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Sample records for abnormal gait speed

  1. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

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  2. Gait abnormalities, ADHD, and environmental exposure to nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Fluegge, Keith

    2016-08-30

    Papadopoulos et al. (2014) investigated gait profiles of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type (ADHD-CT) compared to typical developing (TD) controls. The authors reported differences in the gait profile of ADHD-CT in the self-selected fast speed category. Additionally, others have proposed a maturational delay hypothesis in gait, demonstrating that gait variability decreases with age in ADHD children. It has been previously suggested that the cognitive impairment seen in conditions like ADHD may result from chronic, environmental exposure to the air pollutant, nitrous oxide (N2O). Exposure to N2O is thought to exert its antinociceptive properties by stimulating release of dynorphin peptides in the central nervous system which act upon kappa opioid receptors (KOR). Opioid-mediated gait abnormalities in ADHD are supported with evidence that prodynorphin mutations in mice lead to cytotoxic levels of dynorphin A (DYN A) and contribute to abnormal gait profiles and gradual loss of motor coordination. Interestingly, constitutive activity of the KOR receptor in rat brain has been recently shown to undergo maturational alterations, suggesting that while altered gait profiles in ADHD may be a function of the enhanced opioidergic activity attributable to chronic exposure to the environmental air pollutant, N2O, age-attenuated constitutive activity of KOR in brain may explain the normalization of these altered gait profiles in older ADHD subjects. PMID:27285951

  3. Challenging Gait Conditions Predict 1-Year Decline in Gait Speed in Older Adults With Apparently Normal Gait

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Subashan; VanSwearingen, Jessie M.; Hile, Elizabeth S.; Wert, David M.; Studenski, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mobility often is tested under a low challenge condition (ie, over a straight, uncluttered path), which often fails to identify early mobility difficulty. Tests of walking during challenging conditions may uncover mobility difficulty that is not identified with usual gait testing. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether gait during challenging conditions predicts decline in gait speed over 1 year in older people with apparently normal gait (ie, gait speed of ≥1.0 m/s). Design This was a prospective cohort study. Methods Seventy-one older adults (mean age=75.9 years) with a usual gait speed of ≥1.0 m/s participated. Gait was tested at baseline under 4 challenging conditions: (1) narrow walk (15 cm wide), (2) stepping over obstacles (15.24 cm [6 in] and 30.48 cm [12 in]), (3) simple walking while talking (WWT), and (4) complex WWT. Usual gait speed was recorded over a 4-m course at baseline and 1 year later. A 1-year change in gait speed was calculated, and participants were classified as declined (decreased ≥0.10 m/s, n=18), stable (changed <0.10 m/s, n=43), or improved (increased ≥0.10 m/s, n=10). Analysis of variance was used to compare challenging condition cost (usual − challenging condition gait speed difference) among the 3 groups. Results Participants who declined in the ensuing year had a greater narrow walk and obstacle walk cost than those who were stable or who improved in gait speed (narrow walk cost=0.43 versus 0.33 versus 0.22 m/s and obstacle walk cost=0.35 versus 0.26 versus 0.13 m/s). Simple and complex WWT cost did not differ among the groups. Limitations The participants who declined in gait speed over time walked the fastest, and those who improved walked the slowest at baseline; thus, the potential contribution of regression to the mean to the findings should not be overlooked. Conclusions In older adults with apparently normal gait, the assessment of gait during challenging conditions appears to uncover

  4. Kinematic Analysis Quantifies Gait Abnormalities Associated with Lameness in Broiler Chickens and Identifies Evolutionary Gait Differences

    PubMed Central

    Caplen, Gina; Hothersall, Becky; Murrell, Joanna C.; Nicol, Christine J.; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E.; Weeks, Claire A.; Colborne, G. Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat) chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10) would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12) and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult). Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy) and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers) presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity) presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated with

  5. Predictors of Gait Speed in Patients after Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Craik, Rebecca L.; Lopopolo, Rosalie; Tomlinson, James D.; Brenneman, Susan K.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Following hip fracture, patients demonstrate greatly reduced walking speeds 1 year later compared with age-matched elders. The purpose of our study was to examine the factors that relate to gait speed in patients after hip fracture. Methods: Forty-two men and women (mean age 79 ± 7.5 years) who sustained a hip fracture participated in this study. Linear regression analysis was used to determine a statistical model that best predicted gait speed, the dependent variable. Gait speed was measured with a computerized gait mat. The independent variables were age, sex, height, weight, time post-fracture, medications, mental status, depression, balance confidence, Medical Outcome Studies, Short Form (SF-36), balance, and lower extremity isometric force. All subjects were discharged from physical therapy services, and measurements were taken, on average, 17 weeks post-fracture. Results: Using stepwise regression, 72% of the variance in gait speed was explained by summed lower extremity strength normalized by body weight, general health (SF-36), and balance confidence (Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale). Conclusions: Impairments (summed lower extremity strength) and risk factors (perception of general health and balance confidence) are important predictors of gait speed in elders after hip fracture. PMID:20145738

  6. Robust Gait-Based Person Identification against Walking Speed Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aqmar, Muhammad Rasyid; Shinoda, Koichi; Furui, Sadaoki

    Variations in walking speed have a strong impact on gait-based person identification. We propose a method that is robust against walking-speed variations. It is based on a combination of cubic higher-order local auto-correlation (CHLAC), gait silhouette-based principal component analysis (GSP), and a statistical framework using hidden Markov models (HMMs). The CHLAC features capture the within-phase spatio-temporal characteristics of each individual, the GSP features retain more shape/phase information for better gait sequence alignment, and the HMMs classify the ID of each gait even when walking speed changes nonlinearly. We compared the performance of our method with other conventional methods using five different databases, SOTON, USF-NIST, CMU-MoBo, TokyoTech A and TokyoTech B. The proposed method was equal to or better than the others when the speed did not change greatly, and it was significantly better when the speed varied across and within a gait sequence.

  7. Effect of walking speed on gait sub phase durations.

    PubMed

    Hebenstreit, Felix; Leibold, Andreas; Krinner, Sebastian; Welsch, Götz; Lochmann, Matthias; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2015-10-01

    Gait phase durations are important spatiotemporal parameters in different contexts such as discrimination between healthy and pathological gait and monitoring of treatment outcomes after interventions. Although gait phases strongly depend on walking speed, the influence of different speeds has rarely been investigated in literature. In this work, we examined the durations of the stance sub phases and the swing phase for 12 different walking speeds ranging from 0.6 to 1.7 m/s in 21 healthy subjects using infrared cinematography and an instrumented treadmill. We separated the stance phase into loading response, mid stance, terminal stance and pre-swing phase and we performed regression modeling of all phase durations with speed to determine general trends. With an increasing speed of 0.1m/s, stance duration decreased while swing duration increased by 0.3%. All distinct stance sub phases changed significantly with speed. These findings suggest the importance of including all distinct gait sub phases in spatiotemporal analyses, especially when different walking speeds are involved. PMID:26256534

  8. Gait speed and related factors in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Paker, Nurdan; Bugdayci, Derya; Goksenoglu, Goksen; Demircioğlu, Demet Tekdöş; Kesiktas, Nur; Ince, Nurhan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gait speed and various factors in ambulatory patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. [Subjects] Fifty ambulatory patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease who were admitted to an outpatient clinic were included in this cross-sectional study. [Methods] The Hoehn and Yahr Scale was used for measurement of the disease severity. Gait speed was measured by the 10-Meter Walk Test. Mobility status was assessed by Timed Up and Go Test. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used for evaluation of emotional state. Cognitive status was examined with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The Downton Index was used for fall risk assessment. Balance was evaluated with the Berg Balance Scale. Comorbidity was measured with the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey was completed for measurement of quality of life. [Results] The mean age was 66.7 (47–83) years. Twenty-eight (56%) patients were men. Gait speed was correlated positively with height, male gender, Mini-Mental Examination score, Berg Balance Scale score and physical summary scores of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. On the other hand, there was a negative correlation between gait speed and age, disease severity, TUG time, Downton Index, fear of falling, previous falls and the anxiety and depression scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. There was no correlation between gait speed and comorbidity. [Conclusion] The factors related with the slower gait speed are, elder age, clinically advanced disease, poor mobility, fear of falling, falling history, higher falling risk, and mood disorder. PMID:26834330

  9. Hindlimb lameness and gait abnormalities in bitches with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Klainbart, S; Ranen, E; Glikman, G; Kelmer, E; Bdolah-Abram, T; Aroch, I

    2014-07-12

    The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of gait abnormalities and lameness (GAL) in bitches with pyometra, and their association with clinical and laboratory findings. The study included 79 bitches diagnosed with pyometra and 35 negative control intact bitches presented with other soft tissue surgical disorders. Dogs with a history of chronic lameness due to orthopaedic or neurological origin were excluded. A history of GAL was more frequent in the pyometra group (47 per cent) compared with the control group (20 per cent) (P=0.007). In the pyometra group, bitches presenting GAL had (P<0.04) higher frequencies of closed-cervix pyometra, anorexia and vomiting, as well as higher serum creatinine concentration and muscle enzymes activity, compared with those in without GAL. GAL signs resolved postovariohysterectomy in all but one bitch. The results suggest that GAL signs occur frequently in bitches with pyometra, especially in closed-cervix disease. Therefore, pyometra should be considered among the differential diagnoses when GAL occurs, especially when the clinical signs are non-specific and the reproductive history is unclear. PMID:24789856

  10. Critical Appraisal of Evidence for Improving Gait Speed in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research has not yet compared the treatment effects of dalfampridine with traditional rehabilitation of gait impairments in multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this review was to critically appraise the evidence for dalfampridine and gait training for increasing gait speed in people with MS. Methods: A systematic search of the research literature was conducted. Consideration was given to only randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. For selection of gait training studies, only studies involving task-specific gait training interventions and measuring treatment effects on gait speed were considered. Results: Treatment effects on gait speed were extracted from four studies examining the efficacy of dalfampridine and six gait training RCTs. Overall mean increase in gait speed with dalfampridine was 0.07 m/s (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04–0.09 m/s) compared to 0.06 m/s (95% CI, 0.02–0.10 m/s) for gait training. Among dalfampridine responders (38% of participants in RCTs), the mean increase in gait speed was 0.16 m/s (95% CI, 0.13–0.18 m/s). Mean increases for individual gait training interventions ranged from 0.01 to 0.39 m/s; however, CIs were wide due to small sample sizes. Conclusions: Current evidence is insufficient to conclude whether dalfampridine or gait training is superior for improving gait speed in people with MS. These findings should be viewed cautiously due to differences in study populations and small sample sizes in gait training studies. Both treatment approaches provide only short-lived improvements. Head-to-head comparison trials and studies combining both treatment modalities are needed. PMID:27252597

  11. Sex differences in whole body gait kinematics at preferred speeds.

    PubMed

    Bruening, Dustin A; Frimenko, Rebecca E; Goodyear, Chuck D; Bowden, David R; Fullenkamp, Adam M

    2015-02-01

    Studies on human perception have identified pelvis and torso motion as key discriminators between male and female gaits. However, while most observers would advocate that men and women walk differently, consistent findings and explanations of sex differences in gait kinematics across modern empirical studies are rare. In the present study we evaluated sex differences in whole body gait kinematics from a large sample of subjects (55 men, 36 women) walking at self selected speeds. We analyzed the data through comparisons of discrete metrics and whole curve analyses. Results showed that in the frontal plane, women walked with greater pelvic obliquity than men, but exhibited a more stable torso and head. Women had greater transverse plane pelvis and torso rotation as well as greater arm swing. Additional sex differences were noted at the hip and ankle. These kinematic results are in line with anectdotal observations and qualitative studies. In order to understand these observations and substantiate some of the explanations previously set forth in the biomechanics literature, we also explored possible reasons for dynamic sex effects, and suggested applications that may benefit from their consideration. PMID:25548119

  12. Proprioceptive gait and speed selection in a slender inertial swimmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argentina, Mederic; Gazzola, Mattia; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-11-01

    We study the dynamics of a slender inertial swimmer accounting for hydrodynamics, mechanics, muscle activity and sensory feedbacks. Our theory elucidates how elastic properties and proprioception contribute to selecting swimming speed and locomotion gait. Swimmers are shown to take advantage of resonance phenomena to enhance speed and efficiency. Furthermore, we demonstrate how a minimal proprioceptive model, in which the local muscle activation is function of body curvature, is sufficient to exploit hydro-mechanic properties and drive elastic instabilities associated with thrust production. Our results quantitatively agree with live fish experiments and provide a mechanistic basis for the relation U/L ~ f between the swimmer's speed U, length L and tail beat frequency f determined empirically by Bainbridge more than half a century ago.

  13. Gait and speed selection in slender inertial swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Gazzola, Mattia; Argentina, Médéric; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-01-01

    Inertial swimmers use flexural movements to push water and generate thrust. We quantify this dynamical process for a slender body in a fluid by accounting for passive elasticity and hydrodynamics and active muscular force generation and proprioception. Our coupled elastohydrodynamic model takes the form of a nonlinear eigenvalue problem for the swimming speed and locomotion gait. The solution of this problem shows that swimmers use quantized resonant interactions with the fluid environment to enhance speed and efficiency. Thus, a fish is like an optimized diode that converts a prescribed alternating transverse motion to forward motion. Our results also allow for a broad comparative view of swimming locomotion and provide a mechanistic basis for the empirical relation linking the swimmer’s speed U, length L, and tail beat frequency f, given by U/L∼f [Bainbridge R (1958) J Exp Biol 35:109–133]. Furthermore, we show that a simple form of proprioceptive sensory feedback, wherein local muscle activation is function of body curvature, suffices to drive elastic instabilities associated with thrust production and leads to a spontaneous swimming gait without the need for a central pattern generator. Taken together, our results provide a simple mechanistic view of swimming consistent with natural observations and suggest ways to engineer artificial swimmers for optimal performance. PMID:25770221

  14. Neurological Gait Abnormalities Moderate the Functional Brain Signature of the Posture First Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Holtzer, Roee; Verghese, Joe; Allali, Gilles; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Wang, Cuiling; Mahoney, Jeannette R

    2016-03-01

    The posture first hypothesis suggests that under dual-task walking conditions older adults prioritize gait over cognitive task performance. Functional neural confirmation of this hypothesis, however, is lacking. Herein, we determined the functional neural correlates of the posture first hypothesis and hypothesized that the presence of neurological gait abnormalities (NGA) would moderate associations between brain activations, gait and cognitive performance. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy we assessed changes in oxygenated hemoglobin levels in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) during normal walk and walk while talk (WWT) conditions in a large cohort of non-demented older adults (n = 236; age = 75.5 ± 6.49 years; female = 51.7 %). NGA were defined as central (due to brain diseases) or peripheral (neuropathic gait) following a standardized neurological examination protocol. Double dissociations between brain activations and behavior emerged as a function of NGA. Higher oxygenation levels during WWT were related to better cognitive performance (estimate = 0.145; p < 0.001) but slower gait velocity (estimate = -6.336, p < 0.05) among normals. In contrast, higher oxygenation levels during WWT among individuals with peripheral NGA were associated with worse cognitive performance (estimate = -0.355; p < 0.001) but faster gait velocity (estimate = 14.855; p < 0.05). Increased activation in the PFC during locomotion may have a compensatory function that is designed to support gait among individuals with peripheral NGA. PMID:26613725

  15. EEG Single-Trial Detection of Gait Speed Changes during Treadmill Walk

    PubMed Central

    Lisi, Giuseppe; Morimoto, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we analyse the electroencephalography (EEG) signal associated with gait speed changes (i.e. acceleration or deceleration). For data acquisition, healthy subjects were asked to perform volitional speed changes between 0, 1, and 2 Km/h, during treadmill walk. Simultaneously, the treadmill controller modified the speed of the belt according to the subject’s linear speed. A classifier is trained to distinguish between the EEG signal associated with constant speed gait and with gait speed changes, respectively. Results indicate that the classification performance is fair to good for the majority of the subjects, with accuracies always above chance level, in both batch and pseudo-online approaches. Feature visualisation and equivalent dipole localisation suggest that the information used by the classifier is associated with increased activity in parietal areas, where mu and beta rhythms are suppressed during gait speed changes. Specifically, the parietal cortex may be involved in motor planning and visuomotor transformations throughout the online gait adaptation, which is in agreement with previous research. The findings of this study may help to shed light on the cortical involvement in human gait control, and represent a step towards a BMI for applications in post-stroke gait rehabilitation. PMID:25932947

  16. Effects of walking speed on asymmetry and bilateral coordination of gait

    PubMed Central

    Plotnik, Meir; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Zeev, Aviva; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffery M.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating the bilateral coordination of gait in humans are largely unknown. Our objective was to study how bilateral coordination changes as a result of gait speed modifications during over ground walking. 15 young adults wore force sensitive insoles that measured vertical forces used to determine the timing of the gait cycle events under three walking conditions (i.e., usual-walking, fast and slow). Ground reaction force impact (GRFI) associated with heel-strikes was also quantified, representing the potential contribution of sensory feedback to the regulation of gait. Gait asymmetry (GA) was quantified based on the differences between right and left swing times and the bilateral coordination of gait was assessed using the phase coordination index (PCI), a metric that quantifies the consistency and accuracy of the anti-phase stepping pattern. GA was preserved in the three different gait speeds. PCI was higher (reduced coordination) in the slow gait condition, compared to usual-walking (3.51% vs. 2.47%, respectively, p=0.002), but was not significantly affected in the fast condition. GRFI values were lower in the slow walking as compared to usual-walking and higher in the fast walking condition (p<0.001). Stepwise regression revealed that slowed gait related changes in PCI were not associated with the slowed gait related changes in GRFI. The present findings suggest that left-right anti-phase stepping is similar in normal and fast walking, but altered during slowed walking. This behavior might reflect a relative increase in attention resources required to regulate a slow gait speed, consistent with the possibility that cortical function and supraspinal input influences the bilateral coordination of gait. PMID:23680424

  17. Independent Influence of Gait Speed and Step Length on Stability and Fall Risk

    PubMed Central

    Espy, D. D.; Yang, F.; Bhatt, T.; Pai, Y.-C.

    2010-01-01

    With aging, individuals' gaits become slower and their steps shorter; both are thought to improve stability against balance threats. Recent studies have shown that shorter step lengths, which bring the center of mass (COM) closer to the leading foot, improve stability against slip-related falls. However, a slower gait, hence lower COM velocity, does the opposite. Due to the inherent coupling of step length and speed in spontaneous gait, the extent to which the benefit of shorter steps can offset the slower speed is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate, through decoupling, the independent effects of gait speed and step length on gait stability and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Fifty-seven young adults walked at one of three target gait patterns, two of equal speed and two of equal step length; at a later trial, they encountered an unannounced slip. The results supported our hypotheses that faster gait as well as shorter steps each ameliorates fall risk when a slip is encountered. This appeared to be attributable to the maintenance of stability from slip initiation to liftoff of the recovery foot during the slip. Successful decoupling of gait speed from step length reveals for the first time that, although slow gait in itself leads to instability and falls (a one-standard-deviation decrease in gait speed increases the odds of fall by 4 fold), this effect is offset by the related decrease in step length (the same one-standard-deviation decrease in step length lowers fall risk by 6 times). PMID:20655750

  18. The association between intersegmental coordination in the lower limb and gait speed in elderly females.

    PubMed

    Ogaya, Shinya; Iwata, Akira; Higuchi, Yumi; Fuchioka, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Human multi-segmental motion is a complex task requiring motor coordination. Uncoordinated motor control may contribute to the decline in mobility; however, it is unknown whether the age-related decline in intersegmental coordination relates to the decline in gait performance. The aim of this study was to clarify the association between intersegmental coordination and gait speed in elderly females. Gait measurements were performed in 91 community-dwelling elderly females over 60 years old. Foot, shank, and thigh sagittal motions were assessed. Intersegmental coordination was analyzed using the mean value of the continuous relative phase (mCRP) during four phases of the gait cycle to investigate phase differences in foot-shank and shank-thigh motions during a normal gait. The results showed that foot-shank mCRP at late stance had negative correlations with gait speed (r=-0.53) and cadence (r=-0.54) and a positive correlation with age (r=0.25). In contrast, shank-thigh mCRP at late stance had positive correlations with gait speed (r=0.37) and cadence (r=0.56). Moreover, partial correlation, controlling age, height, and weight, revealed that foot-shank mCRP at late stance had negative correlations with gait speed (r=-0.52) and cadence (r=-0.54). Shank-thigh mCRP at late stance had a positive correlation with gait speed (r=0.28) and cadence (r=0.51). These findings imply that the foot-shank and shank-thigh coordination patterns at late stance relate to gait speed, and uncoordinated lower limb motion is believed to be associated with the age-related decline in cadence. PMID:27477700

  19. Does stroke location predict walk speed response to gait rehabilitation?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, P. Simon; Pomeroy, Valerie M.; Wang, Jasmine; Schlaug, Gottfried; Tulasi Marrapu, S.; Geva, Sharon; Rowe, Philip J.; Chandler, Elizabeth; Kerr, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Recovery of independent ambulation after stroke is a major goal. However, which rehabilitation regimen best benefits each individual is unknown and decisions are currently made on a subjective basis. Predictors of response to specific therapies would guide the type of therapy most appropriate for each patient. Although lesion topography is a strong predictor of upper limb response, walking involves more distributed functions. Earlier studies that assessed the cortico‐spinal tract (CST) were negative, suggesting other structures may be important. Experimental Design: The relationship between lesion topography and response of walking speed to standard rehabilitation was assessed in 50 adult‐onset patients using both volumetric measurement of CST lesion load and voxel‐based lesion–symptom mapping (VLSM) to assess non‐CST structures. Two functional mobility scales, the functional ambulation category (FAC) and the modified rivermead mobility index (MRMI) were also administered. Performance measures were obtained both at entry into the study (3–42 days post‐stroke) and at the end of a 6‐week course of therapy. Baseline score, age, time since stroke onset and white matter hyperintensities score were included as nuisance covariates in regression models. Principal Observations: CST damage independently predicted response to therapy for FAC and MRMI, but not for walk speed. However, using VLSM the latter was predicted by damage to the putamen, insula, external capsule and neighbouring white matter. Conclusions Walk speed response to rehabilitation was affected by damage involving the putamen and neighbouring structures but not the CST, while the latter had modest but significant impact on everyday functions of general mobility and gait. Hum Brain Mapp 37:689–703, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26621010

  20. RISK FACTORS FOR SLOW GAIT SPEED: A NESTED CASE-CONTROL SECONDARY ANALYSIS OF THE MEXICAN HEALTH AND AGING STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Zepeda, M.U.; González-Chavero, J.G.; Salinas-Martinez, R.; Gutiérrez-Robledo, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical performance tests play a major role in the geriatric assessment. In particular, gait speed has shown to be useful for predicting adverse outcomes. However, risk factors for slow gait speed (slowness) are not clearly described. Objectives To determine risk factors associated with slowness in Mexican older adults. Design A two-step process was adopted for exploring the antecedent risk factors of slow gait speed. First, the cut-off values for gait speed were determined in a representative sample of Mexican older adults. Then, antecedent risk factors of slow gait speed (defined using the identified cut-points) were explored in a nested, cohort case-control study. Setting, participants One representative sample of a cross-sectional survey for the first step and the Mexican Health and Aging Study (a cohort characterized by a 10-year follow-up). Measurements A 4-meter usual gait speed test was conducted. Lowest gender and height-stratified groups were considered as defining slow gait speed. Sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, psychological and health-care related variables were explored to find those associated with the subsequent development of slow gait speed. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were performed. Results In the final model, age, diabetes, hypertension, and history of fractures were associated with the development of slow gait speed. Conclusions Early identification of subjects at risk of developing slow gait speed may halt the path to disability due to the robust association of this physical performance test with functional decline. PMID:26889463

  1. Statin Use and Gait-Speed Decline in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lo-Ciganic, Wei-Hsuan; Perera, Subashan; Gray, Shelly L.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Zgibor, Janice C.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Donohue, Julie M.; Bunker, Clareann H.; Newman, Anne B.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Caserotti, Paolo; Harris, Tamara; Shorr, Ronald I.; Hanlon, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The association between statin use and physical function is uncertain. The objective of this study was to examine the association between statin use and objectively assessed gait-speed decline in community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. PARTICIPANTS Two thousand five participants aged 70–79 years at baseline, with medication and gait speed data at years 1998–1999, 1999–2000, 2001–2002 and 2002–2003. MEASUREMENTS The independent variables were any statin use, their standardized daily doses (low, moderate, high) and lipophilicity. The primary outcome measure was gait speed decline ≥ 0.1 m/s in the following year of statin use. Multivariable generalized estimating equations were used, adjusting for demographic, health-related behaviors, health status and access to health care factors. RESULTS Statin use increased from 16.2% in 1998–1999 to 25.6% in 2002–2003. The overall proportions of those with gait speed decline ≥ 0.1 m/s increased from 22.2 to 23.9% between 1998–2003. Compared to non-users, any statin use was not associated with gait speed decline ≥ 0.1 m/s (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.90, 95% CI [0.77, 1.06]). Similar non-significant trends were also seen with the use of hydrophilic or lipophilic statins. Only low-dose statin users were found to have a 22% lower risk of gait speed decline (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI [0.61, 0.99]), which was mainly driven by the results from 1999–2000 follow-up. CONCLUSION These results suggest no detrimental effects of statin use on gait speed decline in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:25537649

  2. Speed-Dependent Modulation of the Locomotor Behavior in Adult Mice Reveals Attractor and Transitional Gaits

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Maxime; Josset, Nicolas; Roussel, Marie; Couraud, Sébastien; Bretzner, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Locomotion results from an interplay between biomechanical constraints of the muscles attached to the skeleton and the neuronal circuits controlling and coordinating muscle activities. Quadrupeds exhibit a wide range of locomotor gaits. Given our advances in the genetic identification of spinal and supraspinal circuits important to locomotion in the mouse, it is now important to get a better understanding of the full repertoire of gaits in the freely walking mouse. To assess this range, young adult C57BL/6J mice were trained to walk and run on a treadmill at different locomotor speeds. Instead of using the classical paradigm defining gaits according to their footfall pattern, we combined the inter-limb coupling and the duty cycle of the stance phase, thus identifying several types of gaits: lateral walk, trot, out-of-phase walk, rotary gallop, transverse gallop, hop, half-bound, and full-bound. Out-of-phase walk, trot, and full-bound were robust and appeared to function as attractor gaits (i.e., a state to which the network flows and stabilizes) at low, intermediate, and high speeds respectively. In contrast, lateral walk, hop, transverse gallop, rotary gallop, and half-bound were more transient and therefore considered transitional gaits (i.e., a labile state of the network from which it flows to the attractor state). Surprisingly, lateral walk was less frequently observed. Using graph analysis, we demonstrated that transitions between gaits were predictable, not random. In summary, the wild-type mouse exhibits a wider repertoire of locomotor gaits than expected. Future locomotor studies should benefit from this paradigm in assessing transgenic mice or wild-type mice with neurotraumatic injury or neurodegenerative disease affecting gait. PMID:26941592

  3. New evidence for gait abnormalities among Parkinson's disease patients who suffer from freezing of gait: insights using a body-fixed sensor worn for 3 days.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Aner; Herman, Talia; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies conducted in laboratory settings suggest that the gait pattern in between freezing of gait (FOG) episodes is abnormal among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who suffer from FOG (i.e., "freezers"), compared to those who do not (i.e., "non-freezers"). We evaluated whether long-term recordings also reveal gait alterations in freezers and if these features were related to freezing severity and its impact on daily function. 72 patients with PD wore a 3-D accelerometer for 3 days. Acceleration-derived gait features included quantity (e.g., the amount of walking) and quality measures (e.g., gait variability). The New FOG-Questionnaire evaluated the subject's perceptions of FOG severity and its impact. Age, gender, and disease duration were similar (p > 0.19) in the 28 freezers and 44 non-freezers. Walking quantity was similar in the two groups, while freezers walked with higher gait variability (i.e., larger anterior-posterior power spectral density width; p = 0.003) and lower gait consistency (i.e., lower vertical stride regularity; p = 0.007). Group differences were observed when comparing the typical (i.e., median), best, and worst performance among the multiple walking bouts measured. Vertical and medio-lateral gait consistency were associated with the impact of FOG on daily living (r < -0.39, p < 0.044). The present findings demonstrate that freezers have altered gait variability and consistency during spontaneous community ambulation, even during optimal performance, and that these measures are associated with the impact of FOG on daily function. Long-term recordings may provide new insights into PD and augment the monitoring of FOG and its response to therapy. PMID:25069586

  4. Insect-computer hybrid legged robot with user-adjustable speed, step length and walking gait.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feng; Zhang, Chao; Choo, Hao Yu; Sato, Hirotaka

    2016-03-01

    We have constructed an insect-computer hybrid legged robot using a living beetle (Mecynorrhina torquata; Coleoptera). The protraction/retraction and levation/depression motions in both forelegs of the beetle were elicited by electrically stimulating eight corresponding leg muscles via eight pairs of implanted electrodes. To perform a defined walking gait (e.g., gallop), different muscles were individually stimulated in a predefined sequence using a microcontroller. Different walking gaits were performed by reordering the applied stimulation signals (i.e., applying different sequences). By varying the duration of the stimulation sequences, we successfully controlled the step frequency and hence the beetle's walking speed. To the best of our knowledge, this paper presents the first demonstration of living insect locomotion control with a user-adjustable walking gait, step length and walking speed. PMID:27030043

  5. Simultaneous estimation of effects of gender, age and walking speed on kinematic gait data.

    PubMed

    Røislien, Jo; Skare, Øivind; Gustavsen, Marit; Broch, Nana L; Rennie, Linda; Opheim, Arve

    2009-11-01

    Analysis of variations in normal gait has received considerable attention over the last years. However, most such analyses are carried out on one explanatory variable at a time, and adjustments for other possibly influencing factors are often done using ad hoc methods. As a result, it can be difficult to know whether observed effects are actually a result of the variable under study. We wanted to simultaneously statistically test the effect of gender, age and walking speed on gait in a normal population, while also properly adjusting for the possibly confounding effects of body height and weight. Since point-by-point analysis does not take into account the time dependency in the data, we turned to functional data analysis (FDA). In FDA the whole gait curve is represented not by a set of points, but by a mathematical function spanning the whole gait cycle. We performed several multiple functional regression analyses, and the results indicate that walking speed is the main factor influencing gait in the reference material at our motion analysis laboratory. This effect is also largely unaffected by the presence of other variables in the model. A gender effect was also apparent in several planes and joints, but this effect was often more outspoken in the multiple than in the univariate regression analyses, highlighting the importance of adjusting for confounders like body height and weight. PMID:19665379

  6. Effects of walking speed and age on the muscle forces of unimpaired gait subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliger, Carlos G.; Crespo, Marcos J.; Braidot, Ariel A.; Ravera, Emiliano P.

    2016-04-01

    Clinical gait analysis provides great contributions to the understanding of gait disorders and also provides a mean for a more comprehensive treatment plan. However, direct measures of muscle forces are difficult to obtain in clinical settings because it generally requires invasive techniques. Techniques of musculoskeletal modeling have been used for several decades to improve the benefits of clinical gait analysis, but many of the previous studies were focused on analyzing separately the muscle forces distribution of children or adult subjects with only one condition of walking speed. For these reason, the present study aims to enhance the current literature by describing the age and speed gait effects on muscle forces during walking. We used a musculoskeletal model with 23 degrees of freedom and 92 musculotendon actuators to represent 76 muscles in the lower extremities and torso. The computed muscle control algorithm was used to estimate the muscle forces from the kinematics and to adjust the model obtained in the residual reduction algorithm. We find that hamstrings has an important peak in the mid-stance phase in the adult group but this peak disappears in the children group with the same walking speed condition. Furthermore, the rectus femoris presents an increase in the muscle force during the pre- and mid-swing in concordance with the increment in the walking speed of subjects. This behavior could be associated with the role that the rectus femoris has in the acceleration of the knee joint. Finally, we show that the soleus is the muscle that perform the major force throughout the gait cycle regardless of age and walking speed.

  7. Slow gait speed – an indicator of lower cerebral vasoreactivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Jor’dan, Azizah J.; Manor, Brad; Novak, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Gait speed is an important predictor of health that is negatively affected by aging and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes has been linked to reduced vasoreactivity, i.e., the capacity to regulate cerebral blood flow in response to CO2 challenges. This study aimed to determine the relationship between cerebral vasoreactivity and gait speed in older adults with and without diabetes. Research design and methods: We studied 61 adults with diabetes (65 ± 8 years) and 67 without diabetes (67 ± 9 years) but with similar distribution of cardiovascular risk factors. Preferred gait speed was calculated from a 75 m walk. Global and regional perfusion, vasoreactivity and vasodilation reserve were measured using 3-D continuous arterial spin labeling MRI at 3 Tesla during normo-, hyper- and hypocapnia and normalized for end-tidal CO2. Results: Diabetic participants had slower gait speed as compared to non-diabetic participants (1.05 ± 0.15 m/s vs. 1.14 ± 0.14 m/s, p < 0.001). Lower global vasoreactivity (r2adj = 0.13, p = 0.007), or lower global vasodilation reserve (r2adj = 0.33, p < 0.001), was associated with slower walking in the diabetic group independently of age, BMI and hematocrit concentration. For every 1 mL/100 g/min/mmHg less vasodilation reserve, for example, gait speed was 0.05 m/s slower. Similar relationships between vasodilation reserve and gait speed were also observed regionally within the cerebellum, frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes (r2adj = 0.27–0.33, p < 0.0001). In contrast, vasoreactivity outcomes were not associated with walking speed in non-diabetic participants, despite similar vasoreactivity ranges across groups. Conclusion: In the diabetic group only, lower global vasoreactivity was associated with slower walking speed. Slower walking in older diabetic adults may thus hallmark reduced vasomotor reserve and thus the inability to increase perfusion in response to greater metabolic demands during walking. PMID:25018729

  8. A novel walking speed estimation scheme and its application to treadmill control for gait rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Virtual reality (VR) technology along with treadmill training (TT) can effectively provide goal-oriented practice and promote improved motor learning in patients with neurological disorders. Moreover, the VR + TT scheme may enhance cognitive engagement for more effective gait rehabilitation and greater transfer to over ground walking. For this purpose, we developed an individualized treadmill controller with a novel speed estimation scheme using swing foot velocity, which can enable user-driven treadmill walking (UDW) to more closely simulate over ground walking (OGW) during treadmill training. OGW involves a cyclic acceleration-deceleration profile of pelvic velocity that contrasts with typical treadmill-driven walking (TDW), which constrains a person to walk at a preset constant speed. In this study, we investigated the effects of the proposed speed adaptation controller by analyzing the gait kinematics of UDW and TDW, which were compared to those of OGW at three pre-determined velocities. Methods Ten healthy subjects were asked to walk in each mode (TDW, UDW, and OGW) at three pre-determined speeds (0.5 m/s, 1.0 m/s, and 1.5 m/s) with real time feedback provided through visual displays. Temporal-spatial gait data and 3D pelvic kinematics were analyzed and comparisons were made between UDW on a treadmill, TDW, and OGW. Results The observed step length, cadence, and walk ratio defined as the ratio of stride length to cadence were not significantly different between UDW and TDW. Additionally, the average magnitude of pelvic acceleration peak values along the anterior-posterior direction for each step and the associated standard deviations (variability) were not significantly different between the two modalities. The differences between OGW and UDW and TDW were mainly in swing time and cadence, as have been reported previously. Also, step lengths between OGW and TDW were different for 0.5 m/s and 1.5 m/s gait velocities, and walk ratio

  9. How effective is the early fast treadmill gait speed training for stroke patients at the 2nd week after admission: comparison with comfortable gait speed at the 6th week

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Shimpei; Tomida, Ken; Tanino, Genichi; Suzuki, Akira; Kawakami, Kenji; Kubota, Shinji; Yanohara, Ryuzo; Katoh, Youhei; Wada, Yosuke; Teranishi, Toshio; Orand, Abbas; Tomita, Yutaka; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to find whether a fast treadmill gait training speed is effective for the gait training of stroke patients in the early rehabilitation stage. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-nine stroke patients were the subjects of our investigation. They walked on a treadmill with handrail supports at a fast speed (130% of their comfortable gait speed in the 2nd week). The treadmill gaits of the patients were recorded using a 3-dimensional analysis system at two and six weeks after their admissions. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) of the temporal and spatial parameters of the two periods were statistically analyzed. [Results] For all of the patients, the ICCs of the measured parameters were greater than 0.58. In the case of patients whose gait speeds of the two periods were close, the ICC units were greater than 0.7. [Conclusion] The fast gait speed training allowed us to expose the patients to a gait speed that they were expected to acquire at a later stage of their rehabilitation. This training method was found to be beneficial for the mildly paralyzed patients. PMID:25995599

  10. Impact of drug-drug and drug-disease interactions on gait speed in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Naples, Jennifer G.; Marcum, Zachary A.; Perera, Subashan; Newman, Anne B.; Greenspan, Susan L.; Gray, Shelly L.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Shorr, Ronald I.; Hanlon, Joseph T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Gait speed decline, an early marker of functional impairment, is a sensitive predictor of adverse health outcomes in older adults. The effect of potentially inappropriate prescribing on gait speed decline is not well known. Objective To determine if potentially inappropriate drug interactions impair functional status as measured by gait speed. Methods The sample included 2,402 older adults with medication and gait speed data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. The independent variable was the frequency of drug-disease and/or drug-drug interactions at baseline and three additional years. The main outcome was a clinically meaningful gait speed decline ≥ 0.1 m/s the year following drug interaction assessment. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multivariate generalized estimating equations for both the overall sample and a sample stratified by gait speed at time of drug interaction assessment. Results The prevalence of drug-disease and drug-drug interactions ranged from 7.6–9.3% and 10.5–12.3%, respectively, with few participants (3.8–5.7%) having multiple drug interactions. At least 22% of participants had a gait speed decline of ≥ 0.1 m/s annually. Drug interactions were not significantly associated with gait speed decline overall or in the stratified sample of fast walkers. There was some evidence, however, that drug interactions increased the risk of gait speed decline among those participants with slower gait speeds, though p values did not reach statistical significance (adjusted odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence intervals 0.96–1.56, p=0.11). Moreover, a marginally significant dose-response relationship was seen with multiple drug interactions and gait speed decline (adjusted odds ratio 1.40; 95% confidence intervals 0.95–2.04, p=0.08). Conclusions Drug interactions may increase the likelihood of gait speed decline among older adults with evidence of preexisting debility. Future studies

  11. The Interrater Reliability of the Modified Gait Abnormality Rating Scale for Use with People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Leigh; McIlraith, Lucy; Miller, Clare; Stanley-Clarke, Terri; George, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Background: Researching falls in persons with ID is limited by difficulties in applying standardised balance outcome measures. The modified Gait Abnormality Rating Scale (GARS-M), developed to identify falls risk in older adults, requires only that the participant walks and thus may be a feasible falls research tool to use with people with ID. In…

  12. Gait speed using powered robotic exoskeletons after spinal cord injury: a systematic review and correlational study.

    PubMed

    Louie, Dennis R; Eng, Janice J; Lam, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Powered robotic exoskeletons are an emerging technology of wearable orthoses that can be used as an assistive device to enable non-ambulatory individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) to walk, or as a rehabilitation tool to improve walking ability in ambulatory individuals with SCI. No studies to date have systematically reviewed the literature on the efficacy of powered exoskeletons on restoring walking function. Our objective was to systematically review the literature to determine the gait speed attained by individuals with SCI when using a powered exoskeleton to walk, factors influencing this speed, and characteristics of studies involving a powered exoskeleton (e.g. inclusion criteria, screening, and training processes). A systematic search in computerized databases was conducted to identify articles that reported on walking outcomes when using a powered exoskeleton. Individual gait speed data from each study was extracted. Pearson correlations were performed between gait speed and 1) age, 2) years post-injury, 3) injury level, and 4) number of training sessions. Fifteen articles met inclusion criteria, 14 of which investigated the powered exoskeleton as an assistive device for non-ambulatory individuals and one which used it as a training intervention for ambulatory individuals with SCI. The mean gait speed attained by non-ambulatory participants (n = 84) while wearing a powered exoskeleton was 0.26 m/s, with the majority having a thoracic-level motor-complete injury. Twelve articles reported individual data for the non-ambulatory participants, from which a positive correlation was found between gait speed and 1) age (r = 0.27, 95 % CI 0.02-0.48, p = 0.03, 63 participants), 2) injury level (r = 0.27, 95 % CI 0.02-0.48, p = 0.03, 63 participants), and 3) training sessions (r = 0.41, 95 % CI 0.16-0.61, p = 0.002, 55 participants). In conclusion, powered exoskeletons can provide non-ambulatory individuals with thoracic-level motor

  13. Quantitative Gait Analysis Using a Motorized Treadmill System Sensitively Detects Motor Abnormalities in Mice Expressing ATPase Defective Spastin

    PubMed Central

    Connell, James W.; Allison, Rachel; Reid, Evan

    2016-01-01

    The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are genetic conditions in which there is progressive axonal degeneration in the corticospinal tract. Autosomal dominant mutations, including nonsense, frameshift and missense changes, in the gene encoding the microtubule severing ATPase spastin are the most common cause of HSP in North America and northern Europe. In this study we report quantitative gait analysis using a motorized treadmill system, carried out on mice knocked-in for a disease-associated mutation affecting a critical residue in the Walker A motif of the spastin ATPase domain. At 4 months and at one year of age homozygous mutant mice had a number of abnormal gait parameters, including in stride length and stride duration, compared to heterozygous and wild-type littermates. Gait parameters in heterozygous animals did not differ from wild-type littermates. We conclude that quantitative gait analysis using the DigiGait system sensitively detects motor abnormalities in a hereditary spastic paraplegia model, and would be a useful method for analyzing the effects of pharmacological treatments for HSP. PMID:27019090

  14. Frailty and cardiovascular disease: potential role of gait speed in surgical risk stratification in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Frailty is a state of late life decline and vulnerability, typified by physical weakness and decreased physiologic reserve. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of frailty share features with those of cardiovascular disease. Gait speed can be used as a measure of frailty and is a powerful predictor of mortality. Advancing age is a potent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has been associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Older adults comprise approximately half of cardiac surgery patients, and account for nearly 80% of the major complications and deaths following surgery. The ability of traditional risk models to predict mortality and major morbidity in older patients being considered for cardiac surgery may improve if frailty, as measured by gait speed, is included in their assessment. It is possible that in the future frailty assessment may assist in choosing among therapies (e.g., surgical vs. percutaneous aortic valve replacement for patients with aortic stenosis). PMID:25678904

  15. Restricted Arm Swing Affects Gait Stability and Increased Walking Speed Alters Trunk Movements in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Delabastita, Tijs; Desloovere, Kaat; Meyns, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Observational research suggests that in children with cerebral palsy, the altered arm swing is linked to instability during walking. Therefore, the current study investigates whether children with cerebral palsy use their arms more than typically developing children, to enhance gait stability. Evidence also suggests an influence of walking speed on gait stability. Moreover, previous research highlighted a link between walking speed and arm swing. Hence, the experiment aimed to explore differences between typically developing children and children with cerebral palsy taking into account the combined influence of restricting arm swing and increasing walking speed on gait stability. Spatiotemporal gait characteristics, trunk movement parameters and margins of stability were obtained using three dimensional gait analysis to assess gait stability of 26 children with cerebral palsy and 24 typically developing children. Four walking conditions were evaluated: (i) free arm swing and preferred walking speed; (ii) restricted arm swing and preferred walking speed; (iii) free arm swing and high walking speed; and (iv) restricted arm swing and high walking speed. Double support time and trunk acceleration variability increased more when arm swing was restricted in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children and children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Trunk sway velocity increased more when walking speed was increased in children with unilateral cerebral palsy compared to children with bilateral cerebral palsy and typically developing children and in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children. Trunk sway velocity increased more when both arm swing was restricted and walking speed was increased in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children. It is proposed that facilitating arm swing during gait rehabilitation can improve gait stability and decrease trunk movements in

  16. Gait Transitions in Human Infants: Coping with Extremes of Treadmill Speed.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Erin V; Patrick, Susan K; Yang, Jaynie F

    2016-01-01

    Spinal pattern generators in quadrupedal animals can coordinate different forms of locomotion, like trotting or galloping, by altering coordination between the limbs (interlimb coordination). In the human system, infants have been used to study the subcortical control of gait, since the cerebral cortex and corticospinal tract are immature early in life. Like other animals, human infants can modify interlimb coordination to jump or step. Do human infants possess functional neuronal circuitry necessary to modify coordination within a limb (intralimb coordination) in order to generate distinct forms of alternating bipedal gait, such as walking and running? We monitored twenty-eight infants (7-12 months) stepping on a treadmill at speeds ranging between 0.06-2.36 m/s, and seventeen adults (22-47 years) walking or running at speeds spanning the walk-to-run transition. Six of the adults were tested with body weight support to mimic the conditions of infant stepping. We found that infants could accommodate a wide range of speeds by altering stride length and frequency, similar to adults. Moreover, as the treadmill speed increased, we observed periods of flight during which neither foot was in ground contact in infants and in adults. However, while adults modified other aspects of intralimb coordination and the mechanics of progression to transition to a running gait, infants did not make comparable changes. The lack of evidence for distinct walking and running patterns in infants suggests that the expression of different functional, alternating gait patterns in humans may require neuromuscular maturation and a period of learning post-independent walking. PMID:26828941

  17. Gait Transitions in Human Infants: Coping with Extremes of Treadmill Speed

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Erin V.; Patrick, Susan K.; Yang, Jaynie F.

    2016-01-01

    Spinal pattern generators in quadrupedal animals can coordinate different forms of locomotion, like trotting or galloping, by altering coordination between the limbs (interlimb coordination). In the human system, infants have been used to study the subcortical control of gait, since the cerebral cortex and corticospinal tract are immature early in life. Like other animals, human infants can modify interlimb coordination to jump or step. Do human infants possess functional neuronal circuitry necessary to modify coordination within a limb (intralimb coordination) in order to generate distinct forms of alternating bipedal gait, such as walking and running? We monitored twenty-eight infants (7–12 months) stepping on a treadmill at speeds ranging between 0.06–2.36 m/s, and seventeen adults (22–47 years) walking or running at speeds spanning the walk-to-run transition. Six of the adults were tested with body weight support to mimic the conditions of infant stepping. We found that infants could accommodate a wide range of speeds by altering stride length and frequency, similar to adults. Moreover, as the treadmill speed increased, we observed periods of flight during which neither foot was in ground contact in infants and in adults. However, while adults modified other aspects of intralimb coordination and the mechanics of progression to transition to a running gait, infants did not make comparable changes. The lack of evidence for distinct walking and running patterns in infants suggests that the expression of different functional, alternating gait patterns in humans may require neuromuscular maturation and a period of learning post-independent walking. PMID:26828941

  18. Gait speed influences aftereffect size following locomotor adaptation, but only in certain environments.

    PubMed

    Hamzey, Rami J; Kirk, Eileen M; Vasudevan, Erin V L

    2016-06-01

    Movements learned in one set of conditions may not generalize to other conditions. For example, practicing walking on a split-belt treadmill subsequently changes coordination between the legs during normal ("tied-belt") treadmill walking; however, there is limited generalization of these aftereffects to natural walking over the ground. We hypothesized that generalization of split-belt treadmill adaptation to over-ground walking would be improved by maintaining consistency in other task variables, specifically gait speed. This hypothesis was based on our previous finding that treadmill aftereffect size was sensitive to gait speed: Aftereffects were largest when tested on tied-belts running at the same speed as the slower belt during split-belt adaptation. In the present study, healthy adults were assigned to a "slow" or "fast" over-ground walking group. Both groups adapted to split-belts (0.7:1.4 m/s), and treadmill aftereffects were tested on tied-belts at the slow (0.7 m/s) and fast (1.4 m/s) speeds. All participants were subsequently transferred to the over-ground environment. The slow and fast groups walked over-ground at 0.7 and 1.4 m/s, respectively. As in previous work, we found that the size of aftereffects during treadmill walking was speed-dependent, with larger aftereffects occurring at 0.7 m/s compared with 1.4 m/s. However, over-ground walking aftereffects were less sensitive to changes in gait speed. We also found that aftereffects in spatial coordination generalized more to over-ground walking than aftereffects in temporal coordination across all speeds of walking. This suggests that different factors influence aftereffect size in different walking environments and for different measures of coordination. PMID:26790424

  19. Use of Visual and Proprioceptive Feedback to Improve Gait Speed and Spatiotemporal Symmetry Following Chronic Stroke: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Feasel, Jeff; Wentz, Erin; Brooks, Frederick P.; Whitton, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Persistent deficits in gait speed and spatiotemporal symmetry are prevalent following stroke and can limit the achievement of community mobility goals. Rehabilitation can improve gait speed, but has shown limited ability to improve spatiotemporal symmetry. The incorporation of combined visual and proprioceptive feedback regarding spatiotemporal symmetry has the potential to be effective at improving gait. Case Description A 60-year-old man (18 months poststroke) and a 53-year-old woman (21 months poststroke) each participated in gait training to improve gait speed and spatiotemporal symmetry. Each patient performed 18 sessions (6 weeks) of combined treadmill-based gait training followed by overground practice. To assist with relearning spatiotemporal symmetry, treadmill-based training for both patients was augmented with continuous, real-time visual and proprioceptive feedback from an immersive virtual environment and a dual belt treadmill, respectively. Outcomes Both patients improved gait speed (patient 1: 0.35 m/s improvement; patient 2: 0.26 m/s improvement) and spatiotemporal symmetry. Patient 1, who trained with step-length symmetry feedback, improved his step-length symmetry ratio, but not his stance-time symmetry ratio. Patient 2, who trained with stance-time symmetry feedback, improved her stance-time symmetry ratio. She had no step-length asymmetry before training. Discussion Both patients made improvements in gait speed and spatiotemporal symmetry that exceeded those reported in the literature. Further work is needed to ascertain the role of combined visual and proprioceptive feedback for improving gait speed and spatiotemporal symmetry after chronic stroke. PMID:22228605

  20. Lack of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 in mice results in gait abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Suidan, Georgette L; Duerschmied, Daniel; Dillon, Gregory M; Vanderhorst, Veronique; Hampton, Thomas G; Wong, Siu Ling; Voorhees, Jaymie R; Wagner, Denisa D

    2013-01-01

    The role of peripheral serotonin in nervous system development is poorly understood. Tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) is expressed by non-neuronal cells including enterochromaffin cells of the gut, mast cells and the pineal gland and is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of peripheral serotonin. Serotonin released into circulation is taken up by platelets via the serotonin transporter and stored in dense granules. It has been previously reported that mouse embryos removed from Tph1-deficient mothers present abnormal nervous system morphology. The goal of this study was to assess whether Tph1-deficiency results in behavioral abnormalities. We did not find any differences between Tph1-deficient and wild-type mice in general motor behavior as tested by rotarod, grip-strength test, open field and beam walk. However, here we report that Tph1 (-/-) mice display altered gait dynamics and deficits in rearing behavior compared to wild-type (WT) suggesting that tryptophan hydroxylase-1 expression has an impact on the nervous system. PMID:23516593

  1. Human medial gastrocnemius force–velocity behavior shifts with locomotion speed and gait

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Dominic James; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2012-01-01

    Humans walk and run over a wide range of speeds with remarkable efficiency. For steady locomotion, moving at different speeds requires the muscle–tendon units of the leg to modulate the amount of mechanical power the limb absorbs and outputs in each step. How individual muscles adapt their behavior to modulate limb power output has been examined using computer simulation and animal models, but has not been studied in vivo in humans. In this study, we used a combination of ultrasound imaging and motion analysis to examine how medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle–tendon unit behavior is adjusted to meet the varying mechanical demands of different locomotor speeds during walking and running in humans. The results highlighted key differences in MG fascicle-shortening velocity with both locomotor speed and gait. Fascicle-shortening velocity at the time of peak muscle force production increased with walking speed, impairing the ability of the muscle to produce high peak forces. Switching to a running gait at 2.0 m⋅s−1 caused fascicle shortening at the time of peak force production to shift to much slower velocities. This velocity shift facilitated a large increase in peak muscle force and an increase in MG power output. MG fascicle velocity may be a key factor that limits the speeds humans choose to walk at, and may explain the transition from walking to running. This finding is consistent with previous modeling studies. PMID:22219360

  2. Compass gait mechanics account for top walking speeds in ducks and humans

    PubMed Central

    Usherwood, James R.; Szymanek, Katie L.; Daley, Monica A.

    2010-01-01

    The constraints to maximum walking speed and the underlying cause of the walk-run transition remains controversial. However, the motions of the body and legs can be reduced to a few mechanical principles, which, if valid, impose simple physics-based limits to walking speed. Bipedal walking may be viewed as a vaulting gait, with the centre of mass passing over a stiff stance leg (an ‘inverted pendulum’), while the swing leg swings forward (as a pendulum). At its simplest, this forms a ‘compass gait’ walker, which has a maximum walking speed constrained by simple mechanics: walk too fast, or with too high a step length, and gravity fails to keep the stance foot attached to the floor. But how useful is such an extremely reductionist model? Here, we report measurements on a range of duck breeds as example unspecialized, non-planar, crouch-limbed walkers, and contrast these findings with previous measurements on humans, using the theoretical framework of compass gait walking. Ducks walked as inverted pendulums with near-passive swing-legs up to relative velocities around 0.5, remarkably consistent with the theoretical model. In contrast, top walking speeds in humans cannot be achieved with passive swing legs: humans, while still constrained by compass gait mechanics, extend their envelope of walking speeds by using relatively high step frequencies. Therefore, the capacity to drive the swing leg forward by walking humans may be a specialization for walking, allowing near-passive vaulting of the centre of mass at walking speeds 4/3 that possible with a passive (duck-like) swing leg. PMID:19011215

  3. Gender-related differences in maximum gait speed and daily physical activity in elderly hospitalized cardiac inpatients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi; Hirano, Yasuyuki; Matsushima, Shinya; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Oka, Koichiro; Kida, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Osada, Naohiko; Omiya, Kazuto; Brubaker, Peter H; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Akashi, Yoshihiro J

    2015-03-01

    Maximum gait speed and physical activity (PA) relate to mortality and morbidity, but little is known about gender-related differences in these factors in elderly hospitalized cardiac inpatients. This study aimed to determine differences in maximum gait speed and daily measured PA based on sex and the relationship between these measures in elderly cardiac inpatients.A consecutive 268 elderly Japanese cardiac inpatients (mean age, 73.3 years) were enrolled and divided by sex into female (n = 75, 28%) and male (n = 193, 72%) groups. Patient characteristics and maximum gait speed, average step count, and PA energy expenditure (PAEE) in kilocalorie per day for 2 days assessed by accelerometer were compared between groups.Gait speed correlated positively with in-hospital PA measured by average daily step count (r = 0.46, P < 0.001) and average daily PAEE (r = 0.47, P < 0.001) in all patients. After adjustment for left ventricular ejection fraction, step counts and PAEE were significantly lower in females than males (2651.35 ± 1889.92 vs 4037.33 ± 1866.81 steps, P < 0.001; 52.74 ± 51.98 vs 99.33 ± 51.40 kcal, P < 0.001), respectively.Maximum gait speed was slower and PA lower in elderly female versus male inpatients. Minimum gait speed and step count values in this study might be minimum target values for elderly male and female Japanese cardiac inpatients. PMID:25789953

  4. The Effects of a Therapeutic Yoga Program on Postural Control, Mobility, and Gait Speed in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Dana; Hynds, Kimberly; Machado, Emily; Wolff, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To examine the effects of a 12-week therapeutic yoga program on gait speed, postural control, and mobility in community-dwelling older adults. Design: Quasi-experimental study with a pretest/post-test design. Researchers evaluated changes over time (pretest to post-test) in all outcome measures. Paired t-tests were used to analyze normal and fast gait speed, Timed Up and Go test, and Timed Up and Go Dual Task. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to evaluate scores for the Mini-BESTest (MBT). Setting: Yoga classes were performed at a local senior center. Blind examiners who were previously trained in the outcome measures performed all pretests and post-tests at the site. Participants: Thirteen adults (12 women and 1 man, with a mean age±standard deviation of 72±6.9 years) completed the study. Research participants had minimal to no yoga experience. Interventions: A 12-week, 60-minute, biweekly Kripalu yoga class designed specifically for community-dwelling older adults. Outcome measures: Postural control (MBT), mobility (Timed Up and Go test), and gait speed (normal and fast) were assessed. Results: All 13 participants attended at least 19 of the 24 classes (80% attendance). Statistically significant improvements were seen in the MBT (p=0.039), normal gait speed (p=0.015), fast gait speed (p=0.001), Timed Up and Go test (p=0.045), and Timed Up and Go Dual-Task (p=0.05). Conclusions: Improvements in postural control and mobility as measured by the MBT and Timed Up and Go gait as measured by fast gait speed indicate that research participants benefitted from the therapeutic yoga intervention. The yoga program designed for this study included activities in standing, sitting, and lying on the floor and may be effective in improving mobility, postural control, and gait speed in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:25148571

  5. The influence of cognitive load and walking speed on gait regularity in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Sabine; Jagenow, Danilo; Verrel, Julius; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    The dual-process account of sensorimotor-cognitive interactions postulates that easy cognitive tasks can lead to performance improvements in the motor domain (e.g., an increased stability while walking or balancing) across the lifespan. However, cross-domain resource competition can lead to performance decrements in motor tasks when the concurrent cognitive task is very difficult, and older adults have shown performance decrements in their motor functioning under such circumstances. Resource limitations are particularly pronounced not only in old adulthood, but also in childhood. The current study investigates the relationship of walking speed and cognitive load on walking regularity in 7- and 9-year olds and young adults, with 18 participants in each group. Participants were walking on a treadmill at their preferred speed, and with speeds that were 30% faster and 30% slower than preferred. Regularity of lower-body coordination was operationalized as the residual variance of principal component analyses performed on the data of a motion analysis system. All age groups showed a more regular gait with increasing walking speed. Young adults' gait regularity was not influenced by cognitive load, whereas children showed a U-shaped relationship of cognitive load and walking regularity, with the highest regularity when performing an easy cognitive task. It can be concluded that children are also influenced by cross-domain resources competition in challenging cognitive-motor dual-task situations. PMID:25455434

  6. Quantitative analysis of human ankle characteristics at different gait phases and speeds for utilizing in ankle-foot prosthetic design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ankle characteristics vary in terms of gait phase and speed change. This study aimed to quantify the components of ankle characteristics, including quasi-stiffness and work in different gait phases and at various speeds. Methods The kinetic and kinematic data of 20 healthy participants were collected during normal gait at four speeds. Stance moment-angle curves were divided into three sub-phases including controlled plantarflexion, controlled dorsiflexion and powered plantarflexion. The slope of the moment-angle curves was quantified as quasi-stiffness. The area under the curves was defined as work. Results The lowest quasi-stiffness was observed in the controlled plantarflexion. The fitted line to moment-angle curves showed R2 > 0.8 at controlled dorsiflexion and powered plantarflexion. Quasi-stiffness was significantly different at different speeds (P = 0.00). In the controlled dorsiflexion, the ankle absorbed energy; by comparison, energy was generated in the powered plantarflexion. A negative work value was recorded at slower speeds and a positive value was observed at faster speeds. Ankle peak powers were increased with walking speed (P = 0.00). Conclusions Our findings suggested that the quasi-stiffness and work of the ankle joint can be regulated at different phases and speeds. These findings may be clinically applicable in the design and development of ankle prosthetic devices that can naturally replicate human walking at various gait speeds. PMID:24568175

  7. Intersegmental coordination scales with gait speed similarly in men and women.

    PubMed

    Chow, John W; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2015-11-01

    We applied principal component analysis (PCA) to thigh, shank, and foot elevation angles to examine the impact of speed on intra-limb coordination during gait. The specific aims were to (1) determine speed-related changes in segment loadings on three principal components (PCs) and (2) examine differences between men and women. The subjects (26 women, 21 men) walked overground at five self-selected paces (very slow, slow, normal, fast, very fast). PCA yielded percent variation (PV) explained by each PC and thigh, shank, and foot loadings on PC1-PC3. These parameters were regressed against the speed normalized to body height (BH/s) to derive individual and aggregate slopes and P values, separately for men and women. PV1 increased with speed, whereas PV2 and PV3 decreased (all P < 0.001). The loadings of thigh and foot segments on PC1 increased with speed (0.14 and 0.04 per BH/s, P < 0.001, respectively), and the loading of shank decreased (-0.10, P < 0.001). Compared to PC1, the changes in segment loadings on PC3 were the opposite (thigh -0.18, shank 0.09, foot -0.04 per BH/s, P < 0.001). The changes in segment loadings on PC2 were inconsistent and generally small. The only significance (P = 0.006), albeit a minor difference between men and women, was in the slope of thigh loading on PC2 (-0.005 ± 0.019 and 0.015 ± 0.026 per BH/s, respectively). We conclude that intersegmental coordination during gait scales with speed, with the greatest impact on the thigh segment, but no differently between men and women. PMID:26195171

  8. Effect of walking speed on the gait of king penguins: An accelerometric approach.

    PubMed

    Willener, Astrid S T; Handrich, Yves; Halsey, Lewis G; Strike, Siobhán

    2015-12-21

    Little is known about non-human bipedal gaits. This is probably due to the fact that most large animals are quadrupedal and that non-human bipedal animals are mostly birds, whose primary form of locomotion is flight. Very little research has been conducted on penguin pedestrian locomotion with the focus instead on their associated high energy expenditure. In animals, tri-axial accelerometers are frequently used to estimate physiological energy cost, as well as to define the behaviour pattern of a species, or the kinematics of swimming. In this study, we showed how an accelerometer-based technique could be used to determine the biomechanical characteristics of pedestrian locomotion. Eight king penguins, which represent the only family of birds to have an upright bipedal gait, were trained to walk on a treadmill. The trunk tri-axial accelerations were recorded while the bird was walking at four different speeds (1.0, 1.2, 1.4 and 1.6km/h), enabling the amplitude of dynamic body acceleration along the three axes (amplitude of DBAx, DBAy and DBAz), stride frequency, waddling and leaning amplitude, as well as the leaning angle to be defined. The magnitude of the measured variables showed a significant increase with increasing speed, apart from the backwards angle of lean, which decreased with increasing speed. The variability of the measured variables also showed a significant increase with speed apart from the DBAz amplitude, the waddling amplitude, and the leaning angle, where no significant effect of the walking speed was found. This paper is the first approach to describe 3D biomechanics with an accelerometer on wild animals, demonstrating the potential of this technique. PMID:26427338

  9. The effect of flow speed and body size on Kármán gait kinematics in rainbow trout

    PubMed Central

    Akanyeti, Otar; Liao, James C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We have little understanding of how fish hold station in unsteady flows. Here, we investigated the effect of flow speed and body size on the kinematics of rainbow trout Kármán gaiting behind a 5 cm diameter cylinder. We established a set of criteria revealing that not all fish positioned in a vortex street are Kármán gaiting. By far the highest probability of Kármán gaiting occurred at intermediate flow speeds between 30 and 70 cm s−1. We show that trout Kármán gait in a region of the cylinder wake where the velocity deficit is about 40% of the nominal flow. We observed that the relationships between certain kinematic and flow variables are largely preserved across flow speeds. Tail-beat frequency matched the measured vortex shedding frequency, which increased linearly with flow speed. Body wave speed was about 25% faster than the nominal flow velocity. At speeds where fish have a high probability of Kármán gaiting, body wavelength was about 25% longer than the cylinder wake wavelength. Likewise, the lateral (i.e. cross-stream) amplitude of the tail tip was about 50% greater than the expected lateral spacing of the cylinder vortices, while the body center amplitude was about 70% less. Lateral body center acceleration increased quadratically with speed. Head angle decreased with flow speed. While these values are different from those found in fish swimming in uniform flow, the strategy for locomotion is the same; fish adjust to increasing flow by increasing their tail-beat frequency. Body size also played a role in Kármán gaiting kinematics. Tail-beat amplitudes of Kármán gaiting increased with body size, as in freestream swimming, but were almost three times larger in magnitude. Larger fish had a shorter body wavelength and slower body wave speed than smaller fish, which is a surprising result compared with freestream swimming, where body wavelength and wave speed increased with size. In contrast to freestream swimming, tail-beat frequency

  10. Does dance-based therapy increase gait speed in older adults with chronic lower extremity pain: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Krampe, Jean; Wagner, Joanne M; Hawthorne, Kelly; Sanazaro, Deborah; Wong-Anuchit, Choochart; Budhathoki, Chakra; Lorenz, Rebecca A; Raaf, Soren

    2014-01-01

    A decreased gait speed in older adults can lead to dependency when the individuals are no longer able to participate in activities or do things for themselves. Thirty-seven senior apartment residents (31 females; Mean age=80.6 years; SD=8.9) with lower extremity pain/stiffness participated in a feasibility and preliminary efficacy study of 12 weeks (24 sessions). Healthy-Steps dance therapy compared to a wait-list control group. Small improvements in gait speed ([ES]=0.33) were noted for participants completing 19-24 dance sessions. Improvements in gait speed measured by a 10 Meter Walk Test (0.0517 m/s) exceeded 0.05 m/s, a value deemed to be meaningful in community dwelling older adults. These feasibility study findings support the need for additional research using dance-based therapy for older adults with lower extremity pain. PMID:24795258

  11. Gait Characteristics Associated with Walking Speed Decline in Older Adults: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, Gerald J; Ko, Seung-uk; Kauffman, Danielle; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Simonsick, Eleanor M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to walking speed decline can provide needed insight for developing targeted interventions to reduce the rate and likelihood of decline. Objective Examine the association between gait characteristics and walking speed decline in older adults. Methods Participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging aged 60 to 89 were evaluated in the gait laboratory which used a three dimensional motion capture system and force platforms to assess cadence, stride length, stride width, percent of gait cycle in double stance, anterior-posterior mechanical work expenditure (MWE), and medial-lateral MWE. Usual walking speed was assessed over 6 meters at baseline and follow-up. Gait characteristics associated with meaningful decline (decline ≥ 0.05 m/s/y) in walking speed were evaluated by logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, race, height, weight, initial walking speed and follow-up time. Results Among 362 participants, the average age was 72.4 (SD=8.1) years, 51% were female, 27% were black and 23% were identified has having meaningful decline in usual walking speed with an average follow-up time of 3.2 (1.1) years. In the fully adjusted model, faster cadence [ORadj=0.65 95% CI (0.43,0.97)] and longer strides [ORadj=0.87 95% CI (0.83,0.91)] were associated with lower odds of decline. However age [ORadj=1.04 95% CI (0.99,1.10)] was not associated with decline when controlling for gait characteristics and other demographics. Conclusion A sizable proportion of healthy older adults experienced walking speed decline over an average of 3 years. Longer stride and faster cadence were protective against meaningful decline in usual walking speed. PMID:25614178

  12. Age-dependent gait abnormalities in mice lacking the Rnf170 gene linked to human autosomal-dominant sensory ataxia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Kook Hwan; Chae, Sujin; Kim, Chanki; Kim, Jeongjin; Shin, Hee-Sup; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kim, Daesoo

    2015-12-20

    Really interesting new gene (RING) finger protein 170 (RNF170) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase known to mediate ubiquitination-dependent degradation of type-I inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (ITPR1). It has recently been demonstrated that a point mutation of RNF170 gene is linked with autosomal-dominant sensory ataxia (ADSA), which is characterized by an age-dependent increase of walking abnormalities, a rare genetic disorder reported in only two families. Although this mutant allele is known to be dominant, the functional identity thereof has not been clearly established. Here, we generated mice lacking Rnf170 (Rnf170(-/-)) to evaluate the effect of its loss of function in vivo. Remarkably, Rnf170(-/-) mice began to develop gait abnormalities in old age (12 months) in the form of asynchronous stepping between diagonal limb pairs with a fixed step sequence during locomotion, while age-matched wild-type mice showed stable gait patterns using several step sequence repertoires. As reported in ADSA patients, they also showed a reduced sensitivity for proprioception and thermal nociception. Protein blot analysis revealed that the amount of Itpr1 protein was significantly elevated in the cerebellum and spinal cord but intact in the cerebral cortex in Rnf170(-/-) mice. These results suggest that the loss of Rnf170 gene function mediates ADSA-associated phenotypes and this gives insights on the cure of patients with ADSA and other age-dependent walking abnormalities. PMID:26433933

  13. High-speed video gait analysis reveals early and characteristic locomotor phenotypes in mouse models of neurodegenerative movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Preisig, Daniel F; Kulic, Luka; Krüger, Maik; Wirth, Fabian; McAfoose, Jordan; Späni, Claudia; Gantenbein, Pascal; Derungs, Rebecca; Nitsch, Roger M; Welt, Tobias

    2016-09-15

    Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system frequently affect the locomotor system resulting in impaired movement and gait. In this study we performed a whole-body high-speed video gait analysis in three different mouse lines of neurodegenerative movement disorders to investigate the motor phenotype. Based on precise computerized motion tracking of all relevant joints and the tail, a custom-developed algorithm generated individual and comprehensive locomotor profiles consisting of 164 spatial and temporal parameters. Gait changes observed in the three models corresponded closely to the classical clinical symptoms described in these disorders: Muscle atrophy due to motor neuron loss in SOD1 G93A transgenic mice led to gait characterized by changes in hind-limb movement and positioning. In contrast, locomotion in huntingtin N171-82Q mice modeling Huntington's disease with basal ganglia damage was defined by hyperkinetic limb movements and rigidity of the trunk. Harlequin mutant mice modeling cerebellar degeneration showed gait instability and extensive changes in limb positioning. Moreover, model specific gait parameters were identified and were shown to be more sensitive than conventional motor tests. Altogether, this technique provides new opportunities to decipher underlying disease mechanisms and test novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:27233823

  14. Slow Gait Speed and Rapid Renal Function Decline Are Risk Factors for Postoperative Delirium after Urological Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tendo; Okamoto, Teppei; Yamamoto, Hayato; Hosogoe, Shogo; Tobisawa, Yuki; Yoneyama, Tohru; Hashiba, Eiji; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Koie, Takuya; Hirota, Kazuyoshi; Ohyama, Chikara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with postoperative delirium in patients undergoing urological surgery. Methods We prospectively evaluated pre- and postoperative risk factors for postoperative delirium in consecutive 215 patients who received urological surgery between August 2013 and November 2014. Preoperative factors included patient demographics, comorbidities, and frailty assessment. Frailty was measured by handgrip strength, fatigue scale of depression, fall risk assessment, and gait speed (the timed Get-up and Go test). Postoperative factors included types of anesthesia, surgical procedure, renal function and serum albumin decline, blood loss, surgery time, highest body temperature, and complications. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess pre- and postoperative predictors for the development of postoperative delirium. Results Median age of this cohort was 67 years. Ten patients (4.7%) experienced postoperative delirium. These patients were significantly older, had weak handgrip strength, a higher fall risk assessment score, slow gait speed, and greater renal function decline compared with patients without delirium. Multivariate analysis revealed slow gait speed (>13.0 s) and rapid renal function decline (>30%) were independent risk factors for postoperative delirium. Conclusions Slow gait speed and rapid renal function decline after urological surgery are significant factors for postoperative delirium. These data will be helpful for perioperative patient management. This study was registered as a clinical trial: UMIN: R000018809. PMID:27145178

  15. Relationship between fatigue and gait abnormality in joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobility type.

