain, pancreas, liver, intestine as well as adipose and muscle tissue. Within this network, the pancreas represents a key player by secreting the blood sugar-lowering hormone insulin and its opponent glucagon. However, disturbances in the interplay of the hormones and peptides involved may lead to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) whose prevalence, comorbidities and medical costs take on a dramatic scale. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to uncover and understand the mechanisms underlying the various interactions to improve existing anti-diabetic therapies and drugs on the one hand and to develop new therapeutic approaches on the other. This review summarizes the interplay of the pancreas with various other organs and tissues that maintain glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, anti-diabetic drugs and their impact on signaling pathways underlying the network will be discussed. PMID:26964835

  5. A physiologist's view of homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Cliff, William; Michael, Joel; McFarland, Jenny; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Wright, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis is a core concept necessary for understanding the many regulatory mechanisms in physiology. Claude Bernard originally proposed the concept of the constancy of the “milieu interieur,” but his discussion was rather abstract. Walter Cannon introduced the term “homeostasis” and expanded Bernard's notion of “constancy” of the internal environment in an explicit and concrete way. In the 1960s, homeostatic regulatory mechanisms in physiology began to be described as discrete processes following the application of engineering control system analysis to physiological systems. Unfortunately, many undergraduate texts continue to highlight abstract aspects of the concept rather than emphasizing a general model that can be specifically and comprehensively applied to all homeostatic mechanisms. As a result, students and instructors alike often fail to develop a clear, concise model with which to think about such systems. In this article, we present a standard model for homeostatic mechanisms to be used at the undergraduate level. We discuss common sources of confusion (“sticky points”) that arise from inconsistencies in vocabulary and illustrations found in popular undergraduate texts. Finally, we propose a simplified model and vocabulary set for helping undergraduate students build effective mental models of homeostatic regulation in physiological systems. PMID:26628646

  6. Protein synthesis controls phosphate homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Mauricio H; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element assimilated largely as orthophosphate (Pi). Cells respond to Pi starvation by importing Pi from their surroundings. We now report that impaired protein synthesis alone triggers a Pi starvation response even when Pi is plentiful in the extracellular milieu. In the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium , this response entails phosphorylation of the regulatory protein PhoB and transcription of PhoB-dependent Pi transporter genes and is eliminated upon stimulation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. When protein synthesis is impaired due to low cytoplasmic magnesium (Mg 2+ ), Salmonella triggers the Pi starvation response because ribosomes are destabilized, which reduces ATP consumption and thus free cytoplasmic Pi. This response is transient because low cytoplasmic Mg 2+ promotes an uptake in Mg 2+ and a decrease in ATP levels, which stabilizes ribosomes, resulting in ATP consumption and Pi increase, thus ending the response. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of protein synthesis also elicited a Pi starvation response in the bacterium Escherichia coli and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Our findings identify a regulatory connection between protein synthesis and Pi homeostasis that is widespread in nature. © 2018 Pontes and Groisman; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Modeling tensional homeostasis in multicellular clusters.

    PubMed

    Tam, Sze Nok; Smith, Michael L; Stamenović, Dimitrije

    2017-03-01

    Homeostasis of mechanical stress in cells, or tensional homeostasis, is essential for normal physiological function of tissues and organs and is protective against disease progression, including atherosclerosis and cancer. Recent experimental studies have shown that isolated cells are not capable of maintaining tensional homeostasis, whereas multicellular clusters are, with stability increasing with the size of the clusters. Here, we proposed simple mathematical models to interpret experimental results and to obtain insight into factors that determine homeostasis. Multicellular clusters were modeled as one-dimensional arrays of linearly elastic blocks that were either jointed or disjointed. Fluctuating forces that mimicked experimentally measured cell-substrate tractions were obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. These forces were applied to the cluster models, and the corresponding stress field in the cluster was calculated by solving the equilibrium equation. It was found that temporal fluctuations of the cluster stress field became attenuated with increasing cluster size, indicating that the cluster approached tensional homeostasis. These results were consistent with previously reported experimental data. Furthermore, the models revealed that key determinants of tensional homeostasis in multicellular clusters included the cluster size, the distribution of traction forces, and mechanical coupling between adjacent cells. Based on these findings, we concluded that tensional homeostasis was a multicellular phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    PubMed

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  9. Chronobiology, endocrinology, and energy- and food-reward homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, H K J; Hulshof, T; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2013-05-01

    Energy- and food-reward homeostasis is the essential component for maintaining energy balance and its disruption may lead to metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes. Circadian alignment, quality sleep and sleep architecture in relation to energy- and food-reward homeostasis are crucial. A reduced sleep duration, quality sleep and rapid-eye movement sleep affect substrate oxidation, leptin and ghrelin concentrations, sleeping metabolic rate, appetite, food reward, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity, and gut-peptide concentrations, enhancing a positive energy balance. Circadian misalignment affects sleep architecture and the glucose-insulin metabolism, substrate oxidation, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, leptin concentrations and HPA-axis activity. Mood disorders such as depression occur; reduced dopaminergic neuronal signaling shows decreased food reward. A good sleep hygiene, together with circadian alignment of food intake, a regular meal frequency, and attention for protein intake or diets, contributes in curing sleep abnormalities and overweight/obesity features by preventing overeating; normalizing substrate oxidation, stress, insulin and glucose metabolism including HOMA-IR index, and leptin, GLP-1 concentrations, lipid metabolism, appetite, energy expenditure and substrate oxidation; and normalizing food reward. Synchrony between circadian and metabolic processes including meal patterns plays an important role in the regulation of energy balance and body-weight control. Additive effects of circadian alignment including meal patterns, sleep restoration, and protein diets in the treatment of overweight and obesity are suggested. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  10. Targeting TGFβ Signaling in Subchondral Bone and Articular Cartilage Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Gehau; Cao, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative joint disease, and there is no disease-modifying therapy for OA currently available. Targeting of articular cartilage alone may not be sufficient to halt this disease progression. Articular cartilage and subchondral bone act as a functional unit. Increasing evidence indicates that transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis of both articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Activation of extracellular matrix latent TGFβ at the appropriate time and location is the prerequisite for its function. Aberrant activation of TGFβ in the subchondral bone in response to abnormal mechanical loading environment induces formation of osteroid islets at onset of osteoarthritis. As a result, alteration of subchondral bone structure changes the stress distribution on the articular cartilage and leads to its degeneration. Thus, inhibition of TGFβ activity in the subchondral bone may provide a new avenue of treatment for OA. In this review, we will respectively discuss the role of TGFβ in homeostasis of articular cartilage and subchondral bone as a novel target for OA therapy. PMID:24745631

  11. Creatine maintains intestinal homeostasis and protects against colitis.

    PubMed

    Turer, Emre; McAlpine, William; Wang, Kuan-Wen; Lu, Tianshi; Li, Xiaohong; Tang, Miao; Zhan, Xiaoming; Wang, Tao; Zhan, Xiaowei; Bu, Chun-Hui; Murray, Anne R; Beutler, Bruce

    2017-02-14

    Creatine, a nitrogenous organic acid, replenishes cytoplasmic ATP at the expense of mitochondrial ATP via the phosphocreatine shuttle. Creatine levels are maintained by diet and endogenous synthesis from arginine and glycine. Glycine amidinotransferase (GATM) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of creatine biosynthesis: the transfer of an amidino group from arginine to glycine to form ornithine and guanidinoacetate. We screened 36,530 third-generation germline mutant mice derived from N -ethyl- N -nitrosourea-mutagenized grandsires for intestinal homeostasis abnormalities after oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Among 27 colitis susceptibility phenotypes identified and mapped, one was strongly correlated with a missense mutation in Gatm in a recessive model of inheritance, and causation was confirmed by CRISPR/Cas9 gene targeting. Supplementation of homozygous Gatm mutants with exogenous creatine ameliorated the colitis phenotype. CRISPR/Cas9-targeted ( Gatm c/c ) mice displayed a normal peripheral immune response and immune cell homeostasis. However, the intestinal epithelium of the Gatm c/c mice displayed increased cell death and decreased proliferation during DSS treatment. In addition, Gatm c/c colonocytes showed increased metabolic stress in response to DSS with higher levels of phospho-AMPK and lower levels of phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (phospho-mTOR). These findings establish an in vivo requirement for rapid replenishment of cytoplasmic ATP within colonic epithelial cells in the maintenance of the mucosal barrier after injury.

  12. Creatine maintains intestinal homeostasis and protects against colitis

    PubMed Central

    Turer, Emre; McAlpine, William; Wang, Kuan-wen; Lu, Tianshi; Li, Xiaohong; Tang, Miao; Zhan, Xiaoming; Wang, Tao; Zhan, Xiaowei; Bu, Chun-Hui; Murray, Anne R.; Beutler, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Creatine, a nitrogenous organic acid, replenishes cytoplasmic ATP at the expense of mitochondrial ATP via the phosphocreatine shuttle. Creatine levels are maintained by diet and endogenous synthesis from arginine and glycine. Glycine amidinotransferase (GATM) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of creatine biosynthesis: the transfer of an amidino group from arginine to glycine to form ornithine and guanidinoacetate. We screened 36,530 third-generation germline mutant mice derived from N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea–mutagenized grandsires for intestinal homeostasis abnormalities after oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Among 27 colitis susceptibility phenotypes identified and mapped, one was strongly correlated with a missense mutation in Gatm in a recessive model of inheritance, and causation was confirmed by CRISPR/Cas9 gene targeting. Supplementation of homozygous Gatm mutants with exogenous creatine ameliorated the colitis phenotype. CRISPR/Cas9-targeted (Gatmc/c) mice displayed a normal peripheral immune response and immune cell homeostasis. However, the intestinal epithelium of the Gatmc/c mice displayed increased cell death and decreased proliferation during DSS treatment. In addition, Gatmc/c colonocytes showed increased metabolic stress in response to DSS with higher levels of phospho-AMPK and lower levels of phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (phospho-mTOR). These findings establish an in vivo requirement for rapid replenishment of cytoplasmic ATP within colonic epithelial cells in the maintenance of the mucosal barrier after injury. PMID:28137860

  13. Homeostasis of metals in the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Raúl; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis

    2014-06-01

    In order to study the involvement of metals in the progression of Alzheimer's disease, serum samples from patients with Alzheimer and mild cognitive impairment were investigated. For this purpose, metal content was analyzed after size-fractionation of species and then, inter-element and inter-fraction ratios were computed. In this way, the analysis allowed discovering changes that could be used as markers of disease, but also provided a new insight into the interactions in the homeostasis of elements in neurodegeneration and its progression. Aluminum and labile forms of iron and copper were increased in demented patients, while manganese, zinc and selenium were reduced. Interestingly, levels of different elements, principally iron, aluminum and manganese, were closely inter-related, which could evidence a complex interdependency between the homeostasis of the different metals in this disorder. On the other hand, imbalances in metabolism of copper, zinc and selenium could be associated to abnormal redox status. Therefore, this study may contribute to our understanding of the pathological mechanisms related to metals in Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Thiol Disulfide Homeostasis in Schizophrenic Patients Using Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ersan, Etem Erdal; Aydin, Hüseyin; Erdoğan, Serpil; Erşan, Serpil; Alişik, Murat; Bakir, Sevtap; Erel, Özcan; Koç, Derya

    2018-01-01

    Objective Schizophrenia is a severe, debilitating mental disorder characterized by behavioral abnormalities. Although several studies have investigated the role of oxidative stress and the effects of antipsychotic drugs on oxidative markers in schizophrenia, adequate information is not available on these issues. The aim of this study is to determine the changes in oxidative status and thiol disulfide homeostasis in schizophrenic patients using atypical antipsychotic drugs. Methods Thirteen schizophrenic patients using atypical antipsychotic drugs and 30 healthy controls were included this study. The concentrations of total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), native thiol, total thiol, and disulfide levels were determined in the study population. Results The TAS (p=0.001), total thiol, and native thiol levels (p<0.001) were higher in the patients compared to the controls, whereas the TOS and disulfide levels were lower in the patients than in the controls (p<0.001). Conclusion These results may suggest that atypical antipsychotic drugs have a useful therapeutic effect by reducing oxidative stress via the inhibition of the formation of disulfide bonds. The study population number was one of the limitations of this study. Therefore, further studies are needed to establish the association between thiol disulfide homeostasis in schizophrenic patients using atypical antipsychotic drugs. PMID:29397665

  15. Air pollution particles and iron homeostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The mechanism underlying biological effects of particles deposited in the lung has not been defined. Major Conclusions: A disruption in iron homeostasis follows exposure of cells to all particulate matter including air pollution particles. Following endocytosis, fun...

  16. Neuronal regulation of homeostasis by nutrient sensing.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tony K T

    2010-04-01

    In type 2 diabetes and obesity, the homeostatic control of glucose and energy balance is impaired, leading to hyperglycemia and hyperphagia. Recent studies indicate that nutrient-sensing mechanisms in the body activate negative-feedback systems to regulate energy and glucose homeostasis through a neuronal network. Direct metabolic signaling within the intestine activates gut-brain and gut-brain-liver axes to regulate energy and glucose homeostasis, respectively. In parallel, direct metabolism of nutrients within the hypothalamus regulates food intake and blood glucose levels. These findings highlight the importance of the central nervous system in mediating the ability of nutrient sensing to maintain homeostasis. Futhermore, they provide a physiological and neuronal framework by which enhancing or restoring nutrient sensing in the intestine and the brain could normalize energy and glucose homeostasis in diabetes and obesity.

  17. Personalised fluid resuscitation in the ICU: still a fluid concept?

    PubMed

    van Haren, Frank

    2017-12-28

    The administration of intravenous fluid to critically ill patients is one of the most common, but also one of the most fiercely debated, interventions in intensive care medicine. Even though many thousands of patients have been enrolled in large trials of alternative fluid strategies, consensus remains elusive and practice is widely variable. Critically ill patients are significantly heterogeneous, making a one size fits all approach unlikely to be successful.New data from basic, animal, and clinical research suggest that fluid resuscitation could be associated with significant harm. There are several important limitations and concerns regarding fluid bolus therapy as it is currently being used in clinical practice. These include, but are not limited to: the lack of an agreed definition; limited and short-lived physiological effects; no evidence of an effect on relevant patient outcomes; and the potential to contribute to fluid overload, specifically when fluid responsiveness is not assessed and when targets and safety limits are not used.Fluid administration in critically ill patients requires clinicians to integrate abnormal physiological parameters into a clinical decision-making model that also incorporates the likely diagnosis and the likely risk or benefit in the specific patient's context. Personalised fluid resuscitation requires careful attention to the mnemonic CIT TAIT: context, indication, targets, timing, amount of fluid, infusion strategy, and type of fluid.The research agenda should focus on experimental and clinical studies to: improve our understanding of the physiological effects of fluid infusion, e.g. on the glycocalyx; evaluate new types of fluids; evaluate novel fluid minimisation protocols; study the effects of a no-fluid strategy for selected patients and scenarios; and compare fluid therapy with other interventions. The adaptive platform trial design may provide us with the tools to evaluate these types of interventions in the intrinsically

  18. Abnormality, rationality, and sanity.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Volz, Kirsten G

    2013-11-01

    A growing body of studies suggests that neurological and mental abnormalities foster conformity to norms of rationality that are widely endorsed in economics and psychology, whereas normality stands in the way of rationality thus defined. Here, we outline the main findings of these studies, discuss their implications for experimental design, and consider how 'sane' some benchmarks of rationality really are. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fluid Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  20. Fluid Physics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-12

    These are video microscope images of magnetorheological (MR) fluids, illuminated with a green light. Those on Earth, left, show the MR fluid forming columns or spikes structures. On the right, the fluids in microgravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS), formed broader columns.

  1. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  2. Atypical antipsychotics and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Richard N; Ader, Marilyn

    2005-04-01

    Persistent reports have linked atypical antipsychotics with diabetes, yet causative mechanisms responsible for this linkage are unclear. Goals of this review are to outline the pathogenesis of nonimmune diabetes and to survey the available literature related to why antipsychotics may lead to this disease. We accessed the literature regarding atypical antipsychotics and glucose homeostasis using PubMed. The search included English-language publications from 1990 through October 2004. Keywords used included atypical antipsychotics plus one of the following: glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance, obesity, or diabetes. In addition, we culled information from published abstracts from several national and international scientific meetings for the years 2001 through 2004, including the American Diabetes Association, the International Congress on Schizophrenia Research, and the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. The latter search was necessary because of the paucity of well-controlled prospective studies. We examined publications with significant new data or publications that contributed to the overall comprehension of the impact of atypical antipsychotics on glucose metabolism. We favored original peer-reviewed articles and were less likely to cite single case studies and/or anecdotal information. Approximately 75% of the fewer than 150 identified articles were examined and included in this review. Validity of data was evaluated using the existence of peer-review status as well as our own experience with methodology described in the specific articles. The metabolic profile caused by atypical antipsychotic treatment resembles type 2 diabetes. These agents cause weight gain in treated subjects and may induce obesity in both visceral and subcutaneous depots, as occurs in diabetes. Insulin resistance, usually associated with obesity, occurs to varying degrees with different antipsychotics, although more comparative studies with direct assessment of resistance are

  3. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evidence on the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, both acute and chronic. Didactically, the treatment options were based on the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification system (PALM-COEIN). The etiologies of PALM-COEIN are: uterine Polyp (P), Adenomyosis (A), Leiomyoma (L), precursor and Malignant lesions of the uterine body (M), Coagulopathies (C), Ovulatory dysfunction (O), Endometrial dysfunction (E), Iatrogenic (I), and Not yet classified (N). The articles were selected according to the recommendation grades of the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, and those in which the main objective was the reduction of uterine menstrual bleeding were included. Only studies written in English were included. All editorial or complete papers that were not consistent with abnormal uterine bleeding, or studies in animal models, were excluded. The main objective of the treatment is the reduction of menstrual flow and morbidity and the improvement of quality of life. It is important to emphasize that the treatment in the acute phase aims to hemodynamically stabilize the patient and stop excessive bleeding, while the treatment in the chronic phase is based on correcting menstrual dysfunction according to its etiology and clinical manifestations. The treatment may be surgical or pharmacological, and the latter is based mainly on hormonal therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and antifibrinolytics. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro

  4. Data based abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwar, Yashasvi

    Data based abnormality detection is a growing research field focussed on extracting information from feature rich data. They are considered to be non-intrusive and non-destructive in nature which gives them a clear advantage over conventional methods. In this study, we explore different streams of data based anomalies detection. We propose extension and revisions to existing valve stiction detection algorithm supported with industrial case study. We also explored the area of image analysis and proposed a complete solution for Malaria diagnosis. The proposed method is tested over images provided by pathology laboratory at Alberta Health Service. We also address the robustness and practicality of the solution proposed.

  5. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. [Hormonal homeostasis and intraocular pressure in chronic emotional stress caused by influences acting on the amygdala].

    PubMed

    Isakova, L S; Danilov, G E; Egorkina, S B; Butolin, E G

    1989-01-01

    Changes in intraocular pressure, eye hydrodynamics and the amount of hypophyseal, thyroid, adrenal and pancreatic hormones were studied during continuous stimulation of amygdaloid complex or after administration of angiotensin II into the structure in rabbits. The effects involved changes in hormonal homeostasis and elevation of intraocular pressure due to a hypersecretion of intraocular fluid. The administration of angiotensin II during the amygdala stimulation enhanced the changes.

  7. The importance of the renin-angiotensin system in normal cardiovascular homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, E.

    1975-01-01

    Studies were carried out on adult mongrel dogs (20 to 30 kilograms) to investigate the importance of the renin-angiotensin system. Results indicate that the renin-angiotensin system plays a major role in the maintenance of circulatory homeostasis when extracellular fluid volume is depleted. It was also found that angiotensin II concentration, in addition to renal perfusion pressure, is a factor in the regulation of renin release.

  8. Secondary Abnormalities of Neurotransmitters in Infants with Neurological Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Cazorla, A.; Serrano, M.; Perez-Duenas, B.; Gonzalez, V.; Ormazabal, A.; Pineda, M.; Fernandez-Alvarez, E.; Campistol, J. M. D.; Artuch, R. M. D.

    2007-01-01

    Neurotransmitters are essential in young children for differentiation and neuronal growth of the developing nervous system. We aimed to identify possible factors related to secondary neurotransmitter abnormalities in pediatric patients with neurological disorders. We analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and biogenic amine metabolites in 56 infants…

  9. Neuronal and molecular mechanisms of sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Donlea, Jeffrey M

    2017-12-01

    Sleep is necessary for survival, and prolonged waking causes a homeostatic increase in the need for recovery sleep. Homeostasis is a core component of sleep regulation and has been tightly conserved across evolution from invertebrates to man. Homeostatic sleep regulation was first identified among insects in cockroaches several decades ago, but the characterization of sleep rebound in Drosophila melanogaster opened the use of insect model species to understand homeostatic functions and regulation of sleep. This review describes circuits in two neuropil structures, the central complex and mushroom bodies, that influence sleep homeostasis and neuromodulatory systems that influence the accrual of homeostatic sleep need. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ATG3-dependent autophagy mediates mitochondrial homeostasis in pluripotency acquirement and maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kun; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Pinglei; Cao, Jiani; Gong, Jiaqi; Wang, Chaoqun; Wang, Weixu; Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Hongyan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Yufei; Jiang, Minggui; Zhu, Shaohua; Sun, Qingyuan; Jiao, Jianwei; Hu, Baoyang; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Li, Wei; Chen, Quan; Zhou, Qi; Zhao, Tongbiao

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pluripotent stem cells, including induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), have less developed mitochondria than somatic cells and, therefore, rely more heavily on glycolysis for energy production.1-3 However, how mitochondrial homeostasis matches the demands of nuclear reprogramming and regulates pluripotency in ESCs is largely unknown. Here, we identified ATG3-dependent autophagy as an executor for both mitochondrial remodeling during somatic cell reprogramming and mitochondrial homeostasis regulation in ESCs. Dysfunctional autophagy by Atg3 deletion inhibited mitochondrial removal during pluripotency induction, resulting in decreased reprogramming efficiency and accumulation of abnormal mitochondria in established iPSCs. In Atg3 null mouse ESCs, accumulation of aberrant mitochondria was accompanied by enhanced ROS generation, defective ATP production and attenuated pluripotency gene expression, leading to abnormal self-renewal and differentiation. These defects were rescued by reacquisition of wild-type but not lipidation-deficient Atg3 expression. Taken together, our findings highlight a critical role of ATG3-dependent autophagy for mitochondrial homeostasis regulation in both pluripotency acquirement and maintenance. PMID:27575019

  11. ATG3-dependent autophagy mediates mitochondrial homeostasis in pluripotency acquirement and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Pinglei; Cao, Jiani; Gong, Jiaqi; Wang, Chaoqun; Wang, Weixu; Li, Xiaoyan; Sun, Hongyan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Yufei; Jiang, Minggui; Zhu, Shaohua; Sun, Qingyuan; Jiao, Jianwei; Hu, Baoyang; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Li, Wei; Chen, Quan; Zhou, Qi; Zhao, Tongbiao

    2016-11-01

    Pluripotent stem cells, including induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), have less developed mitochondria than somatic cells and, therefore, rely more heavily on glycolysis for energy production. 1-3 However, how mitochondrial homeostasis matches the demands of nuclear reprogramming and regulates pluripotency in ESCs is largely unknown. Here, we identified ATG3-dependent autophagy as an executor for both mitochondrial remodeling during somatic cell reprogramming and mitochondrial homeostasis regulation in ESCs. Dysfunctional autophagy by Atg3 deletion inhibited mitochondrial removal during pluripotency induction, resulting in decreased reprogramming efficiency and accumulation of abnormal mitochondria in established iPSCs. In Atg3 null mouse ESCs, accumulation of aberrant mitochondria was accompanied by enhanced ROS generation, defective ATP production and attenuated pluripotency gene expression, leading to abnormal self-renewal and differentiation. These defects were rescued by reacquisition of wild-type but not lipidation-deficient Atg3 expression. Taken together, our findings highlight a critical role of ATG3-dependent autophagy for mitochondrial homeostasis regulation in both pluripotency acquirement and maintenance.

  12. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy.

  13. Copper homeostasis gene discovery in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Norgate, Melanie; Southon, Adam; Zou, Sige; Zhan, Ming; Sun, Yu; Batterham, Phil; Camakaris, James

    2007-06-01

    Recent studies have shown a high level of conservation between Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian copper homeostasis mechanisms. These studies have also demonstrated the efficiency with which this species can be used to characterize novel genes, at both the cellular and whole organism level. As a versatile and inexpensive model organism, Drosophila is also particularly useful for gene discovery applications and thus has the potential to be extremely useful in identifying novel copper homeostasis genes and putative disease genes. In order to assess the suitability of Drosophila for this purpose, three screening approaches have been investigated. These include an analysis of the global transcriptional response to copper in both adult flies and an embryonic cell line using DNA microarray analysis. Two mutagenesis-based screens were also utilized. Several candidate copper homeostasis genes have been identified through this work. In addition, the results of each screen were carefully analyzed to identify any factors influencing efficiency and sensitivity. These are discussed here with the aim of maximizing the efficiency of future screens and the most suitable approaches are outlined. Building on this information, there is great potential for the further use of Drosophila for copper homeostasis gene discovery.

  14. Pharmacological modulation of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Arduino, Daniela M; Perocchi, Fabiana

    2018-01-10

    Mitochondria are pivotal organelles in calcium (Ca 2+ ) handling and signalling, constituting intracellular checkpoints for numerous processes that are vital for cell life. Alterations in mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis have been linked to a variety of pathological conditions and are critical in the aetiology of several human diseases. Efforts have been taken to harness mitochondrial Ca 2+ transport mechanisms for therapeutic intervention, but pharmacological compounds that direct and selectively modulate mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis are currently lacking. New avenues have, however, emerged with the breakthrough discoveries on the genetic identification of the main players involved in mitochondrial Ca 2+ influx and efflux pathways and with recent hints towards a deep understanding of the function of these molecular systems. Here, we review the current advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis and its contribution to physiology and human disease. We also introduce and comment on the recent progress towards a systems-level pharmacological targeting of mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.

  15. Achieving global perfect homeostasis through transporter regulation

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient homeostasis—the maintenance of relatively constant internal nutrient concentrations in fluctuating external environments—is essential to the survival of most organisms. Transcriptional regulation of plasma membrane transporters by internal nutrient concentrations is typically assumed to be the main mechanism by which homeostasis is achieved. While this mechanism is homeostatic we show that it does not achieve global perfect homeostasis—a condition where internal nutrient concentrations are completely independent of external nutrient concentrations for all external nutrient concentrations. We show that the criterion for global perfect homeostasis is that transporter levels must be inversely proportional to net nutrient flux into the cell and that downregulation of active transporters (activity-dependent regulation) is a simple and biologically plausible mechanism that meets this criterion. Activity-dependent transporter regulation creates a trade-off between robustness and efficiency, i.e., the system's ability to withstand perturbation in external nutrients and the transporter production rate needed to maintain homeostasis. Additionally, we show that a system that utilizes both activity-dependent transporter downregulation and regulation of transporter synthesis by internal nutrient levels can create a system that mitigates the shortcomings of each of the individual mechanisms. This analysis highlights the utility of activity-dependent regulation in achieving homeostasis and calls for a re-examination of the mechanisms of regulation of other homeostatic systems. PMID:28414718

  16. Circadian dysregulation disrupts bile acid homeostasis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bile acids are potentially toxic compounds and their levels of hepatic production, uptake, and export are tightly regulated by many inputs, including circadian rhythm. We tested the impact of disrupting the peripheral circadian clock on integral steps of bile acid homeostasis. Both restricted feedi...

  17. Brain glucose sensing, counterregulation, and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Marty, Nell; Dallaporta, Michel; Thorens, Bernard

    2007-08-01

    Neuronal circuits in the central nervous system play a critical role in orchestrating the control of glucose and energy homeostasis. Glucose, beside being a nutrient, is also a signal detected by several glucose-sensing units that are located at different anatomical sites and converge to the hypothalamus to cooperate with leptin and insulin in controlling the melanocortin pathway.

  18. SLC20A2 DEFICIENCY IN MICE LEADS TO ELEVATED PHOSPHATE LEVELS IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID AND GLYMPHATIC PATHWAY-ASSOCIATED ARTERIOLAR CALCIFICATION, AND RECAPITULATES HUMAN IDIOPATHIC BASAL GANGLIA CALCIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Wallingford, MC; Chia, J; Leaf, EM; Borgeia, S; Chavkin, NW; Sawangmake, C; Marro, K; Cox, TC; Speer, MY; Giachelli, CM

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification is a brain calcification disorder that has been genetically linked to autosomal dominant mutations in the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter, SLC20A2. The mechanisms whereby deficiency of Slc20a2 leads to basal ganglion calcification are unknown. In the mouse brain, we found that Slc20a2 was expressed in tissues that produce and/or regulate cerebrospinal fluid, including choroid plexus, ependyma and arteriolar smooth muscle cells. Haploinsufficient Slc20a2 +/− mice developed age-dependent basal ganglia calcification that formed in glymphatic pathway-associated arterioles. Slc20a2 deficiency uncovered phosphate homeostasis dysregulation characterized by abnormally high cerebrospinal fluid phosphate levels and hydrocephalus, in addition to basal ganglia calcification. Slc20a2 siRNA knockdown in smooth muscle cells revealed increased susceptibility to high phosphate-induced calcification. These data suggested that loss of Slc20a2 led to dysregulated phosphate homeostasis and enhanced susceptibility of arteriolar smooth muscle cells to elevated phosphate-induced calcification. Together, dysregulated cerebrospinal fluid phosphate and enhanced smooth muscle cell susceptibility may predispose to glymphatic pathway-associated arteriolar calcification. PMID:26822507

  19. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Ying; Cameron, Iain T; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-09-01

    It is not uncommon for a woman to suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at some point during her lifetime. Once pathology is excluded, in practice, management needs to be individualised, taking into account the improvement of the woman's symptoms and quality of life. Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. There is now agreement on a structured, universal approach to the diagnosis of AUB, with the aide memoirs PALM (polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy) and COEIN (coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, not otherwise classified). Once malignancy and significant pelvic pathology have been ruled out, medical treatment is an effective first-line therapeutic option, with surgery, including endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, offered when medical management has failed to resolve symptoms and fertility is no longer desired. There remains controversy around the management of the types and subtypes of adenomyosis and leiomyoma, and understanding their impact on clinical reproductive outcomes. Standardised assessment tools for measuring outcomes of AUB are being developed. Novel diagnostic and monitoring tools should be developed to help stratify treatment for women with AUB, particularly relating to 'unclassified' and 'endometrial' causes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  1. Autoshaping of abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Deckner, C W; Wilcox, L M; Maisto, S A; Blanton, R L

    1980-09-01

    Three experimentally naive abnormal children were exposed to a terminal operant contingency, i.e., reinforcement was delivered only if the children pressed a panel during intervals when it was lighted. Despite the absence of both successive approximation and manual shaping, it was found that each child began to respond discriminatively within a small number of trials. These data replicated previous animal studies concerned with the phenomena of autoshaping and signal-controlled responding. It was also found, however, that one type of autoshaping, the classical conditioning procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on the discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted procedure, had a powerful suppressive effect on discriminative responding. An experimental analysis that consisted of intrasubject reversal an multiple baseline designs established the internal validity of the findings. The finding of rapid acquisition of signal-controlled responding obtained with the initial procedure is suggessted to have practical significance. The disruptive effects of the classical form of autoshaping are discussed in terms of negative behavioral contrast.

  2. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  3. Precision Fluid Management in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Raghavan; Hoste, Eric; Mehta, Ravindra L; Samoni, Sara; Ding, Xiaoqiang; Rosner, Mitchell H; Kellum, John A; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Fluid management during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in critically ill patients is a dynamic process that encompasses 3 inter-related goals: maintenance of the patency of the CRRT circuit, maintenance of plasma electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis and regulation of patient fluid balance. In this article, we report the consensus recommendations of the 2016 Acute Disease Quality Initiative XVII conference on 'Precision Fluid Management in CRRT'. We discuss the principles of fluid management, describe various prescription methods to achieve circuit integrity and introduce the concept of integrated fluid balance for tailoring fluid balance to the needs of the individual patient. We suggest that these recommendations could serve to develop the best clinical practice and standards of care for fluid management in patients undergoing CRRT. Finally, we identify and highlight areas of uncertainty in fluid management and set an agenda for future research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Abnormal Barrier Function in Gastrointestinal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Farré, Ricard; Vicario, María

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing concern in identifying the mechanisms underlying the intimate control of the intestinal barrier, as deregulation of its function is strongly associated with digestive (organic and functional) and a number of non-digestive (schizophrenia, diabetes, sepsis, among others) disorders. The intestinal barrier is a complex and effective defensive functional system that operates to limit luminal antigen access to the internal milieu while maintaining nutrient and electrolyte absorption. Intestinal permeability to substances is mainly determined by the physicochemical properties of the barrier, with the epithelium, mucosal immunity, and neural activity playing a major role. In functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), the absence of structural or biochemical abnormalities that explain chronic symptoms is probably close to its end, as recent research is providing evidence of structural gut alterations, at least in certain subsets, mainly in functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). These alterations are associated with increased permeability, which seems to reflect mucosal inflammation and neural activation. The participation of each anatomical and functional component of barrier function in homeostasis and intestinal dysfunction is described, with a special focus on FGIDs.

  5. Cardioprotection Via Modulation of Calcium Homeostasis by Thiopental in Hypoxia-Reoxygenated Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Hwang, Ki-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Ca2+ homeostasis plays an important role in myocardial cell injury induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation, and prevention of intracellular Ca2+ overload is key to cardioprotection. Even though thiopental is a frequently used anesthetic agent, little is known about its cardioprotective effects, particulary in association with Ca2+ homeostasis. We investigated whether thiopental protects cardiomyocytes against hypoxia-reoxygenation injury by regulating Ca2+ homeostasis. Materials and Methods Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were isolated. Cardiomyocytes were exposed to different concentrations of thiopental and immediately replaced in the hypoxic chamber to maintain hypoxia. After 1 hour of exposure, a culture dish was transferred to the CO2 incubator and cells were incubated at 37℃ for 5 hours. At the end of the experiments, the authors assessed cell protection using immunoblot analysis and caspase activity. The mRNA of genes involved in Ca2+ homeostasis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cellular Ca2+ levels were examined. Results In thiopental-treated cardiomyocytes, there was a decrease in expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax, caspase-3 activation, and intracellular Ca2+ content. In addition, both enhancement of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and activation of Erk concerned with survival were shown. Furthermore, thiopental attenuated alterations of genes involving Ca2+ regulation and significantly modulated abnormal changes of NCX and SERCA2a genes in hypoxia-reoxygenated neonatal cardiomyocytes. Thiopental suppressed disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation. Conclusion Thiopental is likely to modulate expression of genes that regulate Ca2+ homeostasis, which reduces apoptotic cell death and results in cardioprotection. PMID:20191008

  6. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  7. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described

  8. The liver in regulation of iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Gautam; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2017-09-01

    The liver is one of the largest and most functionally diverse organs in the human body. In addition to roles in detoxification of xenobiotics, digestion, synthesis of important plasma proteins, gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism, and storage, the liver also plays a significant role in iron homeostasis. Apart from being the storage site for excess body iron, it also plays a vital role in regulating the amount of iron released into the blood by enterocytes and macrophages. Since iron is essential for many important physiological and molecular processes, it increases the importance of liver in the proper functioning of the body's metabolism. This hepatic iron-regulatory function can be attributed to the expression of many liver-specific or liver-enriched proteins, all of which play an important role in the regulation of iron homeostasis. This review focuses on these proteins and their known roles in the regulation of body iron metabolism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Neutrophils in Homeostasis, Immunity, and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nicolás-Ávila, José Ángel; Adrover, José M; Hidalgo, Andrés

    2017-01-17

    Neutrophils were among the first leukocytes described and visualized by early immunologists. Prominent effector functions during infection and sterile inflammation classically placed them low in the immune tree as rapid, mindless aggressors with poor regulatory functions. This view is currently under reassessment as we uncover new aspects of their life cycle and identify transcriptional and phenotypic diversity that endows them with regulatory properties that extend beyond their lifetime in the circulation. These properties are revealing unanticipated roles for neutrophils in supporting homeostasis, as well as complex disease states such as cancer. We focus this review on these emerging functions in order to define the true roles of neutrophils in homeostasis, immunity, and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Circadian clocks, feeding time, and metabolic homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Paschos, Georgios K.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic processes exhibit diurnal variation from cyanobacteria to humans. The circadian clock is thought to have evolved as a time keeping system for the cell to optimize the timing of metabolic events according to physiological needs and environmental conditions. Circadian rhythms temporally separate incompatible cellular processes and optimize cellular and organismal fitness. A modern 24 h lifestyle can run at odds with the circadian rhythm dictated by our molecular clocks and create desynchrony between internal and external timing. It has been suggested that this desynchrony compromises metabolic homeostasis and may promote the development of obesity (Morris et al., 2012). Here we review the evidence supporting the association between circadian misalignment and metabolic homeostasis and discuss the role of feeding time. PMID:26082718

  11. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis in asphalt workers.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ömer Hınç; Bal, Ceylan; Neşelioglu, Salim; Büyükşekerci, Murat; Gündüzöz, Meşide; Eren, Funda; Tutkun, Lutfiye; Yilmaz, Fatma Meric

    2016-09-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate thiol/disulfide homeostasis in asphalt workers who are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons occupationally. The study was carried out in 34 nonsmoker asphalt workers. Additionally, 35 healthy nonsmoker volunteers were recruited as control group. Thiol and disulfide concentrations were determined using the novel automated measurement method. Levels of urinary 1-OH-pyrene were analyzed by liquid chromatography. Disulfide/thiol ratio was significantly higher in exposed group (p = .034). Also, a positive correlation was detected between disulfide/thiol ratio and 1-OH-pyrene values (r = .249, p = .036). Thiol/disulfide homeostasis was found to be disturbed in asphalt workers. The novel test used in this study may be useful for evaluating the oxidative status in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure.

  12. Sleep and bodily functions: the physiological interplay between body homeostasis and sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Amici, R; Bastianini, S; Berteotti, C; Cerri, M; Del Vecchio, F; Lo Martire, V; Luppi, M; Perez, E; Silvani, A; Zamboni, G; Zoccoli, G

    2014-01-01

    Body homeostasis and sleep homeostasis may both rely on the complex integrative activity carried out by the hypothalamus. Thus, the three main wake-sleep (WS) states (i.e. wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep) may be better understood if the different cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters, which are under the integrated control of the autonomic and the endocrine systems, are studied during sleep monitoring. According to this view, many physiological events can be considered as an expression of the activity that physiological regulations should perform in order to cope with the need to fulfill body and sleep homeostasis. This review is aimed at making an assessment of data showing the existence of a physiological interplay between body homeostasis and sleep homeostasis, starting from the spontaneous changes observed in the somatic and autonomic activity during sleep, through evidence showing the deep changes occurring in the central integration of bodily functions during the different WS states, to the changes in the WS states observed when body homeostasis is challenged by the external environment and when the return to normal ambient conditions allows sleep homeo- stasis to run without apparent physiological restrictions. The data summarized in this review suggest that an approach to the dichotomy between NREM and REM sleep based on physiological regulations may offer a framework within which observations that a traditional behavioral approach may overlook can be interpreted. The study of the interplay between body and sleep homeostasis appears, therefore, to be a way to understand the function of complex organisms beyond that of the specific regulations.

  13. TGFβ restores hematopoietic homeostasis after myelosuppressive chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Brenet, Fabienne; Kermani, Pouneh; Spektor, Roman; Rafii, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    Myelosuppression is a life-threatening complication of antineoplastic therapy, but treatment is restricted to a few cytokines with unilineage hematopoietic activity. Although hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are predominantly quiescent during homeostasis, they are rapidly recruited into cell cycle by stresses, including myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Factors that induce HSCs to proliferate during stress have been characterized, but it is not known how HSC quiescence is then reestablished. In this study, we show that TGFβ signaling is transiently activated in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) during hematopoietic regeneration. Blockade of TGFβ signaling after chemotherapy accelerates hematopoietic reconstitution and delays the return of cycling HSCs to quiescence. In contrast, TGFβ blockade during homeostasis fails to induce cycling of HSPCs. We identified the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Cdkn1c (p57) as a key downstream mediator of TGFβ during regeneration because the recovery of chimeric mice, incapable of expressing p57 in HSPCs, phenocopies blockade of TGFβ signaling after chemotherapy. This study demonstrates that context-dependent activation of TGFβ signaling is central to an unrecognized counterregulatory mechanism that promotes homeostasis once hematopoiesis has sufficiently recovered from myelosuppressive chemotherapy. These results open the door to new, potentially superior, approaches to promote multilineage hematopoietic recovery by blocking the TGFβ signaling that dampens regeneration. PMID:23440043

  14. Impact of intermittent fasting on glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Varady, Krista A

    2016-07-01

    This article provides an overview of the most recent human trials that have examined the impact of intermittent fasting on glucose homeostasis. Our literature search retrieved one human trial of alternate day fasting, and three trials of Ramadan fasting published in the past 12 months. Current evidence suggests that 8 weeks of alternate day fasting that produces mild weight loss (4% from baseline) has no effect on glucose homeostasis. As for Ramadan fasting, decreases in fasting glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance have been noted after 4 weeks in healthy normal weight individuals with mild weight loss (1-2% from baseline). However, Ramadan fasting may have little impact on glucoregulatory parameters in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who failed to observe weight loss. Whether intermittent fasting is an effective means of regulating glucose homeostasis remains unclear because of the scarcity of studies in this area. Large-scale, longer-term randomized controlled trials will be required before the use of fasting can be recommended for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases.