    PubMed

    Celletti, Claudia; Galli, Manuela; Cimolin, Veronica; Castori, Marco; Albertini, Giorgio; Camerota, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited connective tissue disorders characterised by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility and tissue fragility. It has recently been shown that muscle weakness occurs frequently in EDS, and that fatigue is a common and clinically important symptom. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fatigue severity and the gait pattern using 3D Gait Analysis (GA). Eleven individuals with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT) were investigated using muscle strength measured with standardised questionnaire measuring fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale, FSS) and quantitative 3D GA. Our data showed that FSS value well correlated with the peak of vertical component of ground reaction force (r=-0.66, p<0.05). The negative correlation gives evidence that the higher the fatigue is the more reduced force is during gait. Our results showed that the ground reaction force has been applied as a functional evaluation score for detecting pathology in gait of JHS/EDS-HT participants and the found correlation between vertical force and fatigue demonstrated that muscle fatigue may be associated with a loss of proprioceptive acuity in lower limb muscles. PMID:22819599

  16. The association between social participation and lower extremity muscle strength, balance, and gait speed in US adults.

    PubMed

    Warren, Meghan; Ganley, Kathleen J; Pohl, Patricia S

    2016-12-01

    Social participation is associated with healthy aging, and although associations have been reported between social participation and demographics, no published studies have examined a relationship between social participation and measures amenable to intervention. The purpose was to explore the association between self-reported social participation and lower extremity strength, balance, and gait speed. A cross-sectional analysis of US adults (n = 2291; n = 1,031 males; mean ± standard deviation age 63.5 ± 0.3 years) from the 2001-2 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was conducted. Two questions about self-reported difficulty with social participation were categorized into limited (yes/no). The independent variables included knee extension strength (n = 1537; classified as tertiles of weak, normal, and strong), balance (n = 1813; 3 tests scored as pass/fail), and gait speed (n = 2025; dichotomized as slow [less than 1.0 m/s] and fast [greater than or equal to 1.0 m/s]). Logistic regression, accounting for the complex survey design and adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, and medical conditions, was used to estimate the odds of limitation in social participation with each independent variable. Alpha was decreased to 0.01 due to multiple tests. Slower gait speed was significantly associated with social participation limitation (odds ratio = 3.1; 99% confidence interval: 1.5-6.2). No significant association was found with social participation and lower extremity strength or balance. The odds of having limitation in social participation were 3 times greater in those with slow gait speed. Prospective studies should examine the effect of improved gait speed on levels of social participation. PMID:27413675

  17. Is symptomatic knee osteoarthritis a risk factor for a fast decline in gait speed? Results from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    White, Daniel K.; Niu, Jingbo; Zhang, Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Gait speed is an important marker of health in adults and slows with aging. While knee osteoarthritis (OA) can result in difficulty walking, it is not known if radiographic knee OA (ROA) and/or knee pain are associated with a fast decline trajectory of gait speed over time. Methods Gait speed trajectories were constructed using a multinomial modeling strategy from repeated 20-meter walk tests measured annually over four years among participants from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI), a prospective cohort study of adults with or at high risk of knee OA aged 45 to 79 at baseline. We grouped participants into four knee OA categories (having neither ROA nor knee pain, ROA only, knee pain only, or symptomatic knee OA (ROA and pain)) and examined their association with trajectories of gait speed using a multivariable polytomous regression model adjusting for age and other potential confounders. Results Of the 4179 participants (mean age (sd) = 61.1 (9.1), women =57.6%, mean BMI =28.5 (4.8) kg/m2), 5% (n=205) were in a fast decline trajectory slowing 2.75%/year. People with symptomatic knee OA had almost a 9-fold risk (OR = 8.9, 95% CI [3.1, 25.5]) of being in a fast decline trajectory compared with those with neither pain nor ROA. Participants with knee pain had 4.5 times the odds of fast decline (95% CI [1.4, 14.6]) and those with ROA only had a slight but non-statistically significant increased risk. Conclusions People with symptomatic knee OA have the highest risk of fast decline trajectory of gait speed compared with people with ROA or pain alone. PMID:22899342

  18. Gait speed correlates in a multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in Brazil: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gait speed is a strong predictor of a wide range of adverse health outcomes in older adults. Mean values for gait speed in community-dwelling older adults vary substantially depending on population characteristics, suggesting that social, biological, or health factors might explain why certain groups tend to self-select their gait speed in different patterns. The vast majority of studies reported in the literature present data from North American and European populations. There are few population-based studies from other regions with a different ethnicity and/or social and health conditions. To address this, the present study identified the mean usual and fast gait speeds in a representative multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in a developing country, and explored their association with sociodemographic, mental and physical health characteristics. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study of a sample of 137 men and 248 women, aged 65 years and over. Usual gait speed and fast gait speed were measured on a 4.6 m path. Participants were classified into slow, intermediate, and faster groups by cluster analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent effect of each factor on the odds of presenting with a slower usual and slower fast gait speeds. Results Participants had a mean (SD) usual gait speed of 1.11 (0.27) m/s and a mean fast gait speed of 1.39 (0.34) m/s. We did not observe an independent association between gait speed and race/ethnicity, educational level, or income. The main contributors to present a slower usual gait speed were low physical activity level, stroke, diabetes, urinary incontinence, high concern about falling, and old age. A slower fast gait speed was associated with old age, low physical activity, urinary incontinence and high concern about falling. Conclusion A multiracial population of older adults living in a developing country showed a similar mean gait speed

  19. Effects of Continuous and Interval Training on Running Economy, Maximal Aerobic Speed and Gait Kinematics in Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    González-Mohíno, Fernando; González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Fernández, Francisco A; Barragán Castellanos, Rubén; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on running economy (RE), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS), and gait kinematics (step length [SL] and frequency, flight and contact time [CT]) in recreational athletes, with 2 different training methods, Interval and Continuous (CON). Eleven participants were randomly distributed in an interval training group (INT; n = 6) or CON training group (CON; n = 5). Interval training and CON performed 2 different training programs (95-110% and 70-75% of MAS, respectively), which consisted of 3 sessions per week during 6 weeks with the same external workload (%MAS × duration). An incremental test to exhaustion was performed to obtain V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, MAS, RE, and gait variables (high speed camera) before and after the training intervention. There was a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in RE at 60 and 90% of MAS by the CON group; without changes in gait. The INT group significantly increased MAS and higher stride length at 80, 90, and 100% of MAS and lower CT at 100% of MAS. As expected, training adaptations are highly specific to the overload applied with CON producing improvements in RE at lower percentage of MAS whereas INT produces improvements in MAS. The significantly increased stride length and decreased CT for the INT group are an important outcome of favorable changes in running gait. PMID:26356481

  20. Measurement of gait speed in older adults to identify complications associated with frailty: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pamoukdjian, Frederic; Paillaud, Elena; Zelek, Laurent; Laurent, Marie; Lévy, Vincent; Landre, Thierry; Sebbane, Georges

    2015-11-01

    Several frailty screening tests in older cancer patients were developed but their statistical performance is low. We aimed to assess whether measurement of usual gait speed (GS) alone could be used as a frailty screening test in older cancer patients. This systematic review was conducted on "pub med" between 1984 and 2014 and included reviews and original studies. Eligibility criteria were: GS over a short distance, alone or included in composite walking tests (Timed Get Up and Go test: TGUG, Short Physical Performance Battery: SPPB) in older people (aged 65 and over) living in a community setting and predictive value of GS on medical complications associated with frailty. 46 articles were finally selected. GS alone is consensual and recommended for screening sarcopenia in elderly. A slow GS is predictive of early death, disability, falls and hospitalization/institutionalization in older people living in a community setting. GS alone is comparable to composite walking tests that do not provide additional information on the medical complications associated with frailty. Despite few studies in geriatric oncology, GS seems to predict overall survival and disability. We suggest GS over 4m (at a threshold of 1m/s) as a new frailty screening test in older cancer patients (65 and over) to guide the implementation of a comprehensive geriatric assessment during the initial management phase or during follow-up. Prospective cohort studies are needed to validate this algorithm and compare it with other screening tool. PMID:26362356

  1. [Gait speed, grip strength and self-rated health among the elderly: data from the FIBRA Campinas network, São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bez, Joelita Pessoa de Oliveira; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2014-08-01

    The article seeks to investigate patterns of performance and relationships between grip strength, gait speed and self-rated health, and investigate the relationships between them, considering the variables of gender, age and family income. This was conducted in a probabilistic sample of community-dwelling elderly aged 65 and over, members of a population study on frailty. A total of 689 elderly people without cognitive deficit suggestive of dementia underwent tests of gait speed and grip strength. Comparisons between groups were based on low, medium and high speed and strength. Self-related health was assessed using a 5-point scale. The males and the younger elderly individuals scored significantly higher on grip strength and gait speed than the female and oldest did; the richest scored higher than the poorest on grip strength and gait speed; females and men aged over 80 had weaker grip strength and lower gait speed; slow gait speed and low income arose as risk factors for a worse health evaluation. Lower muscular strength affects the self-rated assessment of health because it results in a reduction in functional capacity, especially in the presence of poverty and a lack of compensatory factors. PMID:25119074

  2. Functional assessment in older adults: should we use timed up and go or gait speed test?

    PubMed

    Kubicki, Alexandre

    2014-08-01

    In order to assess functional skills of older adults, both timed up and go (TUG) test and gait speed (GS) test are well validated concerning their predictive capacities. However, the question remains unclear which one of these tests represents better the whole physical performance of older adults. The aim of this study is to determine the more representative test, between TUG and GS, of the whole motor control quality. To study links between locomotion capacities and arm function, we measured, in a population of frail aged patients, the locomotion tests and the mean arm maximal velocity developed during a speed-accuracy trade-off. This arm movement consisted in reaching the hand toward a target in a virtual game scene. We plotted the different couples of variables obtained on graphs, and calculate Pearson correlation coefficients between each couple. The Pearson correlation between GS and hand maximal velocity was significant (r=0.495; p=0.046). Interestingly, we found a non significant Pearson correlation between timed up and go score (TUG) and hand maximal velocity (r=-0.139; p=0.243). Our results suggest that GS score is more representative of the whole motor ability of frail patients than the TUG. We propose that the relative complexity of the TUG motor sequence could be involved in this difference. For a few patients with motor automatisms deficiencies, this motor sequence complexity could leads to a dual task perturbation. In this way, we conclude that GS should be preferred over the TUG with older adults. PMID:24933540

  3. Trunk exercises performed on an unstable surface improve trunk muscle activation, postural control, and gait speed in patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyoung-Sim; Cho, Hwi-Young; In, Tae-Sung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of trunk exercises performed on an unstable surface on trunk muscle activation, postural control, and gait speed in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-four participants with stroke were recruited in this study and randomly distributed into experimental (n = 12) and control groups (n = 12). [Methods] Subjects in the experimental group participated in trunk exercises on the balance pad for 30 min, five times a week for 4 weeks; those in the control group performed trunk exercises on a stable surface for 30 min, five times a week for 4 weeks. Trunk muscle activation was measured by using surface electromyography, and trunk control was evaluated with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS). Gait speed was measured with the 10-Meter Walk Test. [Results] Activity of the external and internal oblique muscles in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group. The TIS score of the experimental group showed significantly greater improvement than did that of the control group. The 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT) score also significantly improved in the experimental group. [Conclusion] Trunk exercises on an unstable surface improve trunk muscle activation, postural control, and gait speed in patients with hemiparetic stroke. PMID:27134389

  4. Feasibility and efficacy of high-speed gait training with a voluntary driven exoskeleton robot for gait and balance dysfunction in patients with chronic stroke: nonrandomized pilot study with concurrent control.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Takahiko; Shimizu, Issei; Hiroi, Yasuhiro; Kawaki, Masahiro; Sato, Daichi; Nagasawa, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility of high-speed gait training with an exoskeleton robot hybrid assistive limb (HAL) in patients with chronic stroke, and to examine the efficacy of eight sessions (8 weeks) of gait training with a HAL compared with conventional physical therapy. Eighteen patients with chronic stroke were included in this study (nine each in the HAL and control groups). The HAL group underwent high-speed gait training with the HAL once a week for 8 weeks (20 min/session). The control group underwent conventional physical therapy for gait disturbance. Outcome measures were walking speed, number of steps, and cadence during a 10 m walking test, a timed up and go test, a functional reach test, and the Berg Balance Scale. Assessments were performed in the absence of the HAL before training and after the fourth and eighth training sessions. All patients in the HAL group completed the high-speed gait training without adverse events. The HAL group improved significantly in walking speed (55.9% increase, P<0.001), number of steps (17.6% decrease, P<0.01), and cadence (32.8% increase, P<0.001) during the 10 m walking test. The patients also exhibited significant improvements in the timed up and go test, the functional reach test, and the Berg Balance Scale after HAL training (P<0.01 in all). No statistical time-dependent changes were observed in any parameter in the control group. For chronic stroke patients, high-speed gait training with a HAL appears to be feasible and effective in improving gait and balance dysfunction despite the limitations of this nonrandomized pilot study. PMID:26288120

  5. INTERSECTING SELF-REPORTED MOBILITY AND GAIT SPEED TO CREATEA MULTI-DIMENSIONAL MEASURE OF AMBULATION: THE “AMBULATION SPEED-ENDURANCE” (ASE) TYPOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    SIORDIA, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Assessing mobility through readily available and affordable protocols may help advance public health by providing early detection and implementing intervention therapies aimed at mitigating the progression from physiological vitality to disability at older ages. Until now, little attention has been given to how self-reported mobility (SRM) and gait speed can be combined in a categorization scheme. Objectives The specific aim of this report is to introduce the Ambulation Speed-Endurance (ASE) Typology to the literature—a classification system that intersects SRM and gait speed to create a multi-dimensional measure of ambulation. Design Cross-sectional. Setting: Community-dwelling older adults in the United States. Participants Evidence is provided from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) that community-dwelling older adults (n=5,403) may be found in each of the ASE Typologies. The discussion is complimented by investigating the cross-sectional predictors of a “Discrepancy Score” (measure of gap between speed and endurance) amongst those with gait speeds < 0.99 m/sec (n=4,521). Results Multivariable linear regression results indicate level of severity in speed-endurance discrepancy is higher amongst: non-Latino-Blacks (β=0.48); Latinos (β=0.42); older ages; and lower educated. Models also show that severity in speed-endurance discrepancy is lower amongst: females (β=−0.38); those with higher body mass index; with more chronic health conditions; and poorer self-rated health. Conclusion Research should continue to investigate how to optimize SRM. PMID:26258113

  6. Gait and its assessment in psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Gait reflects all levels of nervous system function. In psychiatry, gait disturbances reflecting cortical and subcortical dysfunction are often seen. Observing spontaneous gait, sometimes augmented by a few brief tests, can be highly informative. The authors briefly review the neuroanatomy of gait, review gait abnormalities seen in psychiatric and neurologic disorders, and describe the assessment of gait. PMID:20805918

  7. Effects of ankle plantar flexors stretching with closed kinetic chain on pelvic movements and gait speed in hemiplegia patients: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sang-Hyun; Boo, Jung-A; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of ankle plantar flexors stretching with closed kinetic chain (CKC) in hemiplegia patients. [Methods] This study used a reversal design (A-B-A’) for a stroke with hemiplagia. The intervention program consisted of 30 min sessions, once a day, for 15 days. The subjects were trained for 15 sessions in total. Pelvic movements (anterior ·posterior tilting, elevation, depression, forward·backward rotation) during walking and gait speed were measured in hemiplegia patients. [Results] Overall, the angle of pelvic movements was increased in Treatment and, Baseline II compared with Baseline I. The gait speed was maximally increased in Baseline II, followed by Treatment and Baseline I. [Conclusion] These results suggest that ankle plantar flexors stretching with closed kinetic chain had a positive effect on pelvic movements and gait speed in hemiplegia patients. Also, after treatment, its effect on gait of hemiplegia patients was maintained. PMID:26957780

  8. Kinematic analysis of the lower extremities of subjects with flat feet at different gait speeds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Lee, Yun-Seop

    2013-05-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the difference between flat feet and normal feet of humans at different gait velocities using electromyography (EMG) and foot pressure analysis. [Subjects] This study was conducted on 30 adults having normal feet (N = 15) and flat feet (N = 15), all of whom were 21 to 30 years old and had no neurological history or gait problems. [Methods] A treadmill (AC5000M, SCIFIT, UK) was used to analyze kinematic features during gait. These features were analyzed at slow, normal, and fast gait velocities. A surface electromyogram (TeleMyo 2400T, Noraxon Co., USA) and a foot pressure analyzer (FSA, Vista Medical, Canada) were used to measure muscle activity changes and foot pressure, respectively. [Results] The activities of most muscles of the flat feet, except that of the rectus femoris, were significantly different from the muscle activities of the normal feet at different gait velocities. For example, there was a significant difference in the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis muscle. Likewise, flat feet and normal feet showed significant differences in pressures on the forefoot, midfoot, and medial area of the hindfoot at different gait velocities. Finally, comparison showed there were significant differences in pressures on the 2nd-3rd metatarsal area. [Conclusion] Because muscle activation has a tendency to increase with an increase in gait velocity, we hypothesized that the lower extremity with a flat foot requires more work to move due to the lack of a medial longitudinal arch, and consequently pressure was focused on the 2nd-3rd metatarsal area during the stance phase. PMID:24259795

  9. Kinematic Analysis of the Lower Extremities of Subjects with Flat Feet at Different Gait Speeds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Lee, Yun-Seop

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the difference between flat feet and normal feet of humans at different gait velocities using electromyography (EMG) and foot pressure analysis. [Subjects] This study was conducted on 30 adults having normal feet (N = 15) and flat feet (N = 15), all of whom were 21 to 30 years old and had no neurological history or gait problems. [Methods] A treadmill (AC5000M, SCIFIT, UK) was used to analyze kinematic features during gait. These features were analyzed at slow, normal, and fast gait velocities. A surface electromyogram (TeleMyo 2400T, Noraxon Co., USA) and a foot pressure analyzer (FSA, Vista Medical, Canada) were used to measure muscle activity changes and foot pressure, respectively. [Results] The activities of most muscles of the flat feet, except that of the rectus femoris, were significantly different from the muscle activities of the normal feet at different gait velocities. For example, there was a significant difference in the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis muscle. Likewise, flat feet and normal feet showed significant differences in pressures on the forefoot, midfoot, and medial area of the hindfoot at different gait velocities. Finally, comparison showed there were significant differences in pressures on the 2nd–3rd metatarsal area. [Conclusion] Because muscle activation has a tendency to increase with an increase in gait velocity, we hypothesized that the lower extremity with a flat foot requires more work to move due to the lack of a medial longitudinal arch, and consequently pressure was focused on the 2nd–3rd metatarsal area during the stance phase. PMID:24259795

  10. Voluntary muscle activation improves with power training and is associated with changes in gait speed in mobility-limited older adults - A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hvid, Lars G; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Skjødt, Mathias; Magnussen, Line V; Andersen, Marianne; Caserotti, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Incomplete voluntary muscle activation may contribute to impaired muscle mechanical function and physical function in older adults. Exercise interventions have been shown to increase voluntary muscle activation, although the evidence is sparse for mobility-limited older adults, particularly in association with physical function. This study examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on outcomes of voluntary muscle activation and gait speed in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 37 older men and women with a usual gait speed of <0.9m/s in the per-protocol analysis: n=16 in the training group (TG: 12weeks of progressive high-load power training, 2 sessions per week; age: 82.3±1.3years, 56% women) and n=21 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age: 81.6±1.1years, 67% women). Knee extensor muscle thickness (ultrasonography), strength (isokinetic dynamometry), voluntary activation (interpolated twitch technique), and gait speed (2-min maximal walking test) were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. At baseline, TG and CG were comparable for all measures. Post-intervention, significant between-group changes (TG vs. CG; p<0.05) were observed for voluntary muscle activation (+6.2%), muscle strength (+13.4Nm), and gait speed (+0.12m/s), whereas the between-group change in muscle thickness was non-significant (+0.08cm). Improvements in voluntary muscle activation were associated with improvements in gait speed in TG (r=0.67, p<0.05). Importantly, voluntary muscle activation is improved in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of progressive power training, and is associated with improved maximal gait speed. Incomplete voluntary muscle activation should be considered one of the key mechanisms influencing muscle mechanical function and gait speed in older adults. PMID:27090485

  11. The mental representation of the human gait in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Stöckel, Tino; Jacksteit, Robert; Behrens, Martin; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Mau-Moeller, Anett

    2015-01-01

    The link between mental representation (MREP) structures and motor performance has been evidenced for a great variety of movement skills, but not for the human gait. Therefore the present study sought to investigate the cognitive memory structures underlying the human gait in young and older adults. In a first experiment, gait parameters at comfortable gait speed (OptoGait) were compared with gait-specific MREPs (structural dimensional analysis of MREP; SDA-M) in 36 young adults. Participants were divided into a slow- and fast-walking group. The proven relationship between gait speed and executive functions such as working memory led to the hypothesis that gait pattern and MREP differ between slow- and fast-walking adults. In a second experiment, gait performance and MREPs were compared between 24 young (27.9 years) and 24 elderly (60.1 years) participants. As age-related declines in gait performance occur from the seventh decade of life onward, we hypothesized that gait parameters would not be affected until the age of 60 years accompanied by unchanged MREP. Data of experiment one revealed that gait parameters and MREPs differed significantly between slow and fast walkers. Notably, eleven previously incurred musculoskeletal injuries were documented for the slow walkers but only two injuries and one disorder for fast walkers. Experiment two revealed no age-related differences in gait parameters or MREPs between healthy young and older adults. In conclusion, the differences in gait parameters associated with lower comfortable gait speeds are reflected by differences in MREPs, whereby SDA-M data indicate that the single limb support phase may serve as a critical functional period. These differences probably resulted from previously incurred musculoskeletal injuries. Our data further indicate that the human gait and its MREP are stable until the age of 60. SDA-M may be considered as a valuable clinical tool for diagnosis of gait abnormalities and monitoring of

  12. A pilot clinical trial on a Variable Automated Speed and Sensing Treadmill (VASST) for hemiparetic gait rehabilitation in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Karen S. G.; Chee, Johnny; Wong, Chin J.; Lim, Pang H.; Lim, Wei S.; Hoo, Chuan M.; Ong, Wai S.; Shen, Mira L.; Yu, Wei S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Impairments in walking speed and capacity are common problems after stroke which may benefit from treadmill training. However, standard treadmills, are unable to adapt to the slower walking speeds of stroke survivors and are unable to automate training progression. This study tests a Variable Automated Speed and Sensing Treadmill (VASST) using a standard clinical protocol. VASST is a semi-automated treadmill with multiple sensors and micro controllers, including wireless control to reposition a fall-prevention harness, variable pre-programmed exercise parameters and laser beam foot sensors positioned on the belt to detect subject's foot positions. Materials and Methods: An open-label study with assessor blinding was conducted in 10 community-dwelling chronic hemiplegic patients who could ambulate at least 0.1 m/s. Interventions included physiotherapist-supervised training on VASST for 60 min three times per week for 4 weeks (total 12 h). Outcome measures of gait speed, quantity, balance, and adverse events were assessed at baseline, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Results: Ten subjects (8 males, mean age 55.5 years, 2.1 years post stroke) completed VASST training. Mean 10-m walk test speed was 0.69 m/s (SD = 0.29) and mean 6-min walk test distance was 178.3 m (84.0). After 4 weeks of training, 70% had significant positive gains in gait speed (0.06 m/s, SD = 0.08 m/s, P = 0.037); and 90% improved in walking distance. (54.3 m, SD = 30.9 m, P = 0.005). There were no adverse events. Discussion and Conclusion: This preliminary study demonstrates the initial feasibility and short-term efficacy of VASST for walking speed and distance for people with chronic post-stroke hemiplegia. PMID:26217170

  13. Accuracy of a Custom Physical Activity and Knee Angle Measurement Sensor System for Patients with Neuromuscular Disorders and Gait Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Feldhege, Frank; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Lindner, Tobias; Hein, Albert; Markschies, Andreas; Zettl, Uwe Klaus; Bader, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Long-term assessment of ambulatory behavior and joint motion are valuable tools for the evaluation of therapy effectiveness in patients with neuromuscular disorders and gait abnormalities. Even though there are several tools available to quantify ambulatory behavior in a home environment, reliable measurement of joint motion is still limited to laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel inertial sensor system for ambulatory behavior and joint motion measurement in the everyday environment. An algorithm for behavior classification, step detection, and knee angle calculation was developed. The validation protocol consisted of simulated daily activities in a laboratory environment. The tests were performed with ten healthy subjects and eleven patients with multiple sclerosis. Activity classification showed comparable performance to commercially available activPAL sensors. Step detection with our sensor system was more accurate. The calculated flexion-extension angle of the knee joint showed a root mean square error of less than 5° compared with results obtained using an electro-mechanical goniometer. This new system combines ambulatory behavior assessment and knee angle measurement for long-term measurement periods in a home environment. The wearable sensor system demonstrated high validity for behavior classification and knee joint angle measurement in a laboratory setting. PMID:25954954

  14. Direct Comparison of Measured and Calculated Total Knee Replacement Force Envelopes during Walking in the Presence of Normal and Abnormal Gait Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Hannah J.; Foucher, Kharma C.; Andriacchi, Thomas P.; Wimmer, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint forces measured from instrumented implants provide important information for testing the validity of computational models that predict knee joint forces. The purpose of this study was to validate a parametric numerical model for predicting knee joint contact forces against measurements from four subjects with instrumented TKRs during the stance phase of gait. Model sensitivity to abnormal gait patterns was also investigated. The results demonstrated good agreement for three subjects with relatively normal gait patterns, where the difference between the mean measured and calculated forces ranged from 0.05 to 0.45 body weights, and the envelopes of measured and calculated forces (from three walking trials) overlapped. The fourth subject, who had a “quadriceps avoidance” external moment pattern, initially had little overlap between the measured and calculated force envelopes. When additional constraints were added, tailored to the subject’s gait pattern, the model predictions improved to complete force envelope overlap. Coefficient of multiple determination analysis indicated that the shape of the measured and calculated force waveforms were similar for all subjects (adjusted coefficient of multiple correlation values between 0.88 and 0.92). The parametric model was accurate in predicting both the magnitude and waveform of the contact force, and the accuracy of model predictions was affected by deviations from normal gait patterns. Equally important, the envelope of forces generated by the range of solutions substantially overlapped with the corresponding measured envelope from multiple gait trials for a given subject, suggesting that the variable strategic processes of in vivo force generation are covered by the solution range of this parametric model. PMID:22284431

  15. Evaluation of two methodologies for lameness detection in dairy cows based on postural and gait abnormalities observed during milking and while restrained at headlock stanchions.

    PubMed

    García-Muñoz, A; Vidal, G; Singh, N; Silva-Del-Río, N

    2016-06-01

    Lameness is a critical issue on dairies with an impact on production and animal welfare. Early lameness detection followed by effective treatments could improve prognosis and cure rate of lame cows. Current methods for lameness detection are based on locomotion score (LS) that requires observation of cows walking, preferably at the exit of the milking parlor. This is a time-consuming task that is difficult to implement on large dairies. Therefore, a common methodology for lameness detection is based on milkers' and cow pushers' observations of cows walking to the milking parlor or standing at the milking stall (MPP). Observation of postural abnormalities predictive of lameness while cows are locked at stanchions (S) can be used as an alternative detection method. The objective of this research was to study the association between postural and gait abnormalities observed with S and MPP methodologies and lameness using LS≥3 as the reference method, as well as to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of those methods as a diagnostic test for lameness. A secondary objective was to describe the type of hoof lesions observed with postural and gait abnormalities detected with LS, MPP, and S methodologies. A cross-sectional study design was performed on 2274 cows from one farm in California (US). Arched back, cow-hocked, wide-stance, and favored-limb postures as well as uneven gait were observed. Both lameness detection methodologies, S and MPP, indicated that arched back and favored-limb were postural abnormalities associated with lameness. However, the epidemiological test characteristics for each of the postures evaluated as a diagnostic test for lameness indicated that both detection methods, S and MPP, had good specificity (>0.91) but poor sensitivity (0.04-0.39). A convenience sample of 104 cows, selected based on LS>3, favored-limb, presence of two or more abnormal postures, and gait anomalies with either S or MPP methods, received a hoof examination

  16. Comparative gait initiation kinematics between simulated unilateral and bilateral ankle hypomobility: Does bilateral constraint improve speed performance?

    PubMed

    Delafontaine, A; Honeine, J-L; Do, M-C; Gagey, O; Chong, R K

    2015-08-31

    Improvement of motor performance in unilateral upper limb motor disability has been shown when utilizing inter-limb coupling strategies during physical rehabilitation. This suggests that 'default' bilateral central motor commands are facilitated. Here, we tested whether this bilateral motor control principle may be generalized to the lower limbs during gait initiation, which involves alternate bilateral actions. Disability was simulated by strapping to produce ankle hypomobility. Healthy adult subjects initiated gait at a self-paced speed with no ankle constraint (control), or with the stance, swing or bilateral ankles strapped. The duration of the anticipatory postural adjustments lengthened and the center of mass instantaneous progression velocity at foot-off decreased when the ankle was strapped. During the step execution phase, progression velocity at foot-contact was higher when both ankles were strapped compared to unilateral strapping of the stance ankle. These findings suggest that bilateral central motor commands are favored during walking tasks. Indeed, unilateral constraint of the stance ankle should compel the central nervous system to adapt specific commands to the constraint and normal sides whereas the 'default' bilateral motor commands would be utilized when both ankles are strapped leading to better kinematics performance. Bilateral in-phase upper limb coordination and bilateral alternating lower limb locomotor movements may share similar control mechanisms. PMID:26197055

  17. Relation of pulse pressure to long-distance gait speed in community-dwelling older adults: Findings from the LIFE-P study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced long-distance gait speed, a measure of physical function, is associated with falls, late-life disability, hospitalization/institutionalization and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Aging is also accompanied by a widening of pulse pressure (PP) that contributes to ventricular-vascular ...

  18. Association of Serum Asymmetric Dimethylarginine With Muscle Strength and Gait Speed: A Cross-Sectional Study of the HEIJO-KYO Cohort.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Kenji; Saeki, Keigo; Maegawa, Taeko; Sakai, Takahide; Kitagawa, Maiko; Otaki, Naoto; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Kurumatani, Norio

    2016-05-01

    Muscle strength and gait speed are related with functional limitations and disabilities and also predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in regulating physiological process in skeletal muscles; however, the association between serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) level, an endogenous competitive inhibitor of NO synthesis, and physical performance has not yet been studied. We investigated the associations of serum ADMA level with muscle strength and usual gait speed in a cross-sectional study of 550 elderly individuals (mean age, 71.2 ± 6.6 years). Mean ADMA level was 0.45 ± 0.06 µmol/L; mean grip and quadriceps strengths were 27.7 ± 8.4 kg and 165.1 ± 81.6 Nm, respectively; and mean gait speed was 1.37 ± 0.30 m/s. In multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for potential confounding factors (age, gender, body weight, smoking and drinking status, household income, hypertension, diabetes, renal function, and physical activity), higher serum ADMA level was significantly associated with lower grip and quadriceps strengths and slower gait speed (grip strength: β, -1.257; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.990 to -0.525; p = 0.001; quadriceps strength: β, -11.730; 95% CI, -20.924 to -2.536; p = 0.012; gait speed: β, -0.065; 95% CI, -0.108 to -0.022; p = 0.003). Our findings indicate the significant association between serum ADMA level and physical performance among elderly individuals, which was independent of the important potential confounders. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26704561

  19. Gait, Balance, Leg Strength, and Sprint Speed After Bedrest with LBNP Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boda, Wanda L.; Watenbaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Fortney, S. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Lee, S. M. C.; William, J. M.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1997-01-01

    Microgravity and bedrest (BR) result in similar physiological decrements such as loss of muscle mass, muscle strength and balance. Previous studies analyzing exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have found that gait is similar in LBNP on a vertical treadmill and overground exercise on a horizontal treadmill. Since treadmill exercise is known to increase muscular strength and endurance, we tested the hypothesis that LBNP exercise on a vertical treadmill would prevent or attenuate many of the physical decrements which occur during bedrest. Based on our positive results from diverse tests of post-BR function, we believe that exercise within LBNP is worth pursuing as a countermeasure for reducing the physical deterioration that occurs during bedrest and microgravity.

  20. Gait, estimated net cost of transport and heat production at different speeds in three-day-event horses.

    PubMed

    Schroter, R C; Baylis, E; Marlin, D J

    1996-07-01

    Heart rate and gait characteristics (stride length and frequency) were studied in 6 horses subjected to a standardised incremental exercise test, involving moving at the trot and increasing speeds up to a fast gallop and subsequently during the steeplechase phase of a 3-day-event. The studies were performed in hot conditions. Appropriate scaling, based on hindleg length (hh), stride length (L), stride frequency (f) and speed (Sp) for nondimensional stride length (lambda = (L/hh), nondimensional stride frequency (phi = f(hh/g)1/2) and nondimensional velocity (û = Sp/(ghh)1/2), where g is the gravitational acceleration, demonstrated that there were no major differences in characteristics over the full range studied lambda = 2.3 û0.68. However, there were subtle differences in some horses that could endow a benefit in locomotory efficiency when compared to others exercising at the same absolute speed. There were clear changes in the relationship between nondimensional stride length and frequency with increasing speed, from trot to canter (at û approximately 1.4) and to full gallop (at û approximately 2.3); when trotting, lambda was less than 2.2 and the transition from canter to gallop took place at lambda approximately 3.2. The cost of transport/kg/m, estimated from the heart rates measured continuously during each study, decreased with increasing speed and bodyweight. In some animals, there appeared to be a weak minimum around the canter-gallop transition speed. When interpreted as oxygen cost, using published values for the oxygen consumption-heart rate relationship, the cost fell from an average of 0.201 ml/kg/m at the trot to 0.161 mlO2/kg/m when galloping during the incremental exercise tests. During the steeplechase, the cost was approximately 7.5% higher than at the same speed in the exercise tests; this was probably due to jumping effort. Estimated power consumption increased linearly with speed. In the steeplechase, power consumption was also 7.5% higher

  1. Gait-specific metabolic costs and preferred speeds in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), with implications for the scaling of locomotor costs.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Matthew C

    2012-11-01

    Metabolic costs of resting and locomotion have been used to gain novel insights into the behavioral ecology and evolution of a wide range of primates; however, most previous studies have not considered gait-specific effects. Here, metabolic costs of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) walking, cantering and galloping are used to test for gait-specific effects and a potential correspondence between costs and preferred speeds. Metabolic costs, including the net cost of locomotion (COL) and net cost of transport (COT), change as a curvilinear function of walking speed and (at least provisionally) as a linear function of cantering and galloping speeds. The baseline quantity used to calculate net costs had a significant effect on the magnitude of speed-specific estimates of COL and COT, especially for walking. This is because non-locomotor metabolism constitutes a substantial fraction (41-61%, on average) of gross metabolic rate at slow speeds. The slope-based estimate of the COT was 5.26 J kg(-1) m(-1) for all gaits and speeds, while the gait-specific estimates differed between walking (0.5 m s(-1) : 6.69 J kg(-1) m(-1) ) and cantering/galloping (2.0 m s(-1) : 5.61 J kg(-1) m(-1) ). During laboratory-based overground locomotion, ring-tailed lemurs preferred to walk at ~0.5 m s(-1) and canter/gallop at ~2.0 m s(-1) , with the preferred walking speed corresponding well to the COT minima. Compared with birds and other mammals, ring-tailed lemurs are relatively economical in walking, cantering, and galloping. These results support the view that energetic optima are an important movement criterion for locomotion in ring-tailed lemurs, and other terrestrial animals. PMID:22976581

  2. The influence of forward speed on ship motions in abnormal waves: Experimental measurements and numerical predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, S. S.; Hudson, D. A.; Temarel, P.

    2013-05-01

    Ship encounters with abnormal waves are increasingly well documented and it is therefore important to be able to model such encounters in order to assess the risks involved and whether there is a requirement for more stringent design rules.This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation into the influence of abnormal waves on a vessel travelling with forward speed in irregular seas. The vessel studied in this case is a naval frigate travelling at a range of speeds. To put the motions measured in abnormal waves into context comparisons are made to those in random seas with a variety of significant wave heights, both non-severe and severe. A further objective is to compare experimental measurements with motion predictions from both a two-dimensional linear strip theory and a three-dimensional partly nonlinear seakeeping model.Results demonstrate that abnormal waves may not necessarily be the worst conditions that a ship can encounter. However, accelerations derived from the rigid body motions appear to be in excess of rules values. This has implications for design due to the unexpected nature of abnormal wave occurrence and the consequent likelihood of encountering such a wave at a higher speed (hence in a more severe operating condition) than a random sea of an equivalent height.The three-dimensional partly nonlinear model demonstrates improved agreement with experimental measurements of rigid body motions, compared to the two-dimensional strip theory. It is therefore considered to have greater potential as a design tool for abnormal wave encounters. Further validation with a wide range of sea states and vessel types is required.

  3. Associations Between Physical Performance and Executive Function in Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment: Gait Speed and the Timed “Up & Go” Test

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Valerie E.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; McCurry, Susan M.; Cochrane, Barbara B.; Engel, Joyce M.; Teri, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Background Older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at higher risk for developing Alzheimer disease. Physical performance decline on gait and mobility tasks in conjunction with executive dysfunction has implications for accelerated functional decline, disability, and institutionalization in sedentary older adults with aMCI. Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine whether performance on 2 tests commonly used by physical therapists (usual gait speed and Timed “Up & Go” Test [TUG]) are associated with performance on 2 neuropsychological tests of executive function (Trail Making Test, part B [TMT-B], and Stroop-Interference, calculated from the Stroop Word Color Test) in sedentary older adults with aMCI. Design The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 201 sedentary older adults with memory impairment participating in a longitudinal intervention study of cognitive function, aging, exercise, and health promotion. Methods Physical performance speed on gait and mobility tasks was measured via usual gait speed and the TUG (at fast pace). Executive function was measured with the TMT-B and Stroop-Interference measures. Results Applying multiple linear regression, usual gait speed was associated with executive function on both the TMT-B (β=−0.215, P=.003) and Stroop-Interference (β=−0.195, P=.01) measures, indicating that slower usual gait speed was associated with lower executive function performance. Timed “Up & Go” Test scores (in logarithmic transformation) also were associated with executive function on both the TMT-B (β=0.256, P<.001) and Stroop-Interference (β=0.228, P=.002) measures, indicating that a longer time on the TUG was associated with lower executive function performance. All associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, sex, depressive symptoms, medical comorbidity, and body mass index. Limitations The cross-sectional nature of this study does not allow for inferences of

  4. Relationship between frequent knee pain, obesity, and gait speed in older adults: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Bindawas, Saad M

    2016-01-01

    Background Knee pain (KP) causes gait difficulties in older adults and is associated with slow gait speed (GS). Obesity has negative effects on health. GS is an important indicator of health, well-being, and mean life span in older adults and is a strong predictor of future disability and mortality. The relationship between frequent KP, obesity, and GS in older adults remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed at examining the relationship between baseline frequent KP and obesity status on GS over time. We hypothesized that frequent KP, obesity, or both would be associated with decreased GS over time. Methods The data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were used for this 6-year longitudinal cohort study. We studied 3,118 adults aged between 45 years and 79 years. We grouped the participants into the following four categories according to KP frequency and obesity status at baseline: 1) no KP and nonobese, 2) frequent KP and nonobese, 3) no KP and obese, and 4) frequent KP and obese. GS measurements were based on a 20 m walking test timed using a stopwatch; testing was performed at baseline and over a 6-year follow-up period. Walk pace (m/sec) was calculated as the average pace over two trials conducted at clinic visits. General linear mixed models were used to examine the relationships between frequent KP, obesity, and GS. Results After adjusting for all covariates, at baseline, all the nonobese group with frequent KP (β=−0.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.07 to −0.04), the obese group with no KP (β=−0.07, 95% CI: −0.1 to −0.04), and the obese group with frequent KP (β=−0.08, 95% CI: −0.1 to −0.05) exhibited decreased GS compared with the nonobese and no KP group. However, the associations between frequent KP, obesity, and GS over time were not statistically significant. Conclusion Frequent KP alone, obesity alone, and the combination of frequent KP and obesity were all associated with decreased GS in older adults. These

  5. Developing a portable gait cycle detection system using an inertial sensor and evaluating the accuracy of the gait cycle detection.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Hwa; Kwak, Ki-Young; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Although researches had analyzed gait using small sensors, they analyzed only normal gaits. Thus, a research that can overcome the spatial limitations of the existing motion analyses and diagnose abnormal gaits for medical treatment is needed. Accordingly, this research developed the portable gait detection system that can detect gait using a gyroscope, and evaluated the accuracy of the system. The results showed an average recognition error rate of 1.7% for the normal and abnormal gaits, and confirmed that the gait cycle was detected with a high degree of accuracy. Using these characteristics, we could distinguish or diagnose, and treat, an abnormal gait. PMID:26409541

  6. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  7. The three-dimensional locomotor dynamics of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants reveal a smooth gait transition at moderate speed.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lei; Hutchinson, John R

    2008-02-01

    We examined whether elephants shift to using bouncing (i.e. running) mechanics at any speed. To do this, we measured the three-dimensional centre of mass (CM) motions and torso rotations of African and Asian elephants using a novel multisensor method. Hundreds of continuous stride cycles were recorded in the field. African and Asian elephants moved very similarly. Near the mechanically and metabolically optimal speed (a Froude number (Fr) of 0.09), an inverted pendulum mechanism predominated. With increasing speed, the locomotor dynamics quickly but continuously became less like vaulting and more like bouncing. Our mechanical energy analysis of the CM suggests that at a surprisingly slow speed (approx. 2.2 m s(-1), Fr 0.25), the hindlimbs exhibited bouncing, not vaulting, mechanics during weight support. We infer that a gait transition happens at this relatively slow speed: elephants begin using their compliant hindlimbs like pogo sticks to some extent to drive the body, bouncing over their relatively stiff, vaulting forelimbs. Hence, they are not as rigid limbed as typically characterized for graviportal animals, and use regular walking as well as at least one form of running gait. PMID:17594960

  8. Lower Limb Progressive Resistance Training Improves Leg Strength but Not Gait Speed or Balance in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tillman, Alex; Muthalib, Makii; Hendy, Ashlee M.; Johnson, Liam G.; Rantalainen, Timo; Kidgell, Dawson J.; Enticott, Peter G.; Teo, Wei-Peng

    2015-01-01

    The use of progressive resistance training (PRT) to improve gait and balance in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an emerging area of interest. However, the main effects of PRT on lower limb functions such as gait, balance, and leg strength in people with PD remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the meta-analysis is to evaluate the evidence surrounding the use of PRT to improve gait and balance in people with PD. Five electronic databases, from inception to December 2014, were searched to identify the relevant studies. Data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers and methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of fixed and random effects models were used to calculate the effect sizes between experimental and control groups and I2 statistics were used to determine levels of heterogeneity. In total, seven studies were identified consisting of 172 participants (experimental n = 84; control n = 88). The pooled results showed a moderate but significant effect of PRT on leg strength (SMD 1.42, 95% CI 0.464–2.376); however, no significant effects were observed for gait speed (SMD 0.418, 95% CI −0.219 to 1.055). No significant effects were observed for balance measures included in this review. In conclusion, our results showed no discernable effect of PRT on gait and balance measures, although this is likely due to the lack of studies available. It may be suggested that PRT be performed in conjunction with balance or task-specific functional training to elicit greater lower limb functional benefits in people with PD. PMID:25852550

  9. Feasibility of repeated self-measurements of maximum step length and gait speed by community-dwelling older persons

    PubMed Central

    Bongers, Kim T J; Schoon, Yvonne; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Self-management of mobility and fall risk can be important in fall prevention; however, it remains unstudied. Therefore, the current study assessed whether community-dwelling older persons were able to repeatedly self-assess maximum step length (MSL) and gait speed (GS) in their own home for a 6-month period, how these tests changed during this period and if these changes were related to falling. Design This is a prospective study. Setting This study was conducted at home. Participants A total of 56 community-dwelling older adults (24 women (43%), mean age 76.2 (SD 3.9) years) entered the study; of which, 45 completed the study. Methods Participants performed MSL and GS once a week in their own home during a 6-month period. Primary and secondary outcomes Repeated MSL and GS measurements were the primary outcomes. Falls, self-management and mobility were the secondary outcomes. Results Self-assessment of MSL and GS by older persons is feasible. Compliance of repeatedly self-measuring MSL and GS was good; the median number of weekly measurements was 23.0 (88%) and 21.0 (81%) for MSL and GS, respectively. Drop-outs showed less self-management abilities compared to the participants who completed the study (p=0.049). Linear mixed models showed a small significant improvement in MSL and GS over time (p<0.001), without an influence on falling. Conclusions Most community-dwelling older persons are able and willing to repeatedly assess their MSL and GS. Self-managing mobility and fall risk did not increase fall occurrence. The fact that older persons can be actively involved in their own healthcare is clinically relevant. Further studies are needed to examine the (cost-)effectiveness of self-management in fall prevention interventions. PMID:27496235

  10. Gait pattern of heifers before and after claw trimming: a high-speed cinematographic study on a treadmill.

    PubMed

    Meyer, S W; Weishaupt, M A; Nuss, K A

    2007-02-01

    The manner in which the claws contacted the ground at the walk was evaluated in 18 healthy heifers. The animals were filmed before and after claw trimming while walking on a treadmill using high-speed cinematography (500 frames/s). For each limb, 4 consecutive steps were recorded from a side and a frontal plane. The objectives of the study were to evaluate 1) the order of claw contact with the treadmill surface, 2) the initial claw contact area, and 3) the effect of trimming on claw contact patterns. The heifers placed their front feet on the ground in a plane sagittal to the shoulders, whereas the hind feet were advanced more toward the median plane. Before trimming, the lateral claws contacted the ground before the medial in 83% of front and 100% of hind limbs. Trimming changed the percentage to 92% in the front and to 97% in the hind limbs. The percentage with which the heel of the lateral claws became the region of initial contact with the ground increased from 47 to 64% in the front feet and from 50 to 78% in the hind feet. In the medial claws of the forelimbs, claw trimming shifted the region of initial contact from the toe to the abaxial wall and heel. In the hind limbs, the main region of initial contact of the medial claws became the abaxial wall. Weight bearing by the medial claw became visibly apparent only during the midstance, propulsion, and push-off phases. "Heel first" contact of the lateral claws in the front and hind limbs may be the normal gait pattern in cattle. On hard surfaces, this pattern may lead to overload and predispose to disease, especially in the hind limbs. PMID:17235142

  11. A Portable Gait Asymmetry Rehabilitation System for Individuals with Stroke Using a Vibrotactile Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Afzal, Muhammad Raheel; Oh, Min-Kyun; Lee, Chang-Hee; Park, Young Sook; Yoon, Jungwon

    2015-01-01

    Gait asymmetry caused by hemiparesis results in reduced gait efficiency and reduced activity levels. In this paper, a portable rehabilitation device is proposed that can serve as a tool in diagnosing gait abnormalities in individuals with stroke and has the capability of providing vibration feedback to help compensate for the asymmetric gait. Force-sensitive resistor (FSR) based insoles are used to detect ground contact and estimate stance time. A controller (Arduino) provides different vibration feedback based on the gait phase measurement. It also allows wireless interaction with a personal computer (PC) workstation using the XBee transceiver module, featuring data logging capabilities for subsequent analysis. Walking trials conducted with healthy young subjects allowed us to observe that the system can influence abnormality in the gait. The results of trials showed that a vibration cue based on temporal information was more effective than intensity information. With clinical experiments conducted for individuals with stroke, significant improvement in gait symmetry was observed with minimal disturbance caused to the balance and gait speed as an effect of the biofeedback. Future studies of the long-term rehabilitation effects of the proposed system and further improvements to the system will result in an inexpensive, easy-to-use, and effective rehabilitation device. PMID:26161398

  12. A Portable Gait Asymmetry Rehabilitation System for Individuals with Stroke Using a Vibrotactile Feedback.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Raheel; Oh, Min-Kyun; Lee, Chang-Hee; Park, Young Sook; Yoon, Jungwon

    2015-01-01

    Gait asymmetry caused by hemiparesis results in reduced gait efficiency and reduced activity levels. In this paper, a portable rehabilitation device is proposed that can serve as a tool in diagnosing gait abnormalities in individuals with stroke and has the capability of providing vibration feedback to help compensate for the asymmetric gait. Force-sensitive resistor (FSR) based insoles are used to detect ground contact and estimate stance time. A controller (Arduino) provides different vibration feedback based on the gait phase measurement. It also allows wireless interaction with a personal computer (PC) workstation using the XBee transceiver module, featuring data logging capabilities for subsequent analysis. Walking trials conducted with healthy young subjects allowed us to observe that the system can influence abnormality in the gait. The results of trials showed that a vibration cue based on temporal information was more effective than intensity information. With clinical experiments conducted for individuals with stroke, significant improvement in gait symmetry was observed with minimal disturbance caused to the balance and gait speed as an effect of the biofeedback. Future studies of the long-term rehabilitation effects of the proposed system and further improvements to the system will result in an inexpensive, easy-to-use, and effective rehabilitation device. PMID:26161398

  13. Correlations Between Gait Speed, 6-Minute Walk Distance, Physical Activity, and Self-Efficacy in Patients With Severe Chronic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    DePew, Zachary S; Karpman, Craig; Novotny, Paul J; Benzo, Roberto P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Four-meter gait speed (4MGS) has been associated with functional capacity and overall mortality in elderly patients, and may easily be translated to daily practice. We evaluated the association of 4MGS with meaningful outcomes. METHODS In 70 subjects we conducted the 4MGS, 6-min walk test (6MWT), objectively measured physical activity, and assessed dyspnea, quality of life, and self-efficacy for walking and routine physical activity. 4MGS was measured in 3 separate time epochs during the 6MWT, to explore 4MGS variability. RESULTS Diagnoses included COPD (51.4%), interstitial lung disease (38.6%), and other pulmonary conditions (10%). The mean ± SD values were: 4MGS 0.85 ± 0.21 m/s, 6-min walk distance (6MWD) 305 ± 115 m, and physical activity level 1.28 ± 0.17, which is consistent with severe physical inactivity. The gait speeds within the time epochs 1–2, 3–4, and 5–6 min during the 6MWT were not significantly different: 1.01 ± 0.29 m/s, 0.98 ± 0.31 m/s, and 1.00 ± 0.31 m/s, respectively. 4MGS had a significant correlation with 6MWD (r = 0.70, P < .001). 6MWD was the dominant variable for predicting 4MGS. Other significant predictors of 4MGS included dyspnea, self-efficacy, quality of life, and objectively measured physical activity. CONCLUSIONS 4MGS is significantly and independently associated with 6MWD, and may serve as a reasonable simple surrogate for 6MWD in subjects with chronic lung disease. Gait speed was remarkably stable throughout the 6MWT, which supports the validity of an abbreviated walk test such as 4MGS. PMID:23696689

  14. Abnormal Resting State fMRI Activity Predicts Processing Speed Deficits in First-Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Argyelan, Miklos; Gallego, Juan A; Robinson, Delbert G; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Sarpal, Deepak; John, Majnu; Kingsley, Peter B; Kane, John; Malhotra, Anil K; Szeszko, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    Little is known regarding the neuropsychological significance of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) activity early in the course of psychosis. Moreover, no studies have used different approaches for analysis of rs-fMRI activity and examined gray matter thickness in the same cohort. In this study, 41 patients experiencing a first-episode of psychosis (including N=17 who were antipsychotic drug-naive at the time of scanning) and 41 individually age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers completed rs-fMRI and structural MRI exams and neuropsychological assessments. We computed correlation matrices for 266 regions-of-interest across the brain to assess global connectivity. In addition, independent component analysis (ICA) was used to assess group differences in the expression of rs-fMRI activity within 20 predefined publicly available templates. Patients demonstrated lower overall rs-fMRI global connectivity compared with healthy volunteers without associated group differences in gray matter thickness assessed within the same regions-of-interest used in this analysis. Similarly, ICA revealed worse rs-fMRI expression scores across all 20 networks in patients compared with healthy volunteers, with posthoc analyses revealing significant (p<0.05; corrected) abnormalities within the caudate nucleus and planum temporale. Worse processing speed correlated significantly with overall lower global connectivity using the region-of-interest approach and lower expression scores within the planum temporale using ICA. Our findings implicate dysfunction in rs-fMRI activity in first-episode psychosis prior to extensive antipsychotic treatment using different analytic approaches (in the absence of concomitant gray matter structural differences) that predict processing speed. PMID:25567423

  15. The reliability, validity and correlation of two observational gait scales assessed by video tape for Chinese subjects with hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xi; Hu, Nan; Deng, Siyu; Li, Jun; Qi, Shuyan; Bi, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    To test the reliability of the Wisconsin Gait Scale (WGS) and the Gait Abnormality Rating Scale (GARS) for hemiplegic Chinese subjects, as well as to establish the concurrent validity of these two scales with clinical measurements. [Subjects] Twenty hemiplegic stroke subjects were recruited for this study. [Methods] The subjects walked along a 10-meter walkway and their gait was videotaped from 4 directions. Two physical therapists assessed the subjects’ gait using the aforementioned scales by watching the video tape. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was calculated for the two physiotherapists’ scores for each category and the total scores to assess the reliability. Concurrent validity was tested by comparing the total scores to subjects’ walking speed, the Fugl-Meyer assessment, the Motricity Index of the lower limb, and the Composite Spasticity Index of the lower limb. [Results] The ICC of WGS was 0.961 for intra-rater reliability, and 0.945 for inter-rater reliability. The ICC of GARS was 0.708 for intra-rater reliability and 0.875 for inter-rater reliability. The correlations of the two scales with walking speed, the Fugl-Meyer assessment and the Motricity Index were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Both the Wisconsin Gait Scale and the Gait Abnormality Rating Scale are reliable and valid protocols for measuring the hemiplegic gait of stroke patients. PMID:26834338

  16. The reliability, validity and correlation of two observational gait scales assessed by video tape for Chinese subjects with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; Hu, Nan; Deng, Siyu; Li, Jun; Qi, Shuyan; Bi, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    To test the reliability of the Wisconsin Gait Scale (WGS) and the Gait Abnormality Rating Scale (GARS) for hemiplegic Chinese subjects, as well as to establish the concurrent validity of these two scales with clinical measurements. [Subjects] Twenty hemiplegic stroke subjects were recruited for this study. [Methods] The subjects walked along a 10-meter walkway and their gait was videotaped from 4 directions. Two physical therapists assessed the subjects' gait using the aforementioned scales by watching the video tape. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was calculated for the two physiotherapists' scores for each category and the total scores to assess the reliability. Concurrent validity was tested by comparing the total scores to subjects' walking speed, the Fugl-Meyer assessment, the Motricity Index of the lower limb, and the Composite Spasticity Index of the lower limb. [Results] The ICC of WGS was 0.961 for intra-rater reliability, and 0.945 for inter-rater reliability. The ICC of GARS was 0.708 for intra-rater reliability and 0.875 for inter-rater reliability. The correlations of the two scales with walking speed, the Fugl-Meyer assessment and the Motricity Index were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Both the Wisconsin Gait Scale and the Gait Abnormality Rating Scale are reliable and valid protocols for measuring the hemiplegic gait of stroke patients. PMID:26834338

  17. Gait Biomechanics, Spatial and Temporal Characteristics, and the Energy Cost of Walking in Older Adults With Impaired Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Brach, Jennifer; Perera, Subashan; VanSwearingen, Jessie M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Abnormalities of gait and changes in posture during walking are more common in older adults than in young adults and may contribute to an increase in the energy expended for walking. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the contributions of abnormalities of gait biomechanics (hip extension, trunk flexion, and foot-floor angle at heel-strike) and gait characteristics (step width, stance time, and cadence) to the energy cost of walking in older adults with impaired mobility. Design A cross-sectional design was used. Methods Gait speed, step width, stance time, and cadence were derived during walking on an instrumented walkway. Trunk flexion, hip extension, and foot-floor angle at heel contact were assessed during overground walking. The energy cost of walking was determined from oxygen consumption data collected during treadmill walking. All measurements were collected at the participants' usual, self-selected walking speed. Results Fifty community-dwelling older adults with slow and variable gait participated. Hip extension, trunk flexion, and step width were factors related to the energy cost of walking. Hip extension, step width, and cadence were the only gait measures beyond age and gait speed that provided additional contributions to the variance of the energy cost, with mean R2 changes of .22, .12, and .07, respectively. Limitations Other factors not investigated in this study (interactions among variables, psychosocial factors, muscle strength [force-generating capacity], range of motion, body composition, and resting metabolic rate) may further explain the greater energy cost of walking in older adults with slow and variable gait. Conclusions Closer inspection of hip extension, step width, and cadence during physical therapy gait assessments may assist physical therapists in recognizing factors that contribute to the greater energy cost of walking in older adults. PMID:20488977

  18. Gait kinematics and passive knee joint range of motion in children with hypermobility syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fatoye, Francis A; Palmer, Shea; van der Linden, Marietta L; Rowe, Philip J; Macmillan, Fiona

    2011-03-01

    Hypermobility syndrome (HMS) is characterised by generalised joint laxity and musculoskeletal complaints. Gait abnormalities have been reported in children with HMS but have not been empirically investigated. The extent of passive knee joint range of motion (ROM) has also not been well reported in children with HMS. This study evaluated gait kinematics and passive knee joint ROM in children diagnosed with HMS and healthy controls. Thirty-seven healthy children (mean age±SD=11.5±2.6 years) and 29 children with HMS (mean age±SD=11.9±1.8 years) participated. Sagittal knee motion and gait speed were evaluated using a VICON 3D motion analysis system. Passive knee ROM was measured with a manual goniometer. Independent t-tests compared the values of sagittal knee motion and gait speed between the two groups. Mann-Whitney U tests compared passive knee ROM between groups. Passive ROM (extension and flexion) was significantly higher (both p<0.001) in children with HMS than the healthy controls. Peak knee flexion (during loading response and swing phase) during walking was significantly lower (both p<0.001) in children with HMS. Knee extension in mid stance during walking was significantly increased (p<0.001) in children with HMS. However, gait speed was not statistically (p=0.496) different between the two groups. Children with HMS had higher passive knee ROM than healthy children and also demonstrated abnormal knee motion during gait. Gait re-education and joint stability exercise programmes may be of value to children with HMS. PMID:21300548

  19. Effects of acceleration on gait measures in three horse gaits.

    PubMed

    Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Zarski, Lila; Aerts, Peter; Clayton, Hilary

    2015-05-01

    Animals switch gaits according to locomotor speed. In terrestrial locomotion, gaits have been defined according to footfall patterns or differences in center of mass (COM) motion, which characterizes mechanisms that are more general and more predictive than footfall patterns. This has generated different variables designed primarily to evaluate steady-speed locomotion, which is easier to standardize in laboratory conditions. However, in the ecology of an animal, steady-state conditions are rare and the ability to accelerate, decelerate and turn is essential. Currently, there are no data available that have tested whether COM variables can be used in accelerative or decelerative conditions. This study used a data set of kinematics and kinetics of horses using three gaits (walk, trot, canter) to evaluate the effects of acceleration (both positive and negative) on commonly used gait descriptors. The goal was to identify variables that distinguish between gaits both at steady state and during acceleration/deceleration. These variables will either be unaffected by acceleration or affected by it in a predictable way. Congruity, phase shift and COM velocity angle did not distinguish between gaits when the dataset included trials in unsteady conditions. Work (positive and negative) and energy recovery distinguished between gaits and showed a clear relationship with acceleration. Hodographs are interesting graphical representations to study COM mechanics, but they are descriptive rather than quantitative. Force angle, collision angle and collision fraction showed a U-shaped relationship with acceleration and seem promising tools for future research in unsteady conditions. PMID:25767145

  20. Expressing gait-line symmetry in able-bodied gait

    PubMed Central

    Jeleń, Piotr; Wit, Andrzej; Dudziński, Krzysztof; Nolan, Lee

    2008-01-01

    Background Gait-lines, or the co-ordinates of the progression of the point of application of the vertical ground reaction force, are a commonly reported parameter in most in-sole measuring systems. However, little is known about what is considered a "normal" or "abnormal" gait-line pattern or level of asymmetry. Furthermore, no reference databases on healthy young populations are available for this parameter. Thus the aim of this study is to provide such reference data in order to allow this tool to be better used in gait analysis. Methods Vertical ground reaction force data during several continuous gait cycles were collected using a Computer Dyno Graphy in-sole system® for 77 healthy young able-bodied subjects. A curve (termed gait-line) was obtained from the co-ordinates of the progression of the point of application of the force. An Asymmetry Coefficient Curve (AsC) was calculated between the mean gait-lines for the left and right foot for each subject. AsC limits of ± 1.96 and 3 standard deviations (SD) from the mean were then calculated. Gait-line data from 5 individual subjects displaying pathological gait due to disorders relating to the discopathy of the lumbar spine (three with considerable plantarflexor weakness, two with considerable dorsiflexor weakness) were compared to the AsC results from the able-bodied group. Results The ± 1.96 SD limit suggested that non-pathological gait falls within 12–16% asymmetry for gait-lines. Those exhibiting pathological gait fell outside both the ± 1.96 and ± 3SD limits at several points during stance. The subjects exhibiting considerable plantarflexor weakness all fell outside the ± 1.96SD limit from 30–50% of foot length to toe-off while those exhibiting considerable dorsiflexor weakness fell outside the ± 1.96SD limit between initial contact to 25–40% of foot length, and then surpassed the ± 3SD limit after 55–80% of foot length. Conclusion This analysis of gait-line asymmetry provides a reference

  1. Safety, Feasibility, and Reliability of the Maximal Step Length, Gait Speed, and Chair Test Measured by Seniors Themselves: The Senior Step Study.

    PubMed

    Bongers, Kim T; Schoon, Yvonne; Graauwmans, Maartje J; Hoogsteen-Ossewaarde, Marlies E; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2015-07-01

    Self-management of mobility and fall risk might be possible if older adults could use a simple and safe self-test to measure their own mobility, balance, and fall risk at home. The aim of this study was to determine the safety, feasibility, and intraindividual reliability of the maximal step length (MSL), gait speed (GS), and chair test (CT) as potential self-tests for assessing mobility and fall risk. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults performed MSL, GS, and CT at home once a week during a four-week period, wherein the feasibility, test-retest reliability, coefficients of variation, and linear mixed models with random effects of these three self-tests were determined. Forty-nine subjects (mean age 76.1 years [SD: 4.0], 19 females [42%]) completed the study without adverse effects. Compared with the other self-tests, MSL gave the most often (77.6%) valid measurement results and had the best intraclass correlation coefficients (0.95 [95% confidence interval: 0.91-0.97]). MSL and GS gave no significant training effect, whereas CT did show a significant training effect (p < .01). Community-dwelling older adults can perform MSL safely, correctly, and reliably, and GS safely and reliably. Further research is needed to study the responsiveness and beneficial effects of these self-tests on self-management of mobility and fall risk. PMID:25342646

  2. An Efficient Gait Recognition with Backpack Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Heesung; Hong, Sungjun; Kim, Euntai

    2009-12-01

    Gait-based human identification is a paradigm to recognize individuals using visual cues that characterize their walking motion. An important requirement for successful gait recognition is robustness to variations including different lighting conditions, poses, and walking speed. Deformation of the gait silhouette caused by objects carried by subjects also has a significant effect on the performance of gait recognition systems; a backpack is the most common of these objects. This paper proposes methods for eliminating the effect of a carried backpack for efficient gait recognition. We apply simple, recursive principal component analysis (PCA) reconstructions and error compensation to remove the backpack from the gait representation and then conduct gait recognition. Experiments performed with the CASIA database illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  3. Recovery of gait pattern after medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction for objective patellar instability.

    PubMed

    Carnesecchi, O; Philippot, R; Boyer, B; Farizon, F; Edouard, P

    2016-01-01

    Gait pattern alterations were previously reported in association with objective patellar instability (OPI). Gait pattern comparison between a series of patients having undergone medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction and a sample of control subjects. Thirty patients at 6 months postoperatively after MPFL reconstruction and thirty control subjects were enrolled in the study for a clinical and biomechanical assessment including gait analysis at three selected walking rates using the GAITRite(®) system. The mean raw IKDC score was 73 (± 19), and the mean Kujala knee function was 84 (± 17.5). The study of gait did not demonstrate any significant difference between the two groups at a normal and fast walking rate. At a 10 km/h running speed, the single-support phase was significantly shortened by a mean 2.33% (p < 0.05), the swing phase by a mean 2.64% (p < 0.05) and the double-support phase by a mean 3.49% (p < 0.05) on the operated side. MPFL reconstruction reported good midterm functional and clinical results in the management of OPI. At 6 months postoperatively, the patient gait pattern was similar to that observed in healthy subjects at a normal and fast walking speed. However, our study revealed persistent gait abnormalities at a 10 km/h running speed. These gait alterations seemed to be related to the ligament reconstruction in itself due to the higher strain applied on the reconstructed MPFL during running cycle (10 km/h). Level of evidence IV. PMID:25274090

  4. Comparison of Gait Aspects According to FES Stimulation Position Applied to Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Byeong-mu; Kim, Tae-ho; Lee, Jin-hwan; Lim, Jin-youg; Seo, Dong-kwon; Lee, Dong-jin

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study sought to identify the gait aspects according to the FES stimulation position in stroke patients during gait training. [Subjects and Methods] To perform gait analysis, ten stroke patients were grouped based on 4 types of gait conditions: gait without FES stimulation (non-FES), gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior (Ta), gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior and quadriceps (TaQ), and gait with FES stimulation on the tibialis anterior and gluteus medius (TaGm). [Results] Based on repeated measures analysis of variance of measurements of gait aspects comprised of gait speed, gait cycle, and step length according to the FES stimulation position, the FES stimulation significantly affected gait aspects. [Conclusion] In conclusion, stimulating the tibialis anterior and quadriceps and stimulating the tibialis anterior and gluteus medius are much more effective than stimulating only the tibialis anterior during gait training in stroke patients using FES. PMID:24764634

  5. Mixed gaits in small avian terrestrial locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Andrada, Emanuel; Haase, Daniel; Sutedja, Yefta; Nyakatura, John A.; M. Kilbourne, Brandon; Denzler, Joachim; Fischer, Martin S.; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have historically categorized gaits discretely (e.g. regular gaits such as walking, running). However, previous results suggest that animals such as birds might mix or regularly or stochastically switch between gaits while maintaining a steady locomotor speed. Here, we combined a novel and completely automated large-scale study (over one million frames) on motions of the center of mass in several bird species (quail, oystercatcher, northern lapwing, pigeon, and avocet) with numerical simulations. The birds studied do not strictly prefer walking mechanics at lower speeds or running mechanics at higher speeds. Moreover, our results clearly display that the birds in our study employ mixed gaits (such as one step walking followed by one step using running mechanics) more often than walking and, surprisingly, maybe as often as grounded running. Using a bio-inspired model based on parameters obtained from real quails, we found two types of stable mixed gaits. In the first, both legs exhibit different gait mechanics, whereas in the second, legs gradually alternate from one gait mechanics into the other. Interestingly, mixed gaits parameters mostly overlap those of grounded running. Thus, perturbations or changes in the state induce a switch from grounded running to mixed gaits or vice versa. PMID:26333477

  6. Longitudinal assessment of neuropsychological and temporal/spatial gait characteristics of elderly fallers: taking it all in stride

    PubMed Central

    MacAulay, Rebecca K.; Allaire, Ted D.; Brouillette, Robert M.; Foil, Heather C.; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J.; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D.; Keller, Jeffrey N.

    2015-01-01

    Gait abnormalities are linked to cognitive decline and an increased fall risk within older adults. The present study addressed gaps from cross-sectional studies in the literature by longitudinally examining the interplay between temporal and spatial aspects of gait, cognitive function, age, and lower-extremity strength in elderly “fallers” and “non-fallers”. Gait characteristics, neuropsychological and physical test performance were examined at two time points spaced a year apart in cognitively intact individuals aged 60 and older (N = 416). Mixed-model repeated-measure ANCOVAs examined temporal (step time) and spatial (stride length) gait characteristics during a simple and cognitive-load walking task in fallers as compared to non-fallers. Fallers consistently demonstrated significant alterations in spatial, but not temporal, aspects of gait as compared to non-fallers during both walking tasks. Step time became slower as stride length shortened amongst all participants during the dual task. Shorter strides and slower step times during the dual task were both predicted by worse executive attention/processing speed performance. In summary, divided attention significantly impacts spatial aspects of gait in “fallers”, suggesting stride length changes may precede declines in other neuropsychological and gait characteristics, thereby selectively increasing fall risk. Our results indicate that multimodal intervention approaches that integrate physical and cognitive remediation strategies may increase the effectiveness of fall risk interventions. PMID:25852548

  7. Longitudinal assessment of neuropsychological and temporal/spatial gait characteristics of elderly fallers: taking it all in stride.

    PubMed

    MacAulay, Rebecca K; Allaire, Ted D; Brouillette, Robert M; Foil, Heather C; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2015-01-01

    Gait abnormalities are linked to cognitive decline and an increased fall risk within older adults. The present study addressed gaps from cross-sectional studies in the literature by longitudinally examining the interplay between temporal and spatial aspects of gait, cognitive function, age, and lower-extremity strength in elderly "fallers" and "non-fallers". Gait characteristics, neuropsychological and physical test performance were examined at two time points spaced a year apart in cognitively intact individuals aged 60 and older (N = 416). Mixed-model repeated-measure ANCOVAs examined temporal (step time) and spatial (stride length) gait characteristics during a simple and cognitive-load walking task in fallers as compared to non-fallers. Fallers consistently demonstrated significant alterations in spatial, but not temporal, aspects of gait as compared to non-fallers during both walking tasks. Step time became slower as stride length shortened amongst all participants during the dual task. Shorter strides and slower step times during the dual task were both predicted by worse executive attention/processing speed performance. In summary, divided attention significantly impacts spatial aspects of gait in "fallers", suggesting stride length changes may precede declines in other neuropsychological and gait characteristics, thereby selectively increasing fall risk. Our results indicate that multimodal intervention approaches that integrate physical and cognitive remediation strategies may increase the effectiveness of fall risk interventions. PMID:25852548

  8. Hysteresis in the metachronal-tripod gait transition of insects: A modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiki, Soichiro; Aoi, Shinya; Funato, Tetsuro; Tomita, Nozomi; Senda, Kei; Tsuchiya, Kazuo

    2013-07-01

    Locomotion in biological systems involves various gaits, and hysteresis appears when the gaits change in accordance with the locomotion speed. That is, the gaits vary at different locomotion speeds depending on the direction of speed change. Although hysteresis is a typical characteristic of nonlinear dynamic systems, the underlying mechanism for the hysteresis in gait transitions remains largely unclear. In this study, we construct a neuromechanical model of an insect and investigate the dynamic characteristics of its gait and gait transition. The simulation results show that our insect model produces metachronal and tripod gaits depending on the locomotion speed through dynamic interactions among the body mechanical system, the nervous system, and the environment in a self-organized manner. They also show that it undergoes the metachronal-tripod gait transition with hysteresis by changing the locomotion speed. We examined the hysteresis mechanism in the metachronal-tripod gait transition of insects from a dynamic viewpoint.

  9. Gait transitions in simulated reduced gravity.

    PubMed

    Ivanenko, Yuri P; Labini, Francesca Sylos; Cappellini, Germana; Macellari, Velio; McIntyre, Joseph; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Gravity has a strong effect on gait and the speed of gait transitions. A gait has been defined as a pattern of locomotion that changes discontinuously at the transition to another gait. On Earth, during gradual speed changes, humans exhibit a sudden discontinuous switch from walking to running at a specific speed. To study the effects of altered gravity on both the stance and swing legs, we developed a novel unloading exoskeleton that allows a person to step in simulated reduced gravity by tilting the body relative to the vertical. Using different simulation techniques, we confirmed that at lower gravity levels the transition speed is slower (in accordance with the previously reported Froude number ∼0.5). Surprisingly, however, we found that at lower levels of simulated gravity the transition between walking and running was generally gradual, without any noticeable abrupt change in gait parameters. This was associated with a significant prolongation of the swing phase, whose duration became virtually equal to that of stance in the vicinity of the walk-run transition speed, and with a gradual shift from inverted-pendulum gait (walking) to bouncing gait (running). PMID:21212248

  10. Relationship between muscle impairments, postural stability, and gait parameters assessed with lower-trunk accelerometry in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Bachasson, Damien; Moraux, Amélie; Ollivier, Gwenn; Decostre, Valérie; Ledoux, Isabelle; Gidaro, Teresa; Servais, Laurent; Behin, Anthony; Stojkovic, Tanya; Hébert, Luc J; Puymirat, Jack; Eymard, Bruno; Bassez, Guillaume; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated gait using lower-trunk accelerometry and investigated relationships between gait abnormalities, postural instability, handgrip myotonia, and weakness in lower-limb and axial muscle groups commonly affected in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Twenty-two patients (11 men, 11 women; age = 42 years (range: 26-51)) with DM1 and twenty healthy controls (9 men, 11 women; age = 44 years (range: 24-50)) participated in this study. Gait analysis using lower-trunk accelerometry was performed at self-selected walking pace. Postural stability was measured via center of pressure displacement analysis using a force platform during eyes-closed normal stance. Handgrip myotonia was quantified using force-relaxation curve modeling. Patients displayed lower walking speed, stride frequency, stride length, gait regularity, and gait symmetry. Strength of ankle plantar flexors, ankle dorsal flexors and neck flexors correlated with interstride regularity in the vertical direction (ρ = 0.57, ρ = 0.59, and ρ = 0.44, respectively; all P < 0.05). Knee extension strength correlated with gait symmetry in the anteroposterior direction (ρ = 0.45, P < 0.05). Center of pressure velocity was greater in patients and correlated with neck flexion and ankle plantar flexion weakness (ρ = -0.51 and ρ = -0.62, respectively; both P < 0.05), and with interstride regularity in the vertical direction (ρ = -0.58, P < 0.05). No correlation was found between handgrip myotonia and any other variable studied. Lower-trunk accelerometry allows the characterization of gait pattern abnormalities in patients with DM1. Further studies are required to determine the relevance of systematic gait analysis using lower-trunk accelerometry for patient follow-up and intervention planning. PMID:27234310

  11. Support vector machines for automated gait classification.

    PubMed

    Begg, Rezaul K; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Owen, Brendan

    2005-05-01

    Ageing influences gait patterns causing constant threats to control of locomotor balance. Automated recognition of gait changes has many advantages including, early identification of at-risk gait and monitoring the progress of treatment outcomes. In this paper, we apply an artificial intelligence technique [support vector machines (SVM)] for the automatic recognition of young-old gait types from their respective gait-patterns. Minimum foot clearance (MFC) data of 30 young and 28 elderly participants were analyzed using a PEAK-2D motion analysis system during a 20-min continuous walk on a treadmill at self-selected walking speed. Gait features extracted from individual MFC histogram-plot and Poincaré-plot images were used to train the SVM. Cross-validation test results indicate that the generalization performance of the SVM was on average 83.3% (+/-2.9) to recognize young and elderly gait patterns, compared to a neural network's accuracy of 75.0+/-5.0%. A "hill-climbing" feature selection algorithm demonstrated that a small subset (3-5) of gait features extracted from MFC plots could differentiate the gait patterns with 90% accuracy. Performance of the gait classifier was evaluated using areas under the receiver operating characteristic plots. Improved performance of the classifier was evident when trained with reduced number of selected good features and with radial basis function kernel. These results suggest that SVMs can function as an efficient gait classifier for recognition of young and elderly gait patterns, and has the potential for wider applications in gait identification for falls-risk minimization in the elderly. PMID:15887532

  12. The accuracy with which the 5 times sit-to-stand test, versus gait speed, can identify poor exercise tolerance in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Bernabeu-Mora, Roberto; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Llamazares-Herrán, Eduardo; de Oliveira-Sousa, Silvana Loana; Sánchez-Martinez, Mª Piedad; Escolar-Reina, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Identifying those patients who underperform in the 6-minute walk test (6MWT <350 m), and the reasons for their poor performance, is a major concern in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To explore the accuracy and relevance of the 4-m gait-speed (4MGS) test, and the 5-repetition sit-to-stand (5STS) test, as diagnostic markers, and clinical determinants, of poor performance in the 6MWT. We recruited 137 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to participate in our cross-sectional study. Patients completed the 4MGS and 5STS tests, with quantitative (in seconds) and qualitative ordinal data collected; the latter were categorized using a scale of 0 to 4. The following potential covariates and clinical determinants of poor 6MWT were collated: age, quadriceps muscle-strength (QMS), health status, dyspnea, depression, and airflow limitation. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve data (AUC) was used to assess accuracy, with logistic regression used to explore relevance as clinical determinants. The AUCs generated using the 4MGS and 5STS tests were comparable, at 0.719 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.629–0.809) and 0.711 (95% CI 0.613–0.809), respectively. With ordinal data, the 5STS test was most accurate (AUC of 0.732; 95% CI 0.645–0.819); the 4MGS test showed poor discriminatory power (AUC <0.7), although accuracy improved (0.726, 95% CI 0.637–0.816) when covariates were included. Unlike the 4MGS test, the 5STS test provided a significant clinical determinant of a poor 6MWT (odds ratio 1.23, 95% CI 1.05–1.44). The 5STS test reliably predicts a poor 6MWT, especially when using ordinal data. Used alone, the 4MGS test is reliable when measured with continuous data. PMID:27583918

  13. Acoustic Gaits: Gait Analysis With Footstep Sounds.

    PubMed

    Altaf, M Umair Bin; Butko, Taras; Juang, Biing-Hwang Fred

    2015-08-01

    We describe the acoustic gaits-the natural human gait quantitative characteristics derived from the sound of footsteps as the person walks normally. We introduce the acoustic gait profile, which is obtained from temporal signal analysis of sound of footsteps collected by microphones and illustrate some of the spatio-temporal gait parameters that can be extracted from the acoustic gait profile by using three temporal signal analysis methods-the squared energy estimate, Hilbert transform and Teager-Kaiser energy operator. Based on the statistical analysis of the parameter estimates, we show that the spatio-temporal parameters and gait characteristics obtained using the acoustic gait profile can consistently and reliably estimate a subset of clinical and biometric gait parameters currently in use for standardized gait assessments. We conclude that the Teager-Kaiser energy operator provides the most consistent gait parameter estimates showing the least variation across different sessions and zones. Acoustic gaits use an inexpensive set of microphones with a computing device as an accurate and unintrusive gait analysis system. This is in contrast to the expensive and intrusive systems currently used in laboratory gait analysis such as the force plates, pressure mats and wearable sensors, some of which may change the gait parameters that are being measured. PMID:25769144

  14. Modeling and simulation of normal and hemiparetic gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luengas, Lely A.; Camargo, Esperanza; Sanchez, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Gait is the collective term for the two types of bipedal locomotion, walking and running. This paper is focused on walking. The analysis of human gait is of interest to many different disciplines, including biomechanics, human-movement science, rehabilitation and medicine in general. Here we present a new model that is capable of reproducing the properties of walking, normal and pathological. The aim of this paper is to establish the biomechanical principles that underlie human walking by using Lagrange method. The constraint forces of Rayleigh dissipation function, through which to consider the effect on the tissues in the gait, are included. Depending on the value of the factor present in the Rayleigh dissipation function, both normal and pathological gait can be simulated. First of all, we apply it in the normal gait and then in the permanent hemiparetic gait. Anthropometric data of adult person are used by simulation, and it is possible to use anthropometric data for children but is necessary to consider existing table of anthropometric data. Validation of these models includes simulations of passive dynamic gait that walk on level ground. The dynamic walking approach provides a new perspective of gait analysis, focusing on the kinematics and kinetics of gait. There have been studies and simulations to show normal human gait, but few of them have focused on abnormal, especially hemiparetic gait. Quantitative comparisons of the model predictions with gait measurements show that the model can reproduce the significant characteristics of normal gait.

  15. Effects of orthosis on balance and gait in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung-Joon; Choi, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of an oral orthosis that can change body alignment on the balance ability and gait of healthy adults. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 21 University students. A gait analyzer was used to analyze the subjects’ balance ability and gait quality. Two walking speeds were used: 2 km/h, a comfortable speed, and 4 km/h, a slightly faster walking speed. [Results] The step length, and base of gait at 2 km/h differed significantly after the intervention. The total step time and step length increased significantly after the intervention. Furthermore, the total base of gait decreased significantly after the intervention. The step times of the left lower limb at 4 km/h differed significantly after the intervention. [Conclusion] The oral orthosis tested positively affects the balance ability and gait of healthy adults. PMID:26180365

  16. Diabetic Foot Biomechanics and Gait Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wrobel, James S.; Najafi, Bijan

    2010-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot complications represent significant morbidity and precede most of the lower extremity amputations performed. Peripheral neuropathy is a frequent complication of diabetes shown to affect gait. Glycosylation of soft tissues can also affect gait. The purpose of this review article is to highlight the changes in gait for persons with diabetes and highlight the effects of glycosylation on soft tissues at the foot–ground interface. Methods PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and EBSCOhost® on-line databases were searched for articles pertaining to diabetes and gait. Bibliographies from relevant manuscripts were also searched. Findings Patients with diabetes frequently exhibit a conservative gait strategy where there is slower walking speed, wider base of gait, and prolonged double support time. Glycosylation affects are observed in the lower extremities. Initially, skin thickness decreases and skin hardness increases; tendons thicken; muscles atrophy and exhibit activation delays; bones become less dense; joints have limited mobility; and fat pads are less thick, demonstrate fibrotic atrophy, migrate distally, and may be stiffer. Interpretation In conclusion, there do appear to be gait changes in patients with diabetes. These changes, coupled with local soft tissue changes from advanced glycosylated end products, also alter a patient’s gait, putting them at risk of foot ulceration. Better elucidation of these changes throughout the entire spectrum of diabetes disease can help design better treatments and potentially reduce the unnecessarily high prevalence of foot ulcers and amputation. PMID:20663446

  17. Enhancing robotic gait training via augmented feedback.

    PubMed

    Patritti, Benjamin; Sicari, Monica; Deming, Lynn; Romaguera, Fernanda; Pelliccio, Marlena; Benedetti, Maria Grazia; Nimec, Donna; Bonato, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Recent work has examined the feasibility of robotic-assisted gait training in pediatric patients, including children with cerebral palsy (CP). Herein we present a case series describing clinical outcomes in four children with CP who underwent gait training using a robotic driven gait orthosis (DGO) (Pediatric Lokomat©). Children had a diagnosis of spastic diplegia due to CP. They were paired based on functional abilities and observed gait characteristics. Two children had a GMFCS of III and showed excessive ankle plantarflexion during stance. The other two children had a GMFCS of II and displayed a crouch gait pattern. Each subject participated in a 6-week intervention of robotic-assisted gait training that involved three 30-minute sessions per week. Pre-and post-training evaluations were performed including clinical tests of standing and walking function, walking speed, and walking endurance. Clinical gait analysis was also performed using a motion capture system to assess changes in gait mechanics. All subjects showed an improvement in locomotor function. For lower functioning children, this may be mediated by improved trunk control. The use of augmented feedback was associated with larger. However, these results have to be considered with caution because of the limited sample size of the study. PMID:21097013

  18. A foot drop correcting FES envelope design method using tibialis anterior EMG during healthy gait with a new walking speed control strategy.

    PubMed

    Chen, M; Wang, Q B; Lou, X X; Xu, K; Zheng, X X

    2010-01-01

    Restoring walking functions will greatly improve the foot-drop patients' life quality. In this work, we sampled 10 healthy subjects' gait data when walking in 4 different stride frequency overground and developed a dynamic Functional Electrical Stimulation (dFES) system for foot-drop patients' walk training, using the processed tibialis anterior (TA) muscle EMG signal. The data sampled under the new strategy can be used by FES system directly. And the dFES system can provide dynamic Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) FES serial according to the healthy subjects' TA EMG intensity features. PMID:21096659

  19. Biology of gait control

    PubMed Central

    Annweiler, C.; Verghese, J.; Fantino, B.; Herrmann, F.R.; Allali, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adverse neuromuscular events have been described in case of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations, suggesting that vitamin D may be involved in gait stability. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between stride-to-stride variability of stride time (STV) and serum 25OHD concentration in adults aged 65 years and older. Methods: STV and 25OHD concentration were assessed in 411 community-dwelling older adults (mean age 70.4 ± 1.8 years, 57.9% women). The following established 25OHD thresholds were used: severe 25OHD insufficiency <10 ng/mL, moderate 10–30 ng/mL, and normal >30 ng/mL. Age, number of drugs used per day, use of psychoactive drugs, depressive symptoms, cognitive decline, history of falls, distance visual acuity, lower limb proprioception, center of mass (CoM) motion, and walking speed were considered as potential confounders. Results: A total of 16.6% (n = 68) of subjects had severe 25OHD insufficiency, 70.3% (n = 289) moderate insufficiency, and 13.1% (n = 54) normal concentrations. In the full adjusted and the stepwise backward linear regression models, high STV (worse performance) was associated with severe 25OHD insufficiency (p = 0.028 and p = 0.044, respectively), high CoM motion (p = 0.031 and p = 0.014, respectively), and low lower limb proprioception score (p = 0.017 and p = 0.008, respectively). The stepwise backward regression model also showed that high STV was associated with female gender (p = 0.041). Conclusions: Low serum 25OHD concentrations were associated with high STV reflecting a disturbed gait control. This association could be explained by a possible action of vitamin D on different components involved in gait control. PMID:21471466

  20. Gait-Based Human Identification Using Appearance Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, A.; Cuntoor, N.; Yegnanarayana, B.; Rajagopalan, A. N.; Chellappa, R.

    In this chapter, we present an appearance-based approach for recognizing human gait. Given the gait video of an individual, the images are binarized and the width of the outer contour of the silhouette of that individual is obtained for each image frame. Several gait features are derived from this basic width vector. Temporally ordered sequences of the feature vectors are then used to represent the gait of a person. While matching the feature templates for recognition, dynamic time-warping (DTW), which is a nonlinear time-normalization technique, is used to deal with naturally occurring changes in the walking speeds of individuals. The performance of the proposed method is tested on indoor as well as outdoor gait databases, and the efficacy of different gait features and their noise resilience is studied. The experiments also demonstrate the effect of change in the viewing angle and frame rate of data capture on the accuracy of gait recognition.

  1. Gait stability in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Millard, Matthew; van Gestel, Leen; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) have several gait impairments, amongst which impaired gait stability may be one. We tested whether a newly developed stability measure (the foot placement estimator, FPE) which does not require long data series, can be used to asses gait stability in typically developing (TD) children as well as children with CP. In doing so, we tested the FPE’s sensitivity to the assumptions needed to calculate this measure, as well as the ability of the FPE to detect differences in stability between children with CP and TD children, and differences in walking speed. Participants were asked to walk at two different speeds, while gait kinematics were recorded. From these data, the FPE, as well as the error that violations of assumptions of the FPE could have caused were calculated. The results showed that children with CP walked with marked instabilities in anterior-posterior and mediolateral directions. Furthermore, errors caused by violations of assumptions in calculation of FPE were only small (~1.5 cm), while effects of walking speed (~20 cm per m/s increase in walking speed) and group (~5cm) were much larger. These results suggest that the FPE may be used to quantify gait stability in TD children and children with CP. PMID:23500163

  2. Classification of Parkinson's Disease Gait Using Spatial-Temporal Gait Features.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Ferdous; Begg, Rezaul K; Hass, Chris J; Halgamuge, Saman; Ackland, David C

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative gait assessment is important in diagnosis and management of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, gait characteristics of a cohort are dispersed by patient physical properties including age, height, body mass, and gender, as well as walking speed, which may limit capacity to discern some pathological features. The aim of this study was twofold. First, to use a multiple regression normalization strategy that accounts for subject age, height, body mass, gender, and self-selected walking speed to identify differences in spatial-temporal gait features between PD patients and controls; and second, to evaluate the effectiveness of machine learning strategies in classifying PD gait after gait normalization. Spatial-temporal gait data during self-selected walking were obtained from 23 PD patients and 26 aged-matched controls. Data were normalized using standard dimensionless equations and multiple regression normalization. Machine learning strategies were then employed to classify PD gait using the raw gait data, data normalized using dimensionless equations, and data normalized using the multiple regression approach. After normalizing data using the dimensionless equations, only stride length, step length, and double support time were significantly different between PD patients and controls (p < 0.05); however, normalizing data using the multiple regression method revealed significant differences in stride length, cadence, stance time, and double support time. Random Forest resulted in a PD classification accuracy of 92.6% after normalizing gait data using the multiple regression approach, compared to 80.4% (support vector machine) and 86.2% (kernel Fisher discriminant) using raw data and data normalized using dimensionless equations, respectively. Our multiple regression normalization approach will assist in diagnosis and treatment of PD using spatial-temporal gait data. PMID:26551989

  3. Gait variability and basal ganglia disorders: stride-to-stride variations of gait cycle timing in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Firtion, R.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    The basal ganglia are thought to play an important role in regulating motor programs involved in gait and in the fluidity and sequencing of movement. We postulated that the ability to maintain a steady gait, with low stride-to-stride variability of gait cycle timing and its subphases, would be diminished with both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). To test this hypothesis, we obtained quantitative measures of stride-to-stride variability of gait cycle timing in subjects with PD (n = 15), HD (n = 20), and disease-free controls (n = 16). All measures of gait variability were significantly increased in PD and HD. In subjects with PD and HD, gait variability measures were two and three times that observed in control subjects, respectively. The degree of gait variability correlated with disease severity. In contrast, gait speed was significantly lower in PD, but not in HD, and average gait cycle duration and the time spent in many subphases of the gait cycle were similar in control subjects, HD subjects, and PD subjects. These findings are consistent with a differential control of gait variability, speed, and average gait cycle timing that may have implications for understanding the role of the basal ganglia in locomotor control and for quantitatively assessing gait in clinical settings.

  4. Survey of Gait Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ling-Feng; Jia, Wei; Zhu, Yi-Hai

    Gait recognition, the process of identifying an individual by his /her walking style, is a relatively new research area. It has been receiving wide attention in the computer vision community. In this paper, a comprehensive survey of video based gait recognition approaches is presented. And the research challenges and future directions of the gait recognition are also discussed.

  5. Loadcell supports for a dynamic force plate. [using piezoelectric tranducers and electromyography to study human gait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, C. W.; Musil, L. M.; Hagy, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus was developed to accurately measure components of force along three mutually perpendicular axes, torque, and the center of pressure imposed by the foot of a subject walking over its surface. The data obtained were used to supplement high-speed motion picture and electromyographic (EMG) data for in-depth studies of normal or abnormal human gait. Significant features of the design (in particular, the mechanisms used to support the loadcell transducers) are described. Results of the development program and typical data obtained with the device are presented and discussed.

  6. Perception of gait patterns that deviate from normal and symmetric biped locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Handžić, Ismet; Reed, Kyle B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the range of gait patterns that are perceived as healthy and human-like with the goal of understanding how much asymmetry is allowable in a gait pattern before other people start to notice a gait impairment. Specifically, this study explores if certain abnormal walking patterns can be dismissed as unimpaired or not uncanny. Altering gait biomechanics is generally done in the fields of prosthetics and rehabilitation, however the perception of gait is often neglected. Although a certain gait can be functional, it may not be considered as normal by observers. On the other hand, an abnormally perceived gait may be more practical or necessary in some situations, such as limping after an injury or stroke and when wearing a prosthesis. This research will help to find the balance between the form and function of gait. Gait patterns are synthetically created using a passive dynamic walker (PDW) model that allows gait patterns to be systematically changed without the confounding influence from human sensorimotor feedback during walking. This standardized method allows the perception of specific changes in gait to be studied. The PDW model was used to produce walking patterns that showed a degree of abnormality in gait cadence, knee height, step length, and swing time created by changing the foot roll-over-shape, knee damping, knee location, and leg masses. The gait patterns were shown to participants who rated them according to separate scales of impairment and uncanniness. The results indicate that some pathological and asymmetric gait patterns are perceived as unimpaired and normal. Step time and step length asymmetries less than 5%, small knee location differences, and gait cadence changes of 25% do not result in a change in perception. The results also show that the parameters of a pathologically or uncanny perceived gait can be beneficially altered by increasing other independent parameters, in some sense masking the initial pathology. PMID:25774144

  7. Sporadic hyperekplexia presenting with an ataxic gait.

    PubMed

    Rouco, Idoia; Bilbao, Iker; Losada, Jose; Maestro, Iratxe; Zarranz, Juan Jose

    2014-02-01

    We describe a 62-year-old man with a sporadic form of hyperekplexia who presented with an unsteady gait, present since the age of 47. His clinical examination revealed an insecure broad-based gait and difficulty with tandem walking but no other abnormalities. For nearly a decade the patient was misdiagnosed with an idiopathic ataxia. A video electroencephalogram combined with an electromyogram during sudden auditory stimulus demonstrated an excessive startle response. An extensive work-up ruled out all the known causes of symptomatic hyperekplexia including anti-glycine receptor antibodies. Treatment with clonazepam markedly reduced the threshold and intensity of the startle response, enabling him to recover independence. Hyperekplexia is frequently associated with an awkward and hesitating gait, but these gait abnormalities might be confused with other causes of gait disorders if one is not aware of this disease. We report this patient to highlight that a correct diagnosis of hyperekplexia is crucial, because its treatment may change quality of life. PMID:24054400

  8. Gait Initiation in Children with Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Isaias, Ioannis Ugo; Dipaola, Mariangela; Michi, Marlies; Marzegan, Alberto; Volkmann, Jens; Rodocanachi Roidi, Marina L.; Frigo, Carlo Albino; Cavallari, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental condition mainly characterized by loss of spoken language and a regression of purposeful hand use, with the development of distinctive hand stereotypies, and gait abnormalities. Gait initiation is the transition from quiet stance to steady-state condition of walking. The associated motor program seems to be centrally mediated and includes preparatory adjustments prior to any apparent voluntary movement of the lower limbs. Anticipatory postural adjustments contribute to postural stability and to create the propulsive forces necessary to reach steady-state gait at a predefined velocity and may be indicative of the effectiveness of the feedforward control of gait. In this study, we examined anticipatory postural adjustments associated with gait initiation in eleven girls with Rett syndrome and ten healthy subjects. Muscle activity (tibialis anterior and soleus muscles), ground reaction forces and body kinematic were recorded. Children with Rett syndrome showed a distinctive impairment in temporal organization of all phases of the anticipatory postural adjustments. The lack of appropriate temporal scaling resulted in a diminished impulse to move forward, documented by an impairment in several parameters describing the efficiency of gait start: length and velocity of the first step, magnitude and orientation of centre of pressure-centre of mass vector at the instant of (swing-)toe off. These findings were related to an abnormal muscular activation pattern mainly characterized by a disruption of the synergistic activity of antagonistic pairs of postural muscles. This study showed that girls with Rett syndrome lack accurate tuning of feedforward control of gait. PMID:24743294

  9. Gait Characteristics over the Course of a Race in Recreational Marathon Competitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, John E. A.; Prebeau-Menezes, Leif; Szarko, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed gait and function of the supporting limb in participants of a marathon race at three stages: prerace, midrace (18 km), and near the end of the race (36 km). We confirmed that the most successful runners were able to maintain running speed for the duration of the race with little change in speed or gait. Speed slowed progressively…

  10. Experimentally Derived Kinetic Model for Sensor-Based Gait Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ketema, Yohannes; Gebre-Egziabher, Demoz

    2016-01-01

    A method for estimating gait parameters (shank, thigh, and stance leg angles) from a single, in situ, scalar acceleration measurement is presented. A method for minimizing the impact of errors due to unpredictable variations in muscle actuation and acceleration measurement biases is developed. This is done by determining the most probable gait progression by minimization of a cost function that reflects the size of errors in the gait parameters. In addition, a model for gait patterns that takes into account their variations due to walking speed is introduced and used. The approach is tested on data collected from subjects in a gait study. The approach can estimate limb angles with errors less than 6 deg (one standard deviation) and, thus, is suitable for many envisioned gait monitoring applications in nonlaboratory settings. PMID:26593150

  11. Identification of muscle synergies associated with gait transition in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hagio, Shota; Fukuda, Mizuho; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2015-01-01

    There is no theoretical or empirical evidence to suggest how the central nervous system (CNS) controls a variety of muscles associated with gait transition between walking and running. Here, we examined the motor control during a gait transition based on muscle synergies, which modularly organize functionally similar muscles. To this end, the subjects walked or ran on a treadmill and performed a gait transition spontaneously as the treadmill speed increased or decreased (a changing speed condition) or voluntarily following an experimenter’s instruction at constant treadmill speed (a constant speed condition). Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from 11 lower limb muscles bilaterally. We then extracted the muscle weightings of synergies and their activation coefficients from the EMG data using non-negative matrix factorization. As a result, the gait transition was controlled by approximately 9 muscle synergies, which were common during a walking and running, and their activation profiles were changed before and after a gait transition. Near a gait transition, the peak activation phases of the synergies, which were composed of plantar flexor muscles, were shifted to an earlier phase at the walk-to-run transition, and vice versa. The shifts were gradual in the changing speed condition, but an abrupt change was observed in the constant speed condition. These results suggest that the CNS low-dimensionally regulate the activation profiles of the specific synergies based on afferent information (spontaneous gait transition) or by changing only the descending neural input to the muscle synergies (voluntary gait transition) to achieve a gait transition. PMID:25713525

  12. Biofeedback for robotic gait rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Lünenburger, Lars; Colombo, Gery; Riener, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Background Development and increasing acceptance of rehabilitation robots as well as advances in technology allow new forms of therapy for patients with neurological disorders. Robot-assisted gait therapy can increase the training duration and the intensity for the patients while reducing the physical strain for the therapist. Optimal training effects during gait therapy generally depend on appropriate feedback about performance. Compared to manual treadmill therapy, there is a loss of physical interaction between therapist and patient with robotic gait retraining. Thus, it is difficult for the therapist to assess the necessary feedback and instructions. The aim of this study was to define a biofeedback system for a gait training robot and test its usability in subjects without neurological disorders. Methods To provide an overview of biofeedback and motivation methods applied in gait rehabilitation, previous publications and results from our own research are reviewed. A biofeedback method is presented showing how a rehabilitation robot can assess the patients' performance and deliver augmented feedback. For validation, three subjects without neurological disorders walked in a rehabilitation robot for treadmill training. Several training parameters, such as body weight support and treadmill speed, were varied to assess the robustness of the biofeedback calculation to confounding factors. Results The biofeedback values correlated well with the different activity levels of the subjects. Changes in body weight support and treadmill velocity had a minor effect on the biofeedback values. The synchronization of the robot and the treadmill affected the biofeedback values describing the stance phase. Conclusion Robot-aided assessment and feedback can extend and improve robot-aided training devices. The presented method estimates the patients' gait performance with the use of the robot's existing sensors, and displays the resulting biofeedback values to the patients and

  13. Effects of conventional overground gait training and a gait trainer with partial body weight support on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the effects of both conventional overground gait training (CGT) and a gait trainer with partial body weight support (GTBWS) on spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients with hemiparesis following chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty stroke patients were alternately assigned to one of two treatment groups, and both groups underwent CGT and GTBWS. [Results] The functional ambulation classification on the affected side improved significantly in the CGT and GTBWS groups. Walking speed also improved significantly in both groups. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the GTBWS in company with CGT may be, in part, an effective method of gait training for restoring gait ability in patients after a stroke. PMID:26157272

  14. Gait Analysis Methods for Rodent Models of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Brittany Y.; Kloefkorn, Heidi E.; Allen, Kyle D.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) primarily seek treatment due to pain and disability, yet the primary endpoints for rodent OA models tend to be histological measures of joint destruction. The discrepancy between clinical and preclinical evaluations is problematic, given that radiographic evidence of OA in humans does not always correlate to the severity of patient-reported symptoms. Recent advances in behavioral analyses have provided new methods to evaluate disease sequelae in rodents. Of particular relevance to rodent OA models are methods to assess rodent gait. While obvious differences exist between quadrupedal and bipedal gait sequences, the gait abnormalities seen in humans and in rodent OA models reflect similar compensatory behaviors that protect an injured limb from loading. The purpose of this review is to describe these compensations and current methods used to assess rodent gait characteristics, while detailing important considerations for the selection of gait analysis methods in rodent OA models. PMID:25160712

  15. Effect of external cueing on gait in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Delval, Arnaud; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Delliaux, Marie; Blatt, Jean-Louis; Derambure, Philippe; Destée, Alain; Defebvre, Luc

    2008-07-30

    In Huntington's disease (HD) patients, gait is characterized by a timing disorder with marked intraindividual variability in temporal gait parameters (caused by the presence of both hyperkinetic and hypokinetic features). We sought to determine the influence of use of a metronome on gait parameters in patients simultaneously performing motor or cognitive tasks that required attentional resources. The objective is to evaluate the influence of rhythmic cues on gait interference during self-regulated walking and a dual task paradigm in HD. Fifteen HD patients and 15 paired controls were asked to walk and simultaneously perform another motor task (carrying a tray with four full glasses) or a cognitive task (counting backwards). We evaluated the effect of a metronome (set at 100% and 120% of the subject's self-determined cadence) in three different task conditions (gait alone, gait + motor task, gait + cognitive task). The use of auditory cues during free gait and dual tasks did not improve kinematic parameters in HD patients, in contrast to the situation for control subjects (improvement in gait speed and cadence but not stride length when the metronome was set at 120% in all conditions). HD patients have difficulty in synchronizing their footsteps with a metronome, mainly due to attentional deficits. PMID:18512747

  16. Animal Gaits and Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubitsky, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Many gaits of four-legged animals are described by symmetry. For example, when a horse paces it moves both left legs in unison and then both right legs and so on. The motion is described by two symmetries: Interchange front and back legs, and swap left and right legs with a half-period phase shift. Biologists postulate the existence of a central pattern generator (CPG) in the neuronal system that sends periodic signals to the legs. CPGs can be thought of as electrical circuits that produce periodic signals and can be modeled by systems with symmetry. In this lecture we discuss animal gaits; use gait symmetries to construct a simplest CPG architecture that naturally produces quadrupedal gait rhythms; and make several testable predictions about gaits.

  17. Recognition using gait.

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Mark William

    2007-09-01

    Gait or an individual's manner of walking, is one approach for recognizing people at a distance. Studies in psychophysics and medicine indicate that humans can recognize people by their gait and have found twenty-four different components to gait that taken together make it a unique signature. Besides not requiring close sensor contact, gait also does not necessarily require a cooperative subject. Using video data of people walking in different scenarios and environmental conditions we develop and test an algorithm that uses shape and motion to identify people from their gait. The algorithm uses dynamic time warping to match stored templates against an unknown sequence of silhouettes extracted from a person walking. While results under similar constraints and conditions are very good, the algorithm quickly degrades with varying conditions such as surface and clothing.

  18. Role of attentional resources on gait performance in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Delval, Arnaud; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Delliaux, Marie; Dujardin, Kathy; Blatt, Jean-Louis; Destée, Alain; Derambure, Philippe; Defebvre, Luc

    2008-04-15

    Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) suffer from cognitive deficits with impaired executive functions, including limited attentional resources. We sought to use a dual-task paradigm to evaluate attentional demands and the ability of patients with HD to concentrate on two tasks simultaneously. We analyzed the interference effects of cognitive and motor tasks on walking in HD and the contribution of clinical symptoms to gait disturbances. Patients and controls were asked to perform either a motor task (carrying a tray with four glasses), a cognitive task (counting backwards), or no task at all while walking at their preferred speed. Kinematic spatial parameters, temporal parameters, and angular parameters related to gait were recorded in 15 patients and 15 controls by means of a videomotion analysis system. Gait instability was assessed using the stride-to-stride variability of the various gait parameters. For patients with HD, performing a concurrent cognitive task resulted in a lower gait speed (compared with free walking), with decreased cadence and stride length. However, this effect was not observed in controls. Performing a motor task did not change any kinematic gait parameters in either HD or control subjects. We found correlations between gait speed in the dual cognitive/walking task on one hand and the motor UHDRS score, cognitive status and executive function on the other. Patients with HD had greater difficulty walking while performing a concurrent cognitive task; the drain on attentional resources deteriorated walking performance. PMID:18175353

  19. Identification of mouse gaits using a novel force-sensing exercise wheel

    PubMed Central

    Cullingford, Lottie; Usherwood, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The gaits that animals use can provide information on neurological and musculoskeletal disorders, as well as the biomechanics of locomotion. Mice are a common research model in many fields; however, there is no consensus in the literature on how (and if) mouse gaits vary with speed. One of the challenges in studying mouse gaits is that mice tend to run intermittently on treadmills or overground; this paper attempts to overcome this issue with a novel exercise wheel that measures vertical ground reaction forces. Unlike previous instrumented wheels, this wheel is able to measure forces continuously and can therefore record data from consecutive strides. By concatenating the maximum limb force at each time point, a force trace can be constructed to quantify and identify gaits. The wheel was three dimensionally printed, allowing the design to be shared with other researchers. The kinematic parameters measured by the wheel were evaluated using high-speed video. Gaits were classified using a metric called “3S” (stride signal symmetry), which quantifies the half wave symmetry of the force trace peaks. Although mice are capable of using both symmetric and asymmetric gaits throughout their speed range, the continuum of gaits can be divided into regions based on the frequency of symmetric and asymmetric gaits; these divisions are further supported by the fact that mice run less frequently at speeds near the boundaries between regions. The boundary speeds correspond to gait transition speeds predicted by the hypothesis that mice move in a dynamically similar fashion to other legged animals. PMID:26139220

  20. Gait pattern differences between children with mild scoliosis and children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Domagalska-Szopa, Małgorzata; Szopa, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of asymmetrical body posture alone, i.e., the effects seen in children with mild scoliosis, vs. the effects of body posture control impairment, i.e., those seen in children with unilateral cerebral palsy on gait patterns. Three-dimensional instrumented gait analysis (3DGA) was conducted in 45 children with hemiplegia and 51 children with mild scoliosis. All the children were able to walk without assistance devices. A set of 35 selected spatiotemporal gait and kinematics parameters were evaluated when subjects walked on a treadmill. A cluster analysis revealed 3 different gait patterns: a scoliotic gait pattern and 2 different hemiplegic gait patterns. The results showed that the discrepancy in gait patterns was not simply a lower limb kinematic deviation in the sagittal plane, as expected. Additional altered kinematics, such as pelvic misorientation in the coronal plane in both the stance and swing phases and inadequate stance phase hip ad/abduction, which resulted from postural pattern features, were distinguished between the 3 gait patterns. Our study provides evidence for a strong correlation between postural and gait patterns in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Information on differences in gait patterns may be used to improve the guidelines for early therapy for children with hemiplegia before abnormal gait patterns are fully established. The gait pathology characteristic of scoliotic children is a potential new direction for treating scoliosis that complements the standard posture and walking control therapy exercises with the use of biofeedback. PMID:25089908

  1. Characterizing the eye trajectory during the gait towards Parkinson stage identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, David; Martínez, Fabio; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's Disease characterization is commonly carried out by measuring a motor abnormality that may affect an optimal locomotion. However, such gait characterization is far from achieving accurate and sensible early detection of this disease, dealying between 6 months to 3 years a first diagnosis. Current research has identified the eye movements (EM) as a powerful biomarker that may detect and identify PD, even in early stages. However, this eye analysis is now performed under fully controlled conditions and strict protocols, for which the patient must follow a set of routine movements in a static position. Such protocols however loss some natural eye movements during the gait that may help to promptly highlight the disease. This work presents preliminary results characterizing and analyzing the center of mass of the eye movement during the gait, captured using a high speed camera. An automatic tracking strategy was herein implemented to follow the eye during the locomotion. Promising results were obtained from a set of real patients diagnosed with parkinson diseases in stages of 1 y 3, which show strong differences among the computed signals.

  2. Overground robot assisted gait trainer for the treatment of drug-resistant freezing of gait in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Pilleri, Manuela; Weis, Luca; Zabeo, Letizia; Koutsikos, Konstantinos; Biundo, Roberta; Facchini, Silvia; Rossi, Simonetta; Masiero, Stefano; Antonini, Angelo

    2015-08-15

    Freezing of Gait (FOG) is a frequent and disabling feature of Parkinson disease (PD). Gait rehabilitation assisted by electromechanical devices, such as training on treadmill associated with sensory cues or assisted by gait orthosis have been shown to improve FOG. Overground robot assisted gait training (RGT) has been recently tested in patients with PD with improvement of several gait parameters. We here evaluated the effectiveness of RGT on FOG severity and gait abnormalities in PD patients. Eighteen patients with FOG resistant to dopaminergic medications were treated with 15 sessions of RGT and underwent an extensive clinical evaluation before and after treatment. The main outcome measures were FOG questionnaire (FOGQ) global score and specific tasks for gait assessment, namely 10 meter walking test (10 MWT), Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and 360° narrow turns (360 NT). Balance was also evaluated through Fear of Falling Efficacy Scale (FFES), assessing self perceived stability and Berg Balance Scale (BBS), for objective examination. After treatment, FOGQ score was significantly reduced (P=0.023). We also found a significant reduction of time needed to complete TUG, 10 MWT, and 360 NT (P=0.009, 0.004 and 0.04, respectively). By contrast the number of steps and the number of freezing episodes recorded at each gait task did not change. FFES and BBS scores also improved, with positive repercussions on performance on daily activity and quality of life. Our results indicate that RGT is a useful strategy for the treatment of drug refractory FOG. PMID:26048047

  3. Multilayer Joint Gait-Pose Manifolds for Human Gait Motion Modeling.

    PubMed

    Ding, Meng; Fan, Guolian

    2015-11-01

    We present new multilayer joint gait-pose manifolds (multilayer JGPMs) for complex human gait motion modeling, where three latent variables are defined jointly in a low-dimensional manifold to represent a variety of body configurations. Specifically, the pose variable (along the pose manifold) denotes a specific stage in a walking cycle; the gait variable (along the gait manifold) represents different walking styles; and the linear scale variable characterizes the maximum stride in a walking cycle. We discuss two kinds of topological priors for coupling the pose and gait manifolds, i.e., cylindrical and toroidal, to examine their effectiveness and suitability for motion modeling. We resort to a topologically-constrained Gaussian process (GP) latent variable model to learn the multilayer JGPMs where two new techniques are introduced to facilitate model learning under limited training data. First is training data diversification that creates a set of simulated motion data with different strides. Second is the topology-aware local learning to speed up model learning by taking advantage of the local topological structure. The experimental results on the Carnegie Mellon University motion capture data demonstrate the advantages of our proposed multilayer models over several existing GP-based motion models in terms of the overall performance of human gait motion modeling. PMID:25532201

  4. The accuracy with which the 5 times sit-to-stand test, versus gait speed, can identify poor exercise tolerance in patients with COPD: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bernabeu-Mora, Roberto; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Llamazares-Herrán, Eduardo; Oliveira-Sousa, Silvana Loana de; Sánchez-Martinez, M Piedad; Escolar-Reina, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    Identifying those patients who underperform in the 6-minute walk test (6MWT <350 m), and the reasons for their poor performance, is a major concern in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.To explore the accuracy and relevance of the 4-m gait-speed (4MGS) test, and the 5-repetition sit-to-stand (5STS) test, as diagnostic markers, and clinical determinants, of poor performance in the 6MWT.We recruited 137 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to participate in our cross-sectional study. Patients completed the 4MGS and 5STS tests, with quantitative (in seconds) and qualitative ordinal data collected; the latter were categorized using a scale of 0 to 4. The following potential covariates and clinical determinants of poor 6MWT were collated: age, quadriceps muscle-strength (QMS), health status, dyspnea, depression, and airflow limitation. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve data (AUC) was used to assess accuracy, with logistic regression used to explore relevance as clinical determinants.The AUCs generated using the 4MGS and 5STS tests were comparable, at 0.719 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.629-0.809) and 0.711 (95% CI 0.613-0.809), respectively. With ordinal data, the 5STS test was most accurate (AUC of 0.732; 95% CI 0.645-0.819); the 4MGS test showed poor discriminatory power (AUC <0.7), although accuracy improved (0.726, 95% CI 0.637-0.816) when covariates were included. Unlike the 4MGS test, the 5STS test provided a significant clinical determinant of a poor 6MWT (odds ratio 1.23, 95% CI 1.05-1.44).The 5STS test reliably predicts a poor 6MWT, especially when using ordinal data. Used alone, the 4MGS test is reliable when measured with continuous data. PMID:27583918

  5. Quantitative Gait Measurement With Pulse-Doppler Radar for Passive In-Home Gait Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the other at torso level is necessary. An excellent absolute agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 was found for step time estimation with the foot level radar. For walking speed, although both radars show excellent consistency they all have a system offset compared to the ground truth due to walking direction with respect to the radar beam. The torso level radar has a better performance (9% offset on average) in the speed estimation compared to the foot level radar (13%–18% offset). Quantitative analysis has been performed to compute the angles causing the systematic error. These lab results demonstrate the capability of the system to be used as a daily gait assessment tool in home environments, useful for fall risk assessment and other health care applications. The system is currently being tested in an unstructured home environment. PMID:24771566

  6. Quantitative gait measurement with pulse-Doppler radar for passive in-home gait assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn; Cuddihy, Paul E

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a pulse-Doppler radar system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed and step time using Doppler radar. The gait parameters have been validated with a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 158 test runs. The study revealed that for an optimal step recognition and walking speed estimation, a dual radar set up with one radar placed at foot level and the other at torso level is necessary. An excellent absolute agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 was found for step time estimation with the foot level radar. For walking speed, although both radars show excellent consistency they all have a system offset compared to the ground truth due to walking direction with respect to the radar beam. The torso level radar has a better performance (9% offset on average) in the speed estimation compared to the foot level radar (13%-18% offset). Quantitative analysis has been performed to compute the angles causing the systematic error. These lab results demonstrate the capability of the system to be used as a daily gait assessment tool in home environments, useful for fall risk assessment and other health care applications. The system is currently being tested in an unstructured home environment. PMID:24771566

  7. Automated detection of gait initiation and termination using wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Novak, Domen; Reberšek, Peter; De Rossi, Stefano Marco Maria; Donati, Marco; Podobnik, Janez; Beravs, Tadej; Lenzi, Tommaso; Vitiello, Nicola; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Munih, Marko

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents algorithms for detection of gait initiation and termination using wearable inertial measurement units and pressure-sensitive insoles. Body joint angles, joint angular velocities, ground reaction force and center of plantar pressure of each foot are obtained from these sensors and input into supervised machine learning algorithms. The proposed initiation detection method recognizes two events: gait onset (an anticipatory movement preceding foot lifting) and toe-off. The termination detection algorithm segments gait into steps, measures the signals over a buffer at the beginning of each step, and determines whether this measurement belongs to the final step. The approach is validated with 10 subjects at two gait speeds, using within-subject and subject-independent cross-validation. Results show that gait initiation can be detected timely and accurately, with few errors in the case of within-subject cross-validation and overall good performance in subject-independent cross-validation. Gait termination can be predicted in over 80% of trials well before the subject comes to a complete stop. Results also show that the two sensor types are equivalent in predicting gait initiation while inertial measurement units are generally superior in predicting gait termination. Potential use of the algorithms is foreseen primarily with assistive devices such as prostheses and exoskeletons. PMID:23938085

  8. Turtle mimetic soft robot with two swimming gaits.

    PubMed

    Song, Sung-Hyuk; Kim, Min-Soo; Rodrigue, Hugo; Lee, Jang-Yeob; Shim, Jae-Eul; Kim, Min-Cheol; Chu, Won-Shik; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a biomimetic turtle flipper actuator consisting of a shape memory alloy composite structure for implementation in a turtle-inspired autonomous underwater vehicle. Based on the analysis of the Chelonia mydas, the flipper actuator was divided into three segments containing a scaffold structure fabricated using a 3D printer. According to the filament stacking sequence of the scaffold structure in the actuator, different actuating motions can be realized and three different types of scaffold structures were proposed to replicate the motion of the different segments of the flipper of the Chelonia mydas. This flipper actuator can mimic the continuous deformation of the forelimb of Chelonia mydas which could not be realized in previous motor based robot. This actuator can also produce two distinct motions that correspond to the two different swimming gaits of the Chelonia mydas, which are the routine and vigorous swimming gaits, by changing the applied current sequence of the SMA wires embedded in the flipper actuator. The generated thrust and the swimming efficiency in each swimming gait of the flipper actuator were measured and the results show that the vigorous gait has a higher thrust but a relatively lower swimming efficiency than the routine gait. The flipper actuator was implemented in a biomimetic turtle robot, and its average swimming speed in the routine and vigorous gaits were measured with the vigorous gait being capable of reaching a maximum speed of 11.5 mm s(-1). PMID:27145061

  9. View Invariant Gait Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, Richard D.; Goffredo, Michela; Carter, John N.; Nixon, Mark S.

    Recognition by gait is of particular interest since it is the biometric that is available at the lowest resolution, or when other biometrics are (intentionally) obscured. Gait as a biometric has now shown increasing recognition capability. There are many approaches and these show that recognition can achieve excellent performance on current large databases. The majority of these approaches are planar 2D, largely since the early large databases featured subjects walking in a plane normal to the camera view. To extend deployment capability, we need viewpoint invariant gait biometrics. We describe approaches where viewpoint invariance is achieved by 3D approaches or in 2D. In the first group, the identification relies on parameters extracted from the 3D body deformation during walking. These methods use several video cameras and the 3D reconstruction is achieved after a camera calibration process. On the other hand, the 2D gait biometric approaches use a single camera, usually positioned perpendicular to the subject’s walking direction. Because in real surveillance scenarios a system that operates in an unconstrained environment is necessary, many of the recent gait analysis approaches are orientated toward view-invariant gait recognition.

  10. Gait analysis: clinical facts.

    PubMed

    Baker, Richard; Esquenazi, Alberto; Benedetti, Maria G; Desloovere, Kaat

    2016-08-01

    Gait analysis is a well-established tool for the quantitative assessment of gait disturbances providing functional diagnosis, assessment for treatment planning, and monitoring of disease progress. There is a large volume of literature on the research use of gait analysis, but evidence on its clinical routine use supports a favorable cost-benefit ratio in a limited number of conditions. Initially gait analysis was introduced to clinical practice to improve the management of children with cerebral palsy. However, there is good evidence to extend its use to patients with various upper motor neuron diseases, and to lower limb amputation. Thereby, the methodology for properly conducting and interpreting the exam is of paramount relevance. Appropriateness of gait analysis prescription and reliability of data obtained are required in the clinical environment. This paper provides an overview on guidelines for managing a clinical gait analysis service and on the principal clinical domains of its application: cerebral palsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury and lower limb amputation. PMID:27618499

  11. Gait Analysis Using Wearable Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Rencheng; Feng, Hutian

    2012-01-01

    Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications. PMID:22438763

  12. Gait analysis using wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weijun; Liu, Tao; Zheng, Rencheng; Feng, Hutian

    2012-01-01

    Gait analysis using wearable sensors is an inexpensive, convenient, and efficient manner of providing useful information for multiple health-related applications. As a clinical tool applied in the rehabilitation and diagnosis of medical conditions and sport activities, gait analysis using wearable sensors shows great prospects. The current paper reviews available wearable sensors and ambulatory gait analysis methods based on the various wearable sensors. After an introduction of the gait phases, the principles and features of wearable sensors used in gait analysis are provided. The gait analysis methods based on wearable sensors is divided into gait kinematics, gait kinetics, and electromyography. Studies on the current methods are reviewed, and applications in sports, rehabilitation, and clinical diagnosis are summarized separately. With the development of sensor technology and the analysis method, gait analysis using wearable sensors is expected to play an increasingly important role in clinical applications. PMID:22438763

  13. When Does A Gait Transition Occur During Human Locomotion?

    PubMed Central

    Hreljac, Alan; Imamura, Rodney T.; Escamilla, Rafael F.; Edwards, W. Brent

    2007-01-01

    When a treadmill accelerates continuously, the walk-run transition has generally been assumed to occur at the instant when a flight phase is first observed, while the run-walk transition has been assumed to occur at the instant of the first double support period. There is no theoretical or empirical evidence to suggest that gait transitions occur at the instant of these events, nor even whether transitions are abrupt events. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the gait transitions during human locomotion occur abruptly, and if so, to determine the instant during a stride at which a transition occurs. The time history of the vertical velocity of the hip (vhip) and the angular velocity of the ankle (ωankle) were compared between constant speed strides (walking or running) and strides at and near the walk-run and run-walk transitions to determine if and when the transition strides resemble the stride of the corresponding constant speed strides. For both the walk-run and run-walk transitions, the stride prior to the transition resembled the original gait pattern, while the stride following the transition resembled the new gait pattern. The transition stride, however, did not resemble either a walking or a running stride during either of the transition directions. It was concluded that gait transitions are initiated at about midstance of the transition stride, but the transition is not completed until after an adjustment period of between one step and one stride. Thus, gait transitions are not abrupt events during human locomotion. Key pointsGait transitions are not abrupt events.Initiation of a gait transitions occur at about midstance of the transition stride.Gait transitions are completed approximately at the next heelstrike of the ipsilateral foot.Time period between initiation and completion of transition does not resemble either a walk or a run. PMID:24149222

  14. Intersegmental coordination of gait after hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chow, John W; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2015-01-01

    We compared gait using the planar law of intersegmental coordination between 14 hemorrhagic stroke subjects walking at a self-selected normal speed (56 ± 21 cm/s) and 15 age-matched healthy controls walking at a very slow speed (56 ± 19 cm/s). Sagittal plane elevation angles of the thigh, shank, and foot segments were submitted to principal component analysis. Additional outcome measures included the range of elevation angle and timing of peak elevation angle of the thigh, shank, and foot segments. The range of elevation angles at the shank and foot was significantly smaller in the paretic leg than non-paretic and control legs. Also, the peak elevation angle at the thigh occurred significantly later in the gait cycle in the paretic than control leg. Gait of both stroke and control subjects followed the planar law with the first two principal components explaining approximately 99% of the variance. However, the three-dimensional trajectory of elevation angles (gait loop) in stroke subjects deviated from the typical teardrop shape bilaterally, which was more exaggerated in the paretic leg. Compared to the non-paretic and control legs, the paretic leg showed significantly increased absolute loading of the thigh elevation angle and decreased absolute loadings of the shank and foot elevation angles on the first principal component, whereas the opposite was observed for the second principal component. Despite following the planar law, the gait of chronic stroke subjects is characterized by atypical timing of the thigh motion and disrupted intersegmental coordination of both legs. PMID:25224705

  15. Gait analysis using 3D accelerometry in horses sedated with xylazine.

    PubMed

    López-Sanromán, F J; Holmbak-Petersen, R; Santiago, I; Gómez de Segura, I A; Barrey, E

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify the efficacy and sensitivity of an accelerometric device in detecting and quantifying the degree of movement alteration produced in horses sedated with xylazine. Horses (n=6) were randomly administered either xylazine or a control by intravenous injection, with at least 1 week between each treatment. A triaxial accelerometric device was used for the accelerometric gait assessment 15 min before (baseline) and 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 min after each treatment. Eight different accelerometric parameters were calculated, including speed, stride frequency, stride length, regularity, dorsoventral power, propulsion power, mediolateral power and total power, with the force of acceleration and the dorsoventral, mediolateral and craniocaudal (propulsive) parts of the power then calculated. Administration of xylazine decreased many of the parameters investigated, with significant differences for speed, stride frequency, dorsoventral power, propulsion power and total power at 5, 15, 30 and 45 min after injection. There were no significant differences in stride length values at any time point. Decreases in regularity values were evident with significant differences at every time point from 5 to 120 min following xylazine injection. Force values were also significantly reduced from 5 to 30 min after treatment and a redistribution of the total power was observed 5 min after injection as the mediolateral power increased significantly, while the dorsoventral power decreased. Accelerometry offers a practical, accurate, easy to use, portable and low cost method of objectively monitoring gait abnormalities at the walk in horses after sedation with xylazine. PMID:22082509

  16. Changes in Gait Variability From First Steps to Adulthood: Normative Data for the Gait Variability Index.

    PubMed

    Gouelle, Arnaud; Leroux, Julien; Bredin, Jonathan; Mégrot, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    The process of learning to walk is ongoing throughout childhood. The Gait Variability Index (GVI; A. Gouelle et al., 2013) has been proposed to quantify the variability of spatiotemporal parameters (STP) during gait. The authors' aim was to evaluate the GVI and STP of healthy children and teenagers to (a) determine changes in the GVI with age and to derive normal values in children and (b) to evaluate the influence of STP on the GVI. A total of 140 typically developing children from 1 to 17 years old were categorized into 7 groups of 20 based on age. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were recorded using an electronic walkway. GVI increased and STP changed with age. In the children-teenagers group, the GVI was positively related to step length, speed, and negatively to cadence. Following normalization by lower limb length, correlations were no longer significant. In contrast, raw base of support was not correlated with the GVI but normalized base of support was. A multiple linear regression showed that only age had a direct impact on the GVI, indicating that gait continues to change after 6-7 years. These changes were only demonstrated by the GVI, highlighting its usefulness for the evaluation of gait in young populations. PMID:26392028

  17. Observational gait assessment tools in paediatrics--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rathinam, Chandrasekar; Bateman, Andrew; Peirson, Janet; Skinner, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Instrumented gait analysis (IGA) is an expensive technique used to objectively detect gait abnormalities in children. Observational gait assessment is considered as a cost effective alternate for IGA in regular clinical practice. This article is aimed at systematically reviewing the available paediatric gait analysis tools and examines their reliability and validity compared to IGA. This review also examines the structure of these tools, their clinical use and limitations. Articles were searched from PubMed, CINHL, AMED, BNI, EMBASE, PEDro and Cochrane library from the earliest record on the database to December 2012. Hand searches were carried out in a few journals. Studies that examined children's gait using a structured assessment tool were included and analysed for their quality, reliability and validity. Pre-established criteria were used to judge the quality of methodology and reliability and validity. Five observational gait tools for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and one for children with Downs Syndrome were identified. Nine studies related to children with CP were enrolled for this review. None of the tools have accomplished the level of IGA's consistency. Edinburgh Visual Gait Score (EVGS) was found to have better reliability and validity than the other tools. Very limited studies were available for most of the gait assessment tools therefore their clinical use cannot be judged based on the existing evidence. EVGS was found to have better concurrent validity and reliability and it should be considered to assess CP gait in regular practice. Future work to investigate the use of low cost technology to improve observers' accuracy of EVGS is suggested. PMID:24798609

  18. Deep brain stimulation improves gait velocity in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Roper, Jaimie A; Kang, Nyeonju; Ben, Juliana; Cauraugh, James H; Okun, Michael S; Hass, Chris J

    2016-06-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), slow gait speed is significantly related to clinical ratings of disease severity, impaired performance of daily activities, as well as increased overall disability. Conducting a meta-analysis on gait speed is an objective and quantitative technique to summarize the effectiveness of DBS and to determine the effect sizes for future studies. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis that analyzed the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery on gait speed in patients with PD to gain fundamental insight into the nature of therapeutic effectiveness. A random effects model meta-analysis on 27 studies revealed a significant overall standardized mean difference medium effect size equal to 0.60 (SE = 0.06; p < 0.0001; Z = 10.58). Based on our synthesis of the 27 studies, we determined the following: (1) a significant and medium effect size indicating DBS improves gait speed; (2) DBS improved gait speed regardless of whether the patients were tested in the on or off medication state; (3) both bilateral and unilateral DBS led to gait speed improvement; (4) the effects of DBS on gait speed in the data collection sessions after surgery (DBS on vs. off) were comparable with data collection before surgery (before surgery vs. DBS after surgery); and (5) when evaluating the effects of DBS and medication on gait speed suprathreshold doses were comparable to normal dosages of medication and DBS. The current analysis provides objective evidence that both unilateral and bilateral DBS provide a therapeutic benefit on gait speed in persons with PD. PMID:27126451

  19. The Dercum-Muybridge Collaboration and the Study of Pathologic Gaits Using Sequential Photography.

    PubMed

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    In the late 1870s and 1880s, prior to the development of movie cameras or projectors, English-American photographer Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904) photographed sequential images of people and animals in motion, using arrays of sequentially triggered single-image cameras. In 1885, Philadelphia neurologist Francis Dercum (1856-1931) collaborated with Muybridge at the University of Pennsylvania to photograph sequential images of patients with various neurological disorders involving abnormal movements, and particularly various gait disorders, including both the sensory ataxic gait of tabes dorsalis and various spastic gaits. Dercum used tracings of sequential photographic images to plot trajectories of limbs as a way to characterize and distinguish pathologic gaits. The Dercum-Muybridge collaboration produced the first motion-picture sequences of neurological gait disorders ever filmed. These sequences and the trajectory-based studies that derived from them were a milestone in studies of pathologic gaits. PMID:26684421

  20. Context based gait recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazazian, Shermin; Gavrilova, Marina

    2012-06-01

    Gait recognition has recently become a popular topic in the field of biometrics. However, the main hurdle is the insufficient recognition rate in the presence of low quality samples. The main focus of this paper is to investigate how the performance of a gait recognition system can be improved using additional information about behavioral patterns of users and the context in which samples have been taken. The obtained results show combining the context information with biometric data improves the performance of the system at a very low cost. The amount of improvement depends on the distinctiveness of the behavioral patterns and the quality of the gait samples. Using the appropriate distinctive behavioral models it is possible to achieve a 100% recognition rate.