  15. Oxidative Stress and Autophagy in Cardiovascular Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Cyndi R.; Pedrozo, Zully; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient process of intracellular protein and organelle recycling required to maintain cellular homeostasis in the face of a wide variety of stresses. Dysregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) leads to oxidative damage. Both autophagy and ROS/RNS serve pathological or adaptive roles within cardiomyocytes, depending on the context. Recent Advances: ROS/RNS and autophagy communicate with each other via both transcriptional and post-translational events. This cross talk, in turn, regulates the structural integrity of cardiomyocytes, promotes proteostasis, and reduces inflammation, events critical to disease pathogenesis. Critical Issues: Dysregulation of either autophagy or redox state has been implicated in many cardiovascular diseases. Cardiomyocytes are rich in mitochondria, which make them particularly sensitive to oxidative damage. Maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis and elimination of defective mitochondria are each critical to the maintenance of redox homeostasis. Future Directions: The complex interplay between autophagy and oxidative stress underlies a wide range of physiological and pathological events and its elucidation holds promise of potential clinical applicability. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 507–518. PMID:23641894

  16. Physiology and pathophysiology of potassium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-12-01

    Total body potassium content and proper distribution of potassium across the cell membrane is of critical importance for normal cellular function. Potassium homeostasis is maintained by several different methods. In the kidney, total body potassium content is achieved by alterations in renal excretion of potassium in response to variations in intake. Insulin and beta-adrenergic tone play critical roles in maintaining the internal distribution of potassium under normal conditions. Despite homeostatic pathways designed to maintain potassium levels within the normal range, disorders of altered potassium homeostasis are common. The clinical approach to designing effective treatments relies on understanding the pathophysiology and regulatory influences which govern the internal distribution and external balance of potassium. Here we provide an overview of the key regulatory aspects of normal potassium physiology. This review is designed to provide an overview of potassium homeostasis as well as provide references of seminal papers to guide the reader into a more in depth discussion of the importance of potassium balance. This review is designed to be a resource for educators and well-informed clinicians who are teaching trainees about the importance of potassium balance. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Genetics of hereditary disorders of magnesium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Schlingmann, Karl P; Konrad, Martin; Seyberth, Hannsjörg W

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium plays an essential role in many biochemical and physiological processes. Homeostasis of magnesium is tightly regulated and depends on the balance between intestinal absorption and renal excretion. During the last decades, various hereditary disorders of magnesium handling have been clinically characterized and genetic studies in affected individuals have led to the identification of some molecular components of cellular magnesium transport. In addition to these hereditary forms of magnesium deficiency, recent studies have revealed a high prevalence of latent hypomagnesemia in the general population. This finding is of special interest in view of the association between hypomagnesemia and common chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and asthma. However, valuable methods for the diagnosis of body and tissue magnesium deficiency are still lacking. This review focuses on clinical and genetic aspects of hereditary disorders of magnesium homeostasis. We will review primary defects of epithelial magnesium transport, disorders associated with defects in Ca(2+)/ Mg(2+) sensing, as well as diseases characterized by renal salt wasting and hypokalemic alkalosis, with special emphasis on disturbed magnesium homeostasis.

  18. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, V; Kurdoglu, Z; Alisik, M; Turgut, E; Sezgın, O O; Korkmaz, H; Ergun, Y; Erel, O

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of postmenopausal osteoporosis on thiol/disulfide homeostasis. A total of 75 participants were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 40) was composed of healthy postmenopausal women, and group 2 (n = 35) was composed of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Clinical findings and thiol/disulfide homeostasis were compared between the two groups. The disulfide/native thiol ratio was 8.6% ± 3.6 in group 1 and 12.7% ± 8.4 in group 2 (p = 0.04). The disulfide/native thiol percent ratio was significantly higher in group 2 after adjustment for the years since menopause and age (p < 0.05). The native thiol/total thiol percent ratio was 85.6% ± 4.8 in group 1 and 73.8% ± 24.9 in group 2 (p = 0.01). The native thiol/total thiol percent ratio was significantly lower in group 2 after adjustment for the years since menopause and age (p < 0.05). Thiol/disulfide homeostasis shifted to the disulfide side independent of age and years since menopause in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Trent and zinc homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Corey B; Harrison, Mark D; Huygens, Flavia

    2017-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen and the major cause of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. The mechanisms that P. aeruginosa strains use to regulate intracellular zinc have an effect on infection, antibiotic resistance and the propensity to form biofilms. However, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa strains of variable infectivity has not been compared. In this study, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa Trent, a highly infectious clinical strain, was compared to that of a laboratory P. aeruginosa strain, ATCC27853. Trent was able to tolerate higher concentrations of additional zinc in rich media than ATCC27853. Further, pre-adaptation to additional zinc enhanced the growth of Trent at non-inhibitory concentrations but the impact of pre-adaption on the growth of ATCC27853 under the same conditions was minimal. The results establish clear differences in zinc-induced responses in Trent and ATCC27853, and how zinc homeostasis can be a promising target for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies for P. aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Neural control of breathing and CO2 homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Guyenet, P.G.; Bayliss, D.A

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent advances have clarified how the brain detects CO2 to regulate breathing (central respiratory chemoreception). These mechanisms are reviewed and their significance is presented in the general context of CO2/pH homeostasis through breathing. At rest, respiratory chemoreflexes initiated at peripheral and central sites mediate rapid stabilization of arterial PCO2 and pH. Specific brainstem neurons (e.g., retrotrapezoid nucleus, RTN; serotonergic) are activated by PCO2 and stimulate breathing. RTN neurons detect CO2 via intrinsic proton receptors (TASK-2, GPR4), synaptic input from peripheral chemoreceptors and signals from astrocytes. Respiratory chemoreflexes are arousal state-dependent whereas chemoreceptor stimulation produces arousal. When abnormal, these interactions lead to sleep-disordered breathing. During exercise, “central command” and reflexes from exercising muscles produce the breathing stimulation required to maintain arterial PCO2 and pH despite elevated metabolic activity. The neural circuits underlying central command and muscle afferent control of breathing remain elusive and represent a fertile area for future investigation. PMID:26335642

  1. Aluminium exposure disrupts elemental homeostasis in Caenorhabditis elegans†

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kathryn E.; White, Keith N.; McCrohan, Catherine R.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) is highly abundant in the environment and can elicit a variety of toxic responses in biological systems. Here we characterize the effects of Al on Caenorhabditis elegans by identifying phenotypic abnormalities and disruption in whole-body metal homeostasis (metallostasis) following Al exposure in food. Widespread changes to the elemental content of adult nematodes were observed when chronically exposed to Al from the first larval stage (L1). Specifically, we saw increased barium, chromium, copper and iron content, and a reduction in calcium levels. Lifespan was decreased in worms exposed to low levels of Al, but unexpectedly increased when the Al concentration reached higher levels (4.8 mM). This bi-phasic phenotype was only observed when Al exposure occurred during development, as lifespan was unaffected by Al exposure during adulthood. Lower levels of Al slowed C. elegans developmental progression, and reduced hermaphrodite self-fertility and adult body size. Significant developmental delay was observed even when Al exposure was restricted to embryogenesis. Similar changes in Al have been noted in association with Al toxicity in humans and other mammals, suggesting that C. elegans may be of use as a model for understanding the mechanisms of Al toxicity in mammalian systems. PMID:22534883

  2. Mesothalamic discharge in a chronic pain, allergy and fluid retention syndrome (case report).

    PubMed

    Andy, O J; Nicholas, W; Dearman, C

    1995-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman was bedridden for a year because of chronic pain and headaches. She had insomnia, depression, suicidal thoughts and a severe chemical allergy. She had been on steroid therapy for two years and became Cushingoid with striae in the arm pits, groins and abdomen. However, she had no hypertension, nor the buffalo fat and hirsutism. She was very edematous, with a weight gain from 112 to 180 lbs. The fluid retention did not conform to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone. Studies revealed abnormal scalp EEG discharges and high-voltage seizure discharges in the posterior thalamus. Electrothalamic stimulation suppressed the thalamic discharges and relieved the patient's pelvic pain and headaches. After one month of several thalamic stimulations per day, she was able to get out of bed and ambulate. In addition, the patient no longer was edematous and was tolerating perfumes and floor detergents. Steroids were progressively reduced without complications of withdrawal. She went from a completely steroid dependent state to independent during the first 1-1/2 yrs of thalamic stimulation. With continued thalamic stimulation she has done well for 8-1/2 yrs, weighs 112 lbs, keeps house and drives a car. It's speculated the illness is a chronic pain multiple syndrome predominantly due to mesothalamic discharges and body infirmities. The mesothalamic discharge implicated neural networks, which represent biologic systems, i.e. pain, sleep, fluid retention, etc. Therapeutic stimulation attenuates the discharges and the neural networks return to their normal set points of homeostasis.

  3. Fluid therapy in small ruminants and camelids.

    PubMed

    Jones, Meredyth; Navarre, Christine

    2014-07-01

    Body water, electrolytes, and acid-base balance are important considerations in the evaluation and treatment of small ruminants and camelids with any disease process, with restoration of these a priority as adjunctive therapy. The goals of fluid therapy should be to maintain cardiac output and tissue perfusion, and to correct acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities. Hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, and acidosis are the most life-threatening abnormalities, and require most immediate correction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhapsmore » reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.« less

  5. Disruption of the mouse Jhy gene causes abnormal ciliary microtubule patterning and juvenile hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Appelbe, Oliver K.; Bollman, Bryan; Attarwala, Ali; Triebes, Lindy A.; Muniz-Talavera, Hilmarie; Curry, Daniel J.; Schmidt, Jennifer V.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Congenital hydrocephalus, the accumulation of excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain, affects one of every 1,000 children born today, making it one of the most common human developmental disorders. Genetic causes of hydrocephalus are poorly understood in humans, but animal models suggest a broad genetic program underlying the regulation of CSF balance. In this study, the random integration of a transgene into the mouse genome led to the development of an early onset and rapidly progressive hydrocephalus. Juvenile hydrocephalus transgenic mice (JhylacZ) inherit communicating hydrocephalus in an autosomal recessive fashion with dilation of the lateral ventricles observed as early as postnatal day 1.5. Ventricular dilation increases in severity over time, becoming fatal at 4-8 weeks of age. The ependymal cilia lining the lateral ventricles are morphologically abnormal and reduced in number in JhylacZ/lacZ brains, and ultrastructural analysis revealed disorganization of the expected 9+2 microtubule pattern. Rather, the majority of JhylacZ/lacZ cilia develop axonemes with 9+0 or 8+2 microtubule structures. Disruption of an unstudied gene, 4931429I11Rik (now named Jhy) appears to underlie the hydrocephalus of JhylacZ/lacZ mice, and the Jhy transcript and protein are decreased in JhylacZ/lacZ mice. Partial phenotypic rescue was achieved in JhylacZ/lacZ mice by the introduction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) carrying 60-70% of the JHY protein coding sequence. Jhy is evolutionarily conserved from humans to basal vertebrates, but the predicted JHY protein lacks identifiable functional domains. Ongoing studies are directed at uncovering the physiological function of JHY and its role in CSF homeostasis. PMID:23906841

  6. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound

  7. Skin - abnormally dark or light

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003242.htm Abnormally dark or light skin To use the sharing features ... The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the degree of ...

  8. Deregulation of ocular nucleotide homeostasis in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Loukovaara, Sirpa; Sandholm, Jouko; Aalto, Kristiina; Liukkonen, Janne; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Yegutkin, Gennady G

    2017-02-01

    Clear signaling roles for ATP and adenosine have been established in all tissues, including the eye. The magnitude of signaling responses is governed by networks of enzymes; however, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of purinergic signaling in the eye. By employing thin-layer chromatographic assays with 3 H-labeled substrates, this study aimed to evaluate the role of nucleotide homeostasis in the pathogenesis of vitreoretinal diseases in humans. We have identified soluble enzymes ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73, adenylate kinase-1, and nucleoside diphosphate kinase in the vitreous fluid that control active cycling between pro-inflammatory ATP and anti-inflammatory adenosine. Strikingly, patients with proliferative form of diabetic retinopathy (DR) had higher adenylate kinase activity and ATP concentration, when compared to non-proliferative DR eyes and non-diabetic controls operated for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, macular hole, and pucker. The non-parametric correlation analysis revealed positive correlations between intravitreal adenylate kinase and concentrations of ATP, ADP, and other angiogenic (angiopoietins-1 and -2), profibrotic (transforming growth factor-β1), and proteolytic (matrix metalloproteinase-9) factors but not erythropoietin and VEGF. Immunohistochemical staining of postmortem human retina additionally revealed selective expression of ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 on the rod-and-cone-containing photoreceptor cells. Collectively, these findings provide novel insights into the regulatory mechanisms that influence purinergic signaling in diseased eye and open up new possibilities in the development of enzyme-targeted therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR. Ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 and adenylate kinase-1 circulate in human vitreous fluid. Adenylate kinase activity is high in diabetic eyes with proliferative retinopathy. Diabetic eyes display higher intravitreal ATP/ADP ratio than non-diabetic controls. Soluble adenylate

  9. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  10. Biochemical abnormalities in neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Sood, Arvind; Grover, Neelam; Sharma, Roshan

    2003-03-01

    The presence of seizure does not constitute a diagnoses but it is a symptom of an underlying central nervous system disorder due to systemic or biochemical disturbances. Biochemical disturbances occur frequently in the neonatal seizures either as an underlying cause or as an associated abnormality. In their presence, it is difficult to control seizure and there is a risk of further brain damage. Early recognition and treatment of biochemical disturbances is essential for optimal management and satisfactory long term outcome. The present study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in IGMC Shimla on 59 neonates. Biochemical abnormalities were detected in 29 (49.15%) of cases. Primary metabolic abnormalities occurred in 10(16.94%) cases of neonatal seizures, most common being hypocalcaemia followed by hypoglycemia, other metabolic abnormalities include hypomagnesaemia and hyponateremia. Biochemical abnormalities were seen in 19(38.77%) cases of non metabolic seizure in neonates. Associated metabolic abnormalities were observed more often with Hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (11 out of 19) cases and hypoglycemia was most common in this group. No infant had hyponateremia, hyperkelemia or low zinc level.

  11. Disruption of iron homeostasis and lung disease.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Andrew J

    2009-07-01

    As a result of a direct exchange with the external environment, the lungs are exposed to both iron and agents with a capacity to disrupt the homeostasis of this metal (e.g. particles). An increased availability of catalytically reactive iron can result from these exposures and, by generating an oxidative stress, this metal can contribute to tissue injury. By importing this Fe(3+) into cells for storage in a chemically less reactive form, the lower respiratory tract demonstrates an ability to mitigate both the oxidative stress presented by iron and its potential for tissue injury. This means that detoxification is accomplished by chemical reduction to Fe(2+) (e.g. by duodenal cytochrome b and other ferrireductases), iron import (e.g. by divalent metal transporter 1 and other transporters), and storage in ferritin. The metal can subsequently be exported from the cell (e.g. by ferroportin 1) in a less reactive state relative to that initially imported. Iron is then transported out of the lung via the mucociliary pathway or blood and lymphatic pathways to the reticuloendothelial system for long term storage. This coordinated handling of iron in the lung appears to be disrupted in several acute diseases on the lung including infections, acute respiratory distress syndrome, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and ischemia-reperfusion. Exposures to bleomycin, dusts and fibers, and paraquat similarly alter iron homeostasis in the lung to affect an oxidative stress. Finally, iron homeostasis is disrupted in numerous chronic lung diseases including pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, transplantation, cigarette smoking, and cystic fibrosis.

  12. The Role of Aquaporins in Ocular Lens Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Schey, Kevin L.; Petrova, Rosica S.; Gletten, Romell B.; Donaldson, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs), by playing essential roles in the maintenance of ocular lens homeostasis, contribute to the establishment and maintenance of the overall optical properties of the lens over many decades of life. Three aquaporins, AQP0, AQP1 and AQP5, each with distinctly different functional properties, are abundantly and differentially expressed in the different regions of the ocular lens. Furthermore, the diversity of AQP functionality is increased in the absence of protein turnover by age-related modifications to lens AQPs that are proposed to alter AQP function in the different regions of the lens. These regional differences in AQP functionality are proposed to contribute to the generation and directionality of the lens internal microcirculation; a system of circulating ionic and fluid fluxes that delivers nutrients to and removes wastes from the lens faster than could be achieved by passive diffusion alone. In this review, we present how regional differences in lens AQP isoforms potentially contribute to this microcirculation system by highlighting current areas of investigation and emphasizing areas where future work is required. PMID:29231874

  13. [Acid-base homeostasis and the thyro-parathyroid glands].

    PubMed

    Cuisinier-Gleizes, P; George, A; Thomasset, M; Mathieu, H

    1975-05-12

    Chronic metabolic acidosis entails hyperparathyroidism and osteopathy. In order to elucidate the role of the thyroparathyroids in this bone lesion production the effects of acidic diet for 7 weeks were studied in parathyroidectomized (PTX), thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) and shamoperated (Sh-O) growing rats. In all animals urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, ammonium and titrable acidity was similarly increased. The rise in hydroxyproline excretion and urinary 85-sr (that was injected previous to acidic feeding) was more marked in PTX and TPTX rats. Moreover, in these animals the serum calcium level was increased, the blood pH was decreased. According to these data, an acidic diet intake that is not sufficient to elicit a fall in blood pH of normal young rats can induce severe acidosis in chronically parathyroidectomized or thyroparathyroidectomized animals; moreover the bone resorption appears more marked. It is concluded that parathyroids are involved in the extra-cellular fluid defense mechanism against acidosis by a no bone resorptive mechanism. We hypothesize that the parathyroids permit the necessary and adequate supply of bicarbonates by the bone to maintain blood pH homeostasis.

  14. Diuretics and disorders of calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Grieff, Marvin; Bushinsky, David A

    2011-11-01

    Diuretics commonly are administered in disorders of sodium balance. Loop diuretics inhibit the Na-K-2Cl transporter and also increase calcium excretion. They are often used in the treatment of hypercalcemia. Thiazide diuretics block the thiazide-sensitive NaCl transporter in the distal convoluted tubule, and can decrease calcium excretion. They are often used in the treatment of nephrolithiasis. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decrease bicarbonate absorption and the resultant metabolic acidosis can increase calcium excretion. Their use can promote nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. This review will address the use of diuretics on disorders of calcium homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Christina; Stöllberger, Claudia; Hlavin, Anton; Finsterer, Josef; Hager, Isabella; Hermann, Peter

    2008-12-01

    To determine in a cross-sectional study the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in opiate addicts who were therapy-seeking and its association with demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters. In consecutive therapy-seeking opiate addicts, a 12-lead ECG was registered within 24 hours after admission and evaluated according to a pre-set protocol between October 2004 and August 2006. Additionally, demographic, clinical and drug-specific parameters were recorded. Included were 511 opiate-addicts, 25% female, with a mean age of 29 years (range 17-59 years). One or more ECG abnormalities were found in 314 patients (61%). In the 511 patients we found most commonly ST abnormalities (19%), QTc prolongation (13%), tall R- and/or S-waves (11%) and missing R progression (10%). ECG abnormalities were more common in males than in females (64 versus 54%, P < 0.05), and in patients with positive than negative urine findings for cannabis (68 versus 57%, P < 0.05). Patients with ST abnormalities were more often males than females (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05), had a history of seizures less often (16 versus 27%, P < 0.05), had positive than negative urine findings for cannabis more often (26 versus 15%, P < 0.01) and had negative than positive urine findings for methadone more often (21 versus 11%, P < 0.05). QTc prolongation was more frequent in patients with high dosages of maintenance drugs than in patients with medium or low dosages (27 versus 12 versus 10%, P < 0.05) and in patients whose urine findings were positive than negative for methadone (23 versus 11%, P < 0.001) as well as for benzodiazepines (17 versus 9%, P < 0.05). Limitations of the data are that in most cases other risk factors for the cardiac abnormalities were not known. ECG abnormalities are frequent in opiate addicts. The most frequent ECG abnormalities are ST abnormalities, QTc prolongation and tall R- and/or S-waves. ST abnormalities are associated with cannabis, and QTc prolongation

  16. Airway surface liquid homeostasis in cystic fibrosis: pathophysiology and therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Haq, Iram J; Gray, Michael A; Garnett, James P; Ward, Christopher; Brodlie, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting disease characterised by recurrent respiratory infections, inflammation and lung damage. The volume and composition of the airway surface liquid (ASL) are important in maintaining ciliary function, mucociliary clearance and antimicrobial properties of the airway. In CF, these homeostatic mechanisms are impaired, leading to a dehydrated and acidic ASL. ASL volume depletion in CF is secondary to defective anion transport by the abnormal cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR). Abnormal CFTR mediated bicarbonate transport creates an unfavourable, acidic environment, which impairs antimicrobial function and alters mucus properties and clearance. These disease mechanisms create a disordered airway milieu, consisting of thick mucopurulent secretions and chronic bacterial infection. In addition to CFTR, there are additional ion channels and transporters in the apical airway epithelium that play a role in maintaining ASL homeostasis. These include the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), the solute carrier 26A (SLC26A) family of anion exchangers, and calcium-activated chloride channels. In this review we discuss how the ASL is abnormal in CF and how targeting these alternative channels and transporters could provide an attractive therapeutic strategy to correct the underlying ASL abnormalities evident in CF. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. [Glucose homeostasis and gut-brain connection].

    PubMed

    De Vadder, Filipe; Mithieux, Gilles

    2015-02-01

    Since the XIX(th) century, the brain has been known for its role in regulating food intake (via the control of hunger sensation) and glucose homeostasis. Further interest has come from the discovery of gut hormones, which established a clear link between the gut and the brain in regulating glucose and energy homeostasis. The brain has two particular structures, the hypothalamus and the brainstem, which are sensitive to information coming either from peripheral organs or from the gut (via circulating hormones or nutrients) about the nutritional status of the organism. However, the efforts for a better understanding of these mechanisms have allowed to unveil a new gut-brain neural axis as a key regulator of the metabolic status of the organism. Certain nutrients control the hypothalamic homeostatic function via this axis. In this review, we describe how the gut is connected to the brain via different neural pathways, and how the interplay between these two organs drives the energy balance. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  18. Consciousness, endogenous generation of goals and homeostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitolovsky, Lev E.

    2015-08-01

    Behaviour can be both unpredictable and goal directed, as animals act in correspondence with their motivation. Motivation arises when neurons in specific brain areas leave the state of homeostatic equilibrium and are injured. The basic goal of organisms and living cells is to maintain their life and their functional state is optimal if it does not lead to physiological damage. This can somehow be sensed by neurons and the occurrence of damage elicits homeostatic protection to recover excitability and the ability to produces spikes. It can be argued that the neuron's activity is guided on the scale of "damage-protection" and it behaves as an object possessing minimum awareness. The approach of death increases cellular efforts to operate. Thus, homeostasis may evidently produce both maintenance of life and will. The question is - how does homeostasis reach the optimum? We have no possibility of determining how the cell evaluates its own states, e.g. as "too little free energy" or in terms of "threat" to life. In any case, the approach of death increases cellular efforts to operate. For the outside observer, this is reminiscent of intentional action and a manifestation of will.

  19. Motor Force Homeostasis in Skeletal Muscle Contraction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Gao, Huajian

    2011-01-01

    In active biological contractile processes such as skeletal muscle contraction, cellular mitosis, and neuronal growth, an interesting common observation is that multiple motors can perform coordinated and synchronous actions, whereas individual myosin motors appear to randomly attach to and detach from actin filaments. Recent experiment has demonstrated that, during skeletal muscle shortening at a wide range of velocities, individual myosin motors maintain a force of ∼6 pN during a working stroke. To understand how such force-homeostasis can be so precisely regulated in an apparently chaotic system, here we develop a molecular model within a coupled stochastic-elastic theoretical framework. The model reveals that the unique force-stretch relation of myosin motor and the stochastic behavior of actin-myosin binding cause the average number of working motors to increase in linear proportion to the filament load, so that the force on each working motor is regulated at ∼6 pN, in excellent agreement with experiment. This study suggests that it might be a general principle to use catch bonds together with a force-stretch relation similar to that of myosin motors to regulate force homeostasis in many biological processes. PMID:21767492

  20. Measurement of ROS homeostasis in isolated mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Tretter, L; Ambrus, A

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the currently most advanced methods applied for the quantitative assessment of ROS homeostasis inside the mitochondrion. These techniques are of particular interest in the field of oxidative stress. After discussing the importance of quantifying mitochondrial ROS homeostasis, three major aspects of this phenomenon and the pertinent methodologies for detection are delineated in detail. First the most important methods, based on fluorimetric or spectrophotometric approaches, for the detection of mitochondrial ROS are described. Elimination of ROS generated inside the mitochondrion is another crucial mechanism that also needs to be quantified accurately to estimate the antioxidant capacity of mitochondria under specific conditions. Since ROS generation and elimination manifest in concert, there needs to exist independent methods for the estimation of the net effect. Such a sensitive biochemical marker in the mitochondrion is aconitase, a citric acid cycle enzyme which is greatly sensitive to ROS. We describe two procedures for the precise determination of aconitase activity. A few auxiliary techniques and good practices having relevance in the successful accomplishment of the more delicate approaches are also mentioned. All other relevant technical considerations including advantages/disadvantages of the various methods and the most common artifacts are also discussed.

  1. Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis by GLP-1

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Prashant; Chepurny, Oleg G.; Holz, George G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36)amide (GLP-1) is a secreted peptide that acts as a key determinant of blood glucose homeostasis by virtue of its abilities to slow gastric emptying, to enhance pancreatic insulin secretion, and to suppress pancreatic glucagon secretion. GLP-1 is secreted from L cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa in response to a meal, and the blood glucose-lowering action of GLP-1 is terminated due to its enzymatic degradation by dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). Released GLP-1 activates enteric and autonomic reflexes while also circulating as an incretin hormone to control endocrine pancreas function. The GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated directly or indirectly by blood glucose-lowering agents currently in use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These therapeutic agents include GLP-1R agonists (exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide, albiglutide, dulaglutide, and langlenatide) and DPP-IV inhibitors (sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, and alogliptin). Investigational agents for use in the treatment of T2DM include GPR119 and GPR40 receptor agonists that stimulate the release of GLP-1 from L cells. Summarized here is the role of GLP-1 to control blood glucose homeo-stasis, with special emphasis on the advantages and limitations of GLP-1-based therapeutics. PMID:24373234

  2. Lipoproteins, cholesterol homeostasis and cardiac health.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Tyler F; Killinger, Karen M; Michal, Jennifer J; Wright, Raymond W; Jiang, Zhihua

    2009-06-29

    Cholesterol is an essential substance involved in many functions, such as maintaining cell membranes, manufacturing vitamin D on surface of the skin, producing hormones, and possibly helping cell connections in the brain. When cholesterol levels rise in the blood, they can, however, have dangerous consequences. In particular, cholesterol has generated considerable notoriety for its causative role in atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death in developed countries around the world. Homeostasis of cholesterol is centered on the metabolism of lipoproteins, which mediate transport of the lipid to and from tissues. As a synopsis of the major events and proteins that manage lipoprotein homeostasis, this review contributes to the substantial attention that has recently been directed to this area. Despite intense scrutiny, the majority of phenotypic variation in total cholesterol and related traits eludes explanation by current genetic knowledge. This is somewhat disappointing considering heritability estimates have established these traits as highly genetic. Thus, the continued search for candidate genes, mutations, and mechanisms is vital to our understanding of heart disease at the molecular level. Furthermore, as marker development continues to predict risk of vascular illness, this knowledge has the potential to revolutionize treatment of this leading human disease.

  3. Air pollution particles and iron homeostasis | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background: The mechanism underlying biological effects of particles deposited in the lung has not been defined. Major Conclusions: A disruption in iron homeostasis follows exposure of cells to all particulate matter including air pollution particles. Following endocytosis, functional groups at the surface of retained particle complex iron available in the cell. In response to a reduction in concentrations of requisite iron, a functional deficiency can result intracellularly. Superoxide production by the cell exposed to a particle increases ferrireduction which facilitates import of iron with the objective being the reversal of the metal deficiency. Failure to resolve the functional iron deficiency following cell exposure to particles activates kinases and transcription factors resulting in a release of inflammatory mediators and inflammation. Tissue injury is the end product of this disruption in iron homeostasis initiated by the particle exposure. Elevation of available iron to the cell precludes deficiency of the metal and either diminishes or eliminates biological effects.General Significance: Recognition of the pathway for biological effects after particle exposure to involve a functional deficiency of iron suggests novel therapies such as metal supplementation (e.g. inhaled and oral). In addition, the demonstration of a shared mechanism of biological effects allows understanding the common clinical, physiological, and pathological presentation fol

  4. Lipid Raft, Regulator of Plasmodesmal Callose Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Iswanto, Arya Bagus Boedi; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2017-04-03

    A bstract: The specialized plasma membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts are enriched by sterols and sphingolipids. Lipid rafts facilitate cellular signal transduction by controlling the assembly of signaling molecules and membrane protein trafficking. Another specialized compartment of plant cells, the plasmodesmata (PD), which regulates the symplasmic intercellular movement of certain molecules between adjacent cells, also contains a phospholipid bilayer membrane. The dynamic permeability of plasmodesmata (PDs) is highly controlled by plasmodesmata callose (PDC), which is synthesized by callose synthases (CalS) and degraded by β-1,3-glucanases (BGs). In recent studies, remarkable observations regarding the correlation between lipid raft formation and symplasmic intracellular trafficking have been reported, and the PDC has been suggested to be the regulator of the size exclusion limit of PDs. It has been suggested that the alteration of lipid raft substances impairs PDC homeostasis, subsequently affecting PD functions. In this review, we discuss the substantial role of membrane lipid rafts in PDC homeostasis and provide avenues for understanding the fundamental behavior of the lipid raft-processed PDC.

  5. Thiol/disulphide homeostasis in celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Mustafa; Ates, Ihsan; Yuksel, Mahmut; Ozderin Ozin, Yasemin; Alisik, Murat; Erel, Ozcan; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine dynamic thiol/disulphide homeostasis in celiac disease and to examine the associate with celiac autoantibodies and gluten-free diet. METHODS Seventy three patients with celiac disease and 73 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. In both groups, thiol/disulphide homeostasis was examined with a new colorimetric method recently developed by Erel and Neselioglu. RESULTS In patients with celiac disease, native thiol (P = 0.027) and total thiol (P = 0.031) levels were lower, while disulphide (P < 0.001) level, disulphide/native thiol (P < 0.001) and disulphide/total thiol (P < 0.001) ratios were higher compared to the control group. In patients who do not comply with a gluten-free diet, disulphide/native thiol ratio was found higher compared to the patients who comply with the diet (P < 0.001). In patients with any autoantibody-positive, disulphide/native thiol ratio was observed higher compared to the patients with autoantibody-negative (P < 0.05). It is found that there is a negative correlation between celiac autoantibodies, and native thiol, total thiol levels and native thiol/total thiol ratio, while a positive correlation is observed between disulphide, disulphide/native thiol and disulphide/total thiol levels. CONCLUSION This study is first in the literature which found that the patients with celiac disease the dynamic thiol/disulphide balance shifts through disulphide form compared to the control group. PMID:28533921

  6. Preoperative octreotide therapy and surgery in acromegaly: associations between glucose homeostasis and treatment response.

    PubMed

    Helseth, R; Carlsen, S M; Bollerslev, J; Svartberg, J; Øksnes, M; Skeie, S; Fougner, S L

    2016-02-01

    In acromegaly, high GH/IGF-1 levels associate with abnormal glucose metabolism. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) reduce GH and IGF-1 but inhibit insulin secretion. We studied glucose homeostasis in de novo patients with acromegaly and changes in glucose metabolism after treatment with SSA and surgery. In this post hoc analysis from a randomized controlled trial, 55 de novo patients with acromegaly, not using antidiabetic medication, were included. Before surgery, 26 patients received SSAs for 6 months. HbA1c, fasting glucose, and oral glucose tolerance test were performed at baseline, after SSA pretreatment and at 3 months postoperative. Area under curve of glucose (AUC-G) was calculated. Glucose homeostasis was compared to baseline levels of GH and IGF-1, change after SSA pretreatment, and remission both after SSA pretreatment and 3 months postoperative. In de novo patients, IGF-1/GH levels did not associate with baseline glucose parameters. After SSA pretreatment, changes in GH/IGF-1 correlated positively to change in HbA1c levels (both p < 0.03). HbA1c, fasting glucose, and AUC-G increased significantly during SSA pretreatment in patients not achieving hormonal control (all p < 0.05) but did not change significantly in patients with normalized hormone levels. At 3 months postoperative, HbA1c, fasting glucose, and AUC-G were significantly reduced in both cured and not cured patients (all p < 0.05). To conclude, in de novo patients with acromegaly, disease activity did not correlate with glucose homeostasis. Surgical treatment of acromegaly improved glucose metabolism in both cured and not cured patients, while SSA pretreatment led to deterioration in glucose homeostasis in patients not achieving biochemical control.

  7. PREFACE: Ionic fluids Ionic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Yan; Kornyshev, Alexei; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2009-10-01

    In spite of its apparent simplicity Coulomb law, when applied to many body systems, leads to an amazingly rich mathematical structure. The simple idea that two similarly charged objects always repel, is not necessarily true in a colloidal suspension or a dusty plasma. Neither can one simply predict the direction of the electrophoretic motion of a polyion from only knowing its chemical charge. Strong Coulomb correlations in ionic fluids result in instabilities very similar to the gas--liquid phase separation observed in atomic fluids. It is fair to say that bulk behavior of simple aqueous monovalent electrolytes is now very well understood. Unfortunately this is not the case for multivalent electrolytes or molten salts. In these systems cation-anion association leads to strong non-linear effects which manifest themselves in formations of tightly bound ionic clusters. In spite of the tremendous effort invested over the years, our understanding of these systems remains qualitative. In this special issue we have collected articles from some of the biggest experts working on ionic fluids. The papers are both experimental and theoretical. They range from simple electrolytes in the bulk and near interfaces, to polyelectrolytes, colloids, and molten salts. The special issue, covers a wide spectrum of the ongoing research on ionic fluids. All readers should find something of interest here.

  8. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna Images Ear abnormalities Pinna of the newborn ear References Haddad J, Keesecker S. Congenital malformations. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ...

  9. Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pnueli, David; Gutfinger, Chaim

    1997-01-01

    This text is intended for the study of fluid mechanics at an intermediate level. The presentation starts with basic concepts, in order to form a sound conceptual structure that can support engineering applications and encourage further learning. The presentation is exact, incorporating both the mathematics involved and the physics needed to understand the various phenomena in fluid mechanics. Where a didactical choice must be made between the two, the physics prevails. Throughout the book the authors have tried to reach a balance between exact presentation, intuitive grasp of new ideas, and creative applications of concepts. This approach is reflected in the examples presented in the text and in the exercises given at the end of each chapter. Subjects treated are hydrostatics, viscous flow, similitude and order of magnitude, creeping flow, potential flow, boundary layer flow, turbulent flow, compressible flow, and non-Newtonian flows. This book is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Solutions manual available.

  10. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  11. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  12. Endocrine abnormalities in lithium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Gabriella; Mishra, Vinita; Nikolova, Stanka

    2017-10-01

    Lithium toxicity can manifest as a variety of biochemical -abnormalities. This case report describes a patient -presenting to the emergency department with neuropsychiatric -symptoms on a background of bipolar disorder, for which she was prescribed lithium for 26 years previously. Cases of lithium toxicity are rare but can be severe and this case report -demonstrates to clinicians that they must be thorough in investigating patients with lithium toxicity, as there are many potential abnormalities that can manifest concurrently. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  13. Cellular homeostasis in fungi: impact on the aging process.

    PubMed

    Scheckhuber, Christian Q; Hamann, Andrea; Brust, Diana; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2012-01-01

    Cellular quality control pathways are needed for maintaining the biological function of organisms. If these pathways become compromised, the results are usually highly detrimental. Functional impairments of cell components can lead to diseases and in extreme cases to organismal death. Dysfunction of cells can be induced by a number of toxic by-products that are formed during metabolic activity, like reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, for example. A key source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the organelles of oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondria. Therefore mitochondrial function is also directly affected by ROS, especially if there is a compromised ROS-scavenging capacity. Biological systems therefore depend on several lines of defence to counteract the toxic effects of ROS and other damaging agents. The first level is active at the molecular level and consists of various proteases that bind and degrade abnormally modified and / or aggregated mitochondrial proteins. The second level is concerned with maintaining the quality of whole mitochondria. Among the pathways of this level are mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy (mitophagy). Mitochondrial dynamics describes the time-dependent fusion and fission of mitochondria. It is argued that this kind of organellar dynamics has the power to restore the function of impaired organelles by content mixing with intact organelles. If the first and second lines of defence against damage fail and mitochondria become damaged too severely, there is the option to remove affected cells before they can elicit more damage to their surrounding environment by apoptosis. This form of programmed cell death is strictly regulated by a complex network of interacting components and can be divided into mitochondria-dependent and mitochondria-independent modes of action. In this review we give an overview on various biological quality control systems in fungi (yeasts and filamentous fungi) with an emphasis on autophagy (mitophagy) and

  14. Peroxisomal abnormalities in the immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) cell line.

    PubMed

    Klouwer, Femke C C; Koster, Janet; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Waterham, Hans R

    2017-04-01

    The immortalized human hepatocyte (IHH) cell line is increasingly used for studies related to liver metabolism, including hepatic glucose, lipid, lipoprotein and triglyceride metabolism, and the effect of therapeutic interventions. To determine whether the IHH cell line is a good model to investigate hepatic peroxisomal metabolism, we measured several peroxisomal parameters in IHH cells and, for comparison, HepG2 cells and primary skin fibroblasts. This revealed a marked plasmalogen deficiency and a deficient fatty acid α-oxidation in the IHH cells, due to a defect of PEX7, a cytosolic receptor protein required for peroxisomal import of a subset of peroxisomal proteins. These abnormalities have consequences for the lipid homeostasis of these cells and thus should be taken into account for the interpretation of data previously generated by using this cell line and when considering using this cell line for future research.

  15. TAM Receptor Signaling in Immune Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rothlin, Carla V.; Carrera-Silva, Eugenio A.; Bosurgi, Lidia; Ghosh, Sourav

    2015-01-01

    The TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)—TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK—together with their cognate agonists GAS6 and PROS1 play an essential role in the resolution of inflammation. Deficiencies in TAM signaling have been associated with chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Three processes regulated by TAM signaling may contribute, either independently or collectively, to immune homeostasis: the negative regulation of the innate immune response, the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, and the restoration of vascular integrity. Recent studies have also revealed the function of TAMs in infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we review the important milestones in the discovery of these RTKs and their ligands and the studies that underscore the functional importance of this signaling pathway in physiological immune settings and disease. PMID:25594431

  16. Mechanisms of copper homeostasis in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Argüello, José M.; Raimunda, Daniel; Padilla-Benavides, Teresita

    2013-01-01

    Copper is an important micronutrient required as a redox co-factor in the catalytic centers of enzymes. However, free copper is a potential hazard because of its high chemical reactivity. Consequently, organisms exert a tight control on Cu+ transport (entry-exit) and traffic through different compartments, ensuring the homeostasis required for cuproprotein synthesis and prevention of toxic effects. Recent studies based on biochemical, bioinformatics, and metalloproteomics approaches, reveal a highly regulated system of transcriptional regulators, soluble chaperones, membrane transporters, and target cuproproteins distributed in the various bacterial compartments. As a result, new questions have emerged regarding the diversity and apparent redundancies of these components, their irregular presence in different organisms, functional interactions, and resulting system architectures. PMID:24205499

  17. Nitric oxide and plant iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Buet, Agustina; Simontacchi, Marcela

    2015-03-01

    Like all living organisms, plants demand iron (Fe) for important biochemical and metabolic processes. Internal imbalances, as a consequence of insufficient or excess Fe in the environment, lead to growth restriction and affect crop yield. Knowledge of signals and factors affecting each step in Fe uptake from the soil and distribution (long-distance transport, remobilization from old to young leaves, and storage in seeds) is necessary to improve our understanding of plant mineral nutrition. In this context, the role of nitric oxide (NO) is discussed as a key player in maintaining Fe homeostasis through its cross talk with hormones, ferritin, and frataxin and the ability to form nitrosyl-iron complexes. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Role of Circadian Rhythms in Potassium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Gumz, Michelle L.; Rabinowitz, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    It has been known for decades that urinary potassium excretion varies with a circadian pattern. In this review, we consider the historical evidence for this phenomenon and present an overview of recent developments in the field. Extensive evidence from the latter part of the last century clearly demonstrates that circadian potassium excretion does not depend on endogenous aldosterone. Of note is the recent discovery that the expression of several renal potassium transporters varies with a circadian pattern that appears to be consistent with substantial clinical data regarding daily fluctuations in urinary potassium levels. We propose the circadian clock mechanism as a key regulator of renal potassium transporters, and consequently renal potassium excretion. Further investigation into the mechanism of regulation of renal potassium transport by the circadian clock is warranted in order to increase our understanding of the clinical relevance of circadian rhythms to potassium homeostasis. PMID:23953800

  19. Lung Adenocarcinoma Distally Rewires Hepatic Circadian Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Selma; Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Kinouchi, Kenichiro; Liu, Yu; Cervantes, Marlene; Baldi, Pierre; Jacks, Tyler; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The circadian clock controls metabolic and physiological processes through finely tuned molecular mechanisms. The clock is remarkably plastic and adapts to exogenous zeitgebers, such as light and nutrition. How a pathological condition in a given tissue influences systemic circadian homeostasis in other tissues remains an unanswered question of conceptual and biomedical importance. Here we show that lung adenocarcinoma operates as an endogenous reorganizer of circadian metabolism. High-throughput transcriptomics and metabolomics revealed unique signatures of transcripts and metabolites cycling exclusively in livers of tumor-bearing mice. Remarkably, lung cancer has no effect on the core clock, but rather reprograms hepatic metabolism through altered pro-inflammatory response via the STAT3-Socs3 pathway. This results in disruption of AKT, AMPK and SREBP signaling, leading to altered insulin, glucose and lipid metabolism. Thus, lung adenocarcinoma functions as a potent endogenous circadian organizer (ECO), which rewires the pathophysiological dimension of a distal tissue such as the liver. PMID:27153497

  20. Cyclophilin A in cardiovascular homeostasis and diseases.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kimio

    2015-01-01

    Vascular homeostasis is regulated by complex interactions between many vascular cell components, including endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), adventitial inflammatory cells, and autonomic nervous system. The balance between oxidant and antioxidant systems determines intracellular redox status, and their imbalance can cause oxidative stress. Excessive oxidative stress is one of the important stimuli that induce cellular damage and dysregulation of vascular cell components, leading to vascular diseases through multiple pathways. Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is one of the causative proteins that mediate oxidative stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. CyPA was initially discovered as the intracellular receptor of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine 30 years ago. However, recent studies have established that CyPA is secreted from vascular cell components, such as endothelial cells and VSMCs. Extracellular CyPA augments the development of cardiovascular diseases. CyPA secretion is regulated by Rho-kinase, which contributes to the pathogenesis of vasospasm, arteriosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and heart failure. We recently reported that plasma CyPA levels are significantly higher in patients with coronary artery disease, which is associated with increased numbers of stenotic coronary arteries and the need for coronary intervention in such patients. Furthermore, we showed that the vascular erythropoietin (Epo)/Epo receptor system plays an important role in production of nitric oxide and maintenance of vascular redox state and homeostasis, with a potential mechanistic link to the Rho-kinase-CyPA pathway. In this article, I review the data on the protective role of the vascular Epo/Epo receptor system and discuss the roles of the CyPA/Rho-kinase system in cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Iron Homeostasis and Nutritional Iron Deficiency123

    PubMed Central

    Theil, Elizabeth C.