  1. Gait Disorder in a Cohort of Patients With Mild and Moderate Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Castrillo, A; Olmos, L M García; Rodríguez, F; Duarte, J

    2016-05-01

    Gait disturbance results in an increase in the risk of falls in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The falls are events that might be related to an increase in the number of fractures, loss of mobility, being bedridden, early institutionalization, and increased use of medication. Therefore, the reduction in the number of falls is important for the maintenance of the functional independence of the patients as well as for the prevention of sequelae resulting from those events. Alterations in the gait occur very frequently in AD, and the gait disturbance occurs relatively early in the course of the disease. This study has important implications for public health and clinical practice. This study and previous studies have reported that abnormal gait predicts greater risk of falls, dementia, institutionalization, and death. The high prevalence and incidence of abnormal gait and its association with multiple adverse outcomes in older adults require urgent attention. Our results allow us to identify the risk factors. PMID:26395024

  2. A Multiple Regression Approach to Normalization of Spatiotemporal Gait Features.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Ferdous; Begg, Rezaul; Lythgo, Noel; Hass, Chris J; Halgamuge, Saman; Ackland, David C

    2016-04-01

    Normalization of gait data is performed to reduce the effects of intersubject variations due to physical characteristics. This study reports a multiple regression normalization approach for spatiotemporal gait data that takes into account intersubject variations in self-selected walking speed and physical properties including age, height, body mass, and sex. Spatiotemporal gait data including stride length, cadence, stance time, double support time, and stride time were obtained from healthy subjects including 782 children, 71 adults, 29 elderly subjects, and 28 elderly Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Data were normalized using standard dimensionless equations, a detrending method, and a multiple regression approach. After normalization using dimensionless equations and the detrending method, weak to moderate correlations between walking speed, physical properties, and spatiotemporal gait features were observed (0.01 < |r| < 0.88), whereas normalization using the multiple regression method reduced these correlations to weak values (|r| <0.29). Data normalization using dimensionless equations and detrending resulted in significant differences in stride length and double support time of PD patients; however the multiple regression approach revealed significant differences in these features as well as in cadence, stance time, and stride time. The proposed multiple regression normalization may be useful in machine learning, gait classification, and clinical evaluation of pathological gait patterns. PMID:26426798

  3. Loci impacting polymorphic gait in the Tennessee Walking Horse.

    PubMed

    Staiger, E A; Abri, M A; Silva, C A S; Brooks, S A

    2016-04-01

    Following domestication, man selected the horse primarily for the purpose of transportation rather than consumption; this selective strategy created divergent traits for locomotion. At intermediate speeds, beyond the flat walk, the horse can perform a range of diagonal and lateral 2-beat or 4-beat gait patterns. The Tennessee Walking Horse (TWH) is the only U.S. breed able to perform an even-timed 4-beat gait (the "running-walk") at intermediate speeds; however, within the breed, there is remaining variation in gait type. To investigate the contribution of genetics to this unique trait, blood or hair samples for DNA and gait information were collected from 129 TWH and genotyping was performed at approximately 60,000 loci using the Illumina Equine SNP70 beadchip at GeneSeek Inc. (Lincoln, NE). Case-control association tests identified suggestive regions for gait type on equine chromosome (ECA) 19 (-value of 1.50 × 10 after 1 million permutations; PLINK version 1.07). Haplotype analysis identified 2 significant haplotypes on ECA19 and ECA11 (-values of 3.7 × 10 and 3.92 × 10, respectively). Genes within these suggestive regions play roles in developmental processes and biological regulation, indicating there may be variant differences in the neurobiology and regulation of horses with a polymorphic gait. PMID:27135997

  4. Gait Retraining: Altering the Fingerprint of Gait.

    PubMed

    Davis, Irene S; Futrell, Erin

    2016-02-01

    In terms of running, there is evidence that links mechanics with injury. This evidence provides the justification for altering these mechanics. Increased hip adduction and vertical impact loading have been most commonly associated with injury. More work is needed in order to understand the optimal way to retrain gait patterns in runners. The human body has a considerable ability to adapt. To provide individuals with the ability to alter faulty movement patterns in ways that can reduce injury risk is a powerful tool. PMID:26616188

  5. Gait parameter control timing with dynamic manual contact or visual cues.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Ely; Shi, Peter; Werner, William

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the timing of gait parameter changes (stride length, peak toe velocity, and double-, single-support, and complete step duration) to control gait speed. Eleven healthy participants adjusted their gait speed on a treadmill to maintain a constant distance between them and a fore-aft oscillating cue (a place on a conveyor belt surface). The experimental design balanced conditions of cue modality (vision: eyes-open; manual contact: eyes-closed while touching the cue); treadmill speed (0.2, 0.4, 0.85, and 1.3 m/s); and cue motion (none, ±10 cm at 0.09, 0.11, and 0.18 Hz). Correlation analyses revealed a number of temporal relationships between gait parameters and cue speed. The results suggest that neural control ranged from feedforward to feedback. Specifically, step length preceded cue velocity during double-support duration suggesting anticipatory control. Peak toe velocity nearly coincided with its most-correlated cue velocity during single-support duration. The toe-off concluding step and double-support durations followed their most-correlated cue velocity, suggesting feedback control. Cue-tracking accuracy and cue velocity correlations with timing parameters were higher with the manual contact cue than visual cue. The cue/gait timing relationships generalized across cue modalities, albeit with greater delays of step-cycle events relative to manual contact cue velocity. We conclude that individual kinematic parameters of gait are controlled to achieve a desired velocity at different specific times during the gait cycle. The overall timing pattern of instantaneous cue velocities associated with different gait parameters is conserved across cues that afford different performance accuracies. This timing pattern may be temporally shifted to optimize control. Different cue/gait parameter latencies in our nonadaptation paradigm provide general-case evidence of the independent control of gait parameters previously demonstrated in gait adaptation paradigms

  6. Low-resolution gait recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junping; Pu, Jian; Chen, Changyou; Fleischer, Rudolf

    2010-08-01

    Unlike other biometric authentication methods, gait recognition is noninvasive and effective from a distance. However, the performance of gait recognition will suffer in the low-resolution (LR) case. Furthermore, when gait sequences are projected onto a nonoptimal low-dimensional subspace to reduce the data complexity, the performance of gait recognition will also decline. To deal with these two issues, we propose a new algorithm called superresolution with manifold sampling and backprojection (SRMS), which learns the high-resolution (HR) counterparts of LR test images from a collection of HR/LR training gait image patch pairs. Then, we incorporate SRMS into a new algorithm called multilinear tensor-based learning without tuning parameters (MTP) for LR gait recognition. Our contributions include the following: 1) With manifold sampling, the redundancy of gait image patches is remarkably decreased; thus, the superresolution procedure is more efficient and reasonable. 2) Backprojection guarantees that the learned HR gait images and the corresponding LR gait images can be more consistent. 3) The optimal subspace dimension for dimension reduction is automatically determined without introducing extra parameters. 4) Theoretical analysis of the algorithm shows that MTP converges. Experiments on the USF human gait database and the CASIA gait database show the increased efficiency of the proposed algorithm, compared with previous algorithms. PMID:20199936

  7. The effects of ankle joint taping on gait and balance ability of healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Cha, Hyun-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of the application of elastic taping over the ankle joints of healthy subjects on their gait, balance ability, and muscle strength. [Subjects] Fifty healthy subjects with no orthopedic history of the ankle joint were selected and elastic taping was applied to their ankle joints. [Methods] Before and after application of the elastic taping, gait and balance ability of the subjects were evaluated. [Results] After the taping application, gait velocity significantly increased and there were significant differences in all variables of balance ability. [Conclusion] Application of elastic taping aimed at improving stability of the ankle joint had a positive effect on gait speed and balance ability. PMID:26504323

  8. Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kindregan, Deirdre; Gallagher, Louise; Gormley, John

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning. PMID:25922766

  9. Gait analysis and the cumulative gait index (CGI): Translational tools to assess impairments exhibited by rats with olivocerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Lambert, C S; Philpot, R M; Engberg, M E; Johns, B E; Kim, S H; Wecker, L

    2014-11-01

    Deviations from 'normal' locomotion exhibited by humans and laboratory animals may be determined using automated systems that capture both temporal and spatial gait parameters. Although many measures generated by these systems are unrelated and independent, some may be related and dependent, representing redundant assessments of function. To investigate this possibility, a treadmill-based system was used to capture gait parameters from normal and ataxic rats, and a multivariate analysis was conducted to determine deviations from normal. Rats were trained on the treadmill at two speeds, and gait parameters were generated prior to and following lesions of the olivocerebellar pathway. Control (non-lesioned) animals exhibited stable hindlimb gait parameters across assessments at each speed. Lesioned animals exhibited alterations in multiple hindlimb gait parameters, characterized by significant increases in stride frequency, braking duration, stance width, step angle, and paw angle and decreases in stride, stance, swing and propulsion durations, stride length and paw area. A principal component analysis of initial hindlimb measures indicated three uncorrelated factors mediating performance, termed Rhythmicity, Thrust and Contact. Deviation in the performance of each animal from the group mean was determined for each factor and values summed to yield the cumulative gait index (CGI), a single value reflecting variation within the group. The CGI for lesioned animals increased 2.3-fold relative to unlesioned animals. This study characterizes gait alterations in laboratory rats rendered ataxic by destruction of the climbing fiber pathway innervating Purkinje cells and demonstrates that a single index can be used to describe overall gait impairments. PMID:25116252

  10. Why we should study gait initiation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Delval, A; Tard, C; Defebvre, L

    2014-01-01

    The gait initiation process is of particular interest in Parkinson's disease because it combines motor and cognitive components of movement preparation (referred to as anticipatory postural adjustments) and movement execution (the step by itself). Moreover, gait initiation in Parkinson's disease is often affected by motor blocks (a subtype of the "freezing of gait" phenomenon). Gait initiation disturbances in Parkinson's disease include delayed release of anticipatory postural adjustments, hypokinetic anticipatory postural adjustments (reduced scaling) and bradykinetic anticipatory postural adjustments (abnormal timing). The most extreme form is freezing of gait with sometimes the absence of anticipatory postural adjustments. Other phenomena can be also described in some freezing patients (such as multiple anticipatory postural adjustments, described clinically as "knee trembling"). The fact that emotion, attention, external triggers and dopaminergic drugs can all modify this motor program suggests the existence of a complex pathophysiological mechanism that involves not only locomotor networks but also cortical areas and the basal ganglia system. Abnormal coupling between standing posture and anticipatory postural adjustments and between the latter and step execution appears to be a crucial part of the pathophysiological mechanism. Although external cueing appears to be of interest, few studies have provided evidence of the efficacy of various rehabilitation methods in routine care. PMID:24502907

  11. [Gait disorders in Parkinson's disease: and pathophysiological approaches].

    PubMed

    Moreau, C; Cantiniaux, S; Delval, A; Defebvre, L; Azulay, J-P

    2010-02-01

    Gait disorders and axial symptoms are the main therapeutic challenges in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Gait disorders in PD are characterized by spatial and temporal dysfunction. Gait hypokinesia is the first to appear and is responsible for the decrease in velocity. A good sensitivity to the levodopa is well established. Morris et al. [Morris ME, Iansek R, Matyas TA, Summers JJ. Ability to modulate walking cadence remains intact in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994a;57(12):1532-4; Morris ME, Iansek R, Matyas TA, Summers JJ. The pathogenesis of gait hypokinesia in Parkinson's disease. Brain 1994b;117(Pt. 5):1169-81; Morris ME, Iansek R, Matyas TA, Summers JJ. Stride length regulation in Parkinson's disease. Brain 1996;119:551-68] demonstrated that the ability to modulate walking cadence remains intact in PD, and could correspond to a compensatory mechanism. More advanced disease stages of the disease are characterized by abnormal temporal parameters (such as stride length variability, stride time variability and cadence elevation) which are unresponsive to levodopa therapy and may be correlated with the occurrence of falls and freezing of gait (FOG). Lastly, postural instability also results in falls and is poorly responsive to levodopa. A link between gait impairment and frontal disorders has recently been suggested. After a few years of evolution, paradoxical episodic phenomena are described: festination ("hastening gait" with rapid small, short steps) and FOG (involuntary and sudden cessation of gait). Both symptoms are often incapacitating for PD patients, because of their resultant loss of independence and their poor response to levodopa therapy. Kinematical studies of FOG revealed a decrease in velocity, stride length and an exponential increase in cadence, prior to a FOG episode. New approaches (functional MRI, wavelets...) should offer new perspectives concerning these disabling symptoms. PMID:19616816

  12. Symmetry Analysis of Gait between Left and Right Limb Using Cross-Fuzzy Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qiang; Gao, Qingwei; Lu, Yixiang; Zhang, Dexiang

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the investigation of gait symmetry problem by using cross-fuzzy entropy (C-FuzzyEn), which is a recently proposed cross entropy that has many merits as compared to the frequently used cross sample entropy (C-SampleEn). First, we used several simulation signals to test its performance regarding the relative consistency and dependence on data length. Second, the gait time series of the left and right stride interval were used to calculate the C-FuzzyEn values for gait symmetry analysis. Besides the statistical analysis, we also realized a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to perform the classification of normal and abnormal gaits. The gait dataset consists of 15 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 16 control (CO) subjects. The results show that the C-FuzzyEn values of the PD patients' gait are significantly higher than that of the CO subjects with a p value of less than 10−5, and the best classification performance evaluated by a leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation method is an accuracy of 96.77%. Such encouraging results imply that the C-FuzzyEn-based gait symmetry measure appears as a suitable tool for analyzing abnormal gaits. PMID:27034706

  13. The effect of pharmacological treatment on gait biomechanics in peripheral arterial disease patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacological treatment has been advocated as a first line therapy for Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) patients suffering from intermittent claudication. Previous studies document the ability of pharmacological treatment to increase walking distances. However, the effect of pharmacological treatment on gait biomechanics in PAD patients has not been objectively evaluated as is common with other gait abnormalities. Methods Sixteen patients were prescribed an FDA approved drug (Pentoxifylline or Cilostazol) for the treatment of symptomatic PAD. Patients underwent baseline gait testing prior to medication use which consisted of acquisition of ground reaction forces and kinematics while walking in a pain free state. After three months of treatment, patients underwent repeat gait testing. Results Patients with symptomatic PAD had significant gait abnormalities at baseline during pain free walking as compared to healthy controls. However, pharmacological treatment did not produce any identifiable alterations on the biomechanics of gait of the PAD patients as revealed by the statistical comparisons performed between pre and post-treatment and between post-treatment and the healthy controls. Conclusions Pharmacological treatment did not result in statistically significant improvements in the gait biomechanics of patients with symptomatic PAD. Future studies will need to further explore different cohorts of patients that have shown to improve significantly their claudication distances and/or their muscle fiber morphology with the use of pharmacological treatment and determine if this is associated with an improvement in gait biomechanics. Using these methods we may distinguish the patients who benefit from pharmacotherapy and those who do not. PMID:20529284

  14. Effect of dual task type on gait and dynamic stability during stair negotiation at different inclinations.

    PubMed

    Madehkhaksar, Forough; Egges, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    Stair gait is a common daily activity with great potential risk for falls. Stairs have varying inclinations and people may perform other tasks concurrently with stair gait. This study investigated dual-task interference in the context of complex gait tasks, such as stair gait at different inclinations, a topic about which little is understood. We examined how secondary cognitive and manual tasks interfere with stair gait when a person concurrently performed tasks at different levels of complexity. Gait kinematic data and secondary task performance measures were obtained from fifteen healthy young males while ascending and descending a four-step staircase at three inclinations (17.7°, 29.4°, and 41.5°) as well as level walking. They performed a cognitive task, 'backward digit recall', a manual task, 'carrying a cup of water' and a combination of the two tasks. Gait performance and dynamic stability were assessed by gait speed and whole body center of mass (COM) range of motion in the medial-lateral direction, respectively. No significant effect of the gait task on the cognitive task performance was observed. In contrast, stair walking adversely affected the performance of the manual task compared to level walking. Overall, more difficult postural and secondary tasks resulted in a decrease in gait speed and variation in COM displacement within normal range. Results suggest that COM displacement and gait alterations might be adopted to enhance the stability, and optimize the secondary task performance while walking under challenging circumstances. Our findings are useful for balance and gait evaluation, and for future falls prediction. PMID:26410477

  15. Novel characterization of gait impairments in people with multiple sclerosis by means of the gait profile score.

    PubMed

    Pau, Massimiliano; Coghe, Giancarlo; Atzeni, Claudia; Corona, Federica; Pilloni, Giuseppina; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Cocco, Eleonora; Galli, Manuela

    2014-10-15

    The assessment of gait abnormalities in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) represents a key factor in evaluating the effectiveness of rehabilitation treatments. Despite the availability of sophisticated equipment to objectively evaluate the kinematic aspects of gait, there are still some difficulties in processing the large and complex amount of data they produce in the daily clinical routine. On the basis of the above-mentioned considerations we propose a novel characterization of gait kinematics in individuals with MS, based on a single measure (gait profile score, GPS) obtained from a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of gait performed using an opto-electronic system. We also investigated the correlation between GPS and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) values. Thirty-four patients suffering from relapsing-remitting MS (13 female, 21 male, mean age 46.7 years) with an EDSS score of ≤6 underwent a gait analysis from which the GPS index was calculated. Their results were compared with those of a control group of healthy age- and gender-matched subjects. The GPS of individuals with MS was found significantly higher with respect to controls (9.12° vs. 5.67°, p<0.001) as the result of kinematic differences in gait patterns referring to pelvic tilt and rotation, hip flexion-extension and rotation, knee flexion-extension and ankle dorsi- and plantar-flexion. A moderate correlation was also found between the EDSS score of the participants and their GPS values (r = 0.63, p < 0.001). The GPS index thus appears suitable to represent gait deviations from physiological patterns in individuals affected by MS and potentially useful in assessing the outcomes related both to rehabilitation programs and pharmacologic/physical therapies. PMID:25073571

  16. Evidence for a common process in gait initiation and stepping on to a new level to reach gait velocity.

    PubMed

    Gélat, Thierry; Pellec, Armande Le; Brenière, Yvon

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the adaptability of the gait initiation process when confronted with stepping on (SO) to a new level. Eight young adults performed gait initiation at two different speed conditions in a level walking (LW) situation and in a SO situation aimed at walking on an elevated (16 cm) level surface. As in a previous study using a single step, we found in SO a contradiction between the characteristics of anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) and gait velocity, i.e. the peak of anteroposterior velocity of the body's centre of gravity (CG) reached at the end of the first step. In normal and fast gaits, gait velocity was similar in both situations, whereas the duration and amplitude of the APA were smaller in SO than in LW. The reduction of APA in SO allowed the forward velocity of CG at the time of foot contact of the stepping limb to be lower than in LW. This is explained by the fact that the majority of body lift, beginning at this time, required a greater increase in forward velocity than in LW. Thus, with lower APA in SO, the gait velocity could be similar in both situations. From LW to SO, the spatio-temporal patterns in the forward velocity of CG varied within characteristic phases of the movement, but in a predictable way as gait velocity changed. These results gave evidence of an adaptation of the gait initiation process for the new constraints, despite the contradiction between APA and gait velocity. The spatio-temporal parameters of the anticipation phase in SO were pre-set according to the new requirements of the task: reaching gait velocity with a body lift. Furthermore, the time for reaching gait velocity was independent of both the amplitude of this velocity and the situation. This expressed the capacity of the subjects to use in SO the same optimal conditions to reach gait velocity as in LW, i.e. essentially in a ballistic manner. PMID:16328272

  17. A simple rule for quadrupedal gait generation determined by leg loading feedback: a modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Yasuhiro; Habu, Yasushi; Fukui, Takahiro

    2015-02-01

    We discovered a specific rule for generating typical quadrupedal gaits (the order of the movement of four legs) through a simulated quadrupedal locomotion, in which unprogrammed gaits (diagonal/lateral sequence walks, left/right-lead canters, and left/right-lead transverse gallops) spontaneously emerged because of leg loading feedbacks to the CPGs hard-wired to produce a default trot. Additionally, all gaits transitioned according to speed, as seen in animals. We have therefore hypothesized that various gaits derive from a trot because of posture control through leg loading feedback. The body tilt on the two support legs of each diagonal pair during trotting was classified into three types (level, tilted up, or tilted down) according to speed. The load difference between the two legs led to the phase difference between their CPGs via the loading feedbacks, resulting in nine gaits (32: three tilts to the power of two diagonal pairs) including the aforementioned.

  18. A simple rule for quadrupedal gait generation determined by leg loading feedback: a modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Yasuhiro; Habu, Yasushi; Fukui, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    We discovered a specific rule for generating typical quadrupedal gaits (the order of the movement of four legs) through a simulated quadrupedal locomotion, in which unprogrammed gaits (diagonal/lateral sequence walks, left/right-lead canters, and left/right-lead transverse gallops) spontaneously emerged because of leg loading feedbacks to the CPGs hard-wired to produce a default trot. Additionally, all gaits transitioned according to speed, as seen in animals. We have therefore hypothesized that various gaits derive from a trot because of posture control through leg loading feedback. The body tilt on the two support legs of each diagonal pair during trotting was classified into three types (level, tilted up, or tilted down) according to speed. The load difference between the two legs led to the phase difference between their CPGs via the loading feedbacks, resulting in nine gaits (32: three tilts to the power of two diagonal pairs) including the aforementioned. PMID:25639661

  19. A simple rule for quadrupedal gait generation determined by leg loading feedback: a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Yasuhiro; Habu, Yasushi; Fukui, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    We discovered a specific rule for generating typical quadrupedal gaits (the order of the movement of four legs) through a simulated quadrupedal locomotion, in which unprogrammed gaits (diagonal/lateral sequence walks, left/right-lead canters, and left/right-lead transverse gallops) spontaneously emerged because of leg loading feedbacks to the CPGs hard-wired to produce a default trot. Additionally, all gaits transitioned according to speed, as seen in animals. We have therefore hypothesized that various gaits derive from a trot because of posture control through leg loading feedback. The body tilt on the two support legs of each diagonal pair during trotting was classified into three types (level, tilted up, or tilted down) according to speed. The load difference between the two legs led to the phase difference between their CPGs via the loading feedbacks, resulting in nine gaits (3(2): three tilts to the power of two diagonal pairs) including the aforementioned. PMID:25639661

  20. Kinematic gait patterns in healthy runners: A hierarchical cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Phinyomark, Angkoon; Osis, Sean; Hettinga, Blayne A; Ferber, Reed

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated distinct clusters of gait patterns in both healthy and pathological groups, suggesting that different movement strategies may be represented. However, these studies have used discrete time point variables and usually focused on only one specific joint and plane of motion. Therefore, the first purpose of this study was to determine if running gait patterns for healthy subjects could be classified into homogeneous subgroups using three-dimensional kinematic data from the ankle, knee, and hip joints. The second purpose was to identify differences in joint kinematics between these groups. The third purpose was to investigate the practical implications of clustering healthy subjects by comparing these kinematics with runners experiencing patellofemoral pain (PFP). A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of the entire gait waveform data and then a hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) determined group sets of similar gait patterns and homogeneous clusters. The results show two distinct running gait patterns were found with the main between-group differences occurring in frontal and sagittal plane knee angles (P<0.001), independent of age, height, weight, and running speed. When these two groups were compared to PFP runners, one cluster exhibited greater while the other exhibited reduced peak knee abduction angles (P<0.05). The variability observed in running patterns across this sample could be the result of different gait strategies. These results suggest care must be taken when selecting samples of subjects in order to investigate the pathomechanics of injured runners. PMID:26456422

  1. Gait Planning and Stability Control of a Quadruped Robot

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junmin; Wang, Jinge; Yang, Simon X.; Zhou, Kedong; Tang, Huijuan

    2016-01-01

    In order to realize smooth gait planning and stability control of a quadruped robot, a new controller algorithm based on CPG-ZMP (central pattern generator-zero moment point) is put forward in this paper. To generate smooth gait and shorten the adjusting time of the model oscillation system, a new CPG model controller and its gait switching strategy based on Wilson-Cowan model are presented in the paper. The control signals of knee-hip joints are obtained by the improved multi-DOF reduced order control theory. To realize stability control, the adaptive speed adjustment and gait switch are completed by the real-time computing of ZMP. Experiment results show that the quadruped robot's gaits are efficiently generated and the gait switch is smooth in the CPG control algorithm. Meanwhile, the stability of robot's movement is improved greatly with the CPG-ZMP algorithm. The algorithm in this paper has good practicability, which lays a foundation for the production of the robot prototype. PMID:27143959

  2. Gait Planning and Stability Control of a Quadruped Robot.

    PubMed

    Li, Junmin; Wang, Jinge; Yang, Simon X; Zhou, Kedong; Tang, Huijuan

    2016-01-01

    In order to realize smooth gait planning and stability control of a quadruped robot, a new controller algorithm based on CPG-ZMP (central pattern generator-zero moment point) is put forward in this paper. To generate smooth gait and shorten the adjusting time of the model oscillation system, a new CPG model controller and its gait switching strategy based on Wilson-Cowan model are presented in the paper. The control signals of knee-hip joints are obtained by the improved multi-DOF reduced order control theory. To realize stability control, the adaptive speed adjustment and gait switch are completed by the real-time computing of ZMP. Experiment results show that the quadruped robot's gaits are efficiently generated and the gait switch is smooth in the CPG control algorithm. Meanwhile, the stability of robot's movement is improved greatly with the CPG-ZMP algorithm. The algorithm in this paper has good practicability, which lays a foundation for the production of the robot prototype. PMID:27143959

  3. Gait Using Pneumatic Brace for End-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Cherian, Jeffrey Jai; Starr, Roland; Chughtai, Morad; Mont, Michael A; Harwin, Steven F; Bhave, Anil

    2016-04-01

    More than 20 million individuals in the United States are affected by knee osteoarthritis (OA), which can lead to altered biomechanics and excessive joint loading. The use of an unloader pneumatic brace with extension assist has been proposed as a nonoperative treatment modality that may improve gait mechanics and correct knee malalignment. We assessed the following parameters in patients who have knee OA treated with and without a brace: (1) changes in temporospatial parameters in gait; (2) knee range of motion, knee extension at heel strike, and foot placement; (3) knee joint moments and impulse; and (4) changes in dynamic stiffness and rate of change of knee flexion during midstance to terminal stance. This 2:1 prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial evaluated 36 patients (24 brace and 12 matching). OA knee patients were randomized to receive either a pneumatic unloader brace or a standard nonoperative treatment regimen as the matching cohort for a 3-month period. They underwent evaluation of gait parameters using a three-dimensional gait analysis system at their initial appointment and at 3 months follow-up. All the testing, pre- and postbracing were performed without wearing the brace to examine for retained effects. Treatment with the brace led to significant improvements versus standard treatment in various gait parameters. Patients in the brace group had improvements in walking speed, knee extension at heel strike, total range of motion, knee joint forces, and rate of knee flexion from midstance to terminal stance when compared with the matching cohort. Knee OA patients who used a pneumatic unloader brace for 3 months for at least 3 hours per day had significant improvements various gait parameters when compared with a standard nonoperative therapy cohort. Braced patients demonstrated gait-modifying affects when not wearing the brace. These results are encouraging and suggest that this device represents a promising treatment modality for knee OA that

  4. Clinical factors associated with a conservative gait pattern in older male veterans with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wrobel, James S; Crews, Ryan T; Connolly, John E

    2009-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy are at higher risk for falls. People with diabetes sometimes adopt a more conservative gait pattern with decreased walking speed, widened base, and increased double support time. The purpose of this study was to use a multivariate approach to describe this conservative gait pattern. Methods Male veterans (mean age = 67 years; SD = 9.8; range 37–86) with diabetes (n = 152) participated in this study from July 2000 to May 2001 at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, White River Junction, VT. Various demographic, clinical, static mobility, and plantar pressure measures were collected. Conservative gait pattern was defined by visual gait analysis as failure to demonstrate a heel-to-toe gait during the propulsive phase of gait. Results Patients with the conservative gait pattern had lower walking speed and decreased stride length compared to normal gait. (0.68 m/s v. 0.91 m/s, p < 0.001; 1.04 m v. 1.24 m, p < 0.001) Age, monofilament insensitivity, and Romberg's sign were significantly higher; and ankle dorsiflexion was significantly lower in the conservative gait pattern group. In the multivariate analysis, walking speed, age, ankle dorsiflexion, and callus were retained in the final model describing 36% of the variance. With the inclusion of ankle dorsiflexion in the model, monofilament insensitivity was no longer an independent predictor. Conclusion Our multivariate investigation of conservative gait in diabetes patients suggests that walking speed, advanced age, limited ankle dorsiflexion, and callus describe this condition more so than clinical measures of neuropathy. PMID:19389247

  5. Gait and balance disorders.

    PubMed

    Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on one of the most common types of neurologic disorders: altered walking. Walking impairment often reflects disease of the neurologic structures mediating gait, balance or, most often, both. These structures are distributed along the neuraxis. For this reason, this chapter is introduced by a brief description of the neurobiologic underpinning of walking, stressing information that is critical for imaging, namely, the anatomic representation of gait and balance mechanisms. This background is essential not only in order to direct the relevant imaging tools to the regions more likely to be affected but also to interpret correctly imaging findings that may not be related to the walking deficit object of clinical study. The chapter closes with a discussion on how to image some of the most frequent etiologies causing gait or balance impairment. However, it focuses on syndromes not already discussed in other chapters of this volume, such as Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders, already discussed in Chapter 48, or cerebellar ataxia, in Chapter 23, in the previous volume. As regards vascular disease, the spastic hemiplegia most characteristic of brain disease needs little discussion, while the less well-understood effects of microvascular disease are extensively reviewed here, together with the imaging approach. PMID:27430451

  6. Muscle length and lengthening velocity in voluntary crouch gait.

    PubMed

    van der Krogt, Marjolein M; Doorenbosch, Caroline A M; Harlaar, Jaap

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how origin-insertion length and lengthening velocity of hamstring and psoas muscle change as a result of crouch gait. The second purpose was to study the effect of changes in walking speed, in crouch, on muscle lengths and velocities. Eight healthy female subjects walked on a treadmill both normally and in crouch. In the crouch condition, subjects walked at three different walking speeds. 3D kinematic data were collected and muscle lengths and velocities were calculated using musculoskeletal modeling. It was found that voluntary walking in crouch resulted in shorter psoas length compared to normal, but not in shorter hamstrings length. Moreover, crouch gait did not result in slower muscle lengthening velocities compared to normal gait. These results do not support the role of hamstrings shortness or spasticity in causing crouch gait. Decreasing walking speed clearly reduced muscle lengths and lengthening velocities. Therefore, patients with short or spastic muscles are more likely to respond by walking slower than by walking in crouch. Also, differences in walking speed should be avoided as a confounding factor when comparing patient groups with controls. PMID:17208000

  7. Influence of Kinesitherapy on Gait in Patients with Ischemic Stroke in the Chronic Period

    PubMed Central

    Vasileva, Danche; Lubenova, Daniela; Mihova, Marija; Dimitrova, Antoaneta; Grigorova-Petrova, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The study aims to trace the influence of specialized kinesitherapeutic methodology (SKTM) on gait in patients with ischemic stroke in the chronic period (ISChP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted with 56 patients with ISChP (duration of the disease up to 1 year). For determining changes in gait before and after the treatment a cadence of gait and maximum movement speed were taken into consideration. To determine the cadence, steps are counted for covering 6 meters and 10 meters respectively. The maximum speed of the gait is determined in m / min by dividing undergone distance (m) and time (min). RESULTS: Patients were found to significantly normalize the parameters of gait. Compared to the initial data, there is a significant reduction in the number of steps on 6 and 10 meters and a tendency to increase the speed of gait, with the significant change during the 1st month with a level of significance of p <0.001. CONCLUSION: The applied specialized kinesitherapeutic methodology continued later as exercise program at home, which significantly improved gait cadence and speed of movement in patients with ischemic stroke in the chronic period and is with a supportive prolonged exposure. PMID:27275297

  8. Gait kinematic analysis evaluates hindlimb revascularization.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Amelia; Delgado, Alexandra; Escalante, Bruno; Santana, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral arterial occlusive disease is described as vascular disorders associated with ischemia and may be the result of an obstructive vascular process or a lost revascularization response. We have shown that gait locomotion analysis by video filming represents an integrative model for the evaluation of mechanisms involved in the process of ischemia-induced revascularization. However, analysis by this method can be subjective and perception errors may be occurring. We present the optimization of a quantifiable, noninvasive, reproducible method that analyzes ankle kinematics in rats using a two-dimensional digital video system. Gait dynamics were filmed in hindlimb ischemic rats with a high speed digital video camera. Images were collected and analyzed at 125 frames per second. An algorithm using interactive data language (IDL) was devised to assess different parameters. In ischemic rats, stride time and knee joint angle remained altered 10 days post-surgery compared with sham animals. Gait kinematics were outlined in a highly reliable way by this computational analysis and corroborated the notion of hindlimb movement recovery associated with the revascularization process. PMID:22423574

  9. Accuracy and repeatability of two methods of gait analysis - GaitRite™ und Mobility Lab™ - in subjects with cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja; Brandt, Alexander U; Pfueller, Caspar; Zange, Leonora; Seidel, Adrian; Kühn, Andrea A; Paul, Friedemann; Minnerop, Martina; Doss, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Instrumental gait analysis is increasingly recognized as a useful tool for the evaluation of movement disorders. The various assessment devices available to date have mostly been evaluated in healthy populations only. We aimed to explore whether reliability and validity seen in healthy subjects can also be assumed in subjects with cerebellar ataxic gait. Gait was recorded simultaneously with two devices - a sensor-embedded walkway and an inertial sensor based system - to explore test accuracy in two groups of subjects: one with mild to moderate cerebellar ataxia due to a subtype of autosomal-dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder (SCA14), the other were healthy subjects matched for age and height (CTR). Test precision was assessed by retest within session for each device. In conclusion, accuracy and repeatability of gait measurements were not compromised by ataxic gait disorder. The accuracy of spatial measures was speed-dependent and a direct comparison of stride length from both devices will be most reliably made at comfortable speed. Measures of stride variability had low agreement between methods in CTR and at retest in both groups. However, the marked increase of stride variability in ataxia outweighs the observed amount of imprecision. PMID:27289221

  10. Effects of gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation on gait ability in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gui-bin; Ryu, Hyo Jeong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the gait abilities and motor recovery abilities in stroke patients following overground gait training with or without rhythmic auditory stimulation. [Subjects and Methods] Forty patients with hemiplegia resulting from stroke were divided into a rhythmic auditory stimulation gait training group (n=20) and a gait training group (n=20). The rhythmic auditory simulation gait group and gait training group both performed gait training. Rhythmic auditory stimulation was added during gait training in the rhythmic auditory stimulation gait training group. The gait training was performed in 30 minute sessions, five times a week, for a total four weeks. [Results] Gate ability significantly improved in both groups, and the rhythmic auditory stimulation gait training group showed more significant increases in cadence, step length, and Dynamic Gait Index. [Conclusion] The results of this study showed that gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation was more effective at improving gait ability. PMID:27313339

  11. Subtle gait changes in patients with REM Behavior Disorder

    PubMed Central

    McDade, Eric M; Boot, Brendon P.; Christianson, Teresa JH; Pankratz, V. Shane; Boeve, Bradley F; Ferman, Tanis J.; Bieniek, Kevin; Hollman, John H; Roberts, Rosebud O; Mielke, Michelle M; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many people with REM sleep behavior disorder have an underlying synucleinopathy, the most common of which is Lewy body disease. Identifying additional abnormal clinical features may help in identifying those at greater risk of evolving to a more severe syndrome. As gait disorders are common in the synucleinopathies, early abnormalities in gait in those with REM sleep behavior disorder could help in identifying those at increased risk of developing overt parkinsonism and/or cognitive impairment. Methods We identified 42 probable REM sleep behavior disorder subjects and 492 controls using the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire and assessed gait velocity, cadence and stride dynamics with an automated gait analysis system. Results Cases and controls were similar in age (79.9 ± 4.7 & 80.1 ± 4.7, p= 0.74), UPDRS score (3.3 ± 5.5 & 1.9 ± 4.1, p=0.21) and Mini-Mental State Examination scores (27.2 ± 1.9 & 27.7 ± 1.6, p=0.10). A diagnosis of probable REM sleep behavior disorder was associated with decreased velocity (−7.9 cm/sec, 95%CI −13.8 to −2.0, p<0.01), cadence (−4.4 steps/min, 95%CI −7.6 to −1.3, p<0.01), and significantly increased double limb support variability (30%, 95%CI 6 – 60, p=0.01), greater stride time variability (29%, 95%CI 2 – 63, p=0.03) and swing time variability (46%, 95%CI 15 – 84, p<0.01). Conclusions Probable REM sleep behavior disorder is associated with subtle gait changes prior to overt clinical parkinsonism. Diagnosis of probable REM sleep behavior disorder supplemented by gait analysis may help as a screening tool for disorders of α-synuclein. PMID:24130124

  12. Gait characteristics following Achilles tendon elongation: the foot rocker perspective.

    PubMed

    Bober, Tadeusz; Dziuba, Alicja; Kobel-Buys, Krystyna; Kulig, Kornelia

    2008-01-01

    The action of three functional rockers, namely the heel, ankle and forefoot rocker, assist the progression of the leg over the supporting foot. The purpose of this case series was to analyze the occurrence of foot rockers during gait in three children with cerebral palsy (CP) who had undergone the tendo-Achilles lengthening (TAL), procedure followed by a clinic- or home-based intervention and in one child with CP without history of surgery. Self-selected gait was video-recorded in a laboratory during six testing sessions at half-year intervals rendering a 3 year period of observation. One child had pre- and post-surgical gait data and the other two had post surgical data only. Sagittal plane knee angular velocity, as well as foot to ground positions, and foot rocker occurrence were analyzed. In a child with history of CP, and without history of surgery, mean angular velocities of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd foot rocker were 3.7, 0.57 and 6.67 rad/s, respectively, and the step length and cadence were normal. In children who underwent TAL the 1st and 2nd rocker was absent, as the initial contact of the foot with the ground was either with foot-flat or forefoot. The mean velocity of the 3rd rocker in children who underwent TAL was lower by approximately 50-80% than that of the nonsurgical case. Furthermore, the characteristic pattern of the knee joint to foot-floor position during gait was not observed in these cases. Foot rocker analysis identified children with abnormal gait characteristics. Following surgery these gait characteristics remained abnormal. PMID:18634352

  13. Rhythmic auditory stimulation using a portable smart device: short-term effects on gait in chronic hemiplegic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Byung-Woo; Lee, Hwi-Young; Song, Won-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effects of various rhythmic auditory stimulation tempos on stroke gait pattern changes when training patients with a smartphone-based rhythmic auditory stimulation application were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen patients with chronic stroke were included. Cadence during comfortable walking was measured (baseline). After the baseline findings were recorded, rhythmic auditory stimulation with five different tempos (i.e., −10%, −5%, 0%, +5%, and +10% change from baseline) was randomly applied. Finally, comfortable walking without rhythmic auditory stimulation was initiated to evaluate gait pattern changes. [Results] As the tempo increased, the spatiotemporal gait parameters of the stroke patients changed significantly. Gait speed, cadence, and gait cycle duration showed the greatest improvement in the +10% rhythmic auditory stimulation condition compared to baseline. After gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation, gait speed, cadence, stride length, gait cycle duration, and step length of the affected and unaffected sides improved significantly compared to baseline. [Conclusion] Significant changes in the gait pattern of stroke patients were noted for various tempos after training with rhythmic auditory stimulation. These findings could be used to customize rehabilitative gait training for patients who experience stroke with hemiplegia. PMID:27313366

  14. Repeatability of gait analysis for measuring knee osteoarthritis pain in patients with severe chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Asay, Jessica L; Boyer, Katherine A; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2013-07-01

    Gait measures are receiving increased attention in the evaluation of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Yet, there remains a need to assess variability of gait analysis in patients with knee osteoarthritis over time and how pain affects variation in these gait parameters. The purpose of this study was to determine if important gait parameters, such as the knee adduction moment, knee flexion moment, peak vertical ground reaction force, and speed, were repeatable in patients with mild-to-moderate knee OA over a trial period of 12 weeks. Six patients were enrolled in this cross-over study design after meeting strict inclusion criteria. Gait tests were conducted three times at 4 week intervals and once after the placebo arm of a randomized treatment sequence; each gait test followed a 2-week period of receiving a placebo for a pain modifying drug. Repeatability for each gait variable was found using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with a two-way random model. This study found that the knee adduction moment was repeatable throughout the four gait tests. However, normalized peak vertical ground reaction force and knee flexion moment were not as repeatable, varying with pain. This suggests that these gait outcomes could offer a more objective way to measure a patient's level of pain. PMID:23508626

  15. Changes in gait patterns with rhythmic auditory stimulation in adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Ji; Kwak, Eunmi Emily; Park, Eun Sook; Lee, Don Shin; Kim, Ki Jung; Song, Joo Eun; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2011-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate the changes in gait patterns with rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Fourteen CP with bilateral spasticity participated in this study. A repeated-measures analysis of gait was performed in the presence and absence of RAS. Thirty healthy controls were also recruited. Each subject walked 10 m at their comfortable walking speed. Temporospatial data and kinematic parameters of gait were analyzed without RAS and with RAS. RAS was provided using a combination of a metronome beat set to the individual's cadence and rhythmic cueing from a live keyboard playing. Kinematic parameters, gait deviation index (GDI) as a measure of overall gait pathology, and asymmetry of temporospatial data were assessed. Gait analysis revealed that anterior tilt of pelvis and hip flexion during a gait cycle was significantly changed with RAS (p < 0.05), whereas there were no statistical differences in knee, ankle, and foot kinematic parameters. Additionally, the GDI exhibited a modest, but a statistically significant, improvement with RAS (p < 0.05). Based on ambulatory status, household ambulators showed that side-to-side asymmetry of step length as well as the GDI was significantly attenuated with RAS (p < 0.05). Walking with RAS resulted in kinematic changes of the pelvic and hip movement in spastic CP. Especially, the application of RAS immediately ameliorated overall gait pathology as well as temporospatial asymmetry in household ambulators. Therefore, RAS may be one of the therapeutic tools for gait training in adults with CP. PMID:22142756

  16. Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is often associated with low back pain (LBP). Despite empirical evidence that LBP induces gait abnormalities, there is a lack of quantitative analysis of the combined effect of obesity and LBP on gait. The aim of our study was to quantify the gait pattern of obese subjects with and without LBP and normal-mass controls by using Gait Analysis (GA), in order to investigate the cumulative effects of obesity and LBP on gait. Methods Eight obese females with chronic LBP (OLG; age: 40.5 ± 10.1 years; BMI: 42.39 ± 5.47 Kg/m2), 10 obese females (OG; age: 33.6 ± 5.2 years; BMI: 39.26 ± 2.39 Kg/m2) and 10 healthy female subjects (CG; age: 33.4 ± 9.6 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 3.2 Kg/m2), were enrolled in this study and assessed with video recording and GA. Results and Discussion OLG showed longer stance duration and shorter step length when compared to OG and CG. They also had a low pelvis and hip ROM on the frontal plane, a low knee flexion in the swing phase and knee range of motion, a low dorsiflexion in stance and swing as compared to OG. No statistically significant differences were found in ankle power generation at push-off between OLG and OG, which appeared lower if compared to CG. At hip level, both OLG and OG exhibited high power generation levels during stance, with OLG showing the highest values. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the association of obesity and LBP affects more the gait pattern than obesity alone. OLG were in fact characterised by an altered knee and ankle strategy during gait as compared to OG and CG. These elements may help optimizing rehabilitation planning and treatment in these patients. PMID:21943156

  17. Effect of load carriage on gait due to firefighting air bottle configuration.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiwon; Hur, Pilwon; Rosengren, Karl S; Horn, Gavin P; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2010-07-01

    The air bottle configuration (mass and size) used with a firefighter's self-contained breathing apparatus may affect functional gait performance and slip/trip/fall risk, contributing to one of the most common and costly fire ground injuries to this population. To examine the potential effect of bottle mass and size on firefighter gait performance, four 30-min air bottle configurations were tested. To quantify biomechanical gait performance, kinetic and kinematic gait data were collected on 24 male firefighters while walking at normal and fast speeds during three conditions (no obstacle, 10 cm or 30 cm stationary obstacle). Bottle mass, obstacle height and walking speed - but not bottle size - were found to significantly impact gait parameters. Ten subjects (42%) contacted the taller obstacle while wearing heavier bottles, suggesting greater risk for tripping. Heavier bottles also resulted in larger forces by the trailing leg in both the anterior-posterior and vertical directions, suggesting greater risk for slipping. These results suggest that increased bottle weight may result in a decrease in gait performance and an increase in fall risk. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Occupations, such as firefighting, often require use of a self-contained breathing apparatus that includes a pressurised air bottle. No systematic assessment has investigated how modest changes in load carriage due to bottle configuration (mass and size) might affect gait behaviour, especially when crossing obstacles. Bottle mass, but not size, was found to decrease gait performance and increase fall risk. PMID:20582769

  18. Quality of Life and Gait in Elderly Group

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Carlos Kazuo; Teixeira, Jacqueline Pitanga; Alves, Lucas Vieira; Oliveira, Priscila Feliciano; Raposo, Oscar Felipe Falcão

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  The process of aging could lead to seniors being more prone to falls, which affects their quality of life. Objective  The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between quality of life and gait in the elderly. Methods  We used World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-Brief) Brazilian version and the Dynamic Gait Index to assess fifty-six volunteers from the northeast of Brazil. Ages ranged from 60 to 85 years. Results  The Dynamic Gait Index, which indicates the probability of falls, resulted in 36.3% of the sample presenting abnormal results. There was correlation between domain 2 (psychological) and domain 4 (environment) with domain 1(Physical) and domain 3 (Social); a negative correlation between age and Domain 2; correlation between Question 1 (How would you rate your quality of life?) and domains 1, 2, and 4 and no correlation between questions 1 and 2 (How satisfied are you with your health?). Question 2 was correlated with all of the domains. There was negative association between question 1 and falls, and a slight correlation between the Dynamic Gait Index scores and Question 1. Conclusion  The self-perception of the study group about their quality of life was either good or very good, even though a considerable percentage of individuals had suffered falls or reported gait disturbances.

  19. Biomechanics of the human walk-to-run gait transition in persons with unilateral transtibial amputation.

    PubMed

    Giest, Tracy N; Chang, Young-Hui

    2016-06-14

    Propulsive force production (indicative of intrinsic force-length-velocity characteristics of the plantar flexor muscles) has been shown to be a major determinant of the human walk-to-run transition. The purpose of this work was to determine the gait transition speed of persons with unilateral transtibial amputation donning a passive-elastic prosthesis and assess whether a mechanical limit of their intact side plantar flexor muscles is a major determinant of their walk-to-run transition. We determined each individual׳s gait transition speed (GTS) via an incremental protocol and assessed kinetics and kinematics during walking at speeds 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 100%, 120%, and 130% of that gait transition speed (100%:GTS). Unilateral transtibial amputees transitioned between gaits at significantly slower absolute speeds than matched able-bodied controls (1.73±0.13 and 2.09±0.05m/s respectively, p<0.01). Peak anterior-posterior propulsive force increased with speed in controls until 100% of the preferred gait transition speed and decreased at greater speeds. A significant decrease in anterior-posterior propulsive force production was found at 120%GTS (110%: 0.27±0.04>120%: 0.23±0.05BW, p<0.05). In contrast, amputee subjects' intact side generated significantly higher peak anterior-posterior propulsive forces while walking at speeds above their preferred gait transition speed (100%: 0.28±0.04<110%: 0.30±0.04BW, p<0.05). Changes in propulsive force production were found to be a function of changes in absolute speed, rather than relative to the walk-to-run transition speed. Therefore, the walk-to-run transition in unilateral transtibial amputees is not likely dictated by propulsive force production or the force-length-velocity characteristics of the intact side plantar flexor muscles. PMID:27087677

  20. A longitudinal study on dual-tasking effects on gait: cognitive change predicts gait variance in the elderly.

    PubMed

    MacAulay, Rebecca K; Brouillette, Robert M; Foil, Heather C; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological abilities have found to explain a large proportion of variance in objective measures of walking gait that predict both dementia and falling within the elderly. However, to this date there has been little research on the interplay between changes in these neuropsychological processes and walking gait overtime. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate intra-individual changes in neurocognitive test performance and gait step time at two-time points across a one-year span. Neuropsychological test scores from 440 elderly individuals deemed cognitively normal at Year One were analyzed via repeated measures t-tests to assess for decline in cognitive performance at Year Two. 34 of these 440 individuals neuropsychological test performance significantly declined at Year Two; whereas the "non-decliners" displayed improved memory, working memory, attention/processing speed test performance. Neuropsychological test scores were also submitted to factor analysis at both time points for data reduction purposes and to assess the factor stability overtime. Results at Year One yielded a three-factor solution: Language/Memory, Executive Attention/Processing Speed, and Working Memory. Year Two's test scores also generated a three-factor solution (Working Memory, Language/Executive Attention/Processing Speed, and Memory). Notably, language measures loaded on Executive Attention/Processing Speed rather than on the Memory factor at Year Two. Hierarchal multiple regression revealed that both Executive Attention/Processing Speed and sex significantly predicted variance in dual task step time at both time points. Remarkably, in the "decliners", the magnitude of the contribution of the neuropsychological characteristics to gait variance significantly increased at Year Two. In summary, this study provides longitudinal evidence of the dynamic relationship between intra-individual cognitive change and its influence on dual task gait step time. These

  1. Variations In Gait Patterns Of Runners: Relationship To Anthropometric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelsberg, S.; Tauber, C.; Au, J.; Pugh, J.

    1983-07-01

    High-speed computerized motion analysis was used to assess the running parameters of a group of runners. Anthropometric measurements were taken on the group of runners in an effort to provide possible correlations between running style, speed, and anthropometry. The most consistent correlation was between speed and stride length. Femur length and stride length was only highly correlated for the runners at the fastest speeds. The faster runners also had a gait pattern characterized by significantly lower ground contact time than that of the slower runners. Of prime importance in running is behavior of the body during float phase, and mediated by anthropometry and the biomechanical characteristics of the stance phase.

  2. Energy evaluation of a bio-inspired gait modulation method for quadrupedal locomotion.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Yasuhiro; Fukino, Kota; Habu, Yasushi; Mori, Yoshikazu

    2015-08-01

    We have proposed a bio-inspired gait modulation method, by means of which a simulated quadruped model can successfully perform smooth, autonomous gait transitions from a walk to a trot to a gallop, as observed in animals. The model is equipped with a rhythm generator called a central pattern generator (CPG) for each leg. The lateral neighbouring CPGs are mutually and inhibitorily coupled, and the CPG network is hardwired to produce a trot. Adding only the simple feedback of body tilt to each CPG, which was based on input from the postural reflex, led to the emergence of un-programmed walking and galloping at low and high speeds, respectively. Although this autonomous gait transition was a consequence of postural adaptation, it coincidentally also resulted in the minimization of energy consumption, as observed in real animals. In simulations at a variety of constant speeds the energy cost was lower for walking at low speeds and for galloping at high speeds than it was for trotting. Moreover, each gait transition occurred at the optimal speed, such that the model minimised its energy consumption. Thus, gait transitions in simulations that included the bio-inspired gait modulation method were similar to those observed in animals, even from the perspective of energy consumption. This method should therefore be a preferred choice for motion generation and control in biomimetic quadrupedal locomotion. PMID:26241690

  3. Comparison of gait of young women and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hageman, P A; Blanke, D J

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe and compare free-speed gait patterns of healthy young women with healthy elderly women. The evaluation was completed with high-speed cinematography using synchronized front and side views of 26 healthy volunteers. One group was composed of 13 subjects 20 to 35 years of age, and the other group was composed of 13 subjects 60 to 84 years of age. Each subject participated in one test session consisting of three filmed trials of free-speed ambulation down a 14-m walkway. The processed film was analyzed for 10 gait characteristics. Differences in gait characteristics between the two groups were examined using a correlated t test (p less than .01). The elderly women demonstrated significantly smaller values of step length, stride length, ankle range of motion, pelvic obliquity, and velocity when compared with the younger women. The results of our study suggest that the physical therapist should not establish similar expectations for young women and elderly women during gait rehabilitation. PMID:3749270

  4. Use of gait parameters of persons in video surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geradts, Zeno J.; Merlijn, Menno; de Groot, Gert; Bijhold, Jurrien

    2002-07-01

    The gait parameters of eleven subjects were evaluated to provide data for recognition purposes of subjects. Video images of these subjects were acquired in frontal, transversal, and sagittal (a plane parallel to the median of the body) view. The subjects walked by at their usual walking speed. The measured parameters were hip, knee and ankle joint angle and their time averaged values, thigh, foot and trunk angle, step length and width, cycle time and walking speed. Correlation coefficients within and between subjects for the hip, knee and ankle rotation pattern in the sagittal aspect and for the trunk rotation pattern in the transversal aspect were almost similar. (were similar or were almost identical) This implies that the intra and inter individual variance were equal. Therefore, these gait parameters could not distinguish between subjects. A simple ANOVA with a follow-up test was used to detect significant differences for the mean hip, knee and ankle joint angle, thigh angle, step length, step width, walking speed, cycle time and foot angle. The number of significant differences between subjects defined the usefulness of the gait parameter. The parameter with the most significant difference between subjects was the foot angle (64 % - 73 % of the maximal attainable significant differences), followed by the time average hip joint angle (58 %) and the step length (45 %). The other parameters scored less than 25 %, which is poor for recognition purposes. The use of gait for identification purposes it not yet possible based on this research.

  5. Towards a Passive Low-Cost In-Home Gait Assessment System for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Stone, Erik; Skubic, Marjorie; Keller, James M.; Abbott, Carmen; Rantz, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a webcam-based system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed, step time and step length from a three-dimensional voxel reconstruction, which is built from two calibrated webcam views. The gait parameters are validated with a GAITRite mat and a Vicon motion capture system in the lab with 13 participants and 44 tests, and again with GAITRite for 8 older adults in senior housing. An excellent agreement with intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.99 and repeatability coefficients between 0.7% and 6.6% was found for walking speed, step time and step length given the limitation of frame rate and voxel resolution. The system was further tested with 10 seniors in a scripted scenario representing everyday activities in an unstructured environment. The system results demonstrate the capability of being used as a daily gait assessment tool for fall risk assessment and other medical applications. Furthermore, we found that residents displayed different gait patterns during their clinical GAITRite tests compared to the realistic scenario, namely a mean increase of 21% in walking speed, a mean decrease of 12% in step time, and a mean increase of 6% in step length. These findings provide support for continuous gait assessment in the home for capturing habitual gait. PMID:24235111

  6. Toward a passive low-cost in-home gait assessment system for older adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Stone, Erik; Skubic, Marjorie; Keller, James M; Abbott, Carmen; Rantz, Marilyn

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a webcam-based system for in-home gait assessment of older adults. A methodology has been developed to extract gait parameters including walking speed, step time, and step length from a 3-D voxel reconstruction, which is built from two calibrated webcam views. The gait parameters are validated with a GAITRite mat and a Vicon motion capture system in the laboratory with 13 participants and 44 tests, and again with GAITRite for 8 older adults in senior housing. Excellent agreement with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.99 and repeatability coefficients between 0.7% and 6.6% was found for walking speed, step time, and step length given the limitation of frame rate and voxel resolution. The system was further tested with ten seniors in a scripted scenario representing everyday activities in an unstructured environment. The system results demonstrate the capability of being used as a daily gait assessment tool for fall risk assessment and other medical applications. Furthermore, we found that residents displayed different gait patterns during their clinical GAITRite tests compared to the realistic scenario, namely a mean increase of 21% in walking speed, a mean decrease of 12% in step time, and a mean increase of 6% in step length. These findings provide support for continuous gait assessment in the home for capturing habitual gait. PMID:24235111

  7. Influence of Spinal Cord Integrity on Gait Control in Human Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Awai, Lea; Bolliger, Marc; Ferguson, Adam R; Courtine, Grégoire; Curt, Armin

    2016-07-01

    Background Clinical trials in spinal cord injury (SCI) primarily rely on simplified outcome metrics (ie, speed, distance) to obtain a global surrogate for the complex alterations of gait control. However, these assessments lack sufficient sensitivity to identify specific patterns of underlying impairment and to target more specific treatment interventions. Objective To disentangle the differential control of gait patterns following SCI beyond measures of time and distance. Methods The gait of 22 individuals with motor-incomplete SCI and 21 healthy controls was assessed using a high-resolution 3-dimensional motion tracking system and complemented by clinical and electrophysiological evaluations applying unbiased multivariate analysis. Results Motor-incomplete SCI patients showed varying degrees of spinal cord integrity (spinal conductivity) with severe limitations in walking speed and altered gait patterns. Principal component (PC) analysis applied on all the collected data uncovered robust coherence between parameters related to walking speed, distortion of intralimb coordination, and spinal cord integrity, explaining 45% of outcome variance (PC 1). Distinct from the first PC, the modulation of gait-cycle variables (step length, gait-cycle phases, cadence; PC 2) remained normal with respect to regained walking speed, whereas hip and knee ranges of motion were distinctly altered with respect to walking speed (PC 3). Conclusions In motor-incomplete SCI, distinct clusters of discretely controlled gait parameters can be discerned that refine the evaluation of gait impairment beyond outcomes of walking speed and distance. These findings are specifically different from that in other neurological disorders (stroke, Parkinson) and are more discrete at targeting and disentangling the complex effects of interventions to improve walking outcome following motor-incomplete SCI. PMID:26428035

  8. Quantitative measurement of Parkinsonian gait from walking in monocular image sequences using a centroid tracking algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng-Huang; Chen, Shih-Wei; Lo, Yu-Chun; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Yang, Chich-Haung; Chen, Shin-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Chen, Chin-Hsing; Huang, Wen-Tzeng; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Chen, You-Yin; Tsang, Siny; Liao, Lun-De

    2016-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system that results from the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Abnormal gait begins in the early stage and becomes severe as the disease progresses; therefore, the assessment of gait becomes an important issue in evaluating the progression of PD and the effectiveness of treatment. To provide a clinically useful gait assessment in environments with budget and space limitations, such as a small clinic or home, we propose and develop a portable method utilizing the monocular image sequences of walking to track and analyze a Parkinsonian gait pattern. In addition, a centroid tracking algorithm is developed and used here to enhance the method of quantifying kinematic gait parameters of PD in different states. Twelve healthy subjects and twelve mild patients with PD participate in this study. This method requires one digital video camera and subjects with two joint markers attached on the fibula head and the lateral malleolus of the leg. All subjects walk with a natural pace in front of a video camera during the trials. Results of our study demonstrate the stride length and walking velocity significantly decrease in PD without drug compared to PD with drug in both proposed method and simultaneous gait assessment performed by GAITRite(®) system. In gait initiation, step length and swing velocity also decrease in PD without drug compared to both PD with drug and controls. Our results showed high correlation in gait parameters between the two methods and prove the reliability of the proposed method. With the proposed method, quantitative measurement and analysis of Parkinsonian gait could be inexpensive to implement, portable within a small clinic or home, easy to administer, and simple to interpret. Although this study is assessed Parkinsonian gait, the proposed method has the potential to help clinicians and researchers assess the gait of patients with other

  9. Gait energy efficiency in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sarah; Tucker, Carole A; Lee, Samuel C K

    2006-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) expend up to three times the energy required for ambulation as compared to typically developed children of the same age. Measuring the metabolic energy required to execute a task is an intuitively appealing way to quantify task efficiency. Task energy demand is often quantified through pulmonary tests that measure oxygen consumption. Although providing an accepted measure of energy demand, these tests are technically demanding and staff intensive. For this reason, we sought a measure of gait efficiency based on spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters that would be reflective of the energy cost during ambulation in children with cerebral palsy. Gait data from 18 subjects with CP over 30 separate data collection sessions was used. Statistical analysis showed oxygen cost highly correlates to several kinematic variables, most notably, pelvic tilt, walking speed, landing angle and the biomechanical efficiency quotient (BEQ). The results of the work support the development of a computational model that would capture gait energy efficiency. PMID:17946881

  10. Gait selection in the ostrich: mechanical and metabolic characteristics of walking and running with and without an aerial phase.

    PubMed Central

    Rubenson, Jonas; Heliams, Denham B.; Lloyd, David G.; Fournier, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    It has been argued that minimization of metabolic-energy costs is a primary determinant of gait selection in terrestrial animals. This view is based predominantly on data from humans and horses, which have been shown to choose the most economical gait (walking, running, galloping) for any given speed. It is not certain whether a minimization of metabolic costs is associated with the selection of other prevalent forms of terrestrial gaits, such as grounded running (a widespread gait in birds). Using biomechanical and metabolic measurements of four ostriches moving on a treadmill over a range of speeds from 0.8 to 6.7 m s(-1), we reveal here that the selection of walking or grounded running at intermediate speeds also favours a reduction in the metabolic cost of locomotion. This gait transition is characterized by a shift in locomotor kinetics from an inverted-pendulum gait to a bouncing gait that lacks an aerial phase. By contrast, when the ostrich adopts an aerial-running gait at faster speeds, there are no abrupt transitions in mechanical parameters or in the metabolic cost of locomotion. These data suggest a continuum between grounded and aerial running, indicating that they belong to the same locomotor paradigm. PMID:15293864

  11. The Effect of Two Different Cognitive Tests on Gait Parameters during Dual Tasks in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Kałużny, Krystian; Hagner, Wojciech; Kałużna, Anna; Kochański, Bartosz; Borkowska, Alina; Budzyński, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The paper aims to evaluate the influence of two different demanding cognitive tasks on gait parameters using BTS SMART system analysis. Patients and Methods. The study comprised 53 postmenopausal women aged 64.5 ± 6.7 years (range: 47–79). For every subject, gait analysis using a BTS SMART system was performed in a dual-task study design under three conditions: (I) while walking only (single task), (II) walking while performing a simultaneous simple cognitive task (SCT) (dual task), and (III) walking while performing a simultaneous complex cognitive task (CCT) (dual task). Time-space parameters of gait pertaining to the length of a single support phase, double support phase, gait speed, step length, step width, and leg swing speed were analyzed. Results. Performance of cognitive tests during gait resulted in a statistically significant prolongation of the left (by 7%) and right (by 7%) foot gait cycle, shortening of the length of steps made with the right extremity (by 4%), reduction of speed of swings made with the left (by 11%) and right (by 8%) extremity, and reduction in gait speed (by 6%). Conclusions. Performance of cognitive tests during gait changes its individual pattern in relation to the level of the difficulty of the task. PMID:27022602

  12. A comparative collision-based analysis of human gait

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David V.; Comanescu, Tudor N.; Butcher, Michael T.; Bertram, John E. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study compares human walking and running, and places them within the context of other mammalian gaits. We use a collision-based approach to analyse the fundamental dynamics of the centre of mass (CoM) according to three angles derived from the instantaneous force and velocity vectors. These dimensionless angles permit comparisons across gait, species and size. The collision angle Φ, which is equivalent to the dimensionless mechanical cost of transport CoTmech, is found to be three times greater during running than walking of humans. This threefold difference is consistent with previous studies of walking versus trotting of quadrupeds, albeit tends to be greater in the gaits of humans and hopping bipeds than in quadrupeds. Plotting the collision angle Φ together with the angles of the CoM force vector Θ and velocity vector Λ results in the functional grouping of bipedal and quadrupedal gaits according to their CoM dynamics—walking, galloping and ambling are distinguished as separate gaits that employ collision reduction, whereas trotting, running and hopping employ little collision reduction and represent more of a continuum that is influenced by dimensionless speed. Comparable with quadrupedal mammals, collision fraction (the ratio of actual to potential collision) is 0.51 during walking and 0.89 during running, indicating substantial collision reduction during walking, but not running, of humans. PMID:24089334

  13. Rhythmic auditory stimulation in gait training for Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Thaut, M H; McIntosh, G C; Rice, R R; Miller, R A; Rathbun, J; Brault, J M

    1996-03-01

    Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) was used as a pacemaker during a 3-week home-based gait-training program for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients (n = 15). Electromyogram (EMG) patterns and stride parameters were assessed before and after the test without RAS to evaluate changes in gait patterns. Data were compared with those of two control groups (n = 11), who either did not participate in any gait training or who participated in an internally self-paced training program. RAS consisted of audiotapes with metronome-pulse patterns embedded into the on/off beat structure of rhythmically accentuated instrumental music. Patients who trained with RAS significantly (p < 0.05) improved their gait velocity by 25%, stride length by 12%, and step cadence by 10% more than self-paced subjects who improved their velocity by 7% and no-training subjects whose velocity decreased by 7%. In the RAS-group, timing of EMG patterns changed significantly (p < 0.05) in the anterior tibialis and vastus lateralis muscles. Evidence for rhythmic entrainment of gait patterns was shown by the ability of the RAS group to reproduce the speed of the last training tape within a 2% margin of error without RAS. PMID:8684391

  14. A comparative collision-based analysis of human gait.

    PubMed

    Lee, David V; Comanescu, Tudor N; Butcher, Michael T; Bertram, John E A

    2013-11-22

    This study compares human walking and running, and places them within the context of other mammalian gaits. We use a collision-based approach to analyse the fundamental dynamics of the centre of mass (CoM) according to three angles derived from the instantaneous force and velocity vectors. These dimensionless angles permit comparisons across gait, species and size. The collision angle Φ, which is equivalent to the dimensionless mechanical cost of transport CoTmech, is found to be three times greater during running than walking of humans. This threefold difference is consistent with previous studies of walking versus trotting of quadrupeds, albeit tends to be greater in the gaits of humans and hopping bipeds than in quadrupeds. Plotting the collision angle Φ together with the angles of the CoM force vector Θ and velocity vector Λ results in the functional grouping of bipedal and quadrupedal gaits according to their CoM dynamics-walking, galloping and ambling are distinguished as separate gaits that employ collision reduction, whereas trotting, running and hopping employ little collision reduction and represent more of a continuum that is influenced by dimensionless speed. Comparable with quadrupedal mammals, collision fraction (the ratio of actual to potential collision) is 0.51 during walking and 0.89 during running, indicating substantial collision reduction during walking, but not running, of humans. PMID:24089334

  15. Knee muscle strength in multiple sclerosis: relationship with gait characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Güner, Senem; Hagharı, Sema; Inanıcı, Fatma; Alsancak, Serap; Aytekın, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the relationship between isokinetic knee muscle strength and kinematic, kinetic and spatiotemporal gait parameters of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine MS patients (mean age 31.5±6.5) were investigated in this study. The isokinetic knee muscle strength and gait parameters of MS patients with moderate and severe disability, as determined by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS): EDSS=1–4.5 (n=22, moderate disability) and EDSS>4.5 (n=7, severe disability) were measured. [Results] Isokinetic knee muscle strength, kinematic, kinetic and spatiotemporal gait parameters differed between moderate (EDSS=1–4.5, n=22) and severe disability (EDSS>4.5, n=7). The correlation between each of gait speed, stride length, total range of knee joint movement and the four strength parameters (minimum and maximum quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths) were significant for the MS group as a whole. Within subgroups, the correlation between minimum hamstring strength and total range of knee movement was significant only in group EDSS>4.5; minimum hamstring correlated with peak knee extensor moment in group EDSS=1–4.5, but at a reduced level of significance. [Conclusion] The present study revealed significant correlations between gait characteristics and isokinetic strength parameters of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles. Our study suggests that rehabilitation protocols for MS patients should include a critical strength training programme particularly for the hamstring and quadriceps muscles. PMID:25931736

  16. Locomotion in degus on terrestrial substrates varying in orientation - implications for biomechanical constraints and gait selection.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, André

    2014-04-01

    To gain new insights into running gaits on sloped terrestrial substrates, metric and selected kinematic parameters of the common degu (Octodon degus) were examined. Individuals were filmed at their maximum voluntary running speed using a high-speed camera placed laterally to the terrestrial substrate varying in orientations from -30° to +30°, at 10° increments. Degus used trotting, lateral-sequence (LS) and diagonal-sequence (DS) running gaits at all substrate orientations. Trotting was observed across the whole speed range whereas DS running gaits occurred at significantly higher speeds than LS running gaits. Metric and kinematic changes on sloped substrates in degus paralleled those noted for most other mammals. However, the timing of metric and kinematic locomotor adjustments differed significantly between individual degus. In addition, most of these adjustments took place at 10° rather than 30° inclines and declines, indicating significant biomechanical demands even on slightly sloped terrestrial substrates. The results of this study suggest that DS and LS running gaits may represent an advantage in small to medium-sized mammals for counteracting some level of locomotor instability. Finally, changes in locomotor parameters of the forelimbs rather than the hindlimbs seem to play an important role in gait selection in small to medium-sized mammals. PMID:24439459

  17. Effects of a Multicomponent Exercise Program on Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters, Risk of Falling and Physical Activity in Dementia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Perrochon, Anaïck; Tchalla, Achille E.; Bonis, Joelle; Perucaud, Florian; Mandigout, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise programs are presumed to rehabilitate gait disorders and to reduce the risk of falling in dementia patients. This study aimed to analyze the specific effects of multicomponent exercise on gait disorders and to determine the association between gait impairments and the risk of falling in dementia patients before and after intervention. Methods We conducted an 8-week multicomponent exercise program in 16 dementia patients (age 86.7 ± 5.4 years). All participants were assessed several times for gait analysis (Locométrix®), Tinetti score and physical activity (Body Media SenseWear® Pro armband). Results After 8 weeks of the exercise program, the mean gait speed was 0.12 m/s faster than before the intervention (0.55 ± 0.17 vs. 0.67 ± 0.14 m/s). The multicomponent exercise program improved gait performance and Tinetti score (p < 0.05). Gait performance (gait speed, stride length) was correlated with the Tinetti score (p < 0.05). Conclusion Analysis of spatiotemporal gait parameters using an accelerometer method provided a quick and easy tool to estimate the benefits of an exercise program and the risk of falling. PMID:26557134

  18. Diffusion Tensor Imaging, White Matter lesions, the Corpus Callosum and Gait in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Bhadelia, Refeeque A.; Price, Lori Lyn; Tedesco, Kurtis L.; Scott, Tammy; Qiu, Wei Qiao; Patz, Samuel; Folstein, Marshal; Rosenberg, Irwin; Caplan, Louis R.; Bergethon, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Gait impairment is common in the elderly, especially those with stroke and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on conventional brain MRI. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is more sensitive to white matter damage than conventional MRI. The relationship between DTI measures and gait has not been previously evaluated. Our purpose was to investigate the relationship between the integrity of white matter in the corpus callosum as determined by DTI and quantitative measures of gait in the elderly. Methods One hundred seventy-three participants of a community-dwelling elderly cohort had neurological and neuropsychological examinations and brain MRI. Gait function was measured by Tinetti gait (0-12), balance (0-16) and total (0-28) scores. DTI assessed Fractional Anisotropy in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum. Conventional MRI was used to evaluate for brain infarcts and WMH volume. Results Participants with abnormal gait had low fractional anisotropy in the genu of the corpus callosum but not the splenium. Multiple regressions analyses showed an independent association between these genu abnormalities and all three Tinetti scores (p <0.001). This association remained significant after adding MRI infarcts and WMH volume to the analysis. Conclusions The independent association between quantitative measures of gait function and DTI findings shows that white matter integrity in the genu of corpus callosum is an important marker of gait in the elderly. DTI analyses of white matter tracts in brain and spinal cord may improve knowledge about the pathophysiology of gait impairment and help target clinical interventions. PMID:19797696

  19. A Mobile Kalman-Filter Based Solution for the Real-Time Estimation of Spatio-Temporal Gait Parameters.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Alberto; Ginis, Pieter; Hardegger, Michael; Casamassima, Filippo; Rocchi, Laura; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    Gait impairments are among the most disabling symptoms in several musculoskeletal and neurological conditions, severely limiting personal autonomy. Wearable gait sensors have been attracting attention as diagnostic tool for gait and are emerging as promising tool for tutoring and guiding gait execution. If their popularity is continuously growing, still there is room for improvement, especially towards more accurate solutions for spatio-temporal gait parameters estimation. We present an implementation of a zero-velocity-update gait analysis system based on a Kalman filter and off-the-shelf shoe-worn inertial sensors. The algorithms for gait events and step length estimation were specifically designed to comply with pathological gait patterns. More so, an Android app was deployed to support fully wearable and stand-alone real-time gait analysis. Twelve healthy subjects were enrolled to preliminarily tune the algorithms; afterwards sixteen persons with Parkinson's disease were enrolled for a validation study. Over the 1314 strides collected on patients at three different speeds, the total root mean square difference on step length estimation between this system and a gold standard was 2.9%. This shows that the proposed method allows for an accurate gait analysis and paves the way to a new generation of mobile devices usable anywhere for monitoring and intervention. PMID:26259246

  20. Gait characteristics in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy assessed with a trunk-worn accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Saether, Rannei; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Adde, Lars; Brændvik, Siri; Lydersen, Stian; Vik, Torstein

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate gait characteristics reflecting balance and progression in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) compared with typically developing (TD) children. Gait characteristics variables representing aspects of balance were trunk acceleration, interstride regularity and asymmetry of accelerations while gait characteristics representing progression were gait speed, cadence, step time and step length. Children in the age range 5-18 years (mean age 11.1 years) with spastic CP (n=41) and a gross motor function corresponding to GMFCS I-III and children with TD (n=29) were included. The children walked back and forth along a 5m pathway with a tri-axial accelerometer worn on the lower back to allow assessment of their gait characteristics. Data were recorded along the anterioposterior (AP), mediolateral (ML), and vertical (V) axes. To assess the magnitude of potential differences in gait characteristics, standard deviation scores were calculated, using TD children as reference. Gait parameters related to balance, such as AP, ML, and V accelerations, were higher in the children with CP (z-scores between 0.4 and 0.7) and increased with increasing GMFCS levels. The differences in accelerations in the AP and V directions increased between children with CP and TD children with increasing speed. Also asymmetry in trunk accelerations differed significantly between the two groups in all three directions (z-scores between 0.8 and 1.8 higher in the CP group), while interstride regularity differed only slightly between children with CP and TD children, and only in the AP direction. Gait characteristics also differed between children with the spastic subtypes unilateral and bilateral CP, for accelerations and asymmetry in the AP and ML directions. Our results showed significant differences in gait characteristics between children with CP and TD children. The differences may be more related to balance than progression, and these problems seem to rise

  1. Coactivation of Lower Limb Muscles during Gait in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Boudarham, Julien; Hameau, Sophie; Zory, Raphael; Hardy, Alexandre; Bensmail, Djamel; Roche, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background Coactivation of agonist and antagonist lower limb muscles during gait stiffens joints and ensures stability. In patients with multiple sclerosis, coactivation of lower limb muscles might be a compensatory mechanism to cope with impairments of balance and gait. Objective The aim of this study was to assess coactivation of agonist and antagonist muscles at the knee and ankle joints during gait in patients with multiple sclerosis, and to evaluate the relationship between muscle coactivation and disability, gait performance, dynamic ankle strength measured during gait, and postural stability. Methods The magnitude and duration of coactivation of agonist-antagonist muscle pairs at the knee and ankle were determined for both lower limbs (more and less-affected) in 14 patients with multiple sclerosis and 11 healthy subjects walking at a spontaneous speed, using 3D-gait analysis. Results In the patient group, coactivation was increased in the knee muscles during single support (proximal strategy) and in the ankle muscles during double support (distal strategy). The magnitude of coactivation was highest in the patients with the slowest gait, the greatest motor impairment and the most instability. Conclusion Increased muscle coactivation is likely a compensatory mechanism to limit the number of degrees of freedom during gait in patients with multiple sclerosis, particularly when postural stability is impaired. PMID:27336442

  2. The relationship between motor recovery and gait velocity during dual tasks in patients with chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Bo; Kim, Jang Hwan; Lee, Kang Sung

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The aims of this study were to identify the relationship between motor recovery and gait velocity during dual tasks in patients with chronic stroke and determine automatic gait ability following stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-three outpatients and twelve healthy subjects participated in a cross-sectional assessment. Community ambulation was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Outcome measures included the Motricity index, Berg Balance Scale, and gait speed under three conditions (self-paced ambulation for 10 m, ambulation while performing dual cognitive tasks, and ambulation while performing dual manual tasks). Gait automaticity was calculated. [Results] No significant differences were observed for muscle strength or balance between the limited community ambulation and the community ambulation groups. However, a significant difference in gait velocity was observed between the groups under the three conditions. In particular, a significant difference was detected only in the limited community ambulation group depending on the level of motor function recovery during cognitive and manual dual task ambulation. Additionally, we revealed that the community ambulation group had a lower level of gait automaticity compared with that in the normal group. [Conclusion] Our results show the influence of motor recovery on the change in gait velocity depending on the task if a patient is limitedly ambulatory. We revealed that community ambulators did not have a sufficient level of gait automaticity. PMID:25995582

  3. The relationship between motor recovery and gait velocity during dual tasks in patients with chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung Bo; Kim, Jang Hwan; Lee, Kang Sung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aims of this study were to identify the relationship between motor recovery and gait velocity during dual tasks in patients with chronic stroke and determine automatic gait ability following stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-three outpatients and twelve healthy subjects participated in a cross-sectional assessment. Community ambulation was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Outcome measures included the Motricity index, Berg Balance Scale, and gait speed under three conditions (self-paced ambulation for 10 m, ambulation while performing dual cognitive tasks, and ambulation while performing dual manual tasks). Gait automaticity was calculated. [Results] No significant differences were observed for muscle strength or balance between the limited community ambulation and the community ambulation groups. However, a significant difference in gait velocity was observed between the groups under the three conditions. In particular, a significant difference was detected only in the limited community ambulation group depending on the level of motor function recovery during cognitive and manual dual task ambulation. Additionally, we revealed that the community ambulation group had a lower level of gait automaticity compared with that in the normal group. [Conclusion] Our results show the influence of motor recovery on the change in gait velocity depending on the task if a patient is limitedly ambulatory. We revealed that community ambulators did not have a sufficient level of gait automaticity. PMID:25995582

  4. Clinical prediction of fall risk and white matter abnormalities: a diffusion tensor imaging study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Tinetti scale is a simple clinical tool designed to predict risk of falling by focusing on gait and stance impairment in elderly persons. Gait impairment is also associated with white matter (WM) abnormalities. Objective: To test the hypothesis that elderly subjects at risk for falling, as deter...

  5. Effects of Postprandial Blood Pressure on Gait Parameters in Older People

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Shailaja; Visvanathan, Renuka; Piscitelli, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Postprandial hypotension (PPH), a fall in systolic blood pressure (SBP) within 2 h of a meal, may detrimentally affect gait parameters and increase the falls risk in older people. We aimed to determine the effects of postprandial SBP on heart rate (HR), gait speed, and stride length, double-support time and swing time variability in older subjects with and without PPH. Twenty-nine subjects were studied on three days: glucose (“G”), water and walk (“WW”), glucose and walk (“GW”). Subjects consumed a glucose drink on “G” and “GW” and water on “WW”. The “G” day determined which subjects had PPH. On “WW” and “GW” gait was analyzed. Sixteen subjects demonstrated PPH. In this group, there were significant changes in gait speed (p = 0.040) on “WW” and double-support time variability (p = 0.027) on “GW”. The area under the curve for the change in gait parameters from baseline was not significant on any study day. Among subjects without PPH, SBP increased on “WW” (p < 0.005) and all gait parameters remained unchanged on all study days. These findings suggest that by changing gait parameters, PPH may contribute to an increased falls risk in the older person with PPH. PMID:27089361

  6. Effects of gyrokinesis exercise on the gait pattern of female patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Kook-Eun; Park, Tae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to use kinematic variables to identify the effects of 8/weeks’ performance of a gyrokinesis exercise on the gait pattern of females with chronic low back pain. [Subjects] The subjects of the present study were females in their late 20s to mid 30s who were chronic back pain patients. [Methods] A 3-D motion analysis system was used to measure the changes in their gait patterns between pre and post-gyrokintic exercise. The SPSS 21.0 statistics program was used to perform the paired t-test, to compare the gait patterns of pre-post-gyrokinesis exercise. [Results] In the gait analysis, pre-post-gyrokinesis exercise gait patterns showed statistically significant differences in right and left step length, stride length, right-left step widths, and stride speed. [Conclusion] Gait pattern analysis revealed increases in step length, stride length, and stride speed along with a decrease in step width after 8 weeks of gyrokinesis exercise, demonstrating it improved gait pattern. PMID:27065537

  7. Effects of cognitive function on gait and dual tasking abilities in patients with Parkinson's disease suffering from motor response fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Plotnik, Meir; Dagan, Yaacov; Gurevich, Tanya; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that cognitive loading aggravates the gait impairments that are typically seen in Parkinson's disease (PD). To better understand the relationship between cognition and gait in PD, we evaluated 30 subjects with PD who suffer from motor response fluctuations. The subjects were clinically and cognitively assessed using standard clinical (e.g., Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) and cognitive tests while in the "ON" period of the medication cycle. In addition, the subjects wore force-sensitive insoles to quantify the timing of the gait cycles during 80-m walks at a self-selected, comfortable pace during three randomly presented gait conditions: (1) usual-walking, (2) dual tasking (DT), performing serial 3 subtractions (DT_S3), and (3) DT_S7. Stride length, gait speed, gait variability and bilateral coordination of gait were affected by DT, compared to the usual-walking (P < 0.001) as was gait asymmetry (P = 0.024). Stepwise regression analyses showed that a subset of the cognitive performance scores accounted for the changes seen in the gait parameters during DT, e.g., set shifting capabilities as expressed by the Trial Making Test Scores (P < 0.001). Affect (e.g., anxiety) was not associated with DT-related gait changes. For most gait features, DT had a large impact on the DT_S3 condition with only minimal additional effect in the DT_S7 condition. These results demonstrate that the complex cognitive-motor interplay in the control of gait in patients with PD who suffer from motor response fluctuations has a profound and marked effect during DT conditions on gait variability, asymmetry and bilateral coordination, even in the "ON" state when patients are likely to be most active, mobile and vulnerable to the negative effects of dual tasking. PMID:21063692

  8. Early presentation of gait impairment in Wolfram Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Classically characterized by early onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, diabetes insipidus, and neurological abnormalities, Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is also associated with atypical brainstem and cerebellar findings in the first decade of life. As such, we hypothesized that gait differences between individuals with WFS and typically developing (TD) individuals may be detectable across the course of the disease. Methods Gait was assessed for 13 individuals with WFS (min 6.4 yrs, max 25.8 yrs) and 29 age-matched, typically developing individuals (min 5.6 yrs, max 28.5 yrs) using a GAITRite ® walkway system. Velocity, cadence, step length, base of support and double support time were compared between groups. Results Across all tasks, individuals with WFS walked slower (p = 0.03), took shorter (p ≤ 0.001) and wider (p ≤ 0.001) steps and spent a greater proportion of the gait cycle in double support (p = 0.03) compared to TD individuals. Cadence did not differ between groups (p = 0.62). Across all tasks, age was significantly correlated with cadence and double support time in the TD group but only double support time was correlated with age in the WFS group and only during preferred pace forward (rs= 0.564, p = 0.045) and dual task forward walking (rs= 0.720, p = 0.006) tasks. Individuals with WFS also had a greater number of missteps during tandem walking (p ≤ 0.001). Within the WFS group, spatiotemporal measures of gait did not correlate with measures of visual acuity. Balance measures negatively correlated with normalized gait velocity during fast forward walking (rs = −0.59, p = 0.03) and percent of gait cycle in double support during backward walking (rs = −0.64, p = 0.03). Conclusions Quantifiable gait impairments can be detected in individuals with WFS earlier than previous clinical observations suggested. These impairments are not fully accounted for by the visual or balance deficits associated with WFS

  9. The effect of upper limb casting on gait pattern.

    PubMed

    Dreyfuss, Daniel; Elbaz, Avi; Mor, Amit; Segal, Ganit; Calif, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Casting of the arm may interfere with normal walking patterns because of additional load of the cast or prevention of arm swing. This study aimed to determine the effect of applying various casts on temporospatial walking parameters, including gait velocity and cadence, step length, and single limb support. A computerized gait system was used to assess these variables for 23 healthy individuals in four walking modes: normal walking, with a cast above the elbow and a sling, and with a cast below the elbow, with and without a sling. Thirteen participants had their dominant hand casted and 10 had their nondominant hand casted. On average, casted participants took significantly smaller steps with the leg on the casted side and spent less time supported on the casted side. The least changes were noted with the arm in a cast below the elbow and no sling, and the greatest changes were noted with the arm in a cast above the elbow and in a sling. This difference was heightened when the dominant hand was casted and lessened when the nondominant hand was casted. No differences were found in walking velocity or cadence between the walking modes. Casting of the upper limb has significant effects on gait, which should be taken into consideration, especially in individuals with previous gait abnormalities. PMID:26855024

  10. Gait post-stroke: Pathophysiology and rehabilitation strategies.

    PubMed

    Beyaert, C; Vasa, R; Frykberg, G E

    2015-11-01

    We reviewed neural control and biomechanical description of gait in both non-disabled and post-stroke subjects. In addition, we reviewed most of the gait rehabilitation strategies currently in use or in development and observed their principles in relation to recent pathophysiology of post-stroke gait. In both non-disabled and post-stroke subjects, motor control is organized on a task-oriented basis using a common set of a few muscle modules to simultaneously achieve body support, balance control, and forward progression during gait. Hemiparesis following stroke is due to disruption of descending neural pathways, usually with no direct lesion of the brainstem and cerebellar structures involved in motor automatic processes. Post-stroke, improvements of motor activities including standing and locomotion are variable but are typically characterized by a common postural behaviour which involves the unaffected side more for body support and balance control, likely in response to initial muscle weakness of the affected side. Various rehabilitation strategies are regularly used or in development, targeting muscle activity, postural and gait tasks, using more or less high-technology equipment. Reduced walking speed often improves with time and with various rehabilitation strategies, but asymmetric postural behaviour during standing and walking is often reinforced, maintained, or only transitorily decreased. This asymmetric compensatory postural behaviour appears to be robust, driven by support and balance tasks maintaining the predominant use of the unaffected side over the initially impaired affected side. Based on these elements, stroke rehabilitation including affected muscle strengthening and often stretching would first need to correct the postural asymmetric pattern by exploiting postural automatic processes in various particular motor tasks secondarily beneficial to gait. PMID:26547547

  11. Are gait initiation parameters early markers of Huntington's disease in pre-manifest mutation carriers?

    PubMed

    Delval, Arnaud; Bleuse, Séverine; Simonin, Clémence; Delliaux, Marie; Rolland, Benjamin; Destee, Alain; Defebvre, Luc; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Dujardin, Kathy

    2011-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) pre-manifest mutation carriers (PMCs) present early-onset gait disturbances. Gait initiation encompasses the preparation and execution of the first step. By using paradigms with and without external cues, a gait initiation analysis can highlight the interaction between motor and cognitive aspects of movement preparation and execution. Hence, gait initiation disorders may constitute particularly interesting early markers of HD. The objective of the present study was to quantify gait initiation in PMCs. In a case-control study, 17 PMCs (median age: 36.5) were compared with a group of 25 healthy controls (HCs, median age: 36) for gait initiation and a group of 57 HCs (median age: 38) for gait. Presymptomatic mutation carriers displayed a shorter first step duration and lower-amplitude postural adjustments. For the first step duration and speed, these impairments were more pronounced under self-triggered (ST) conditions. The PMCs displayed a lower gait speed, cadence and stride length and higher stride-to-stride variability. The latter parameter seemed capable of differentiating between PMCs and HCs with adequate sensitivity (0.81) and specificity (0.87). We confirmed the early-onset impairment of gait in general and first step execution in particular in PMCs (particularly under ST conditions). The temporal parameters of step execution (e.g. duration) and spatial parameters of postural adjustment (e.g. a backward shift in the centre of pressure) may be worth investigating as early markers of HD. However, two such parameters (stride-to-stride variability and first step duration under ST conditions) already appear to be sufficiently reliable diagnostic tools for differentiating between PMCs and HCs. PMID:21616667

  12. Muscle-skeletal model of the thigh: a tool for understanding the biomechanics of gait in patients with cerebral palsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravera, Emiliano Pablo; Catalfamo Formento, Paola Andrea; José Crespo, Marcos; Andrés Braidot, Ariel

    2011-12-01

    Cerebral Palsy represents the most common cause of physical disability in modern world and within the pediatrics orthopedics units. The gait analysis provides great contributions to the understanding of gait disorders in CP. Giving a more comprehensive treatment plan, including or excluding surgical procedures that can potentially decrease the number of surgical interventions in the life of these patients. Recommendations for orthopedic surgery may be based on a quantitative description of how to alter the properties probably muscle force generation, and how this affects the action of the muscle to determine how these muscles, impaired by disease or surgery, contributing to the movement of the segments of the limb during crouch gait. So the causes and appropriate treatment of gait abnormalities are difficult to determine because the movements generated by the muscular forces of these patients are not clearly understood. A correct determination of the etiology of abnormal patterns of the knee is the key to select the appropriate therapy, presenting a major challenge at present since there is no theoretical basis to determine the biomechanical causes of abnormal gait of these patients. The potential and necessity of using correct biomechanical models that consistently study the abnormalities becomes clear. Reinforcing and correcting a simple gait analysis and eliminating the unknowns when selecting the appropriate treatment is crucial in clinical settings. In this paper a computer muscle-skeletal model is proposed. The model represents a person's thigh simulating the six most representative muscles and joints of the hip and knee. In this way you can have a better understanding of gait abnormalities present in these patients. So the quality of these estimates of individual muscle dynamics facilitate better understanding of the biomechanics of gait pathologies helping to reach better diagnosis prior to surgery and rehabilitation treatments.

  13. Perceived Effort of Walking: Relationship With Gait, Physical Function and Activity, Fear of Falling, and Confidence in Walking in Older Adults With Mobility Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Julius, Leslie M.; Brach, Jennifer S.; Wert, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although clinicians have a number of measures to use to describe walking performance, few, if any, of the measures capture a person's perceived effort in walking. Perceived effort of walking may be a factor in what a person does versus what he or she is able to do. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of perceived effort of walking with gait, function, activity, fear of falling, and confidence in walking in older adults with mobility limitations. Design This investigation was a cross-sectional, descriptive, relational study. Methods The study took place at a clinical research training center. The participants were 50 older adults (mean age=76.8 years, SD=5.5) with mobility limitations. The measurements used were the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) for walking; gait speed; the Modified Gait Abnormality Rating Scale; energy cost of walking; Late Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) for total, basic, and advanced lower-extremity function and for disability limitations; activity and restriction subscales of the Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly (SAFFE); activity counts; SAFFE fear subscale; and Gait Efficacy Scale (GES). The relationship of the RPE of walking with gait, function, activity, fear, and confidence was determined by using Spearman rank order coefficients and an analysis of variance (adjusted for age and sex) for mean differences between groups defined by no exertion during walking and some exertion during walking. Results The RPE was related to confidence in walking (GES, R=−.326, P=.021) and activity (activity counts, R=.295, P=.044). The RPE groups (no exertion versus some exertion) differed in LLFDI scores for total (57.9 versus 53.2), basic (68.6 versus 61.4), and advanced (49.1 versus 42.6) lower-extremity function; LLFDI scores for disability limitations (74.9 versus 67.5); SAFFE fear subscale scores (0.346 versus 0.643); and GES scores (80.1 versus 67.8) (all P<.05

  14. A synergetic model for human gait transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolvahab, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Gait transitions have been considered as bifurcations between states (e.g. walking or running modes) of a nonlinear dynamical system. A top-down synergetic approach to model gait transitions has been adapted from Frank et al. (2009) and applied to two sets of empirical observations. In this approach, it is assumed that the amplitudes of the spatio-temporal modes of locomotion satisfy a generic form of evolution equations that are known to hold for animate and inanimate self-organizing systems. The presented experimental results focus on hysteresis in human walk-to-run and run-to-walk transitions on a treadmill as a function of treadmill inclination and acceleration, the rate at which speed was increased or decreased during experimental trials. The bi-stability in the synergetic model is assumed to account for the hysteretic transitions. Accordingly, the relevant parameters of the model were estimated from the empirical data and the model's efficacy in predicting the observed hysteresis effects was evaluated.

  15. Effects of noxious stimulation to the back or calf muscles on gait stability.

    PubMed

    van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hug, François; Hodges, Paul W; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-11-26

    Gait stability is the ability to deal with small perturbations that naturally occur during walking. Changes in motor control caused by pain could affect this ability. This study investigated whether nociceptive stimulation (hypertonic saline injection) in a low back (LBP) or calf (CalfP) muscle affects gait stability. Sixteen participants walked on a treadmill at 0.94ms(-1) and 1.67ms(-1), while thorax kinematics were recorded using 3D-motion capture. From 110 strides, stability (local divergence exponent, LDE), stride-to-stride variability and root mean squares (RMS) of thorax linear velocities were calculated along the three movement axes. At 0.94ms(-1), independent of movement axes, gait stability was lower (higher LDE) and stride-to-stride variability was higher, during LBP and CalfP than no pain. This was more pronounced during CalfP, likely explained by the biomechanical function of calf muscles in gait, as supported by greater mediolateral RMS and stance time asymmetry than in LBP and no pain. At 1.67ms(-1), independent of movement axes, gait stability was greater and stride-to-stride variability was smaller with LBP than no pain and CalfP, whereas CalfP was not different from no pain. Opposite effects of LBP on gait stability between speeds suggests a more protective strategy at the faster speed. Although mediolateral RMS was greater and participants had more asymmetric stance times with CalfP than LBP and no pain, limited effect of CalfP at the faster speed could relate to greater kinematic constraints and smaller effects of calf muscle activity on propulsion at this speed. In conclusion, pain effects on gait stability depend on pain location and walking speed. PMID:26602375

  16. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Gait and balance performance of stroke survivors in South-Western Nigeria - A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Obembe, Adebimpe Olayinka; Olaogun, Matthew Olatokunbo; Adedoyin, Rufus

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Stroke survivors are often left with neurological and functional deficits, which impair their ability to walk and affect their balance. This study assessed gait parameters and balance performance among stroke survivors and examined the relationship between these two factors. Methods Seventy stroke survivors (65.7% males) who were 6 months or more post stroke participated in this study. Using Observational Gait Analysis, the gait of participants was assessed by gait speed and cadence. Balance performance was assessed using the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale for balance self-efficacy and Functional Reach Test for standing balance. Resuls Participants had a mean age of 53.5±10.4 years. Forty five (64.3%) stroke survivors had haemorrhagic stroke while 25 (35.7%) had ischaemic stroke. The mean gait speed and cadence were 0.6±0.3m/s and 69.1±38.1 steps/min, respectively. The mean balance self-efficacy score was 66.5±17.7 and mean functional reach distance was 18.7±2.6cm. There were significant relationships between gait speed and balance self-efficacy (r =0.461, p =0.001) and between cadence and functional reach distance (r =0.247, p =0.020). Conclusion This study concluded that stroke survivors with higher cadences had higher functional reach distances, and those with higher gait speeds had better balance self-efficacy. Gait speed and cadence are factors related to balance performance. These factors should be considered during gait and balance retraining and should go pariparsu in the rehabilitation of stroke survivors. PMID:24624242

  18. Restoration of ankle movements with the ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator: a safe and reliable treatment option for permanent central leg palsy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Klaus Daniel; Polanski, Witold Henryk; Schulz, Anne-Kathrin; Jöbges, Michael; Hoff, Hansjoerg; Schackert, Gabriele; Pinzer, Thomas; Sobottka, Stephan B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The ActiGait drop foot stimulator is a promising technique for restoration of lost ankle function by an implantable hybrid stimulation system. It allows ankle dorsiflexion by active peroneal nerve stimulation during the swing phase of gait. In this paper the authors report the outcome of the first prospective study on a large number of patients with stroke-related drop foot. METHODS Twenty-seven patients who experienced a stroke and with persisting spastic leg paresis received an implantable ActiGait drop foot stimulator for restoration of ankle movement after successful surface test stimulation. After 3 to 5 weeks, the stimulator was activated, and gait speed, gait endurance, and activation time of the system were evaluated and compared with preoperative gait tests. In addition, patient satisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire. RESULTS Postoperative gait speed significantly improved from 33.9 seconds per 20 meters to 17.9 seconds per 20 meters (p < 0.0001), gait endurance from 196 meters in 6 minutes to 401 meters in 6 minutes (p < 0.0001), and activation time from 20.5 seconds to 10.6 seconds on average (p < 0.0001). In 2 patients with nerve injury, surgical repositioning of the electrode cuff became necessary. One patient showed a delayed wound healing, and in another patient the system had to be removed because of a wound infection. Marked improvement in mobility, social participation, and quality of life was confirmed by 89% to 96% of patients. CONCLUSIONS The ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator improves gait speed, endurance, and quality of life in patients with stroke-related drop foot. Regarding gait speed, the ActiGait system appears to be advantageous compared with foot orthosis or surface stimulation devices. Randomized trials with more patients and longer observation periods are needed to prove the long-term benefit of this device. PMID:26207599

  19. Comparison of gait of young men and elderly men.

    PubMed

    Blanke, D J; Hageman, P A

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the free-speed gait characteristics of healthy young men with those of healthy elderly men. Data collection consisted of high-speed cinematography resulting in synchronized front and side views of 24 healthy male volunteers, 12 between 20 and 32 years of age and 12 between 60 and 74 years of age. Young men were recruited to match the elderly men on the basis of right-leg length. Each subject participated in three filmed trials of free-speed ambulation down a 14-m walkway. The processed film was analyzed for eight gait characteristics. Differences in characteristics between the two groups were examined using a correlated t test (p less than .01). No significant differences were observed between the groups for step and stride length, velocity, ankle range of motion, vertical and horizontal excursions of the center of gravity, and pelvic obliquity; however, the younger men demonstrated a significantly larger stride width than the elderly men (p less than .01). The results suggest that the two populations of healthy adult men have similar gait characteristics. PMID:2913584

  20. Test-Retest Reliability of an Automated Infrared-Assisted Trunk Accelerometer-Based Gait Analysis System.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Yu; Tsai, Yuh-Show; Yau, Cheng-Shiang; Shie, Hung-Hai; Wu, Chu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of an automated infrared-assisted, trunk accelerometer-based gait analysis system for measuring gait parameters of healthy subjects in a hospital. Thirty-five participants (28 of them females; age range, 23-79 years) performed a 5-m walk twice using an accelerometer-based gait analysis system with infrared assist. Measurements of spatiotemporal gait parameters (walking speed, step length, and cadence) and trunk control (gait symmetry, gait regularity, acceleration root mean square (RMS), and acceleration root mean square ratio (RMSR)) were recorded in two separate walking tests conducted 1 week apart. Relative and absolute test-retest reliability was determined by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC3,1) and smallest detectable difference (SDD), respectively. The test-retest reliability was excellent for walking speed (ICC = 0.87, 95% confidence interval = 0.74-0.93, SDD = 13.4%), step length (ICC = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.63-0.91, SDD = 12.2%), cadence (ICC = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.63-0.91, SDD = 10.8%), and trunk control (step and stride regularity in anterior-posterior direction, acceleration RMS and acceleration RMSR in medial-lateral direction, and acceleration RMS and stride regularity in vertical direction). An automated infrared-assisted, trunk accelerometer-based gait analysis system is a reliable tool for measuring gait parameters in the hospital environment. PMID:27455281

  1. Attentional Control of Gait and Falls: Is Cholinergic Dysfunction a Common Substrate in the Elderly and Parkinson’s Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Pelosin, Elisa; Ogliastro, Carla; Lagravinese, Giovanna; Bonassi, Gaia; Mirelman, Anat; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Avanzino, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to address whether deficits in the central cholinergic activity may contribute to the increased difficulty to allocate attention during gait in the elderly with heightened risk of falls. We recruited 50 participants with a history of two or more falls (33 patients with Parkinson’s Disease and 17 older adults) and 14 non-fallers age-matched adults. Cholinergic activity was estimated by means of short latency afferent inhibition (SAI), a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technique that assesses an inhibitory circuit in the sensorimotor cortex and is regarded as a global marker of cholinergic function in the brain. Increased difficulty to allocate attention during gait was evaluated by measuring gait performance under single and dual-task conditions. Global cognition was also assessed. Results showed that SAI was reduced in patients with PD than in the older adults (fallers and non-fallers) and in older adults fallers with respect to non-fallers. Reduction in SAI indicates less inhibition i.e., less cholinergic activity. Gait speed was reduced in the dual task gait compared to normal gait only in our faller population and changes in gait speed under dual task significantly correlated with the mean value of SAI. This association remained significant after adjusting for cognitive status. These findings suggest that central cholinergic activity may be a predictor of change in gait characteristics under dual tasking in older adults and PD fallers independently of cognitive status. PMID:27242515

  2. Attentional Control of Gait and Falls: Is Cholinergic Dysfunction a Common Substrate in the Elderly and Parkinson's Disease?

    PubMed

    Pelosin, Elisa; Ogliastro, Carla; Lagravinese, Giovanna; Bonassi, Gaia; Mirelman, Anat; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Avanzino, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to address whether deficits in the central cholinergic activity may contribute to the increased difficulty to allocate attention during gait in the elderly with heightened risk of falls. We recruited 50 participants with a history of two or more falls (33 patients with Parkinson's Disease and 17 older adults) and 14 non-fallers age-matched adults. Cholinergic activity was estimated by means of short latency afferent inhibition (SAI), a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technique that assesses an inhibitory circuit in the sensorimotor cortex and is regarded as a global marker of cholinergic function in the brain. Increased difficulty to allocate attention during gait was evaluated by measuring gait performance under single and dual-task conditions. Global cognition was also assessed. Results showed that SAI was reduced in patients with PD than in the older adults (fallers and non-fallers) and in older adults fallers with respect to non-fallers. Reduction in SAI indicates less inhibition i.e., less cholinergic activity. Gait speed was reduced in the dual task gait compared to normal gait only in our faller population and changes in gait speed under dual task significantly correlated with the mean value of SAI. This association remained significant after adjusting for cognitive status. These findings suggest that central cholinergic activity may be a predictor of change in gait characteristics under dual tasking in older adults and PD fallers independently of cognitive status. PMID:27242515

  3. Gait analysis in forensic medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Peter K.; Simonsen, Erik B.; Lynnerup, Niels

    2007-01-01

    We have combined the basic human ability to recognize other individuals with functional anatomical and biomechanical knowledge, in order to analyze the gait of perpetrators as recorded on surveillance video. The perpetrators are then compared with similar analyses of suspects. At present we give a statement to the police as to whether the perpetrator has a characteristic gait pattern compared to normal gait, and if a suspect has a comparable gait pattern. We have found agreements such as: limping, varus instability in the knee at heel strike, larger lateral flexion of the spinal column to one side than the other, inverted ankle during stance, pronounced sagittal head-movements, and marked head-shoulder posture. Based on these characteristic features, we state whether suspect and perpetrator could have the same identity but it is not possible to positively identify the perpetrator. Nevertheless, we have been involved in several cases where the court has found that this type of gait analysis, especially combined with photogrammetry, was a valuable tool. The primary requisites are surveillance cameras recording with sufficient frequency, ideally about 15 Hz, which are positioned in frontal and preferably also in profile view.

  4. A Global Gait Asymmetry Index.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Silvia; Resende, Renan A; Clansey, Adam C; Deluzio, Kevin J; Selbie, W Scott; Veloso, António P

    2016-04-01

    High levels of gait asymmetry are associated with many pathologies. Our long-term goal is to improve gait symmetry through real-time biofeedback of a symmetry index. Symmetry is often reported as a single metric or a collective signature of multiple discrete measures. While this is useful for assessment, incorporating multiple feedback metrics presents too much information for most subjects to use as visual feedback for gait retraining. The aim of this article was to develop a global gait asymmetry (GGA) score that could be used as a biofeedback metric for gait retraining and to test the effectiveness of the GGA for classifying artificially-induced asymmetry. Eighteen participants (11 males; age 26.9 y [SD = 7.7]; height 1.8 m [SD = 0.1]; body mass 72.7 kg [SD = 8.9]) walked on a treadmill in 3 symmetry conditions, induced by wearing custom-made sandals: a symmetric condition (identical sandals) and 2 asymmetric conditions (different sandals). The GGA score was calculated, based on several joint angles, and compared between conditions. Significant differences were found among all conditions (P < .001), meaning that the GGA score is sensitive to different levels of asymmetry, and may be useful for rehabilitation and assessment. PMID:26502455

  5. Understanding the complexity of human gait dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafetta, Nicola; Marchi, Damiano; West, Bruce J.

    2009-06-01

    Time series of human gait stride intervals exhibit fractal and multifractal properties under several conditions. Records from subjects walking at normal, slow, and fast pace speed are analyzed to determine changes in the fractal scalings as a function of the stress condition of the system. Records from subjects with different age from children to elderly and patients suffering from neurodegenerative disease are analyzed to determine changes in the fractal scalings as a function of the physical maturation or degeneration of the system. A supercentral pattern generator model is presented to simulate the above two properties that are typically found in dynamical network performance: that is, how a dynamical network responds to stress and to evolution.

  6. Increased gait unsteadiness in community-dwelling elderly fallers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Edelberg, H. K.; Mitchell, S. L.; Goldberger, A. L.; Wei, J. Y.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that quantitative measures of gait unsteadiness are increased in community-dwelling elderly fallers. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, case-control study. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five community-dwelling elderly subjects older than 70 years of age who were capable of ambulating independently for 6 minutes were categorized as fallers (age, 82.2 +/- 4.9 yrs [mean +/- SD]; n = 18) and nonfallers (age, 76.5 +/- 4.0 yrs; n = 17) based on history; 22 young (age, 24.6 +/- 1.9 yrs), healthy subjects also participated as a second reference group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stride-to-stride variability (standard deviation and coefficient of variation) of stride time, stance time, swing time, and percent stance time measured during a 6-minute walk. RESULTS: All measures of gait variability were significantly greater in the elderly fallers compared with both the elderly nonfallers and the young subjects (p < .0002). In contrast, walking speed of the elderly fallers was similar to that of the nonfallers. There were little or no differences in the variability measures of the elderly nonfallers compared with the young subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Stride-to-stride temporal variations of gait are relatively unchanged in community-dwelling elderly nonfallers, but are significantly increased in elderly fallers. Quantitative measurement of gait unsteadiness may be useful in assessing fall risk in the elderly.

  7. Assessment of Foot Trajectory for Human Gait Phase Detection Using Wireless Ultrasonic Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yongbin; Soh, Cheong Boon; Gunawan, Erry; Low, Kay-Soon; Thomas, Rijil

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new highly accurate gait phase detection system using wearable wireless ultrasonic sensors, which can be used in gait analysis or rehabilitation applications. The gait phase detection system uses the foot displacement information during walking to extract the following gait phases: heel-strike, heel-off, toe-off, and mid-swing. The displacement of foot-mounted ultrasonic sensor is obtained from several passive anchors placed at known locations by employing local spherical positioning technique, which is further enhanced by the combination of recursive Newton-Gauss method and Kalman Filter. The algorithm performance is examined by comparing with a commercial optical motion tracking system with ten healthy subjects and two foot injured subjects. Accurate estimates of gait cycle (with an error of -0.02 ±0.01 s), stance phase(with an error of 0.04±0.03 s), and swing phase (with an error of -0.05±0.03 s) compared to the reference system are obtained. We have also investigated the influence of walking velocities on the performance of the proposed gait phase detection algorithm. Statistical analysis shows that there is no significant difference between both systems during different walking speeds. Moreover, we have tested and discussed the possibility of the proposed system for clinical applications by analyzing the experimental results for both healthy and injured subjects. The experiments show that the estimated gait phases have the potential to become indicators for sports and rehabilitation engineering. PMID:25769165

  8. The contributions of balance to gait capacity and motor function in chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung Bo; Lim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Young Dong; Yang, Byung Il; Kim, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Kang Sung; Kim, Eun Ja; Hwang, Byong Yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify the contributions of balance to gait and motor function in chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three outpatients participated in a cross-sectional assessment. Gait ability was assessed using the functional ambulation category, self-paced 10-m walking speed, and fastest 10-m walking speed. Standing balance and trunk control measures included the Berg Balance Scale and the Trunk Impairment Scale. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed. [Results] Balance was the best predictor of the FAC, self-paced walking speed, and fastest walking speed, accounting for 57% to 61% of the variances. Additionally, the total score of TIS was the only predictor of the motor function of the lower limbs and the dynamic balance of TIS was a predictor of the motor function of the upper limbs, accounting for 41% and 29% of the variance, respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated the relative contribution of standing balance and trunk balance to gait ability and motor function. They show that balance has a high power of explanation of gait ability and that trunk balance is a determinant of motor function rather than gait ability. PMID:27390395

  9. The contributions of balance to gait capacity and motor function in chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Bo; Lim, Seong Hoon; Kim, Young Dong; Yang, Byung Il; Kim, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Kang Sung; Kim, Eun Ja; Hwang, Byong Yong

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify the contributions of balance to gait and motor function in chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three outpatients participated in a cross-sectional assessment. Gait ability was assessed using the functional ambulation category, self-paced 10-m walking speed, and fastest 10-m walking speed. Standing balance and trunk control measures included the Berg Balance Scale and the Trunk Impairment Scale. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed. [Results] Balance was the best predictor of the FAC, self-paced walking speed, and fastest walking speed, accounting for 57% to 61% of the variances. Additionally, the total score of TIS was the only predictor of the motor function of the lower limbs and the dynamic balance of TIS was a predictor of the motor function of the upper limbs, accounting for 41% and 29% of the variance, respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated the relative contribution of standing balance and trunk balance to gait ability and motor function. They show that balance has a high power of explanation of gait ability and that trunk balance is a determinant of motor function rather than gait ability. PMID:27390395

  10. Relationship of spasticity to knee angular velocity and motion during gait in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Diane L; Laws, Edward; Carmines, Dave V; Abel, Mark F

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of spasticity in the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles on gait parameters including temporal spatial measures, knee position, excursion and angular velocity in 25 children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP) as compared to 17 age-matched peers. While subjects were instructed to relax, an isokinetic device alternately flexed and extended the left knee at one of the three constant velocities 30 degrees/s, 60 degrees/s and 120 degrees/s, while surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes over the biceps femoris and the rectus femoris recorded muscle activity. Patients then participated in 3D gait analysis at a self-selected speed. Results showed that, those with CP who exhibited heightened stretch responses (spasticity) in both muscles, had significantly slower knee angular velocities during the swing phase of gait as compared to those with and without CP who did not exhibit stretch responses at the joint and the tested speeds. The measured amount (torque) of the resistance to passive flexion or extension was not related to gait parameters in subjects with CP; however, the rate of change in resistance torque per unit angle change (stiffness) at the fastest test speed of 120 degrees/s showed weak to moderate relationships with knee angular velocity and motion during gait. For the subset of seven patients with CP who subsequently underwent a selective dorsal rhizotomy, knee angular extension and flexion velocity increased post-operatively, suggesting some degree of causality between spasticity and movement speed. PMID:16311188

  11. [Gait disorders in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Amadori, K; Püllen, R; Steiner, T

    2014-06-01

    Gait disorders are one of the most common gerontoneurological symptoms. Falls that occasionally cause severe injuries are highly relevant consequences. A clinical neurological examination and inspectoral gait analysis are the core investigations of the diagnostic process, which yields hypotheses with respect to the impaired structures as well as to specific diagnostic measures. The supplemental motor assessment quantifies the resulting impairment of mobility and risk of falling with the help of well-established instruments. Characteristic of gait disorders in the elderly are the multifactorial causes which make the complete identification, correct prioritization and adequate treatment the biggest challenges. The therapeutic concept is multiprofessional and includes the causal treatment of underlying diseases, physiotherapeutic training programs, prescription of medical aids and nutritional interventions. Identification and modification of risk factors (including those that are iatrogenic) are of superior importance. PMID:24867798

  12. Gait Stability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Millard, Matthew; van Gestel, Leen; Meyns, Pieter; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) have several gait impairments, amongst which impaired gait stability may be one. We tested whether a newly developed stability measure (the foot placement estimator, FPE) which does not require long data series, can be used to asses gait stability in typically developing (TD) children as well as…

  13. A mechanical energy analysis of gait initiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. A.; Verstraete, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of gait initiation (the transient state between standing and walking) is an important diagnostic tool to study pathologic gait and to evaluate prosthetic devices. While past studies have quantified mechanical energy of the body during steady-state gait, to date no one has computed the mechanical energy of the body during gait initiation. In this study, gait initiation in seven normal male subjects was studied using a mechanical energy analysis to compute total body energy. The data showed three separate states: quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady-state gait. During gait initiation, the trends in the energy data for the individual segments were similar to those seen during steady-state gait (and in Winter DA, Quanbury AO, Reimer GD. Analysis of instantaneous energy of normal gait. J Biochem 1976;9:253-257), but diminished in amplitude. However, these amplitudes increased to those seen in steady-state during the gait initiation event (GIE), with the greatest increase occurring in the second step due to the push-off of the foundation leg. The baseline level of mechanical energy was due to the potential energy of the individual segments, while the cyclic nature of the data was indicative of the kinetic energy of the particular leg in swing phase during that step. The data presented showed differences in energy trends during gait initiation from those of steady state, thereby demonstrating the importance of this event in the study of locomotion.

  14. Impact of Cognitive Training on Balance and Gait in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Susan L.; Prohaska, Thomas R.; Little, Deborah M.; Jurivich, Donald A.; Hedeker, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Cognitive processing plays an important role in balance and gait and is a contributing factor to falls in older adults. This relationship may be explained by the fact that higher order cognitive functions such as executive functions are called upon while walking. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a cognitive training intervention leads to significant improvements on measures of balance and gait. Method. This randomized trial tested whether cognitive training over 10 weeks improves balance and gait in older adults. Participants were randomly assigned to a computer-based cognitive training intervention or measurement-only control. Outcomes included Timed Up and Go (TUG), gait speed, and gait speed with a cognitive distraction. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance models with change scores. Results. Participants’ (N = 51) average age was 82.7 for those randomized to intervention and 81.1 for those randomized to control. After 10 weeks, intervention group participants performed significantly better than controls on the TUG. When the cohort was limited to those categorized as slow walkers (baseline 10-m walk ≥ 9 s), intervention participants performed significantly better than controls on TUG and distracted walking. Discussion. Cognitive training slows degradation of balance and improves gait while distracted, rendering it a promising approach to falls prevention. PMID:24192586

  15. Relationship between cognitive domains, physical performance, and gait in elderly and demented subjects.

    PubMed

    Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Brouillette, Robert M; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Foil, Heather C; Gahan, William P; Nye, Danielle M; Guillory, Leslie; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive function declines with age, with studies linking decreases in cognitive function to increased fall risk. The association between declines in specific cognitive domains and the development of gait and physical performance deficits has not been established. The current cross-sectional study was designed to address these issues using well characterized control subjects (n = 50), and individuals with early stage dementia (n = 50) tightly matched for age, gender, and education. All participants received detailed cognitive assessments for global cognitive function, as well as for processing speed, verbal fluency, and executive function. Additionally, participants were administered single- and dual-task gait assessments (GAITRite) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) measures of physical performance (gait, balance, chair stands). Data show that all measures of cognitive function correlated significantly with measures of gait and physical performance when analyzed in all subjects or just subjects with dementia. However, data also reveal that measures of processing speed and verbal fluency correlated significantly with multiple aspects of motor performance in non-demented, control subjects, even when corrected for age. There was no correlation between global cognitive function and motor performance, and only limited relationship between executive function and motor performance in non-demented, control subjects. These studies reveal the complex interactions between cognitive function and gait/physical performance in the context of aging and dementia, and suggest that impairments in specific cognitive domains might undermine gait and physical performance and thus exacerbate fall risk in the elderly. PMID:22466001

  16. An elaborate data set on human gait and the effect of mechanical perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Hnat, Sandra K.; van den Bogert, Antonie J.

    2015-01-01

    Here we share a rich gait data set collected from fifteen subjects walking at three speeds on an instrumented treadmill. Each trial consists of 120 s of normal walking and 480 s of walking while being longitudinally perturbed during each stance phase with pseudo-random fluctuations in the speed of the treadmill belt. A total of approximately 1.5 h of normal walking (>5000 gait cycles) and 6 h of perturbed walking (>20,000 gait cycles) is included in the data set. We provide full body marker trajectories and ground reaction loads in addition to a presentation of processed data that includes gait events, 2D joint angles, angular rates, and joint torques along with the open source software used for the computations. The protocol is described in detail and supported with additional elaborate meta data for each trial. This data can likely be useful for validating or generating mathematical models that are capable of simulating normal periodic gait and non-periodic, perturbed gaits. PMID:25945311

  17. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal in number, ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase ...

  18. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  19. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  20. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  1. Oral festination in Parkinson's disease: biomechanical analysis and correlation with festination and freezing of gait.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Caroline; Ozsancak, Canan; Blatt, Jean-Louis; Derambure, Philippe; Destee, Alain; Defebvre, Luc

    2007-07-30

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), festination corresponds to a tendency to speed up when performing repetitive movements. First described in gait (and then in handwriting and speech), festination is one of the most disabling axial symptoms. To establish the phenomenology of oral festination (OF) and the condition's potential links with other axial disorders, we submitted a simple, rhythmic, repetitive, vocal motor task to 40 PD patients and 20 controls. Forty-five percent of the 40 patients presented OF, which was strongly associated with gait festination but not with the severity of freezing of gait (FOG) or dysarthria. With respect to the two pathophysiological hypotheses that have been put forward, a possible link with tremor (as previously suggested in tapping) was not confirmed in this study and so, in view of the significant increase in variability observed, we conclude that OF shares the same pathophysiology as gait disorders. PMID:17516477

  2. Automated health alerts from Kinect-based in-home gait measurements.

    PubMed

    Stone, Erik E; Skubic, Marjorie; Back, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    A method for automatically generating alerts to clinicians in response to changes in in-home gait parameters is investigated. Kinect-based gait measurement systems were installed in apartments in a senior living facility. The systems continuously monitored the walking speed, stride time, and stride length of apartment residents. A framework for modeling uncertainty in the residents' gait parameter estimates, which is critical for robust change detection, is developed; along with an algorithm for detecting changes that may be clinically relevant. Three retrospective case studies, of individuals who had their gait monitored for periods ranging from 12 to 29 months, are presented to illustrate use of the alert method. Evidence suggests that clinicians could be alerted to health changes at an early stage, while they are still small and interventions may be most successful. Additional potential uses are also discussed. PMID:25570612

  3. CatWalk gait analysis in assessment of functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, A; Deumens, R; Scheffel, J; O'Dey, D M; Weis, J; Joosten, E A; Führmann, T; Brook, G A; Pallua, N

    2008-08-15

    Following peripheral nerve injury repair, improved behavioural outcome may be the most important evidence of functionality of axon regeneration after any repair strategy. A range of behavioural testing paradigms have been developed for peripheral nerve injury research. Complete injury of the adult rat sciatic nerve is frequently used in combination with walking track analysis. Despite its wide-spread use, these walking track analyses are unsuitable for the simultaneous assessment of both dynamic and static gait parameters. Conversely, a novel automated gait analysis system, i.e. CatWalk can simultaneously measure dynamic as well as static gait parameters and, importantly, it's easy to control for the speed of locomotion which can strongly affect gait parameters. In a previous study, CatWalk was already successfully used to examine deficits in both dynamic and static gait parameters using the sciatic nerve lesion model with a 1cm gap characterized by absence of recovery [Deumens R, Jaken RJ, Marcus MA, Joosten EA. The CatWalk gait analysis in assessment of both dynamic and static gait changes after adult rat sciatic nerve resection. J Neurosci Methods 2007;164:120-30]. Using the sciatic nerve crush injury model (validated with the static sciatic index) and a follow-up period of 12 weeks, we now show that CatWalk can also measure behavioural recovery. In particular dynamic gait parameters, coordination measures, and the intensity of paw prints are of interest in detecting recovery as far as these parameters completely return to pre-operative values after crush injury. We conclude that CatWalk can be used as a complementary approach to other behavioural testing paradigms to assess clinically relevant behavioural benefits, with a main advantage that CatWalk demonstrates both static and dynamic gait parameters at the same time. PMID:18577402

  4. Gait Behaviors as an Objective Surgical Outcome in Low Back Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Yen, Tzu Chuan; Howe, Carol; Dohm, Michael; Mohler, Jane; Najafi, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    Background Objective motor performance measures, especially gait assessment, could improve assessment of surgical low back disorder procedures. However, no study has compared the relative effectiveness of gait parameters for assessing motor performance in low back disorder after surgery. The purpose of the current review was to determine the sensitive gait parameters that address physical improvements in each specific spinal disorder after surgical intervention. Methods Articles were searched with the following inclusion criteria: 1) population studied consisted of individuals with low back disorders requiring surgery; 2) low back disorder was measured objectively using gait assessment tests pre- and post-surgery. The quality of the selected studies was assessed using Delphi consensus, and meta-analysis was performed to compare pre- and post-surgical changes. Findings Thirteen articles met inclusion criteria, which, almost exclusively, addressed only two types of spinal disorders/interventions: 1) scoliosis/spinal fusion; and 2) stenosis/decompression. For patients with scoliosis, improvements in motion of hip and shoulder (effect size=0.32–1.58), energy expenditure (effect size=0.59–1.18), and activity symmetry of upper-body muscles during gait were present after spinal fusion. For patients with spinal stenosis, increases in gait speed, stride length, cadence, symmetry, smoothness of walking, and walking endurance (effect size=0.60–2.50), and decrease in gait variability (effect size=1.45) were observed after decompression surgery. Interpretation For patients with scoliosis, improvements can be better assessed by measuring upper-body motion and EMG rather than the lower extremities during gait. For patients with spinal stenosis, motor performance improvements can be captured by measuring walking spatio-temporal parameters, gait patterns, and walking endurance. PMID:25921552

  5. Gait characterization for osteoarthritis patients using wearable gait sensors (H-Gait systems).

    PubMed

    Tadano, Shigeru; Takeda, Ryo; Sasaki, Keita; Fujisawa, Tadashi; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2016-03-21

    The objective of this work was to investigate the possibilities of using the wearable sensors-based H-Gait system in an actual clinical trial and proposes new gait parameters for characterizing OA gait. Seven H-Gait sensors, consisting of tri-axial inertial sensors, were attached to seven lower limb body segments (pelvis, both thighs, both shanks and both feet). The acceleration and angular velocity data measured were used to estimate three-dimensional kinematic parameters of patients during level walking. Three new parameters were proposed to assess the severity of OA based on the characteristics of these joint center trajectories in addition to conventional gait spatio-temporal parameters. The experiment was conducted on ten subjects with knee OA. The kinematic results obtained (hip, knee and ankle joint angles, joint trajectory in the horizontal and sagittal planes) were compared with those from a reference healthy (control) group. As a result, the angle between the right and left knee trajectories along with that of the ankle joint trajectories were almost twice as large (21.3° vs. 11.6° and 14.9° vs. 7.8°) compared to those of the healthy subjects. In conclusion, it was found that the ankle joints during stance abduct less to avoid adduction at the knee as the severity of OA increases and lead to more acute angles (less parallel) between the right and left knee/ankle joints in the horizontal plane. This method was capable to provide quantitative information about the gait of OA patients and has the advantage to allow for out-of-laboratory monitoring. PMID:26947036

  6. Longitudinal Change in Gait and Motor Function in Pre-manifest Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ashwini K; Mazzoni, Pietro; Wasserman, Paula; Marder, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal change in gait and motor function in pre-manifest Huntington's disease (HD).We examined ten pre-manifest subjects at baseline, one and five years. Quantitative gait data were collected with an electronic mat (GAITRite®). We analyzed measures related to speed (velocity, step length, cadence), asymmetry (step length difference), dynamic balance (percent time in double support, support base) and variability in stride length and swing time. Motor function was assessed with the motor component of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale.Gait velocity decreased (p=0.001), whereas step length difference (p=0.006), stride length variability (p=0.0001) and swing time variability increased (p=0.0001) from baseline to year five. Step length difference (p<0.05) and swing time variability (p<0.05) increased marginally in one year from baseline. UHDRS Total motor score increased over five years (p=0.003), though the increase in one year was not significant (p=0.053). Of the individual motor domain scores (eye, hand movements, gait and balance, chorea) only dystonia worsened over five years (p=0.02). Total motor score (r2= 0.49, p<0.001) and swing time variability (r2= 0.22, p<0.009) were correlated with estimated years to diagnosis.Our results present the longest longitudinal follow up of gait in pre-manifest HD thus far. Despite the small sample size, quantitative gait analysis was able to detect changes in gait speed, symmetry and variability. Swing time variability was particularly important because it increased in one year from baseline and was correlated with estimated time to diagnosis. Our results highlight the importance of predictive outcomes such as gait variability using quantitative analysis. PMID:22008726

  7. Gait Analysis Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Complete motion analysis laboratory has evolved out of analyzing walking patterns of crippled children at Stanford Children's Hospital. Data is collected by placing tiny electrical sensors over muscle groups of child's legs and inserting step-sensing switches in soles of shoes. Miniature radio transmitters send signals to receiver for continuous recording of abnormal walking pattern. Engineers are working to apply space electronics miniaturization techniques to reduce size and weight of telemetry system further as well as striving to increase signal bandwidth so analysis can be performed faster and more accurately using a mini-computer.

  8. A Longitudinal Study on Dual-Tasking Effects on Gait: Cognitive Change Predicts Gait Variance in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    MacAulay, Rebecca K.; Brouillette, Robert M.; Foil, Heather C.; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J.; Keller, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological abilities have found to explain a large proportion of variance in objective measures of walking gait that predict both dementia and falling within the elderly. However, to this date there has been little research on the interplay between changes in these neuropsychological processes and walking gait overtime. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate intra-individual changes in neurocognitive test performance and gait step time at two-time points across a one-year span. Neuropsychological test scores from 440 elderly individuals deemed cognitively normal at Year One were analyzed via repeated measures t-tests to assess for decline in cognitive performance at Year Two. 34 of these 440 individuals neuropsychological test performance significantly declined at Year Two; whereas the “non-decliners” displayed improved memory, working memory, attention/processing speed test performance. Neuropsychological test scores were also submitted to factor analysis at both time points for data reduction purposes and to assess the factor stability overtime. Results at Year One yielded a three-factor solution: Language/Memory, Executive Attention/Processing Speed, and Working Memory. Year Two's test scores also generated a three-factor solution (Working Memory, Language/Executive Attention/Processing Speed, and Memory). Notably, language measures loaded on Executive Attention/Processing Speed rather than on the Memory factor at Year Two. Hierarchal multiple regression revealed that both Executive Attention/Processing Speed and sex significantly predicted variance in dual task step time at both time points. Remarkably, in the “decliners”, the magnitude of the contribution of the neuropsychological characteristics to gait variance significantly increased at Year Two. In summary, this study provides longitudinal evidence of the dynamic relationship between intra-individual cognitive change and its influence on dual task gait step time

  9. Criteria for dynamic similarity in bouncing gaits.

    PubMed

    Bullimore, Sharon R; Donelan, J Maxwell

    2008-01-21

    Animals of different sizes tend to move in a dynamically similar manner when travelling at speeds corresponding to equal values of a dimensionless parameter (DP) called the Froude number. Consequently, the Froude number has been widely used for defining equivalent speeds and predicting speeds of locomotion by extinct species and on other planets. However, experiments using simulated reduced gravity have demonstrated that equality of the Froude number does not guarantee dynamic similarity. This has cast doubt upon the usefulness of the Froude number in locomotion research. Here we use dimensional analysis of the planar spring-mass model, combined with Buckingham's Pi-Theorem, to demonstrate that four DPs must be equal for dynamic similarity in bouncing gaits such as trotting, hopping and bipedal running. This can be reduced to three DPs by applying the constraint of maintaining a constant average speed of locomotion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that all of these DPs are important for predicting dynamic similarity. We show that the reason humans do not run in a dynamically similar manner at equal Froude number in different levels of simulated reduced gravity is that dimensionless leg stiffness decreases as gravity increases. The reason that the Froude number can predict dynamic similarity in Earth gravity is that dimensionless leg stiffness and dimensionless vertical landing speed are both independent of size. In conclusion, although equal Froude number is not sufficient for dynamic similarity, it is a necessary condition. Therefore, to detect fundamental differences in locomotion, animals of different sizes should be compared at equal Froude number, so that they can be as close to dynamic similarity as possible. More generally, the concept of dynamic similarity provides a powerful framework within which similarities and differences in locomotion can be interpreted. PMID:17983630

  10. Gait in thoracolumbar/lumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: effect of surgery on gait mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mahaudens, Philippe; Detrembleur, C; Mousny, M; Banse, X

    2010-07-01

    For patients whose scoliosis progresses, surgery remains the ultimate way to correct and stabilise the deformity while maintaining as many mobile spinal segments as possible. In thoracolumbar/lumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the spinal fusion has to be extended to the lumbar spine. The use of anterior spinal fusion (ASF) instead of the classic posterior fusion (PSF) may preserve more distal spinal levels in attempt to limit the consequences of surgery on trunk mobility. The effects of surgery on body shape, pain and the decompensation phenomenon have all been well evaluated. Very few studies have addressed the effect of ASF or PSF on basic activities, such as walking. Before any treatment, AIS patients already have reduced pelvis, hip and shoulder motion when walking at a normal speed compared with adolescents without scoliosis (control group). Additionally, they have longer contraction time of the lumbar and pelvic muscles leading to an excessive energy cost and reduced muscle efficiency. In addition, if these changes are associated with spinal stiffness, spinal fusion could further negatively affect this pre-surgical inefficient walk. The goals of this study were (a) to compare pre- and 1-year post-surgery conditions in order to assess the effects of spinal arthrodesis on gait parameters and (b) to compare the anterior versus the posterior surgical approaches. Nineteen young females with thoracolumbar/lumbar AIS were assessed by radiological and clinical examination and by conventional gait analysis before surgery and at almost 12 months after surgery. Seven subjects underwent surgery using ASF and 12 using PSF. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed on a motor-driven treadmill at spontaneous self-selected speed to record kinematic, electromyographic (EMG), mechanical and energetic measurements synchronously. Although it was expected that the instrumentation would modify the characteristics of normal walking, this study showed that surgery

  11. Gait in thoracolumbar/lumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: effect of surgery on gait mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Detrembleur, C.; Mousny, M.; Banse, X.