    2011-01-01

    Nonheme food ferritin (FTN) iron minerals, nonheme iron complexes, and heme iron contribute to the balance between food iron absorption and body iron homeostasis. Iron absorption depends on membrane transporter proteins DMT1, PCP/HCP1, ferroportin (FPN), TRF2, and matriptase 2. Mutations in DMT1 and matriptase-2 cause iron deficiency; mutations in FPN, HFE, and TRF2 cause iron excess. Intracellular iron homeostasis depends on coordinated regulation of iron trafficking and storage proteins encoded in iron responsive element (IRE)-mRNA. The noncoding IRE-mRNA structures bind protein repressors, IRP1 or 2, during iron deficiency. Integration of the IRE-RNA in translation regulators (near the cap) or turnover elements (after the coding region) increases iron uptake (DMT1/TRF1) or decreases iron storage/efflux (FTN/FPN) when IRP binds. An antioxidant response element in FTN DNA binds Bach1, a heme-sensitive transcription factor that coordinates expression among antioxidant response proteins like FTN, thioredoxin reductase, and quinone reductase. FTN, an antioxidant because Fe2+ and O2 (reactive oxygen species generators) are consumed to make iron mineral, is also a nutritional iron concentrate that is an efficiently absorbed, nonheme source of iron from whole legumes. FTN protein cages contain thousands of mineralized iron atoms and enter cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, an absorption mechanism distinct from transport of nonheme iron salts (ferrous sulfate), iron chelators (ferric-EDTA), or heme. Recognition of 2 nutritional nonheme iron sources, small and large (FTN), will aid the solution of iron deficiency, a major public health problem, and the development of new policies on iron nutrition. PMID:21346101

  2. Altered transition metal homeostasis in Niemann-Pick disease, Type C1

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ya Hui; Faux, Noel G.; Killilea, David W.; Yanjanin, Nicole; Firnkes, Sally; Volitakis, Irene; Ganio, George; Walterfang, Mark; Hastings, Caroline; Porter, Forbes D.; Ory, Daniel S.; Bush, Ashley I.

    2014-01-01

    The loss of NPC1 protein function is the predominant cause of Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NP-C1), a systemic and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by late-endosomal/lysosomal accumulation of cholesterol and other lipids. Limited evidence from post-mortem human tissues, an Npc1−/− mouse model, and cell culture studies also suggest failure of metal homeostasis in NP-C1. To investigate these findings, we performed a comprehensive transition metal analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), plasma and tissue samples from human NP-C1 patients and an Npc1−/− mouse model. NPC1 deficiency in the Npc1−/− mouse model resulted in a perturbation of transition metal homeostasis in the plasma and key organs (brain, liver, spleen, heart, lungs, and kidneys). Analysis of human patient CSF, plasma and post-mortem brain tissues also indicated disrupted metal homeostasis. There was a disparity in the direction of metal changes between the human and the Npc1−/− mouse samples, which may reflect species-specific metal metabolism. Nevertheless, common to both species is brain zinc accumulation. Furthermore, treatment with the glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor miglustat, the only drug shown in a controlled clinical trial to have some efficacy for NP-C1, did not correct the alterations in CSF and plasma transition metal and ceruloplasmin (CP) metabolism in NP-C1 patients. These findings highlight the importance of NPC1 function in metal homeostasis, and indicate that metal-targeting therapy may be of value as a treatment for NP-C. PMID:24343124

  3. A humanized system to expand in vitro amniotic fluid-derived stem cells intended for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Daniela; Pereira, Rui Cruz; Mogni, Massimo; Benelli, Roberto; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Coviello, Domenico; Cancedda, Ranieri; Gentili, Chiara

    2016-03-01

    The amniotic fluid is a new source of multipotent stem cells with therapeutic potential for human diseases. In agreement with the regulatory requirement to reduce and possibly to avoid animal-derived reagents in the culture of cells intended for cell therapy, bovine serum, the most common supplement in the culture medium, was replaced by human platelet-derived growth factors. We tested a new culture medium to expand monolayers of human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSC) for clinical use. The AFSC were isolated by c-Kit selection and expanded in media supplemented with either bovine serum or a human platelet lysate (Lyset). We compared proliferation kinetics, colony-forming unit percentage, multilineage differentiation, immunophenotypic characterization and inhibition of peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation of the two AFSC cell cultures and we found no significant differences. Moreover, the karyotype analysis of the cells expanded in the presence of the platelet lysate did not present cytogenetic abnormalities and in vitro and in vivo studies revealed no cell tumorigenicity. Platelet derivatives represent a rich source of growth factors that can play a safety role in the homeostasis, proliferation and remodeling of tissue healing. We propose human platelet extracts as a preferential alternative to animal serum for the expansion of stem cells for clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.A.; Patel, B.B.

    1987-11-03

    A drilling fluid additive mixture is described consisting essentially of a sulfoalkylated tannin in admixture with a non-sulfoalkylated alkali-solubilized lignite wherein the weight ratio of the sulfoalkylated tannin to the non-sulfoalkylated lignite is in the range from about 2:1 to about 1:1. The sulfoalkylated tannin has been sulfoalkylated with at least one -(C(R-)/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/M side chain, wherein each R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl radicals containing from 1 to about 5 carbon atoms, and M is selected from the group consisting of ammonium and the alkali metals.

  5. A Formal Explication of the Concept of Family Homeostasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariel, Shlomo; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents three articles discussing the concept of family homeostasis and the related concepts of family rules and family feedback. Includes a reply by Paul Dell citing the need for family therapy to go beyond homeostasis and further comments by Ariel, Carel, and Tyano. (JAC)

  6. Development and Validation of the Homeostasis Concept Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Jenny L.; Price, Rebecca M.; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Martinková, Patrícia; Cliff, William; Michael, Joel; Modell, Harold; Wright, Ann

    2017-01-01

    We present the Homeostasis Concept Inventory (HCI), a 20-item multiple-choice instrument that assesses how well undergraduates understand this critical physiological concept. We used an iterative process to develop a set of questions based on elements in the Homeostasis Concept Framework. This process involved faculty experts and undergraduate…

  7. Mechanosensitive subcellular rheostasis drives emergent single-cell mechanical homeostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Shinuo; Shao, Yue; Chen, Weiqiang; Fu, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical homeostasis--a fundamental process by which cells maintain stable states under environmental perturbations--is regulated by two subcellular mechanotransducers: cytoskeleton tension and integrin-mediated focal adhesions (FAs). Here, we show that single-cell mechanical homeostasis is collectively driven by the distinct, graduated dynamics (rheostasis) of subcellular cytoskeleton tension and FAs. Such rheostasis involves a mechanosensitive pattern wherein ground states of cytoskeleton tension and FA determine their distinct reactive paths through either relaxation or reinforcement. Pharmacological perturbations of the cytoskeleton and molecularly modulated integrin catch-slip bonds biased the rheostasis and induced non-homeostasis of FAs, but not of cytoskeleton tension, suggesting a unique sensitivity of FAs in regulating homeostasis. Theoretical modelling revealed myosin-mediated cytoskeleton contractility and catch-slip-bond-like behaviours in FAs and the cytoskeleton as sufficient and necessary mechanisms for quantitatively recapitulating mechanosensitive rheostasis. Our findings highlight the previously underappreciated physical nature of the mechanical homeostasis of cells.

  8. A conceptual framework for homeostasis: development and validation.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Jenny; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Michael, Joel; Cliff, William; Wright, Ann; Modell, Harold

    2016-06-01

    We have developed and validated a conceptual framework for understanding and teaching organismal homeostasis at the undergraduate level. The resulting homeostasis conceptual framework details critical components and constituent ideas underlying the concept of homeostasis. It has been validated by a broad range of physiology faculty members from community colleges, primarily undergraduate institutions, research universities, and medical schools. In online surveys, faculty members confirmed the relevance of each item in the framework for undergraduate physiology and rated the importance and difficulty of each. The homeostasis conceptual framework was constructed as a guide for teaching and learning of this critical core concept in physiology, and it also paves the way for the development of a concept inventory for homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  9. Maintenance of Mitochondrial Oxygen Homeostasis by Cosubstrate Compensation

    PubMed Central

    Kueh, Hao Yuan; Niethammer, Philipp; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria maintain a constant rate of aerobic respiration over a wide range of oxygen levels. However, the control strategies underlying oxygen homeostasis are still unclear. Using mathematical modeling, we found that the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) responds to oxygen level changes by undergoing compensatory changes in reduced electron carrier levels. This emergent behavior, which we named cosubstrate compensation (CSC), enables the ETC to maintain homeostasis over a wide of oxygen levels. When performing CSC, our ETC models recapitulated a classic scaling relationship discovered by Chance [Chance B (1965) J. Gen. Physiol. 49:163-165] relating the extent of oxygen homeostasis to the kinetics of mitochondrial electron transport. Analysis of an in silico mitochondrial respiratory system further showed evidence that CSC constitutes the dominant control strategy for mitochondrial oxygen homeostasis during active respiration. Our findings indicate that CSC constitutes a robust control strategy for homeostasis and adaptation in cellular biochemical networks. PMID:23528093

  10. A conceptual framework for homeostasis: development and validation

    PubMed Central

    Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Michael, Joel; Cliff, William; Wright, Ann; Modell, Harold

    2016-01-01

    We have developed and validated a conceptual framework for understanding and teaching organismal homeostasis at the undergraduate level. The resulting homeostasis conceptual framework details critical components and constituent ideas underlying the concept of homeostasis. It has been validated by a broad range of physiology faculty members from community colleges, primarily undergraduate institutions, research universities, and medical schools. In online surveys, faculty members confirmed the relevance of each item in the framework for undergraduate physiology and rated the importance and difficulty of each. The homeostasis conceptual framework was constructed as a guide for teaching and learning of this critical core concept in physiology, and it also paves the way for the development of a concept inventory for homeostasis. PMID:27105740

  11. Whole body immersion and hydromineral homeostasis: effect of water temperature.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Chantal; Regnard, Jacques; Robinet, Claude; Mourot, Laurent; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Chennaoui, Mounir; Jammes, Yves; Dumoulin, Gilles; Desruelle, Anne-Virginie; Melin, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was designed to assess the effects of prolonged whole body immersion (WBI) in thermoneutral and cold conditions on plasma volume and hydromineral homeostasis.10 navy "combat swimmers" performed three static 6-h immersions at 34 degrees C (T34), 18 degrees C (T18) and 10 degrees C (T10). Rectal temperature, plasma volume (PV) changes, plasma proteins, plasma and urine ions, plasma osmolality, renin, aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured. Results show that compared to pre-immersion levels, PV decreased throughout WBI sessions, the changes being markedly accentuated in cold conditions. At the end of WBI, maximal PV variations were -6.9% at T34, -14.3% at T18, and -16.3% at T10. Plasma osmolality did not change during and after T34 immersion, while hyperosmolality was present at the end of T18 immersion and began after only 1 h of T10 immersion. In the three temperature conditions, significant losses of water (1.6-1.7 l) and salt (6-8 g) occurred and were associated with similar increases in osmolar and free water clearances. Furthermore, T18 and T10 immersions increased the glomerular filtration rate. There was little or no change in plasma renin and ADH, while the plasma level of aldosterone decreased equally in the three temperature conditions. In conclusion, our data indicate that cold water hastened PV changes induced by immersion, and increased the glomerular filtration rate, causing larger accumulated water losses. The iso-osmotic hypovolemia may impede the resumption of baseline fluid balance. Results are very similar to those repeatedly described by various authors during head-out water immersion.

  12. Presenilin 1 Maintains Lysosomal Ca(2+) Homeostasis via TRPML1 by Regulating vATPase-Mediated Lysosome Acidification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Hyun; McBrayer, Mary Kate; Wolfe, Devin M; Haslett, Luke J; Kumar, Asok; Sato, Yutaka; Lie, Pearl P Y; Mohan, Panaiyur; Coffey, Erin E; Kompella, Uday; Mitchell, Claire H; Lloyd-Evans, Emyr; Nixon, Ralph A

    2015-09-01

    Presenilin 1 (PS1) deletion or Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked mutations disrupt lysosomal acidification and proteolysis, which inhibits autophagy. Here, we establish that this phenotype stems from impaired glycosylation and instability of vATPase V0a1 subunit, causing deficient lysosomal vATPase assembly and function. We further demonstrate that elevated lysosomal pH in Presenilin 1 knockout (PS1KO) cells induces abnormal Ca(2+) efflux from lysosomes mediated by TRPML1 and elevates cytosolic Ca(2+). In WT cells, blocking vATPase activity or knockdown of either PS1 or the V0a1 subunit of vATPase reproduces all of these abnormalities. Normalizing lysosomal pH in PS1KO cells using acidic nanoparticles restores normal lysosomal proteolysis, autophagy, and Ca(2+) homeostasis, but correcting lysosomal Ca(2+) deficits alone neither re-acidifies lysosomes nor reverses proteolytic and autophagic deficits. Our results indicate that vATPase deficiency in PS1 loss-of-function states causes lysosomal/autophagy deficits and contributes to abnormal cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, thus linking two AD-related pathogenic processes through a common molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Controversies in fluid therapy: Type, dose and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    McDermid, Robert C; Raghunathan, Karthik; Romanovsky, Adam; Shaw, Andrew D; Bagshaw, Sean M

    2014-01-01

    Fluid therapy is perhaps the most common intervention received by acutely ill hospitalized patients; however, a number of critical questions on the efficacy and safety of the type and dose remain. In this review, recent insights derived from randomized trials in terms of fluid type, dose and toxicity are discussed. We contend that the prescription of fluid therapy is context-specific and that any fluid can be harmful if administered inappropriately. When contrasting ‘‘crystalloid vs colloid’’, differences in efficacy are modest but differences in safety are significant. Differences in chloride load and strong ion difference across solutions appear to be clinically important. Phases of fluid therapy in acutely ill patients are recognized, including acute resuscitation, maintaining homeostasis, and recovery phases. Quantitative toxicity (fluid overload) is associated with adverse outcomes and can be mitigated when fluid therapy based on functional hemodynamic parameters that predict volume responsiveness and minimization of non-essential fluid. Qualitative toxicity (fluid type), in particular for iatrogenic acute kidney injury and metabolic acidosis, remain a concern for synthetic colloids and isotonic saline, respectively. Physiologically balanced crystalloids may be the ‘‘default’’ fluid for acutely ill patients and the role for colloids, in particular hydroxyethyl starch, is increasingly unclear. We contend the prescription of fluid therapy is analogous to the prescription of any drug used in critically ill patients. PMID:24834399

  14. Mechanism of gastrointestinal abnormal motor activity induced by cisplatin in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hiroyuki; Mochiki, Erito; Ohno, Tetsuro; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Kyoichi; Tabe, Yuichi; Aihara, Ryuusuke; Nakabayashi, Toshihiro; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-14

    To investigate whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5-HT) is involved in mediating abnormal motor activity in dogs after cisplatin administration. After the dogs had been given a 2-wk recovery period, all of them were administered cisplatin, and the motor activity was recorded using strain gauge force transducers. Blood and intestinal fluid samples were collected to measure 5-HT for 24 h. To determine whether 5-HT in plasma or that in intestinal fluids is more closely related to abnormal motor activity we injected 5-HT into the bloodstream and the intestinal tract of the dogs. Cisplatin given intravenously produced abnormal motor activity that lasted up to 5 h. From 3 to 4 h after cisplatin administration, normal intact dogs exhibited retropropagation of motor activity accompanied by emesis. The concentration of 5-HT in plasma reached the peak at 4 h, and that in intestinal fluids reached the peak at 3 h. In normal intact dogs with resection of the vagus nerve that were administered kytril, cisplatin given intravenously did not produce abnormal motor activity. Intestinal serotonin administration did not produce abnormal motor activity, but intravenous serotonin administration did. After the intravenous administration of cisplatin, abnormal motor activity was produced in the involved vagus nerve and in the involved serotonergic neurons via another pathway. This study was the first to determine the relationship between 5-HT and emesis-induced motor activity.

  15. Mechanism of gastrointestinal abnormal motor activity induced by cisplatin in conscious dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Hiroyuki; Mochiki, Erito; Ohno, Tetsuro; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ogata, Kyoichi; Tabe, Yuichi; Aihara, Ryuusuke; Nakabayashi, Toshihiro; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5-HT) is involved in mediating abnormal motor activity in dogs after cisplatin administration. METHODS: After the dogs had been given a 2-wk recovery period, all of them were administered cisplatin, and the motor activity was recorded using strain gauge force transducers. Blood and intestinal fluid samples were collected to measure 5-HT for 24 h. To determine whether 5-HT in plasma or that in intestinal fluids is more closely related to abnormal motor activity we injected 5-HT into the bloodstream and the intestinal tract of the dogs. RESULTS: Cisplatin given intravenously produced abnormal motor activity that lasted up to 5 h. From 3 to 4 h after cisplatin administration, normal intact dogs exhibited retropropagation of motor activity accompanied by emesis. The concentration of 5-HT in plasma reached the peak at 4 h, and that in intestinal fluids reached the peak at 3 h. In normal intact dogs with resection of the vagus nerve that were administered kytril, cisplatin given intravenously did not produce abnormal motor activity. Intestinal serotonin administration did not produce abnormal motor activity, but intravenous serotonin administration did. CONCLUSION: After the intravenous administration of cisplatin, abnormal motor activity was produced in the involved vagus nerve and in the involved serotonergic neurons via another pathway. This study was the first to determine the relationship between 5-HT and emesis-induced motor activity. PMID:25400453

  16. Iron homeostasis and toxicity in retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    He, Xining; Hahn, Paul; Iacovelli, Jared; Wong, Robert; King, Chih; Bhisitkul, Robert; Massaro-Giordano, Mina; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2007-11-01

    Iron is essential for many metabolic processes but can also cause damage. As a potent generator of hydroxyl radical, the most reactive of the free radicals, iron can cause considerable oxidative stress. Since iron is absorbed through diet but not excreted except through menstruation, total body iron levels buildup with age. Macular iron levels increase with age, in both men and women. This iron has the potential to contribute to retinal degeneration. Here we present an overview of the evidence suggesting that iron may contribute to retinal degenerations. Intraocular iron foreign bodies cause retinal degeneration. Retinal iron buildup resulting from hereditary iron homeostasis disorders aceruloplasminemia, Friedreich's ataxia, and panthothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration cause retinal degeneration. Mice with targeted mutation of the iron exporter ceruloplasmin have age-dependent retinal iron overload and a resulting retinal degeneration with features of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Post mortem retinas from patients with AMD have more iron and the iron carrier transferrin than age-matched controls. Over the past 10 years much has been learned about the intricate network of proteins involved in iron handling. Many of these, including transferrin, transferrin receptor, divalent metal transporter-1, ferritin, ferroportin, ceruloplasmin, hephaestin, iron-regulatory protein, and histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class I-like protein involved in iron homeostasis (HFE) have been found in the retina. Some of these proteins have been found in the cornea and lens as well. Levels of the iron carrier transferrin are high in the aqueous and vitreous humors. The functions of these proteins in other tissues, combined with studies on cultured ocular tissues, genetically engineered mice, and eye exams on patients with hereditary iron diseases provide clues regarding their ocular functions. Iron may play a role in a broad range of ocular diseases, including

  17. Iron homeostasis and toxicity in retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    He, Xining; Hahn, Paul; Iacovelli, Jared; Wong, Robert; King, Chih; Bhisitkul, Robert; Massaro-Giordano, Mina; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is essential for many metabolic processes but can also cause damage. As a potent generator of hydroxyl radical, the most reactive of the free radicals, iron can cause considerable oxidative stress. Since iron is absorbed through diet but not excreted except through menstruation, total body iron levels build up with age. Macular iron levels increase with age, in both men and women. This iron has the potential to contribute to retinal degeneration. Here we present an overview of the evidence suggesting that iron may contribute to retinal degenerations. Intraocular iron foreign bodies cause retinal degeneration. Retinal iron buildup resulting from hereditary iron homeostasis disorders aceruloplasminemia, Friedreich’s Ataxia, and panthothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration cause retinal degeneration. Mice with targeted mutation of the iron exporter ceruloplasmin have age-dependent retinal iron overload and a resulting retinal degeneration with features of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Post mortem retinas from patients with AMD have more iron and the iron carrier transferrin than age- matched controls. Over the past ten years much has been learned about the intricate network of proteins involved in iron handling. Many of these, including transferrin, transferrin receptor, divalent metal transporter 1, ferritin, ferroportin, ceruloplasmin, hephaestin, iron regulatory protein, and histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class I-like protein involved in iron homeostasis (HFE) have been found in the retina. Some of these proteins have been found in the cornea and lens as well. Levels of the iron carrier transferrin are high in the aqueous and vitreous humors. The functions of these proteins in other tissues, combined with studies on cultured ocular tissues, genetically engineered mice, and eye exams on patients with hereditary iron diseases provide clues regarding their ocular functions. Iron may play a role in a broad range of ocular diseases, including

  18. Hemostatic abnormalities in Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Artoni, Andrea; Selicorni, Angelo; Passamonti, Serena M; Lecchi, Anna; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Cerutti, Marta; Cianci, Paola; Gianniello, Francesca; Martinelli, Ida

    2014-05-01

    A bleeding diathesis is a common feature of Noonan syndrome, and various coagulation abnormalities have been reported. Platelet function has never been carefully investigated. The degree of bleeding diathesis in a cohort of patients with Noonan syndrome was evaluated by a validated bleeding score and investigated with coagulation and platelet function tests. If ratios of prothrombin time and/or activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged, the activity of clotting factors was measured. Individuals with no history of bleeding formed the control group. The study population included 39 patients and 28 controls. Bleeding score was ≥2 (ie, suggestive of a moderate bleeding diathesis) in 15 patients (38.5%) and ≥4 (ie, suggestive of a severe bleeding diathesis) in 7 (17.9%). Abnormal coagulation and/or platelet function tests were found in 14 patients with bleeding score ≥2 (93.3%) but also in 21 (87.5%) of those with bleeding score <2. The prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged in 18 patients (46%) and partial deficiency of factor VII, alone or in combination with the deficiency of other vitamin K-dependent factors, was the most frequent coagulation abnormality. Moreover, platelet aggregation and secretion were reduced in 29 of 35 patients (82.9%, P < .01 for all aggregating agents). Nearly 40% of patients with the Noonan syndrome had a bleeding diathesis and >90% of them had platelet function and/or coagulation abnormalities. Results of these tests should be taken into account in the management of bleeding or invasive procedures in these patients. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. [Normal and abnormal skin color].

    PubMed

    Ortonne, J-P

    2012-11-01

    The varieties of normal skin color in humans range from people of "no color" (pale white) to "people of color" (light brown, dark brown, and black). Skin color is a blend resulting from the skin chromophores red (oxyhaemoglobin), blue (deoxygenated haemoglobin), yellow-orange (carotene, an exogenous pigment), and brown (melanin). Melanin, however, is the major component of skin color ; it is the presence or absence of melanin in the melanosomes in melanocytes and melanin in keratinocytes that is responsible for epidermal pigmentation, and the presence of melanin in macrophages or melanocytes in the dermis that is responsible for dermal pigmentation. Two groups of pigmentary disorders are commonly distinguished: the disorders of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of normal pigment and the abnormal presence of exogenous or endogenous pigments in the skin. The first group includes hyperpigmentations, which clinically manifest by darkening of the skin color, and leukodermia, which is characterized by lightening of the skin. Hypermelanosis corresponds to an overload of melanin or an abnormal distribution of melanin in the skin. Depending on the color, melanodermia (brown/black) and ceruloderma (blue/grey) are distinguished. Melanodermia correspond to epidermal hypermelanocytosis (an increased number of melanocytes) or epidermal hypermelanosis (an increase in the quantity of melanin in the epidermis with no modification of the number of melanocytes). Ceruloderma correspond to dermal hypermelanocytosis (abnormal presence in the dermis of cells synthesizing melanins) ; leakage in the dermis of epidermal melanin also exists, a form of dermal hypermelanosis called pigmentary incontinence. Finally, dyschromia can be related to the abnormal presence in the skin of a pigment of exogenous or endogenous origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  1. Fluid channeling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald Y. (Inventor); Hitch, Bradley D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A fluid channeling system includes a fluid ejector, a heat exchanger, and a fluid pump disposed in series flow communication The ejector includes a primary inlet for receiving a primary fluid, and a secondary inlet for receiving a secondary fluid which is mixed with the primary fluid and discharged therefrom as ejector discharge. Heat is removed from the ejector discharge in the heat exchanger, and the heat exchanger discharge is compressed in the fluid pump and channeled to the ejector secondary inlet as the secondary fluid In an exemplary embodiment, the temperature of the primary fluid is greater than the maximum operating temperature of a fluid motor powering the fluid pump using a portion of the ejector discharge, with the secondary fluid being mixed with the primary fluid so that the ejector discharge temperature is equal to about the maximum operating temperature of the fluid motor.

  2. Rewiring of cellular membrane homeostasis by picornaviruses.

    PubMed

    Belov, George A; Sztul, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites and utilize host elements to support key viral processes, including penetration of the plasma membrane, initiation of infection, replication, and suppression of the host's antiviral defenses. In this review, we focus on picornaviruses, a family of positive-strand RNA viruses, and discuss the mechanisms by which these viruses hijack the cellular machinery to form and operate membranous replication complexes. Studies aimed at revealing factors required for the establishment of viral replication structures identified several cellular-membrane-remodeling proteins and led to the development of models in which the virus used a preexisting cellular-membrane-shaping pathway "as is" for generating its replication organelles. However, as more data accumulate, this view is being increasingly questioned, and it is becoming clearer that viruses may utilize cellular factors in ways that are distinct from the normal functions of these proteins in uninfected cells. In addition, the proteincentric view is being supplemented by important new studies showing a previously unappreciated deep remodeling of lipid homeostasis, including extreme changes to phospholipid biosynthesis and cholesterol trafficking. The data on viral modifications of lipid biosynthetic pathways are still rudimentary, but it appears once again that the viruses may rewire existing pathways to generate novel functions. Despite remarkable progress, our understanding of how a handful of viral proteins can completely overrun the multilayered, complex mechanisms that control the membrane organization of a eukaryotic cell remains very limited. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Dysregulation of Ion Homeostasis by Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Muend, Sabina; Rao, Rajini

    2012-01-01

    Ion-signaling and transduction networks are central to fungal development and virulence because they regulate gene expression, filamentation, host association, and invasion, pathogen stress response and survival. Dysregulation of ion homeostasis rapidly mediates cell death, forming the mechanistic basis by which a growing number of amphipathic but structurally unrelated compounds elicit antifungal activity. Included in this group is carvacrol, a terpenoid phenol that is a prominent component of oregano and other plant essential oils. Carvacrol triggers an early dose-dependent Ca2+ burst and long lasting pH changes in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The distinct phases of ionic transients and a robust transcriptional response that overlaps with Ca2+ stress and nutrient starvation point to specific signaling events elicited by plant terpenoid phenols, rather than a non-specific lesion of the membrane, as was previously considered. We discuss the potential use of plant essential oils and other agents that disrupt ion-signaling pathways as chemosensitizers to augment conventional antifungal therapy, and to convert fungistatic drugs with strong safety profiles into fungicides. PMID:22493595

  4. Redox Homeostasis in Pancreatic β Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ježek, Petr; Dlasková, Andrea; Plecitá-Hlavatá, Lydie

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed mechanisms that determine reactive oxygen species (redox) homeostasis, redox information signaling and metabolic/regulatory function of autocrine insulin signaling in pancreatic β cells, and consequences of oxidative stress and dysregulation of redox/information signaling for their dysfunction. We emphasize the role of mitochondrion in β cell molecular physiology and pathology, including the antioxidant role of mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP2. Since in pancreatic β cells pyruvate cannot be easily diverted towards lactate dehydrogenase for lactate formation, the respiration and oxidative phosphorylation intensity are governed by the availability of glucose, leading to a certain ATP/ADP ratio, whereas in other cell types, cell demand dictates respiration/metabolism rates. Moreover, we examine the possibility that type 2 diabetes mellitus might be considered as an inevitable result of progressive self-accelerating oxidative stress and concomitantly dysregulated information signaling in peripheral tissues as well as in pancreatic β cells. It is because the redox signaling is inherent to the insulin receptor signaling mechanism and its impairment leads to the oxidative and nitrosative stress. Also emerging concepts, admiting participation of redox signaling even in glucose sensing and insulin release in pancreatic β cells, fit in this view. For example, NADPH has been firmly established to be a modulator of glucose-stimulated insulin release. PMID:23304259

  5. Dysregulation of Glutathione Homeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, William M.; Wilson-Delfosse, Amy L.; Mieyal, John. J.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis and alterations in glutathione-dependent enzyme activities are increasingly implicated in the induction and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Friedreich’s ataxia. In this review background is provided on the steady-state synthesis, regulation, and transport of glutathione, with primary focus on the brain. A brief overview is presented on the distinct but vital roles of glutathione in cellular maintenance and survival, and on the functions of key glutathione-dependent enzymes. Major contributors to initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases are considered, including oxidative stress, protein misfolding, and protein aggregation. In each case examples of key regulatory mechanisms are identified that are sensitive to changes in glutathione redox status and/or in the activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes. Mechanisms of dysregulation of glutathione and/or glutathione-dependent enzymes are discussed that are implicated in pathogenesis of each neurodegenerative disease. Limitations in information or interpretation are identified, and possible avenues for further research are described with an aim to elucidating novel targets for therapeutic interventions. The pros and cons of administration of N-acetylcysteine or glutathione as therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the potential utility of serum glutathione as a biomarker, are critically evaluated. PMID:23201762

  6. Calcium homeostasis in identified rat gonadotrophs.

    PubMed Central

    Tse, A; Tse, F W; Hille, B

    1994-01-01

    1. Whole-cell voltage clamp was used in conjunction with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator indo-1 to measure extracellular Ca2+ entry and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in rat gonadotrophs identified with the reverse haemolytic plaque assay. 2. Depolarizations to potentials more positive than -40 mV elicited inward Ca2+ current (ICa) and transient elevations of [Ca2+]i. 3. The relationship between [Ca2+]i elevations and Ca2+ entry with different Ca2+ buffer concentrations in the pipette showed that endogenous Ca2+ buffers normally bind approximately 99% of the Ca2+ entering the cell. 4. With [Ca2+]i elevations less than 500 nM, decay of [Ca2+]i could be approximated by an exponential whose time constant increased with the concentration of exogenous Ca2+ buffers. 5. Inhibitors of intracellular Ca(2+)-ATPases, thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) and 2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone (BHQ), caused [Ca2+]i to rise. Application of BHQ during [Ca2+]i oscillations induced by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) terminated the oscillation in a slowly decaying elevation. BHQ slowed the decay of depolarization-induced [Ca2+]i elevations about 3-fold. 6. Taking into account the Ca2+ buffering properties of the cytoplasm permitted estimation of the fluxes and rate constants for Ca2+ movements in gonadotrophs. The intracellular store is a major determinant of Ca2+ homeostasis in gonadotrophs. PMID:7932239

  7. Dysregulation of ion homeostasis by antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Muend, Sabina; Rao, Rajini

    2012-01-01

    Ion-signaling and transduction networks are central to fungal development and virulence because they regulate gene expression, filamentation, host association, and invasion, pathogen stress response and survival. Dysregulation of ion homeostasis rapidly mediates cell death, forming the mechanistic basis by which a growing number of amphipathic but structurally unrelated compounds elicit antifungal activity. Included in this group is carvacrol, a terpenoid phenol that is a prominent component of oregano and other plant essential oils. Carvacrol triggers an early dose-dependent Ca(2+) burst and long lasting pH changes in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The distinct phases of ionic transients and a robust transcriptional response that overlaps with Ca(2+) stress and nutrient starvation point to specific signaling events elicited by plant terpenoid phenols, rather than a non-specific lesion of the membrane, as was previously considered. We discuss the potential use of plant essential oils and other agents that disrupt ion-signaling pathways as chemosensitizers to augment conventional antifungal therapy, and to convert fungistatic drugs with strong safety profiles into fungicides.

  8. Gravity and positional homeostasis of the cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nace, G. W.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of gravity upon cytoplasmic aggregates of the size present in eggs and upon cells is investigated. An expression is developed to describe the tendency of torque to rotate the egg and reorganize its constituents. This expression provides the net torque resulting from buoyancy and gravity acting upon a dumbbell-shaped cell, with heavy and light masses at either end and floating in a medium. Torques of approximately 2.5 x 10 to the -13th to 0.85 dyne-cm are found to act upon cells ranging from 6.4 microns to 31 mm (chicken egg). It is noted that cells must expend energy to maintain positional homeostasis against gravity, as demonstrated by results from Skylab 3, where tissue cultures used 58 percent more glucose on earth than in space. The implications for developmental biology, physiology, genetics, and evolution are discussed. It is argued that at the cellular and tissue levels the concept of gravity receptors may be unnecessary.

  9. Nutrition and protein energy homeostasis in elderly.

    PubMed

    Boirie, Yves; Morio, Béatrice; Caumon, Elodie; Cano, Noël J

    2014-01-01

    Protein-energy homeostasis is a major determinant of healthy aging. Inadequate nutritional intakes and physical activity, together with endocrine disturbances are associated with of sarcopenia and frailty. Guidelines from scientific societies mainly address the quantitative aspects of protein and energy nutrition in elderly. Besides these quantitative aspects of protein load, perspective strategies to promote muscle protein synthesis and prevent sarcopenia include pulse feeding, the use of fast proteins and the addition of leucine or citrulline to dietary protein. An integrated management of sarcopenia, taking into account the determinants of muscle wasting, i.e. nutrition, physical activity, anabolic factors such as androgens, vitamin D and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids status, needs to be tested in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. The importance of physical activity, specifically resistance training, is emphasized, not only in order to facilitate muscle protein anabolism but also to increase appetite and food intake in elderly people at risk of malnutrition. According to present data, healthy nutrition in elderly should respect the guidelines for protein and energy requirement, privilege a Mediterranean way of alimentation, and be associated with a regular physical activity. Further issues relate to the identification of the genetics determinants of protein energy wasting in elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Zinc and the modulation of redox homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc, a redox inactive metal, has been long viewed as a component of the antioxidant network, and growing evidence points to its involvement in redox-regulated signaling. These actions are exerted through several mechanisms based on the unique chemical and functional properties of zinc. Overall, zinc contributes to maintain the cell redox balance through different mechanisms including: i) the regulation of oxidant production and metal-induced oxidative damage; ii) the dynamic association of zinc with sulfur in protein cysteine clusters, from which the metal can be released by nitric oxide, peroxides, oxidized glutathione and other thiol oxidant species; iii) zinc-mediated induction of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein, which releases the metal under oxidative conditions and act per se scavenging oxidants; iv) the involvement of zinc in the regulation of glutathione metabolism and of the overall protein thiol redox status; and v) a direct or indirect regulation of redox signaling. Findings of oxidative stress, altered redox signaling, and associated cell/tissue disfunction in cell and animal models of zinc deficiency, stress the relevant role of zinc in the preservation of cell redox homeostasis. However, while the participation of zinc in antioxidant protection, redox sensing, and redox-regulated signaling is accepted, the involved molecules, targets and mechanisms are still partially known and the subject of active research. PMID:22960578

  11. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vootla, Vamshidhar R.; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome. PMID:26351414

  12. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vootla, Vamshidhar R; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.

  13. Genetically determined schizophrenia is not associated with impaired glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Polimanti, Renato; Gelernter, Joel; Stein, Dan J

    2018-05-01

    Here, we used data from large genome-wide association studies to test the presence of causal relationships, conducting a Mendelian randomization analysis; and shared molecular mechanisms, calculating the genetic correlation, among schizophrenia, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and impaired glucose homeostasis. Although our Mendelian randomization analysis was well-powered, no causal relationship was observed between schizophrenia and T2D, or traits related to glucose impaired homeostasis. Similarly, we did not observe any global genetic overlap among these traits. These findings indicate that there is no causal relationships or shared mechanisms between schizophrenia and impaired glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluid Fantasy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-24

    Saturn's clouds are full of raw beauty, but they also represent a playground for a branch of physics called fluid dynamics, which seeks to understand the motion of gases and liquids. Saturn's lack of a solid planetary surface (as on Earth, Mars or Venus) means that its atmosphere is free to flow around the planet essentially without obstruction. This is one factor that generates Saturn's pattern of alternating belts and zones -- one of the main features of its dynamic atmosphere. Winds in the belts blow at speeds different from those in the adjacent zones, leading to the formation of vortices along the boundaries between the two. And vigorous convection occasionally leads to storms and waves. Saturn's innermost rings are just visible at the bottom and in the upper left corner. This view is centered on clouds at 25 degrees north latitude on Saturn. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on July 20, 2016 using a spectral filter which preferentially admits wavelengths of near-infrared light centered at 728 nanometers. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 752,000 miles (1.21 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 6 degrees. Image scale is 45 miles (72 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20503

  15. LRIG1 inhibits STAT3-dependent inflammation to maintain corneal homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takahiro; Hamuro, Junji; Takaishi, Mikiro; Simmons, Szandor; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Zaffalon, Andrea; Bentley, Adam J.; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Nagata-Takaoka, Maho; Fullwood, Nigel J.; Itami, Satoshi; Sano, Shigetoshi; Ishii, Masaru; Barrandon, Yann; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Corneal integrity and transparency are indispensable for good vision. Cornea homeostasis is entirely dependent upon corneal stem cells, which are required for complex wound-healing processes that restore corneal integrity following epithelial damage. Here, we found that leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is highly expressed in the human holoclone-type corneal epithelial stem cell population and sporadically expressed in the basal cells of ocular-surface epithelium. In murine models, LRIG1 regulated corneal epithelial cell fate during wound repair. Deletion of Lrig1 resulted in impaired stem cell recruitment following injury and promoted a cell-fate switch from transparent epithelium to keratinized skin-like epidermis, which led to corneal blindness. In addition, we determined that LRIG1 is a negative regulator of the STAT3-dependent inflammatory pathway. Inhibition of STAT3 in corneas of Lrig1–/– mice rescued pathological phenotypes and prevented corneal opacity. Additionally, transgenic mice that expressed a constitutively active form of STAT3 in the corneal epithelium had abnormal features, including corneal plaques and neovascularization similar to that found in Lrig1–/– mice. Bone marrow chimera experiments indicated that LRIG1 also coordinates the function of bone marrow–derived inflammatory cells. Together, our data indicate that LRIG1 orchestrates corneal-tissue transparency and cell fate during repair, and identify LRIG1 as a key regulator of tissue homeostasis. PMID:24316976

  16. The change in serum Thiol/Disulphide homeostasis after transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Tokgöz, Hüsnü; Taş, Selim; Giray, Özlem; Yalçınkaya, Soner; Tokgöz, Özlem; Koca, Cemile; Savaş, Murat; Erel, Özcan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this prospective clinical study was to investigate variations in a novel oxidative stress marker (thiol/disulphide homeostasis) in men who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUSB). Materials and Methods A total of 22 men undergoing TRUSB of the prostate were enrolled in the study. Patients with abnormal digital rectal examination and/or total prostate specific antigen (PSA) over 4ng/mL underwent TRUSB with 12 cores. Serum samples were obtained before and just after the procedure to evaluate the possible changes in thiol/disulphide homeostasis. Mean age, total PSA and free PSA, prostate volume and histopathological data were also recorded. Results Mean age of the study population was 65.05±8.89 years. Significant decreases in native and total thiol levels were documented after the biopsy procedure. However, serum disulphide levels and disulphide/native thiol, disulphide/total thiol and native/total thiol ratios did not significantly change after TRUSB. No correlation was observed between oxidative parameters and total PSA and free PSA levels, prostate volume and histopathology of the prostate. However, mean patient age was significantly correlated with mean native and total thiol levels. Conclusion Significant decreases in serum native and total thiol levels related to the prostate biopsy procedure suggest that TRUSB causes acute oxidative stress in the human body. Since our trial is the first in the current literature to investigate these oxidative stress markers in urology practice, additional studies are warranted. PMID:28128906

  17. The change in serum Thiol/Disulphide homeostasis after transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Tokgöz, Hüsnü; Taş, Selim; Giray, Özlem; Yalçınkaya, Soner; Tokgöz, Özlem; Koca, Cemile; Savaş, Murat; Erel, Özcan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical study was to investigate variations in a novel oxidative stress marker (thiol/disulphide homeostasis) in men who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUSB). A total of 22 men undergoing TRUSB of the prostate were enrolled in the study. Patients with abnormal digital rectal examination and/or total prostate specific antigen (PSA) over 4ng/mL underwent TRUSB with 12 cores. Serum samples were obtained before and just after the procedure to evaluate the possible changes in thiol/disulphide homeostasis. Mean age, total PSA and free PSA, prostate volume and histopathological data were also recorded. Mean age of the study population was 65.05±8.89 years. Significant decreases in native and total thiol levels were documented after the biopsy procedure. However, serum disulphide levels and disulphide/native thiol, disulphide/total thiol and native / total thiol ratios did not significantly change after TRUSB. No correlation was observed between oxidative parameters and total PSA and free PSA levels, prostate volume and histopathology of the prostate. However, mean patient age was significantly correlated with mean native and total thiol levels. Significant decreases in serum native and total thiol levels related to the prostate biopsy procedure suggest that TRUSB causes acute oxidative stress in the human body. Since our trial is the first in the current literature to investigate these oxidative stress markers in urology practice, additional studies are warranted. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  18. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

  19. Automatic fluid dispenser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakellaris, P. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Fluid automatically flows to individual dispensing units at predetermined times from a fluid supply and is available only for a predetermined interval of time after which an automatic control causes the fluid to drain from the individual dispensing units. Fluid deprivation continues until the beginning of a new cycle when the fluid is once again automatically made available at the individual dispensing units.