    2010-01-01

    For patients whose scoliosis progresses, surgery remains the ultimate way to correct and stabilise the deformity while maintaining as many mobile spinal segments as possible. In thoracolumbar/lumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the spinal fusion has to be extended to the lumbar spine. The use of anterior spinal fusion (ASF) instead of the classic posterior fusion (PSF) may preserve more distal spinal levels in attempt to limit the consequences of surgery on trunk mobility. The effects of surgery on body shape, pain and the decompensation phenomenon have all been well evaluated. Very few studies have addressed the effect of ASF or PSF on basic activities, such as walking. Before any treatment, AIS patients already have reduced pelvis, hip and shoulder motion when walking at a normal speed compared with adolescents without scoliosis (control group). Additionally, they have longer contraction time of the lumbar and pelvic muscles leading to an excessive energy cost and reduced muscle efficiency. In addition, if these changes are associated with spinal stiffness, spinal fusion could further negatively affect this pre-surgical inefficient walk. The goals of this study were (a) to compare pre- and 1-year post-surgery conditions in order to assess the effects of spinal arthrodesis on gait parameters and (b) to compare the anterior versus the posterior surgical approaches. Nineteen young females with thoracolumbar/lumbar AIS were assessed by radiological and clinical examination and by conventional gait analysis before surgery and at almost 12 months after surgery. Seven subjects underwent surgery using ASF and 12 using PSF. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed on a motor-driven treadmill at spontaneous self-selected speed to record kinematic, electromyographic (EMG), mechanical and energetic measurements synchronously. Although it was expected that the instrumentation would modify the characteristics of normal walking, this study showed that surgery

  12. Gait Patterns of Quadrupeds and Natural Vibration Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Yutaka; Matsumura, Yuichi; Kanda, Shinichi; Kinugasa, Hironao

    Quadruped animals switch gait patterns with speed for energy-effective movement. This is similar to the phenomenon that excited natural vibration modes switch with vibration frequency in a multi-degree-of-freedom system. Therefore, in this paper, it is assumed that quadruped animals move by using the natural vibration of their own musculoskeletal systems. In the simplest rigid-body-link model consisting of one body and four legs, there are natural vibration modes similar to the gait patterns (trot, pace, and gallop) of quadruped animals. However, all the natural frequencies in the model exist near the natural frequency of the free leg and are accordingly different from the walking frequencies of actual quadruped animals. When a scapula and a pelvis are added to the rigid-body-link model on the basis of observations of quadruped motion, the natural frequency of the gallop mode used at high speed increases greatly and approaches the walking frequency. If the body characteristics of a horse are applied to the rigid-body-link model with leg joints, the natural vibration modes of the model are close to the gait patterns of the horse.

  13. Milestones in gait, balance, and falling.

    PubMed

    Nutt, John G; Horak, Fay B; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2011-05-01

    Gait, balance, and falls have become increasingly common topics of published articles in the Movement Disorders journal since its launch in 1986. This growth represents an increasing awareness of the importance of mobility to patients' quality of life. New methods have become available that allow for accurate measurement of many aspects for gait and balance. This has led to new concepts of understanding gait and balance disorders. Neuroimaging has begun to reveal the neural circuitry underlying gait and balance. The physiology and pathophysiology of balance and gait are beginning to tease out the many processes involved in mobility and how they may be disrupted by disease processes. With these advances, the old therapeutic nihilism that characterized the clinician's approach to falls and gait disorders is disappearing, as innovative physiotherapy, exercise, drugs, and deep brain stimulation are being employed for gait and balance disorders. PMID:21626560

  14. Effects of Auditory Rhythm and Music on Gait Disturbances in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ashoori, Aidin; Eagleman, David M; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Gait abnormalities, such as shuffling steps, start hesitation, and freezing, are common and often incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other parkinsonian disorders. Pharmacological and surgical approaches have only limited efficacy in treating these gait disorders. Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS), such as playing marching music and dance therapy, has been shown to be a safe, inexpensive, and an effective method in improving gait in PD patients. However, RAS that adapts to patients' movements may be more effective than rigid, fixed-tempo RAS used in most studies. In addition to auditory cueing, immersive virtual reality technologies that utilize interactive computer-generated systems through wearable devices are increasingly used for improving brain-body interaction and sensory-motor integration. Using multisensory cues, these therapies may be particularly suitable for the treatment of parkinsonian freezing and other gait disorders. In this review, we examine the affected neurological circuits underlying gait and temporal processing in PD patients and summarize the current studies demonstrating the effects of RAS on improving these gait deficits. PMID:26617566

  15. Effects of Auditory Rhythm and Music on Gait Disturbances in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ashoori, Aidin; Eagleman, David M.; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Gait abnormalities, such as shuffling steps, start hesitation, and freezing, are common and often incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other parkinsonian disorders. Pharmacological and surgical approaches have only limited efficacy in treating these gait disorders. Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS), such as playing marching music and dance therapy, has been shown to be a safe, inexpensive, and an effective method in improving gait in PD patients. However, RAS that adapts to patients’ movements may be more effective than rigid, fixed-tempo RAS used in most studies. In addition to auditory cueing, immersive virtual reality technologies that utilize interactive computer-generated systems through wearable devices are increasingly used for improving brain–body interaction and sensory–motor integration. Using multisensory cues, these therapies may be particularly suitable for the treatment of parkinsonian freezing and other gait disorders. In this review, we examine the affected neurological circuits underlying gait and temporal processing in PD patients and summarize the current studies demonstrating the effects of RAS on improving these gait deficits. PMID:26617566

  16. Gait in SWEDDs patients: comparison with Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Mian, Omar S; Schneider, Susanne A; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Bhatia, Kailash P; Day, Brian L

    2011-06-01

    Patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease on clinical grounds who subsequently turn out to have normal dopamine transporter imaging have been referred to as SWEDDs (scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficits). Despite having clinical features similar to those of Parkinson's disease, these patients seem to have different pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment requirements. In this study we determined the similarities and differences in the gaits of SWEDDs and Parkinson's disease patients to investigate whether walking patterns can distinguish these entities. We used 3-D motion capture to analyze the gaits of 11 SWEDDs patients (who had unilateral or asymmetric upper limb tremor with a rest component), 12 tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease patients, and 13 healthy control participants. In common with Parkinson's disease patients, SWEDDs patients had a slow gait mainly because of a small stride length, as well as a reduced arm swing. However, several abnormal features of posture and gait in Parkinson's disease were normal in SWEDDs. Thus, SWEDDs patients had normal trunk and elbow posture, normal stride length variability, and normal bilateral step-phase coordination, all of which were abnormal in Parkinson's disease patients. We also searched for signs of ataxic movements during normal and tandem walking, but found no evidence that ataxic gait was a general feature in SWEDDs. These findings could aid the clinician in identification of potential tremulous SWEDDs cases. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society. PMID:21442658

  17. Gait Changes with Balance-Based Torso-Weighting in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gorgas, Anna-Maria; Widener, Gail L.; Gibson-Horn, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose People with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) commonly have mobility impairments that may lead to falls and limitations in activities. Physiotherapy interventions that might improve mobility typically take several weeks. Balance-based torso-weighting (BBTW), a system of strategically placing light weights to improve response to balance perturbations, has resulted in immediate small improvements in clinical measures in PwMS, but changes in spatio-temporal gait parameters are unknown. The purpose was to investigate the effects of BBTW on gait parameters in PwMS and healthy controls. Methods Design: non-randomized controlled experiment Participants 20 PwMS and 20 matched healthy controls Procedures PwMS walked on an instrumented mat at their fastest speed for three trials each in two conditions: without BBTW then with BBTW. Healthy controls walked in both conditions at two speeds: their fastest speed, and at velocities equivalent to their matched PwMS. Results Averaged gait trials showed that, with BBTW, PwMS had significantly increased velocity (p=.002), cadence (p=.007), and time spent in single-limb support (p=.014), with decreased time in double-limb support (p=.004). Healthy controls increased velocity (p=.012) and cadence (p=.015) and decreased support base (p=.014) in fast trials with BBTW; at matched velocities, step length (p=.028) and support base (p=.006) were significantly different from PwMS. All gait variables in healthy controls at fast speeds were significantly different from PwMS walking at their fastest speeds. Discussion All participants showed increases in gait velocity and cadence during fast walk with BBTW. Improvements in time spent in single- and double-limb support by PwMS with BBTW may reflect greater stability in gait. Future research might ascertain if these immediate improvements could enhance effectiveness of longer-term physiotherapy on functional mobility in PwMS. PMID:24930996

  18. Extraction of basic movement from whole-body movement, based on gait variability

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Christian; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Samsom, Michael; Baltich, Jennifer; Nigg, Benno M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the step-to-step variability (SSV) in speed-variant and speed-invariant movement components of the whole-body gait pattern during running. These separate aspects of variability can be used to gain insight into the neuromuscular control strategies that are engaged during running. Ten healthy, physically active, male recreational athletes performed five treadmill running trials at five different speeds (range: 1.3–4.9 m/sec). The whole-body movement was separated into principal movements (PM) using a principal component analysis. The PMs were split into two groups: a speed-variant group, where the range of motion (amplitude of PMs) changed with running speed; and a speed-invariant group, where the range of motion was constant across various speeds. The step-to-step variability (SSV) of the two groups was then quantified. The absolute SSV was the summed variability across all gait cycles, whereas the relative SSV was the summed variability divided by the magnitude of the movement. The absolute SSV of the speed-variant movements increased with running speed. By contrast, the relative SSV of the speed-variant group (as normalized to the PM amplitude) decreased asymptotically toward a minimal level as running speed increased. Both the absolute and relative SSV of the speed-invariant movements revealed a minimum at 3.1 m/sec. The whole-body gait pattern during running can be subdivided into speed-variant and speed-invariant movements. An interpretation of the SSV based on minimal intervention theory suggests that speed-variant movements are more tightly controlled, as evidenced by a lower degree of variability compared to the speed-invariant movements. PMID:24303133

  19. The Impact of Gait Disability on the Calibration of Accelerometer Output in Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Weikert, Madeline; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Suh, Yoojin; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Accelerometer activity counts have been correlated with energy expenditure during treadmill walking among ambulatory adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study examined the effects of gait disability on 1) the association between rates of energy expenditure and accelerometer output in overground walking and 2) the calibration of accelerometer output for quantifying time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in people with MS. The sample consisted of 24 individuals with MS, of whom 10 reported gait disability based on Patient-Determined Disease Steps (PDDS) scores. The participants undertook three 6-minute periods of overground walking while wearing an accelerometer and a portable metabolic unit (K4b2, Cosmed, Rome, Italy). In the first period of walking, the participants walked at a self-selected, comfortable speed. In the two subsequent walking periods, participants walked at speeds above and below (±0.5 mph) the comfortable walking speed, respectively. Strong linear relationships were observed between rates of accelerometer activity counts and energy expenditure during walking in the overall sample (R2 = 0.90) and subsamples with (R2 = 0.88) and without gait disability (R2 = 0.91). The slope of the relationship was significantly steeper in the subsample with gait disability (β= 0.0049) than in the subsample without gait disability (β= 0.0026). The difference in slopes resulted in a significantly lower cut-point for MVPA (1886 vs. 2717 counts/min) in those with gait disability. These findings provide a metabolic cut-point for quantifying time spent in MVPA in people with MS, both with and without gait disability. PMID:24453722

  20. Confronting Hip Resurfacing and Big Femoral Head Replacement Gait Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karampinas, Panagiotis K.; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios S.; Vlamis, John; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Korres, Dimitrios S.

    2014-01-01

    Improved hip kinematics and bone preservation have been reported after resurfacing total hip replacement (THRS). On the other hand, hip kinematics with standard total hip replacement (THR) is optimized with large diameter femoral heads (BFH-THR). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functional outcomes of THRS and BFH-THR and correlate these results to bone preservation or the large femoral heads. Thirty-one patients were included in the study. Gait speed, postural balance, proprioception and overall performance. Our results demonstrated a non-statistically significant improvement in gait, postural balance and proprioception in the THRS confronting to BFH-THR group. THRS provide identical outcomes to traditional BFH-THR. The THRS choice as bone preserving procedure in younger patients is still to be evaluated. PMID:24744841

  1. Maintaining Gait Performance by Cortical Activation during Dual-Task Interference: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yea-Ru; Wu, Yu-Te; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2015-01-01

    In daily life, mobility requires walking while performing a cognitive or upper-extremity motor task. Although previous studies have evaluated the effects of dual tasks on gait performance, few studies have evaluated cortical activation and its association with gait disturbance during dual tasks. In this study, we simultaneously assessed gait performance and cerebral oxygenation in the bilateral prefrontal cortices (PFC), premotor cortices (PMC), and supplemental motor areas (SMA), using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, in 17 young adults performing dual tasks. Each participant was evaluated while performing normal-pace walking (NW), walking while performing a cognitive task (WCT), and walking while performing a motor task (WMT). Our results indicated that the left PFC exhibited the strongest and most sustained activation during WCT, and that NW and WMT were associated with minor increases in oxygenation levels during their initial phases. We observed increased activation in channels in the SMA and PMC during WCT and WMT. Gait data indicated that WCT and WMT both caused reductions in walking speed, but these reductions resulted from differing alterations in gait properties. WCT was associated with significant changes in cadence, stride time, and stride length, whereas WMT was associated with reductions in stride length only. During dual-task activities, increased activation of the PMC and SMA correlated with declines in gait performance, indicating a control mechanism for maintaining gait performance during dual tasks. Thus, the regulatory effects of cortical activation on gait behavior enable a second task to be performed while walking. PMID:26079605

  2. The Association between Different Levels of Alcohol Use and Gait under Single and Dual Task in Community-Dwelling Older Persons Aged 65 to 70 Years

    PubMed Central

    Büla, Christophe; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to describe the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between alcohol intake and gait parameters in older persons. Methods. Community-dwelling persons aged 65–70 years (N = 807). Information on health, functional status, and alcohol use was self-reported at baseline and at 3-year follow-up, whereas gait speed and stride-to-stride variability were measured while walking only (single task) and under dual tasking (counting backwards). Results. Compared to light-to-moderate drinking, heavy drinking was associated with slower gait speed in single task (adj. coeff.: −.040, 95% CI: −.0.78 to −.002, p = .035). No significant association was observed between heavy drinking and gait speed variability. Nondrinkers walked significantly slower than light-to-moderate drinkers in dual task and had significantly higher gait speed variability in both single and dual task, but these associations disappeared after adjustment for comorbidity. At follow-up, 35.2% and 34.1% of the participants walked significantly slower in single and dual task, respectively. This proportion varied a little across drinking categories. Conclusion. At baseline, heavy alcohol consumption was significantly associated with slower gait speed in single task. Selective survival of the fittest heavy drinkers probably explains why this association faded in longitudinal analyses. The trend of poorer gait performance in nondrinkers disappeared after adjustment for comorbidity, suggesting confounding by a worse health status. PMID:27516773

  3. The Association between Different Levels of Alcohol Use and Gait under Single and Dual Task in Community-Dwelling Older Persons Aged 65 to 70 Years.

    PubMed

    Seematter-Bagnoud, Laurence; Büla, Christophe; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to describe the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between alcohol intake and gait parameters in older persons. Methods. Community-dwelling persons aged 65-70 years (N = 807). Information on health, functional status, and alcohol use was self-reported at baseline and at 3-year follow-up, whereas gait speed and stride-to-stride variability were measured while walking only (single task) and under dual tasking (counting backwards). Results. Compared to light-to-moderate drinking, heavy drinking was associated with slower gait speed in single task (adj. coeff.: -.040, 95% CI: -.0.78 to -.002, p = .035). No significant association was observed between heavy drinking and gait speed variability. Nondrinkers walked significantly slower than light-to-moderate drinkers in dual task and had significantly higher gait speed variability in both single and dual task, but these associations disappeared after adjustment for comorbidity. At follow-up, 35.2% and 34.1% of the participants walked significantly slower in single and dual task, respectively. This proportion varied a little across drinking categories. Conclusion. At baseline, heavy alcohol consumption was significantly associated with slower gait speed in single task. Selective survival of the fittest heavy drinkers probably explains why this association faded in longitudinal analyses. The trend of poorer gait performance in nondrinkers disappeared after adjustment for comorbidity, suggesting confounding by a worse health status. PMID:27516773

  4. Acute and Chronic Effect of Acoustic and Visual Cues on Gait Training in Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized, Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this randomized controlled study we analyse and compare the acute and chronic effects of visual and acoustic cues on gait performance in Parkinson's Disease (PD). We enrolled 46 patients with idiopathic PD who were assigned to 3 different modalities of gait training: (1) use of acoustic cues, (2) use of visual cues, or (3) overground training without cues. All patients were tested with kinematic analysis of gait at baseline (T0), at the end of the 4-week rehabilitation programme (T1), and 3 months later (T2). Regarding the acute effect, acoustic cues increased stride length and stride duration, while visual cues reduced the number of strides and normalized the stride/stance distribution but also reduced gait speed. As regards the chronic effect of cues, we recorded an improvement in some gait parameters in all 3 groups of patients: all 3 types of training improved gait speed; visual cues also normalized the stance/swing ratio, acoustic cues reduced the number of strides and increased stride length, and overground training improved stride length. The changes were not retained at T2 in any of the experimental groups. Our findings support and characterize the usefulness of cueing strategies in the rehabilitation of gait in PD. PMID:26693384

  5. Evaluation of thermal formation and air ventilation inside footwear during gait: The role of gait and fitting.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Yasuhiro; Matsutani, Toshiki; Satsumoto, Yayoi

    2016-07-01

    Comfort is an important concept in footwear design. The microclimate inside footwear contributes to the perception of thermal comfort. To investigate the effect of ventilation on microclimate formation inside footwear, experiments with subjects were conducted at four gait speeds with three different footwear sizes. Skin temperature, metabolism, and body mass were measured at approximately 25 °C and 50% relative humidity, with no solar radiation and a calm wind. The footwear occupancy and ventilation rate were also estimated, with the latter determined using the tracer gas method. The experimental results revealed that foot movement, metabolism, evaporation, radiation, convection, and ventilation were the main factors influencing the energy balance for temperature formation on the surface of the foot. The cooling effect of ventilation on the arch temperature was observed during gait. The significance of the amount of air space and ventilation on the improvement in the thermal comfort of footwear was clarified. PMID:26611985

  6. Genetic feature selection for gait recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafazzoli, Faezeh; Bebis, George; Louis, Sushil; Hussain, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Many research studies have demonstrated that gait can serve as a useful biometric modality for human identification at a distance. Traditional gait recognition systems, however, have mostly been evaluated without explicitly considering the most relevant gait features, which might have compromised performance. We investigate the problem of selecting a subset of the most relevant gait features for improving gait recognition performance. This is achieved by discarding redundant and irrelevant gait features while preserving the most informative ones. Motivated by our previous work on feature subset selection using genetic algorithms (GAs), we propose using GAs to select an optimal subset of gait features. First, features are extracted using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) on spatiotemporal projections of gait silhouettes. Then, GA is applied to select a subset of eigenvectors in KPCA space that best represents a subject's identity. Each gait pattern is then represented by projecting it only on the eigenvectors selected by the GA. To evaluate the effectiveness of the selected features, we have experimented with two different classifiers: k nearest-neighbor and Naïve Bayes classifier. We report considerable gait recognition performance improvements on the Georgia Tech and CASIA databases.

  7. Gait and balance disorders in older adults.

    PubMed

    Salzman, Brooke

    2010-07-01

    Gait and balance disorders are common in older adults and are a major cause of falls in this population. They are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as reduced level of function. Common causes include arthritis and orthostatic hypotension; however, most gait and balance disorders involve multiple contributing factors. Most changes in gait are related to underlying medical conditions and should not be considered an inevitable consequence of aging. Physicians caring for older patients should ask at least annually about falls, and should ask about or examine for difficulties with gait and balance at least once. For older adults who report a fall, physicians should ask about difficulties with gait and balance, and should observe for any gait or balance dysfunctions. The Timed Up and Go test is a fast and reliable diagnostic tool. Persons who have difficulty or demonstrate unsteadiness performing the Timed Up and Go test require further assessment, usually with a physical therapist, to help elucidate gait impairments and related functional limitations. The most effective strategy for falls prevention involves a multifactorial evaluation followed by targeted interventions for identified contributing factors. Evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for gait and balance disorders is limited because of the lack of standardized outcome measures determining gait and balance abilities. However, effective options for patients with gait and balance disorders include exercise and physical therapy. PMID:20590073

  8. A real-time auditory feedback system for retraining gait.

    PubMed

    Maulucci, Ruth A; Eckhouse, Richard H

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States and the principal cause of major long-term disability, incurring substantial distress as well as medical cost. Abnormal and inefficient gait patterns are widespread in survivors of stroke, yet gait is a major determinant of independent living. It is not surprising, therefore, that improvement of walking function is the most commonly stated priority of the survivors. Although many such individuals achieve the goal of walking, the caliber of their walking performance often limits endurance and quality of life. The ultimate goal of the research presented here is to use real-time auditory feedback to retrain gait in patients with chronic stroke. The strategy is to convert the motion of the foot into an auditory signal, and then use this auditory signal as feedback to inform the subject of the existence as well as the magnitude of error during walking. The initial stage of the project is described in this paper. The design and implementation of the new feedback method for lower limb training is explained. The question of whether the patient is physically capable of handling such training is explored. PMID:22255509

  9. Gaze stabilization and gait performance in vestibular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Susan L.; Marchetti, Gregory F.; Pritcher, Miranda; Furman, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The gaze stability test (GST) quantifies the ability of a person to recognize a target projected on a personal computer monitor during active head movement. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between clinical measures of walking performance and the GST in patients with vestibular disorders and in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that impairment of the ability to keep objects in focus during active head movement would be correlated with walking performance. Subjects Twenty older asymptomatic adults acted as controls and 12 patients with either unilateral or bilateral vestibular disease participated. Methods The GST quantifies the maximum velocity that a person can move their head in the pitch and yaw planes while retaining the ability to read an optotype that is momentarily projected onto a computer screen. Subjects were scored while performing the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) and the Timed “Up & Go” (TUG) tests. Results Walking performance on the DGI and TUG were significantly associated with GST results in subjects with vestibular disorders, but not in control subjects. Abnormalities of gait could be identified by GST cutoff values of 658 s_1 in the pitch plane and 638 s_1 in the yaw plane. Discussion/conclusion In older subjects with vestibular disorders, gaze stability, as assessed by the GST, is associated with reduced test scores on measures of gait performance. PMID:18815040

  10. Human Gait Recognition Based on Multiview Gait Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaxi; Boulgouris, Nikolaos V.

    2008-12-01

    Most of the existing gait recognition methods rely on a single view, usually the side view, of the walking person. This paper investigates the case in which several views are available for gait recognition. It is shown that each view has unequal discrimination power and, therefore, should have unequal contribution in the recognition process. In order to exploit the availability of multiple views, several methods for the combination of the results that are obtained from the individual views are tested and evaluated. A novel approach for the combination of the results from several views is also proposed based on the relative importance of each view. The proposed approach generates superior results, compared to those obtained by using individual views or by using multiple views that are combined using other combination methods.

  11. Capturing habitual, in-home gait parameter trends using an inexpensive depth camera.

    PubMed

    Stone, Erik E; Skubic, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented for measuring the gait parameters of walking speed, stride time, and stride length of five older adults continuously, in their homes, over a four month period. The gait parameters were measured passively, using an inexpensive, environmentally mounted depth camera, the Microsoft Kinect. Research has indicated the importance of measuring a person's gait for a variety of purposes from fall risk assessment to early detection of health problems such as cognitive impairment. However, such assessments are often done infrequently and most current technologies are not suitable for continuous, long term use. For this work, a single Microsoft Kinect sensor was deployed in four apartments, containing a total of five residents. A methodology for generating trends in walking speed, stride time, and stride length based on data from identified walking sequences in the home is presented, along with trend estimates for the five participants who were monitored for this work. PMID:23367077

  12. The effects of eye movement training on gait function in patients with stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kwon-Young; Yu, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study examined the effects of eye movement training on gait function in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen patients with stroke were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group underwent eye movement training while the control group underwent general gait training five times per week for six weeks. [Results] Patient walking speed, cadence, and step length were measured by ink-footprint. The experimental group exhibited significant changes in walking speed, cadence, and step length following training, while the control group exhibited no differences. [Conclusion] Findings indicate that eye movement training should be considered as part of a functional gait training program for patients with stroke. PMID:27390423

  13. Quantification of gait in dystonic Gunn rats.

    PubMed

    Chaniary, Kunal D; Baron, Mark S; Rice, Ann C; Wetzel, Paul A; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Shapiro, Steven M

    2009-06-15

    Spontaneously jaundiced Gunn rats exposed to sulfadimethoxine develop bilirubin encephalopathy (kernicterus) with hearing loss and dystonia, closely resembling the human syndrome. We recently characterized the electromyographic activity in this animal model supporting our clinical impression of dystonia. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, non-invasive method to quantify the motor deficits in dystonic rodents. On postnatal day 16, Gunn rats were treated with 100mg/kg of sulfadimethoxine or saline. On postnatal day 31, the ventral view of the animals was videotaped while the animals walked inside a Plexiglas chamber. Individual video frames were reviewed and specific gait parameters including hindlimb spread, step length ratio variability, stance/swing ratio and walking speed were compared between dystonic and non-dystonic jaundiced and non-jaundiced littermates. Data analysis demonstrated statistically significant increases in hindlimb spread and step length ratio variability and decreases in walking speed in dystonic animals as compared to controls. This study demonstrates a valuable technique to objectively characterize dystonia in Gunn rats, which could have wide use for other experimental movement disorders as well. PMID:19464517

  14. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on task processing and prioritisation during dual-task gait.

    PubMed

    Wrightson, James G; Twomey, Rosie; Ross, Emma Z; Smeeton, Nicholas J

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between cognition and gait is often explored using a dual-task gait paradigm, which represents the ability to divide cognitive resources during walking. Recent evidence has suggested that the prefrontal cortex is involved in the allocation of cognitive resources during dual-task gait, though its precise role is unclear. Here, we used anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to probe the role of the prefrontal cortex in the control of stride time variability (STV), trunk RoM and cognitive task performance during dual-task gait. As task difficulty has been shown to mediate the dual-task cost, we also manipulated walking speed to see whether the effects of tDCS on dual-task gait were influenced by walking difficulty. Ten adults performed a serial subtraction task when walking at either preferred walking speed or 25 % of preferred walking speed, before and after receiving tDCS of the left prefrontal cortex. Anodal tDCS reduced STV and the dual-task cost on STV and improved cognitive task performance. Cathodal tDCS increased STV and appeared to increase the dual-task cost on STV, but did not affect cognitive task performance. There was no effect of tDCS on trunk RoM, and the effects of tDCS were not mediated by walking speed. The effect of dual-task gait on stride time variability and cognitive task performance was altered by the application of tDCS, and these effects were polarity dependent. These results highlight the role of the prefrontal cortex in biasing task performance during dual-task gait and indicate that tDCS may be a useful tool for examining the role of the cortex in the control of dual-task gait. PMID:25724513

  15. A multi-channel biomimetic neuroprosthesis to support treadmill gait training in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Chia, Noelia; Ambrosini, Emilia; Baccinelli, Walter; Nardone, Antonio; Monticone, Marco; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Ferrante, Simona

    2015-08-01

    This study presents an innovative multi-channel neuroprosthesis that induces a biomimetic activation of the main lower-limb muscles during treadmill gait training to be used in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. The electrostimulation strategy replicates the physiological muscle synergies used by healthy subjects to walk on a treadmill at their self-selected speed. This strategy is mapped to the current gait sub-phases, which are identified in real time by a custom algorithm. This algorithm divides the gait cycle into six sub-phases, based on two inertial sensors placed laterally on the shanks. Therefore, the pre-defined stimulation profiles are expanded or stretched based on the actual gait pattern of each single subject. A preliminary experimental protocol, involving 10 healthy volunteers, was carried out to extract the muscle synergies and validate the gait-detection algorithm, which were afterwards used in the development of the neuroprosthesis. The feasibility of the neuroprosthesis was tested on one healthy subject who simulated different gait patterns, and a chronic stroke patient. The results showed the correct functioning of the system. A pilot study of the neurorehabilitation treatment for stroke patients is currently being carried out. PMID:26737943

  16. Influences of trunk flexion on mechanical energy flow in the lower extremities during gait

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Takuya; Anan, Masaya; Takahashi, Makoto; Ogata, Yuta; Tanimoto, Kenji; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The time-series waveforms of mechanical energy generation, absorption, and transfer through the joints indicate how movements are produced and controlled. Previous studies have used these waveforms to evaluate and describe the efficiency of human movements. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of trunk flexion on mechanical energy flow in the lower extremities during gait. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 8 healthy young males (mean age, 21.8 ± 1.3 years, mean height, 170.5 ± 6.8 cm, and mean weight, 60.2 ± 6.8 kg). Subjects walked at a self-selected gait speed under 2 conditions: normal gait (condition N), and gait with trunk flexion formed with a brace to simulate spinal curvature (condition TF). The data collected from initial contact to the mid-stance of gait was analyzed. [Results] There were no significant differences between the 2 conditions in the mechanical energy flow in the knee joint and negative mechanical work in the knee joint. However, the positive mechanical work of the knee joint under condition TF was significantly less than that under condition N. [Conclusion] Trunk flexion led to knee flexion in a standing posture. Thus, a strategy of moving of center of mass upward by knee extension using less mechanical energy was selected during gait in the trunk flexed posture. PMID:27313351

  17. Understanding the effects of pre-processing on extracted signal features from gait accelerometry signals.

    PubMed

    Millecamps, Alexandre; Lowry, Kristin A; Brach, Jennifer S; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-07-01

    Gait accelerometry is an important approach for gait assessment. Previous contributions have adopted various pre-processing approaches for gait accelerometry signals, but none have thoroughly investigated the effects of such pre-processing operations on the obtained results. Therefore, this paper investigated the influence of pre-processing operations on signal features extracted from gait accelerometry signals. These signals were collected from 35 participants aged over 65years: 14 of them were healthy controls (HC), 10 had Parkinson׳s disease (PD) and 11 had peripheral neuropathy (PN). The participants walked on a treadmill at preferred speed. Signal features in time, frequency and time-frequency domains were computed for both raw and pre-processed signals. The pre-processing stage consisted of applying tilt correction and denoising operations to acquired signals. We first examined the effects of these operations separately, followed by the investigation of their joint effects. Several important observations were made based on the obtained results. First, the denoising operation alone had almost no effects in comparison to the trends observed in the raw data. Second, the tilt correction affected the reported results to a certain degree, which could lead to a better discrimination between groups. Third, the combination of the two pre-processing operations yielded similar trends as the tilt correction alone. These results indicated that while gait accelerometry is a valuable approach for the gait assessment, one has to carefully adopt any pre-processing steps as they alter the observed findings. PMID:25935124

  18. Understanding the effects of pre-processing on extracted signal features from gait accelerometry signals

    PubMed Central

    Millecamps, Alexandre; Brach, Jennifer S.; Lowry, Kristin A.; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Gait accelerometry is an important approach for gait assessment. Previous contributions have adopted various pre-processing approaches for gait accelerometry signals, but none have thoroughly investigated the effects of such pre-processing operations on the obtained results. Therefore, this paper investigated the influence of pre-processing operations on signal features extracted from gait accelerometry signals. These signals were collected from 35 participants aged over 65 years-old: 14 of them were healthy controls (HC), 10 had Parkinson’s disease (PD) and 11 had peripheral neuropathy (PN). The participants walked on a treadmill at preferred speed. Signal features in time, frequency and time-frequency domains were computed for both raw and pre-processed signals. The pre-processing stage consisted of applying tilt correction and de-noising operations to acquired signals. We first examined the effects of these operations separately, followed by the investigation of their joint effects. Several important observations were made based on the obtained results. First, the denoising operation alone had almost no effects in comparison to the trends observed in the raw data. Second, the tilt correction affected the reported results to a certain degree, which could lead to a better discrimination between groups. Third, the combination of the two pre-processing operations yielded similar trends as the tilt correction alone. These results indicated that while gait accelerometry is a valuable approach for the gait assessment, one has to carefully adopt any pre-processing steps as they alter the observed findings. PMID:25935124

  19. Gait and risk of falls associated with frontal cognitive functions at different stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Stella, Florindo; de Andrade, Larissa Pires; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira; Gobbi, Sebastião; Costa, José Luiz Riani; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2012-09-01

    The decline in frontal cognitive functions contributes to alterations of gait and increases the risk of falls in patients with dementia, a category which included Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objective of the present study was to compare the gait parameters and the risk of falls among patients at different stages of AD, and to relate these variables with cognitive functions. This is a cross-sectional study with 23 patients with mild and moderate AD. The Clinical Dementia Rating was used to classify the dementia severity. The kinematic parameters of gait (cadence, stride length, and stride speed) were analyzed under two conditions: (a) single task (free gait) and (b) dual task (walking and counting down). The risk of falls was evaluated using the Timed Up-and-Go test. The frontal cognitive functions were evaluated using the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and the Symbol Search Subtest. The patients who were at the moderate stage suffered reduced performance in their stride length and stride speed in the single task and had made more counting errors in the dual task and still had a higher fall risk. Both the mild and the moderate patients exhibited significant decreases in stride length, stride speed and cadence in the dual task. Was detected a significant correlation between CDT, FAB, and stride speed in the dual task condition. We also found a significant correlation between subtest Similarities, FAB and cadence in the dual task condition. The dual task produced changes in the kinematic parameters of gait for the mild and moderate AD patients and the gait alterations are related to frontal cognitive functions, particularly executive functions. PMID:22360785

  20. Gait propulsion in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy and ankle plantarflexor weakness.

    PubMed

    Rijken, N H M; van Engelen, B G M; de Rooy, J W J; Weerdesteyn, V; Geurts, A C H

    2015-02-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is a slowly progressive hereditary disorder resulting in fatty infiltration of eventually most skeletal muscles. Weakness of trunk and leg muscles causes problems with postural balance and gait, and is associated with an increased fall risk. Although drop foot and related tripping are common problems in FSHD, gait impairments are poorly documented. The effect of ankle plantarflexor involvement on gait propulsion has never been addressed. In addition to ankle plantarflexion, gait propulsion is generated through hip flexion and hip extension. Compensatory shifts between these propulsion sources occur when specific muscles are affected. Such a shift may be expected in patients with FSHD since the calves may show early fatty infiltration, whereas iliopsoas and gluteus maximus muscles are often spared for a longer time. In the current study, magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the percentage of unaffected calf, iliopsoas and gluteus maximus muscles. Joint powers were analyzed in 10 patients with FSHD at comfortable and maximum walking speed to determine the contribution of ankle plantarflexor, hip flexor and hip extensor power to propulsion. Associations between muscle morphology, power generation and gait speed were assessed. Based on multivariate regression analysis, ankle plantarflexor power was the only factor that uniquely contributed to the explained variance of comfortable (R(2)=80%) and maximum (R(2)=86%) walking speed. Although the iliopsoas muscles were largely unaffected, they appeared to be sub-maximally recruited. This submaximal recruitment may be related to poor trunk stability, resulting in a disproportionate effect of calf muscle affliction on gait speed in patients with FSHD. PMID:25687333

  1. Contributions to the understanding of gait control.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Erik Bruun

    2014-04-01

    foot to the ground with the heel first. Moreover, they have to increase flexion of the hip joint during the swing phase because the foot hangs in a plantar flexed position. It was shown that the ankle joint plantar flexor moment increased in the healthy leg and that the knee joint extensor moment increased significantly in both the affected and the healthy leg. The latter is most likely due to the patients trying to avoid an asymmetrical gait pattern. It is recommended to use an orthosis with drop-foot patients in order to keep the ankle joint dorsiflexed prior to touchdown, otherwise bone-on-bone forces in both knee joints will increase and probably lead to osteoarthritis. The hip joint moment varies less between individuals. However, both during walking and running an unexplained hip joint flexor moment is present during the last half of the stance phase. The moment appears to oppose the speed of progression and it has been suggested that it serves to balance the upper body. This was investigated in a group of healthy subjects who were asked to walk with their upper body in a reclined, inclined and normal position, respectively. It was shown that the hip joint flexor moment was similar in the reclined and the normal position but lower when walking in the inclined position and it can be concluded that the upper body is not balanced by hip joint flexor muscles but rather by accelerations of the pelvis and activity in abdominal and back muscles. These experiments also showed that the trailing leg is brought forward during the swing phase without activity in the flexor muscles about the hip joint. This was verified by the absence of EMG activity in the iliacus muscle measured by intramuscular wire electrodes. Instead the strong ligaments restricting hip joint extension are stretched during the first half of the swing phase thereby storing elastic energy, which is released during the last half of the stance phase and accelerating the leg into the swing phase. This is

  2. Cerebral Palsy Gait, Clinical Importance

    PubMed Central

    TUGUI, Raluca Dana; ANTONESCU, Dinu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cerebral palsy refers to a lesion on an immature brain, that determines permanent neurological disorders. Knowing the exact cause of the disease does not alter the treatment management. The etiology is 2-2.5/1000 births and the rate is constant in the last 40-50 years because advances in medical technologies have permitted the survival of smaller and premature new born children. Gait analysis has four directions: kinematics (represents body movements analysis without calculating the forces), kinetics (represents body moments and forces), energy consumption (measured by oximetry), and neuromuscular activity (measured by EMG). Gait analysis can observe specific deviations in a patient, allowing us to be more accurate in motor diagnoses and treatment solutions: surgery intervention, botulinum toxin injection, use of orthosis, physical kinetic therapy, oral medications, baclofen pump. PMID:24790675

  3. Quantitative evaluation of changes in gait after extended cerebrospinal fluid drainage for normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Felix; Hickman, Thu-Trang; Tinl, Megan; Iracheta, Christine; Chen, Grace; Flynn, Patricia; Shuman, Matthew E; Johnson, Tatyana A; Rice, Rebecca R; Rice, Isaac M; Wiemann, Robert; Johnson, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is characterized by gait instability, urinary incontinence and cognitive dysfunction. These symptoms can be relieved by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, but the time course and nature of the improvements are poorly characterized. Attempts to prospectively identify iNPH patients responsive to CSF drainage by evaluating presenting gait quality or via extended lumbar cerebrospinal fluid drainage (eLCD) trials are common, but the reliability of such approaches is unclear. Here we combine eLCD trials with computerized quantitative gait measurements to predict shunt responsiveness in patients undergoing evaluation for possible iNPH. In this prospective cohort study, 50 patients presenting with enlarged cerebral ventricles and gait, urinary, and/or cognitive difficulties were evaluated for iNPH using a computerized gait analysis system during a 3day trial of eLCD. Gait speed, stride length, cadence, and the Timed Up and Go test were quantified before and during eLCD. Qualitative assessments of incontinence and cognition were obtained throughout the eLCD trial. Patients who improved after eLCD underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement, and symptoms were reassessed serially over the next 3 to 15months. There was no significant difference in presenting gait characteristics between patients who improved after drainage and those who did not. Gait improvement was not observed until 2 or more days of continuous drainage in most cases. Symptoms improved after eLCD in 60% of patients, and all patients who improved after eLCD also improved after shunt placement. The degree of improvement after eLCD correlated closely with that observed after shunt placement. PMID:26775149

  4. Gait apraxia in communicating hydrocephalus.

    PubMed Central

    Estañol, B V

    1981-01-01

    Apraxia of gait in patients with communicating hydrocephalus appears in the context of a generalised motor disorder that includes defective righting reflexes, generalised increased tone to passive movements, grasp reflexes, difficulty with serial movements of the hands and defective smooth pursuit eye movements. The inability to walk does not appear to be due to a motor disorder but to release of proprioceptive supporting reactions. This mechanism is triggered by proprioceptive stimuli. PMID:7241157

  5. Analysis of the gait generation principle by a simulated quadruped model with a CPG incorporating vestibular modulation.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Yasuhiro; Habu, Yasushi; Fukui, Takahiro

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to understand the principles of gait generation in a quadrupedal model. It is difficult to determine the essence of gait generation simply by observation of the movement of complicated animals composed of brains, nerves, muscles, etc. Therefore, we build a planar quadruped model with simplified nervous system and mechanisms, in order to observe its gaits under simulation. The model is equipped with a mathematical central pattern generator (CPG), consisting of four coupled neural oscillators, basically producing a trot pattern. The model also contains sensory feedback to the CPG, measuring the body tilt (vestibular modulation). This spontaneously gives rise to an unprogrammed lateral walk at low speeds, a transverse gallop while running, in addition to trotting at a medium speed. This is because the body oscillation exhibits a double peak per leg frequency at low speeds, no peak (little oscillation) at medium speeds, and a single peak while running. The body oscillation autonomously adjusts the phase differences between the neural oscillators via the feedback. We assume that the oscillations of the four legs produced by the CPG and the body oscillation varying according to the current speed are synchronized along with the varied phase differences to keep balance during locomotion through postural adaptation via the vestibular modulation, resulting in each gait. We succeeded in determining a single simple principle that accounts for gait transition from walking to trotting to galloping, even without brain control, complicated leg mechanisms, or a flexible trunk. PMID:24132783

  6. How useful is satellite positioning system (GPS) to track gait parameters? A review

    PubMed Central

    Terrier, Philippe; Schutz, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Over the last century, numerous techniques have been developed to analyze the movement of humans while walking and running. The combined use of kinematics and kinetics methods, mainly based on high speed video analysis and forceplate, have permitted a comprehensive description of locomotion process in terms of energetics and biomechanics. While the different phases of a single gait cycle are well understood, there is an increasing interest to know how the neuro-motor system controls gait form stride to stride. Indeed, it was observed that neurodegenerative diseases and aging could impact gait stability and gait parameters steadiness. From both clinical and fundamental research perspectives, there is therefore a need to develop techniques to accurately track gait parameters stride-by-stride over a long period with minimal constraints to patients. In this context, high accuracy satellite positioning can provide an alternative tool to monitor outdoor walking. Indeed, the high-end GPS receivers provide centimeter accuracy positioning with 5–20 Hz sampling rate: this allows the stride-by-stride assessment of a number of basic gait parameters – such as walking speed, step length and step frequency – that can be tracked over several thousand consecutive strides in free-living conditions. Furthermore, long-range correlations and fractal-like pattern was observed in those time series. As compared to other classical methods, GPS seems a promising technology in the field of gait variability analysis. However, relative high complexity and expensiveness – combined with a usability which requires further improvement – remain obstacles to the full development of the GPS technology in human applications. PMID:16138922

  7. Human identification using temporal information preserving gait template.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Liang; Pu, Jian; Yuan, Xiaoru

    2012-11-01

    Gait Energy Image (GEI) is an efficient template for human identification by gait. However, such a template loses temporal information in a gait sequence, which is critical to the performance of gait recognition. To address this issue, we develop a novel temporal template, named Chrono-Gait Image (CGI), in this paper. The proposed CGI template first extracts the contour in each gait frame, followed by encoding each of the gait contour images in the same gait sequence with a multichannel mapping function and compositing them to a single CGI. To make the templates robust to a complex surrounding environment, we also propose CGI-based real and synthetic temporal information preserving templates by using different gait periods and contour distortion techniques. Extensive experiments on three benchmark gait databases indicate that, compared with the recently published gait recognition approaches, our CGI-based temporal information preserving approach achieves competitive performance in gait recognition with robustness and efficiency. PMID:22201053

  8. The effect of text messaging on reactive balance and the temporal and spatial characteristics of gait.

    PubMed

    Strubhar, Andrew J; Peterson, Melissa L; Aschwege, Jessica; Ganske, Joey; Kelley, Jessica; Schulte, Hope

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects text messaging has on gait characteristics and reactive balance. Thirty-two subjects were recruited. Data was collected on texting ability in standing, while walking and while in perturbed stance. Data on gait parameters using the GAITRiteTM were collected while walking normally and while walking and texting. Data on reactive balance in perturbed stance (DMA score) using the PROPRIO 5000™ was collected while standing and while standing and texting. Repeated measures statistics were applied. No practical difference in texting ability was found between the three conditions of standing, walking and perturbed stance. A significant difference was found between mean gait characteristics of velocity, cadence, double limb support and mean step length during normal walking and walking while texting (p<.05). No statistical significance was shown between mean heel to heel support. A significant difference was found between reactive balance ability (mean DMA score) in perturbed stance and perturbed stance while texting (p<.05). The data imply that gait and balance are negatively impacted while texting and that subjects will maintain their baseline texting speed and accuracy at the expense of gait speed and impaired balance. PMID:26410478

  9. A novel adaptive, real-time algorithm to detect gait events from wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Chia Bejarano, Noelia; Ambrosini, Emilia; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Monticone, Marco; Ferrante, Simona

    2015-05-01

    A real-time, adaptive algorithm based on two inertial and magnetic sensors placed on the shanks was developed for gait-event detection. For each leg, the algorithm detected the Initial Contact (IC), as the minimum of the flexion/extension angle, and the End Contact (EC) and the Mid-Swing (MS), as minimum and maximum of the angular velocity, respectively. The algorithm consisted of calibration, real-time detection, and step-by-step update. Data collected from 22 healthy subjects (21 to 85 years) walking at three self-selected speeds were used to validate the algorithm against the GaitRite system. Comparable levels of accuracy and significantly lower detection delays were achieved with respect to other published methods. The algorithm robustness was tested on ten healthy subjects performing sudden speed changes and on ten stroke subjects (43 to 89 years). For healthy subjects, F1-scores of 1 and mean detection delays lower than 14 ms were obtained. For stroke subjects, F1-scores of 0.998 and 0.944 were obtained for IC and EC, respectively, with mean detection delays always below 31 ms. The algorithm accurately detected gait events in real time from a heterogeneous dataset of gait patterns and paves the way for the design of closed-loop controllers for customized gait trainings and/or assistive devices. PMID:25069118

  10. Can a linear combination of gait principal component vectors identify hip OA stages?

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Marzieh M; Wimmer, Markus A

    2016-07-01

    Hip osteoarthritis (OA) has been shown to affect gait patterns of lower extremities. However, until now, no specific identifying gait characteristics for the various disease stages of hip OA have emerged. The present study addresses the following questions: (1) does a vector-based principal component analysis (PCA) discriminate between various disease stages? And, is this analysis more robust than using discrete gait variables? (2) Does the elimination of differences in walking speed affect the discriminatory robustness of a vector-based PCA? De-identified data sets of forty-five unilateral hip OA patients with varying disease stages and twenty-three age-matched, healthy control subjects were obtained from an available repository. PCA was performed on trial matrices consisting of all external joint moments and sagittal joint angles of one full gait cycle. Group differences in sagittal angles, external moments and the linear combination of PC vectors were investigated using spatial parameter mapping (SPM), a statistical vector field test. Several individual gait variables (i.e. joint moments or angles) demonstrated differences between healthy and moderately and/or severely affected subjects. Only the hip adduction moment could discriminate between the healthy and the early-stage OA group. There was no variable that could distinguish between all OA disease stages. In contrast, the linear combination of PC vectors demonstrated significant group differences between all stages of osteoarthritis; furthermore, these group differences stayed significant when matched speeds were input to the model. PMID:27255606

  11. Optics in gait analysis and anthropometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Moreno, Alejandra Alicia

    2013-11-01

    Since antiquity, human gait has been studied to understand human movement, the kind of gait, in some cases, can cause musculoskeletal disorders or other health problems; in addition, also from antiquity, anthropometry has been important for the design of human items such as workspaces, tools, garments, among others. Nowadays, thanks to the development of optics and electronics, more accurate studies of gait and anthropometry can be developed. This work will describe the most important parameters for gait analysis, anthropometry and the optical systems used.

  12. A characterization of Parkinson's disease by describing the visual field motion during gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, David; Martínez, Fabio; Atehortúa, Angélica; Alvarez, Charlens; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    An early diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease (PD) is crucial towards devising successful rehabilitation programs. Typically, the PD diagnosis is performed by characterizing typical symptoms, namely bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, postural instability or freezing gait. However, traditional examination tests are usually incapable of detecting slight motor changes, specially for early stages of the pathology. Recently, eye movement abnormalities have correlated with early onset of some neurodegenerative disorders. This work introduces a new characterization of the Parkinson disease by describing the ocular motion during a common daily activity as the gait. This paper proposes a fully automatic eye motion analysis using a dense optical flow that tracks the ocular direction. The eye motion is then summarized using orientation histograms constructed during a whole gait cycle. The proposed approach was evaluated by measuring the χ2 distance between the orientation histograms, showing substantial differences between control and PD patients.

  13. Side by side treadmill walking with intentionally desynchronized gait.

    PubMed

    Nessler, Jeff A; McMillan, David; Schoulten, Michael; Shallow, Teresa; Stewart, Brianna; De Leone, Charles

    2013-08-01

    Humans demonstrate an innate desire to synchronize stepping when walking side by side. This behavior requires modification of each person's gait, which may increase for pairings with very different walking patterns. The purpose of this study was to compare locomotor behavior for conditions in which partners exhibited similar and substantially different walking patterns. Twenty-six unimpaired subjects walked on a motorized treadmill at their preferred walking speed for three trials: by themselves (SOLO), next to someone on an adjacent treadmill (PAIRED), and next to someone who purposely avoided synchronization by altering stride times and/or lengths (DeSYNC). Means, coefficients of variance, approximate entropy (ApEn), rate of autocorrelation decay (α), and estimates of maximal Lyapunov exponents (λ*) were calculated for several dependent variables taken from sagittal plane kinematic data. Few differences in behavior were noted when the PAIRED condition was compared to the SOLO condition. However, the DeSYNC condition resulted in several alterations in ApEn, α, and λ*. These results suggest that greater differences in walking pattern between partners will facilitate greater modification to an individual's gait. Additional study of side by side walking may hold implications for understanding the control of gait in humans and may have application in a clinical setting. PMID:23001358

  14. Transitions between three swimming gaits in Paramecium escape.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Amandine; Fisch, Cathy; Combettes, Laurent; Dupuis-Williams, Pascale; Baroud, Charles N

    2011-05-01

    Paramecium and other protists are able to swim at velocities reaching several times their body size per second by beating their cilia in an organized fashion. The cilia beat in an asymmetric stroke, which breaks the time reversal symmetry of small scale flows. Here we show that Paramecium uses three different swimming gaits to escape from an aggression, applied in the form of a focused laser heating. For a weak aggression, normal swimming is sufficient and produces a steady swimming velocity. As the heating amplitude is increased, a higher acceleration and faster swimming are achieved through synchronized beating of the cilia, which begin by producing oscillating swimming velocities and later give way to the usual gait. Finally, escape from a life-threatening aggression is achieved by a "jumping" gait, which does not rely on the cilia but is achieved through the explosive release of a group of trichocysts in the direction of the hot spot. Measurements through high-speed video explain the role of trichocysts in defending against aggressions while showing unexpected transitions in the swimming of microorganisms. These measurements also demonstrate that Paramecium optimizes its escape pattern by taking advantage of its inertia. PMID:21464291

  15. Quantifying prosthetic gait deviation using simple outcome measures

    PubMed Central

    Kark, Lauren; Odell, Ross; McIntosh, Andrew S; Simmons, Anne

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To develop a subset of simple outcome measures to quantify prosthetic gait deviation without needing three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). METHODS: Eight unilateral, transfemoral amputees and 12 unilateral, transtibial amputees were recruited. Twenty-eight able-bodied controls were recruited. All participants underwent 3DGA, the timed-up-and-go test and the six-minute walk test (6MWT). The lower-limb amputees also completed the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire. Results from 3DGA were summarised using the gait deviation index (GDI), which was subsequently regressed, using stepwise regression, against the other measures. RESULTS: Step-length (SL), self-selected walking speed (SSWS) and the distance walked during the 6MWT (6MWD) were significantly correlated with GDI. The 6MWD was the strongest, single predictor of the GDI, followed by SL and SSWS. The predictive ability of the regression equations were improved following inclusion of self-report data related to mobility and prosthetic utility. CONCLUSION: This study offers a practicable alternative to quantifying kinematic deviation without the need to conduct complete 3DGA. PMID:27335814

  16. Technique and Observation of Angular Gait Patterns in Running

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, K.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for the biomechanical analysis of running is described with specific reference to the angular displacement patterns of the lower limb. From high speed cine film recording profile views of the running gait, the Thigh, Knee and Ankle angles are measured during one complete cycle. Results are presented in the form of vector-space diagrams, namely Thigh-Knee angle and Knee-Ankle angle cyclograms. The diagrams are interpreted and some experimental observations are presented and discussed. The technique provides a useful research tool and a very good `teaching asset' for biomechanical studies of movement.

  17. Gait characteristics and sensory abilities of older adults are modulated by gender.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni-Solano, Pietro; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2015-06-01

    Despite the general perception that women and men walk differently, little is known about the reasons for these differences, especially in older adults. Previous work on gender differences in older adults has focused on spatiotemporal parameters. This study aims to assess gender-related differences in gait spatiotemporal and quality parameters when walking on a flat walkway at two different self-selected speeds: comfortable and fast. Sensorimotor abilities (Strength, agility, standing balance, reaction time) were also compared by gender, and gender-specific associations between spatiotemporal and sensorimotor parameters and gait quality were studied. Two tri-axial accelerometers were used at head and pelvis levels to investigate spatiotemporal parameters (step length, velocity and cadence), and gait quality (harmonic ratios (HR) and attenuation of accelerations between body levels) in 122 older adults (90 women, 69.7±5.1 y.o. and 32 men, 71.6±6.4 y.o.). Both men and women walked with similar speed; however women presented faster cadence and shorter steps than men at both walking speeds. Women also walked with greater vertical HR (head and pelvis), mediolateral pelvis HR, and attenuation (mediolateral and anteroposterior) than men. Women had better control of standing balance on foam (eyes open and closed) and tandem test. Moreover, balance on foam, tandem test, step length and cadence were associated to gender-specific gait quality parameters. The aging process seems to be affecting men and women differently, thus, gender differences should be considered when preparing intervention programs to improve balance and gait in older populations or when establishing normative data for balance and gait in older adults. PMID:25943408

  18. Comparison of Upright Gait with Supine Bungee-Cord Gait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boda, Wanda L.; Hargens, Alan R.; Campbell, J. A.; Yang, C.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Running on a treadmill with bungee-cord resistance is currently used on the Russian space station MIR as a countermeasure for the loss of bone and muscular strength which occurs during spaceflight. However, it is unknown whether ground reaction force (GRF) at the feet using bungee-cord resistance is similar to that which occurs during upright walking and running on Earth. We hypothesized-that the DRAMs generated during upright walking and running are greater than the DRAMs generated during supine bungee-cord gait. Eleven healthy subjects walked (4.8 +/- 0.13 km/h, mean +/- SE) and ran (9.1 +/- 0.51 km/h) during upright and supine bungee-cord exercise on an active treadmill. Subjects exercised for 3 min in each condition using a resistance of 1 body weight calibrated during an initial, stationary standing position. Data were sampled at a frequency of 500Hz and the mean of 3 trials was analyzed for each condition. A repeated measures analysis of variance tested significance between the conditions. Peak DRAMs during upright walking were significantly greater (1084.9 +/- 111.4 N) than during supine bungee-cord walking (770.3 +/- 59.8 N; p less than 0.05). Peak GRFs were also significantly greater for upright running (1548.3 +/- 135.4 N) than for supine bungee-cord running (1099.5 +/- 158.46 N). Analysis of GRF curves indicated that forces decreased throughout the stance phase for bungee-cord gait but not during upright gait. These results indicate that bungee-cord exercise may not create sufficient loads at the feet to counteract the loss of bone and muscular strength that occurs during long-duration exposure to microgravity.

  19. Gait parameters associated with hallux valgus: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hallux valgus (HV) has been linked to functional disability and increased falls risk in older adults. However, specific gait alterations in individuals with HV are unclear. This systematic review investigated gait parameters associated with HV in otherwise healthy adults. Methods Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL) were searched to October 2011, including cross-sectional studies with clearly defined HV and non-HV comparison groups. Two investigators independently rated studies for methodological quality. Effect sizes (95% confidence intervals (CI)) were calculated as standardized mean differences (SMD) for continuous data and risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data. Results Nine studies included a total of 589 participants. Three plantar pressure studies reported increased hallux loading (SMD 0.56 to 1.78) and medial forefoot loading (SMD 0.62 to 1.21), while one study found reduced first metatarsal loading (SMD −0.61, CI −1.19 to −0.03) in HV participants. HV participants demonstrated less ankle and rearfoot motion during terminal stance (SMD −0.81 to −0.63) and increased intrinsic muscle activity (RR 1.6, 1.1 to 2.2). Most studies reported no differences in spatio-temporal parameters; however, one study found reduced speed (SMD −0.73, -1.25 to −0.20), step length (SMD −0.66 to −0.59) and less stable gait patterns (SMD −0.86 to −0.78) in older adults with HV. Conclusions HV impacts on particular gait parameters, and further understanding of potentially modifiable factors is important for prevention and management of HV. Cause and effect relationships cannot be inferred from cross-sectional studies, thus prospective studies are warranted to elucidate the relationship between HV and functional disability. PMID:23497584

  20. A gait index may underestimate changes of gait: a comparison of the Movement Deviation Profile and the Gait Deviation Index.

    PubMed

    Barton, Gabor J; Hawken, Malcolm B; Holmes, Gill; Schwartz, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the Movement Deviation Profile (MDP) and Gait Deviation Index (GDI) to detect gait changes was compared in a child with cerebral palsy who underwent game training. Conventional gait analysis showed that sagittal plane angles became mirrored about normality after training. Despite considerable gait changes, the GDI showed minimal change, while the MDP detected a difference equal to a shift between 10-9 on the Functional Assessment Questionnaire scale. Responses of the GDI and MDP were examined during a synthetic transition of the patient's curves from before intervention to a state mirrored about normality. The GDI showed a symmetric response on the two opposite sides of normality but the neural network based MDP gave an asymmetric response reflecting faithfully the unequal biomechanical consequences of joint angle changes. In conclusion, the MDP can detect altered gait even if the changes are missed by the GDI. PMID:23521124

  1. A mobile gait monitoring system as an assistive tool for rehabilitation: design and experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Joonbum; Kong, Kyoungchul; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2010-04-01

    Conventionally, rehabilitation treatments for gait disorders are performed by physical therapists in a clinical setting. Although an array of equipment, such as motion capture devices and multi-directional force plates, has been devised to provide the physical therapists with more objective diagnostic data, restriction of the time and space limits the effective use of such devices. To overcome this limitation various wearable sensors for patients to directly monitor their health conditions anywhere at anytime have been studied in recent years. In this paper, a mobile gait monitoring system (MGMS) is introduced, which integrates Smart Shoes and the monitoring algorithms in a mobile microprocessor with a touch screen display. The mobility of the MGMS allows patients to take advantage of the gait monitoring device in their daily lives. The monitoring algorithms embedded in the MGMS observe various physical quantities useful for objective gait diagnoses, such as the ground contact forces (GCFs) and the center of ground contact forces (CoGCF). Also it calculates the gait abnormality which shows how far the GCFs are from the normal GCF patterns. By the visual feedback information displayed on the MGMS, the patients can self correct their walking patterns. The preliminary results of clinical verification are also given.

  2. The comparison of two physiotherapeutic approaches for gait improvement in sub-acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Maciej; Szczerbik, Ewa; Syczewska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    The functional gait problems encountered by stroke patients include impaired balance, abnormal gait pattern with marked asymmetry, pathological trunk and spinal motion. Many different methods of physiotherapy are used to improve functional ability (especially gait) in stroke patients, but their efficacy and outcome are often not objectively assessed. The goal of this paper is to compare two therapeutic programs: one that is traditionally used in our rehabilitation facilities (exercises in lying position, "open chain" exercises, isolated movements of extremities with trunk stabilization) and the new one (exercises in vertical position, sitting or standing, "closed chain" exercises involving whole paretic side of the body). Fifty one stroke patients, aged 34 to 79 years, participated in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to one of the two groups. Patients underwent clinical assessment (Fugl-Meyer, Rivermead Motor Assessment, Berg Balance Scale) and instrumented gait analysis (using six-camera VICON 460 system) simultaneously three times: prior to the beginning of the rehabilitation program, after 6 weeks of the program, and after another 6 weeks of physiotherapy, at the end of rehabilitation program. Results demonstrated that both rehabilitation programs improved the gait function and clinical status in patients suffering from stroke. Despite the differences between the two programs the progress achieved by the patients in locomotor function is similar. Two equivalent physiotherapy programs could be applied during rehabilitation process depending on the patient's individual preferences and needs, as the amount of functional improvement provided by them is comparable. PMID:24708038

  3. Ambiguity domain-based identification of altered gait pattern in ALS disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugavaneswaran, L.; Umapathy, K.; Krishnan, S.

    2012-08-01

    The onset of a neurological disorder, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is so subtle that the symptoms are often overlooked, thereby ruling out the option of early detection of the abnormality. In the case of ALS, over 75% of the affected individuals often experience awkwardness when using their limbs, which alters their gait, i.e. stride and swing intervals. The aim of this work is to suitably represent the non-stationary characteristics of gait (fluctuations in stride and swing intervals) in order to facilitate discrimination between normal and ALS subjects. We define a simple-yet-representative feature vector space by exploiting the ambiguity domain (AD) to achieve efficient classification between healthy and pathological gait stride interval. The stride-to-stride fluctuations and the swing intervals of 16 healthy control and 13 ALS-affected subjects were analyzed. Three features that are representative of the gait signal characteristics were extracted from the AD-space and are fed to linear discriminant analysis and neural network classifiers, respectively. Overall, maximum accuracies of 89.2% (LDA) and 100% (NN) were obtained in classifying the ALS gait.

  4. Gait kinematics and kinetics are affected more by peripheral arterial disease than age

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Sara A.; Applequist, Bryon C.; Huisinga, Jessie M.; Pipinos, Iraklis I.; Johanning, Jason M.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) produces abnormal gait and disproportionately affects older individuals. The current study investigated PAD gait biomechanics in young and older subjects. Sixty-one (31 < 65 years, age: 57.4 ± 5.3 years and 30 ≥ 65 years; age: 72.2 ± 5.4 years) patients with PAD and 52 healthy age matched controls were included. Patients with PAD were tested during pain free walking and compared to matched healthy controls. Joint kinematics and kinetics (torques) were compared using a 2 × 2 ANOVA (Groups: PAD vs. Control, Age: Younger vs. Older). Patients with PAD had significantly increased ankle and decreased hip range of motion during the stance phase as well as decreased ankle dorsiflexor torque compared to controls. Gait changes in older individuals are largely constrained to time-distance parameters. Joint kinematics and kinetics are significantly altered in patients with PAD during pain free ambulation. Symptomatic PAD produces a consistent ambulatory deficit across ages definable by advanced biomechanical analysis. The most important finding of the current study is that gait, in the absence of PAD and other ambulatory comorbidities, does not decline significantly with age based on advanced biomechanical analysis. Therefore, previous studies must be examined in the context of potential PAD patients being present in the population and future ambulatory studies must include PAD as a confounding factor when assessing the gait function of elderly individuals. PMID:27149635

  5. On the Disambiguation of Passively Measured In-home Gait Velocities from Multi-person Smart Homes.

    PubMed

    Austin, Daniel; Hayes, Tamara L; Kaye, Jeffrey; Mattek, Nora; Pavel, Misha

    2011-01-01

    In-home monitoring of gait velocity with passive PIR sensors in a smart home has been shown to be an effective method of continuously and unobtrusively measuring this important predictor of cognitive function and mobility. However, passive measurements of velocity are nonspecific with regard to who generated each measurement or walking event. As a result, this method is not suitable for multi-person homes without additional information to aid in the disambiguation of gait velocities. In this paper we propose a method based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) combined with infrequent clinical assessments of gait velocity to model in-home walking speeds of two or more residents. Modeling the gait parameters directly allows us to avoid the more difficult problem of assigning each measured velocity individually to the correct resident. We show that if the clinically measured gait velocities of residents are separated by at least 15 cm/s a GMM can be accurately fit to the in-home gait velocity data. We demonstrate the accuracy of this method by showing that the correlation between the means of the GMMs and the clinically measured gait velocities is 0.877 (p value < 0.0001) with bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals of (0.79, 0.94) for 54 measurements of 20 subjects living in multi-person homes. Example applications of using this method to track in-home mean velocities over time are also given. PMID:21572911

  6. Gait Analysis by High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Andre; van Dongen, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Human walking is a complicated motion. Movement scientists have developed various research methods to study gait. This article describes how a high school student collected and analysed high quality gait data in much the same way that movement scientists do, via the recording and measurement of motions with a video analysis tool and via…

  7. Gait Alterations During Constant Pace Treadmill Racewalking.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Brian

    2015-08-01

    Racewalking is an Olympic event requiring great endurance, and racewalkers often use treadmills in training because of the benefits of having a flat unchanging surface where pace judgment can be learned and because inclement weather can be avoided. The effects of fatigue associated with racewalking on a treadmill have not been studied and could be informative with regard to the maintenance of legal technique. The aim of this study was to measure key gait variables during a physically demanding treadmill racewalk. Fourteen international racewalkers completed 10 km on an instrumented treadmill at a pace equivalent to 103% of their recent best time. Spatiotemporal and ground reaction force data were recorded at 4 distances. High-speed videography data were simultaneously recorded to analyze changes in knee angle between the early and late stages. Increases in step length and corresponding decreases in cadence were found, although the small changes were not considered meaningful. There was also a small increase in flight time and a small decrease in push-off force. There were no other significant changes for any other variables (including knee angles). The increase in flight time might be important given that racewalkers are not permitted a visible loss of contact and suggests that fatiguing sessions on a treadmill can lead to the adoption of nonlegal technique. However, this disadvantage of treadmill training can be negated if the coach scrutinizes athletes throughout the session, and overall the consistent technique used is of benefit with regard to learning correct form and pacing ability. PMID:25647657

  8. Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinyan; Liu, Jiansheng

    2014-01-01

    The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI) is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI), AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition. PMID:24895648

  9. Gait Recognition Using Image Self-Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BenAbdelkader, Chiraz; Cutler, Ross G.; Davis, Larry S.