  20. Identification of abnormal accident patterns at intersections

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-08-01

    This report presents the findings and recommendations based on the Identification of Abnormal Accident Patterns at Intersections. This project used a statistically valid sampling method to determine whether a specific intersection has an abnormally h...

  1. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test results? • What is the difference between the terms cervical ...

  2. Maintaining Homeostasis by Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Christoph W.; Bach, Dominik R.

    2015-01-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that—in both the foraging and the casino frames—participants’ choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization. PMID:26024504

  3. Maintaining homeostasis by decision-making.

    PubMed

    Korn, Christoph W; Bach, Dominik R

    2015-05-01

    Living organisms need to maintain energetic homeostasis. For many species, this implies taking actions with delayed consequences. For example, humans may have to decide between foraging for high-calorie but hard-to-get, and low-calorie but easy-to-get food, under threat of starvation. Homeostatic principles prescribe decisions that maximize the probability of sustaining appropriate energy levels across the entire foraging trajectory. Here, predictions from biological principles contrast with predictions from economic decision-making models based on maximizing the utility of the endpoint outcome of a choice. To empirically arbitrate between the predictions of biological and economic models for individual human decision-making, we devised a virtual foraging task in which players chose repeatedly between two foraging environments, lost energy by the passage of time, and gained energy probabilistically according to the statistics of the environment they chose. Reaching zero energy was framed as starvation. We used the mathematics of random walks to derive endpoint outcome distributions of the choices. This also furnished equivalent lotteries, presented in a purely economic, casino-like frame, in which starvation corresponded to winning nothing. Bayesian model comparison showed that--in both the foraging and the casino frames--participants' choices depended jointly on the probability of starvation and the expected endpoint value of the outcome, but could not be explained by economic models based on combinations of statistical moments or on rank-dependent utility. This implies that under precisely defined constraints biological principles are better suited to explain human decision-making than economic models based on endpoint utility maximization.

  4. Regulation of Potassium Homeostasis in CKD.

    PubMed

    DuBose, Thomas D

    2017-09-01

    Disturbances of potassium homeostasis can cause either hyperkalemia or hypokalemia and result in serious consequences. Although the consequences of acute and chronic hyperkalemia and treatment of these conditions in CKD have been widely appreciated by nephrologists, more recent information has focused attention on the consequences of chronic hypokalemia. Several recent studies have documented a "U-shaped" relationship between the serum [K + ] and higher mortality in several clinical studies. The causes of dyskalemias are placed into the unique perspective of patients with CKD and its evolution with progression of CKD to later stages and focuses on the pathophysiology of these disorders. Emphasis is placed on the high mortality associated with both low and high levels of potassium that are unique to patients with CKD. Recent information regarding sensors of changes in the serum [K + ] that evoke changes in NaCl transport in the DCT1 and subsequent efferent responses by aldosterone-responsive cells in the DCT2 and cortical collecting duct to adjust K + secretion by the renal outer medullary potassium channel is reviewed in detail. These sensing mechanisms can be interrupted by drugs, such as the calcineurin inhibitors to cause both hypertension and hyperkalemia in kidney transplant patients, or can be inherited as familial hypertensive hyperkalemia. The role and pathogenesis of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in causing hyperkalemia is a common stop point for cessation of these important drugs, but, and newer agents to lower the serum [K + ] that might allow continuation of angiotensin-converting enzyme or angiotensin receptor blocker therapy are examined. Finally, the importance of emphasis on potassium-containing foods, such as fresh produce and fruit in the diets of patients with early-stage CKD, is examined as an under-appreciated area requiring more emphasis by nephrologists caring for these patients and may be unique

  5. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  6. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulatory mechanisms of anthrax toxin receptor 1-dependent vascular and connective tissue homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Besschetnova, Tatiana Y; Ichimura, Takaharu; Katebi, Negin; St Croix, Brad; Bonventre, Joseph V; Olsen, Bjorn R

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that angiogenesis is linked to fibrotic processes in fibroproliferative diseases, but insights into pathophysiological processes are limited, due to lack of understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling endothelial and fibroblastic homeostasis. We demonstrate here that the matrix receptor anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1), also known as tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8), is an essential component of these mechanisms. Loss of TEM8 function in mice causes reduced synthesis of endothelial basement membrane components and hyperproliferative and leaky blood vessels in skin. In addition, endothelial cell alterations in mutants are almost identical to those of endothelial cells in infantile hemangioma lesions, including activated VEGF receptor signaling in endothelial cells, increased expression of the downstream targets VEGF and CXCL12, and increased numbers of macrophages and mast cells. In contrast, loss of TEM8 in fibroblasts leads to increased rates of synthesis of fiber-forming collagens, resulting in progressive fibrosis in skin and other organs. Compromised interactions between TEM8-deficient endothelial and fibroblastic cells cause dramatic reduction in the activity of the matrix-degrading enzyme MMP2. In addition to insights into mechanisms of connective tissue homeostasis, our data provide molecular explanations for vascular and connective tissue abnormalities in GAPO syndrome, caused by loss-of-function mutations in ANTXR1. Furthermore, the loss of MMP2 activity suggests that fibrotic skin abnormalities in GAPO syndrome are, in part, the consequence of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying syndromes (NAO, Torg and Winchester) with multicentric skin nodulosis and osteolysis caused by homozygous loss-of-function mutations in MMP2. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Matrix metalloproteinases in kidney homeostasis and diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Roderick J.

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that have been increasingly linked to both normal physiology and abnormal pathology in the kidney. Collectively able to degrade all components of the extracellular matrix, MMPs were originally thought to antagonize the development of fibrotic diseases solely through digestion of excessive matrix. However, increasing evidence has shown that MMPs play a wide variety of roles in regulating inflammation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. We now have robust evidence for MMP dysregulation in a multitude of renal diseases including acute kidney injury, diabetic nephropathy, glomerulonephritis, inherited kidney disease, and chronic allograft nephropathy. The goal of this review is to summarize current findings regarding the role of MMPs in kidney diseases as well as the mechanisms of action of this family of proteases. PMID:22492945

  9. Patterns of pulmonary maturation in normal and abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Goldkrand, J W; Slattery, D S

    1979-03-01

    Fetal pulmonary maturation may be a variable event depending on various feto-maternal environmental and biochemical influences. The patterns of maturation were studied in 211 amniotic fluid samples from 123 patients (normal 55; diabetes 23; Rh sensitization 19; preeclampsia 26). The phenomenon of globule formation from the amniotic fluid lipid extract and is relation to pulmonary maturity was utilized for this analysis. Validation of this technique is presented. A normal curve was constructed from 22 to 42 weeks; gestation and compared to the abnormal pregnancies. Patients with class A, B, and C diabetes and Rh-sensitized pregnancies had delayed pulmonary maturation. Patients with class D diabetes and preclampsia paralleled the normal course of maturation. A discussion of these results and their possible cause is presented.

  10. Dynamic thiol/disulfide homeostasis and effects of smoking on homeostasis parameters in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Emre, Selma; Demirseren, Duriye Deniz; Alisik, Murat; Aktas, Akin; Neselioglu, Salim; Erel, Ozcan

    2017-12-01

    Recently, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress have been suggested in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The aim of this study to evaluate the thiol/disulfide homeostasis in patients with psoriasis. Ninety patients with psoriasis who did not receive any systemic treatment in the last six  months were included in the study. Seventy-six age and gender-matched healthy volunteers served as control group. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis was measured in venous blood samples obtained from patient and control groups. Native thiol and total thiol levels were significantly higher in patients than in control group. When thiol/disulfide hemostasis parameters and clinical and demographic characteristics were compared, a negative correlation was detected between native thiol and total thiol with age. The levels of total thiols had also negative correlation with PASI and duration of the disease. When we divided the patients into smokers and non-smokers, native thiol and total thiol levels were significantly higher in smokers than in controls, whereas native thiol and total thiol levels were comparable in non-smoker patients and controls. Thiol/disulfide balance shifted towards thiol in psoriasis patients and this may be responsible for increased keratinocyte proliferation in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  11. Disruption of iron homeostasis in mesothelial cells following talc pleurodesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanism for biological effect following particle exposure is incompletely understood. One postulate proposed to explain biological effect after particles is an altered iron homeostasis in the host. The fibro-inflammatory properties of particles are exploited therapeutically...

  12. Transient abnormal Q waves during exercise electrocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Alameddine, F F; Zafari, A M

    2004-01-01

    Myocardial ischaemia during exercise electrocardiography is usually manifested by ST segment depression or elevation. Transient abnormal Q waves are rare, as Q waves indicate an old myocardial infarction. The case of a patient with exercise induced transient abnormal Q waves is reported. The potential mechanisms involved in the development of such an abnormality and its clinical implications are discussed. PMID:14676264

  13. Cardiac Abnormalities in Primary Hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Mookadam, Farouk; Smith, Travis; Jiamsripong, Panupong; Moustafa, Sherif E; Monico, Carla G.; Lieske, John C.; Milliner, Dawn S.

    2018-01-01

    Background In patients with primary hyperoxaluria (PH), oxalate overproduction can result in recurrent urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis, which in some cases results in a progressive decline in renal function, oxalate retention, and systemic oxalosis involving bone, retina, arterial media, peripheral nerves, skin, and heart. Oxalosis involving the myocardium or conduction system can potentially lead to heart failure and fatal arrhythmias. Methods and Results A retrospective review of our institution’s database was conducted for all patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PH between 1/1948 and 1/2006 (n=103). Electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography were used to identify cardiac abnormalities. Ninety-three patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 58% were male. Mean follow-up was 11.9 (median 8.8) years. In 38 patients who received an ECG or echocardiography, 31 were found to have any cardiac abnormalities. Cardiac findings correlated with decline in renal function. Conclusions Our data suggests that physicians caring for patients with PH should pay close attention to cardiac status, especially if renal function is impaired. PMID:20921818

  14. Redox homeostasis: The Golden Mean of healthy living.

    PubMed

    Ursini, Fulvio; Maiorino, Matilde; Forman, Henry Jay

    2016-08-01

    The notion that electrophiles serve as messengers in cell signaling is now widely accepted. Nonetheless, major issues restrain acceptance of redox homeostasis and redox signaling as components of maintenance of a normal physiological steady state. The first is that redox signaling requires sudden switching on of oxidant production and bypassing of antioxidant mechanisms rather than a continuous process that, like other signaling mechanisms, can be smoothly turned up or down. The second is the misperception that reactions in redox signaling involve "reactive oxygen species" rather than reaction of specific electrophiles with specific protein thiolates. The third is that hormesis provides protection against oxidants by increasing cellular defense or repair mechanisms rather than by specifically addressing the offset of redox homeostasis. Instead, we propose that both oxidant and antioxidant signaling are main features of redox homeostasis. As the redox shift is rapidly reversed by feedback reactions, homeostasis is maintained by continuous signaling for production and elimination of electrophiles and nucleophiles. Redox homeostasis, which is the maintenance of nucleophilic tone, accounts for a healthy physiological steady state. Electrophiles and nucleophiles are not intrinsically harmful or protective, and redox homeostasis is an essential feature of both the response to challenges and subsequent feedback. While the balance between oxidants and nucleophiles is preserved in redox homeostasis, oxidative stress provokes the establishment of a new radically altered redox steady state. The popular belief that scavenging free radicals by antioxidants has a beneficial effect is wishful thinking. We propose, instead, that continuous feedback preserves nucleophilic tone and that this is supported by redox active nutritional phytochemicals. These nonessential compounds, by activating Nrf2, mimic the effect of endogenously produced electrophiles (parahormesis). In summary

  15. Homeostasis in a feed forward loop gene regulatory motif.

    PubMed

    Antoneli, Fernando; Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian

    2018-05-14

    The internal state of a cell is affected by inputs from the extra-cellular environment such as external temperature. If some output, such as the concentration of a target protein, remains approximately constant as inputs vary, the system exhibits homeostasis. Special sub-networks called motifs are unusually common in gene regulatory networks (GRNs), suggesting that they may have a significant biological function. Potentially, one such function is homeostasis. In support of this hypothesis, we show that the feed-forward loop GRN produces homeostasis. Here the inputs are subsumed into a single parameter that affects only the first node in the motif, and the output is the concentration of a target protein. The analysis uses the notion of infinitesimal homeostasis, which occurs when the input-output map has a critical point (zero derivative). In model equations such points can be located using implicit differentiation. If the second derivative of the input-output map also vanishes, the critical point is a chair: the output rises roughly linearly, then flattens out (the homeostasis region or plateau), and then starts to rise again. Chair points are a common cause of homeostasis. In more complicated equations or networks, numerical exploration would have to augment analysis. Thus, in terms of finding chairs, this paper presents a proof of concept. We apply this method to a standard family of differential equations modeling the feed-forward loop GRN, and deduce that chair points occur. This function determines the production of a particular mRNA and the resulting chair points are found analytically. The same method can potentially be used to find homeostasis regions in other GRNs. In the discussion and conclusion section, we also discuss why homeostasis in the motif may persist even when the rest of the network is taken into account. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Redox homeostasis: The Golden Mean of healthy living

    PubMed Central

    Ursini, Fulvio; Maiorino, Matilde; Forman, Henry Jay

    2016-01-01

    The notion that electrophiles serve as messengers in cell signaling is now widely accepted. Nonetheless, major issues restrain acceptance of redox homeostasis and redox signaling as components of maintenance of a normal physiological steady state. The first is that redox signaling requires sudden switching on of oxidant production and bypassing of antioxidant mechanisms rather than a continuous process that, like other signaling mechanisms, can be smoothly turned up or down. The second is the misperception that reactions in redox signaling involve “reactive oxygen species” rather than reaction of specific electrophiles with specific protein thiolates. The third is that hormesis provides protection against oxidants by increasing cellular defense or repair mechanisms rather than by specifically addressing the offset of redox homeostasis. Instead, we propose that both oxidant and antioxidant signaling are main features of redox homeostasis. As the redox shift is rapidly reversed by feedback reactions, homeostasis is maintained by continuous signaling for production and elimination of electrophiles and nucleophiles. Redox homeostasis, which is the maintenance of nucleophilic tone, accounts for a healthy physiological steady state. Electrophiles and nucleophiles are not intrinsically harmful or protective, and redox homeostasis is an essential feature of both the response to challenges and subsequent feedback. While the balance between oxidants and nucleophiles is preserved in redox homeostasis, oxidative stress provokes the establishment of a new radically altered redox steady state. The popular belief that scavenging free radicals by antioxidants has a beneficial effect is wishful thinking. We propose, instead, that continuous feedback preserves nucleophilic tone and that this is supported by redox active nutritional phytochemicals. These nonessential compounds, by activating Nrf2, mimic the effect of endogenously produced electrophiles (parahormesis). In summary

  17. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  18. The ICET-A Recommendations for the Diagnosis and Management of Disturbances of Glucose Homeostasis in Thalassemia Major Patients

    PubMed Central

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf T.; Elsedfy, Heba; Yaarubi, Saif AL; Skordis, Nicos; Khater, Doaa; El Kholy, Mohamed; Stoeva, Iva; Fiscina, Bernadette; Angastiniotis, Michael; Daar, Shahina; Kattamis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Iron overload in patients with thalassemia major (TM) affects glucose regulation and is mediated by several mechanisms. The pathogenesis of glycaemic abnormalities in TM is complex and multifactorial. It has been predominantly attributed to a combination of reduced insulin secretory capacity and insulin resistance. The exact mechanisms responsible for progression from norm glycaemia to overt diabetes in these patients are still poorly understood but are attributed mainly to insulin deficiency resulting from the toxic effects of iron deposited in the pancreas and insulin resistance. A group of endocrinologists, haematologists and paediatricians, members of the International Network of Clinicians for Endocrinopathies in Thalassemia and Adolescence Medicine (ICET-A) convened to formulate recommendations for the diagnosis and management of abnormalities of glucose homeostasis in thalassemia major patients on the basis of available evidence from clinical and laboratory data and consensus practice. The results of their work and discussions are described in this article. PMID:27872738

  19. Fluid and electrolyte homeostasis in space - A primate model to look at mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore-Ede, M. C.; Churchill, S. E.; Leach, C. S.; Sulzman, F. M.; Fuller, C. A.; Kass, D.

    1982-01-01

    To elucidate the physiological mechanisms involved in the cardiovascular and renal responses to spaceflight, a ground-based primate model has been developed which uses lower body positive pressure (LBPP) to simulate the chronic central vascular expansion associated with weightlessnes. Four male squirrel monkeys with chronically implanted arterial and venous catheters and the capacity for continuous urine collection were subjected to LBPP for 4 days. Onset of LBPP resulted in an immediate diuresis, natriuresis and kaliuresis and a significant fall in plasma aldosterone and potassium levels. By day 2 the level of natriuresis had decreased by half, while potassium excretion and plasma aldosterone values had returned to control levels despite the persistence of a significantly reduced plasma potassium concentration. It is concluded that the low plasma potassium level appears not to stimulate a compensatory fall in plasma aldosterone because of the simultaneous presence of body volume contraction acting to raise aldosterone levels.

  20. Fluid sampling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studenick, D. K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An inlet leak is described for sampling gases, more specifically, for selectively sampling multiple fluids. This fluid sampling device includes a support frame. A plurality of fluid inlet devices extend through the support frame and each of the fluid inlet devices include a longitudinal aperture. An opening device that is responsive to a control signal selectively opens the aperture to allow fluid passage. A closing device that is responsive to another control signal selectively closes the aperture for terminating further fluid flow.

  1. Genetic defects disrupting glial ion and water homeostasis in the brain.

    PubMed

    Min, Rogier; van der Knaap, Marjo S

    2018-05-01

    Electrical activity of neurons in the brain, caused by the movement of ions between intracellular and extracellular compartments, is the basis of all our thoughts and actions. Maintaining the correct ionic concentration gradients is therefore crucial for brain functioning. Ion fluxes are accompanied by the displacement of osmotically obliged water. Since even minor brain swelling leads to severe brain damage and even death, brain ion and water movement has to be tightly regulated. Glial cells, in particular astrocytes, play a key role in ion and water homeostasis. They are endowed with specific channels, pumps and carriers to regulate ion and water flow. Glial cells form a large panglial syncytium to aid the uptake and dispersal of ions and water, and make extensive contacts with brain fluid barriers for disposal of excess ions and water. Genetic defects in glial proteins involved in ion and water homeostasis disrupt brain functioning, thereby leading to neurological diseases. Since white matter edema is often a hallmark disease feature, many of these diseases are characterized as leukodystrophies. In this review we summarize our current understanding of inherited glial diseases characterized by disturbed brain ion and water homeostasis by integrating findings from MRI, genetics, neuropathology and animal models for disease. We discuss how mutations in different glial proteins lead to disease, and highlight the similarities and differences between these diseases. To come to effective therapies for this group of diseases, a better mechanistic understanding of how glial cells shape ion and water movement in the brain is crucial. © 2018 The Authors. Brain Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Neuropathology.

  2. Cellular copper homeostasis: current concepts on its interplay with glutathione homeostasis and its implication in physiology and human diseases.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Ashima; Chakraborty, Kaustav; Shukla, Aditya

    2017-10-18

    Copper is a trace element essential for almost all living organisms. But the level of intracellular copper needs to be tightly regulated. Dysregulation of cellular copper homeostasis leading to various diseases demonstrates the importance of this tight regulation. Copper homeostasis is regulated not only within the cell but also within individual intracellular compartments. Inactivation of export machinery results in excess copper being redistributed into various intracellular organelles. Recent evidence suggests the involvement of glutathione in playing an important role in regulating copper entry and intracellular copper homeostasis. Therefore interplay of both homeostases might play an important role within the cell. Similar to copper, glutathione balance is tightly regulated within individual cellular compartments. This review explores the existing literature on the role of glutathione in regulating cellular copper homeostasis. On the one hand, interplay of glutathione and copper homeostasis performs an important role in normal physiological processes, for example neuronal differentiation. On the other hand, perturbation of the interplay might play a key role in the pathogenesis of copper homeostasis disorders.

  3. Muscle abnormalities in osteogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Veilleux, L-N.; Trejo, P.; Rauch, F.

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is mainly characterized by bone fragility but muscle abnormalities have been reported both in OI mouse models and in children with OI. Muscle mass is decreased in OI, even when short stature is taken into account. Dynamic muscle tests aiming at maximal eccentric force production reveal functional deficits that can not be explained by low muscle mass alone. However, it appears that diaphyseal bone mass is normally adapted to muscle force. At present the determinants of muscle mass and function in OI have not been clearly defined. Physiotherapy interventions and bisphosphonate treatment appear to have some effect on muscle function in OI. Interventions targeting muscle mass have shown encouraging results in OI animal models and are an interesting area for further research. PMID:28574406

  4. [Perioperative fluid therapy for surgical patients with chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Iijima, Takehiko

    2013-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) often accompanies cardiovascular complications, causing postoperative morbidity and even mortality. Since fluid and electrolyte homeostasis is deregulated in CKD patients, fluid therapy itself may cause postoperative morbidity. Recent studies have shown that forced diuresis through fluid overload offers no renoprotective effect and instead has harmful consequences. Fluid overload should be avoided, and the volume load should be used as the rationale for controlling hemodynamics. The emerging concept of a "zero-fluid balance policy" may be beneficial even for CKD patients. Hydroxyethylstarch might not be preferentially used for CKD patients. Hydroxyethylstarch is not contraindicated for CKD patients except in cases with long-term accumulation caused by increased vascular permeability, such as cases with sepsis, as long as an efficient volume expansion is beneficial to the patient. The regulation of renal function through the endocrine system (i.e., renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and vasopressin) is a key target for protecting the kidney in CKD. The recent development of a receptor blocker targeting these endocrine systems may be beneficial for correcting the fluid balance caused by excess intraoperative fluid therapy. The main issue for fluid therapy in surgical CKD patients may not be the quantity of fluid, but rational intervention affecting the endocrine system.

  5. Glucose Homeostasis and Effect of Chelation on β Cell Function in Children With β-Thalassemia Major.

    PubMed

    Gomber, Sunil; Dabas, Aashima; Bagmar, Shilpa; Madhu, Sri Venkata

    2018-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in β-thalassemia major and correlate it with chelation therapy. Sixty-seven subjects with β-thalassemia major, aged 1 to 20 years, were enrolled in our prospective cohort. Clinical details were recorded. Baseline oral glucose tolerance test, serum insulin, C peptide, and insulin resistance were measured. The biochemical profile was repeated after 6 months. The mean age of subjects was 7.43±4.48 years. Eight (11.9%) subjects had impaired fasting glucose, 7 (10.4%) had impaired glucose tolerance, and 1 (1.4%) subject had diabetes at baseline. Subjects with abnormal glucose profile had longer disease duration (95% confidence interval [CI] of difference=-6.64 to -0.68; P=0.019) and higher fasting blood glucose (95% CI of difference=-32.1 to -10.5; P=0.001) and serum ferritin (95% CI of difference=-219.8 to -3.4; P=0.001) than normoglycemic subjects. Insulin resistance and serum ferritin showed significant increase at 6 months (P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively). Patients on deferiprone alone significantly improved glucose homeostasis on follow-up than those on desferrioxamine or combination therapy of desferrioxamine and deferiprone (P<0.05). Prolonged disease duration and higher serum ferritin adversely affects glucose homeostasis in thalassemic children. Deferiprone was the most effective chelator to improve glucose homeostasis in chronically transfused thalassemics.

  6. Mechanoregulation of Wound Healing and Skin Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rosińczuk, Joanna; Taradaj, Jakub; Dymarek, Robert; Sopel, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Basic and clinical studies on mechanobiology of cells and tissues point to the importance of mechanical forces in the process of skin regeneration and wound healing. These studies result in the development of new therapies that use mechanical force which supports effective healing. A better understanding of mechanobiology will make it possible to develop biomaterials with appropriate physical and chemical properties used to treat poorly healing wounds. In addition, it will make it possible to design devices precisely controlling wound mechanics and to individualize a therapy depending on the type, size, and anatomical location of the wound in specific patients, which will increase the clinical efficiency of the therapy. Linking mechanobiology with the science of biomaterials and nanotechnology will enable in the near future precise interference in abnormal cell signaling responsible for the proliferation, differentiation, cell death, and restoration of the biological balance. The objective of this study is to point to the importance of mechanobiology in regeneration of skin damage and wound healing. The study describes the influence of rigidity of extracellular matrix and special restrictions on cell physiology. The study also defines how and what mechanical changes influence tissue regeneration and wound healing. The influence of mechanical signals in the process of proliferation, differentiation, and skin regeneration is tagged in the study. PMID:27413744

  7. HIV Infection and Bone Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aamir N; Ahmad, Shahid N; Ahmad, Nafees

    2017-01-01

    More than 36 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide and 50% of them have access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). While recent advances in HIV therapy have reduced the viral load, restored CD4 T cell counts and decreased opportunistic infections, several bone-related abnormalities such as low bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis, osteopenia, osteomalacia and fractures have emerged in HIV-infected individuals. Of all classes of antiretroviral agents, HIV protease inhibitors used in ART combination showed a higher frequency of osteopenia, osteoporosis and low BMD in HIV-infected patients. Although the mechanisms of HIV and/or ART associated bone abnormalities are not known, it is believed that the damage is caused by a complex interaction of T lymphocytes with osteoclasts and osteoblasts, likely influenced by both HIV and ART. In addition, infection of osteoclasts and bone marrow stromal cells by HIV, including HIV Gp120 induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and release of proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in impairment of bone development and maturation. Several of the newer antiretroviral agents currently used in ART combination, including the widely used tenofovir in different formulations show relative adverse effects on BMD. In this context, switching the HIV-regimen from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) showed improvement in BMD of HIV-infected patients. In addition, inclusion of integrase inhibitor in ART combination is associated with improved BMD in patients. Furthermore, supplementation of vitamin D and calcium with the initiation of ART may mitigate bone loss. Therefore, levels of vitamin D and calcium should be part of the evaluation of HIV-infected patients.

  8. Fluid therapy in vomiting and diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew J; Otto, Cynthia M

    2008-05-01

    Fluid therapy in the patient with vomiting and diarrhea is essential to correct hypovolemia, dehydration, acid-base imbalance, and serum electrolyte abnormalities. Prediction of acid-base or electrolyte disturbances is difficult; therefore, point of care testing is beneficial to optimize therapy. This article focuses on the pathophysiology and treatment of hypovolemia, dehydration, electrolyte disturbances, and acid-base derangements resulting from and associated with vomiting and diarrhea.

  9. Milrinone and homeostasis to treat cerebral vasospasm associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage: the Montreal Neurological Hospital protocol.

    PubMed

    Lannes, Marcelo; Teitelbaum, Jeanne; del Pilar Cortés, Maria; Cardoso, Mauro; Angle, Mark

    2012-06-01

    For the treatment of cerebral vasospasm, current therapies have focused on increasing blood flow through blood pressure augmentation, hypervolemia, the use of intra-arterial vasodilators, and angioplasty of proximal cerebral vessels. Through a large case series, we present our experience of treating cerebral vasospasm with a protocol based on maintenance of homeostasis (correction of electrolyte and glucose disturbances, prevention and treatment of hyperthermia, replacement of fluid losses), and the use of intravenous milrinone to improve microcirculation (the Montreal Neurological Hospital protocol). Our objective is to describe the use milrinone in our practice and the neurological outcomes associated with this approach. Large case series based on the review of all patients diagnosed with delayed ischemic neurologic deficits after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage between April 1999 and April 2006. 88 patients were followed for a mean time of 44.6 months. An intravenous milrinone infusion was used for a mean of 9.8 days without any significant side effects. No medical complications associated with this protocol were observed. There were five deaths; of the surviving patients, 48.9 % were able to go back to their previous baseline and 75 % had a good functional outcome (modified Rankin scale ≤ 2). A protocol using intravenous milrinone, and the maintenance of homeostasis is simple to use and requires less intensive monitoring and resources than the standard triple H therapy. Despite the obvious limitations of this study's design, we believe that it would be now appropriate to proceed with formal prospective studies of this protocol.

  10. Spectral luminescence analysis of amniotic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobozhanina, Ekaterina I.; Kozlova, Nataly M.; Kasko, Leonid P.; Mamontova, Marina V.; Chernitsky, Eugene A.

    1997-12-01

    It is shown that the amniotic fluid has intensive ultra-violet luminescence caused by proteins. Along with it amniotic fluid radiated in the field of 380 - 650 nm with maxima at 430 - 450 nm and 520 - 560 nm. The first peak of luminescence ((lambda) exc equals 350 nm; (lambda) em equals 430 - 440 nm) is caused (most probably) by the presence in amniotic fluid of some hormones, NADH2 and NADPH2. A more long-wave component ((lambda) exc equals 460 nm; (lambda) em equals 520 - 560 nm) is most likely connected with the presence in amniotic fluid pigments (bilirubin connected with protein and other). It is shown that intensity and maximum of ultra-violet luminescence spectra of amniotic fluid in normality and at pathology are identical. However both emission spectra and excitation spectra of long-wave ((lambda) greater than 450 nm) luminescence of amniotic fluid from pregnant women with such prenatal abnormal developments of a fetus as anencephaly and spina bifida are too long-wave region in comparison with the norm. Results of research testify that spectral luminescent analysis of amniotic fluid can be used for screening of malformations of the neural tube. It is very difficult for a practical obstetrician to reveal pregnant women with a high risk of congenital malformations of the fetus. Apart from ultrasonic examination, cytogenetic examination of amniotic fluid and defumination of concentrations of alpha-fetoprotein and acetylcholin-esterases in the amniotic fluid and blood plasma are the most widely used diagnostic approaches. However, biochemical and cytogenetic diagnostic methods are time-consuming. In the present work spectral luminescence properties of the amniotic fluid are investigated to determine spectral parameters that can be used to reveal pregnant women with a high risk of congenital malformations of their offsprings.

  11. EGFR signaling regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis during planarian regeneration and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Fraguas, Susanna; Barberán, Sara; Cebrià, Francesc

    2011-06-01

    Similarly to development, the process of regeneration requires that cells accurately sense and respond to their external environment. Thus, intrinsic cues must be integrated with signals from the surrounding environment to ensure appropriate temporal and spatial regulation of tissue regeneration. Identifying the signaling pathways that control these events will not only provide insights into a fascinating biological phenomenon but may also yield new molecular targets for use in regenerative medicine. Among classical models to study regeneration, freshwater planarians represent an attractive system in which to investigate the signals that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as the proper patterning of the structures being regenerated. Recent studies in planarians have begun to define the role of conserved signaling pathways during regeneration. Here, we extend these analyses to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor pathway. We report the characterization of three epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Silencing of these genes by RNA interference (RNAi) yielded multiple defects in intact and regenerating planarians. Smed-egfr-1(RNAi) resulted in decreased differentiation of eye pigment cells, abnormal pharynx regeneration and maintenance, and the development of dorsal outgrowths. In contrast, Smed-egfr-3(RNAi) animals produced smaller blastemas associated with abnormal differentiation of certain cell types. Our results suggest important roles for the EGFR signaling in controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis during planarian regeneration and homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Epidermal development, growth control, and homeostasis in the face of centrosome amplification.

    PubMed

    Kulukian, Anita; Holland, Andrew J; Vitre, Benjamin; Naik, Shruti; Cleveland, Don W; Fuchs, Elaine

    2015-11-17

    As nucleators of the mitotic spindle and primary cilium, centrosomes play crucial roles in equal segregation of DNA content to daughter cells, coordination of growth and differentiation, and transduction of homeostatic cues. Whereas the majority of mammalian cells carry no more than two centrosomes per cell, exceptions to this rule apply in certain specialized tissues and in select disease states, including cancer. Centrosome amplification, or the condition of having more than two centrosomes per cell, has been suggested to contribute to instability of chromosomes, imbalance in asymmetric divisions, and reorganization of tissue architecture; however, the degree to which these conditions are a direct cause of or simply a consequence of human disease is poorly understood. Here we addressed this issue by generating a mouse model inducing centrosome amplification in a naturally proliferative epithelial tissue by elevating Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) expression in the skin epidermis. By altering centrosome numbers, we observed multiciliated cells, spindle orientation errors, and chromosome segregation defects within developing epidermis. None of these defects was sufficient to impart a proliferative advantage within the tissue, however. Rather, impaired mitoses led to p53-mediated cell death and contributed to defective growth and stratification. Despite these abnormalities, mice remained viable and healthy, although epidermal cells with centrosome amplification were still appreciable. Moreover, these abnormalities were insufficient to disrupt homeostasis and initiate or enhance tumorigenesis, underscoring the powerful surveillance mechanisms in the skin.

  13. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings... shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal...

  14. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  15. Intermittent Hypoxia Impairs Glucose Homeostasis in C57BL6/J Mice: Partial Improvement with Cessation of the Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Jan; Shimoda, Larissa A.; Drager, Luciano F.; Undem, Clark; McHugh, Holly; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.; Punjabi, Naresh M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although several studies have suggested that intermittent hypoxia in obstructive sleep apnea may induce abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, it remains to be determined whether these abnormalities improve after discontinuation of the exposure. The objective of this study was to delineate the effects of intermittent hypoxia on glucose homeostasis, beta cell function, and liver glucose metabolism and to investigate whether the impairments improve after the hypoxic exposure is discontinued. Interventions: C57BL6/J mice were exposed to 14 days of intermittent hypoxia, 14 days of intermittent air, or 7 days of intermittent hypoxia followed by 7 days of intermittent air (recovery paradigm). Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed to estimate whole-body insulin sensitivity and calculate measures of beta cell function. Oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue and glucose output from isolated hepatocytes were also assessed. Results: Intermittent hypoxia increased fasting glucose levels and worsened glucose tolerance by 67% and 27%, respectively. Furthermore, intermittent hypoxia exposure was associated with impairments in insulin sensitivity and beta cell function, an increase in liver glycogen, higher hepatocyte glucose output, and an increase in oxidative stress in the pancreas. While fasting glucose levels and hepatic glucose output normalized after discontinuation of the hypoxic exposure, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impairments in beta cell function persisted. Conclusions: Intermittent hypoxia induces insulin resistance, impairs beta cell function, enhances hepatocyte glucose output, and increases oxidative stress in the pancreas. Cessation of the hypoxic exposure does not fully reverse the observed changes in glucose metabolism. Citation: Polak J; Shimoda LA; Drager LF; Undem C; McHugh H; Polotsky VY; Punjabi NM

  16. Fluid transport container

    DOEpatents

    DeRoos, Bradley G.; Downing, Jr., John P.; Neal, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitment for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container.

  17. Respiratory Adaptations in Acid-base Disturbances: Role of Cerebral Fluids,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-19

    The respiratory and metabolic components of acid-base homeostasis are defined. A quantitative empirical description of the (incomplete) mutual...literature. Respiratory adaptations in steady acid-base disturbances of metabolic origin (hyperventilation with hypocapnia in primary metabolic acidosis, and...hypoventilation with hypercapnia in metabolic alkalosis ) are analyzed as a function of the acidity of the cerebral fluids (cerebrospinal and cerebral interstitial fluid). (Author)

  18. DIRECTIONAL FLUID TRANSPORT ACROSS ORGAN-BLOOD BARRIERS: PHYSIOLOGY AND CELL BIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Caceres, Paulo S.; Benedicto, Ignacio; Lehmann, Guillermo L.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique J.

    2018-01-01

    Directional fluid flow is an essential process for embryo development as well as for organ and organism homeostasis. Here, we review the diverse structure of various organ-blood barriers, the driving forces, transporters and polarity mechanisms that regulate fluid transport across them, focusing on kidney-, eye- and brain-blood barriers. We end by discussing how cross-talk between barrier epithelial and endothelial cells, perivascular cells and basement membrane signaling contribute to generate and maintain organ-blood barriers. PMID:28003183

  19. A new look at cerebrospinal fluid circulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    According to the traditional understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) physiology, the majority of CSF is produced by the choroid plexus, circulates through the ventricles, the cisterns, and the subarachnoid space to be absorbed into the blood by the arachnoid villi. This review surveys key developments leading to the traditional concept. Challenging this concept are novel insights utilizing molecular and cellular biology as well as neuroimaging, which indicate that CSF physiology may be much more complex than previously believed. The CSF circulation comprises not only a directed flow of CSF, but in addition a pulsatile to and fro movement throughout the entire brain with local fluid exchange between blood, interstitial fluid, and CSF. Astrocytes, aquaporins, and other membrane transporters are key elements in brain water and CSF homeostasis. A continuous bidirectional fluid exchange at the blood brain barrier produces flow rates, which exceed the choroidal CSF production rate by far. The CSF circulation around blood vessels penetrating from the subarachnoid space into the Virchow Robin spaces provides both a drainage pathway for the clearance of waste molecules from the brain and a site for the interaction of the systemic immune system with that of the brain. Important physiological functions, for example the regeneration of the brain during sleep, may depend on CSF circulation. PMID:24817998

  20. [Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use].

    PubMed

    Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  1. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dandy-Walker syndrome and chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Imataka, George; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Arisaka, Osamu

    2007-12-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a brain malformation of unknown etiology, but several reports have been published indicating that there is a causal relationship to various types of chromosomal abnormalities and malformation syndromes. In the present article, we present a bibliographical survey of several previously issued reports on chromosomal abnormalities associated with DWS, including our case of DWS found in trisomy 18. There are various types of chromosomal abnormalities associated with DWS; most of them are reported in chromosome 3, 9, 13 and 18. We also summarize some other chromosomal abnormalities and various congenital malformation syndromes.

  3. Roles for Hedgehog signaling in adult organ homeostasis and repair

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Ralitsa; Joyner, Alexandra L.

    2014-01-01

    The hedgehog (HH) pathway is well known for its mitogenic and morphogenic functions during development, and HH signaling continues in discrete populations of cells within many adult mammalian tissues. Growing evidence indicates that HH regulates diverse quiescent stem cell populations, but the exact roles that HH signaling plays in adult organ homeostasis and regeneration remain poorly understood. Here, we review recently identified functions of HH in modulating the behavior of tissue-specific adult stem and progenitor cells during homeostasis, regeneration and disease. We conclude that HH signaling is a key factor in the regulation of adult tissue homeostasis and repair, acting via multiple different routes to regulate distinct cellular outcomes, including maintenance of plasticity, in a context-dependent manner. PMID:25183867

  4. Actin turnover maintains actin filament homeostasis during cytokinetic ring contraction

    PubMed Central

    Palani, Saravanan; Sommese, Ruth; Kamnev, Anton; Hatano, Tomoyuki; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaraj

    2017-01-01

    Cytokinesis in many eukaryotes involves a tension-generating actomyosin-based contractile ring. Many components of actomyosin rings turn over during contraction, although the significance of this turnover has remained enigmatic. Here, using Schizosaccharomyces japonicus, we investigate the role of turnover of actin and myosin II in its contraction. Actomyosin ring components self-organize into ∼1-µm-spaced clusters instead of undergoing full-ring contraction in the absence of continuous actin polymerization. This effect is reversed when actin filaments are stabilized. We tested the idea that the function of turnover is to ensure actin filament homeostasis in a synthetic system, in which we abolished turnover by fixing rings in cell ghosts with formaldehyde. We found that these rings contracted fully upon exogenous addition of a vertebrate myosin. We conclude that actin turnover is required to maintain actin filament homeostasis during ring contraction and that the requirement for turnover can be bypassed if homeostasis is achieved artificially. PMID:28655757

  5. Petri net based model of the body iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Formanowicz, Dorota; Sackmann, Andrea; Formanowicz, Piotr; Błazewicz, Jacek

    2007-10-01

    The body iron homeostasis is a not fully understood complex process. Despite the fact that some components of this process have been described in the literature, the complete model of the whole process has not been proposed. In this paper a Petri net based model of the body iron homeostasis is presented. Recently, Petri nets have been used for describing and analyzing various biological processes since they allow modeling the system under consideration very precisely. The main result presented in the paper is twofold, i.e., an informal description of the main part of the whole iron homeostasis process is described, and then it is also formulated in the formal language of Petri net theory. This model allows for a possible simulation of the process, since Petri net theory provides a lot of established analysis techniques.