    2004-12-01

    Gait is one of the few biometrics that can be measured at a distance, and is hence useful for passive surveillance as well as biometric applications. Gait recognition research is still at its infancy, however, and we have yet to solve the fundamental issue of finding gait features which at once have sufficient discrimination power and can be extracted robustly and accurately from low-resolution video. This paper describes a novel gait recognition technique based on the image self-similarity of a walking person. We contend that the similarity plot encodes a projection of gait dynamics. It is also correspondence-free, robust to segmentation noise, and works well with low-resolution video. The method is tested on multiple data sets of varying sizes and degrees of difficulty. Performance is best for fronto-parallel viewpoints, whereby a recognition rate of 98% is achieved for a data set of 6 people, and 70% for a data set of 54 people.

  10. Research on gait-based human identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Youguo

    Gait recognition refers to automatic identification of individual based on his/her style of walking. This paper proposes a gait recognition method based on Continuous Hidden Markov Model with Mixture of Gaussians(G-CHMM). First, we initialize a Gaussian mix model for training image sequence with K-means algorithm, then train the HMM parameters using a Baum-Welch algorithm. These gait feature sequences can be trained and obtain a Continuous HMM for every person, therefore, the 7 key frames and the obtained HMM can represent each person's gait sequence. Finally, the recognition is achieved by Front algorithm. The experiments made on CASIA gait databases obtain comparatively high correction identification ratio and comparatively strong robustness for variety of bodily angle.

  11. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) reduces the cost of performing a cognitive task on gait and postural control

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junhong; Hao, Ying; Wang, Ye; Jor’dan, Azizah; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing; Manor, Brad

    2014-01-01

    This proof-of-concept, double-blind study is designed to determine the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the “cost” of performing a secondary cognitive task on gait and postural control in healthy young adults. Twenty adults aged 22±2yrs completed two separate double-blind visits in which gait and postural control were assessed immediately before and after a 20-minute session of either real or sham tDCS (1.5 mA) targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Gait speed and stride duration variability, along with standing postural sway speed and area, were recorded under normal conditions and while simultaneously performing a serial-subtraction cognitive task. Dual task cost was calculated as the percent change in each outcome from normal to dual task conditions. tDCS was well-tolerated by all subjects. Stimulation did not alter gait or postural control under normal conditions. As compared to sham stimulation, real tDCS led to increased gait speed (p=0.006), as well as decreased standing postural sway speed (p=0.01) and area (p=0.01), when performing serial-subtraction task. Real tDCS also diminished (p<0.01) the dual task cost on each of these outcomes. No effects of tDCS were observed for stride duration variability. A single session of tDCS targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex improved the ability to adapt one’s gait and postural control to a concurrent cognitive task and reduced the cost normally associated with such dual tasking. These results highlight the involvement of cortical brain networks in gait and posture control, and implicate the modulation of prefrontal cortical excitability as a potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:24443958

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces the cost of performing a cognitive task on gait and postural control.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junhong; Hao, Ying; Wang, Ye; Jor'dan, Azizah; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing; Manor, Brad

    2014-04-01

    This proof-of-concept, double-blind study was designed to determine the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the 'cost' of performing a secondary cognitive task on gait and postural control in healthy young adults. Twenty adults aged 22 ± 2 years completed two separate double-blind visits in which gait and postural control were assessed immediately before and after a 20 min session of either real or sham tDCS (1.5 mA) targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Gait speed and stride duration variability, along with standing postural sway speed and area, were recorded under normal conditions and while simultaneously performing a serial-subtraction cognitive task. The dual task cost was calculated as the percent change in each outcome from normal to dual task conditions. tDCS was well tolerated by all subjects. Stimulation did not alter gait or postural control under normal conditions. As compared with sham stimulation, real tDCS led to increased gait speed (P = 0.006), as well as decreased standing postural sway speed (P = 0.01) and area (P = 0.01), when performing the serial-subtraction task. Real tDCS also diminished (P < 0.01) the dual task cost on each of these outcomes. No effects of tDCS were observed for stride duration variability. A single session of tDCS targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex improved the ability to adapt gait and postural control to a concurrent cognitive task and reduced the cost normally associated with such dual tasking. These results highlight the involvement of cortical brain networks in gait and postural control, and implicate the modulation of prefrontal cortical excitability as a potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:24443958

  13. The Use of a Trained Dog as a Gait Aid for Clients with Ataxia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Janelle, Caroline; Vocos, Maria

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To illustrate the use of a trained dog as a therapeutic tool to optimize physical and psychosocial adaptation of clients with ataxia. Method: The gait pattern and gait speed of two people with cerebellar ataxia using different gait aids, including a trained intervention dog and an assistance dog, were compared. Participants' experience of working with the dogs was documented via semi-structured interviews. Results: The use of an intervention dog as part of rehabilitation allowed clients to explore the benefits of an assistance dog and to optimize their physical functioning. The assistance dog had a less destabilizing effect than other walking aids on the clients' self-image. Conclusion: Trained dogs may represent an innovative and positive alternative for mobility for people with ataxia, improving both physical and psychosocial parameters. Assistance dogs seem to be a suitable gait aid, since they facilitate ambulation, promoting independent mobility. PMID:24719506

  14. Gait Kinematic Analysis in Water Using Wearable Inertial Magnetic Sensors.

    PubMed

    Fantozzi, Silvia; Giovanardi, Andrea; Borra, Davide; Gatta, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Walking is one of the fundamental motor tasks executed during aquatic therapy. Previous kinematics analyses conducted using waterproofed video cameras were limited to the sagittal plane and to only one or two consecutive steps. Furthermore, the set-up and post-processing are time-consuming and thus do not allow a prompt assessment of the correct execution of the movements during the aquatic session therapy. The aim of the present study was to estimate the 3D joint kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax-pelvis joints in sagittal and frontal planes during underwater walking using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors. Eleven healthy adults were measured during walking both in shallow water and in dry-land conditions. Eight wearable inertial and magnetic sensors were inserted in waterproofed boxes and fixed to the body segments by means of elastic modular bands. A validated protocol (Outwalk) was used. Gait cycles were automatically segmented and selected if relevant intraclass correlation coefficients values were higher than 0.75. A total of 704 gait cycles for the lower limb joints were normalized in time and averaged to obtain the mean cycle of each joint, among participants. The mean speed in water was 40% lower than that of the dry-land condition. Longer stride duration and shorter stride distance were found in the underwater walking. In the sagittal plane, the knee was more flexed (≈ 23°) and the ankle more dorsiflexed (≈ 9°) at heel strike, and the hip was more flexed at toe-off (≈ 13°) in water than on land. On the frontal plane in the underwater walking, smoother joint angle patterns were observed for thorax-pelvis and hip, and ankle was more inversed at toe-off (≈ 7°) and showed a more inversed mean value (≈ 7°). The results were mainly explained by the effect of the speed in the water as supported by the linear mixed models analysis performed. Thus, it seemed that the combination of speed and environment triggered modifications in the

  15. Gait Kinematic Analysis in Water Using Wearable Inertial Magnetic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Fantozzi, Silvia; Giovanardi, Andrea; Borra, Davide; Gatta, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Walking is one of the fundamental motor tasks executed during aquatic therapy. Previous kinematics analyses conducted using waterproofed video cameras were limited to the sagittal plane and to only one or two consecutive steps. Furthermore, the set-up and post-processing are time-consuming and thus do not allow a prompt assessment of the correct execution of the movements during the aquatic session therapy. The aim of the present study was to estimate the 3D joint kinematics of the lower limbs and thorax-pelvis joints in sagittal and frontal planes during underwater walking using wearable inertial and magnetic sensors. Eleven healthy adults were measured during walking both in shallow water and in dry-land conditions. Eight wearable inertial and magnetic sensors were inserted in waterproofed boxes and fixed to the body segments by means of elastic modular bands. A validated protocol (Outwalk) was used. Gait cycles were automatically segmented and selected if relevant intraclass correlation coefficients values were higher than 0.75. A total of 704 gait cycles for the lower limb joints were normalized in time and averaged to obtain the mean cycle of each joint, among participants. The mean speed in water was 40% lower than that of the dry-land condition. Longer stride duration and shorter stride distance were found in the underwater walking. In the sagittal plane, the knee was more flexed (≈ 23°) and the ankle more dorsiflexed (≈ 9°) at heel strike, and the hip was more flexed at toe-off (≈ 13°) in water than on land. On the frontal plane in the underwater walking, smoother joint angle patterns were observed for thorax-pelvis and hip, and ankle was more inversed at toe-off (≈ 7°) and showed a more inversed mean value (≈ 7°). The results were mainly explained by the effect of the speed in the water as supported by the linear mixed models analysis performed. Thus, it seemed that the combination of speed and environment triggered modifications in the

  16. Estimation of Spatial-Temporal Gait Parameters Using a Low-Cost Ultrasonic Motion Analysis System

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yongbin; Soh, Cheong Boon; Gunawan, Erry; Low, Kay-Soon; Thomas, Rijil

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a low-cost motion analysis system using a wireless ultrasonic sensor network is proposed and investigated. A methodology has been developed to extract spatial-temporal gait parameters including stride length, stride duration, stride velocity, stride cadence, and stride symmetry from 3D foot displacements estimated by the combination of spherical positioning technique and unscented Kalman filter. The performance of this system is validated against a camera-based system in the laboratory with 10 healthy volunteers. Numerical results show the feasibility of the proposed system with average error of 2.7% for all the estimated gait parameters. The influence of walking speed on the measurement accuracy of proposed system is also evaluated. Statistical analysis demonstrates its capability of being used as a gait assessment tool for some medical applications. PMID:25140636

  17. Analysing gait using a force-measuring walkway: intrasession repeatability in healthy children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Louis-Nicolas; Ballaz, Laurent; Robert, Maxime; Lemay, Martin; Rauch, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the repeatability of gait parameters measured by a force plate gait analysis system (Leonardo Mechanograph(®) GW) in healthy children. Nineteen healthy children and adolescents (age range: 7-17 years) walked at a self-selected speed on an 11-m-long walkway. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured in the central 6 m of the walkway. Each participant performed three blocks of three trials while walking barefoot and three blocks of three trials while wearing shoes. There were no differences between trials within each condition. All force and spatiotemporal parameters had intraclass correlation coefficients above 0.87 and coefficients of variation in the order of 1-6%. In this group of healthy children and adolescents, gait analysis with a force plate system produced repeatable intra-day results. PMID:23360226

  18. High-level gait and balance disorders in the elderly: a midbrain disease?

    PubMed

    Demain, Adèle; Westby, G W Max; Fernandez-Vidal, Sara; Karachi, Carine; Bonneville, Fabrice; Do, Manh Cuong; Delmaire, Christine; Dormont, Didier; Bardinet, Eric; Agid, Yves; Chastan, Nathalie; Welter, Marie-Laure

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of gait and balance disorders in elderly people with 'higher level gait disorders' (HLGD) is poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to identify the brain networks involved in this disorder. Standardised clinical scores, biomechanical parameters of gait initiation and brain imaging data, including deep white matter lesions (DWML) and brain voxel-based morphometry analyses, were assessed in 20 HLGD patients in comparison to 20 age-matched controls. In comparison to controls, HLGD patients presented a near-normal preparatory phase of gait initiation, but a severe alteration of both locomotor and postural parameters of first-step execution, which was related to 'axial' hypokinetic-rigid signs. HLGD patients showed a significant grey matter reduction in the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and the left primary motor cortex. This midbrain atrophy was related to the severity of clinical and neurophysiologically determined balance deficits. HLGD patients also showed a reduction in speed of gait, related to 'appendicular' hypokinetic-rigid signs and frontal-lobe-like cognitive deficits. These last two symptoms were correlated with the severity of DWML, found in 12/20 HLGD patients. In conclusion, these data suggest that the gait and balance deficits in HLGD mainly result from the lesion or dysfunction of the network linking the primary motor cortex and the MLR, brain regions known to be involved in the control of gait and balance, whereas cognitive and 'appendicular' hypokinetic-rigid signs mainly result from DWML that could be responsible for a dysfunction of the frontal cortico-basal ganglia loops. PMID:24202784

  19. Strength and Speed Training for Elders With Mobility Disability

    PubMed Central

    Protas, Elizabeth J.; Tissier, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot test a function-focused exercise intervention consisting of strength and gait-speed training in elders with reduced walking speed, decreased walking endurance, and functional impairment. Twelve participants, 77.2 years old (± 7.34), whose usual gait speed was <0.85 m/s, with walking endurance of <305 m in 5 min, and who were functionally impaired participated in a moderate-intensity exercise intervention. The training occurred 3 times per week, 75 min per session, for 3 months and combined 4 weeks of gait-speed training, walking exercise, and functional strengthening. The participants demonstrated mean usual gait speeds (≥1.0 m/s), endurance (≥350 m), and functional ability (≥10 score on performance battery) that were within normal limits after 12 weeks of training. Fastest gait speed (≥1.5 m/s) and muscle strength also improved significantly. Improvements were maintained during follow-up testing after 3–6 months. In summary, a 12-week intervention for frail, mobility-disabled participants led to improvements in walking, function, and strength. PMID:19799099

  20. The effects of a suspended-load backpack on gait.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Hsiang, Simon M; Mirka, Gary A

    2009-01-01

    A suspended-load backpack is a device that is designed to capture the mechanical energy created as a suspended backpack load oscillates vertically on the back during gait. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a suspended-load backpack system on selected temporal and kinetics parameters describing gait. Nine male participants carried a suspended-load backpack as they walked on an instrumented treadmill with varied levels of load (no backpack, 22.5 kg, and 29.3 kg) and walking speed (1.16 m/s, 1.43 m/s, 1.70 m/s). As the participants performed this treadmill task, ground reaction forces were collected from an instrumented treadmill system. From these data, temporal variables (cycle time, single support time, and double support time) and kinetic variables (normalized weight acceptance force, normalized push-off force, and normalized mid-stance force) were derived. The results showed that the response of the temporal variables were consistent with previous studies of conventional (i.e. stable load) backpacks. The response of the normalized push-off force, however, showed that increasing walking speed significantly (p<0.05) decreased the magnitude of this force, a result contrary to the literature concerning conventional backpacks where this force has been shown to significantly increase. Further evaluation revealed that this reduction in force was the result of a phase shift between the movement of the carried load and the movement of the torso. This suggests that the motion of the load in a suspended-load backpack influences the gait biomechanics and should be considered as this technology advances. PMID:18693016

  1. Spatio-temporal gait analysis in children with cerebral palsy using, foot-worn inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Brégou Bourgeois, A; Mariani, B; Aminian, K; Zambelli, P Y; Newman, C J

    2014-01-01

    A child's natural gait pattern may be affected by the gait laboratory environment. Wearable devices using body-worn sensors have been developed for gait analysis. The purpose of this study was to validate and explore the use of foot-worn inertial sensors for the measurement of selected spatio-temporal parameters, based on the 3D foot trajectory, in independently walking children with cerebral palsy (CP). We performed a case control study with 14 children with CP aged 6-15 years old and 15 age-matched controls. Accuracy and precision of the foot-worn device were measured using an optical motion capture system as the reference system. Mean accuracy ± precision for both groups was 3.4 ± 4.6 cm for stride length, 4.3 ± 4.2 cm/s for speed and 0.5 ± 2.9° for strike angle. Longer stance and shorter swing phases with an increase in double support were observed in children with CP (p=0.001). Stride length, speed and peak angular velocity during swing were decreased in paretic limbs, with significant differences in strike and lift-off angles. Children with cerebral palsy showed significantly higher inter-stride variability (measured by their coefficient of variation) for speed, stride length, swing and stance. During turning trajectories speed and stride length decreased significantly (p<0.01) for both groups, whereas stance increased significantly (p<0.01) in CP children only. Foot-worn inertial sensors allowed us to analyze gait spatiotemporal data outside a laboratory environment with good accuracy and precision and congruent results with what is known of gait variations during linear walking in children with CP. PMID:24044970

  2. Associations between prefrontal cortex activation and H-reflex modulation during dual task gait

    PubMed Central

    Meester, Daan; Al-Yahya, Emad; Dawes, Helen; Martin-Fagg, Penny; Piñon, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Walking, although a largely automatic process, is controlled by the cortex and the spinal cord with corrective reflexes modulated through integration of neural signals from central and peripheral inputs at supraspinal level throughout the gait cycle. In this study we used an additional cognitive task to interfere with the automatic processing during walking in order to explore the neural mechanisms involved in healthy young adults. Participants were asked to walk on a treadmill at two speeds, both with and without additional cognitive load. We evaluated the impact of speed and cognitive load by analyzing activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) alongside spinal cord reflex activity measured by soleus H-reflex amplitude and gait changes obtained by using an inertial measuring unit. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that fNIRS Oxy-Hb concentrations significantly increased in the PFC with dual task (walking while performing a cognitive task) compared to a single task (walking only; p < 0.05). PFC activity was unaffected by increases of walking speed. H-reflex amplitude and gait variables did not change in response to either dual task or increases in walking speed. When walking under additional cognitive load participants adapted by using greater activity in the PFC, but this adaptation did not detrimentally affect H-reflex amplitude or gait variables. Our findings suggest that in a healthy young population central mechanisms (PFC) are activated in response to cognitive loads but that H-reflex activity and gait performance can successfully be maintained. This study provides insights into the mechanisms behind healthy individuals safely performing dual task walking. PMID:24600375

  3. History of falls, gait, balance, and fall risks in older cancer survivors living in the community.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min H; Shilling, Tracy; Miller, Kara A; Smith, Kristin; LaVictoire, Kayle

    2015-01-01

    Older cancer survivors may be predisposed to falls because cancer-related sequelae affect virtually all body systems. The use of a history of falls, gait speed, and balance tests to assess fall risks remains to be investigated in this population. This study examined the relationship of previous falls, gait, and balance with falls in community-dwelling older cancer survivors. At the baseline, demographics, health information, and the history of falls in the past year were obtained through interviewing. Participants performed tests including gait speed, Balance Evaluation Systems Test, and short-version of Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. Falls were tracked by mailing of monthly reports for 6 months. A "faller" was a person with ≥1 fall during follow-up. Univariate analyses, including independent sample t-tests and Fisher's exact tests, compared baseline demographics, gait speed, and balance between fallers and non-fallers. For univariate analyses, Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. Baseline variables with P<0.15 were included in a forward logistic regression model to identify factors predictive of falls with age as covariate. Sensitivity and specificity of each predictor of falls in the model were calculated. Significance level for the regression analysis was P<0.05. During follow-up, 59% of participants had one or more falls. Baseline demographics, health information, history of falls, gaits speed, and balance tests did not differ significantly between fallers and non-fallers. Forward logistic regression revealed that a history of falls was a significant predictor of falls in the final model (odds ratio =6.81; 95% confidence interval =1.594-29.074) (P<0.05). Sensitivity and specificity for correctly identifying a faller using the positive history of falls were 74% and 69%, respectively. Current findings suggested that for community-dwelling older cancer survivors with mixed diagnoses, asking about the history of falls may

  4. Lower Extremity Functional Electrical Stimulation During Inpatient Rehabilitation: A Pilot Study Investigating Gait and Muscle Activity in Persons With Stroke or Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lairamore, Chad I.; Garrison, Mark K.; Bourgeon, Laetitia; Mennemeier, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of functional electrical stimulation for improving gait and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle activity in individuals with stroke or brain injury who were enrolled in an inpatient rehabilitation program. Twenty-six individuals, 2-33 days post injury, were randomly assigned to an experimental group or control group. No significant differences were observed between groups at the conclusion of the study as both groups achieved similar improvements in gait speed, TA muscle activity, and FIM™ locomotion scores. This single site study found a low dose of gait training sessions with single channel FES did not augment gait nor EMG activity beyond gait training with sham stimulation. PMID:25153616

  5. Knee osteoarthritis affects the distribution of joint moments during gait.

    PubMed

    Zeni, Joseph A; Higginson, Jill S

    2011-06-01

    Alterations in lower extremity kinetics have been shown to exist in persons with knee osteoarthritis (OA), however few investigations have examined how the intersegmental coordination of the lower extremity kinetic chain varies in the presence of knee joint pathology. The objective of this study was to evaluate how knee OA and walking speed affect total support moment and individual joint contributions to the total support moment. Fifteen healthy subjects and 30 persons with knee OA participated in 3D walking analysis at constrained (1.0 m/s), self-selected and fastest tolerable walking speeds. Individual joint contributions to total support moment were analyzed using separate ANOVAs with one repeated measure (walking speed). Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between walking speed and joint contribution. Persons with knee OA reduced the contribution of the knee joint when walking at constrained (p = 0.04) and self-selected walking speeds (p = 0.009). There was a significant increase in the ankle contribution and a significant decrease in the hip contribution when walking speed was increased (p < 0.004), however individual walking speeds were not significantly related to joint contributions. This suggests that the relationship between walking speed and joint contribution is dependent on the individual's control strategy and we cannot estimate the joint contribution solely based on walking speed. The slower gait speed observed in persons with knee OA is not responsible for the reduction in knee joint moments, rather this change is likely due to alterations in the neuromuscular strategy of the lower extremity kinetic chain in response to joint pain or muscle weakness. PMID:20510618

  6. Effects of robotic gait rehabilitation on biomechanical parameters in the chronic hemiplegic patients.

    PubMed

    Wallard, L; Dietrich, G; Kerlirzin, Y; Bredin, J

    2015-09-01

    Hemiplegia is a more or less complete loss of hemibody voluntary motricity following a brain injury, usually resulting in alterations of the locomotor system with persistent disorders of movement and posture. We were interested in studying the gait pattern called "stiff knee gait" with the main objective to highlight the role of a robotic rehabilitation in improving or modifying/changing the walking pattern in adults with chronic hemiplegic disorders. Data were collected by a motion analysis system (Vicon(®)--Oxford Metrics, Oxford, UK) in order to achieve a Clinical Gait Analysis before and after a robotic gait rehabilitation (Lokomat(®)). Four intensive sessions per weeks during five weeks were performed by ten chronic hemiplegic adults. The results show a significant improvement in locomotor parameters (walking speed, step length, single and double support time) and in the knee kinematics. This first study provides experimental evidence of the importance and usefulness of the robotic rehabilitation as an aid in the rehabilitation of gait pattern in adults with chronic hemiplegia. PMID:26381192

  7. Unifying the Gait Cycle in the Control of a Powered Prosthetic Leg

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Anne E.; Gregg, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel control strategy for an above-knee powered prosthetic leg that unifies the entire gait cycle, eliminating the need to switch between controllers during different periods of gait. Current control methods divide the gait cycle into several sequential periods each with independent controllers, resulting in many patient-specific control parameters and switching rules that must be tuned by clinicians. Having a single controller could reduce the number of control parameters to be tuned for each patient, thereby reducing the clinical time and effort involved in fitting a powered prosthesis for a lower-limb amputee. Using the Discrete Fourier Transformation, a single virtual constraint is derived that exactly characterizes the desired actuated joint motion over the entire gait cycle. Because the virtual constraint is defined as a periodic function of a monotonically increasing phase variable, no switching or resetting is necessary within or across gait cycles. The output function is zeroed using feedback linearization to produce a single, unified controller. The method is illustrated with simulations of a powered knee-ankle prosthesis in an amputee biped model and with examples of systematically generated output functions for different walking speeds. PMID:26913092

  8. Gait in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: kinematics and electromyographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahaudens, P; Banse, X; Mousny, M; Detrembleur, C

    2009-04-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a progressive growth disease that affects spinal anatomy, mobility, and left-right trunk symmetry. Consequently, AIS can modify human locomotion. Very few studies have investigated a simple activity like walking in a cohort of well-defined untreated patients with scoliosis. The first goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of scoliosis and scoliosis severity on kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) gait variables compared to an able-bodied population. The second goal is to look for any asymmetry in these parameters during walking. Thirteen healthy girls and 41 females with untreated AIS, with left thoracolumbar or lumbar primary structural curves were assessed. AIS patients were divided into three clinical subgroups (group 1 < 20 degrees, group 2 between 20 and 40 degrees, and group 3 > 40 degrees). Gait analysis included synchronous bilateral kinematic and EMG measurements. The subjects walked on a treadmill at 4 km/h (comfortable speed). The tridimensional (3D) shoulder, pelvis, and lower limb motions were measured using 22 reflective markers tracked by four infrared cameras. The EMG timing activity was measured using bipolar surface electrodes on quadratus lumborum, erector spinae, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius muscles. Statistical comparisons (ANOVA) were performed across groups and sides for kinematic and EMG parameters. The step length was reduced in AIS compared to normal subjects (7% less). Frontal shoulder, pelvis, and hip motion and transversal hip motion were reduced in scoliosis patients (respectively, 21, 27, 28, and 22% less). The EMG recording during walking showed that the quadratus lumborum, erector spinae, gluteus medius, and semitendinosus muscles contracted during a longer part of the stride in scoliotic patients (46% of the stride) compared with normal subjects (35% of the stride). There was no significant difference between scoliosis groups 1

  9. Effects of Physical Rehabilitation Integrated with Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation on Spatio-Temporal and Kinematic Parameters of Gait in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Pau, Massimiliano; Corona, Federica; Pili, Roberta; Casula, Carlo; Sors, Fabrizio; Agostini, Tiziano; Cossu, Giovanni; Guicciardi, Marco; Murgia, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Movement rehabilitation by means of physical therapy represents an essential tool in the management of gait disturbances induced by Parkinson's disease (PD). In this context, the use of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) has been proven useful in improving several spatio-temporal parameters, but concerning its effect on gait patterns, scarce information is available from a kinematic viewpoint. In this study, we used three-dimensional gait analysis based on optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry to investigate the effects of 5 weeks of supervised rehabilitation, which included gait training integrated with RAS on 26 individuals affected by PD (age 70.4 ± 11.1, Hoehn and Yahr 1-3). Gait kinematics was assessed before and at the end of the rehabilitation period and after a 3-month follow-up, using concise measures (Gait Profile Score and Gait Variable Score, GPS and GVS, respectively), which are able to describe the deviation from a physiologic gait pattern. The results confirm the effectiveness of gait training assisted by RAS in increasing speed and stride length, in regularizing cadence and correctly reweighting swing/stance phase duration. Moreover, an overall improvement of gait quality was observed, as demonstrated by the significant reduction of the GPS value, which was created mainly through significant decreases in the GVS score associated with the hip flexion-extension movement. Future research should focus on investigating kinematic details to better understand the mechanisms underlying gait disturbances in people with PD and the effects of RAS, with the aim of finding new or improving current rehabilitative treatments. PMID:27563296

  10. Effects of Physical Rehabilitation Integrated with Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation on Spatio-Temporal and Kinematic Parameters of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pau, Massimiliano; Corona, Federica; Pili, Roberta; Casula, Carlo; Sors, Fabrizio; Agostini, Tiziano; Cossu, Giovanni; Guicciardi, Marco; Murgia, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Movement rehabilitation by means of physical therapy represents an essential tool in the management of gait disturbances induced by Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this context, the use of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) has been proven useful in improving several spatio-temporal parameters, but concerning its effect on gait patterns, scarce information is available from a kinematic viewpoint. In this study, we used three-dimensional gait analysis based on optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry to investigate the effects of 5 weeks of supervised rehabilitation, which included gait training integrated with RAS on 26 individuals affected by PD (age 70.4 ± 11.1, Hoehn and Yahr 1–3). Gait kinematics was assessed before and at the end of the rehabilitation period and after a 3-month follow-up, using concise measures (Gait Profile Score and Gait Variable Score, GPS and GVS, respectively), which are able to describe the deviation from a physiologic gait pattern. The results confirm the effectiveness of gait training assisted by RAS in increasing speed and stride length, in regularizing cadence and correctly reweighting swing/stance phase duration. Moreover, an overall improvement of gait quality was observed, as demonstrated by the significant reduction of the GPS value, which was created mainly through significant decreases in the GVS score associated with the hip flexion–extension movement. Future research should focus on investigating kinematic details to better understand the mechanisms underlying gait disturbances in people with PD and the effects of RAS, with the aim of finding new or improving current rehabilitative treatments. PMID:27563296

  11. Motor Learning Versus StandardWalking Exercise in Older Adults with Subclinical Gait Dysfunction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Brach, Jennifer S.; Van Swearingen, Jessie M.; Perera, Subashan; Wert, David M.; Studenski, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Background Current exercise recommendationsfocus on endurance and strength, but rarely incorporate principles of motor learning. Motor learning exerciseis designed to address neurological aspects of movement. Motor learning exercise has not been evaluated in older adults with subclinical gait dysfunction. Objectives Tocompare motor learning versus standard exercise on measures of mobility and perceived function and disability. Design Single-blind randomized trial. Setting University research center. Participants Olderadults (n=40), mean age 77.1±6.0 years), who had normal walking speed (≥1.0 m/s) and impaired motor skill (Figure of 8 walk time > 8 s). Interventions The motor learning program (ML) incorporated goal-oriented stepping and walking to promote timing and coordination within the phases of the gait cycle. The standard program (S) employed endurance training by treadmill walking.Both included strength training and were offered twice weekly for one hour for 12 weeks. Measurements Primary outcomes included mobility performance (gait efficiency, motor skill in walking, gait speed, and walking endurance)and secondary outcomes included perceived function and disability (Late Life Function and Disability Instrument). Results 38 of 40 participants completed the trial (ML, n=18; S, n=20). ML improved more than Sin gait speed (0.13 vs. 0.05 m/s, p=0.008) and motor skill (−2.2 vs. −0.89 s, p<0.0001). Both groups improved in walking endurance (28.3 and 22.9m, but did not differ significantly p=0.14). Changes in gait efficiency and perceived function and disability were not different between the groups (p>0.10). Conclusion In older adults with subclinical gait dysfunction, motor learning exercise improved some parameters of mobility performance more than standard exercise. PMID:24219189

  12. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Enhance Dual-Task Gait Training in Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot RCT

    PubMed Central

    Schabrun, Siobhan M.; Lamont, Robyn M.; Brauer, Sandra G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility and safety of a combined anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and dual task gait training intervention in people with Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and to provide data to support a sample size calculation for a fully powered trial should trends of effectiveness be present. Design A pilot, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled parallel group trial with 12 week follow-up. Setting A university physiotherapy department. Interventions Sixteen participants diagnosed with PD received nine dual task gait training sessions over 3 weeks. Participants were randomized to receive either active or sham tDCS applied for the first 20 minutes of each session. Main Measures The primary outcome was gait speed while undertaking concurrent cognitive tasks (word lists, counting, conversation). Secondary measures included step length, cadence, Timed Up and Go, bradykinesia and motor speed. Results Gait speed, step length and cadence improved in both groups, under all dual task conditions. This effect was maintained at follow-up. There was no difference between the active and sham tDCS groups. Time taken to perform the TUGwords also improved, with no difference between groups. The active tDCS group did however increase their correct cognitive response rate during the TUGwords and TUGcount. Bradykinesia improved after training in both groups. Conclusion Three weeks of dual task gait training resulted in improved gait under dual task conditions, and bradykinesia, immediately following training and at 12 weeks follow-up. The only parameter enhanced by tDCS was the number of correct responses while performing the dual task TUG. tDCS applied to M1 may not be an effective adjunct to dual task gait training in PD. Trial Registration Australia-New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613001093774 PMID:27359338

  13. Gait characteristics of patients with phobic postural vertigo: effects of fear of falling, attention, and visual input.

    PubMed

    Schniepp, Roman; Wuehr, Max; Huth, Sabrina; Pradhan, Cauchy; Brandt, Thomas; Jahn, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    Phobic postural vertigo (PPV) is the most common cause of chronic dizziness in middle-aged patients. Many patients report symptoms involving gait. We investigated the gait performance and its relationship to the fear of falling and attention of PPV patients in a prospective study of 24 patients with PPV and 24 healthy subjects (HS) using a pressure-sensitive mat (GAITRite(®)). Subjects walked at three different speeds (slow, preferred, fast), both during cognitive dual tasks (DTc) and with eyes closed (EC). Falls efficacy and balance confidence were rated by the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC). PPV patients walked slower, with reduced cadence (all p < 0.01), stride length (p < 0.05), and increased double support (p < 0.01) compared to HS. These changes correlated with FES-I (R = -0.528, p < 0.001) and ABC (R = 0.481, p < 0.01). Walking deterioration under DTc did not differ between PPV patients and HS, but patients showed a reduced cognitive processing speed (p < 0.05). When walking with EC, gait speed decreased more in PPV patients compared to HS (p < 0.05). Patients with PPV show gait changes which correlate with their fear of falling and balance confidence. Absent visual feedback leads to more pronounced gait deteriorations in PPV patients than in HS, indicating a higher reliance of patients on visual information during walking. These findings support the view that the gait characteristics of PPV can be attributed to an inadequate, cautious gait control. PMID:24519356

  14. Assessment of transmission in specific descending pathways in relation to gait and balance following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lundell, Henrik; Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Human bipedal gait requires supraspinal control and gait is consequently severely impaired in most persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Little is known of the contribution of lesion of specific descending pathways to the clinical manifestations of gait deficits. Here, we assessed transmission in descending pathways using imaging and electrophysiological techniques and correlated them with clinical measures of impaired gait in persons with SCI. Twenty-five persons with SCI participated in the study. Functional assessment of gait included the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI), the Timed-Up and Go (TUG), the 6-Min Walking Test (6MWT), and the maximal treadmill gait speed. Balance was evaluated clinically by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). The amplitude of tibialis anterior (TA) motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) at rest elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation as a measure of corticospinal transmission showed a moderately good correlation with all clinical measures (r(2)~0.5), whereas the latency of the MEPs showed less good correlation (r(2)~0.35). Interestingly, the MEP amplitude was correlated to atrophy in the ventrolateral rather than the dorsolateral section of the spinal cord where the main part of the corticospinal tract is located. TA intramuscular coherence in the beta and gamma frequency range has been suggested to reflect corticospinal transmission and was, consistent with this, found to be correlated to atrophy in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral sections of the spinal cord. Coherence was found to correlate to all clinical measures to the same extent as the MEP amplitude. The latency and duration of medium-latency responses in the soleus muscle to galvanic stimulation as measures of vestibulospinal transmission showed very good correlation to BBS (r(2)=-0.8) and moderately good correlation to the assessments of gait function (r(2)~0.4). 6MWT and gait speed were correlated to atrophy of the lateral sections of the spinal cord bilaterally

  15. Kinematic and behavioral evidence for a distinction between trotting and ambling gaits in the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis.

    PubMed

    Bender, John A; Simpson, Elaine M; Tietz, Brian R; Daltorio, Kathryn A; Quinn, Roger D; Ritzmann, Roy E

    2011-06-15

    Earlier observations had suggested that cockroaches might show multiple patterns of leg coordination, or gaits, but these were not followed by detailed behavioral or kinematic measurements that would allow a definite conclusion. We measured the walking speeds of cockroaches exploring a large arena and found that the body movements tended to cluster at one of two preferred speeds, either very slow (<10 cm s(-1)) or fairly fast (∼30 cm s(-1)). To highlight the neural control of walking leg movements, we experimentally reduced the mechanical coupling among the various legs by tethering the animals and allowing them to walk in place on a lightly oiled glass plate. Under these conditions, the rate of stepping was bimodal, clustering at fast and slow speeds. We next used high-speed videos to extract three-dimensional limb and joint kinematics for each segment of all six legs. The angular excursions and three-dimensional motions of the leg joints over the course of a stride were variable, but had different distributions in each gait. The change in gait occurs at a Froude number of ∼0.4, a speed scale at which a wide variety of animals show a transition between walking and trotting. We conclude that cockroaches do have multiple gaits, with corresponding implications for the collection and interpretation of data on the neural control of locomotion. PMID:21613522

  16. Gait parameters associated with balance in healthy 2- to 4-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Guffey, Keegan; Regier, Michael; Mancinelli, Corrie; Pergami, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The use of validated measurements of gait and balance are crucial to establish baseline function and assess effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Gait in children changes with motor development requiring frequent observations to effectively track progress. Standardized baseline spatiotemporal measurements and a greater understanding of the relationship between gait and balance would provide important feedback to clinicians regarding the effectiveness of rehabilitation and guide treatment modifications. 84 subjects (2.0-4.9 years) walked along the GAITRite(®), a walkway that records spatiotemporal parameters. The Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) was administered to assess balance. Comparison of spatiotemporal parameter means between age groups showed trends associated with motor development similar to the ones described in the literature such as decreased cadence and increased step/stride length with increasing age. However, no significant differences in normalized spatiotemporal parameters were found between age groups. Age, leg length, cadence, step/stride length, step/stance time, and single/double support time showed significant correlation with balance scores. When the parameters were grouped into spatial, temporal, and age-related components using principal components analysis and included in a multiple regression model, they significantly predicted 51% of the balance score variance. Age-related components most strongly predicted balance outcomes. We suggest that balance can potentially be evaluated by assessment of spatial, temporal, and age-related characteristics of gait such as step length, cadence, and leg length. This suggests the possibility of developing new gait measurement technology that could provide functional assessment and track improvements during rehabilitation regimens. If the same model can be applied to monitor treatment efficacy in children with gait abnormalities remains to be addressed. PMID:26439183

  17. Gait recognition based on Gabor wavelets and modified gait energy image for human identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Deng-Yuan; Lin, Ta-Wei; Hu, Wu-Chih; Cheng, Chih-Hsiang

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a method for recognizing human identity using gait features based on Gabor wavelets and modified gait energy images (GEIs). Identity recognition by gait generally involves gait representation, extraction, and classification. In this work, a modified GEI convolved with an ensemble of Gabor wavelets is proposed as a gait feature. Principal component analysis is then used to project the Gabor-wavelet-based gait features into a lower-dimension feature space for subsequent classification. Finally, support vector machine classifiers based on a radial basis function kernel are trained and utilized to recognize human identity. The major contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) the consideration of the shadow effect to yield a more complete segmentation of gait silhouettes; (2) the utilization of motion estimation to track people when walkers overlap; and (3) the derivation of modified GEIs to extract more useful gait information. Extensive performance evaluation shows a great improvement of recognition accuracy due to the use of shadow removal, motion estimation, and gait representation using the modified GEIs and Gabor wavelets.

  18. An investigation of gait in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: a case controlled study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Nicole; McGinley, Jennifer L; Bradshaw, John L; Rinehart, Nicole J

    2014-08-30

    This study aimed to compare the gait of children with ADHD - Combined Type (ADHD-CT) to typically developing (TD) children. Children with ADHD-CT (n=14; mean age 10 years 4 months) and a TD group (n=13; mean age 10 years 9 months) walked at self-selected slow, preferred and fast speed on an electronic walkway system. Participants completed a total of 15 walking trials; 5 trials per walking condition. Groups were matched on age, intellectual functioning, height and weight. In the preferred walking condition, there was no difference in spatio-temporal gait variables between the ADHD-CT and TD control groups. At self-selected fast speed, children with ADHD-CT were faster and walked with a higher cadence. The subtle alterations in gait pattern that may reflect a timing deficit is consistent with previous ADHD motor studies. In addition, this study extends previous studies in characterising the unique gait profile of non-medicated children with ADHD-CT where a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder has been ruled out. PMID:24837426

  19. Prediction of human gait parameters from temporal measures of foot-ground contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, G. A.; Whalen, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    Investigation of the influence of human physical activity on bone functional adaptation requires long-term histories of gait-related ground reaction force (GRF). Towards a simpler portable GRF measurement, we hypothesized that: 1) the reciprocal of foot-ground contact time (1/tc); or 2) the reciprocal of stride-period-normalized contact time (T/tc) predict peak vertical and horizontal GRF, loading rates, and horizontal speed during gait. GRF data were collected from 24 subjects while they walked and ran at a variety of speeds. Linear regression and ANCOVA determined the dependence of gait parameters on 1/tc and T/tc, and prediction SE. All parameters were significantly correlated to 1/tc and T/tc. The closest pooled relationship existed between peak running vertical GRF and T/tc (r2 = 0.896; SE = 3.6%) and improved with subject-specific regression (r2 = 0.970; SE = 2.2%). We conclude that temporal measures can predict force parameters of gait and may represent an alternative to direct GRF measurements for determining daily histories of habitual lower limb loading quantities necessary to quantify a bone remodeling stimulus.

  20. Gait training facilitates central drive to ankle dorsiflexors in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Tue Hvass; Farmer, Simon Francis; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    Foot drop and toe walking are frequent concerns in children with cerebral palsy. The main underlying cause of these problems is early damage and lack of maturation of the corticospinal tract. In the present study we investigated whether 4 weeks of daily treadmill training with an incline may facilitate corticospinal transmission and improve the control of the ankle joint in children with cerebral palsy. Sixteen children with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Classification System I:6, II:6, III:4) aged 5–14 years old, were recruited for the study. Evaluation of gait ability and intramuscular coherence was made twice before and twice after training with an interval of 1 month. Gait kinematics were recorded by 3D video analysis during treadmill walking with a velocity chosen by the child at the first evaluation. Foot pressure was measured by force sensitive foot soles during treadmill and over ground walking. EMG-EMG coherence was calculated from two separate electrode recordings placed over the tibialis anterior muscle. Training involved 30 min of walking daily on a treadmill with an incline for 30 days. Gait training was accompanied by significant increases in gait speed, incline on the treadmill, the maximal voluntary dorsiflexion torque, the number and amplitude of toe lifts late in the swing phase during gait and the weight exerted on the heel during the early stance phase of the gait cycle. EMG-EMG coherence in the beta and gamma frequency bands recorded from tibialis anterior muscle increased significantly when compared to coherence before training. The largest changes in coherence with training were observed for children <10 years of age. Importantly, in contrast to training-induced EMG increases, the increase in coherence was maintained at the follow-up measurement 1 month after training. Changes in the strength of coherence in the beta and gamma band were positively correlated with improvements in the subjects’ ability to lift the toes in the swing phase

  1. Powered robotic exoskeletons in post-stroke rehabilitation of gait: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Louie, Dennis R; Eng, Janice J

    2016-01-01

    Powered robotic exoskeletons are a potential intervention for gait rehabilitation in stroke to enable repetitive walking practice to maximize neural recovery. As this is a relatively new technology for stroke, a scoping review can help guide current research and propose recommendations for advancing the research development. The aim of this scoping review was to map the current literature surrounding the use of robotic exoskeletons for gait rehabilitation in adults post-stroke. Five databases (Pubmed, OVID MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials) were searched for articles from inception to October 2015. Reference lists of included articles were reviewed to identify additional studies. Articles were included if they utilized a robotic exoskeleton as a gait training intervention for adult stroke survivors and reported walking outcome measures. Of 441 records identified, 11 studies, all published within the last five years, involving 216 participants met the inclusion criteria. The study designs ranged from pre-post clinical studies (n = 7) to controlled trials (n = 4); five of the studies utilized a robotic exoskeleton device unilaterally, while six used a bilateral design. Participants ranged from sub-acute (<7 weeks) to chronic (>6 months) stroke. Training periods ranged from single-session to 8-week interventions. Main walking outcome measures were gait speed, Timed Up and Go, 6-min Walk Test, and the Functional Ambulation Category. Meaningful improvement with exoskeleton-based gait training was more apparent in sub-acute stroke compared to chronic stroke. Two of the four controlled trials showed no greater improvement in any walking outcomes compared to a control group in chronic stroke. In conclusion, clinical trials demonstrate that powered robotic exoskeletons can be used safely as a gait training intervention for stroke. Preliminary findings suggest that exoskeletal gait training is equivalent to traditional therapy

  2. Canine hip extension range during gait.

    PubMed

    van der Walt, A M; Stewart, A V; Joubert, K E; Bekker, P

    2008-12-01

    Assessment of canine gait is frequently used by veterinary clinicians to establish the presence of orthopaedic pain. As up to 30% of canine orthopaedic conditions affect the pelvic limb, knowledge of pelvic limb biomechanics during gait is very important. Previous studies have investigated the biomechanics at the tarsus and stifle, but little information is available regarding hip motion during gait. The aim of this study was to determine the maximum hip extension range achieved during the stance phase of gait in normal canines. In addition, this study aimed to determine the difference between maximum passive hip extension and maximum hip extension during gait. Using a sample of 30 morphologically similar normal dogs, mean maximum passive hip extension was measured using a goniometer and mean maximum hip extension range during gait was determined videographically. Inter- and intra-assessor reliability studies performed at the start of the study showed that the measurement tools and techniques used in this study were valid and reliable. The goniometric data showed that mean maximum passive hip extension range was 162.44 degrees (+/-3.94) with no significant difference between the left and the right hind limbs. The videographic data showed that mean maximum hip extension range during gait was 119.9 degrees (+/-9.26) with no significant difference between the left and right hind limbs. The results of this study provided reference values for active and passive hip extension range and showed that the degree of hip extension range required for normal gait is significantly less than maximum passive hip extension range. PMID:19496317

  3. Toward understanding the limits of gait recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zongyi; Malave, Laura; Osuntogun, Adebola; Sudhakar, Preksha; Sarkar, Sudeep

    2004-08-01

    Most state of the art video-based gait recognition algorithms start from binary silhouettes. These silhouettes, defined as foreground regions, are usually detected by background subtraction methods, which results in holes or missed parts due to similarity of foreground and background color, and boundary errors due to video compression artifacts. Errors in low-level representation make it hard to understand the effect of certain conditions, such as surface and time, on gait recognition. In this paper, we present a part-level, manual silhouette database consisting of 71 subjects, over one gait cycle, with differences in surface, shoe-type, carrying condition, and time. We have a total of about 11,000 manual silhouette frames. The purpose of this manual silhouette database is twofold. First, this is a resource that we make available at http://www.GaitChallenge.org for use by the gait community to test and design better silhouette detection algorithms. These silhouettes can also be used to learn gait dynamics. Second, using the baseline gait recognition algorithm, which was specified along with the HumanID Gait Challenge problem, we show that performance from manual silhouettes is similar and only sometimes better than that from automated silhouettes detected by statistical background subtraction. Low performances when comparing sequences with differences in walking surfaces and time-variation are not fully explained by silhouette quality. We also study the recognition power in each body part and show that recognition based on just the legs is equal to that from the whole silhouette. There is also significant recognition power in the head and torso shape.

  4. A wearable ground reaction force sensor system and its application to the measurement of extrinsic gait variability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Inoue, Yoshio; Shibata, Kyoko

    2010-01-01

    Wearable sensors for gait analysis are attracting wide interest. In this paper, a wearable ground reaction force (GRF) sensor system and its application to measure extrinsic gait variability are presented. To validate the GRF and centre of pressure (CoP) measurements of the sensor system and examine the effectiveness of the proposed method for gait analysis, we conducted an experimental study on seven volunteer subjects. Based on the assessment of the influence of the sensor system on natural gait, we found that no significant differences were found for almost all measured gait parameters (p-values < 0.05). As for measurement accuracy, the root mean square (RMS) differences for the two transverse components and the vertical component of the GRF were 7.2% ± 0.8% and 9.0% ± 1% of the maximum of each transverse component and 1.5% ± 0.9% of the maximum vertical component of GRF, respectively. The RMS distance between both CoP measurements was 1.4% ± 0.2% of the length of the shoe. The area of CoP distribution on the foot-plate and the average coefficient of variation of the triaxial GRF, are the introduced parameters for analysing extrinsic gait variability. Based on a statistical analysis of the results of the tests with subjects wearing the sensor system, we found that the proposed parameters changed according to walking speed and turning (p-values < 0.05). PMID:22163468

  5. Listenmee and Listenmee smartphone application: synchronizing walking to rhythmic auditory cues to improve gait in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lopez, William Omar Contreras; Higuera, Carlos Andres Escalante; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Souza, Carolina de Oliveira; Albicker, Ulrich; Martinez, Jairo Alberto Espinoza

    2014-10-01

    Evidence supports the use of rhythmic external auditory signals to improve gait in PD patients (Arias & Cudeiro, 2008; Kenyon & Thaut, 2000; McIntosh, Rice & Thaut, 1994; McIntosh et al., 1997; Morris, Iansek, & Matyas, 1994; Thaut, McIntosh, & Rice, 1997; Suteerawattananon, Morris, Etnyre, Jankovic, & Protas , 2004; Willems, Nieuwboer, Chavert, & Desloovere, 2006). However, few prototypes are available for daily use, and to our knowledge, none utilize a smartphone application allowing individualized sounds and cadence. Therefore, we analyzed the effects on gait of Listenmee®, an intelligent glasses system with a portable auditory device, and present its smartphone application, the Listenmee app®, offering over 100 different sounds and an adjustable metronome to individualize the cueing rate as well as its smartwatch with accelerometer to detect magnitude and direction of the proper acceleration, track calorie count, sleep patterns, steps count and daily distances. The present study included patients with idiopathic PD presented gait disturbances including freezing. Auditory rhythmic cues were delivered through Listenmee®. Performance was analyzed in a motion and gait analysis laboratory. The results revealed significant improvements in gait performance over three major dependent variables: walking speed in 38.1%, cadence in 28.1% and stride length in 44.5%. Our findings suggest that auditory cueing through Listenmee® may significantly enhance gait performance. Further studies are needed to elucidate the potential role and maximize the benefits of these portable devices. PMID:25215623

  6. Gait Partitioning Methods: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Taborri, Juri; Palermo, Eduardo; Rossi, Stefano; Cappa, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, gait phase partitioning has come to be a challenging research topic due to its impact on several applications related to gait technologies. A variety of sensors can be used to feed algorithms for gait phase partitioning, mainly classifiable as wearable or non-wearable. Among wearable sensors, footswitches or foot pressure insoles are generally considered as the gold standard; however, to overcome some inherent limitations of the former, inertial measurement units have become popular in recent decades. Valuable results have been achieved also though electromyography, electroneurography, and ultrasonic sensors. Non-wearable sensors, such as opto-electronic systems along with force platforms, remain the most accurate system to perform gait analysis in an indoor environment. In the present paper we identify, select, and categorize the available methodologies for gait phase detection, analyzing advantages and disadvantages of each solution. Finally, we comparatively examine the obtainable gait phase granularities, the usable computational methodologies and the optimal sensor placements on the targeted body segments. PMID:26751449

  7. Gait Recognition Using Wearable Motion Recording Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Snekkenes, Einar

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents an alternative approach, where gait is collected by the sensors attached to the person's body. Such wearable sensors record motion (e.g. acceleration) of the body parts during walking. The recorded motion signals are then investigated for person recognition purposes. We analyzed acceleration signals from the foot, hip, pocket and arm. Applying various methods, the best EER obtained for foot-, pocket-, arm- and hip- based user authentication were 5%, 7%, 10% and 13%, respectively. Furthermore, we present the results of our analysis on security assessment of gait. Studying gait-based user authentication (in case of hip motion) under three attack scenarios, we revealed that a minimal effort mimicking does not help to improve the acceptance chances of impostors. However, impostors who know their closest person in the database or the genders of the users can be a threat to gait-based authentication. We also provide some new insights toward the uniqueness of gait in case of foot motion. In particular, we revealed the following: a sideway motion of the foot provides the most discrimination, compared to an up-down or forward-backward directions; and different segments of the gait cycle provide different level of discrimination.

  8. In Vivo Gait Analysis During Bone Transport.

    PubMed

    Mora-Macías, J; Reina-Romo, E; Morgaz, J; Domínguez, J

    2015-09-01

    The load bearing characteristics of the intervened limb over time in vivo are important to know in distraction osteogenesis and bone healing for the characterization of the bone maturation process. Gait analyses were performed for a group of sheep in which bone transport was carried out. The ground reaction force was measured by means of a force platform, and the gait parameters (i.e., the peak, the mean vertical ground reaction force and the impulse) were calculated during the stance phase for each limb. The results showed that these gait parameters decreased in the intervened limb and interestingly increased in the other limbs due to the implantation of the fixator. Additionally, during the process, the gait parameters exponentially approached the values for healthy animals. Corresponding radiographies showed an increasing level of ossification in the callus. This study shows, as a preliminary approach to be confirmed with more experiments, that gait analysis could be used as an alternative method to control distraction osteogenesis or bone healing. For example, these analyses could determine the appropriate time to remove the fixator. Furthermore, gait analysis has advantages over other methods because it provides quantitative data and does not require instrumented fixators. PMID:25650097

  9. Gait Partitioning Methods: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Taborri, Juri; Palermo, Eduardo; Rossi, Stefano; Cappa, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, gait phase partitioning has come to be a challenging research topic due to its impact on several applications related to gait technologies. A variety of sensors can be used to feed algorithms for gait phase partitioning, mainly classifiable as wearable or non-wearable. Among wearable sensors, footswitches or foot pressure insoles are generally considered as the gold standard; however, to overcome some inherent limitations of the former, inertial measurement units have become popular in recent decades. Valuable results have been achieved also though electromyography, electroneurography, and ultrasonic sensors. Non-wearable sensors, such as opto-electronic systems along with force platforms, remain the most accurate system to perform gait analysis in an indoor environment. In the present paper we identify, select, and categorize the available methodologies for gait phase detection, analyzing advantages and disadvantages of each solution. Finally, we comparatively examine the obtainable gait phase granularities, the usable computational methodologies and the optimal sensor placements on the targeted body segments. PMID:26751449

  10. Footing and gait of pigs on different concrete surfaces.

    PubMed

    Applegate, A L; Curtis, S E; Groppel, J L; McFarlane, J M; Widowski, T M

    1988-02-01

    Because pigs frequently lose their footing and slip, it is important to understand slipping and its relation to different floor surfaces. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the gait and footing of young pigs walking on concrete floor surfaces having known friction characteristics and to determine critical skid resistance values in terms of the fitness of a concrete surface for flooring in pig quarters. Barrows were cinematographed with a high-speed 16-mm camera as they walked on various surfaces, and gait and footing were subsequently analyzed in motion studies. The six concrete floor test pads with different surface treatments (fine and coarse sand, fine and coarse broom, wood float and steel trowel) were evaluated for friction coefficient (skid resistance value) using a British pendulum tester both before and after pig tests. Leg angle, pastern angle and time variables were not related with average skid resistance value of the different floors. However, slip variables during a stride's stance phase per se were well related to surface-treatment differences in average skid resistance. Thus, the average skid resistance value generated by the British pendulum tester yielded one piece of objective information useful in assessing the fitness of concrete surfaces for floors in pig quarters. All the surfaces except the steel trowel surface had average skid resistance value of greater than 65 British pendulum number, and they all reduced a pig's chance of slipping relative to the steel trowel (less than 60 British pendulum number). The front leg was a more sensitive indicator than the rear of a floor's effect on the pig's gait and footing. PMID:3372379

  11. Linear variability of gait according to socioeconomic status in elderly

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the linear variability of comfortable gait according to socioeconomic status in community-dwelling elderly. Method: For this cross-sectional observational study 63 self- functioning elderly were categorized according to the socioeconomic level on medium-low (n= 33, age 69.0 ± 5.0 years) and medium-high (n= 30, age 71.0 ± 6.0 years). Each participant was asked to perform comfortable gait speed for 3 min on an 40 meters elliptical circuit, recording in video five strides which were transformed into frames, determining the minimum foot clearance, maximum foot clearance and stride length. The intra-group linear variability was calculated by the coefficient of variation in percent. Results: The trajectory parameters variability is not different according to socioeconomic status with a 30% (range= 15-55%) for the minimum foot clearance and 6% (range= 3-8%) in maximum foot clearance. Meanwhile, the stride length consistently was more variable in the medium-low socioeconomic status for the overall sample (p= 0.004), female (p= 0.041) and male gender (p= 0.007), with values near 4% ​​(range = 2.5-5.0%) in the medium-low and 2% (range = 1.5-3.5%) in the medium-high. Conclusions: The intra-group linear variability is consistently higher and within reference parameters for stride length during comfortable gait for elderly belonging to medium-low socioeconomic status. This might be indicative of greater complexity and consequent motor adaptability. PMID:27546931

  12. Extraction of Stride Events From Gait Accelerometry During Treadmill Walking

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Kristin A.; Bellanca, Jennica; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S.; Brach, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: evaluating stride events can be valuable for understanding the changes in walking due to aging and neurological diseases. However, creating the time series necessary for this analysis can be cumbersome. In particular, finding heel contact and toe-off events which define the gait cycles accurately are difficult. Method: we proposed a method to extract stride cycle events from tri-axial accelerometry signals. We validated our method via data collected from 14 healthy controls, 10 participants with Parkinson’s disease, and 11 participants with peripheral neuropathy. All participants walked at self-selected comfortable and reduced speeds on a computer-controlled treadmill. Gait accelerometry signals were captured via a tri-axial accelerometer positioned over the L3 segment of the lumbar spine. Motion capture data were also collected and served as the comparison method. Results: our analysis of the accelerometry data showed that the proposed methodology was able to accurately extract heel and toe-contact events from both feet. We used t-tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and mixed models to summarize results and make comparisons. Mean gait cycle intervals were the same as those derived from motion capture, and cycle-to-cycle variability measures were within 1.5%. Subject group differences could be similarly identified using measures with the two methods. Conclusions: a simple tri-axial acceleromter accompanied by a signal processing algorithm can be used to capture stride events. Clinical impact: the proposed algorithm enables the assessment of stride events during treadmill walking, and is the first step toward the assessment of stride events using tri-axial accelerometers in real-life settings. PMID:27088063

  13. Feasibility of external rhythmic cueing with the Google Glass for improving gait in people with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Nonnekes, Jorik; Storcken, Erik J M; Janssen, Sabine; van Wegen, Erwin E H; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Dorresteijn, Lucille D A; van Vugt, Jeroen P P; Heida, Tjitske; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2016-06-01

    New mobile technologies like smartglasses can deliver external cues that may improve gait in people with Parkinson's disease in their natural environment. However, the potential of these devices must first be assessed in controlled experiments. Therefore, we evaluated rhythmic visual and auditory cueing in a laboratory setting with a custom-made application for the Google Glass. Twelve participants (mean age = 66.8; mean disease duration = 13.6 years) were tested at end of dose. We compared several key gait parameters (walking speed, cadence, stride length, and stride length variability) and freezing of gait for three types of external cues (metronome, flashing light, and optic flow) and a control condition (no-cue). For all cueing conditions, the subjects completed several walking tasks of varying complexity. Seven inertial sensors attached to the feet, legs and pelvis captured motion data for gait analysis. Two experienced raters scored the presence and severity of freezing of gait using video recordings. User experience was evaluated through a semi-open interview. During cueing, a more stable gait pattern emerged, particularly on complicated walking courses; however, freezing of gait did not significantly decrease. The metronome was more effective than rhythmic visual cues and most preferred by the participants. Participants were overall positive about the usability of the Google Glass and willing to use it at home. Thus, smartglasses like the Google Glass could be used to provide personalized mobile cueing to support gait; however, in its current form, auditory cues seemed more effective than rhythmic visual cues. PMID:27113598

  14. Clinical impact of gait training enhanced with visual kinematic biofeedback: Patients with Parkinson's disease and patients stable post stroke.

    PubMed

    Byl, Nancy; Zhang, Wenlong; Coo, Sophia; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2015-12-01

    As the world's population ages, falls, physical inactivity, decreased attention and impairments in balance and gait arise as a consequence of decreased sensation, weakness, trauma and degenerative disease. Progressive balance and gait training can facilitate postural righting, safe ambulation and community participation. This small randomized clinical trial evaluated if visual and kinematic feedback provided during supervised gait training would interfere or enhance mobility, endurance, balance, strength and flexibility in older individuals greater than one year post stroke (Gobbi et al., 2009) or Parkinson's disease (PD) (Gobbi et al., 2009). Twenty-four individuals consented to participate. The participants were stratified by diagnosis and randomly assigned to a control (usual gait training (Gobbi et al., 2009)) or an experimental group (usual gait training plus kinematic feedback (Gobbi et al., 2009)). At baseline and 6 weeks post training (18 h), subjects completed standardized tests (mobility, balance, strength, range of motion). Gains were described across all subjects, by treatment group and by diagnosis. Then they were compared for significance using nonparametric statistics. Twenty-three subjects completed the study with no adverse events. Across all subjects, by diagnosis (stroke and PD) and by training group (control and experimental), there were significant gains in mobility (gait speed, step length, endurance, and quality), balance (Berg Balance), range of motion and strength. There were no significant differences in the gain scores between the control and experimental groups. Subjects chronic post stroke made greater strength gains on the affected side than subjects with PD but otherwise there were no significant differences. In summary, during supervised gait training, dynamic visual kinematic feedback from wireless pressure and motion sensors had similar, positive effects as verbal, therapist feedback. A wireless kinematic feedback system could be

  15. Substantiating Appropriate Motion Capture Techniques for the Assessment of Nordic Walking Gait and Posture in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Christopher M; Nantel, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Nordic walking (NW) has become a safe and simple form of exercise in recent years, and in studying this gait pattern, various data collection techniques have been employed, each with positives and negatives. The aim was to determine the effect of NW on older adult gait and posture and to determine optimal use of different data collection systems in both short and long duration analysis. Gait and posture during NW and normal walking were assessed in 17 healthy older adults (age: 69 ± 7.3). Participants performed two trials of 6 Minute Walk Tests (6MWT) (1 with poles (WP) and 1 without poles (NP)) and 6 trials of a 5m walk (3 WP and 3 NP). Motion was recorded using two systems, a 6-sensor accelerometry system and an 8-camera 3-dimensional motion capture system, in order to quantify spatial-temporal, kinematic, and kinetic parameters. With both systems, participants demonstrated increased stride length and double support and decreased gait speed and cadence WP compared to NP (p <0.05). Also, with motion capture, larger single support time was found WP (p <0.05). With 3-D capture, smaller hip power generation and moments of force were found at heel contact and pre-swing as well as smaller knee power absorption at heel contact, pre-swing, and terminal swing WP compared to NP, when assessed over one cycle (p <0.05). Also, WP yielded smaller moments of force at heel contact and terminal swing along with larger moments at mid-stance of a gait cycle (p <0.05). No changes were found for posture. NW seems appropriate for promoting a normal gait pattern in older adults. Three-dimensional motion capture should primarily be used during short duration gait analysis (i.e. single gait cycle), while accelerometry systems should be primarily employed in instances requiring longer duration analysis such as during the 6MWT. PMID:27214263

  16. Locomotion studies as an aid in clinical assessment of childhood gait.

    PubMed Central

    Letts, R. M.; Winter, D. A.; Quanbury, A. O.

    1975-01-01

    A clinical locomotion laboratory has been developed to provide quantitative information in the management of gait disorders. The biomedical engineering development of this system identified two major clinical constraints: (a) the need for instrumentation that would not alter the natural gait of the patient and (b) the need for data-processing techniques that would permit analysis and correlation of the large volume of electromyographic (EMg) and kinematic information. The net result has been a unit that incorporates a multichannel telemetry system to capture the EMG and foot-switch information and a television computer system to handle the kinematic information. Gait studies on children with hemiparesis, muscular dystrophy and cerebral palsy have yielded quantitative EMG and kinematic information on the pathomechanics of ambulation in these disorders. Because the information obtained is quantitative, an accurate measure of improvement (or lack of it) after treatment can be documented. Therefore, the locomotion laboratory may have an important role in the preoperative and postoperative evaluation of children whose abnormal gait may require surgical corrective procedures or rehabilitative treatment including the use of prostheses or orthoses. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 4 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8A FIG. 8B PMID:1168537

  17. Gait characteristics and functional assessment of children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Graf, Adam; Hassani, Sahar; Krzak, Joseph; Caudill, Angela; Flanagan, Ann; Bajorunaite, Ruta; Harris, Gerald; Smith, Peter

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the evaluation process of children with type I Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) by providing a quantitative comparison of gait and selected functional assessments to age-matched controls. A 14-camera Vicon Motion Analysis System was used for gait analysis along with selected functional assessments (Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument [PODCI], Functional Assessment Questionnaire [FAQ], Faces Pain Scale-Revised [FPS-R]) conducted on 10 subjects with type I OI and 22 age-matched healthy controls. The results of the OI group demonstrated abnormal gait parameters including increased double support, delayed foot off, reduced ankle range of motion and plantarflexion during third rocker, along with greater ankle power absorption during terminal stance and reduced ankle power generation during push off. The functional assessment scores of the OI group were similar to the control group for basic mobility and function, but were lower than their peers in the sports and physical function category. The evaluation of individuals with OI by means of gait analysis and selected functional assessments, along with an accurate biomechanical model of the lower extremities, is proposed to better understand and predict OI disability and improve quality of life. PMID:19242979

  18. Influence of dual task and frailty on gait parameters of older community-dwelling individuals

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Rita C.; Dias, Rosângela C.; Pereira, Leani S. M.; Silva, Sílvia L. A.; Lustosa, Lygia P.; Dias, João M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gait parameters such as gait speed (GS) are important indicators of functional capacity. Frailty Syndrome is closely related to GS and is also capable of predicting adverse outcomes. The cognitive demand of gait control is usually explored with dual-task (DT) methodology. Objective: To investigate the effect of DT and frailty on the spatio-temporal parameters of gait in older people and identify which variables relate to GS. Method: The presence of frailty was verified by Fried's Frailty Criteria. Cognitive function was evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and gait parameters were analyzed through the GAITRite(r) system in the single-task and DT conditions. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA, and Pearson's Correlation tests were administered. Results: The participants were assigned to the groups frail (FG), pre-frail (PFG), and non-frail (NFG). During the DT, the three groups showed a decrease in GS, cadence, and stride length and an increase in stride time (p<0.001). The reduction in the GS of the FG during the DT showed a positive correlation with the MMSE scores (r=730; p=0.001) and with grip strength (r=681; p=0.001). Conclusions: Gait parameters are more affected by the DT, especially in the frail older subjects. The reduction in GS in the FG is associated with lower grip strength and lower scores in the MMSE. The GS was able to discriminate the older adults in the three levels of frailty, being an important measure of the functional capacity in this population. PMID:25372007

  19. Dynamics of human walking at steady speeds.

    PubMed

    Kokshenev, Valery B

    2004-11-12

    Biped locomotion is discussed through a Lagrangian formulation for velocity-dependent, body driving forces. An analysis of level walking in humans is given through the known experimental data on the ground-reaction force and the external work without recourse to inverted-pendulum modeling. At a certain speed, rectilinear motion of the center of mass with its backward rotation along a shortened hypocycloid is ensured by double-frequency nonlinear oscillations, whose energy cost is 1% of the external work. With increasing speed, a peculiarity and an instability of the trajectory indicate, respectively, a slow-to-normal gait crossover and the maximal fast walking speed. Key words: integrative biology, biped locomotion, human gaits, muscles. PMID:15600973

  20. Gait dynamics in Parkinson's disease: Common and distinct behavior among stride length, gait variability, and fractal-like scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2009-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, debilitating neurodegenerative disease. Gait disturbances are a frequent cause of disability and impairment for patients with PD. This article provides a brief introduction to PD and describes the gait changes typically seen in patients with this disease. A major focus of this report is an update on the study of the fractal properties of gait in PD, the relationship between this feature of gait and stride length and gait variability, and the effects of different experimental conditions on these three gait properties. Implications of these findings are also briefly described. This update highlights the idea that while stride length, gait variability, and fractal scaling of gait are all impaired in PD, distinct mechanisms likely contribute to and are responsible for the regulation of these disparate gait properties.