  6. Snapshot: implications for melatonin in endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei; Ma, Zhiqiang; Di, Shouyin; Jiang, Shuai; Li, Yue; Fan, Chongxi

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important intracellular membranous organelle. Previous studies have demonstrated that the ER is responsible for protein folding and trafficking, lipid synthesis and the maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Interestingly, the morphology and structure of the ER were recently found to be important. Melatonin is a hormone that anticipates the daily onset of darkness in mammals, and it is well known that melatonin acts as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the body. Notably, the existing evidence demonstrates that melatonin is involved in ER homeostasis, particularly in the morphology of the ER, indicating a potential protective role of melatonin. This review discusses the existing knowledge regarding the implications for the involvement of melatonin in ER homeostasis. PMID:27759160

  7. Using glutamate homeostasis as a target for treating addictive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Reissner, Kathryn J.; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    Well-developed cellular mechanisms exist to preserve glutamate homeostasis and regulate extrasynaptic glutamate levels. Accumulating evidence indicates that disruptions in glutamate homeostasis are associated with addictive disorders. The disruptions in glutamate concentrations observed following prolonged exposure to drugs of abuse are associated with changes in the function and activity of several key components within the homeostatic control mechanism, including the cystine/glutamate exchanger xc− and the glial glutamate transporter EAAT2/GLT-1. Changes in the balance between synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamate levels in turn influence signaling through pre- and postsynaptic glutamate receptors, and thus affect synaptic plasticity and circuit-level activity. In this review we describe the evidence for impaired glutamate homestasis as a critical mediator of long-term drug-seeking behaviors, how chronic neuroadaptations in xc− and GLT-1 mediate a disruption in glutamate homeostasis, and how targeting these components restores glutamate levels and inhibits drug-seeking behaviors. PMID:20634691

  8. Association of SSTR2 Polymorphisms and Glucose Homeostasis Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Beth S.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Xue, Bingzhong; Proctor, Alexandria; Ziegler, Julie T.; Haffner, Steven M.; Norris, Jill M.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the influence of somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) polymorphisms on measures of glucose homeostasis in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). SSTR2 is a G-protein–coupled receptor that, in response to somatostatin, mediates inhibition of insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone release and thus may affect glucose homeostasis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the gene were chosen using a SNP density selection algorithm and genotyped on 1,425 Hispanic-American individuals from 90 families in the IRASFS. These families comprised two samples (set 1 and set 2), which were analyzed individually and as a combined set. Single SNP tests of association were performed for four glucose homeostasis measures—insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response (AIR), disposition index (DI), and fasting blood glucose (FBG)—using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS The SSTR2 locus was encompassed by a single linkage disequilibrium (LD) block (D′ = 0.91–1.00; r2 = 0.09–0.97) that contained four of the ten SNPs evaluated. Within the SSTR2-containing LD block, evidence of association was observed in each of the two sets and in a combined analysis with decreased SI(βhomozygous = −0.16; Pmeta-analysis = 0.0024–0.0030), decreased DI (βhomozygous = −0.35 to −5.16; Pmeta-analysis = 0.0075–0.027), and increased FBG (βhomozygous = 2.30; Pmeta-analysis = 0.045). SNPs outside the SSTR2-containing LD block were not associated with measures of glucose homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS We observed evidence for association of SSTR2 polymorphisms with measures of glucose homeostasis. Thus, variants in SSTR2 may influence pathways of SIto modulate glucose homeostasis. PMID:19324939

  9. Molecular aspects of bacterial pH sensing and homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Krulwich, Terry A.; Sachs, George; Padan, Etana

    2011-01-01

    Diverse mechanisms for pH-sensing and cytoplasmic pH homeostasis enable most bacteria to tolerate or grow at external pH values that are outside the cytoplasmic pH range they must maintain for growth. The most extreme cases are exemplified by the extremophiles that inhabit environments whose pH is below 3 or above 11. Here we describe how recent insights into the structure and function of key molecules and their regulators reveal novel strategies of bacterial pH-homeostasis. These insights may help us better target certain pathogens and better harness the capacities of environmental bacteria. PMID:21464825

  10. Upper intestinal lipids regulate energy and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Grace W C; Kokorovic, Andrea; Lam, Tony K T

    2009-09-01

    Upon the entry of nutrients into the small intestine, nutrient sensing mechanisms are activated to allow the body to adapt appropriately to the incoming nutrients. To date, mounting evidence points to the existence of an upper intestinal lipid-induced gut-brain neuronal axis to regulate energy homeostasis. Moreover, a recent discovery has also revealed an upper intestinal lipid-induced gut-brain-liver neuronal axis involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In this mini-review, we will focus on the mechanisms underlying the activation of these respective neuronal axes by upper intestinal lipids.

  11. Loss of polyubiquitin gene Ubb leads to metabolic and sleep abnormalities in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, K.-Y.; Fujiki, N.; Kazantzis, M.; Garza, J. C.; Bouley, D. M.; Stahl, A.; Lu, X.-Y.; Nishino, S.; Kopito, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Ubiquitin performs essential roles in a myriad of signalling pathways required for cellular function and survival. Recently, we reported that disruption of the stress-inducible ubiquitin-encoding gene Ubb reduces ubiquitin content in the hypothalamus and leads to adult-onset obesity coupled with a loss of arcuate nucleus neurones and disrupted energy homeostasis in mice. Neuropeptides expressed in the hypothalamus control both metabolic and sleep behaviours. In order to demonstrate that the loss of Ubb results in broad hypothalamic abnormalities, we attempted to determine whether metabolic and sleep behaviours were altered in Ubb knockout mice. Methods Metabolic rate and energy expenditure were measured in a metabolic chamber, and sleep stage was monitored via electroencephalographic/electromyographic recording. The presence of neurodegeneration and increased reactive gliosis in the hypothalamus were also evaluated. Results We found that Ubb disruption leads to early-onset reduced activity and metabolic rate. Additionally, we have demonstrated that sleep behaviour is altered and sleep homeostasis is disrupted in Ubb knockout mice. These early metabolic and sleep abnormalities are accompanied by persistent reactive gliosis and the loss of arcuate nucleus neurones, but are independent of neurodegeneration in the lateral hypothalamus. Conclusions Ubb knockout mice exhibit phenotypes consistent with hypothalamic dysfunction. Our data also indicate that Ubb is essential for the maintenance of the ubiquitin levels required for proper regulation of metabolic and sleep behaviours in mice. PMID:20002312

  12. Neonatal fluid management.

    PubMed

    Murat, Isabelle; Humblot, Alexis; Girault, Laure; Piana, Federica

    2010-09-01

    Perioperative fluid management in paediatrics has been the subject of many controversies in recent years, but fluid management in the neonatal period has not been considered in most reviews and guidelines. The literature regarding neonatal fluid management mainly appears in the paediatric textbooks and few recent data are available, except for resuscitation and fluid loading during shock and major surgery. In the context of anaesthesia, many neonates requiring surgery within the first month of life have organ malformation and/or dysfunction. This article aims at reviewing basic physiological considerations important for neonatal fluid management and mainly focusses on fluid maintenance and replacement during surgery.

  13. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  14. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  15. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  16. Interstitial ion homeostasis and acid-base balance are maintained in oedematous brain of mice with acute toxic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Obara-Michlewska, Marta; Ding, Fengfei; Popek, Mariusz; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Nedergaard, Maiken; Zielinska, Magdalena; Albrecht, Jan

    2018-05-14

    Acute toxic liver failure (ATLF) rapidly leads to brain oedema and neurological decline. We evaluated the ability of ATLF-affected brain to control the ionic composition and acid-base balance of the interstitial fluid. ATLF was induced in 10-12 weeks old male C57Bl mice by single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 100 μg/g azoxymethane (AOM). Analyses were carried out in cerebral cortex of precomatous mice 20-24 h after AOM administration. Brain fluid status was evaluated by measuring apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] using NMR spectroscopy, Evans Blue extravasation, and accumulation of an intracisternally-injected fluorescent tracer. Extracellular pH ([pH] e ) and ([K + ] e ) were measured in situ with ion-sensitive microelectrodes. Cerebral cortical microdialysates were subjected to photometric analysis of extracellular potassium ([K + ] e ), sodium ([Na + ] e ) and luminometric assay of extracellular lactate ([Lac] e ). Potassium transport in cerebral cortical slices was measured ex vivo as 86 Rb uptake. Cerebral cortex of AOM-treated mice presented decreased ADC supporting the view that ATLF-induced brain oedema is primarily cytotoxic in nature. In addition, increased Evans blue extravasation indicated blood brain barrier leakage, and increased fluorescent tracer accumulation suggested impaired interstitial fluid passage. However, [K + ] e , [Na + ] e , [Lac] e , [pH] e and potassium transport in brain of AOM-treated mice was not different from control mice. We conclude that in spite of cytotoxic oedema and deregulated interstitial fluid passage, brain of mice with ATLF retains the ability to maintain interstitial ion homeostasis and acid-base balance. Tentatively, uncompromised brain ion homeostasis and acid-base balance may contribute to the relatively frequent brain function recovery and spontaneous survival rate in human patients with ATLF. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Notch Signaling Regulates Late-Stage Epidermal Differentiation and Maintains Postnatal Hair Cycle Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsien-Yi; Kao, Cheng-Heng; Lin, Kurt Ming-Chao; Kaartinen, Vesa; Yang, Liang-Tung

    2011-01-01

    Background Notch signaling involves ligand-receptor interactions through direct cell-cell contact. Multiple Notch receptors and ligands are expressed in the epidermis and hair follicles during embryonic development and the adult stage. Although Notch signaling plays an important role in regulating differentiation of the epidermis and hair follicles, it remains unclear how Notch signaling participates in late-stage epidermal differentiation and postnatal hair cycle homeostasis. Methodology and Principal Findings We applied Cre/loxP system to generate conditional gene targeted mice that allow inactivation of critical components of Notch signaling pathway in the skin. Rbpj, the core component of all four Notch receptors, and Pofut1, an essential factor for ligand-receptor interactions, were inactivated in hair follicle lineages and suprabasal layer of the epidermis using the Tgfb3-Cre mouse line. Rbpj conditional inactivation resulted in granular parakeratosis and reactive epidermal hyperplasia. Pofut1 conditional inactivation led to ultrastructural abnormalities in the granular layer and altered filaggrin processing in the epidermis, suggesting a perturbation of the granular layer differentiation. Disruption of Pofut1 in hair follicle lineages resulted in aberrant telogen morphology, a decrease of bulge stem cell markers, and a concomitant increase of K14-positive keratinocytes in the isthmus of mutant hair follicles. Pofut1-deficent hair follicles displayed a delay in anagen re-entry and dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis during the hair cycle transition. Moreover, increased DNA double stand breaks were detected in Pofut1-deficent hair follicles, and real time PCR analyses on bulge keratinocytes isolated by FACS revealed an induction of DNA damage response and a paucity of DNA repair machinery in mutant bulge keratinocytes. Significance our data reveal a role for Notch signaling in regulating late-stage epidermal differentiation. Notch signaling is

  18. Toxicological disruption of signaling homeostasis: Tyrosine phosphatses as targets

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) comprised a diverse group of enzymes whose activity opposes that of the tyrosine kinases. As such, the PTP have critical roles in maintaining signaling quiescence in resting cells and in restoring homeostasis by effecting signal termination...

  19. Development and Validation of the Homeostasis Concept Inventory

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Jenny L.; Price, Rebecca M.; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Martinková, Patrícia; Cliff, William; Michael, Joel; Modell, Harold; Wright, Ann

    2017-01-01

    We present the Homeostasis Concept Inventory (HCI), a 20-item multiple-choice instrument that assesses how well undergraduates understand this critical physiological concept. We used an iterative process to develop a set of questions based on elements in the Homeostasis Concept Framework. This process involved faculty experts and undergraduate students from associate’s colleges, primarily undergraduate institutions, regional and research-intensive universities, and professional schools. Statistical results provided strong evidence for the validity and reliability of the HCI. We found that graduate students performed better than undergraduates, biology majors performed better than nonmajors, and students performed better after receiving instruction about homeostasis. We used differential item analysis to assess whether students from different genders, races/ethnicities, and English language status performed differently on individual items of the HCI. We found no evidence of differential item functioning, suggesting that the items do not incorporate cultural or gender biases that would impact students’ performance on the test. Instructors can use the HCI to guide their teaching and student learning of homeostasis, a core concept of physiology. PMID:28572177

  20. Disruption of ion homeostasis by verrucosin and a related compound.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Koichi; Tone, Junichi; Yamauchi, Satoshi; Sugahara, Takuya; Maruyama, Masafumi; Kakinuma, Yoshimi

    2011-01-01

    We have found that (-)-virgatusin and related compounds have antimicrobial and antifungal activity. To identify further biological activities of these compounds, we tested the activity of acridine orange efflux, which shows ionophore-like disruption of cellular ion homeostasis activity. After testing 31 compounds, we found that verrucosin and a related compound had disruption activity.

  1. Eosinophil-derived CCL-6 impairs hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Yi, Weiwei; Li, Fei; Du, Xufei; Wang, Hu; Wu, Ping; Peng, Chao; Luo, Man; Hua, Wen; Wong, Catherine Cl; Lee, James J; Li, Wen; Chen, Zhihua; Ying, Songmin; Ju, Zhenyu; Shen, Huahao

    2018-03-01

    Eosinophils (Eos) have been long considered as end-stage effector cells in the hierarchical hematopoietic system. Numerous lines of evidence have suggested that Eos are multifunctional leukocytes with respect to the initiation, propagation and regulation of various inflammatory or immune reactions, especially in allergic diseases. Recent studies have shown that Eos are also required for maintenance of bone marrow plasma cells and differentiation of B cells. However, it remains unclear whether Eos contributes to regulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that Eos disrupt HSC homeostasis by impairing HSC quiescence and reconstitution ability in wild-type mice following ovalbumin (OVA) challenge and even by causing bone marrow HSC failure and exhaustion in Cd3δ-Il-5 transgenic mice. The impaired maintenance and function of HSCs were associated with Eos-induced redox imbalance (increased oxidative phosphorylation and decreased anti-oxidants levels). More importantly, using mass spectrometry, we determined that CCL-6 is expressed at a high level under eosinophilia. We demonstrate that CCL-6 is Eos-derived and responsible for the impaired HSC homeostasis. Interestingly, blockage of CCL-6 with a specific neutralizing antibody, restored the reconstitution ability of HSCs while exacerbating eosinophilia airway inflammation in OVA-challenged mice. Thus, our study reveals an unexpected function of Eos/CCL-6 in HSC homeostasis.

  2. The Interplay between Feedback and Buffering in Cellular Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Edward J; Ang, Jordan; Papachristodoulou, Antonis; Stan, Guy-Bart

    2017-11-22

    Buffering, the use of reservoirs of molecules to maintain concentrations of key molecular species, and negative feedback are the primary known mechanisms for robust homeostatic regulation. To our knowledge, however, the fundamental principles behind their combined effect have not been elucidated. Here, we study the interplay between buffering and negative feedback in the context of cellular homeostasis. We show that negative feedback counteracts slow-changing disturbances, whereas buffering counteracts fast-changing disturbances. Furthermore, feedback and buffering have limitations that create trade-offs for regulation: instability in the case of feedback and molecular noise in the case of buffering. However, because buffering stabilizes feedback and feedback attenuates noise from slower-acting buffering, their combined effect on homeostasis can be synergistic. These effects can be explained within a traditional control theory framework and are consistent with experimental observations of both ATP homeostasis and pH regulation in vivo. These principles are critical for studying robustness and homeostasis in biology and biotechnology. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clarifying the Roles of Homeostasis and Allostasis in Physiological Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Douglas S.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis, the dominant explanatory framework for physiological regulation, has undergone significant revision in recent years, with contemporary models differing significantly from the original formulation. Allostasis, an alternative view of physiological regulation, goes beyond its homeostatic roots, offering novel insights relevant to our understanding and treatment of several chronic health conditions. Despite growing enthusiasm for allostasis, the concept remains diffuse, due in part to ambiguity as to how the term is understood and used, impeding meaningful translational and clinical research on allostasis. Here we provide a more focused understanding of homeostasis and allostasis by explaining how both play a role in physiological regulation, and a critical analysis of regulation suggests how homeostasis and allostasis can be distinguished. Rather than focusing on changes in the value of a regulated variable (e.g., body temperature, body adiposity, or reward), research investigating the activity and relationship among the multiple regulatory loops that influence the value of these regulated variables may be the key to distinguishing homeostasis and allostasis. The mechanisms underlying physiological regulation and dysregulation are likely to have important implications for health and disease. PMID:24730599

  4. Eosinophil-derived CCL-6 impairs hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Yi, Weiwei; Li, Fei; Du, Xufei; Wang, Hu; Wu, Ping; Peng, Chao; Luo, Man; Hua, Wen; Wong, Catherine CL; Lee, James J; Li, Wen; Chen, Zhihua; Ying, Songmin; Ju, Zhenyu; Shen, Huahao

    2018-01-01

    Eosinophils (Eos) have been long considered as end-stage effector cells in the hierarchical hematopoietic system. Numerous lines of evidence have suggested that Eos are multifunctional leukocytes with respect to the initiation, propagation and regulation of various inflammatory or immune reactions, especially in allergic diseases. Recent studies have shown that Eos are also required for maintenance of bone marrow plasma cells and differentiation of B cells. However, it remains unclear whether Eos contributes to regulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that Eos disrupt HSC homeostasis by impairing HSC quiescence and reconstitution ability in wild-type mice following ovalbumin (OVA) challenge and even by causing bone marrow HSC failure and exhaustion in Cd3δ-Il-5 transgenic mice. The impaired maintenance and function of HSCs were associated with Eos-induced redox imbalance (increased oxidative phosphorylation and decreased anti-oxidants levels). More importantly, using mass spectrometry, we determined that CCL-6 is expressed at a high level under eosinophilia. We demonstrate that CCL-6 is Eos-derived and responsible for the impaired HSC homeostasis. Interestingly, blockage of CCL-6 with a specific neutralizing antibody, restored the reconstitution ability of HSCs while exacerbating eosinophilia airway inflammation in OVA-challenged mice. Thus, our study reveals an unexpected function of Eos/CCL-6 in HSC homeostasis. PMID:29327730

  5. Chemistry Misconceptions Associated with Understanding Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Successful learning of many aspects in physiology depends on a meaningful understanding of fundamental chemistry concepts. Two conceptual diagnostic questions measured student understanding of the chemical equilibrium underlying calcium and phosphate homeostasis. One question assessed the ability to predict the change in phosphate concentration…

  6. Geophysiology, Extended Organisms, and the Problem of Emergent Homeostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, S.

    2001-12-01

    Physiology may be broadly defined as the managed flow of matter, energy and information. Central to this concept is the attendant phenomenon of homeostasis, doing physiological work to balance the thermodynamically driven flows of matter, energy or information that naturally attend to living things. Organisms in general exhibit what might be termed a "strong" homeostasis, in which well-regulated and complex physiological machines drive the physiological fluxes of matter, energy and information within the organism and at the organism's outermost integumentary boundary. Organisms also structure their environments to manage flows of matter, energy and information between themselves and their environment. In so doing, living things constitute a sort of extended organism, in which an organism's physiology reaches beyond the outermost boundary of the skin. Geophysiology's radical promise is that physiology can arise at levels of organization higher than the organism, ranging from social insect colonies through ecosystems, perhaps even to the biosphere itself. However, a simple demonstration that organisms affect the flows of matter, energy and information in their environments is not sufficient to qualify as physiology. That amounts to a demonstration that organisms do physiological work on their environments, which is neither a radical nor a new idea. To be truly physiological, geophysiology must exhibit physiology's most essential attribute, namely homeostasis. Finding homeostasis and explaining how it works in the extended organism is geophysiology's radical challenge.

  7. Potassium Homeostasis: The Knowns, the Unknowns, and the Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Jang H.

    2017-01-01

    Potassium homeostasis has a very high priority because of its importance for membrane potential. Although extracellular K+ is only 2% of total body K+, our physiology was evolutionarily tuned for a high-K+, low-Na+ diet. We review how multiple systems interface to accomplish fine K+ balance and the consequences for health and disease. PMID:28202621

  8. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Dogru, Atalay; Balkarli, Ayse; Cetin, Gozde Yildirim; Neselioglu, Salim; Erel, Ozcan; Tunc, Sevket Ercan; Sahin, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease. In many inflammatory diseases, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines is associated with an increase in oxidative stress mediators. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis is a marker for oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to examine the dynamic thiol/disulfide homeostasis in AS. Sixty-nine patients with AS and 60 age- and sex-matched controls were included in the study. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to determine the disease activity. Native thiol, total thiol, and disulfide levels were measured with a novel automated method recently described by Erel and Neselioglu. The aforementioned method is also optionally manual spectrophotometric assay. The total thiol levels were significantly lower in the AS group compared with the control group (p = 0.03). When the patients were divided into active (n = 35) and inactive (n = 34) subgroups using BASDAI scores, the native plasma thiol and total thiol levels were significantly lower in the active AS patients compared to the inactive AS patients (p = 0.02, p = 0.03 respectively). There was a negative correlation between the plasma native thiol levels and VAS, BASDAI scores. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis may be used for elucidating the effects of oxidative stress in AS. Understanding the role of thiol/disulfide homeostasis in AS might provide new therapeutic intervention strategies for patients. PMID:27186972

  9. Cardiac and thermal homeostasis in the aging Brown Norway rat.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Brown Norway (BN) rat is a popular strain for aging studies. There is little information on effects of age on baseline cardiac and thermoregulatory parameters in undisturbed BN rats even though cardiac and thermal homeostasis is linked to many pathological deficits in the age...

  10. Deficiency of a alpha-1-antitrypsin influences systemic iron homeostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Background: There is evidence that proteases and anti-proteases participate in the iron homeostasis of cells and living systems. We tested the postulate that alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) polymorphism and the consequent deficiency of this anti-protease in humans are asso...

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alternative Names Culture - CSF; Spinal fluid culture; CSF culture Images Pneumococci organism References Karcher DS, McPherson RA. Cerebrospinal, synovial, serous body fluids, and alternative specimens. In: McPherson RA, Pincus ...

  12. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R. E.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2001-09-25

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  13. Pericardial fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... stain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pericardial fluid Gram stain is a method of staining a sample of fluid taken from the pericardium. This is the sac surrounding ...

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid leak (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain and spinal cord by acting like a liquid cushion. The fluid allows the organs to be buoyant protecting them from blows or other trauma. Inside the skull the cerebrospinal fluid is contained by the dura which covers ...

  15. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-01-01

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  16. Pleural fluid smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... the fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  17. Peritoneal fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... at fluid that has built up in the space in the abdomen around the internal organs. This area is called the peritoneal space. ... sample of fluid is removed from the peritoneal space using a needle and syringe. Ultrasound is often ...

  18. Pleural fluid analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the ... the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion .

  19. Pleural fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risks of thoracentesis are: Collapsed lung ( pneumothorax ) Excessive loss of blood Fluid reaccumulation Infection Pulmonary edema Respiratory distress Serious complications are uncommon Alternative Names Culture - pleural fluid Images Pleural culture References Chernecky CC, ...

  20. Electric fluid pump

    DOEpatents

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  1. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003742.htm Culture - joint fluid To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Joint fluid culture is a laboratory test to detect infection-causing ...

  2. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-07-06

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  3. Fluid force transducer

    DOEpatents

    Jendrzejczyk, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    An electrical fluid force transducer for measuring the magnitude and direction of fluid forces caused by lateral fluid flow, includes a movable sleeve which is deflectable in response to the movement of fluid, and a rod fixed to the sleeve to translate forces applied to the sleeve to strain gauges attached to the rod, the strain gauges being connected in a bridge circuit arrangement enabling generation of a signal output indicative of the magnitude and direction of the force applied to the sleeve.

  4. Fluid Movement and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slepian, Michael L.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive scientists describe creativity as fluid thought. Drawing from findings on gesture and embodied cognition, we hypothesized that the physical experience of fluidity, relative to nonfluidity, would lead to more fluid, creative thought. Across 3 experiments, fluid arm movement led to enhanced creativity in 3 domains: creative generation,…

  5. Fluid to fluid contact heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    Heat transfer and pressure drop test results for a fluid to fluid contact heat exchanger are reported. The heat exchanger, fabricated and tested to demonstrate one method of transferring heat between structures in space, had a total contact area of 0.18 sq m. It utilized contact surfaces which were flexible and conformed to the mating contact surfaces upon pressurization of the fluid circulating within the heat exchanger. During proof-of-concept performance tests, the heat exchanger was operated in a typical earth environment. It demonstrated a contact conductance of 3.8 kW/sq m C at contact pressures in the 15 to 70 kPa range.

  6. Altered surfactant homeostasis and recurrent respiratory failure secondary to TTF-1 nuclear targeting defect.

    PubMed

    Peca, Donatella; Petrini, Stefania; Tzialla, Chryssoula; Boldrini, Renata; Morini, Francesco; Stronati, Mauro; Carnielli, Virgilio P; Cogo, Paola E; Danhaive, Olivier

    2011-08-25

    Mutations of genes affecting surfactant homeostasis, such as SFTPB, SFTPC and ABCA3, lead to diffuse lung disease in neonates and children. Haploinsufficiency of NKX2.1, the gene encoding the thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1)--critical for lung, thyroid and central nervous system morphogenesis and function--causes a rare form of progressive respiratory failure designated brain-lung-thyroid syndrome. Molecular mechanisms involved in this syndrome are heterogeneous and poorly explored. We report a novel TTF-1 molecular defect causing recurrent respiratory failure episodes in an infant. The subject was an infant with severe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome followed by recurrent respiratory failure episodes, hypopituitarism and neurological abnormalities. Lung histology and ultrastructure were assessed by surgical biopsy. Surfactant-related genes were studied by direct genomic DNA sequencing and array chromatine genomic hybridization (aCGH). Surfactant protein expression in lung tissue was analyzed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. For kinetics studies, surfactant protein B and disaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) were isolated from serial tracheal aspirates after intravenous administration of stable isotope-labeled (2)H(2)O and (13)C-leucine; fractional synthetic rate was derived from gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (2)H and (13)C enrichment curves. Six intubated infants with no primary lung disease were used as controls. Lung biopsy showed desquamative interstitial pneumonitis and lamellar body abnormalities suggestive of genetic surfactant deficiency. Genetic studies identified a heterozygous ABCA3 mutation, L941P, previously unreported. No SFTPB, SFTPC or NKX2.1 mutations or deletions were found. However, immunofluorescence studies showed TTF-1 prevalently expressed in type II cell cytoplasm instead of nucleus, indicating defective nuclear targeting. This pattern has not been reported in human and was not found in two healthy controls and

  7. Altered surfactant homeostasis and recurrent respiratory failure secondary to TTF-1 nuclear targeting defect

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mutations of genes affecting surfactant homeostasis, such as SFTPB, SFTPC and ABCA3, lead to diffuse lung disease in neonates and children. Haploinsufficiency of NKX2.1, the gene encoding the thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) - critical for lung, thyroid and central nervous system morphogenesis and function - causes a rare form of progressive respiratory failure designated brain-lung-thyroid syndrome. Molecular mechanisms involved in this syndrome are heterogeneous and poorly explored. We report a novel TTF-1 molecular defect causing recurrent respiratory failure episodes in an infant. Methods The subject was an infant with severe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome followed by recurrent respiratory failure episodes, hypopituitarism and neurological abnormalities. Lung histology and ultrastructure were assessed by surgical biopsy. Surfactant-related genes were studied by direct genomic DNA sequencing and array chromatine genomic hybridization (aCGH). Surfactant protein expression in lung tissue was analyzed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. For kinetics studies, surfactant protein B and disaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) were isolated from serial tracheal aspirates after intravenous administration of stable isotope-labeled 2H2O and 13C-leucine; fractional synthetic rate was derived from gas chromatography/mass spectrometry 2H and 13C enrichment curves. Six intubated infants with no primary lung disease were used as controls. Results Lung biopsy showed desquamative interstitial pneumonitis and lamellar body abnormalities suggestive of genetic surfactant deficiency. Genetic studies identified a heterozygous ABCA3 mutation, L941P, previously unreported. No SFTPB, SFTPC or NKX2.1 mutations or deletions were found. However, immunofluorescence studies showed TTF-1 prevalently expressed in type II cell cytoplasm instead of nucleus, indicating defective nuclear targeting. This pattern has not been reported in human and was not found in two

  8. Abnormal branching and regression of the notochord and its relationship to foregut abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Vleesch Dubois, V N; Quan Qi, B; Beasley, S W; Williams, A

    2002-04-01

    An abnormally positioned notochord has been reported in embryos that develop foregut abnormalities, vertebral defects and other abnormalities of the VATER association. This study examines the patterns of regression of the abnormal notochord in the rat model of the VATER association and investigates the relationship between developmental abnormalities of the notochord and those of the vertebra and foregut. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given daily intraperitoneal injections of 1.75 mg/kg adriamycin on gestational days 6 - 9 inclusive. Rats were sacrificed between days 14 and 20 and their embryos harvested, histologically sectioned and stained and examined serially. The location and appearance of the degenerating notochord and its relationship to regional structural defects were analysed. All 26 embryos exposed to adriamycin developed foregut abnormalities and had an abnormal notochord. The notochord disappeared by a process of apoptotic degeneration that lagged behind that of the normal embryo: the notochord persisted in the abnormal embryo beyond day 17, whereas in the normal rat it had already disappeared. Similarly, formation of the nucleus pulposus was delayed. Vertebral abnormalities occurred when the notochord was ventrally-positioned. The notochord disappears during day 16 in the normal embryo whereas abnormal branches of the notochord persist until day 19 in the adriamycin-treated embryo. Degeneration of the notochord is dominated by apoptosis. An excessively ventrally-placed notochord is closely associated with abnormalities of the vertebral column, especially hemivertebrae.

  9. Prediction of heart abnormality using MLP network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Januar, Yulni; Mat, Muhammad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Awang, Mat Kamil

    2018-02-01

    Heart abnormality does not choose gender, age and races when it strikes. With no warning signs or symptoms, it can result to a sudden death of the patient. Generally, heart's irregular electrical activity is defined as heart abnormality. Via implementation of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network, this paper tries to develop a program that allows the detection of heart abnormality activity. Utilizing several training algorithms with Purelin activation function, an amount of heartbeat signals received through the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be employed to condition the MLP network.

  10. Brain and bone abnormalities of thanatophoric dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elka; Blaser, Susan; Shannon, Patrick; Widjaja, Elysa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the imaging findings of skeletal and brain abnormalities in thanatophoric dwarfism, a lethal form of dysplastic dwarfism. The bony abnormalities associated with thanatophoric dwarfism include marked shortening of the tubular bones and ribs. Abnormal temporal lobe development is a common associated feature and can be visualized as early as the second trimester. It is important to assess the brains of fetuses with suspected thanatophoric dwarfism because the presence of associated brain malformations can assist in the antenatal diagnosis of thanatophoric dwarfism.

  11. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  12. Sex chromosome abnormalities and psychiatric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinzhu; Yang, Jian; Li, Yuhong; Ma, Xin; Li, Rena

    2017-01-01

    Excesses of sex chromosome abnormalities in patients with psychiatric diseases have recently been observed. It remains unclear whether sex chromosome abnormalities are related to sex differences in some psychiatric diseases. While studies showed evidence of susceptibility loci over many sex chromosomal regions related to various mental diseases, others demonstrated that the sex chromosome aneuploidies may be the key to exploring the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease. In this review, we will outline the current evidence on the interaction of sex chromosome abnormalities with schizophrenia, autism, ADHD and mood disorders. PMID:27992373

  13. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Fluid inclusion geothermometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, C.G.

    1977-01-01

    Fluid inclusions trapped within crystals either during growth or at a later time provide many clues to the histories of rocks and ores. Estimates of fluid-inclusion homogenization temperature and density can be obtained using a petrographic microscope with thin sections, and they can be refined using heating and freezing stages. Fluid inclusion studies, used in conjunction with paragenetic studies, can provide direct data on the time and space variations of parameters such as temperature, pressure, density, and composition of fluids in geologic environments. Changes in these parameters directly affect the fugacity, composition, and pH of fluids, thus directly influencing localization of ore metals. ?? 1977 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  15. Theoretical Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2017-12-01

    'Theoretical Fluid Mechanics' has been written to aid physics students who wish to pursue a course of self-study in fluid mechanics. It is a comprehensive, completely self-contained text with equations of fluid mechanics derived from first principles, and any required advanced mathematics is either fully explained in the text, or in an appendix. It is accompanied by about 180 exercises with completely worked out solutions. It also includes extensive sections on the application of fluid mechanics to topics of importance in astrophysics and geophysics. These topics include the equilibrium of rotating, self-gravitating, fluid masses; tidal bores; terrestrial ocean tides; and the Eddington solar model.

  16. ALTERATIONS OF FE HOMEOSTASIS IN RAT CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE MODELS AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO CARDIOPULMONARY TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Fe homeostasis can be disrupted in human cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We addressed how dysregulation of Fe homeostasis affected the pulmonary inflammation/oxidative stress response and disease progression after exposure to Libby amphibole (LA), an asbestifonn mine...

  17. Molecular cytogenetic studies in structural abnormalities of chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Lozzio, C.B.; Bamberger, E.; Anderson, I.

    1994-09-01

    A partial trisomy 13 was detected prenatally in an amniocentesis performed due to the following ultrasound abnormalities: open sacral neural tube defect (NTD), a flattened cerebellum, and lumbar/thoracic hemivertebrae. Elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid confirmed the open NTD. Chromosome analysis showed an extra acrocentric chromosome marker. FISH analysis with the painting probe 13 showed that most of the marker was derived from this chromosome. Chromosomes on the parents revealed that the mother had a balanced reciprocal translocation t(2;13)(q23;q21). Dual labeling with painting chromosomes 2 and 13 on cells from the mother and from the amniotic fluid identifiedmore » the marker as a der(13)t(2;13)(p23;q21). Thus, the fetus had a partial trisomy 13 and a small partial trisomy 2p. The maternal grandfather was found to be a carrier for this translocation. Fetal demise occurred a 29 weeks of gestation. The fetus had open lumbar NTD and showed dysmorphic features, overlapping fingers and imperforate anus. This woman had a subsequent pregnancy and chorionic villi sample showed that this fetus was normal. Another case with an abnormal chromosome 13 was a newborn with partial monosomy 13 due to the presence of a ring chromosome 13. This infant had severe intrauterine growth retardation, oligohydramnios, dysmorphic features and multiple congenital microphthalmia, congenital heart disease, absent thumbs and toes and cervical vertebral anomalies. Chromosome studies in blood and skin fibroblast cultures showed that one chromosome 3 was replaced by a ring chromosome of various sizes. This ring was confirmed to be derived from chromosome 13 using the centromeric 21/13 probe.« less

  18. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    DOEpatents

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  19. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  20. Dietary curcumin supplementation counteracts reduction in levels of molecules involved in energy homeostasis after brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Zhuang, Y; Ying, Z; Wu, A; Gomez-Pinilla, F

    2009-07-21

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is followed by an energy crisis that compromises the capacity of the brain to cope with challenges, and often reduces cognitive ability. New research indicates that events that regulate energy homeostasis crucially impact synaptic function and this can compromise the capacity of the brain to respond to challenges during the acute and chronic phases of TBI. The goal of the present study is to determine the influence of the phenolic yellow curry pigment curcumin on molecular systems involved with the monitoring, balance, and transduction of cellular energy, in the hippocampus of animals exposed to mild fluid percussion injury (FPI). Young adult rats were exposed to a regular diet (RD) without or with 500 ppm curcumin (Cur) for four weeks, before an FPI was performed. The rats were assigned to four groups: RD/Sham, Cur/Sham, RD/FPI, and Cur/FPI. We found that FPI decreased the levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase (uMtCK) and cytochrome c oxidase II (COX-II) in RD/FPI rats as compared to the RD/sham rats. The curcumin diet counteracted the effects of FPI and elevated the levels of AMPK, uMtCK, COX-II in Cur/FPI rats as compared to RD/sham rats. In addition, in the Cur/sham rats, AMPK and uMtCK increased compared to the RD/sham. Results show the potential of curcumin to regulate molecules involved in energy homeostasis following TBI. These studies may foster a new line of therapeutic treatments for TBI patients by endogenous upregulation of molecules important for functional recovery.

  1. Electrolyte abnormalities in cystic fibrosis: systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Scurati-Manzoni, Elisabetta; Fossali, Emilio F; Agostoni, Carlo; Riva, Enrica; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Zanolari-Calderari, Maura; Bianchetti, Mario G; Lava, Sebastiano A G

    2014-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis per se can sometimes lead to hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia or hyperbicarbonatemia. This tendency was first documented 60 years ago and has subsequently been confirmed in single case reports or small case series, most of which were retrospective. However, this issue has not been addressed analytically. We have therefore systematically reviewed and analyzed the available literature on this subject. This was a systematic review of the literature. The reports included in this review cover 172 subacute and 90 chronic cases of electrolyte imbalances in patients with cystic fibrosis. The male:female ratio was 1.57. Electrolyte abnormalities were mostly associated with clinically inapparent fluid volume depletion, mainly affected patients aged ≤2.5 years, frequently tended to recur and often were found before the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis was established. Subacute presentation often included an history of heat exposure, vomiting, excessive sweating and pulmonary infection. History of chronic presentation, in contrast, was often inconspicuous. The tendency to hypochloremia, hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis was similar between subacute and chronic patients, with hyponatremia being more pronounced (P < 0.02) in subacute compared to chronic presentations. Subacute cases were treated parenterally; chronic ones were usually managed with oral salt supplementation. Retention of urea and creatinine was documented in 38 % of subacute cases. The findings of our review suggest that physicians should be aware that electrolyte abnormalities can occur both as a presenting and a recurring feature of cystic fibrosis.

  2. Brainstem abnormalities and vestibular nerve enhancement in acute neuroborreliosis.

    PubMed

    Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A; Scheffel, Hans; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2013-12-21

    Borreliosis is a widely distributed disease. Neuroborreliosis may present with unspecific symptoms and signs and often remains difficult to diagnose in patients with central nervous system symptoms, particularly if the pathognomonic erythema chronica migrans does not develop or is missed. Thus, vigilance is mandatory in cases with atypical presentation of the disease and with potentially severe consequences if not recognized early. We present a patient with neuroborreliosis demonstrating brain stem and vestibular nerve abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging. A 28-year-old Caucasian female presented with headaches, neck stiffness, weight loss, nausea, tremor, and gait disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging showed T2-weighted hyperintense signal alterations in the pons and in the vestibular nerves as well as bilateral post-contrast enhancement of the vestibular nerves. Serologic testing of the cerebrospinal fluid revealed the diagnosis of neuroborreliosis. Patients infected with neuroborreliosis may present with unspecific neurologic symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging as a noninvasive imaging tool showing signal abnormalities in the brain stem and nerve root enhancement may help in establishing the diagnosis.

  3. Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

  4. Video Traffic Analysis for Abnormal Event Detection

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    We propose the use of video imaging sensors for the detection and classification of abnormal events to be used primarily for mitigation of traffic congestion. Successful detection of such events will allow for new road guidelines; for rapid deploymen...

  5. Video traffic analysis for abnormal event detection.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    We propose the use of video imaging sensors for the detection and classification of abnormal events to : be used primarily for mitigation of traffic congestion. Successful detection of such events will allow for : new road guidelines; for rapid deplo...

  6. Viscous Energy Loss in the Presence of Abnormal Aortic Flow

    PubMed Central

    Barker, A.J.; van Ooij, P.; Bandi, K.; Garcia, J.; Albaghdadi, M.; McCarthy, P.; Bonow, R. O.; Carr, J.; Collins, J.; Malaisrie, C.; Markl, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To present a theoretical basis for noninvasively characterizing in vivo fluid-mechanical energy losses, and to apply it in a pilot study of patients known to express abnormal aortic flow patterns. Methods 4D flow MRI was used to characterize laminar viscous energy losses in the aorta of normal controls (n=12, age=37±10), patients with aortic dilation (n=16, age=52±8), and patients with aortic valve stenosis matched for age and aortic size (n=14, age=46±15), using a relationship between the 3D velocity field and viscous energy dissipation. Results Viscous energy loss was significantly elevated in the thoracic aorta for patients with dilated aorta (3.6±1.3 mW, p=0.024) and patients with aortic stenosis (14.3±8.2 mW, p<0.001) compared to healthy volunteers (2.3±0.9 mW). The same pattern of significant differences were seen in the ascending aorta, where viscous energy losses in patients with dilated aortas (2.2±1.1 mW, p=0.021) and patients with aortic stenosis (10.9±6.8 mW, p<0.001) were elevated compared to healthy volunteers (1.2±0.6 mW). Conclusion This technique provides a capability to quantify the contribution of abnormal laminar blood flow to increased ventricular afterload. In this pilot study, viscous energy loss in patient cohorts was significantly elevated and indicates that cardiac afterload is increased due to abnormal flow. PMID:24122967

  7. Abnormal findings in peers during skills learning.

    PubMed

    Wearn, Andy; Nakatsuji, Miriam; Bhoopatkar, Harsh

    2017-02-01

    Peer physical examination (PPE), where students examine each other, is common in contemporary clinical skills learning. A range of benefits and risks have been explored in the literature. One persistent concern has been the identification and management of abnormal physical findings. Two previous studies have attempted to quantify the risk, one through the discussion of two exemplar cases and the other with a retrospective student survey. Here, we report the first prospective study of the number and type of abnormalities encountered as part of early clinical skills learning in a medical programme. We have a formal written consent process for PPE, which includes the management of abnormal findings through the completion of an event form. Our data come from cohorts undertaking years 2 and 3 of the programme between 2003 and 2014. One persistent concern (of PPE) has been the identification and management of abnormal physical findings RESULTS: Nineteen event forms were completed over this period. The incidence rates per year ranged from 0.23 to 1.05 per cent. Abnormal findings included raised blood pressure, heart murmur, abnormal bedside test values, and eye and skin conditions. The low event rate, along with a feasible process for dealing with this issue, goes some way to reassuring those with concerns. We acknowledge that some abnormalities may have been missed, and that some data may have been lost as a result of incorrect process; however, even the highest annual rate is low in absolute terms. We recommend a formal process for managing abnormalities. Ideally this would be part of an overall PPE written policy, communicated to students, enacted by tutors and approved by the local ethics committee. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Congenital abnormalities associated with extrahepatic portal hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Odièvre, M; Pigé, G; Alagille, D

    1977-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities were present in 12 out of 30 (40%) children with extrahepatic portal hypertension of unknown cause, but in only 2 out of 17 (12%) children with extnahepatic portal hypertension secondary to umbilical vein catheterization or omphalitis. The most frequent abnormalities in this series and in published reports were atrial septal defect, malformation of the biliary tract, and anomalous inferior vena cava. These findings are consistent with the view that some cases with extrahepatic portal hypertension are congenital in origin. PMID:869567

  9. [Hysteroscopic polypectomy, treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    PubMed

    de Los Rios, P José F; López, R Claudia; Cifuentes, P Carolina; Angulo, C Mónica; Palacios-Barahona, Arlex U

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the hysteroscopic polypectomy in terms of the decrease of the abnormal uterine bleeding. A cross-sectional and analytical study was done with patients to whom a hysteroscopic polypectomy was done for treating the abnormal uterine bleeding, between January 2009 and December 2013. The response to the treatment was evaluated via a survey given to the patients about the behavior of the abnormal uterine bleeding after the procedure and about overall satisfaction. The results were obtained after a hysteroscopic polypectomy done to 128 patients and were as follows. The average time from the polypectomy applied until the survey was 30.5 months, with a standard deviation of 18 months. 67.2% of the patients reported decreased abnormal uterine bleeding and the 32.8% reported a persistence of symptoms. On average 82.8% of the. patients were satisfied with the treatment. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed no association between the variables studied and no improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding after surgery (polypectomy). There were no complications. Hysteroscopic polypectomy is a safe surgical treatment, which decreases on two of three patients the abnormal uterine bleeding in the presence of endometrial polyps, with an acceptable level of satisfaction.

  10. Molecular control of vertebrate iron homeostasis by iron regulatory proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wallander, Michelle L.; Leibold, Elizabeth A.; Eisenstein, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Both deficiencies and excesses of iron represent major public health problems throughout the world. Understanding the cellular and organismal processes controlling iron homeostasis is critical for identifying iron-related diseases and in advancing the clinical treatments for such disorders of iron metabolism. Iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) 1 and 2 are key regulators of vertebrate iron metabolism. These RNA binding proteins post-transcriptionally control the stability or translation of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in iron homeostasis thereby controlling the uptake, utilization, storage or export of iron. Recent evidence provides insight into how IRPs selectively control the translation or stability of target mRNAs, how IRP RNA binding activity is controlled by iron-dependent and iron-independent effectors, and the pathological consequences of dysregulation of the IRP system. PMID:16872694

  11. TMBIM-mediated Ca 2+ homeostasis and cell death

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Qun

    2017-01-05

    Ca 2+ is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger that regulates numerous physiological activities in humans, animals, plants, and bacteria. Cytosolic Ca 2+ is kept at a low level, but subcellular organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi Apparatus maintain high-concentration Ca 2+ stores. Under resting conditions, store Ca 2+ homeostasis is dynamically regulated to equilibrate between active Ca 2+ uptake and passive Ca 2+ leak processes. The evolutionarily conserved Transmembrane BAX Inhibitor-1 Motif-containing (TMBIM) proteins mediate Ca 2+ homeostasis and cell death. This review focuses on recent advances in functional and structural analysis of TMBIM proteins in regulation ofmore » the two related functions. The roles of TMBIM proteins in pathogen infection and cancer are also discussed with prospects for treatment.« less

  12. Paneth cells, antimicrobial peptides and maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Bevins, Charles L; Salzman, Nita H

    2011-05-01

    Building and maintaining a homeostatic relationship between a host and its colonizing microbiota entails ongoing complex interactions between the host and the microorganisms. The mucosal immune system, including epithelial cells, plays an essential part in negotiating this equilibrium. Paneth cells (specialized cells in the epithelium of the small intestine) are an important source of antimicrobial peptides in the intestine. These cells have become the focus of investigations that explore the mechanisms of host-microorganism homeostasis in the small intestine and its collapse in the processes of infection and chronic inflammation. In this Review, we provide an overview of the intestinal microbiota and describe the cell biology of Paneth cells, emphasizing the composition of their secretions and the roles of these cells in intestinal host defence and homeostasis. We also highlight the implications of Paneth cell dysfunction in susceptibility to chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. Influence of task switching costs on colony homeostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanson, Raphaël; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2015-06-01

    In social insects, division of labour allows colonies to optimise the allocation of workers across all available tasks to satisfy colony requirements. The maintenance of stable conditions within colonies (homeostasis) requires that some individuals move inside the nest to monitor colony needs and execute unattended tasks. We developed a simple theoretical model to explore how worker mobility inside the nest and task switching costs influence the maintenance of stable levels of task-associated stimuli. Our results indicate that worker mobility in large colonies generates important task switching costs and is detrimental to colony homeostasis. Our study suggests that the balance between benefits and costs associated with the mobility of workers patrolling inside the nest depends on colony size. We propose that several species of ants with diverse life-history traits should be appropriate to test the prediction that the proportion of mobile workers should vary during colony ontogeny.

  14. Perturbation of Serotonin Homeostasis during Adulthood Affects Serotonergic Neuronal Circuitry.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Marta; Migliarini, Sara; Pelosi, Barbara; Napolitano, Francesco; Usiello, Alessandro; Pasqualetti, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence shows that the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) modulates the fine-tuning of neuron development and the establishment of wiring patterns in the brain. However, whether serotonin is involved in the maintenance of neuronal circuitry in the adult brain remains elusive. Here, we use a Tph2 fl ° x conditional knockout (cKO) mouse line to assess the impact of serotonin depletion during adulthood on serotonergic system organization. Data show that the density of serotonergic fibers is increased in the hippocampus and decreased in the thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) as a consequence of brain serotonin depletion. Strikingly, these defects are rescued following reestablishment of brain 5-HT signaling via administration of the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). Finally, 3D reconstruction of serotonergic fibers reveals that changes in serotonin homeostasis affect axonal branching complexity. These data demonstrate that maintaining proper serotonin homeostasis in the adult brain is crucial to preserve the correct serotonergic axonal wiring.

  15. Peripheral Serotonin: a New Player in Systemic Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Namkung, Jun; Kim, Hail; Park, Sangkyu

    2015-01-01

    Whole body energy balance is achieved through the coordinated regulation of energy intake and energy expenditure in various tissues including liver, muscle and adipose tissues. A positive energy imbalance by excessive energy intake or insufficient energy expenditure results in obesity and related metabolic diseases. Although there have been many obesity treatment trials aimed at the reduction of energy intake, these strategies have achieved only limited success because of their associated adverse effects. An ancient neurotransmitter, serotonin is among those traditional pharmacological targets for anti-obesity treatment because it exhibits strong anorectic effect in the brain. However, recent studies suggest the new functions of peripheral serotonin in energy homeostasis ranging from the endocrine regulation by gut-derived serotonin to the autocrine/paracrine regulation by adipocyte-derived serotonin. Here, we discuss the role of serotonin in the regulation of energy homeostasis and introduce peripheral serotonin as a possible target for anti-obesity treatment. PMID:26628041

  16. Hypoxia-Inducible Factors Link Iron Homeostasis and Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Yatrik M.; Xie, Liwei

    2014-01-01

    Iron is required for efficient oxygen transport, and hypoxia signaling links erythropoiesis with iron homeostasis. Hypoxia induces a highly conserved signaling pathway in cells under conditions of low O2. One component of this pathway, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), is a transcription factor that is highly active in hypoxic cells. The first HIF target gene characterized was EPO, which encodes erythropoietin—a glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis. The past decade has led to fundamental advances in our understanding of how hypoxia regulates iron levels to support erythropoiesis and maintain systemic iron homeostasis. We review the cell-type specific effects of hypoxia and HIFs in adaptive response to changes in oxygen and iron availability, as well as potential uses of HIF modulators for patients with iron-related disorders. PMID:24389303

  17. TMBIM-mediated Ca 2+ homeostasis and cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qun

    Ca 2+ is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger that regulates numerous physiological activities in humans, animals, plants, and bacteria. Cytosolic Ca 2+ is kept at a low level, but subcellular organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi Apparatus maintain high-concentration Ca 2+ stores. Under resting conditions, store Ca 2+ homeostasis is dynamically regulated to equilibrate between active Ca 2+ uptake and passive Ca 2+ leak processes. The evolutionarily conserved Transmembrane BAX Inhibitor-1 Motif-containing (TMBIM) proteins mediate Ca 2+ homeostasis and cell death. This review focuses on recent advances in functional and structural analysis of TMBIM proteins in regulation ofmore » the two related functions. The roles of TMBIM proteins in pathogen infection and cancer are also discussed with prospects for treatment.« less

  18. Lactate rescues neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Karus, Claudia; Ziemens, Daniel; Rose, Christine R

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we established that recurrent activity evokes network sodium oscillations in neurons and astrocytes in hippocampal tissue slices. Interestingly, metabolic integrity of astrocytes was essential for the neurons' capacity to maintain low sodium and to recover from sodium loads, indicating an intimate metabolic coupling between the 2 cell types. Here, we studied if lactate can support neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism by analyzing whether glucose removal, pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and/or addition of lactate affect cellular sodium regulation. Furthermore, we studied the effect of lactate on sodium regulation during recurrent network activity and upon inhibition of the glial Krebs cycle by sodium-fluoroacetate. Our results indicate that lactate is preferentially used by neurons. They demonstrate that lactate supports neuronal sodium homeostasis and rescues the effects of glial poisoning by sodium-fluoroacetate. Altogether, they are in line with the proposed transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons, the so-called astrocyte-neuron-lactate shuttle.

  19. Colonic macrophage polarization in homeostasis, inflammation, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Appleyard, Caroline B.

    2016-01-01

    Our review focuses on the colonic macrophage, a monocyte-derived, tissue-resident macrophage, and the role it plays in health and disease, specifically in inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and cancer of the colon and rectum. We give special emphasis to macrophage polarization, or phenotype, in these different states. We focus on macrophages because they are one of the most numerous leukocytes in the colon, and because they normally contribute to homeostasis through an anti-inflammatory phenotype. However, in conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, proinflammatory macrophages are increased in the colon and have been linked to disease severity and progression. In colorectal cancer, tumor cells may employ anti-inflammatory macrophages to promote tumor growth and dissemination, whereas proinflammatory macrophages may antagonize tumor growth. Given the key roles that this cell type plays in homeostasis, inflammation, and cancer, the colonic macrophage is an intriguing therapeutic target. As such, potential macrophage-targeting strategies are discussed. PMID:27229123

  20. Homeostasis and Gauss statistics: barriers to understanding natural variability.

    PubMed

    West, Bruce J

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, the concept of knowledge is argued to be the top of a three-tiered system of science. The first tier is that of measurement and data, followed by information consisting of the patterns within the data, and ending with theory that interprets the patterns and yields knowledge. Thus, when a scientific theory ceases to be consistent with the database the knowledge based on that theory must be re-examined and potentially modified. Consequently, all knowledge, like glory, is transient. Herein we focus on the non-normal statistics of physiologic time series and conclude that the empirical inverse power-law statistics and long-time correlations are inconsistent with the theoretical notion of homeostasis. We suggest replacing the notion of homeostasis with that of Fractal Physiology.

  1. Integrating physiological regulation with stem cell and tissue homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakada, Daisuke; Levi, Boaz P.; Morrison, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stem cells are uniquely able to self-renew, to undergo multilineage differentiation, and to persist throughout life in a number of tissues. Stem cells are regulated by a combination of shared and tissue-specific mechanisms and are distinguished from restricted progenitors by differences in transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. Emerging evidence suggests that other aspects of cellular physiology, including mitosis, signal transduction, and metabolic regulation also differ between stem cells and their progeny. These differences may allow stem cells to be regulated independently of differentiated cells in response to circadian rhythms, changes in metabolism, diet, exercise, mating, aging, infection, and disease. This allows stem cells to sustain homeostasis or to remodel relevant tissues in response to physiological change. Stem cells are therefore not only regulated by short-range signals that maintain homeostasis within their tissue of origin, but also by long-range signals that integrate stem cell function with systemic physiology. PMID:21609826

  2. Glucocorticoid receptor polymorphism in obesity and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Majer-Łobodzińska, Agnieszka; Adamiec-Mroczek, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity plays a significant role in the etiology of obesity and is essential for glucose homeostasis, the development of hyperinsulinaemia and subsequent increased fat deposition. Several polymorphisms in the GR gene have been described, and at least three of them seem to be associated with altered glucocorticoid sensitivity and changes in glucose homeostasis, and other metabolic parameters. The N363S polymorphism has been associated with increased sensitivity to glucocorticoides, increased insulin response to dexamethasone and increased plasma glucose level. BclI polymorphism is associated with increased abdominal obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and increased insulin resistance. Another polymorphism, ER22/23EK, in contrast to the others, is associated with relative resistance to glucocoricides actions and more beneficial metabolic profile-lower insulin resistance level, decreased lower cardiovascular risk and subseuent prolongation of life time. More research is still needed to understand the mechanisms behind these associations at the molecular level.

  3. New experimental models of skin homeostasis and diseases.

    PubMed

    Larcher, F; Espada, J; Díaz-Ley, B; Jaén, P; Juarranz, A; Quintanilla, M

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis, whose regulation at the molecular level is still poorly understood, is intimately related to the functions of epidermal stem cells. Five research groups have been brought together to work on new in vitro and in vivo skin models through the SkinModel-CM program, under the auspices of the Spanish Autonomous Community of Madrid. This project aims to analyze the functions of DNA methyltransferase 1, endoglin, and podoplanin in epidermal stem cell activity, homeostasis, and skin cancer. These new models include 3-dimensional organotypic cultures, immunodeficient skin-humanized mice, and genetically modified mice. Another aim of the program is to use skin-humanized mice to model dermatoses such as Gorlin syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum in order to optimize new protocols for photodynamic therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  4. The GARP complex is required for cellular sphingolipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Florian; Petit, Constance; Kory, Nora; Christiano, Romain; Hannibal-Bach, Hans-Kristian; Graham, Morven; Liu, Xinran; Ejsing, Christer S; Farese, Robert V; Walther, Tobias C

    2015-09-10

    Sphingolipids are abundant membrane components and important signaling molecules in eukaryotic cells. Their levels and localization are tightly regulated. However, the mechanisms underlying this regulation remain largely unknown. In this study, we identify the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, which functions in endosome-to-Golgi retrograde vesicular transport, as a critical player in sphingolipid homeostasis. GARP deficiency leads to accumulation of sphingolipid synthesis intermediates, changes in sterol distribution, and lysosomal dysfunction. A GARP complex mutation analogous to a VPS53 allele causing progressive cerebello-cerebral atrophy type 2 (PCCA2) in humans exhibits similar, albeit weaker, phenotypes in yeast, providing mechanistic insights into disease pathogenesis. Inhibition of the first step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis is sufficient to mitigate many of the phenotypes of GARP-deficient yeast or mammalian cells. Together, these data show that GARP is essential for cellular sphingolipid homeostasis and suggest a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PCCA2.

  5. Nitric oxide interferes with islet cell zinc homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tartler, U; Kröncke, K D; Meyer, K L; Suschek, C V; Kolb-Bachofen, V

    2000-12-01

    Zinc is crucial for the biosynthesis, storage, and secretion of insulin in pancreatic islet cells. We have previously presented evidence that NO interferes with cellular Zn(2+) homeostasis and we therefore investigated the influence of chronic NO exposure on the labile islet cell Zn(2+) content. A strong fluorescence activity in a large islet cell subpopulation was found after staining with the Zn(2+)-specific fluorophore Zinquin. Culture for 24 h in the presence of nontoxic concentrations of the slow-releasing NO donor DETA/NO resulted in a significantly reduced Zn(2+)-dependent fluorescence. This appears to be islet specific as in endothelial cells DETA/NO exposure enhanced the Zn(2+)-dependent fluorescence activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that NO interferes with cellular Zn(2+) homeostasis, which in islet cells is crucial for proper hormone delivery and thus special cell function. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. CNS-targets in control of energy and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kleinridders, André; Könner, A Christine; Brüning, Jens C

    2009-12-01

    The exceeding efforts in understanding the signals initiated by nutrients and hormones in the central nervous system (CNS) to regulate glucose and energy homeostasis have largely revolutionized our understanding of the neurocircuitry in control of peripheral metabolism. The ability of neurons to sense nutrients and hormones and to adopt a coordinated response to these signals is of crucial importance in controlling food intake, energy expenditure, glucose and lipid metabolism. Anatomical lesion experiments, pharmacological inhibition of signaling pathways, and, more recently, the analysis of conditional mouse mutants with modifications of hormone and nutrient signaling in defined neuronal populations have broadened our understanding of these complex neurocircuits. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the role of the CNS in sensing and transmitting nutritional and hormonal signals to control energy and glucose homeostasis and aims to define them as potential novel drug targets for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Central insulin action in energy and glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Plum, Leona; Belgardt, Bengt F; Brüning, Jens C

    2006-07-01

    Insulin has pleiotropic biological effects in virtually all tissues. However, the relevance of insulin signaling in peripheral tissues has been studied far more extensively than its role in the brain. An evolving body of evidence indicates that in the brain, insulin is involved in multiple regulatory mechanisms including neuronal survival, learning, and memory, as well as in regulation of energy homeostasis and reproductive endocrinology. Here we review insulin's role as a central homeostatic signal with regard to energy and glucose homeostasis and discuss the mechanisms by which insulin communicates information about the body's energy status to the brain. Particular emphasis is placed on the controversial current debate about the similarities and differences between hypothalamic insulin and leptin signaling at the molecular level.

  8. Modulation of intestinal sulfur assimilation metabolism regulates iron homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Benjamin H.; Hale, Andrew T.; Irving, Ryan P.; Li, Shenglan; York, John D.

    2018-01-01

    Sulfur assimilation is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays an essential role in cellular and metabolic processes, including sulfation, amino acid biosynthesis, and organismal development. We report that loss of a key enzymatic component of the pathway, bisphosphate 3′-nucleotidase (Bpnt1), in mice, both whole animal and intestine-specific, leads to iron-deficiency anemia. Analysis of mutant enterocytes demonstrates that modulation of their substrate 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphate (PAP) influences levels of key iron homeostasis factors involved in dietary iron reduction, import and transport, that in part mimic those reported for the loss of hypoxic-induced transcription factor, HIF-2α. Our studies define a genetic basis for iron-deficiency anemia, a molecular approach for rescuing loss of nucleotidase function, and an unanticipated link between nucleotide hydrolysis in the sulfur assimilation pathway and iron homeostasis. PMID:29507250

  9. Targeting Cardiomyocyte Ca2+ Homeostasis in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Røe, Åsmund T.; Frisk, Michael; Louch, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Improved treatments for heart failure patients will require the development of novel therapeutic strategies that target basal disease mechanisms. Disrupted cardiomyocyte Ca2+ homeostasis is recognized as a major contributor to the heart failure phenotype, as it plays a key role in systolic and diastolic dysfunction, arrhythmogenesis, and hypertrophy and apoptosis signaling. In this review, we outline existing knowledge of the involvement of Ca2+ homeostasis in these deficits, and identify four promising targets for therapeutic intervention: the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase, the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, the ryanodine receptor, and t-tubule structure. We discuss experimental data indicating the applicability of these targets that has led to recent and ongoing clinical trials, and suggest future therapeutic approaches. PMID:25483944

  10. Disrupted iron homeostasis causes dopaminergic neurodegeneration in mice

    PubMed Central

    Matak, Pavle; Matak, Andrija; Moustafa, Sarah; Aryal, Dipendra K.; Benner, Eric J.; Wetsel, William; Andrews, Nancy C.

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted brain iron homeostasis is a common feature of neurodegenerative disease. To begin to understand how neuronal iron handling might be involved, we focused on dopaminergic neurons and asked how inactivation of transport proteins affected iron homeostasis in vivo in mice. Loss of the cellular iron exporter, ferroportin, had no apparent consequences. However, loss of transferrin receptor 1, involved in iron uptake, caused neuronal iron deficiency, age-progressive degeneration of a subset of dopaminergic neurons, and motor deficits. There was gradual depletion of dopaminergic projections in the striatum followed by death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Damaged mitochondria accumulated, and gene expression signatures indicated attempted axonal regeneration, a metabolic switch to glycolysis, oxidative stress, and the unfolded protein response. We demonstrate that loss of transferrin receptor 1, but not loss of ferroportin, can cause neurodegeneration in a subset of dopaminergic neurons in mice. PMID:26929359

  11. Lactate rescues neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Karus, Claudia; Ziemens, Daniel; Rose, Christine R

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we established that recurrent activity evokes network sodium oscillations in neurons and astrocytes in hippocampal tissue slices. Interestingly, metabolic integrity of astrocytes was essential for the neurons' capacity to maintain low sodium and to recover from sodium loads, indicating an intimate metabolic coupling between the 2 cell types. Here, we studied if lactate can support neuronal sodium homeostasis during impaired energy metabolism by analyzing whether glucose removal, pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis and/or addition of lactate affect cellular sodium regulation. Furthermore, we studied the effect of lactate on sodium regulation during recurrent network activity and upon inhibition of the glial Krebs cycle by sodium-fluoroacetate. Our results indicate that lactate is preferentially used by neurons. They demonstrate that lactate supports neuronal sodium homeostasis and rescues the effects of glial poisoning by sodium-fluoroacetate. Altogether, they are in line with the proposed transfer of lactate from astrocytes to neurons, the so-called astrocyte-neuron-lactate shuttle. PMID:26039160

  12. The importance of sensitive screening for abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoyuan; Pan, Xiaoxia; Xie, Jingyuan; Shen, Pingyan; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Ya; Wang, Weiming; Chen, Nan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism, insulin resistance (IR) and the related risk factors in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients. We analyzed oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and clinical data of 107 IgAN patients and 106 healthy controls. Glucose metabolism, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the insulin sensitivity index (ISI) of both groups were evaluated. The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism was significantly higher in the IgAN group than in the control group (41.12% vs. 9.43%, p < 0.001), while the prevalence of IR between the two groups was not significantly different. IgAN patients have significantly higher fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, OGTT 2-hour blood glucose, OGTT 2-hour insulin, HOMA-IR, and lower ISI than healthy controls. Triglyceride (OR = 2.55), 24-hour urine protein excretion (OR = 1.39), and age (OR = 1.06) were independent risk factors for abnormal glucose metabolism in IgAN patients. BMI, eGFR, 24-hour urine protein excretion, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, OGTT 2-hour blood glucose, and OGTT 2-hour insulin were significantly higher in IgAN patients with IR than in IgAN patients without IR, while HDL and ISI were significantly lower. BMI, serum albumin, and 24-hour urine protein excretion were correlated factors of IR in IgAN patients. Our study highlighted that abnormal glucose metabolism was common in IgAN patients. Triglyceride and 24-hour urine protein excretion were significant risk factors for abnormal glucose metabolism. Therefore, sensitive screening for glucose metabolism status and timely intervention should be carried out in clinical work.

  13. Hepatic miRNA profiles and thyroid hormone homeostasis in rats exposed to dietary potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS).

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongyan; Curran, Ivan; Williams, Andrew; Bondy, Genevieve; Yauk, Carole L; Wade, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) has been widely used in a variety of industrial and commercial applications as a surfactant and stain repellent. PFOS causes liver damage (including liver tumors) in experimental animals, primarily via interaction with PPARα and CAR/PXR. We investigated the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in PFOS-induced hepatotoxicity, and mechanisms involved in abnormal thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, in the livers of adult male rats exposed in feed to 50mg PFOS/kg diet for 28 days. PFOS-treated rats exhibited expected histopathological and clinical chemistry changes, and global gene expression changes consistent with the involvement of PPARα and CAR/PXR. Thirty-eight miRNAs were significantly altered. Three members of the miR-200 family were the most increased, while miR-122-5p and miR-21-5p were the most decreased, in PFOS-treated rats. Expression of the miR-23b-3p/27b-3p/24-3p cluster also decreased in PFOS-treated animals. Pathway analysis of miRNAs and associated gene expression changes suggests involvement of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a primary process of tumor cell motility and cancer metastasis. Our analysis also revealed transcripts that may mediate PFOS-induced effects on TH homeostasis including: activation of the CAR/PXR pathway, phase II/III enzymes, and deiodinase. These changes are consistent with low serum TH due to enhanced metabolic clearance of TH. However, most TH hepatic target genes were not altered in a manner consistent with reduced TH signaling, suggesting that PFOS exposure did not induce functional hypothyroidism. Collectively, the study suggests an important role for miRNAs in PFOS-induced hepatotoxicity and provides insight into the effects of PFOS on TH homeostasis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Sustained Sleep Fragmentation Induces Sleep Homeostasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Baud, Maxime O.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Petit, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep fragmentation (SF) is an integral feature of sleep apnea and other prevalent sleep disorders. Although the effect of repetitive arousals on cognitive performance is well documented, the effects of long-term SF on electroencephalography (EEG) and molecular markers of sleep homeostasis remain poorly investigated. To address this question, we developed a mouse model of chronic SF and characterized its effect on EEG spectral frequencies and the expression of genes previously linked to sleep homeostasis including clock genes, heat shock proteins, and plasticity-related genes. Design: N/A. Setting: Animal sleep research laboratory. Participants : Sixty-six C57BL6/J adult mice. Interventions: Instrumental sleep disruption at a rate of 60/h during 14 days Measurements and Results: Locomotor activity and EEG were recorded during 14 days of SF followed by recovery for 2 days. Despite a dramatic number of arousals and decreased sleep bout duration, SF minimally reduced total quantity of sleep and did not significantly alter its circadian distribution. Spectral analysis during SF revealed a homeostatic drive for slow wave activity (SWA; 1–4 Hz) and other frequencies as well (4–40 Hz). Recordings during recovery revealed slow wave sleep consolidation and a transient rebound in SWA, and paradoxical sleep duration. The expression of selected genes was not induced following chronic SF. Conclusions: Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) increased sleep pressure confirming that altered quality with preserved quantity triggers core sleep homeostasis mechanisms. However, it did not induce the expression of genes induced by sleep loss, suggesting that these molecular pathways are not sustainably activated in chronic diseases involving SF. Citation: Baud MO, Magistretti PJ, Petit JM. Sustained sleep fragmentation induces sleep homeostasis in mice. SLEEP 2015;38(4):567–579. PMID:25325477

  15. Neuron-Glia Interactions and Nervous System Homeostasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    active neuron states, the mechanisms which glial cells and neurons use to modulate each others metabolic state and the chemical, electrical and... mechanisms by which axons/neurons and their glial cell investments communicate to actively regulate the ionic microenvironment of the nervous system and...of the glial cell in maintenance of the ionic homeostasis of the perineural environment during resting and active neuron states, the mechanisms which

  16. Laminar shear stress promotes mitochondrial homeostasis in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Hong; Chang, Hao-Chun; Ting, Pei-Ching; Wang, Danny L

    2018-06-01

    Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are constantly subjected to flow-induced shear stress that is crucial for endothelial functions. Laminar shear stress (LSS) exerts atheroprotection to ECs. Mitochondrial homeostasis is essential for cellular survival. However, the effects of LSS on mitochondrial homeostasis in ECs remain unclear. Mitochondrial homeostasis in ECs exposed to LSS was examined. Cultured human umbilical vein ECs were subjected to LSS (12 dynes/cm 2 ) generated by a parallel-plate flow chamber system. ECs subjected to LSS demonstrated an increment of mitochondria in tubular form coupled with the increase of fusion proteins (Mfn2, OPA1) and the decrease of fission protein (Fis1). An increase of both long- and short- OPA1 along with a higher protease YME1L level were observed. LSS triggered a rapid phosphorylation on S637 but a decrease on S616 of fission-controlled protein Drp1. Consistently, Drp1 translocation to mitochondria was decreased in sheared ECs, suggesting that LSS promotes mitochondrial fusion. Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis in sheared ECs was shown by the increase of mitochondrial mass and its regulatory proeins (PGC1α, TFAM, Nrf1). LSS enhances the expression of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes and improves mitochondrial functions indicated by the increase of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and ATP generation. TNFα treatment decreased mitochondrial tubular network and its functions in ECs. LSS mitigated TNFα-induced mitochondrial impairments in ECs. Our results clearly indicate that LSS promotes mitochondrial homeostasis and attenuates inflammation-induced mitochondrial impairments in ECs. Our results provide novel insights into the manner of mitochondrial dynamics and functions modulated by LSS that contribute to endothelial integrity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Potassium Homeostasis: The Knowns, the Unknowns, and the Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Alicia A; Youn, Jang H

    2017-03-01

    Potassium homeostasis has a very high priority because of its importance for membrane potential. Although extracellular K + is only 2% of total body K + , our physiology was evolutionarily tuned for a high-K + , low-Na + diet. We review how multiple systems interface to accomplish fine K + balance and the consequences for health and disease. ©2017 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  18. Role of Galectin-3 in Obesity and Impaired Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Menini, Stefano; Iacobini, Carla; Blasetti Fantauzzi, Claudia; Pesce, Carlo M.; Pugliese, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-3 is an important modulator of several biological functions. It has been implicated in numerous disease conditions, particularly in the long-term complications of diabetes because of its ability to bind the advanced glycation/lipoxidation end products that accumulate in target organs and exert their toxic effects by triggering proinflammatory and prooxidant pathways. Recent evidence suggests that galectin-3 may also participate in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. It has been shown that galectin-3 levels are higher in obese and diabetic individuals and parallel deterioration of glucose homeostasis. Two studies in galectin-3 knockout mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) have shown increased adiposity and adipose tissue and systemic inflammation associated with altered glucose homeostasis, suggesting that galectin-3 negatively modulates the responsiveness of innate and adaptive immunity to overnutrition. However, these studies have also shown that impaired glucose homeostasis occurs in galectin-3 knockout animals independently of obesity. Moreover, another study reported decreased weight and fat mass in HFD-fed galectin-3 knockout mice. In vitro, galectin-3 was found to stimulate differentiation of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes. Altogether, these data indicate that galectin-3 deserves further attention in order to clarify its role as a potential player and therapeutic target in obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26770660

  19. Iron Homeostasis in Peripheral Nervous System, Still a Black Box?

    PubMed Central

    Taveggia, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Iron is the most abundant transition metal in biology and an essential cofactor for many cellular enzymes. Iron homeostasis impairment is also a component of peripheral neuropathies. Recent Advances: During the past years, much effort has been paid to understand the molecular mechanism involved in maintaining systemic iron homeostasis in mammals. This has been stimulated by the evidence that iron dyshomeostasis is an initial cause of several disorders, including genetic and sporadic neurodegenerative disorders. Critical Issues: However, very little has been done to investigate the physiological role of iron in peripheral nervous system (PNS), despite the development of suitable cellular and animal models. Future Directions: To stimulate research on iron metabolism and peripheral neuropathy, we provide a summary of the knowledge on iron homeostasis in the PNS, on its transport across the blood–nerve barrier, its involvement in myelination, and we identify unresolved questions. Furthermore, we comment on the role of iron in iron-related disorder with peripheral component, in demyelinating and metabolic peripheral neuropathies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 634–648. PMID:24409826

  20. Hydrogen Sulfide Induced Disruption of Na+ Homeostasis in the Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Dongman; He, Xiaozhou; Yang, Yilin; Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Kim, Dong H.; Xia, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance of ionic balance is essential for neuronal functioning. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a known toxic environmental gaseous pollutant, has been recently recognized as a gasotransmitter involved in numerous biological processes and is believed to play an important role in the neural activities under both physiological and pathological conditions. However, it is unclear if it plays any role in maintenance of ionic homeostasis in the brain under physiological/pathophysiological conditions. Here, we report by directly measuring Na+ activity using Na+ selective electrodes in mouse cortical slices that H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) increased Na+ influx in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect could be partially blocked by either Na+ channel blocker or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blocker alone or almost completely abolished by coapplication of both blockers but not by non-NMDAR blocker. These data suggest that increased H2S in pathophysiological conditions, e.g., hypoxia/ischemia, potentially causes a disruption of ionic homeostasis by massive Na+ influx through Na+ channels and NMDARs, thus injuring neural functions. Activation of delta-opioid receptors (DOR), which reduces Na+ currents/influx in normoxia, had no effect on H2S-induced Na+ influx, suggesting that H2S-induced disruption of Na+ homeostasis is resistant to DOR regulation and may play a major role in neuronal injury in pathophysiological conditions, e.g., hypoxia/ischemia. PMID:22474073

  1. Environmental metabolomics with data science for investigating ecosystem homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Jun; Ito, Kengo; Date, Yasuhiro

    2018-02-01

    A natural ecosystem can be viewed as the interconnections between complex metabolic reactions and environments. Humans, a part of these ecosystems, and their activities strongly affect the environments. To account for human effects within ecosystems, understanding what benefits humans receive by facilitating the maintenance of environmental homeostasis is important. This review describes recent applications of several NMR approaches to the evaluation of environmental homeostasis by metabolic profiling and data science. The basic NMR strategy used to evaluate homeostasis using big data collection is similar to that used in human health studies. Sophisticated metabolomic approaches (metabolic profiling) are widely reported in the literature. Further challenges include the analysis of complex macromolecular structures, and of the compositions and interactions of plant biomass, soil humic substances, and aqueous particulate organic matter. To support the study of these topics, we also discuss sample preparation techniques and solid-state NMR approaches. Because NMR approaches can produce a number of data with high reproducibility and inter-institution compatibility, further analysis of such data using machine learning approaches is often worthwhile. We also describe methods for data pretreatment in solid-state NMR and for environmental feature extraction from heterogeneously-measured spectroscopic data by machine learning approaches. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Hypothalamic Vitamin D Improves Glucose Homeostasis and Reduces Weight.

    PubMed

    Sisley, Stephanie R; Arble, Deanna M; Chambers, Adam P; Gutierrez-Aguilar, Ruth; He, Yanlin; Xu, Yong; Gardner, David; Moore, David D; Seeley, Randy J; Sandoval, Darleen A

    2016-09-01

    Despite clear associations between vitamin D deficiency and obesity and/or type 2 diabetes, a causal relationship is not established. Vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are found within multiple tissues, including the brain. Given the importance of the brain in controlling both glucose levels and body weight, we hypothesized that activation of central VDR links vitamin D to the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis. Indeed, we found that small doses of active vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) (calcitriol), into the third ventricle of the brain improved glucose tolerance and markedly increased hepatic insulin sensitivity, an effect that is dependent upon VDR within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, chronic central administration of 1,25D3 dramatically decreased body weight by lowering food intake in obese rodents. Our data indicate that 1,25D3-mediated changes in food intake occur through action within the arcuate nucleus. We found that VDR colocalized with and activated key appetite-regulating neurons in the arcuate, namely proopiomelanocortin neurons. Together, these findings define a novel pathway for vitamin D regulation of metabolism with unique and divergent roles for central nervous system VDR signaling. Specifically, our data suggest that vitamin D regulates glucose homeostasis via the paraventricular nuclei and energy homeostasis via the arcuate nuclei. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. Taste Bud Homeostasis in Health, Disease, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50–100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8–12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging. PMID:24287552

  4. Taste bud homeostasis in health, disease, and aging.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50-100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8-12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging.

  5. Proposed mechanisms of the effects of proanthocyanidins on glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kaiyuan; Chan, Catherine B

    2017-08-01

    Proanthocyanidins are a major group of flavonoids in the human diet, known for their strong antioxidant properties. Emerging evidence from clinical studies indicates a role of proanthocyanidins in modulating glucose homeostasis, and higher proanthocyanidin intake has been associated with reduced risk of diabetes. On the other hand, recent studies report limited bioavailability of proanthocyanidins. At relatively low concentrations in the systemic circulation, proanthocyanidins may act as cell-signaling molecules to modulate glucose homeostasis. For example, they affect hepatic glucose production via adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and/or insulin-signaling pathways. There is also evidence for a direct role of proanthocyanidins in modulating several pancreatic β-cell functions: prevention of oxidative stress, enhancement of insulin secretion, and promotion of β-cell survival. Therefore, greater understanding of the potentially beneficial effects of proanthocyanidins on cell-signaling pathways implicated in glucose homeostasis is needed. In addition, further investigation to address the in vivo metabolism of proanthocyanidins and the comparative effectiveness of proanthocyanidin-derived metabolites is warranted. The dosage and the experimental model should be given special attention when results from mechanistic studies using proanthocyanidins are interpreted. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Immune homeostasis, dysbiosis and therapeutic modulation of the gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, C T; Sharma, V; Elmén, L; Peterson, S N

    2015-01-01

    The distal gut harbours ∼1013 bacteria, representing the most densely populated ecosystem known. The functional diversity expressed by these communities is enormous and relatively unexplored. The past decade of research has unveiled the profound influence that the resident microbial populations bestow to host immunity and metabolism. The evolution of these communities from birth generates a highly adapted and highly personalized microbiota that is stable in healthy individuals. Immune homeostasis is achieved and maintained due in part to the extensive interplay between the gut microbiota and host mucosal immune system. Imbalances of gut microbiota may lead to a number of pathologies such as obesity, type I and type II diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC) and inflammaging/immunosenscence in the elderly. In-depth understanding of the underlying mechanisms that control homeostasis and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota represents an important step in our ability to reliably modulate the gut microbiota with positive clinical outcomes. The potential of microbiome-based therapeutics to treat epidemic human disease is of great interest. New therapeutic paradigms, including second-generation personalized probiotics, prebiotics, narrow spectrum antibiotic treatment and faecal microbiome transplantation, may provide safer and natural alternatives to traditional clinical interventions for chronic diseases. This review discusses host–microbiota homeostasis, consequences of its perturbation and the associated challenges in therapeutic developments that lie ahead. PMID:25345825

  7. Hypothalamic Vitamin D Improves Glucose Homeostasis and Reduces Weight

    PubMed Central

    Arble, Deanna M.; Chambers, Adam P.; Gutierrez-Aguilar, Ruth; He, Yanlin; Xu, Yong; Gardner, David; Moore, David D.; Seeley, Randy J.; Sandoval, Darleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite clear associations between vitamin D deficiency and obesity and/or type 2 diabetes, a causal relationship is not established. Vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are found within multiple tissues, including the brain. Given the importance of the brain in controlling both glucose levels and body weight, we hypothesized that activation of central VDR links vitamin D to the regulation of glucose and energy homeostasis. Indeed, we found that small doses of active vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) (calcitriol), into the third ventricle of the brain improved glucose tolerance and markedly increased hepatic insulin sensitivity, an effect that is dependent upon VDR within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, chronic central administration of 1,25D3 dramatically decreased body weight by lowering food intake in obese rodents. Our data indicate that 1,25D3-mediated changes in food intake occur through action within the arcuate nucleus. We found that VDR colocalized with and activated key appetite-regulating neurons in the arcuate, namely proopiomelanocortin neurons. Together, these findings define a novel pathway for vitamin D regulation of metabolism with unique and divergent roles for central nervous system VDR signaling. Specifically, our data suggest that vitamin D regulates glucose homeostasis via the paraventricular nuclei and energy homeostasis via the arcuate nuclei. PMID:27217488

  8. Cooperation between brain and islet in glucose homeostasis and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Michael W.; Seeley, Randy J.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Woods, Stephen C.; Morton, Gregory J.; Myers, Martin G.; D'Alessio, David

    2014-01-01

    Although a prominent role for the brain in glucose homeostasis was proposed by scientists in the nineteenth century, research throughout most of the twentieth century focused on evidence that the function of pancreatic islets is both necessary and sufficient to explain glucose homeostasis, and that diabetes results from defects of insulin secretion, action or both. However, insulin-independent mechanisms, referred to as ‘glucose effectiveness’, account for roughly 50% of overall glucose disposal, and reduced glucose effectiveness also contributes importantly to diabetes pathogenesis. Although mechanisms underlying glucose effectiveness are poorly understood, growing evidence suggests that the brain can dynamically regulate this process in ways that improve or even normalize glycaemia in rodent models of diabetes. Here we present evidence of a brain-centred glucoregulatory system (BCGS) that can lower blood glucose levels via both insulin-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and propose a model in which complex and highly coordinated interactions between the BCGS and pancreatic islets promote normal glucose homeostasis. Because activation of either regulatory system can compensate for failure of the other, defects in both may be required for diabetes to develop. Consequently, therapies that target the BCGS in addition to conventional approaches based on enhancing insulin effects may have the potential to induce diabetes remission, whereas targeting just one typically does not. PMID:24201279

  9. Extracellular Potassium Homeostasis: Insights from Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chih-Jen; Kuo, Elizabeth; Huang, Chou-Long

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular potassium makes up only about 2% of the total body potassium store. The majority of the body potassium is distributed in the intracellular space, and of which about 80% is in skeletal muscle. Movement of potassium in and out of skeletal muscle thus plays a pivotal role in extracellular potassium homeostasis. The exchange of potassium between the extracellular space and skeletal muscle is mediated by specific membrane transporters. These include potassium uptake by Na+, K+-ATPase and release by inward rectifier K+ channels. These processes are regulated by circulating hormones, peptides, ions, and by physical activity of muscle as well as dietary potassium intake. Pharmaceutical agents, poisons and disease conditions also affect the exchange and alter extracellular potassium concentration. Here, we review extracellular potassium homeostasis focusing on factors and conditions that influence the balance of potassium movement in skeletal muscle. Recent findings that mutations of a skeletal muscle-specific inward rectifier K+ channel cause hypokalemic periodic paralysis provide interesting insights into the role of skeletal muscle in extracellular potassium homeostasis. These recent findings will be reviewed. PMID:23953801

  10. TRPM7: channeling the future of cellular magnesium homeostasis?

    PubMed

    Wolf, Federica I

    2004-05-11

    A recent paper by Schmitz and colleagues provides persuasive evidence that the ion channel transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) may be the long-sought regulator of magnesium (Mg) homeostasis in mammalian cells. This finding is not unexpected, because TRPM channels contain a kinase domain that allows them to participate in signal transduction pathways and regulatory networks. However, these studies introduce an exciting new twist into our understanding of Mg homeostasis; TRPM7 facilitates Mg entry into the cell, whereas other putative Mg transporters apparently operate in the opposite direction. By combining electrophysiological, biochemical, and genetic approaches, Schmitz and colleagues characterized most of the key features that demonstrate a well-defined and biologically plausible regulator of Mg homeostasis. TRPM7 genetics are well in hand, its regulation by intracellular free Mg2+ unravels the mechanisms of regulatory feedback loops, and its kinase domain modulates its sensitivity to free Mg2+. These findings are discussed in light of the indirect and descriptive information we had about Mg regulation before this rigorous characterization of TRPM7 brought it to the center of the Mg stage. Although the molecular events downstream of TRPM7 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation await in-depth elucidation, these results open up exciting perspectives in Mg research and may provide a much-needed tool with which to reexamine the role of Mg in cell proliferation and other important pathophysiologic events. Likewise, these findings will offer guidelines for research on disease states that are characterized by Mg imbalance.

  11. Iron Homeostasis in Yellowstone National Park Hot Spring Microbial Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, I.; Tringe, S. G.; Franklin, H.; Bryant, D. A.; Klatt, C. G.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Guevara, M.

    2010-01-01

    It has been postulated that life may have originated on Earth, and possibly on Mars, in association with hydrothermal activity and high concentrations of ferrous iron. However, it is not clear how an iron-rich thermal hydrosphere could be hospitable to microbes, since reduced iron appears to stimulate oxidative stress in all domains of life and particularly in oxygenic phototrophs. Therefore, the study of microbial diversity in iron-depositing hot springs (IDHS) and the mechanisms of iron homeostasis and suppression of oxidative stress may help elucidate how Precambrian organisms could withstand the extremely high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by interaction between environmental Fe(2+) and O2. Proteins and clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) involved in the maintenance of Fe homeostasis found in cyanobacteria (CB) inhabiting environments with high and low [Fe] were main target of this analysis. Preliminary results of the analysis suggest that the Chocolate Pots (CP) microbial community is heavily dominated by phototrophs from the cyanobacteria (CB), Chloroflexi and Chlorobi phyla, while the Mushroom Spring (MS) effluent channel harbors a more diverse community in which Chloroflexi are the dominant phototrophs. It is speculated that CB inhabiting IDHS have an increased tolerance to both high concentrations of Fe(2+) and ROS produced in the Fenton reaction. This hypothesis was explored via a comparative analysis of the diversity of proteins and COGs involved in Fe and redox homeostasis in the CP and MS microbiomes.

  12. Senescent intervertebral disc cells exhibit perturbed matrix homeostasis phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Kevin; Patil, Prashanti; McGowan, Sara J; Niedernhofer, Laura J; Robbins, Paul D; Kang, James; Sowa, Gwendolyn; Vo, Nam

    2017-09-01

    Aging greatly increases the risk for intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) as a result of proteoglycan loss due to reduced synthesis and enhanced degradation of the disc matrix proteoglycan (PG). How disc matrix PG homeostasis becomes perturbed with age is not known. The goal of this study is to determine whether cellular senescence is a source of this perturbation. We demonstrated that disc cellular senescence is dramatically increased in the DNA repair-deficient Ercc1 -/Δ mouse model of human progeria. In these accelerated aging mice, increased disc cellular senescence is closely associated with the rapid loss of disc PG. We also directly examine PG homeostasis in oxidative damage-induced senescent human cells using an in vitro cell culture model system. Senescence of human disc cells treated with hydrogen peroxide was confirmed by growth arrest, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, γH2AX foci, and acquisition of senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Senescent human disc cells also exhibited perturbed matrix PG homeostasis as evidenced by their decreased capacity to synthesize new matrix PG and enhanced degradation of aggrecan, a major matrix PG. of the disc. Our in vivo and in vitro findings altogether suggest that disc cellular senescence is an important driver of PG matrix homeostatic perturbation and PG loss. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Feline chronic renal failure: calcium homeostasis in 80 cases diagnosed between 1992 and 1995.

    PubMed

    Barber, P J; Elliott, J

    1998-03-01

    Eighty cats with chronic renal failure (CRF) were evaluated in a prospective study to investigate the prevalence and aetiopathogenesis of renal secondary hyperparathyroidism (RHPTH), using routine plasma biochemistry and assays of parathyroid hormone (PTH), blood ionised calcium and 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25[OH]2D3). Hyperparathyroidism was a frequent sequela of CRF, affecting 84 per cent of cats with CRF, the severity and prevalence of RHPTH increasing with the degree of renal dysfunction. Compared with an age-matched control population, plasma concentrations of phosphate and PTH were significantly higher and 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations were significantly lower in the two groups of cats presenting with clinical signs of CRF. Significant ionised hypocalcaemia was present only in cats with end-stage renal failure. However, a number of cats were hyperparathyroid in the absence of abnormalities in the parameters of calcium homeostasis measured in this study. There was a significant correlation between plasma phosphate and PTH concentrations.

  14. The Th17 Lineage: From Barrier Surfaces Homeostasis to Autoimmunity, Cancer, and HIV-1 Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wacleche, Vanessa Sue; Landay, Alan; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Ancuta, Petronela

    2017-10-19

    The T helper 17 (Th17) cells represent a subset of CD4+ T-cells with unique effector functions, developmental plasticity, and stem-cell features. Th17 cells bridge innate and adaptive immunity against fungal and bacterial infections at skin and mucosal barrier surfaces. Although Th17 cells have been extensively studied in the context of autoimmunity, their role in various other pathologies is underexplored and remains an area of open investigation. This review summarizes the history of Th17 cell discovery and the current knowledge relative to the beneficial role of Th17 cells in maintaining mucosal immunity homeostasis. We further discuss the concept of Th17 pathogenicity in the context of autoimmunity, cancer, and HIV infection, and we review the most recent discoveries on molecular mechanisms regulating HIV replication/persistence in pathogenic Th17 cells. Finally, we stress the need for novel fundamental research discovery-based Th17-specific therapeutic interventions to treat pathogenic conditions associated with Th17 abnormalities, including HIV infection.

  15. Nitric oxide plays a role in stem cell niche homeostasis through its interaction with auxin.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Luis; Fernández-Marcos, María; Modrego, Abelardo; Lewis, Daniel R; Muday, Gloria K; Pollmann, Stephan; Dueñas, Montserrat; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2014-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a unique reactive nitrogen molecule with an array of signaling functions that modulates plant developmental processes and stress responses. To explore the mechanisms by which NO modulates root development, we used a pharmacological approach and NO-deficient mutants to unravel the role of NO in establishing auxin distribution patterns necessary for stem cell niche homeostasis. Using the NO synthase inhibitor and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) NO biosynthesis mutants (nitric oxide-associated1 [noa1], nitrate reductase1 [nia1] and nia2, and nia1 nia2 noa1), we show that depletion of NO in noa1 reduces primary root elongation and increases flavonol accumulation consistent with elevated reactive oxygen species levels. The elevated flavonols are required for the growth effect, because the transparent testa4 mutation reverses the noa1 mutant root elongation phenotype. In addition, noa1 and nia1 nia2 noa1 NO-deficient mutant roots display small root meristems with abnormal divisions. Concomitantly, auxin biosynthesis, transport, and signaling are perturbed. We further show that NO accumulates in cortex/endodermis stem cells and their precursor cells. In endodermal and cortical cells, the noa1 mutant acts synergistically to the effect of the wuschel-related homeobox5 mutation on the proximal meristem, suggesting that NO could play an important role in regulating stem cell decisions, which has been reported in animals. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Primary cilia maintain corneal epithelial homeostasis by regulation of the Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Grisanti, Laura; Revenkova, Ekaterina; Gordon, Ronald E.

    2016-01-01

    Primary cilia have been linked to signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, cell motility and cell polarity. Defects in ciliary function result in developmental abnormalities and multiple ciliopathies. Patients affected by severe ciliopathies, such as Meckel syndrome, present several ocular surface disease conditions of unclear pathogenesis. Here, we show that primary cilia are predominantly present on basal cells of the mouse corneal epithelium (CE) throughout development and in the adult. Conditional ablation of cilia in the CE leads to an increase in proliferation and vertical migration of basal corneal epithelial cells (CECs). A consequent increase in cell density of suprabasal layers results in a thicker than normal CE. Surprisingly, in cilia-deficient CE, cilia-mediated signaling pathways, including Hh and Wnt pathways, were not affected but the intensity of Notch signaling was severely diminished. Although Notch1 and Notch2 receptors were expressed normally, nuclear Notch1 intracellular domain (N1ICD) expression was severely reduced. Postnatal development analysis revealed that in cilia-deficient CECs downregulation of the Notch pathway precedes cell proliferation defects. Thus, we have uncovered a function of the primary cilium in maintaining homeostasis of the CE by balancing proliferation and vertical migration of basal CECs through modulation of Notch signaling. PMID:27122169

  17. The Dehydratase ADT3 Affects ROS Homeostasis and Cotyledon Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Para, Alessia; Muhammad, DurreShahwar; Naldrett, Michael J.; Warpeha, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    During the transition from seed to seedling, emerging embryos strategically balance available resources between building up defenses against environmental threats and initiating the developmental program that promotes the switch to autotrophy. We present evidence of a critical role for the phenylalanine (Phe) biosynthetic activity of AROGENATE DEHYDRATASE3 (ADT3) in coordinating reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis and cotyledon development in etiolated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. We show that ADT3 is expressed in the cotyledon and shoot apical meristem, mainly in the cytosol, and that the epidermis of adt3 cotyledons contains higher levels of ROS. Genome-wide proteomics of the adt3 mutant revealed a general down-regulation of plastidic proteins and ROS-scavenging enzymes, corroborating the hypothesis that the ADT3 supply of Phe is required to control ROS concentration and distribution to protect cellular components. In addition, loss of ADT3 disrupts cotyledon epidermal patterning by affecting the number and expansion of pavement cells and stomata cell fate specification; we also observed severe alterations in mesophyll cells, which lack oil bodies and normal plastids. Interestingly, up-regulation of the pathway leading to cuticle production is accompanied by an abnormal cuticle structure and/or deposition in the adt3 mutant. Such impairment results in an increase in cell permeability and provides a link to understand the cell defects in the adt3 cotyledon epidermis. We suggest an additional role of Phe in supplying nutrients to the young seedling. PMID:27540109

  18. Essential role of FBXL5-mediated cellular iron homeostasis in maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Yoshiharu; Nishiyama, Masaaki; Nita, Akihiro; Moroishi, Toshiro; Nakayama, Keiichi I.

    2017-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in a hypoxic niche to limit oxidative stress. Although iron elicits oxidative stress, the importance of iron homeostasis in HSCs has been unknown. Here we show that iron regulation by the F-box protein FBXL5 is required for HSC self-renewal. Conditional deletion of Fbxl5 in mouse HSCs results in cellular iron overload and a reduced cell number. Bone marrow transplantation reveals that FBXL5-deficient HSCs are unable to reconstitute the hematopoietic system of irradiated recipients as a result of stem cell exhaustion. Transcriptomic analysis shows abnormal activation of oxidative stress responses and the cell cycle in FBXL5-deficient mouse HSCs as well as downregulation of FBXL5 expression in HSCs of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Suppression of iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) accumulation in FBXL5-deficient mouse HSCs restores stem cell function, implicating IRP2 as a potential therapeutic target for human hematopoietic diseases associated with FBXL5 downregulation. PMID:28714470

  19. The PICALM Protein Plays a Key Role in Iron Homeostasis and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Scotland, Paula B.; Heath, Jessica L.; Conway, Amanda E.; Porter, Natasha B.; Armstrong, Michael B.; Walker, Jennifer A.; Klebig, Mitchell L.; Lavau, Catherine P.; Wechsler, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly (PICALM) protein associates with the plasma membrane, binds clathrin, and plays a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Alterations of the human PICALM gene are present in aggressive hematopoietic malignancies, and genome-wide association studies have recently linked the PICALM locus to late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Inactivating and hypomorphic Picalm mutations in mice cause different degrees of severity of anemia, abnormal iron metabolism, growth retardation and shortened lifespan. To understand PICALM’s function, we studied the consequences of PICALM overexpression and characterized PICALM-deficient cells derived from mutant fit1 mice. Our results identify a role for PICALM in transferrin receptor (TfR) internalization and demonstrate that the C-terminal PICALM residues are critical for its association with clathrin and for the inhibitory effect of PICALM overexpression on TfR internalization. Murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) that are deficient in PICALM display several characteristics of iron deficiency (increased surface TfR expression, decreased intracellular iron levels, and reduced cellular proliferation), all of which are rescued by retroviral PICALM expression. The proliferation defect of cells that lack PICALM results, at least in part, from insufficient iron uptake, since it can be corrected by iron supplementation. Moreover, PICALM-deficient cells are particularly sensitive to iron chelation. Taken together, these data reveal that PICALM plays a critical role in iron homeostasis, and offer new perspectives into the pathogenesis of PICALM-associated diseases. PMID:22952941

  20. Phosphate homeostasis in CKD: report of a scientific symposium sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation.

    PubMed

    Block, Geoffrey A; Ix, Joachim H; Ketteler, Markus; Martin, Kevin J; Thadhani, Ravi I; Tonelli, Marcello; Wolf, Myles; Jüppner, Harald; Hruska, Keith; Wheeler, David C

    2013-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD)-mineral and bone disorder is associated with diverse metabolic and endocrine disturbances that ultimately may contribute to further loss of kidney function, bone demineralization, and fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular events. Recent insights into the pathophysiology of the events that unfold during the development of this disorder suggest that disturbances in phosphate metabolism are pivotal. The consequences of abnormal phosphate homeostasis are evident at estimated glomerular filtration rates <70 mL/min/1.73 m(2), long before serum phosphate levels increase. Healthy individuals with blood phosphate levels in the top quartile of the normal range have an increased risk of developing CKD, reaching end-stage renal disease, and experiencing cardiovascular events. Substantial public health consequences may be related to increased dietary phosphorus exposure from additives that contain phosphate in the food supply and from modest increases in serum phosphate levels; however, it remains to be established whether interventions aimed at these targets can impact on the development of adverse clinical outcomes. Current approaches involving dietary intervention and intestinal phosphate binders are based on principles and assumptions that need to be examined more rigorously. Compelling animal, observational, and clinical data indicate that interventions directed at lowering phosphate exposure and serum phosphate levels should be subject to rigorous clinical trials that use appropriate placebo comparators and focus on key clinical outcomes, such as cardiovascular events, progression of CKD, fractures, quality of life, and mortality. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Loss of Myocardial Benefit following Ischemic Preconditioning Is Associated with Dysregulation of Iron Homeostasis in Diet-Induced Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Berenshtein, Eduard; Eliashar, Ron; Chevion, Mordechai

    2016-01-01

    Whether the diabetic heart benefits from ischemic preconditioning (IPC), similar to the non-diabetic heart, is a subject of controversy. We recently proposed new roles for iron and ferritin in IPC-protection in Type 1-like streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat heart. Here, we investigated iron homeostasis in Cohen diabetic sensitive rat (CDs) that develop hyperglycemia when fed on a high-sucrose/low-copper diet (HSD), but maintain normoglycemia on regular-diet (RD). Control Cohen-resistant rats (CDr) maintain normoglycemia on either diet. The IPC procedure improved the post-ischemic recovery of normoglycemic hearts (CDr-RD, CDr-HSD and CDs-RD). CDs-HSD hearts failed to show IPC-associated protection. The recovery of these CDs-HSD hearts following I/R (without prior IPC) was better than their RD controls. During IPC ferritin levels increased in normoglycemic hearts, and its level was maintained nearly constant during the subsequent prolonged ischemia, but decayed to its baseline level during the reperfusion phase. In CDs-HSD hearts the baseline levels of ferritin and ferritin-saturation with iron were notably higher than in the controls, and remained unchanged during the entire experiment. This unique and abnormal pattern of post-ischemic recovery of CDs-HSD hearts is associated with marked changes in myocardial iron homeostasis, and suggests that iron and iron-proteins play a causative role/s in the etiology of diabetes-associated cardiovascular disorders. PMID:27458721

  2. FAT/CD36: a major regulator of neuronal fatty acid sensing and energy homeostasis in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose; Musatov, Serguei; Magnan, Christophe; Levin, Barry E

    2013-08-01

    Hypothalamic "metabolic-sensing" neurons sense glucose and fatty acids (FAs) and play an integral role in the regulation of glucose, energy homeostasis, and the development of obesity and diabetes. Using pharmacologic agents, we previously found that ~50% of these neurons responded to oleic acid (OA) by using the FA translocator/receptor FAT/CD36 (CD36). For further elucidation of the role of CD36 in neuronal FA sensing, ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) CD36 was depleted using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector expressing CD36 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in rats. Whereas their neuronal glucosensing was unaffected by CD36 depletion, the percent of neurons that responded to OA was decreased specifically in glucosensing neurons. A similar effect was seen in total-body CD36-knockout mice. Next, weanling rats were injected in the VMH with CD36 AAV shRNA. Despite significant VMH CD36 depletion, there was no effect on food intake, body weight gain, or total carcass adiposity on chow or 45% fat diets. However, VMH CD36-depleted rats did have increased plasma leptin and subcutaneous fat deposition and markedly abnormal glucose tolerance. These results demonstrate that CD36 is a critical factor in both VMH neuronal FA sensing and the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis.

  3. Fullerol ionic fluids.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Nikhil; Dallas, Panagiotis; Rodriguez, Robert; Bourlinos, Athanasios B; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Giannelis, Emmanuel P

    2010-09-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like).

  4. Fullerol ionic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Nikhil; Dallas, Panagiotis; Rodriguez, Robert; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2010-09-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like).

  5. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  6. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOEpatents

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  7. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  8. Solar heat transport fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The progress made on the development and delivery of noncorrosive fluid subsystems is reported. These subsystems are to be compatible with closed-loop solar heating or combined heating and hot water systems. They are also to be compatible with both metallic and non-metallic plumbing systems. At least 100 gallons of each type of fluid recommended by the contractor will be delivered under the contract. The performance testing of a number of fluids is described.

  9. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  10. Embryonic blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier formation and function

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, David; Parvas, Maryam; Hermelo, Ismaïl; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    During embryonic development and adult life, brain cavities and ventricles are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF has attracted interest as an active signaling medium that regulates brain development, homeostasis and disease. CSF is a complex protein-rich fluid containing growth factors and signaling molecules that regulate multiple cell functions in the central nervous system (CNS). The composition and substance concentrations of CSF are tightly controlled. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that embryonic CSF (eCSF) has a key function as a fluid pathway for delivering diffusible signals to the developing brain, thus contributing to the proliferation, differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells, and to the expansion and patterning of the brain. From fetal stages through to adult life, CSF is primarily produced by the choroid plexus. The development and functional activities of the choroid plexus and other blood–brain barrier (BBB) systems in adults and fetuses have been extensively analyzed. However, eCSF production and control of its homeostasis in embryos, from the closure of the anterior neuropore when the brain cavities become physiologically sealed, to the formation of the functional fetal choroid plexus, has not been studied in as much depth and remains open to debate. This review brings together the existing literature, some of which is based on experiments conducted by our research group, concerning the formation and function of a temporary embryonic blood–CSF barrier in the context of the crucial roles played by the molecules in eCSF. PMID:25389383

  11. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia Printable PDF Open ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia (XLAG) is a ...

  12. The Fluids RAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedyalkov, Ivaylo

    2016-11-01

    After fifteen years of experience in rap, and ten in fluid mechanics, "I am coming here with high-Reynolds-number stamina; I can beat these rap folks whose flows are... laminar." The rap relates fluid flows to rap flows. The fluid concepts presented in the song have varying complexity and the listeners/viewers will be encouraged to read the explanations on a site dedicated to the rap. The music video will provide an opportunity to share high-quality fluid visualizations with a general audience. This talk will present the rap lyrics, the vision for the video, and the strategy for outreach. Suggestions and comments will be welcomed.

  13. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    DOEpatents

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  14. Sphere based fluid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Systems are described for using multiple closely-packed spheres. In one system for passing fluid, a multiplicity of spheres lie within a container, with all of the spheres having the same outside diameter and with the spheres being closely nested in one another to create multiple interstitial passages of a known size and configuration and smooth walls. The container has an inlet and outlet for passing fluid through the interstitial passages formed between the nested spheres. The small interstitial passages can be used to filter out material, especially biological material such as cells in a fluid, where the cells can be easily destroyed if passed across sharp edges. The outer surface of the spheres can contain a material that absorbs a constitutent in the flowing fluid, such as a particular contamination gas, or can contain a catalyst to chemically react the fluid passing therethrough, the use of multiple small spheres assuring a large area of contact of these surfaces of the spheres with the fluid. In a system for storing and releasing a fluid such as hydrogen as a fuel, the spheres can include a hollow shell containing the fluid to be stored, and located within a compressable container that can be compressed to break the shells and release the stored fluid.

  15. Theoretical fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivamoggi, B. K.

    This book is concerned with a discussion of the dynamical behavior of a fluid, and is addressed primarily to graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics and applied mathematics. A review of basic concepts and equations of fluid dynamics is presented, taking into account a fluid model of systems, the objective of fluid dynamics, the fluid state, description of the flow field, volume forces and surface forces, relative motion near a point, stress-strain relation, equations of fluid flows, surface tension, and a program for analysis of the governing equations. The dynamics of incompressible fluid flows is considered along with the dynamics of compressible fluid flows, the dynamics of viscous fluid flows, hydrodynamic stability, and dynamics of turbulence. Attention is given to the complex-variable method, three-dimensional irrotational flows, vortex flows, rotating flows, water waves, applications to aerodynamics, shock waves, potential flows, the hodograph method, flows at low and high Reynolds numbers, the Jeffrey-Hamel flow, and the capillary instability of a liquid jet.

  16. Spiral fluid separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid separator for separating particulate matter such as contaminates is provided which includes a series of spiral tubes of progressively decreasing cross sectional area connected in series. Each tube has an outlet on the outer curvature of the spiral. As fluid spirals down a tube, centrifugal force acts to force the heavier particulate matter to the outer wall of the tube, where it exits through the outlet. The remaining, and now cleaner, fluid reaches the next tube, which is smaller in cross sectional area, where the process is repeated. The fluid which comes out the final tube is diminished of particulate matter.

  17. Development of iron homeostasis in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Healthy, term, breastfed infants usually have adequate iron stores that, together with the small amount of iron that is contributed by breast milk, make them iron sufficient until ≥6 mo of age. The appropriate concentration of iron in infant formula to achieve iron sufficiency is more controversial. Infants who are fed formula with varying concentrations of iron generally achieve sufficiency with iron concentrations of 2 mg/L (i.e., with iron status that is similar to that of breastfed infants at 6 mo of age). Regardless of the feeding choice, infants' capacity to regulate iron homeostasis is important but less well understood than the regulation of iron absorption in adults, which is inverse to iron status and strongly upregulated or downregulated. Infants who were given daily iron drops compared with a placebo from 4 to 6 mo of age had similar increases in hemoglobin concentrations. In addition, isotope studies have shown no difference in iron absorption between infants with high or low hemoglobin concentrations at 6 mo of age. Together, these findings suggest a lack of homeostatic regulation of iron homeostasis in young infants. However, at 9 mo of age, homeostatic regulatory capacity has developed although, to our knowledge, its extent is not known. Studies in suckling rat pups showed similar results with no capacity to regulate iron homeostasis at 10 d of age when fully nursing, but such capacity occurred at 20 d of age when pups were partially weaned. The major iron transporters in the small intestine divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin were not affected by pup iron status at 10 d of age but were strongly affected by iron status at 20 d of age. Thus, mechanisms that regulate iron homeostasis are developed at the time of weaning. Overall, studies in human infants and experimental animals suggest that iron homeostasis is absent or limited early in infancy largely because of a lack of regulation of the iron transporters DMT1 and ferroportin

  18. Metabolic, Reproductive, and Neurologic Abnormalities in Agpat1-Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil K; Tunison, Katie; Dalal, Jasbir S; Nagamma, Sneha S; Hamra, F Kent; Sankella, Shireesha; Shao, Xinli; Auchus, Richard J; Garg, Abhimanyu

    2017-11-01

    Defects in the biosynthesis of phospholipids and neutral lipids are associated with cell membrane dysfunction, disrupted energy metabolism, and diseases including lipodystrophy. In these pathways, the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (AGPAT) enzymes transfer a fatty acid to the sn-2 carbon of sn-1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid) to form sn-1, 2-acylglycerol-3-phosphate [phosphatidic acid (PA)]. PA is a precursor for key phospholipids and diacylglycerol. AGPAT1 and AGPAT2 are highly homologous isoenzymes that are both expressed in adipocytes. Genetic defects in AGPAT2 cause congenital generalized lipodystrophy, indicating that AGPAT1 cannot compensate for loss of AGPAT2 in adipocytes. To further explore the physiology of AGPAT1, we characterized a loss-of-function mouse model (Agpat1-/-). The majority of Agpat1-/- mice died before weaning and had low body weight and low plasma glucose levels, independent of plasma insulin and glucagon levels, with reduced percentage of body fat but not generalized lipodystrophy. These mice also had decreased hepatic messenger RNA expression of Igf-1 and Foxo1, suggesting a decrease in gluconeogenesis. In male mice, sperm development was impaired, with a late meiotic arrest near the onset of round spermatid production, and gonadotropins were elevated. Female mice showed oligoanovulation yet retained responsiveness to gonadotropins. Agpat1-/- mice also demonstrated abnormal hippocampal neuron development and developed audiogenic seizures. In summary, Agpat1-/- mice developed widespread disturbances of metabolism, sperm development, and neurologic function resulting from disrupted phospholipid homeostasis. AGPAT1 appears to serve important functions in the physiology of multiple organ systems. The Agpat1-deficient mouse provides an important model in which to study the contribution of phospholipid and triacylglycerol synthesis to physiology and diseases. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  19. Dysmorphometrics: the modelling of morphological abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Claes, Peter; Daniels, Katleen; Walters, Mark; Clement, John; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Suetens, Paul

    2012-02-06

    The study of typical morphological variations using quantitative, morphometric descriptors has always interested biologists in general. However, unusual examples of form, such as abnormalities are often encountered in biomedical sciences. Despite the long history of morphometrics, the means to identify and quantify such unusual form differences remains limited. A theoretical concept, called dysmorphometrics, is introduced augmenting current geometric morphometrics with a focus on identifying and modelling form abnormalities. Dysmorphometrics applies the paradigm of detecting form differences as outliers compared to an appropriate norm. To achieve this, the likelihood formulation of landmark superimpositions is extended with outlier processes explicitly introducing a latent variable coding for abnormalities. A tractable solution to this augmented superimposition problem is obtained using Expectation-Maximization. The topography of detected abnormalities is encoded in a dysmorphogram. We demonstrate the use of dysmorphometrics to measure abrupt changes in time, asymmetry and discordancy in a set of human faces presenting with facial abnormalities. The results clearly illustrate the unique power to reveal unusual form differences given only normative data with clear applications in both biomedical practice & research.

  20. Abnormalities of High Density Lipoproteins in Abetalipoproteinemia*

    PubMed Central

    Jones, John W.; Ways, Peter

    1967-01-01

    Detailed studies of the high density lipoproteins from three patients with abetalipoproteinemia have revealed the following principal abnormalities: 1) High density lipoprotein 3 (HDL3) is reduced in both absolute and relative concentration, although HDL2 is present in normal amounts. 2) The phospholipid distribution of both HDL fractions is abnormal, with low concentrations of lecithin and an increased percentage (though normal absolute quantity) of sphingomyelin. 3) In both HDL fractions, lecithin contains less linoleate and more oleate than normal. The cholesteryl esters are also low in linoleic acid, and the sphingomyelin is high in nervonic acid. Dietary intake influences the linoleic acid concentration within 2 weeks, and perhaps sooner, but the elevated sphingomyelin nervonic acid is little affected by up to 6 months of corn oil supplementation. Qualitatively similar changes in fatty acid composition, but not phospholipid distribution, are also found in other malabsorption states. The available evidence suggests that the abnormally low levels of HDL3 and the deranged phospholipid distribution are more specific for abetalipoproteinemia than the fatty acid abnormalities. However, the absence of these abnormalities in obligate heterozygous subjects makes their relationship to the primary defect of abetalipoproteinemia difficult to assess. Images PMID:6027078

  1. [Liver enzyme abnormalities among oil refinery workers].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Silvany Neto, Annibal Muniz; Mendes, João Luiz Barberino; Cotrim, Helma Pinchemel; Nascimento, Ana Lísia Cunha; Lima Júnior, Alberto Soares; Cunha, Tatiana Oliveira Bernardo da

    2006-02-01

    Occupational exposure typical of an oil refinery may alter liver function among the workers. Thus, the objective of the study was to identify risk factors for liver enzyme abnormalities among oil refinery workers. The workers at an oil refinery in Northeastern Brazil underwent routine annual medical examination from 1982 to 1998. This case-control study investigated all the 150 cases of individuals with simultaneous gamma-glutamyltransferase and alanine aminotransferase abnormalities of at least 10% above reference levels. As controls, 150 workers without any liver enzyme or bilirubin abnormalities since starting to work there were selected. Odds ratios and the respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated from logistic regression models. In all the production sectors, the risk of liver enzyme abnormalities was significantly higher than in the administrative sector (OR=5.7; 95% CI: 1.7-18.4), even when the effects of alcohol, obesity and medical history of hepatitis were controlled for. During the period from 1992 to 1994, 88 out of the 89 cases occurred among workers from the various production sectors. Occupational exposure plays an important role in causing liver enzyme abnormalities among oil refinery workers. This is in addition to the specifically biological and/or behavioral risk factors such as obesity and alcohol consumption.

  2. Chromosome and molecular abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Fenaux, Pierre

    2001-06-01

    Cytogenetic abnormalities are seen in approximately 50% of cases of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and 80% of cases of secondary MDS (following chemotherapy or radiotherapy). These abnormalities generally consist of partial or complete chromosome deletion or addition (del5q, -7, +8, -Y, del20q), whereas balanced or unbalanced translocations are rarely found in MDS. Fluorescence hybridization techniques (fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH], multiplex FISH, and spectral karyotyping) are useful in detecting chromosomal anomalies in cases in which few mitoses are obtained or rearrangements are complex. Ras mutations are the molecular abnormalities most frequently found in MDS, followed by p15 gene hypermethylation, FLT3 duplications, and p53 mutations, but none of these abnormalities are specific for MDS. The rare cases of balanced translocations in MDS have allowed the identification of genes whose rearrangements appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of some cases of MDS. These genes include MDS1-EVI1 in t(3;3) or t(3;21) translocations, TEL in t(5;12), HIP1 in t(5;7), MLF1 in t(3;5), and MEL1 in t(1;3). Genes more frequently implicated in the pathogenesis of MDS cases, such as those involving del5q, remain unknown, although some candidate genes are currently being studied. Cytogenetic and known molecular abnormalities generally carry a poor prognosis in MDS and can be incorporated into prognostic scoring systems such as the International Prognostic Scoring System.

  3. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  4. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than..., tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal findings, NIOSH will...

  5. Space Station fluid management logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  6. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major

    PubMed Central

    Bhoiwala, Devang L.; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: thalassemia major, β-TI: thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelium degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-TM are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy (ICT) in order to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by ICT. Some who were never treated with ICT exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving ICT had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-TM viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  8. Cardiac abnormality prediction using HMLP network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan, Ja'afar; Ahmad, K. A.; Mat, Muhamad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Ahmad, Shahril

    2018-02-01

    Cardiac abnormality often occurs regardless of gender, age and races but depends on the lifestyle. This problem sometimes does not show any symptoms and usually detected once it already critical which lead to a sudden death to the patient. Basically, cardiac abnormality is the irregular electrical signal that generate by the pacemaker of the heart. This paper attempts to develop a program that can detect cardiac abnormality activity through implementation of Hybrid Multilayer Perceptron (HMLP) network. A certain amount of data of the heartbeat signals from the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be used in this project to train the MLP and HMLP network by using Modified Recursive Prediction Error (MRPE) algorithm and to test the network performance.

  9. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  10. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate themore » types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.« less

  11. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  12. Neurological abnormalities associated with CDMA exposure.

    PubMed

    Hocking, B; Westerman, R

    2001-09-01

    Dysaesthesiae of the scalp and neurological abnormality after mobile phone use have been reported previously, but the roles of the phone per se or the radiations in causing these findings have been questioned. We report finding a neurological abnormality in a patient after accidental exposure of the left side of the face to mobile phone radiation [code division multiple access (CDMA)] from a down-powered mobile phone base station antenna. He had headaches, unilateral left blurred vision and pupil constriction, unilateral altered sensation on the forehead, and abnormalities of current perception thresholds on testing the left trigeminal ophthalmic nerve. His nerve function recovered during 6 months follow-up. His exposure was 0.015-0.06 mW/cm(2) over 1-2 h. The implications regarding health effects of radiofrequency radiation are discussed.

  13. Time Independent Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collyer, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses theories underlying Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids by explaining flow curves exhibited by plastic, shear-thining, and shear-thickening fluids and Bingham plastic materials. Indicates that the exact mechanism governing shear-thickening behaviors is a problem of further study. (CC)

  14. Fluid delivery control system

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris William; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2006-06-06

    A method of controlling the delivery of fluid to an engine includes receiving a fuel flow rate signal. An electric pump is arranged to deliver fluid to the engine. The speed of the electric pump is controlled based on the fuel flow rate signal.

  15. Peritoneal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... The peritoneal fluid culture may be negative, even if you have ... diagnosis of peritonitis is based on other factors, in addition ...

  16. Fluid Power Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Fluid power technicians, sometimes called hydraulic and pneumatic technicians, work with equipment that utilizes the pressure of a liquid or gas in a closed container to transmit, multiply, or control power. Working under the supervision of an engineer or engineering staff, they assemble, install, maintain, and test fluid power equipment.…

  17. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities and the 22q11 microdeletion in fetuses with congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wei; Wang, Shuyu

    2014-11-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities and the 22q11 microdeletion are implicated in congenital heart defects (CHDs). This study was designed to detect these abnormalities in fetuses and determine the effect of genetic factors on CHD etiology. Between January 2010 and December 2011, 113 fetuses with CHD treated at the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were investigated, using chromosome karyotyping of either amniotic fluid cell or umbilical cord blood cell samples. Fetuses with a normal result were then investigated for the 22q11 microdeletion by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of the 113 patients, 12 (10.6%) exhibited chromosomal abnormalities, while 6 (5.3%) of the remaining 101 cases presented with a 22q11 microdeletion. The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities was significantly higher in the group of fetuses presenting with extracardiac malformations in addition to CHD (P<0.001), although the detection of the 22q11 microdeletion was not significantly different between the two groups (P=0.583). In addition, all fetuses with the 22q11 microdeletion occurred de novo. In conclusion, genetic factors are important in the etiology of CHD. Where fetuses present with cardiac defects, additional chromosomal analysis is required to detect extracardiac abnormalities. Fetuses with heart defects should also be considered for 22q11 microdeletion detection to evaluate fetal prognosis, particularly prior to surgery.

  18. Intestinal Rotation Abnormalities and Midgut Volvulus.

    PubMed

    Langer, Jacob C

    2017-02-01

    Rotation abnormalities may be asymptomatic or may be associated with obstruction caused by bands, midgut volvulus, or associated atresia or web. The most important goal of clinicians is to determine whether the patient has midgut volvulus with intestinal ischemia, in which case an emergency laparotomy should be done. If the patient is not acutely ill, the next goal is to determine whether the patient has a narrow-based small bowel mesentery. In general, the outcomes for children with a rotation abnormality are excellent, unless there has been midgut volvulus with significant intestinal ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity.

  20. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  1. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  2. Abnormal carbene-silicon halide complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuzhong; Xie, Yaoming; Wei, Pingrong; Schaefer, Henry F; Robinson, Gregory H

    2016-04-14

    Reaction of the anionic N-heterocyclic dicarbene (NHDC), [:C{[N(2,6-Pr(i)2C6H3)]2CHCLi}]n (1), with SiCl4 gives the trichlorosilyl-substituted (at the C4 carbon) N-heterocyclic carbene complex (7). Abnormal carbene-SiCl4 complex (8) may be conveniently synthesized by combining 7 with HCl·NEt3. In addition, 7 may react with CH2Cl2 in warm hexane, giving the abnormal carbene-complexed SiCl3(+) cation (9). The nature of the bonding in 9 was probed with complementary DFT computations.

  3. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in amateur male marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Anna M; Lewicka, Ewa; Dąbrowska-Kugacka, Alicja; Lewicka-Potocka, Zuzanna; Wabich, Elżbieta; Szerszyńska, Anna; Dyda, Julia; Sobolewski, Jakub; Koenner, Jakub; Raczak, Grzegorz

    2018-06-18

    Sports activity has become extremely popular among amateurs. Electrocardiography is a useful tool in screening for cardiac pathologies in athletes; however, there is little data on electrocardiographic abnormalities in the group of amateur athletes. The aim of this study was to analyze the abnormalities in resting and exercise electrocardiograms (ECGs) in a group of amateur athletes, and try to determine whether the criteria applied for the general population or for athletes' ECGs should be implemented in this group. In 40 amateur male marathon runners, 3 consecutive 12-lead ECGs were performed: 2-3 weeks before (stage 1), just after the run (stage 2) and 2-3 weeks after the marathon (stage 3). Resting (stage 1) and exercise (stage 2) ECGs were analyzed following the refined criteria for the assessment of athlete's ECG (changes classified as training-related, borderline or training-unrelated). In resting ECGs, at least 1 abnormality was found in 92.5% of the subjects and the most common was sinus bradycardia (62.5%). In post-exercise ECGs, at least 1 abnormality was present in 77.5% of the subjects and the most common was right atrium enlargement (RAE) (42.5%). Training-related ECG variants were more frequent at rest (82.5% vs 42.5%; p = 0.0008), while borderline variants - after the run (22.5% vs 57.5%; p = 0.0004). Training-unrelated abnormalities were found in 15% and 10% of the subjects, respectively (p-value - nonsignificant), and the most common was T-wave inversion. Even if the refined criteria rather than the criteria used for normal sedentary population were applied, the vast majority of amateur runners showed at least 1 abnormality in resting ECGs, which were mainly training-related variants. However, at rest, in 15% of the subjects, pathologic training-unrelated abnormalities were found. The most frequent post-exercise abnormality was right atrial enlargement. General electrocardiographic screening in amateur athletes should be taken into consideration.

  4. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  5. Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, September 9 to 10, 1986, focused on future research in the microgravity fluid management field. The symposium allowed researchers and managers to review space applications that require fluid management technology, to present the current status of technology development, and to identify the technology developments required for future missions. The 19 papers covered three major categories: (1) fluid storage, acquisition, and transfer; (2) fluid management applications, i.e., space power and thermal management systems, and environmental control and life support systems; (3) project activities and insights including two descriptions of previous flight experiments and a summary of typical activities required during development of a shuttle flight experiment.

  6. FLUID SELECTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Stinson, W.J.

    1958-09-16

    A valve designed to selectively sample fluids from a number of sources is described. The valve comprises a rotatable operating lever connected through a bellows seal to a rotatable assembly containing a needle valve, bearings, and a rotational lock. The needle valve is connected through a flexible tube to the sample fluid outlet. By rotating the lever the needle valve is placed over . one of several fluid sources and locked in position so that the fluid is traasferred through the flexible tubing and outlet to a remote sampling system. The fluids from the nonselected sources are exhausted to a waste line. This valve constitutes a simple, dependable means of selecting a sample from one of several scurces.

  7. Fluid blade disablement tool

    DOEpatents

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos [Albuquerque, NM; Hughs, Chance G [Albuquerque, NM; Todd, Steven N [Rio Rancho, NM

    2012-01-10

    A fluid blade disablement (FBD) tool that forms both a focused fluid projectile that resembles a blade, which can provide precision penetration of a barrier wall, and a broad fluid projectile that functions substantially like a hammer, which can produce general disruption of structures behind the barrier wall. Embodiments of the FBD tool comprise a container capable of holding fluid, an explosive assembly which is positioned within the container and which comprises an explosive holder and explosive, and a means for detonating. The container has a concavity on the side adjacent to the exposed surface of the explosive. The position of the concavity relative to the explosive and its construction of materials with thicknesses that facilitate inversion and/or rupture of the concavity wall enable the formation of a sharp and coherent blade of fluid advancing ahead of the detonation gases.

  8. Obstetrical complications associated with abnormal maternal serum markers analytes.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Alain; Wilson, R Douglas

    2008-10-01

    , amniotic fluid levels), and fetal surveillance (biophysical profile, arterial and venous Doppler), and cervical length assessment. (III-A) 10. Limited information suggests that, in women with elevated hCG in the second trimester and/or abnormal uterine artery Doppler (at 22-24 weeks), low-dose aspirin (60-81 mg daily) is associated with higher birthweight and lower incidence of gestational hypertension with proteinuria. This therapy may be used in women who are at risk. (II-2B) 11. Further studies are recommended in order to assess the benefits of low-dose aspirin, low molecular weight heparin, or other therapeutic options in pregnancies determined to be at increased risk on the basis of an abnormal maternal serum screening analyte. (III-A) 12. Multiple maternal serum markers screening should not be used at present as a population-based screening method for adverse pregnancy outcomes (such as preeclampsia, placental abruption, and stillbirth) outside an established research protocol, as sensitivity is low, false positive rates are high, and no management protocol has been shown to clearly improve outcomes. (II-2D) When maternal serum screening is performed for the usual clinical indication (fetal aneuploidy and/or neural tube defect), abnormal analyte results can be utilized for the identification of pregnancies at risk and to direct their clinical management. (II-2B) Further studies are recommended to determine the optimal screening method for poor maternal and/or perinatal outcomes. (III-A).

  9. Atmospheric Convective Organization: Self-Organized Criticality or Homeostasis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric convection has a tendency organized on a hierarchy of scales ranging from the mesoscale to the planetary scales, with the latter especially manifested by the Madden-Julian oscillation. The present talk examines two major possible mechanisms of self-organization identified in wider literature from a phenomenological thermodynamic point of view by analysing a planetary-scale cloud-resolving model simulation. The first mechanism is self-organized criticality. A saturation tendency of precipitation rate with the increasing column-integrated water, reminiscence of critical phenomena, indicates self-organized criticality. The second is a self-regulation mechanism that is known as homeostasis in biology. A thermodynamic argument suggests that such self-regulation maintains the column-integrated water below a threshold by increasing the precipitation rate. Previous analyses of both observational data as well as cloud-resolving model (CRM) experiments give mixed results. A satellite data analysis suggests self-organized criticality. Some observational data as well as CRM experiments support homeostasis. Other analyses point to a combination of these two interpretations. In this study, a CRM experiment over a planetary-scale domain with a constant sea-surface temperature is analyzed. This analysis shows that the relation between the column-integrated total water and precipitation suggests self-organized criticality, whereas the one between the column-integrated water vapor and precipitation suggests homeostasis. The concurrent presence of these two mechanisms are further elaborated by detailed statistical and budget analyses. These statistics are scale invariant, reflecting a spatial scaling of precipitation processes. These self-organization mechanisms are most likely be best theoretically understood by the energy cycle of the convective systems consisting of the kinetic energy and the cloud-work function. The author has already investigated the behavior of this

  10. AMP-18 Targets p21 to Maintain Epithelial Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peili; Li, Yan Chun; Toback, F Gary

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated homeostasis of epithelial cells resulting in disruption of mucosal barrier function is an important pathogenic mechanism in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We have characterized a novel gastric protein, Antrum Mucosal Protein (AMP)-18, that has pleiotropic properties; it is mitogenic, anti-apoptotic and can stimulate formation of tight junctions. A 21-mer synthetic peptide derived from AMP-18 exhibits the same biological functions as the full-length protein and is an effective therapeutic agent in mouse models of IBD. In this study we set out to characterize therapeutic mechanisms and identify molecular targets by which AMP-18 maintains and restores disrupted epithelial homeostasis in cultured intestinal epithelial cells and a mouse model of IBD. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine known to mediate gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal injury in IBD, was used to induce intestinal epithelial cell injury, and study the effects of AMP-18 on apoptosis and the cell cycle. An apoptosis array used to search for targets of AMP-18 in cells exposed to TNF-α identified the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 WAF1/CIP1. Treatment with AMP-18 blunted increases in p21 expression and apoptosis, while reversing disturbed cell cycle kinetics induced by TNF-α. AMP-18 appears to act through PI3K/AKT pathways to increase p21 phosphorylation, thereby reducing its nuclear accumulation to overcome the antiproliferative effects of TNF-α. In vitamin D receptor-deficient mice with TNBS-induced IBD, the observed increase in p21 expression in colonic epithelial cells was suppressed by treatment with AMP peptide. The results indicate that AMP-18 can maintain and/or restore the homeostatic balance between proliferation and apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells to protect and repair mucosal barrier homeostasis and function, suggesting a therapeutic role in IBD.

  11. All-trans retinoic acid regulates hepatic bile acid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; He, Yuqi; Liu, Hui-Xin; Tsuei, Jessica; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) and bile acids share common roles in regulating lipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. In addition, the receptor for RA (retinoid x receptor) is a permissive partner of the receptor for bile acids, farnesoid x receptor (FXR/NR1H4). Thus, RA can activate the FXR-mediated pathway as well. The current study was designed to understand the effect of all-trans RA on bile acid homeostasis. Mice were fed an all-trans RA-supplemented diet and the expression of 46 genes that participate in regulating bile acid homeostasis was studied. The data showed that all-trans RA has a profound effect in regulating genes involved in synthesis and transport of bile acids. All-trans RA treatment reduced the gene expression levels of Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, and Akr1d1, which are involved in bile acid synthesis. All-trans RA also decreased the hepatic mRNA levels of Lrh-1 (Nr5a2) and Hnf4α (Nr2a1), which positively regulate the gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1. Moreover, all-trans RA induced the gene expression levels of negative regulators of bile acid synthesis including hepatic Fgfr4, Fxr, and Shp (Nr0b2) as well as ileal Fgf15. All-trans RA also decreased the expression of Abcb11 and Slc51b, which have a role in bile acid transport. Consistently, all-trans RA reduced hepatic bile acid levels and the ratio of CA/CDCA, as demonstrated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data suggest that all-trans RA-induced SHP may contribute to the inhibition of CYP7A1 and CYP8B1, which in turn reduces bile acid synthesis and affects lipid absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25175738

  12. Physical activity, fitness, glucose homeostasis, and brain morphology in twins.

    PubMed

    Rottensteiner, Mirva; Leskinen, Tuija; Niskanen, Eini; Aaltonen, Sari; Mutikainen, Sara; Wikgren, Jan; Heikkilä, Kauko; Kovanen, Vuokko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tarkka, Ina M; Kujala, Urho M

    2015-03-01

    The main aim of the present study (FITFATTWIN) was to investigate how physical activity level is associated with body composition, glucose homeostasis, and brain morphology in young adult male monozygotic twin pairs discordant for physical activity. From a population-based twin cohort, we systematically selected 10 young adult male monozygotic twin pairs (age range, 32-36 yr) discordant for leisure time physical activity during the past 3 yr. On the basis of interviews, we calculated a mean sum index for leisure time and commuting activity during the past 3 yr (3-yr LTMET index expressed as MET-hours per day). We conducted extensive measurements on body composition (including fat percentage measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), glucose homeostasis including homeostatic model assessment index and insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda index, calculated from glucose and insulin values from an oral glucose tolerance test), and whole brain magnetic resonance imaging for regional volumetric analyses. According to pairwise analysis, the active twins had lower body fat percentage (P = 0.029) and homeostatic model assessment index (P = 0.031) and higher Matsuda index (P = 0.021) compared with their inactive co-twins. Striatal and prefrontal cortex (subgyral and inferior frontal gyrus) brain gray matter volumes were larger in the nondominant hemisphere in active twins compared with those in inactive co-twins, with a statistical threshold of P < 0.001. Among healthy adult male twins in their mid-30s, a greater level of physical activity is associated with improved glucose homeostasis and modulation of striatum and prefrontal cortex gray matter volume, independent of genetic background. The findings may contribute to later reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and mobility limitations.

  13. Lean Body Mass Harbors Sensing Mechanisms that Allow Safeguarding of Methionine Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Protein-depleted states generate allosteric inhibition of liver cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), which governs the first enzymatic step of the transsulfuration cascade, resulting in upstream accretion of homocysteine (Hcy) in body fluids. A similar Hcy increase may arise from normal hepatocytes undergoing experimentally-induced impairment of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHTM) activity or from components of lean body mass (LBM) submitted to any inflammatory disorder. LBM comprises a composite agglomeration of extrarenal tissues characterized by naturally occurring BHTM inactivity. As a result of cellular injury, LBM releases high concentrations of Hcy into the extracellular space, contrasting with the disruption of normal remethylation pathways. Hyperhomocysteinemia acts as a biomarker, reflecting the severity of insult and operating as an alarm signal. Elevated Hcy levels constitute a precursor pool recognized by a CBS coding region that reacts to meet increased methionine requirements in LBM tissues, using its enhanced production in hepatocytes. Preservation of methionine homeostasis benefits from its high metabolic priority and survival value. PMID:28930162

  14. Electromagnetic homeostasis and the role of low-amplitude electromagnetic fields on life organization.

    PubMed

    De Ninno, Antonella; Pregnolato, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The appearance of endogenous electromagnetic fields in biological systems is a widely debated issue in modern science. The electrophysiological fields have very tiny intensities and it can be inferred that they are rapidly decreasing with the distance from the generating structure, vanishing at very short distances. This makes very hard their detection using standard experimental methods. However, the existence of fast-moving charged particles in the macromolecules inside both intracellular and extracellular fluids may envisage the generation of localized electric currents as well as the presence of closed loops, which implies the existence of magnetic fields. Moreover, the whole set of oscillatory frequencies of various substances, enzymes, cell membranes, nucleic acids, bioelectrical phenomena generated by the electrical rhythm of coherent groups of cells, cell-to-cell communication among population of host bacteria, forms the increasingly complex hierarchies of electromagnetic signals of different frequencies which cover the living being and represent a fundamental information network controlling the cell metabolism. From this approach emerges the concept of electromagnetic homeostasis: that is, the capability of the human body to maintain the balance of highly complex electromagnetic interactions within, in spite of the external electromagnetic noisy environment. This concept may have an important impact on the actual definitions of heal and disease.

  15. Control of brain development and homeostasis by local and systemic insulin signalling.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Spéder, P; Brand, A H

    2014-09-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are important regulators of growth and metabolism. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, insulin/IGFs are made available to various organs, including the brain, through two routes: the circulating systemic insulin/IGFs act on distant organs via endocrine signalling, whereas insulin/IGF ligands released by local tissues act in a paracrine or autocrine fashion. Although the mechanisms governing the secretion and action of systemic insulin/IGF have been the focus of extensive investigation, the significance of locally derived insulin/IGF has only more recently come to the fore. Local insulin/IGF signalling is particularly important for the development and homeostasis of the central nervous system, which is insulated from the systemic environment by the blood-brain barrier. Local insulin/IGF signalling from glial cells, the blood-brain barrier and the cerebrospinal fluid has emerged as a potent regulator of neurogenesis. This review will address the main sources of local insulin/IGF and how they affect neurogenesis during development. In addition, we describe how local insulin/IGF signalling couples neural stem cell proliferation with systemic energy state in Drosophila and in mammals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Lean Body Mass Harbors Sensing Mechanisms that Allow Safeguarding of Methionine Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ingenbleek, Yves

    2017-09-20

    Protein-depleted states generate allosteric inhibition of liver cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), which governs the first enzymatic step of the transsulfuration cascade, resulting in upstream accretion of homocysteine (Hcy) in body fluids. A similar Hcy increase may arise from normal hepatocytes undergoing experimentally-induced impairment of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHTM) activity or from components of lean body mass (LBM) submitted to any inflammatory disorder. LBM comprises a composite agglomeration of extrarenal tissues characterized by naturally occurring BHTM inactivity. As a result of cellular injury, LBM releases high concentrations of Hcy into the extracellular space, contrasting with the disruption of normal remethylation pathways. Hyperhomocysteinemia acts as a biomarker, reflecting the severity of insult and operating as an alarm signal. Elevated Hcy levels constitute a precursor pool recognized by a CBS coding region that reacts to meet increased methionine requirements in LBM tissues, using its enhanced production in hepatocytes. Preservation of methionine homeostasis benefits from its high metabolic priority and survival value.

  17. Metformin inhibits Branched Chain Amino Acid (BCAA) derived ketoacidosis and promotes metabolic homeostasis in MSUD.

    PubMed

    S Sonnet, Davis; N O'Leary, Monique; A Gutierrez, Mark; M Nguyen, Steven; Mateen, Samiha; Hsu, Yuehmei; P Mitchell, Kylie; J Lopez, Antonio; Vockley, Jerry; K Kennedy, Brian; Ramanathan, Arvind

    2016-07-04

    Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder caused by the dysfunction in the branched chain keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) enzyme. This leads to buildup of branched-chain keto-acids (BCKA) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in body fluids (e.g. keto-isocaproic acid from the BCAA leucine), leading to numerous clinical features including a less understood skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients. KIC is an inhibitor of mitochondrial function at disease relevant concentrations. A murine model of intermediate MSUD (iMSUD) shows significant skeletal muscle dysfunction as by judged decreased muscle fiber diameter. MSUD is an orphan disease with a need for novel drug interventions. Here using a 96-well plate (liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based drug-screening platform we show that Metformin, a widely used anti-diabetic drug, reduces levels of KIC in patient-derived fibroblasts by 20-50%. This Metformin-mediated effect was conserved in vivo; Metformin-treatment significantly reduced levels of KIC in the muscle (by 69%) and serum (by 56%) isolated from iMSUD mice, and restored levels of mitochondrial metabolites (e.g. AMP and other TCA). The drug also decreased the expression of mitochondrial branched chain amino transferase (BCAT) which produces KIC in skeletal muscle. This suggests that Metformin can restore skeletal muscle homeostasis in MSUD by decreasing mitochondrial KIC production.

  18. Peripheral Interventions Enhancing Brain Glutamate Homeostasis Relieve Amyloid β- and TNFα- Mediated Synaptic Plasticity Disruption in the Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dainan; Mably, Alexandra J; Walsh, Dominic M; Rowan, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Dysregulation of glutamate homeostasis in the interstitial fluid of the brain is strongly implicated in causing synaptic dysfunction in many neurological and psychiatric illnesses. In the case of Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid β (Aβ)-mediated disruption of synaptic plasticity and memory can be alleviated by interventions that directly remove glutamate or block certain glutamate receptors. An alternative strategy is to facilitate the removal of excess glutamate from the nervous system by activating peripheral glutamate clearance systems. One such blood-based system, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), is activated by oxaloacetate, which acts as a co-substrate. We report here that synthetic and AD brain-derived Aβ-mediated inhibition of synaptic long-term potentiation in the hippocampus is alleviated by oxaloacetate. Moreover the effect of oxaloacetate was GOT-dependent. The disruptive effects of a general inhibitor of excitatory amino acid transport or TNFα, a pro-inflammatory mediator of Aβ action, were also reversed by oxaloacetate. Furthermore, another intervention that increases peripheral glutamate clearance, peritoneal dialysis, mimicked the beneficial effect of oxaloacetate. These findings lend support to the promotion of the peripheral clearance of glutamate as a means to alleviate synaptic dysfunction that is caused by impaired glutamate homeostasis in the brain. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Modulation and transmission of sweet taste information for energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Sanematsu, Keisuke; Horio, Nao; Murata, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2009-07-01

    Perception of sweet taste is important for animals to detect external energy source of calories. In mice, sweet-sensitive cells possess a leptin receptor. Increase of plasma leptin with increasing internal energy storage in the adipose tissue suppresses sweet taste responses via this receptor. Data from our recent studies indicate that leptin may also modulate sweet taste sensation in humans with a diurnal variation in sweet sensitivity. This leptin modulation of sweet taste information to the brain may influence individuals' preference and ingestive behavior, thereby playing important roles in regulation of energy homeostasis.

  20. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Homeostasis in Reproductive Physiology and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Guzel, Elif; Arlier, Sefa; Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Tabak, Mehmet Selcuk; Ekiz, Tugba; Semerci, Nihan; Larsen, Kellie; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles Joseph; Kayisli, Umit Ali

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), comprises 60% of the total cell membrane and interacts directly or indirectly with several cell organelles i.e., Golgi bodies, mitochondria and proteasomes. The ER is usually associated with large numbers of attached ribosomes. During evolution, ER developed as the specific cellular site of synthesis, folding, modification and trafficking of secretory and cell-surface proteins. The ER is also the major intracellular calcium storage compartment that maintains cellular calcium homeostasis. During the production of functionally effective proteins, several ER-specific molecular steps sense quantity and quality of synthesized proteins as well as proper folding into their native structures. During this process, excess accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the ER lumen results in ER stress, the homeostatic coping mechanism that activates an ER-specific adaptation program, (the unfolded protein response; UPR) to increase ER-associated degradation of structurally and/or functionally defective proteins, thus sustaining ER homeostasis. Impaired ER homeostasis results in aberrant cellular responses, contributing to the pathogenesis of various diseases. Both female and male reproductive tissues undergo highly dynamic cellular, molecular and genetic changes such as oogenesis and spermatogenesis starting in prenatal life, mainly controlled by sex-steroids but also cytokines and growth factors throughout reproductive life. These reproductive changes require ER to provide extensive protein synthesis, folding, maturation and then their trafficking to appropriate cellular location as well as destroying unfolded/misfolded proteins via activating ER-associated degradation mediated proteasomes. Many studies have now shown roles for ER stress/UPR signaling cascades in the endometrial menstrual cycle, ovarian folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation, spermatogenesis, fertilization, pre-implantation embryo development and pregnancy and parturition

  1. Gut-Brain Glucose Signaling in Energy Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Soty, Maud; Gautier-Stein, Amandine; Rajas, Fabienne; Mithieux, Gilles

    2017-06-06

    Intestinal gluconeogenesis is a recently identified function influencing energy homeostasis. Intestinal gluconeogenesis induced by specific nutrients releases glucose, which is sensed by the nervous system surrounding the portal vein. This initiates a signal positively influencing parameters involved in glucose control and energy management controlled by the brain. This knowledge has extended our vision of the gut-brain axis, classically ascribed to gastrointestinal hormones. Our work raises several questions relating to the conditions under which intestinal gluconeogenesis proceeds and may provide its metabolic benefits. It also leads to questions on the advantage conferred by its conservation through a process of natural selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Osteopontin: Relation between Adipose Tissue and Bone Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    De Fusco, Carolina; Messina, Antonietta; Monda, Vincenzo; Viggiano, Emanuela; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Valenzano, Anna; Esposito, Teresa; Sergio, Chieffi; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein mainly associated with bone metabolism and remodeling. Besides its physiological functions, OPN is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disease states, such as obesity and osteoporosis. Importantly, during the last decades obesity and osteoporosis have become among the main threats to health worldwide. Because OPN is a protein principally expressed in cells with multifaceted effects on bone morphogenesis and remodeling and because it seems to be one of the most overexpressed genes in the adipose tissue of the obese contributing to osteoporosis, this mini review will highlight recent insights about relation between adipose tissue and bone homeostasis.

  3. Lipidomics in research on yeast membrane lipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    de Kroon, Anton I P M

    2017-08-01

    Mass spectrometry is increasingly used in research on membrane lipid homeostasis, both in analyses of the steady state lipidome at the level of molecular lipid species, and in pulse-chase approaches employing stable isotope-labeled lipid precursors addressing the dynamics of lipid metabolism. Here my experience with, and view on mass spectrometry-based lipid analysis is presented, with emphasis on aspects of quantification of membrane lipid composition of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: BBALIP_Lipidomics Opinion Articles edited by Sepp Kohlwein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cholesterol homeostasis: How do cells sense sterol excess?

    PubMed

    Howe, Vicky; Sharpe, Laura J; Alexopoulos, Stephanie J; Kunze, Sarah V; Chua, Ngee Kiat; Li, Dianfan; Brown, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Cholesterol is vital in mammals, but toxic in excess. Consequently, elaborate molecular mechanisms have evolved to maintain this sterol within narrow limits. How cells sense excess cholesterol is an intriguing area of research. Cells sense cholesterol, and other related sterols such as oxysterols or cholesterol synthesis intermediates, and respond to changing levels through several elegant mechanisms of feedback regulation. Cholesterol sensing involves both direct binding of sterols to the homeostatic machinery located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and indirect effects elicited by sterol-dependent alteration of the physical properties of membranes. Here, we examine the mechanisms employed by cells to maintain cholesterol homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Wilms' tumour 1 (WT1) in development, homeostasis and disease.

    PubMed

    Hastie, Nicholas D

    2017-08-15

    The study of genes mutated in human disease often leads to new insights into biology as well as disease mechanisms. One such gene is Wilms' tumour 1 ( WT1 ), which plays multiple roles in development, tissue homeostasis and disease. In this Primer, I summarise how this multifaceted gene functions in various mammalian tissues and organs, including the kidney, gonads, heart and nervous system. This is followed by a discussion of our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which WT1 and its two major isoforms regulate these processes at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Lysosome-related organelles as mediators of metal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Blaby-Haas, Crysten E; Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2014-10-10

    Metal ion assimilation is essential for all forms of life. However, organisms must properly control the availability of these nutrients within the cell to avoid inactivating proteins by mismetallation. To safeguard against an imbalance between supply and demand in eukaryotes, intracellular compartments contain metal transporters that load and unload metals. Although the vacuoles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana are well established locales for the storage of copper, zinc, iron, and manganese, related compartments are emerging as important mediators of metal homeostasis. Here we describe these compartments and review their metal transporter complement. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Homeostasis in Reproductive Physiology and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Guzel, Elif; Arlier, Sefa; Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Tabak, Mehmet Selcuk; Ekiz, Tugba; Semerci, Nihan; Larsen, Kellie; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles Joseph; Kayisli, Umit Ali

    2017-04-08

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), comprises 60% of the total cell membrane and interacts directly or indirectly with several cell organelles i.e., Golgi bodies, mitochondria and proteasomes. The ER is usually associated with large numbers of attached ribosomes. During evolution, ER developed as the specific cellular site of synthesis, folding, modification and trafficking of secretory and cell-surface proteins. The ER is also the major intracellular calcium storage compartment that maintains cellular calcium homeostasis. During the production of functionally effective proteins, several ER-specific molecular steps sense quantity and quality of synthesized proteins as well as proper folding into their native structures. During this process, excess accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the ER lumen results in ER stress, the homeostatic coping mechanism that activates an ER-specific adaptation program, (the unfolded protein response; UPR) to increase ER-associated degradation of structurally and/or functionally defective proteins, thus sustaining ER homeostasis. Impaired ER homeostasis results in aberrant cellular responses, contributing to the pathogenesis of various diseases. Both female and male reproductive tissues undergo highly dynamic cellular, molecular and genetic changes such as oogenesis and spermatogenesis starting in prenatal life, mainly controlled by sex-steroids but also cytokines and growth factors throughout reproductive life. These reproductive changes require ER to provide extensive protein synthesis, folding, maturation and then their trafficking to appropriate cellular location as well as destroying unfolded/misfolded proteins via activating ER-associated degradation mediated proteasomes. Many studies have now shown roles for ER stress/UPR signaling cascades in the endometrial menstrual cycle, ovarian folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation, spermatogenesis, fertilization, pre-implantation embryo development and pregnancy and parturition

  8. Hippo Pathway in Organ Size Control, Tissue Homeostasis, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fa-Xing; Zhao, Bin; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Two decades of studies in multiple model organisms have established the Hippo pathway as a key regulator of organ size and tissue homeostasis. By inhibiting YAP and TAZ transcription co-activators, the Hippo pathway regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stemness in response to a wide range of extracellular and intracellular signals, including cell-cell contact, cell polarity, mechanical cues, ligands of G-protein coupled receptors, and cellular energy status. Dysregulation of the Hippo pathway exerts a significant impact on cancer development. Further investigation of the functions and regulatory mechanisms of this pathway will help uncovering the mystery of organ size control and identify new targets for cancer treatment. PMID:26544935

  9. Mitochondrial pyruvate import and its effects on homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Vanderperre, Benoît; Bender, Tom; Kunji, Edmund R S; Martinou, Jean-Claude

    2015-04-01

    Pyruvate metabolism plays a pivotal role in cell homeostasis and energy production. Pyruvate, the end product of glycolysis, is either catabolized in the cytosol, or enters into mitochondria to promote oxidative phosphorylation. The import of pyruvate into mitochondria requires a specific carrier in the inner mitochondrial membrane, the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC), whose identity was only recently discovered. Here we report our current knowledge of the structure and function of the MPC and we describe how dysfunction of the MPC could participate in various pathologies, including type 2 diabetes and cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The applied biochemistry of PEDF and implications for tissue homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    BROADHEAD, MATTHEW L.; BECERRA, S. PATRICIA; CHOONG, PETER F. M.; DASS, CRISPIN R.

    2012-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an endogenously produced glycoprotein with a spectrum of biological roles across diverse pathologies. Recent research has focused on the biochemical properties of PEDF and its associated receptors. This review discusses the recent developments in PEDF biochemistry and how this new knowledge will help progress our understanding of PEDF as a molecular mediator for anti-angiogenesis and -tumorigenesis. Additionally, pathophysiological roles for PEDF in healing and tissue homeostasis are being revealed and our enhanced understanding of the interactions between PEDF and its receptors may yet prove useful in propelling PEDF towards clinical application. PMID:20166889

  11. Organelle communication: signaling crossroads between homeostasis and disease.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Torrealba, Natalia; Paredes, Felipe; Morales, Pablo E; Pennanen, Christian; López-Crisosto, Camila; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Criollo, Alfredo; Chiong, Mario; Hill, Joseph A; Simmen, Thomas; Quest, Andrew F; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    Cellular organelles do not function as isolated or static units, but rather form dynamic contacts between one another that can be modulated according to cellular needs. The physical interfaces between organelles are important for Ca2+ and lipid homeostasis, and serve as platforms for the control of many essential functions including metabolism, signaling, organelle integrity and execution of the apoptotic program. Emerging evidence also highlights the importance of organelle communication in disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, cancer, skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction. Here, we provide an overview of the current literature on organelle communication and the link to human pathologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  13. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  14. Neuroimaging evidence of brain abnormalities in mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Boddaert, N; Salvador, A; Chandesris, M O; Lemaître, H; Grévent, D; Gauthier, C; Naggara, O; Georgin-Lavialle, S; Moura, D S; Munsch, F; Jaafari, N; Zilbovicius, M; Lortholary, O; Gaillard, R; Hermine, O

    2017-08-08

    Mastocytosis is a rare disease in which chronic symptoms are related to mast cell accumulation and activation. Patients can display depression-anxiety-like symptoms and cognitive impairment. The pathophysiology of these symptoms may be associated with tissular mast cell infiltration, mast cell mediator release or both. The objective of this study is to perform morphological or functional brain analyses in mastocytosis to identify brain changes associated with this mast cell disorder. We performed a prospective and monocentric comparative study to evaluate the link between subjective psycho-cognitive complaints, psychiatric evaluation and objective medical data using magnetic resonance imaging with morphological and perfusion sequences (arterial spin-labeled perfusion) in 39 patients with mastocytosis compared with 33 healthy controls. In the test cohort of 39 mastocytosis patients with psycho-cognitive complaints, we found that 49% of them had morphological brain abnormalities, mainly abnormal punctuated white matter abnormalities (WMA). WMA were equally frequent in cutaneous mastocytosis patients and indolent forms of systemic mastocytosis patients (42% and 41% of patients with WMA, respectively). Patients with WMA showed increased perfusion in the putamen compared with patients without WMA and with healthy controls. Putamen perfusion was also negatively correlated with depression subscores. This study demonstrates, for we believe the first time, a high prevalence of morphological and functional abnormalities in the brains of mastocytosis patients with neuropsychiatric complaints. Further studies are required to determine the mechanism underpinning this association and to ascertain its specificity.

  15. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  16. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison ofmore » emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.« less

  17. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  18. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  19. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  20. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders.

    PubMed

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; De Jesus, Danilo R; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders.

  1. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  2. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-05-06

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted.

  3. Eye movement abnormalities in essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    Plinta, Klaudia; Krzak-Kubica, Agnieszka; Zajdel, Katarzyna; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Dylak, Jacek; Ober, Jan; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Rudzińska, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent movement disorder, characterized mainly by an action tremor of the arms. Only a few studies published as yet have assessed oculomotor abnormalities in ET and their results are unequivocal. The aim of this study was to assess the oculomotor abnormalities in ET patients compared with the control group and to find the relationship between oculomotor abnormalities and clinical features of ET patients. We studied 50 ET patients and 42 matched by age and gender healthy controls. Saccadometer Advanced (Ober Consulting, Poland) was used to investigate reflexive, pace-induced and cued saccades and conventional electrooculography for evaluation of smooth pursuit and fixation. The severity of the tremor was assessed by the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor. Significant differences between ET patients and controls were found for the incidence of reflexive saccades dysmetria and deficit of smooth pursuit. Reflexive saccades dysmetria was more frequent in patients in the second and third phase of ET compared to the first phase. The reflexive saccades latency increase was correlated with severity of the tremor. In conclusion, oculomotor abnormalities were significantly more common in ET patients than in healthy subjects. The most common oculomotor disturbances in ET were reflexive saccades dysmetria and slowing of smooth pursuit. The frequency of reflexive saccades dysmetria increased with progression of ET. The reflexive saccades latency increase was related to the severity of tremor. PMID:28149393

  4. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal…

  5. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  6. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  7. Examination of body fluids.

    PubMed

    Feldman, B F; Ruehl, W W

    1984-04-01

    In dogs, the pericardial sac contains about 0.3 ml, and the pleural and peritoneal cavities 0-15 ml of clear, straw-colored fluid of pH 7.4, specific gravity 1.016, protein content less than 3.0 g/dl and cell count less than 3000/microliter. Fat can be cleared from chylous fluid with NaOH and ether. Inflammation is indicated by a cell count greater than 3000/microliter. Amylase levels in peritoneal fluid are elevated in necrotizing pancreatitis. The percentage of polymorphonuclear WBC exceeds 50% in bacterial inflammations. Normal joints contain less than 1 ml highly viscid, clear or straw-colored synovial fluid with less than 1000 nucleated cells/microliter. Synovial fluid becomes flocculent and less viscid in septic and occasionally in immune-mediated arthritis, often with cell counts greater than 75,000/microliter, with 75-90% polymorphonuclear WBC. Cerebrospinal fluid is normally acellular, clear and colorless but may be red, yellow or brown with intracranial hematomas. Viral or aseptic meningitis is characterized by mononuclear cell counts of less than 500/microliter. In acute bacterial meningitis, nucleated cell counts are greater than 1000/microliter, with most being polymorphonuclear WBC. Gram staining of cerebrospinal fluid is not useful.

  8. Absorption fluids data survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macriss, R. A.; Zawacki, T. S.

    Development of improved data for the thermodynamic, transport and physical properties of absorption fluids were studied. A specific objective of this phase of the study is to compile, catalog and coarse screen the available US data of known absorption fluid systems and publish it as a first edition document to be distributed to manufacturers, researchers and others active in absorption heat pump activities. The methodology and findings of the compilation, cataloguing and coarse screening of the available US data on absorption fluid properties and presents current status and future work on this project are summarized. Both in house file and literature searches were undertaken to obtain available US publications with pertinent physical, thermodynamic and transport properties data for absorption fluids. Cross checks of literature searches were also made, using available published bibliographies and literature review articles, to eliminate secondary sources for the data and include only original sources and manuscripts. The properties of these fluids relate to the liquid and/or vapor state, as encountered in normal operation of absorption equipment employing such fluids, and to the crystallization boundary of the liquid phase, where applicable. The actual data were systematically classified according to the type of fluid and property, as well as temperature, pressure and concentration ranges over which data were available. Data were sought for 14 different properties: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Crystallization Temperature, Corrosion Characteristics, Heat of Mixing, Liquid-Phase-Densities, Vapor-Liquid-Phase Enthalpies, Specific Heat, Stability, Viscosity, Mass Transfer Rate, Heat Transfer Rate, Thermal Conductivity, Flammability, and Toxicity.

  9. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids andmore » slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.« less

  10. Micromachined Fluid Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiqiang; Zhu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive. Many studies and various designs have been reported in the past two decades. This review firstly introduces the working principles of fluid inertial sensors, followed by the relevant research developments. The micromachined thermal accelerometers based on thermal convection have developed maturely and become commercialized. However, the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, which are based on jet flow or thermal flow, are less mature. The key issues and technologies of the thermal accelerometers, mainly including bandwidth, temperature compensation, monolithic integration of tri-axis accelerometers and strategies for high production yields are also summarized and discussed. For the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, improving integration and sensitivity, reducing thermal errors and cross coupling errors are the issues of most concern. PMID:28216569

  11. Evolution of fluid therapy.

    PubMed

    Kampmeier, Tim; Rehberg, Sebastian; Ertmer, Christian

    2014-09-01

    The human organism consists of evolutionary conserved mechanisms to prevent death from hypovolaemia. Intravenous fluid therapy to support these mechanisms had first been published about 180 years ago. The present review depicts the evolution of fluid therapy from early, not well-defined solutions up to modern balanced fluids. Notably, evidence accumulates that the most commonly used fluid (i.e. 0.9% saline) has no advantage over balanced solutions, increases the risk of acute kidney injury and should therefore be abandoned. Notably, in published trials, the prognostically important 'golden hours' of shock, where fluid therapy may be essential, have not been adequately addressed. It is therefore unclear whether negative data on colloids in some trials reflect real harm or rather inadequate use. Future studies should focus on optimal protocols for initiation, dosing and discontinuation of fluid therapy in specific disease entities. Moreover, the practice of de-resuscitation after fluid-based haemodynamic stabilization should be further investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical Findings Documenting Cellular and Molecular Abnormalities of Glia in Depressive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Czéh, Boldizsár; Nagy, Szilvia A.

    2018-01-01

    Depressive disorders are complex, multifactorial mental disorders with unknown neurobiology. Numerous theories aim to explain the pathophysiology. According to the “gliocentric theory”, glial abnormalities are responsible for the development of the disease. The aim of this review article is to summarize the rapidly growing number of cellular and molecular evidences indicating disturbed glial functioning in depressive disorders. We focus here exclusively on the clinical studies and present the in vivo neuroimaging findings together with the postmortem molecular and histopathological data. Postmortem studies demonstrate glial cell loss while the in vivo imaging data reveal disturbed glial functioning and altered white matter microstructure. Molecular studies report on altered gene expression of glial specific genes. In sum, the clinical findings provide ample evidences on glial pathology and demonstrate that all major glial cell types are affected. However, we still lack convincing theories explaining how the glial abnormalities develop and how exactly contribute to the emotional and cognitive disturbances. Abnormal astrocytic functioning may lead to disturbed metabolism affecting ion homeostasis and glutamate clearance, which in turn, affect synaptic communication. Abnormal oligodendrocyte functioning may disrupt the connectivity of neuronal networks, while microglial activation indicates neuroinflammatory processes. These cellular changes may relate to each other or they may indicate different endophenotypes. A theory has been put forward that the stress-induced inflammation—mediated by microglial activation—triggers a cascade of events leading to damaged astrocytes and oligodendroglia and consequently to their dysfunctions. The clinical data support the “gliocentric” theory, but future research should clarify whether these glial changes are truly the cause or simply the consequences of this devastating disorder. PMID:29535607

  13. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  14. Theorethical principles of fluid managment according to physicochemical Stewart approach.

    PubMed

    Smuszkiewicz, Piotr; Szrama, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Interpreting acid base disturbances according to the physicochemical Stewart approach allows the cause of such abnormalities to be discovered. This method is based on three independent variables: SID (strong ion difference), mainly sodium and chloride; weak acids concentration - Atot, mainly albumins and phosphate; and carbon dioxide tension - pCO₂. These three independent variables are responsible for the change of water dissociation and for the change in H+ concentration and, consequently, the change in serum pH value. The SID value of the fluids administered to a patient is responsible for the change of serum SID value and therefore causes a change in the patient's acid base status. During the infusion of a given fluid, the SID value of the serum becomes closer to the SID value of that fluid; on the other hand, the infusion causes a decrease in Atot concentration. In order to avoid acid base disturbances connected with fluid administration, the SID value of fluids being administered should be greater than 0 and lower then the serum SID. It has been suggested that fluids should be given of which the SID value is as close as possible to the actual serum HCO₃ concentration. Knowing the SID value of the fluid administered, and the serum HCO₃ concentration, one can expect a change of serum pH after a fluid infusion. Administering a fluid with a SID greater than the HCO₃ concentration causes a pH increase towards alkalosis. Likewise, administering a a fluid with a SID lower than the HCO₃ concentration causes a pH decrease towards acidosis. It seems that knowledge of the electrolyte concentration and the SID value of an administered fluid is an important factor regarding acid base disturbances.

  15. Bulk viscosity of molecular fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Frederike; Matar, Omar K.; Müller, Erich A.

    2018-05-01

    The bulk viscosity of molecular models of gases and liquids is determined by molecular simulations as a combination of a dilute gas contribution, arising due to the relaxation of internal degrees of freedom, and a configurational contribution, due to the presence of intermolecular interactions. The dilute gas contribution is evaluated using experimental data for the relaxation times of vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom. The configurational part is calculated using Green-Kubo relations for the fluctuations of the pressure tensor obtained from equilibrium microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. As a benchmark, the Lennard-Jones fluid is studied. Both atomistic and coarse-grained force fields for water, CO2, and n-decane are considered and tested for their accuracy, and where possible, compared to experimental data. The dilute gas contribution to the bulk viscosity is seen to be significant only in the cases when intramolecular relaxation times are in the μs range, and for low vibrational wave numbers (<1000 cm-1); This explains the abnormally high values of bulk viscosity reported for CO2. In all other cases studied, the dilute gas contribution is negligible and the configurational contribution dominates the overall behavior. In particular, the configurational term is responsible for the enhancement of the bulk viscosity near the critical point.

  16. Syringomyelia and Craniocervical Junction Abnormalities in Chihuahuas.

    PubMed

    Kiviranta, A-M; Rusbridge, C; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O; Hielm-Björkman, A; Lappalainen, A K; Knowler, S P; Jokinen, T S

    2017-11-01

    Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) are widely reported in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Griffon Bruxellois dogs. Increasing evidence indicates that CM and SM also occur in other small and toy breed dogs, such as Chihuahuas. To describe the presence of SM and craniocervical junction (CCJ) abnormalities in Chihuahuas and to evaluate the possible association of CCJ abnormalities with SM. To describe CM/SM-related clinical signs and neurologic deficits and to investigate the association of CM/SM-related clinical signs with signalment, SM, or CCJ abnormalities. Fifty-three client-owned Chihuahuas. Prospective study. Questionnaire analyses and physical and neurologic examinations were obtained before magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging. Images were evaluated for the presence of SM, CM, and atlantooccipital overlapping. Additionally, medullary kinking, dorsal spinal cord compression, and their sum indices were calculated. Scratching was the most common CM/SM-related clinical sign and decreased postural reaction the most common neurologic deficit in 73 and 87% of dogs, respectively. Chiari-like malformation and SM were present in 100 and 38% of dogs, respectively. Syringomyelia was associated with the presence of CM/SM-related clinical signs (P = 0.034), and medullary kinking and sum indices were higher in dogs with clinical signs (P = 0.016 and P = 0.007, respectively). Syringomyelia and CCJ abnormalities are prevalent in Chihuahuas. Syringomyelia was an important factor for the presence of CM/SM-related clinical signs, but many dogs suffered from similar clinical signs without being affected by SM, highlighting the clinical importance of CCJ abnormalities in Chihuahuas. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Hemostatic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gogia, Aarti; Sikka, Meera; Sharma, Satender; Rusia, Usha

    2018-01-01

    Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a neoplastic plasma cell disorder characterized by clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Diverse hemostatic abnormalities have been reported in patients with myeloma which predispose to bleeding and also thrombosis. Methods: Complete blood count, biochemical parameters and parameters of hemostasis i.e. platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), factor VIII assay results, plasma fibrinogen, D-dimer and lupus anticoagulant, were assessed in 29 MM patients and 30 age matched controls. Results: The most frequent abnormal screening parameter was APTT. Of the six indicative of a bleeding tendency i.e. thrombocytopenia, prolonged PT, APTT, TT, reduced plasma fibrinogen and factor VIII, at least one was abnormal in 8 (27.6%) patients. Of the four prothrombotic markers, lupus anticoagulant, D-dimer, elevated factor VIII and plasma fibrinogen, one or more marker was present in 24 (82.7%). D-dimer was the most common prothrombotic marker, being elevated in 22 (75.9%) patients. One or more laboratory parameter of hemostasis was abnormal in all 29 (100%) patients. Though thrombotic complications are reported to be less frequent as compared to hemorrhagic manifestations, one or more marker of thrombosis was present in 24 (82.7%) patients. Conclusion: This study provided laboratory evidence of hemostatic dysfunction which may be associated with thrombotic or bleeding complications at diagnosis in all MM patients. Hence, screening for these abnormalities at the time of diagnosis should help improved prognosis in such cases. PMID:29373903

  18. [Electrocardiographic abnormalities in acute olanzapine poisonings].

    PubMed

    Ciszowski, Krzysztof; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic used for many years in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Poisonings with this medicine can results with cardiotoxic effects in the form of ECG abnormalities. To evaluate the nature and incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with acute olanzapine poisoning. 23 adult (mean age 38.4 +/- 15.5 years) patients with acute olanzapine poisoning, including 10 men (30.4 +/- 8.1 years) and 11 women (45.7 +/- 17.2 years), where 1 man and 1 woman were poisoned twice. The toxic serum level of olanzapine (above 100 ng/mL) was confirmed in each patient. Evaluation of electrocardiograms performed in patients in the first day of hospitalization with automatic measurement of durations of PQ, QRS and QTc and the identification of arrhythmias and conduction disorders on the basis of visual analysis of the ECG waveforms. Statistical analysis of the results using the methods of descriptive statistics. The mean durations of PQ, QRS and QTc in the study group were as follows: 135 +/- 23 ms, 91 +/- 12 ms, and 453 +/- 48 ms, respectively. The most common ECG abnormalities were prolonged QTc and supraventricular tachycardia (including sinus tachycardia) - each 22%; less common were ST-T changes (17%) and supraventricular premature complexes (9%), and only in individual cases (4%) ventricular premature complexes, bundle branch block, sinus bradycardia and atrial fibrillation were present. In the course of acute olanzapine poisonings: (1) prolonged QTc interval is quite common, but rarely leads to torsade de pointes tachycardia; (2) fast supraventricular rhythms are also common, but rarely cause irregular tachyarrhythmias, eg. atrial fibrillation; (3) conduction disorders (atrioventricular blocks, bundle branch blocks) are not typical abnormalities; (4) the observed ECG abnormalities emphasize the need of continuous ECG monitoring in these patients.

  19. Fundamentals of fluid sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of fluid sealing, including seal operating regimes, are discussed and the general fluid-flow equations for fluid sealing are developed. Seal performance parameters such as leakage and power loss are presented. Included in the discussion are the effects of geometry, surface deformations, rotation, and both laminar and turbulent flows. The concept of pressure balancing is presented, as are differences between liquid and gas sealing. Mechanisms of seal surface separation, fundamental friction and wear concepts applicable to seals, seal materials, and pressure-velocity (PV) criteria are discussed.

  20. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.