  1. Trendelenburg-Like Gait, Instability and Altered Step Patterns in a Mouse Model for Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2i.

    PubMed

    Maricelli, Joseph W; Lu, Qi L; Lin, David C; Rodgers, Buel D

    2016-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2i (LGMD2i) affects thousands of lives with shortened life expectancy mainly due to cardiac and respiratory problems and difficulty with ambulation significantly compromising quality of life. Limited studies have noted impaired gait in patients and animal models of different muscular dystrophies, but not in animal models of LGMD2i. Our goal, therefore, was to quantify gait metrics in the fukutin-related protein P448L mutant (P448L) mouse, a recently developed model for LGMD2i. The Noldus CatWalk XT motion capture system was used to identify multiple gait impairments. An average galloping body speed of 35 cm/s for both P448L and C57BL/6 wild-type mice was maintained to ensure differences in gait were due only to strain physiology. Compared to wild-type mice, P448L mice reach maximum contact 10% faster and have 40% more paw surface area during stance. Additionally, force intensity at the time of maximum paw contact is roughly 2-fold higher in P448L mice. Paw swing time is reduced in P448L mice without changes in stride length as a faster swing speed compensates. Gait instability in P448L mice is indicated by 50% higher instances of 3 and 4 paw stance support and conversely, 2-fold fewer instances of single paw stance support and no instance of zero paw support. This leads to lower variation of normal step patterns used and a higher use of uncommon step patterns. Similar anomalies have also been noted in muscular dystrophy patients due to weakness in the hip abductor muscles, producing a Trendelenburg gait characterized by "waddling" and more pronounced shifts to the stance leg. Thus, gait of P448L mice replicates anomalies commonly seen in LGMD2i patients, which is not only potentially valuable for assessing drug efficacy in restoring movement biomechanics, but also for better understanding them. PMID:27627455

  2. Association between gait characteristics and endothelial oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew W; Montgomery, Polly S; Casanegra, Ana I; Silva-Palacios, Federico; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether gait characteristics were associated with endothelial cell inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis and with circulating biomarkers of inflammation and antioxidant capacity in older patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD). Gait measurements of 231 symptomatic men and women with PAD were assessed during a 4-m walk test. Patients were further characterized on endothelial effects of circulating factors present in the sera using a cell culture-based bioassay on primary human arterial endothelial cells and on circulating inflammatory and vascular biomarkers. In a multivariate regression model for gait speed, the significant independent variables were age (p < 0.001), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (p < 0.001), diabetes (p = 0.003), sex (p = 0.003), and history of cerebrovascular accidents (p = 0.021). In multivariate analyses for gait cadence, the significant independent predictors included high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP) (p < 0.001), diabetes (p = 0.001), and hypertension (p = 0.001). In a multivariate regression model for gait stride length, the significant independent variables were HsCRP (p < 0.001), age (p < 0.001), ICAM-1 (p < 0.001), hypertension (p = 0.002), cellular reactive oxygen species production (p = 0.007), and sex (p = 0.008). Higher levels of circulating biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial cell oxidative stress were associated with slower gait speed, slower cadence, and shorter stride length in older symptomatic patients with PAD. Additionally, this profile of impaired gait was more evident in older patients, in women, and in those with diabetes, hypertension, and history of cerebrovascular accidents. PMID:27273077

  3. Effects of surface irregularity and lighting on step variability during gait: a study in healthy young and older women.

    PubMed

    Thies, Sibylle B; Richardson, James K; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2005-08-01

    Relatively few studies have examined how uneven surfaces affect human gait. To study this, along with the effects of advancing age and low light conditions, we measured step width and step time variability, as well as comfortable gait speed, in 12 healthy young women (YW) and 12 healthy older women (OW) as they walked at a comfortable speed along a 10-m walkway. Ten trials were completed for each cell of a 2 x 2 factorial design: (1) flat surface with regular lighting; (2) flat surface with low lighting; (3) irregular surface with regular lighting; and (4) irregular surface with low lighting. Effects of surface type, incident lighting, and age on gait parameters were tested via repeated measures ANOVA. Surface type significantly affected step width variability (P < 0.001) and step time variability (P < 0.001). Light level showed no significant effect on any of the gait parameters. One significant age group difference was found: step width variability was significantly greater in OW than YW (P = 0.010). We conclude that the irregular surface had a greater effect on the gait variability of healthy OW than on that of healthy YW. PMID:15996588

  4. The effects of aquatic trunk exercise on gait and muscle activity in stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle activity and gait function following aquatic trunk exercise in hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study's participants included thirteen hemiplegic patients (ten males and three females). The aquatic therapy consisted of administering concentrative aquatic therapy for four weeks in a therapeutic pool. Gait parameters were measured using a gait analysis system adjusted to each subject's comfortable walking speed. Electromyographic signals were measured for the rectus abdominis, external abdominal oblique, transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique, and erector spine of each patients. [Results] The pre- and post-training performances of the transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique were compared statistically. There was no statistical difference between the patients' pre- and post-training values of maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the rectus abdominis, but the external abdominal oblique values tended to improve. Furthermore, gait factors improved significantly in terms of walking speeds, walking cycles, affected-side stance phases, affected-stride lengths, and stance-phase symmetry indices, respectively. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the trunk exercise during aquatic therapy may in part contribute to clinically relevant improvements in muscle activities and gait parameters. PMID:26696736

  5. The effects of aquatic trunk exercise on gait and muscle activity in stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byoung-Sun; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle activity and gait function following aquatic trunk exercise in hemiplegic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study’s participants included thirteen hemiplegic patients (ten males and three females). The aquatic therapy consisted of administering concentrative aquatic therapy for four weeks in a therapeutic pool. Gait parameters were measured using a gait analysis system adjusted to each subject’s comfortable walking speed. Electromyographic signals were measured for the rectus abdominis, external abdominal oblique, transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique, and erector spine of each patients. [Results] The pre- and post-training performances of the transversus abdominis/internal-abdominal oblique were compared statistically. There was no statistical difference between the patients’ pre- and post-training values of maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the rectus abdominis, but the external abdominal oblique values tended to improve. Furthermore, gait factors improved significantly in terms of walking speeds, walking cycles, affected-side stance phases, affected-stride lengths, and stance-phase symmetry indices, respectively. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the trunk exercise during aquatic therapy may in part contribute to clinically relevant improvements in muscle activities and gait parameters. PMID:26696736

  6. Long-term donor-site morbidity after vascularized free fibula flap harvesting: Clinical and gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Feuvrier, Damien; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Béliard, Samuel; Pauchot, Julien; Decavel, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical morbidity and changes in gait temporal spatial parameters after harvesting of a vascularized free fibula flap. This study included 11 patients (mean age: 52 ± 17 years) and 11 healthy controls (mean age: 50 ± 14 years). The patients were assessed between 5 and 104 months post surgery. The study consisted of a subjective functional evaluation with two validated clinical scores (Kitaoka Score and Point Evaluation System (PES) score), clinical and neurological examination of the legs, and evaluation of gait temporal spatial parameters while walking at a comfortable speed. The mean functional Kitaoka score was 78/100, and the mean PES score of 12.18 was considered average. At the time of the review, five patients had sensory disorders, two had toe deformities, and eight had pain at the donor site. The gait analysis showed that the patient's comfortable walking speed was significantly lower in comparison to that of the controls, and that stride length and cadence were reduced. In addition, most of the gait-specific parameters were significantly different. The donor leg displayed greater variability during walking. To reduce the risk of falling, this study revealed that the patients' gait pattern had changed as they took a more cautious approach during walking. Early rehabilitation is expected to help improve and/or restore the physical abilities of patients after harvesting of the vascularized free fibula flap. PMID:26602741

  7. Intra-individual gait pattern variability in specific situations: Implications for forensic gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Oliver; Dillinger, Steffen; Marschall, Franz

    2016-07-01

    In this study, inter- and intra-individual gait pattern differences are examined in various gait situations by means of phase diagrams of the extremity angles (cyclograms). 8 test subjects walked along a walking distance of 6m under different conditions three times each: barefoot, wearing sneakers, wearing combat boots, after muscular fatigue, and wearing a full-face motorcycle helmet restricting vision. The joint angles of foot, knee, and hip were recorded in the sagittal plane. The coupling of movements was represented by time-adjusted cyclograms, and the inter- and intra-individual differences were captured by calculating the similarity between different gait patterns. Gait pattern variability was often greater between the defined test situations than between the individual test subjects. The results have been interpreted considering neurophysiological regulation mechanisms. Footwear, masking, and fatigue were interpreted as disturbance parameters, each being a cause for gait pattern variability and complicating the inference of identity of persons in video recordings. PMID:26990706

  8. Motion Controlled Gait Enhancing Mobile Shoe for Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Handzic, Ismet; Vasudevan, Erin V.; Reed, Kyle B.

    2011-01-01

    Walking on a split-belt treadmill, which has two belts that can be run at different speeds, has been shown to improve walking patterns post-stroke. However, these improvements are only temporarily retained once individuals transition to walking over ground. We hypothesize that longer-lasting effects would be observed if the training occurred during natural walking over ground, as opposed to on a treadmill. In order to study such long-term effects, we have developed a mobile and portable device which can simulate the same gait altering movements experienced on a split-belt treadmill. The new motion controlled gait enhancing mobile shoe improves upon the previous version’s drawbacks. This version of the GEMS has motion that is continuous, smooth, and regulated with on-board electronics. A vital component of this new design is the Archimedean spiral wheel shape that redirects the wearer’s downward force into a horizontal backward motion. The design is passive and does not utilize any motors. Its motion is regulated only by a small magnetic particle brake. Further experimentation is needed to evaluate the long-term after-effects. PMID:22275620

  9. Design and Pilot Study of a Gait Enhancing Mobile Shoe

    PubMed Central

    Handzic, Ismet; Barno, Eileen M.; Vasudevan, Erin V.; Reed, Kyle B.

    2013-01-01

    Hemiparesis is a frequent and disabling consequence of stroke and can lead to asymmetric and inefficient walking patterns. Training on a split-belt treadmill, which has two separate treads driving each leg at a different speed, can correct such asymmetries post-stroke. However, the effects of split-belt treadmill training only partially transfer to everyday walking over ground and extended training sessions are required to achieve long-lasting effects. Our aim is to develop an alternative device, the Gait Enhancing Mobile Shoe (GEMS), that mimics the actions of the split-belt treadmill, but can be used during overground walking and in one’s own home, thus enabling long-term training. The GEMS does not require any external power and is completely passive; all necessary forces are redirected from the natural forces present during walking. Three healthy subjects walked on the shoes for twenty minutes during which one GEMS generated a backward motion and the other GEMS generated a forward motion. Our preliminary experiments suggest that wearing the GEMS did cause subjects to modify coordination between the legs and these changes persisted when subjects returned to normal over-ground walking. The largest effects were observed in measures of temporal coordination (e.g., duration of double-support). These results suggest that the GEMS is capable of altering overground walking coordination in healthy controls and could potentially be used to correct gait asymmetries post-stroke. PMID:24371521

  10. Feasible Stability Region in the Frontal Plane During Human Gait

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feng; Espy, Debbie; Pai, Yi-Chung

    2010-01-01

    The inability to adequately control the motion of the center of mass (COM) in the frontal plane may result in a loss of balance causing a sideways fall during human gait. The primary purposes of this study were (1) to derive the feasible stability region (FSR) in the mediolateral direction, and (2) to compare the FSR with the COM motion state taken from 193 trials among 39 young subjects at liftoff during walking at different speeds. The lower boundary of the FSR was derived, at a given initial COM location, as the minimum rightward COM velocity, at liftoff of the left foot, required to bring the COM into the base of support (BOS), i.e. the right (stance) foot, as the COM velocity diminishes. The upper boundary was derived as the maximum rightward COM velocity, beyond which the left foot must land to the right of the right foot (BOS) in order to prevent a fall. We established a 2-link human model and employed dynamic optimization to estimate these threshold values for velocity. For a range of initial COM positions, simulated annealing algorithm was used to search for the threshold velocity values. Our study quantified the extent to which mediolateral balance can still be maintained without resorting to a crossover step (the left foot lands to the right of the BOS) for balance recovery The derived FSR is in good agreement with our gait experimental results. PMID:19760504

  11. A Validated Smartphone-Based Assessment of Gait and Gait Variability in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Robert J.; Ng, Yee Sien; Zhu, Shenggao; Tan, Dawn M.; Anderson, Boyd; Schlaug, Gottfried; Wang, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Background A well-established connection exists between increased gait variability and greater fall likelihood in Parkinson’s disease (PD); however, a portable, validated means of quantifying gait variability (and testing the efficacy of any intervention) remains lacking. Furthermore, although rhythmic auditory cueing continues to receive attention as a promising gait therapy for PD, its widespread delivery remains bottlenecked. The present paper describes a smartphone-based mobile application (“SmartMOVE”) to address both needs. Methods The accuracy of smartphone-based gait analysis (utilizing the smartphone’s built-in tri-axial accelerometer and gyroscope to calculate successive step times and step lengths) was validated against two heel contact–based measurement devices: heel-mounted footswitch sensors (to capture step times) and an instrumented pressure sensor mat (to capture step lengths). 12 PD patients and 12 age-matched healthy controls walked along a 26-m path during self-paced and metronome-cued conditions, with all three devices recording simultaneously. Results Four outcome measures of gait and gait variability were calculated. Mixed-factorial analysis of variance revealed several instances in which between-group differences (e.g., increased gait variability in PD patients relative to healthy controls) yielded medium-to-large effect sizes (eta-squared values), and cueing-mediated changes (e.g., decreased gait variability when PD patients walked with auditory cues) yielded small-to-medium effect sizes—while at the same time, device-related measurement error yielded small-to-negligible effect sizes. Conclusion These findings highlight specific opportunities for smartphone-based gait analysis to serve as an alternative to conventional gait analysis methods (e.g., footswitch systems or sensor-embedded walkways), particularly when those methods are cost-prohibitive, cumbersome, or inconvenient. PMID:26517720

  12. Sliding GAIT Algorithm for the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Julie; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The design of a surface robotic system typically involves a trade between the traverse speed of a wheeled rover and the terrain-negotiating capabilities of a multi-legged walker. The ATHLETE mobility system, with both articulated limbs and wheels, is uniquely capable of both driving and walking, and has the flexibility to employ additional hybrid mobility modes. This paper introduces the Sliding Gait, an intermediate mobility algorithm faster than walking with better terrain-handling capabilities than wheeled mobility.

  13. Modifications of Gait as Predictors of Natural Osteoarthritis Progression in STR/Ort Mice

    PubMed Central

    Poulet, Blandine; de Souza, Roberto; Knights, Chancie B; Gentry, Clive; Wilson, Alan M; Bevan, Stuart; Chang, Yu-Mei; Pitsillides, Andrew A

    2014-01-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic disease for which disease-modifying therapies are not currently available. Studies to seek new targets for slowing the progress of OA rely on mouse models, but these do not allow for longitudinal monitoring of disease development. This study was undertaken to determine whether gait can be used to measure disease severity in the STR/Ort mouse model of spontaneous OA and whether gait changes are related to OA joint pain. Methods Gait was monitored using a treadmill-based video system. Correlations between OA severity and gait at 3 treadmill speeds were assessed in STR/Ort mice. Gait and pain behaviors of STR/Ort mice and control CBA mice were analyzed longitudinally, with monthly assessments. Results The best speed to identify paw area changes associated with OA severity in STR/Ort mice was found to be 17 cm · seconds−1. Paw area was modified with age in CBA and STR/Ort mice, but this began earlier in STR/Ort mice and correlated with the onset of OA at 20 weeks of age. In addition, task noncompliance appeared at 20 weeks. Surprisingly, STR/Ort mice did not show any signs of pain with OA development, even when treated with the opioid antagonist naloxone, but did exhibit normal pain behaviors in response to complete Freund's adjuvant–induced arthritis. Conclusion The present results identify an animal model in which OA severity and OA pain can be studied in isolation from one another. The findings suggest that paw area and treadmill noncompliance may be useful tools to longitudinally monitor nonpainful OA development in STR/Ort mice. This will help in providing a noninvasive means of assessing new therapies to slow the progression of OA. PMID:24623711

  14. A kinematic model of Kármán gaiting in rainbow trout

    PubMed Central

    Akanyeti, Otar; Liao, James C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A mechanistic understanding of how fishes swim in unsteady flows is challenging despite its prevalence in nature. Previous kinematic studies of fish Kármán gaiting in a vortex street behind a cylinder only report time-averaged measurements, precluding our ability to formally describe motions on a cycle-by-cycle basis. Here we present the first analytical model that describes the swimming kinematics of Kármán gaiting trout with 70–90% accuracy. We found that body bending kinematics can be modelled with a travelling wave equation, which has also been shown to accurately model free-stream swimming kinematics. However, free-stream swimming and Kármán gaiting are separated in the parameter space; the amplitude, wavelength and frequency values of the traveling wave equation are substantially different for each behavior. During Kármán gaiting, the wave is initiated at the body center, which is 0.2L (where L is total body length) further down the body compared with the initiation point in free-stream swimming. The wave travels with a constant speed, which is higher than the nominal flow speed just as in free-stream swimming. In addition to undulation, we observed that Kármán gaiting fish also exhibit substantial lateral translations and body rotations, which can constitute up to 75% of the behavior. These motions are periodic and their frequencies also match the vortex shedding frequency. There is an inverse correlation between head angle and body angle: when the body rotates in one direction, the head of the fish turns into the opposite direction. Our kinematic model mathematically describes how fish swim in vortical flows in real time and provides a platform to better understand the effects of flow variations as well as the contribution of muscle activity during corrective motions. PMID:24115054

  15. Dynamic stability and phase resetting during biped gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Taishin; Kawa, Kazuyoshi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Nakanishi, Masao; Yamasaki, Taiga

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic stability during periodic biped gait in humans and in a humanoid robot is considered. Here gait systems of human neuromusculoskeletal system and a humanoid are simply modeled while keeping their mechanical properties plausible. We prescribe periodic gait trajectories in terms of joint angles of the models as a function of time. The equations of motion of the models are then constrained by one of the prescribed gait trajectories to obtain types of periodically forced nonlinear dynamical systems. Simulated gait of the models may or may not fall down during gait, since the constraints are made only for joint angles of limbs but not for the motion of the body trunk. The equations of motion can exhibit a limit cycle solution (or an oscillatory solution that can be considered as a limit cycle practically) for each selected gait trajectory, if an initial condition is set appropriately. We analyze the stability of the limit cycle in terms of Poincaré maps and the basin of attraction of the limit cycle in order to examine how the stability depends on the prescribed trajectory. Moreover, the phase resetting of gait rhythm in response to external force perturbation is modeled. Since we always prescribe a gait trajectory in this study, reacting gait trajectories during the phase resetting are also prescribed. We show that an optimally prescribed reacting gait trajectory with an appropriate amount of the phase resetting can increase the gait stability. Neural mechanisms for generation and modulation of the gait trajectories are discussed.

  16. Dynamic stability and phase resetting during biped gait.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Taishin; Kawa, Kazuyoshi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Nakanishi, Masao; Yamasaki, Taiga

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic stability during periodic biped gait in humans and in a humanoid robot is considered. Here gait systems of human neuromusculoskeletal system and a humanoid are simply modeled while keeping their mechanical properties plausible. We prescribe periodic gait trajectories in terms of joint angles of the models as a function of time. The equations of motion of the models are then constrained by one of the prescribed gait trajectories to obtain types of periodically forced nonlinear dynamical systems. Simulated gait of the models may or may not fall down during gait, since the constraints are made only for joint angles of limbs but not for the motion of the body trunk. The equations of motion can exhibit a limit cycle solution (or an oscillatory solution that can be considered as a limit cycle practically) for each selected gait trajectory, if an initial condition is set appropriately. We analyze the stability of the limit cycle in terms of Poincaré maps and the basin of attraction of the limit cycle in order to examine how the stability depends on the prescribed trajectory. Moreover, the phase resetting of gait rhythm in response to external force perturbation is modeled. Since we always prescribe a gait trajectory in this study, reacting gait trajectories during the phase resetting are also prescribed. We show that an optimally prescribed reacting gait trajectory with an appropriate amount of the phase resetting can increase the gait stability. Neural mechanisms for generation and modulation of the gait trajectories are discussed. PMID:19566263

  17. Gait synchronization in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jinzhou; Raizen, David M.; Bau, Haim H.

    2014-01-01

    Collective motion is observed in swarms of swimmers of various sizes, ranging from self-propelled nanoparticles to fish. The mechanisms that govern interactions among individuals are debated, and vary from one species to another. Although the interactions among relatively large animals, such as fish, are controlled by their nervous systems, the interactions among microorganisms, which lack nervous systems, are controlled through physical and chemical pathways. Little is known, however, regarding the mechanism of collective movements in microscopic organisms with nervous systems. To attempt to remedy this, we studied collective swimming behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a microorganism with a compact nervous system. We evaluated the contributions of hydrodynamic forces, contact forces, and mechanosensory input to the interactions among individuals. We devised an experiment to examine pair interactions as a function of the distance between the animals and observed that gait synchronization occurred only when the animals were in close proximity, independent of genes required for mechanosensation. Our measurements and simulations indicate that steric hindrance is the dominant factor responsible for motion synchronization in C. elegans, and that hydrodynamic interactions and genotype do not play a significant role. We infer that a similar mechanism may apply to other microscopic swimming organisms and self-propelled particles. PMID:24778261

  18. Neuroimaging of Freezing of Gait

    PubMed Central

    Fasano, Alfonso; Herman, Talia; Tessitore, Alessandro; Strafella, Antonio P.; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Functional brain imaging techniques appear ideally suited to explore the pathophysiology of freezing of gait (FOG). In the last two decades, techniques based on magnetic resonance or nuclear medicine imaging have found a number of structural changes and functional disconnections between subcortical and cortical regions of the locomotor network in patients with FOG. FOG seems to be related in part to disruptions in the “executive-attention” network along with regional tissue loss including the premotor area, inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, the parietal and occipital areas involved in visuospatial functions of the right hemisphere. Several subcortical structures have been also involved in the etiology of FOG, principally the caudate nucleus and the locomotor centers in the brainstem. Maladaptive neural compensation may present transiently in the presence of acute conflicting motor, cognitive or emotional stimulus processing, thus causing acute network overload and resulting in episodic impairment of stepping. In this review we will summarize the state of the art of neuroimaging research for FOG. We will also discuss the limitations of current approaches and delineate the next steps of neuroimaging research to unravel the pathophysiology of this mysterious motor phenomenon. PMID:25757831

  19. Locomotor Recovery in Spinal Cord Injury: Insights Beyond Walking Speed and Distance.

    PubMed

    Awai, Lea; Curt, Armin

    2016-08-01

    Recovery of locomotor function after incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) is clinically assessed through walking speed and distance, while improvements in these measures might not be in line with a normalization of gait quality and are, on their own, insensitive at revealing potential mechanisms underlying recovery. The objective of this study was to relate changes of gait parameters to the recovery of walking speed while distinguishing between parameters that rather reflect speed improvements from factors contributing to overall recovery. Kinematic data of 16 iSCI subjects were repeatedly recorded during in-patient rehabilitation. The responsiveness of gait parameters to walking speed was assessed by linear regression. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on the multivariate data across time to identify factors that contribute to recovery after iSCI. Parameters of gait cycle and movement dynamics were both responsive and closely related to the recovery of walking speed, which increased by 96%. Multivariate analysis revealed specific gait parameters (intralimb shape normality and consistency) that, although less related to speed increments, loaded highly on principal component one (PC1) (58.6%) explaining the highest proportion of variance (i.e., recovery of outcome over time). Interestingly, measures of hip, knee, and ankle range of motion showed varying degrees of responsiveness (from very high to very low) while not contributing to gait recovery as revealed by PCA. The conjunct application of two analysis methods distinguishes gait parameters that simply reflect increased walking speed from parameters that actually contribute to gait recovery in iSCI. This distinction may be of value for the evaluation of interventions for locomotor recovery. PMID:26896097

  20. Selective control of gait subtasks in robotic gait training: foot clearance support in stroke survivors with a powered exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Robot-aided gait training is an emerging clinical tool for gait rehabilitation of neurological patients. This paper deals with a novel method of offering gait assistance, using an impedance controlled exoskeleton (LOPES). The provided assistance is based on a recent finding that, in the control of walking, different modules can be discerned that are associated with different subtasks. In this study, a Virtual Model Controller (VMC) for supporting one of these subtasks, namely the foot clearance, is presented and evaluated. Methods The developed VMC provides virtual support at the ankle, to increase foot clearance. Therefore, we first developed a new method to derive reference trajectories of the ankle position. These trajectories consist of splines between key events, which are dependent on walking speed and body height. Subsequently, the VMC was evaluated in twelve healthy subjects and six chronic stroke survivors. The impedance levels, of the support, were altered between trials to investigate whether the controller allowed gradual and selective support. Additionally, an adaptive algorithm was tested, that automatically shaped the amount of support to the subjects’ needs. Catch trials were introduced to determine whether the subjects tended to rely on the support. We also assessed the additional value of providing visual feedback. Results With the VMC, the step height could be selectively and gradually influenced. The adaptive algorithm clearly shaped the support level to the specific needs of every stroke survivor. The provided support did not result in reliance on the support for both groups. All healthy subjects and most patients were able to utilize the visual feedback to increase their active participation. Conclusion The presented approach can provide selective control on one of the essential subtasks of walking. This module is the first in a set of modules to control all subtasks. This enables the therapist to focus the support on the subtasks

  1. Development of temporal and distance parameters of gait in normal children.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Susan J; Stansfield, Benedict W; Richardson, Alison M; Robb, James E

    2009-01-01

    Temporal and distance parameters of 33 normal children were obtained from instrumented gait analysis prospectively over five consecutive years. The parameters were normalised to minimise the confounding effects of increasing height and leg length. Rank correlations were performed on normalised speed, normalised stride length, normalised cadence and normalised walk ratio across consecutive pairs of years to examine the ranking of these parameters for an individual child over time. Consistent trends of increasing rank correlation were observed in normalised stride length and normalised walk ratio suggesting that individual children were continuing to adjust these gait parameters towards their own characteristic position within the normal range. Consistent trends were not observed in the rank correlations for normalised speed and normalised cadence. These findings support the concept that individual children predominantly adjusted their cadence to effect changes in speed, while the development of stride length was dictated by other factors specific to the individual child. Rank correlation coefficients for walk ratio between consecutive years increased from the ages of 7-11 years of age and hence walk ratio appears be a feature of gait that matures beyond the age of 7 years. This accords with the proposal that it is an invariant parameter for an individual. PMID:18701291

  2. Gait rehabilitation machines based on programmable footplates

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Henning; Werner, Cordula; Bernhardt, Rolf; Hesse, Stefan; Krüger, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    Background Gait restoration is an integral part of rehabilitation of brain lesioned patients. Modern concepts favour a task-specific repetitive approach, i.e. who wants to regain walking has to walk, while tone-inhibiting and gait preparatory manoeuvres had dominated therapy before. Following the first mobilization out of the bed, the wheelchair-bound patient should have the possibility to practise complex gait cycles as soon as possible. Steps in this direction were treadmill training with partial body weight support and most recently gait machines enabling the repetitive training of even surface gait and even of stair climbing. Results With treadmill training harness-secured and partially relieved wheelchair-mobilised patients could practise up to 1000 steps per session for the first time. Controlled trials in stroke and SCI patients, however, failed to show a superior result when compared to walking exercise on the floor. Most likely explanation was the effort for the therapists, e.g. manually setting the paretic limbs during the swing phase resulting in a too little gait intensity. The next steps were gait machines, either consisting of a powered exoskeleton and a treadmill (Lokomat, AutoAmbulator) or an electromechanical solution with the harness secured patient placed on movable foot plates (Gait Trainer GT I). For the latter, a large multi-centre trial with 155 non-ambulatory stroke patients (DEGAS) revealed a superior gait ability and competence in basic activities of living in the experimental group. The HapticWalker continued the end effector concept of movable foot plates, now fully programmable and equipped with 6 DOF force sensors. This device for the first time enables training of arbitrary walking situations, hence not only the simulation of floor walking but also for example of stair climbing and perturbations. Conclusion Locomotor therapy is a fascinating new tool in rehabilitation, which is in line with modern principles of motor relearning

  3. Gait termination in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Roeing, Kathleen L; Wajda, Douglas A; Motl, Robert W; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2015-09-01

    Despite the ubiquitous nature of gait impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS), there is limited information concerning the control of gait termination in individuals with MS. The purpose of this investigation was to examine planned gait termination in individuals with MS and healthy controls with and without cognitive distractors. Individuals with MS and age matched controls completed a series of gait termination tasks over a pressure sensitive walkway under non-distracting and cognitively distracting conditions. As expected the MS group had a lower velocity (89.9±33.3 cm/s) than controls (142.8±22.4 cm/s) and there was a significant reduction in velocity in both groups under the cognitive distracting conditions (MS: 73.9±30.7 cm/s; control: 120.0±25.9 cm/s). Although individuals with MS walked slower, there was no difference between groups in the rate a participant failed to stop at the target (i.e. failure rate). Overall failure rate had a 10-fold increase in the cognitively distracting condition across groups. Individuals with MS were more unstable during termination. Future research examining the neuromuscular mechanisms contributing to gait termination is warranted. PMID:26228021

  4. Development and Decline of Upright Gait Stability

    PubMed Central

    Iosa, Marco; Fusco, Augusto; Morone, Giovanni; Paolucci, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Upright gait is a peculiar characteristic of humans that requires the ability to manage upper body dynamic balance while walking, despite the perturbations that are generated by movements of the lower limbs. Most of the studies on upright gait stability have compared young adults and the elderly to determine the effects of aging. In other studies, the comparison was between healthy subjects and patients to examine specific pathologies. Fewer researches have also investigated the development of upright gait stability in children. This review discusses these studies in order to provide an overview of this relevant aspect of human locomotion. A clear trend from development to decline of upright gait stability has been depicted across the entire lifespan, from toddlers at first steps to elderly. In old individuals, even if healthy, the deterioration of skeletal muscle, combined with sensorial and cognitive performance, reduces the ability to maintain an upright trunk during walking, increasing the instability and the risk of falls. Further, the pathological causes of altered development or of a sudden loss of gait stability, as well as the environmental influence are investigated. The last part of this review is focused on the control of upper body accelerations during walking, a particularly interesting topic for the recent development of low-cost wearable accelerometers. PMID:24550829

  5. Scrunching: a novel escape gait in planarians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Mickolajczyk, Keith J.; Collins, Eva-Maria S.

    2015-10-01

    The ability to escape a predator or other life-threatening situations is central to animal survival. Different species have evolved unique strategies under anatomical and environmental constraints. In this study, we describe a novel musculature-driven escape gait in planarians, ‘scrunching’, which is quantitatively different from other planarian gaits, such as gliding and peristalsis. We show that scrunching is a conserved gait among different flatworm species, underlying its importance as an escape mechanism. We further demonstrate that it can be induced by a variety of physical stimuli, including amputation, high temperature, electric shock and low pH. We discuss the functional basis for scrunching as the preferential gait when gliding is impaired due to a disruption of mucus production. Finally, we show that the key mechanical features of scrunching are adequately captured by a simple biomechanical model that is solely based on experimental data from traction force microscopy and tissue rheology without fit parameters. Together, our results form a complete description of this novel form of planarian locomotion. Because scrunching has distinct dynamics, this gait can serve as a robust behavioral readout for studies of motor neuron and muscular functions in planarians and in particular the restoration of these functions during regeneration.

  6. Scrunching: a novel escape gait in planarians.

    PubMed

    Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Mickolajczyk, Keith J; Collins, Eva-Maria S

    2015-10-01

    The ability to escape a predator or other life-threatening situations is central to animal survival. Different species have evolved unique strategies under anatomical and environmental constraints. In this study, we describe a novel musculature-driven escape gait in planarians, 'scrunching', which is quantitatively different from other planarian gaits, such as gliding and peristalsis. We show that scrunching is a conserved gait among different flatworm species, underlying its importance as an escape mechanism. We further demonstrate that it can be induced by a variety of physical stimuli, including amputation, high temperature, electric shock and low pH. We discuss the functional basis for scrunching as the preferential gait when gliding is impaired due to a disruption of mucus production. Finally, we show that the key mechanical features of scrunching are adequately captured by a simple biomechanical model that is solely based on experimental data from traction force microscopy and tissue rheology without fit parameters. Together, our results form a complete description of this novel form of planarian locomotion. Because scrunching has distinct dynamics, this gait can serve as a robust behavioral readout for studies of motor neuron and muscular functions in planarians and in particular the restoration of these functions during regeneration. PMID:26356147

  7. Walking while Performing Working Memory Tasks Changes the Prefrontal Cortex Hemodynamic Activations and Gait Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-I B.; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence suggests that walking while performing a concurrent task negatively influences gait performance. However, it remains unclear how higher-level cognitive processes and coordination of limb movements are altered in challenging walking environments. This study investigated the influence of cognitive task complexity and walking road condition on the neutral correlates of executive function and postural control in dual-task walking. Methods: Twenty-four healthy young adults completed a series of overground walks with three walking road conditions (wide, narrow, with obstacles) with and without the concurrent n-back working memory tasks of two complexity levels (1-back and 3-back). Prefrontal brain activation was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used simultaneously to measure gait performance and lower-extremity kinematics. Repeated measures analysis of variance were performed to examine the differences between the conditions. Results: In comparison with standing still, participants showed lower n-back task accuracy while walking, with the worst performance from the road with obstacles. Spatiotemporal gait parameters, lower-extremity joint movements, and the relative changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) concentration levels were all significantly different across the task complexity and walking path conditions. While dual-tasking participants were found to flex their hips and knees less, leading to a slower gait speed, longer stride time, shorter step length, and greater gait variability than during normal walking. For narrow-road walking, smaller ankle dorsiflexion and larger hip flexion were observed, along with a reduced gait speed. Obstacle negotiation was mainly characterized by increased gait variability than other conditions. HbO levels appeared to be lower during dual-task walking than normal walking. Compared to wide and obstacle conditions, walking on the narrow

  8. [Gait disturbances related to dysfunction of the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia].

    PubMed

    Takezawa, Nobuo; Mizuno, Toshiki; Seo, Kazuya; Kondo, Masaki; Nakagawa, Masanori

    2010-11-01

    This review aimed to characterize the gait disturbances in Parkinson disease (PD) and highlight how a rehabilitation program would affect the care of patients with PD. The typical PD gait is a type of hypokinetic gait characterized by reduced stride length and velocity; shortening of the swing phase; and increase in the stance phase, double-limb support duration, and cadence rate. In the advanced phase of PD, start hesitation, shuffling and festinating gait, propulsion, and freezing of gait (FOG) become remarkable. Notably, in PD, attention may influence gait control, and sensory cueing may improve the stride length. Our study on gait impairment in PD by using a three-dimensional motion analysis system revealed that the stride length and walking speed decreased, but there was no change in cadence. The decreased stride length was due to reduction in the range of movement at the leg and pelvic joints. A 4-week physical rehabilitation program for PD improved the stride length and walking speed;this was achieved by increasing the range of movement of at the leg and pelvic joints. We also assessed the effects of a rehabilitation program for patients with PD who experienced FOG. Although the lower limb function was more impaired in patients with PD and FOG than in those with PD without FOG, the rehabilitation program was effective even for patients with PD and FOG. FOG might be associated with functional impairment of the lower limb as well as dysfunction of the fronto-basal ganglia circuit. We also reported 3 cases of camptocormia (bent spine syndrome) with autonomic dysfunction and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorders (RBD) and compared their symptoms with those reported elsewhere. We think that the pedunculopontine nuclear area may control the postural muscle tone and locomotion in PD. On the basis of the results of our rehabilitation programs, we speculate that physical modalities may modify synaptic plasticity by utilizing the cerebellar and/or afferent

  9. The heel-contact gait pattern of habitual toe walkers.

    PubMed

    Crenna, P; Fedrizzi, E; Andreucci, E; Frigo, C; Bono, R

    2005-04-01

    We used kinematic, kinetic and EMG analysis to compare the spontaneous heel-contact gait patterns of 13 children classified as habitual toe walkers (HTWs) and age-matched controls. In the HTWs, the incidence of spontaneous heel-contact strides during a single recording session ranged from 15% to 92%, with no correlation with age, passive ankle joint excursion, walking speed and trial order. Hallmarks of the heel-contact strides were premature heel-rise, reversal of the second rocker, relative shortening of the loading response and anticipation and enhancement of the electromyographic (EMG) activity normally observed in the triceps surae (TS) during the first half of the stance phase. This variant of the locomotor program is different from the walking patterns observed in normally developing toddlers and children with cerebral palsy (CP). It does not necessarily reflect a functional adaptation to changes in the rheological properties of the muscle-tendon complex. PMID:15760747

  10. The impact of vision on the dynamic characteristics of the gait: strategies in children with blindness.

    PubMed

    Gazzellini, Simone; Lispi, Maria Luisa; Castelli, Enrico; Trombetti, Alessandro; Carniel, Sacha; Vasco, Gessica; Napolitano, Antonio; Petrarca, Maurizio

    2016-09-01

    Visually impaired persons present an atypical gait pattern characterized by slower walking speed, shorter stride length and longer time of stance. Three explanatory hypotheses have been advanced in the literature: balance deficit, lack of an anticipatory mechanisms and foot probing the ground. In the present study, we compared the three hypotheses by applying their predictions to gait analysis and posturography of blind children without neurological impairment and compared their performance with that of an age-matched control group. The gait analysis results documented that blind children presented reduced walking velocity and step length, increased step width and external rotation of the foot progression angle, reduced ground reaction force and ankle maximum angle, moment and power in late stance, increased head flexion, decreased thorax flexion and pelvis anteversion, compared with the control group. The posturographic analysis showed equal skill level between blind children and normally sighted children when they close their eyes. The results are consistent with only one of the three hypotheses: namely, they prove that blind children's gait is influenced only by the absence of visually driven anticipatory control mechanisms. Finally, rehabilitative recommendations for children with blindness are advanced in discussion. PMID:27165507

  11. Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters as Predictors of Lower-Limb Overuse Injuries in Military Training

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Uri; Lozin, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    The study objective was to determine whether spatiotemporal gait parameters could predict lower-limb overuse injuries in cohort of combat soldiers during first year of military service. Newly recruited infantry soldiers walked on a treadmill at a 15° incline with a fixed speed of 1.67 m/sec while wearing a standard military vest with a 10 kg load. Stride time variability, stride length variability, step length asymmetry, and the duration of the loading response phase of the gait cycle were measured. Injury data on 76 soldiers who did not report musculoskeletal complaints at initial screening were collected one year after recruitment. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the predictive effect of the gait parameters on lower-limb injuries. Twenty-four soldiers (31.6%) had overuse injuries during the first year after recruitment. Duration of the loading response was a significant predictor of general lower-limb injury (p < 0.05), as well as of foot/ankle and knee injuries (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, resp.). A cutoff value of less than 12.15% for loading response duration predicted knee injuries with 83% sensitivity and 67% specificity. This study demonstrates the utility of spatiotemporal gait evaluation, a simple screening tool before military training, which may help to identify individuals at risk of lower-limb overuse injuries. PMID:27478864

  12. Correlation between balance and gait according to pelvic displacement in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Seon Woong; Jeong, Yeon Woo; Kim, Jin Young

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations of balance and gait according to pelvic displacement in stroke patients. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 58 stroke patients who had been admitted to a hospital. [Methods] A Global Postural System was used to measure pelvic displacement. To measure the balance ability, a Tetrax balance system was used to measure the weight distribution index and stability index. Gait ability was measured during the 10-Meter Walking Test and Figure-of-8 Walk Test. [Results] The results of this study showed that was significant positive correlation between the anterior superior iliac spine height difference in pelvic displacement and the weight distribution index and significant positive correlation between the posterior superior iliac spine height difference and the stability index in the normal position with the eyes closed. Statistically significant positive correlation also was found between the anterior superior iliac spine height difference and the straight and curved gait ability. [Conclusion] The increased pelvic displacement in stroke patients results in a decrease in balance ability and gait speed. This suggests that control of pelvic displacement is necessary before functional training for patients with stroke. PMID:26311948

  13. Understanding compensatory strategies for muscle weakness during gait by simulating activation deficits seen post-stroke

    PubMed Central

    Knarr, Brian A.; Reisman, Darcy S.; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A.; Higginson, Jill S.

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal simulations have been used to explore compensatory strategies, but have focused on responses to simulated atrophy in a single muscle or muscle group. In a population such as stroke, however, impairments are seen in muscle activation across multiple muscle groups. The objective of this study was to identify available compensatory strategies for muscle weakness during gait by simulating activation deficits in multiple muscle groups. Three dimensional dynamics simulations were created from 10 healthy subjects (48.8±13.3yrs, self-selected speed 1.28±0.17m/s) and constraints were set on the activation capacity of the plantar flexor, dorsiflexor, and hamstrings muscle groups to simulate activation impairments seen post stroke. When the muscle groups are impaired individually, the model requires that the plantar flexor, dorsiflexor, and hamstrings muscle groups are activated to at least 55%, 64%, and 18%, respectively, to recreate the subjects’ normal gait pattern. The models were unable to recreate the normal gait pattern with simultaneous impairment of all three muscle groups. Other muscle groups are unable to assist the dorsiflexor muscles during early swing, which suggests that rehabilitation or assistive devices may be required to correct foot drop. By identifying how muscles can interact, clinicians may be able to develop specific strategies for using gait retraining and orthotic assistance to best address an individual’s needs. PMID:23273489

  14. An arm for a leg: Adapting a robotic arm for gait rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Giulia; Viereck, Ulrich; Platt, Robert; Yen, Sheng-Che; Hasson, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt a multipurpose robotic arm for gait rehabilitation. An advantage of this approach is versatility: a robotic arm can be attached to almost any point on the body to assist with lower- and upper-extremity rehabilitation. This may be more cost-effective than purchasing and training rehabilitation staff to use several specialized rehabilitation robots. Robotic arms also have a more human-like morphology, which may make them less intimidating or alien to patients. In this study a mechanical interface was developed that allows a fast, secure, and safe attachment between a robotic arm and a human limb. The effectiveness of this interface was assessed by having two healthy subjects walk on a treadmill with and without a robotic arm attached to their legs. The robot's ability to follow the subjects' swinging legs was evaluated at slow and fast walking speeds. Two different control schemes were evaluated: one using the standard manufacturer-provided control algorithm, and another using a custom algorithm that actively compensated for robot-human interaction forces. The results showed that both robot control schemes performed well for slow walking. There were negligible differences between subjects' gait kinematics with and without the robot. During fast walking with the robot, similar results were obtained for one subject; however, the second subject demonstrated noticeable gait modifications. Together, these results show the feasibility of adapting a multipurpose robotic arm for gait rehabilitation. PMID:26737153

  15. Variability and similarity of gait as evaluated by joint angles: implications for forensic gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-03-01

    Closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage is used in criminal investigations to compare perpetrators with suspects. Usually, incomplete gait cycles are collected, making evidential gait analysis challenging. This study aimed to analyze the discriminatory power of joint angles throughout a gait cycle. Six sets from 12 men were collected. For each man, a variability range VR (mean ± 1SD) of a specific joint angle at a specific time point (a gait cycle was 100 time points) was calculated. In turn, each individual was compared with the 11 others, and whenever 1 of these 11 had a value within this individual’s VR, it counted as positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, we created simple bar graphs; tall bars indicated a small discriminatory power, short bars indicated a larger one. The highest discriminatory power was at time points 60–80 in the gait cycle. We show how our data can assess gait data from an actual case. PMID:24745080

  16. Changes of Plantar Pressure and Gait Parameters in Children with Mild Cerebral Palsy Who Used a Customized External Strap Orthosis: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Chang, Nai-Jen; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Toe-in gait and crouch gait can make children with mild cerebral palsy fall and suffer improper balance during walking or ambulation training. A customized external strap orthosis for correcting leg alignment was used to resolve this problem. The purpose of this study was to research the immediate effects while wearing the customized external strap orthosis. Pressure platform was used to assess the plantar pressure through static and dynamic assessments and to record the changes in path of pressure trajectory. Motion image analysis system was used to record the gait parameters, which included gait speed, stride length, and cadence. The influence of both wearing and removing the orthosis on the dominant leg of children with mild cerebral palsy was analyzed. Nine children with mild cerebral palsy, who all had a dominant right leg, were recruited. After wearing the orthosis, all gait parameters improved, and foot motion changed in the stance phase of the gait cycle. The path of pressure trajectory closing to the midline was also observed during dynamic assessment. Changes in plantar pressure and path of pressure trajectory were observed and the orthosis device could provide immediate assistance to correct the leg alignment and improve the gait performance in children with mild cerebral palsy. PMID:26640796

  17. Automated Gait and Balance Parameters Diagnose and Correlate with Severity in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, Daniel C.; Miocinovic, Svjetlana; Bernstein, Ira; Khemani, Pravin; Dewey, Richard B.; Querry, Ross; Chitnis, Shilpa; Dewey, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the suitability of instrumented gait and balance measures for diagnosis and estimation of disease severity in PD. Methods Each subject performed iTUG (instrumented Timed-Up-and-Go) and iSway (instrumented Sway) using the APDM® Mobility Lab. MDS-UPDRS parts II and III, a postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD) score, the mobility subscale of the PDQ-39, and Hoehn & Yahr stage were measured in the PD cohort. Two sets of gait and balance variables were defined by high correlation with diagnosis or disease severity and were evaluated using multiple linear and logistic regressions, ROC analyses, and t-tests. Results 135 PD subjects and 66 age-matched controls were evaluated in this prospective cohort study. We found that both iTUG and iSway variables differentiated PD subjects from controls (area under the ROC curve was 0.82 and 0.75 respectively) and correlated with all PD severity measures (R2 ranging from 0.18 to 0.61). Objective exam-based scores correlated more strongly with iTUG than iSway. The chosen set of iTUG variables was abnormal in very mild disease. Age and gender influenced gait and balance parameters and were therefore controlled in all analyses. Interpretation Our study identified sets of iTUG and iSway variables which correlate with PD severity measures and differentiate PD subjects from controls. These gait and balance measures could potentially serve as markers of PD progression and are under evaluation for this purpose in the ongoing NIH Parkinson Disease Biomarker Program. PMID:25082782

  18. A Low-Cost Body Inertial-Sensing Network for Practical Gait Discrimination of Hemiplegia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanwei; Wu, Dan; Liu, Guanzheng; Zhao, Guoru; Huang, Bangyu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Gait analysis is widely used in detecting human walking disorders. Current gait analysis methods like video- or optical-based systems are expensive and cause invasion of human privacy. This article presents a self-developed low-cost body inertial-sensing network, which contains a base station, three wearable inertial measurement nodes, and the affiliated wireless communication protocol, for practical gait discrimination between hemiplegia patients and asymptomatic subjects. Every sensing node contains one three-axis accelerometer, one three-axis magnetometer, and one three-axis gyroscope. Seven hemiplegia patients (all were abnormal on the right side) and 7 asymptomatic subjects were examined. The three measurement nodes were attached on the thigh, the shank, and the dorsum of the foot, respectively (all on the right side of the body). A new method, which does not need to obtain accurate positions of the sensors, was used to calculate angles of knee flexion/extension and foot in the gait cycle. The angle amplitudes of initial contact, toe off, and knee flexion/extension were extracted. The results showed that there were significant differences between the two groups in the three angle amplitudes examined (−0.52±0.98° versus 6.94±2.63°, 28.33±11.66° versus 47.34±7.90°, and 26.85±8.6° versus 50.91±6.60°, respectively). It was concluded that the body inertial-sensing network platform provided a practical approach for wearable biomotion acquisition and was effective for discriminating gait symptoms between hemiplegia and asymptomatic subjects. PMID:22449064

  19. A low-cost body inertial-sensing network for practical gait discrimination of hemiplegia patients.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanwei; Wu, Dan; Liu, Guanzheng; Zhao, Guoru; Huang, Bangyu; Wang, Lei

    2012-12-01

    Gait analysis is widely used in detecting human walking disorders. Current gait analysis methods like video- or optical-based systems are expensive and cause invasion of human privacy. This article presents a self-developed low-cost body inertial-sensing network, which contains a base station, three wearable inertial measurement nodes, and the affiliated wireless communication protocol, for practical gait discrimination between hemiplegia patients and asymptomatic subjects. Every sensing node contains one three-axis accelerometer, one three-axis magnetometer, and one three-axis gyroscope. Seven hemiplegia patients (all were abnormal on the right side) and 7 asymptomatic subjects were examined. The three measurement nodes were attached on the thigh, the shank, and the dorsum of the foot, respectively (all on the right side of the body). A new method, which does not need to obtain accurate positions of the sensors, was used to calculate angles of knee flexion/extension and foot in the gait cycle. The angle amplitudes of initial contact, toe off, and knee flexion/extension were extracted. The results showed that there were significant differences between the two groups in the three angle amplitudes examined (-0.52±0.98° versus 6.94±2.63°, 28.33±11.66° versus 47.34±7.90°, and 26.85±8.6° versus 50.91±6.60°, respectively). It was concluded that the body inertial-sensing network platform provided a practical approach for wearable biomotion acquisition and was effective for discriminating gait symptoms between hemiplegia and asymptomatic subjects. PMID:22449064

  20. Gait Disturbance as the Presenting Symptom in Young Children With Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Yeshokumar, Anusha K; Sun, Lisa R; Klein, Jessica L; Baranano, Kristin W; Pardo, Carlos A

    2016-09-01

    This case series demonstrates a novel clinical phenotype of gait disturbance as an initial symptom in children <3 years old with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is one of the most common causes of encephalitis in children, more common than any of the viral encephalitides and the second most common autoimmune cause after acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis in children often presents with disrupted speech and sleep patterns followed by progression to motor dysfunction, dyskinesias, and seizures. Because this condition can present initially with vague symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of anti-NMDAR encephalitis are often delayed. Although nearly 40% of all reported patients are <18 years old, few infants and toddlers have been reported with this disease. Four children <3 years old were diagnosed with anti-NMDAR encephalitis at our institution. Interestingly, each child presented initially with the chief concern of gait disturbance. One child presented with unsteady walking and slurred speech, suggestive of cerebellar ataxia, and 3 had inability to bear weight on a unilateral lower extremity, resulting in unsteady gait. Two of these children had seizures at the time of hospital presentation. All developed classic behavioral changes, insomnia, dyskinesias, or decreased speech immediately before or during hospitalization. When seen in the setting of other neurologic abnormalities, gait disturbance should raise the concern for anti-NMDAR encephalitis in young children. The differential diagnosis for gait disturbance in toddlers and key features suggestive of anti-NMDAR encephalitis are reviewed. PMID:27531146

  1. Gait improvement after treadmill training in ischemic stroke survivors: A critical review of functional MRI studies☆

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiang; Huang, Dongfeng; O’Young, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Stroke survivors often present with abnormal gait, movement training can improve the walking performance post-stroke, and functional MRI can objectively evaluate the brain functions before and after movement training. This paper analyzes the functional MRI changes in patients with ischemic stroke after treadmill training with voluntary and passive ankle dorsiflexion. Functional MRI showed that there are some changes in some regions of patients with ischemic stroke including primary sensorimotor cortex, supplementary motor area and cingulate motor area after treadmill training. These findings suggest that treadmill training likely improves ischemic stroke patients’ lower limb functions and gait performance and promotes stroke recovery by changing patients’ brain plasticity; meanwhile, the novel treadmill training methods can better training effects. PMID:25337096

  2. Robotic gait rehabilitation and substitution devices in neurological disorders: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Cacciola, Alberto; Bertè, Francesco; Manuli, Alfredo; Leo, Antonino; Bramanti, Alessia; Naro, Antonino; Milardi, Demetrio; Bramanti, Placido

    2016-04-01

    Gait abnormalities following neurological disorders are often disabling, negatively affecting patients' quality of life. Therefore, regaining of walking is considered one of the primary objectives of the rehabilitation process. To overcome problems related to conventional physical therapy, in the last years there has been an intense technological development of robotic devices, and robotic rehabilitation has proved to play a major role in improving one's ability to walk. The robotic rehabilitation systems can be classified into stationary and overground walking systems, and several studies have demonstrated their usefulness in patients after severe acquired brain injury, spinal cord injury and other neurological diseases, including Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and cerebral palsy. In this review, we want to highlight which are the most widely used devices today for gait neurological rehabilitation, focusing on their functioning, effectiveness and challenges. Novel and promising rehabilitation tools, including the use of virtual reality, are also discussed. PMID:26781943

  3. Familiarity with music increases walking speed in rhythmic auditory cuing.

    PubMed

    Leow, Li-Ann; Rinchon, Cricia; Grahn, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) is a gait rehabilitation method in which patients synchronize footsteps to a metronome or musical beats. Although RAS with music can ameliorate gait abnormalities, outcomes vary, possibly because music properties, such as groove or familiarity, differ across interventions. To optimize future interventions, we assessed how initially familiar and unfamiliar low-groove and high-groove music affected synchronization accuracy and gait in healthy individuals. We also experimentally increased music familiarity using repeated exposure to initially unfamiliar songs. Overall, familiar music elicited faster stride velocity and less variable strides, as well as better synchronization performance (matching of step tempo to beat tempo). High-groove music, as reported previously, led to faster stride velocity than low-groove music. We propose two mechanisms for familiarity's effects. First, familiarity with the beat structure reduces cognitive demands of synchronizing, leading to better synchronization performance and faster, less variable gait. Second, familiarity might have elicited faster gait by increasing enjoyment of the music, as enjoyment was higher after repeated exposure to initially low-enjoyment songs. Future studies are necessary to dissociate the contribution of these mechanisms to the observed RAS effects of familiar music on gait. PMID:25773617

  4. Human gait recognition based on compactness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2008-10-01

    Gait recognition is new biological identity technology and widely researched in recent years for its many advantages compared with other biological identity technology. In this paper, we propose a simple but effective feature-compactness for gait recognition. First an improved background subtraction algorithm is used to obtain the silhouettes. Then the compactness is extracted from the images in the gait sequence as the feature vector. In the step of classification, DTW algorithm is adopted to adjust the feature vectors before classifying and two classifiers (NN and ENN) are used as classifiers. Because of the simple features which we choose, it consumes little time for recognition and the results turn out to be encouraging.

  5. Pedestrian locomotion energetics and gait characteristics of a diving bird, the great cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo.

    PubMed

    White, Craig R; Martin, Graham R; Butler, Patrick J

    2008-08-01

    Great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo are foot propelled diving birds that seem poorly suited to locomotion on land. They have relatively short legs, which are presumably adapted for the generation of high forces during the power stroke of aquatic locomotion, and walk with a pronounced "clumsy waddle". We hypothesise (1) that the speed, independent minimum cost of locomotion (C min, ml O2 m(-1)) will be high for cormorants during treadmill exercise, and (2) that cormorants will have a relatively limited speed range in comparison to more cursorial birds. We measured the rate of oxygen consumption (V02) of cormorants during pedestrian locomotion on a treadmill, and filmed them to determine duty factor (the fraction of stride period that the foot is in contact with the ground), foot contact time (tc), stride frequency (f), swing phase duration and stride length. C min was 2.1-fold higher than that predicted by their body mass and phylogenetic position, but was not significantly different from the C min of runners (Galliformes and Struthioniformes). The extrapolated gamma-intercept of the relationship between V02 and speed was 1.9-fold higher than that predicted by allometry. Again, cormorants were not significantly different from runners. Contrary to our hypothesis, we therefore conclude that cormorants do not have high pedestrian transport costs. Cormorants were observed to use a grounded gait with two double support phases at all speeds measured, and showed an apparent gait transition between 0.17 and 0.25 m s(-1). This transition occurs at a Froude number between 0.016 and 0.037, which is lower than the value of approximately 0.5 observed for many other species. However, despite the use of a limited speed range, and a gait transition at relatively low speed, we conclude that the pedestrian locomotion of these foot propelled diving birds is otherwise generally similar to that of cursorial birds at comparable relative velocities. PMID:18575869

  6. Human Odometry Verifies the Symmetry Perspective on Bipedal Gaits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turvey, M. T.; Harrison, Steven J.; Frank, Till D.; Carello, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Bipedal gaits have been classified on the basis of the group symmetry of the minimal network of identical differential equations (alias "cells") required to model them. Primary gaits are characterized by dihedral symmetry, whereas secondary gaits are characterized by a lower, cyclic symmetry. This fact was used in a test of human odometry. Results…

  7. Gait Variability before Surgery and at Discharge in Patients Who Undergo Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hiyama, Yoshinori; Asai, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Osamu; Okada, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine gait ability at hospital discharge in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) as an indicator of the risk of falling. Fifty-seven patients undergoing primary TKA for knee osteoarthritis participated in this study. Gait variability measured with accelerometers and physical function including knee range of motion (ROM), quadriceps strength, walking speed, and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test were evaluated preoperatively and at discharge from the hospital (1 month before and 5 days after surgery). All patients were discharged directly home at 5 days after surgery. Knee flexion of ROM, quadriceps strength, walking speed, and the TUG test results were significantly worse at hospital discharge than preoperatively (p < 0.001). However, gait variability was not significantly different before and after TKA. This result indicated that patients following TKA surgery could walk at hospital discharge as stably as preoperatively regardless of the decrease in physical function, including knee ROM, quadriceps strength, and gait speed after surgery. PMID:25617842

  8. Children and adults minimise activated muscle volume by selecting gait parameters that balance gross mechanical power and work demands

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Usherwood, James R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Terrestrial locomotion on legs is energetically expensive. Compared with cycling, or with locomotion in swimming or flying animals, walking and running are highly uneconomical. Legged gaits that minimise mechanical work have previously been identified and broadly match walking and running at appropriate speeds. Furthermore, the ‘cost of muscle force’ approaches are effective in relating locomotion kinetics to metabolic cost. However, few accounts have been made for why animals deviate from either work-minimising or muscle-force-minimising strategies. Also, there is no current mechanistic account for the scaling of locomotion kinetics with animal size and speed. Here, we report measurements of ground reaction forces in walking children and adult humans, and their stance durations during running. We find that many aspects of gait kinetics and kinematics scale with speed and size in a manner that is consistent with minimising muscle activation required for the more demanding between mechanical work and power: spreading the duration of muscle action reduces activation requirements for power, at the cost of greater work demands. Mechanical work is relatively more demanding for larger bipeds – adult humans – accounting for their symmetrical M-shaped vertical force traces in walking, and relatively brief stance durations in running compared with smaller bipeds – children. The gaits of small children, and the greater deviation of their mechanics from work-minimising strategies, may be understood as appropriate for their scale, not merely as immature, incompletely developed and energetically sub-optimal versions of adult gaits. PMID:26400978

  9. Footwear Decreases Gait Asymmetry during Running

    PubMed Central

    Hoerzer, Stefan; Federolf, Peter A.; Maurer, Christian; Baltich, Jennifer; Nigg, Benno M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on elderly people has suggested that footwear may improve neuromuscular control of motion. If footwear does in fact improve neuromuscular control, then such an influence might already be present in young, healthy adults. A feature that is often used to assess neuromuscular control of motion is the level of gait asymmetry. The objectives of the study were (a) to develop a comprehensive asymmetry index (CAI) that is capable of detecting gait asymmetry changes caused by external boundary conditions such as footwear, and (b) to use the CAI to investigate whether footwear influences gait asymmetry during running in a healthy, young cohort. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected for both legs of 15 subjects performing five barefoot and five shod over-ground running trials. Thirty continuous gait variables including ground reaction forces and variables of the hip, knee, and ankle joints were computed for each leg. For each individual, the differences between the variables for the right and left leg were calculated. Using this data, a principal component analysis was conducted to obtain the CAI. This study had two main outcomes. First, a sensitivity analysis suggested that the CAI had an improved sensitivity for detecting changes in gait asymmetry caused by external boundary conditions. The CAI may, therefore, have important clinical applications such as monitoring the progress of neuromuscular diseases (e.g. stroke or cerebral palsy). Second, the mean CAI for shod running (131.2 ± 48.5; mean ± standard deviation) was significantly lower (p = 0.041) than the CAI for barefoot running (155.7 ± 39.5). This finding suggests that in healthy, young adults gait asymmetry is reduced when running in shoes compared to running barefoot, which may be a result of improved neuromuscular control caused by changes in the afferent sensory feedback. PMID:26488484

  10. Short- and Long-Term Efficacy of Intensive Rehabilitation Treatment on Balance and Gait in Parkinsonian Patients: A Preliminary Study with a 1-Year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Bertotti, Gabriella; Uccellini, Davide; Boveri, Natalia; Rovescala, R.; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which gait and balance disturbances are relevant symptoms that respond poorly to pharmacological treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 4-week inpatient multidisciplinary intensive rehabilitation treatment (MIRT) is effective in improving balance and gait and whether improvements persist at a one-year followup. We studied 20 PD inpatients (stage 3 Hoehn-Yahr) who underwent a MIRT. Outcome measures were UPDRS items for balance (30), falls (13), and walk (29), Berg Balance Scale, six-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go Test, and Comfortable-Fast gait speeds. Patients were evaluated at admission, at the end of the 4-week treatment, and at a 1-year followup. Pharmacological therapy was unchanged during MIRT and follow-up. All outcome measures improved significantly at the end of treatment. At 1-year follow-up control, UPDRS walk and Comfortable-Fast gait speeds still maintained better values with respect to admission (P = 0.009, P = 0.03, and P = 0.02, resp.), while the remaining scales did not differ significantly. Our results demonstrate that the MIRT was effective in improving balance and gait and that the improvement in gait performances was partially maintained also after 1 year. PMID:23766927

  11. Changes of Gait Parameters and Lower Limb Dynamics in Recreational Runners with Achilles Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SungJoong; Yu, JaeHo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the mechanical gait changes caused by achilles tendinopathy by comparing gait parameters and changes in hip, knee, and ankle moments between an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). Twenty runners with achilles tendinopathy were included in the EG (male/female: 10/10, age: 27.00 ± 4.63), and 20 CG (male/female: 10/10, age: 27.25 ± 4.33) participants were recruited. Subjects walked a 13-m distance at their normal walking speed 5 times to obtain motion analysis and joint moment data. Gait parameter analysis showed significant differences in double-limb support (EG: 22.65 ± 4.26%, CG: 20.37 ± 4.46%), step length (EG: 0.58 ± 0.0 7m, CG: 0.64 ± 0.08 m), step width (EG: 0.16 ± 0.04 m, CG: 0.14 ± 0.05 m), stride time (EG: 1.09 ± 0.10 second, CG: 1.05 ± 0.08 second), and walking speed (EG: 1.09±0.18 m·s-1, CG: 1.23 ± 0.17 m·s-1) between the 2 groups (p < 0.05). Significant differences were found in hip joint moment for initial contact, mid-stance, terminal stance, and pre-swing phases; knee joint moment for initial contact and pre-swing phases; and ankle joint moment for pre-swing and terminal swing phases (p < 0.05). Gait parameters and hip, knee, and ankle moments were altered in runners with achilles tendinopathy. Thus, clinical features of gait changes should be understood for optimal treatment of achilles tendinopathy; further research is required in this field. Key points A reduction in gait parameters, namely, step length, stride length, and walking speed, and an increase in double-limb support occurs in runners with achilles tendinopathy. A reduction in the hip extension moment occurs during the initial contact, as well as a reduction in the knee flexion moment from the mid-stance to pre-swing phases, a continuous decrease in the knee flexion moment from the early stance phase, and a reduction in the extension moment during the terminal stance phase. A reduction in the ankle plantar flexion moment occurs from

  12. Changes of gait parameters and lower limb dynamics in recreational runners with achilles tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Kim, SungJoong; Yu, JaeHo

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the mechanical gait changes caused by achilles tendinopathy by comparing gait parameters and changes in hip, knee, and ankle moments between an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). Twenty runners with achilles tendinopathy were included in the EG (male/female: 10/10, age: 27.00 ± 4.63), and 20 CG (male/female: 10/10, age: 27.25 ± 4.33) participants were recruited. Subjects walked a 13-m distance at their normal walking speed 5 times to obtain motion analysis and joint moment data. Gait parameter analysis showed significant differences in double-limb support (EG: 22.65 ± 4.26%, CG: 20.37 ± 4.46%), step length (EG: 0.58 ± 0.0 7m, CG: 0.64 ± 0.08 m), step width (EG: 0.16 ± 0.04 m, CG: 0.14 ± 0.05 m), stride time (EG: 1.09 ± 0.10 second, CG: 1.05 ± 0.08 second), and walking speed (EG: 1.09±0.18 m·s(-1), CG: 1.23 ± 0.17 m·s(-1)) between the 2 groups (p < 0.05). Significant differences were found in hip joint moment for initial contact, mid-stance, terminal stance, and pre-swing phases; knee joint moment for initial contact and pre-swing phases; and ankle joint moment for pre-swing and terminal swing phases (p < 0.05). Gait parameters and hip, knee, and ankle moments were altered in runners with achilles tendinopathy. Thus, clinical features of gait changes should be understood for optimal treatment of achilles tendinopathy; further research is required in this field. Key pointsA reduction in gait parameters, namely, step length, stride length, and walking speed, and an increase in double-limb support occurs in runners with achilles tendinopathy.A reduction in the hip extension moment occurs during the initial contact, as well as a reduction in the knee flexion moment from the mid-stance to pre-swing phases, a continuous decrease in the knee flexion moment from the early stance phase, and a reduction in the extension moment during the terminal stance phase.A reduction in the ankle plantar flexion moment occurs from

  13. Periodic gaits for the CMU ambler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahalingam, Swaminathan; Dwivedi, Suren N.

    1989-01-01

    The configuration of the Carnegie Mellon University Ambler, a six legged autonomous walking vehicle for exploring Mars, enables the recovery of a trailing leg past the leading leg to reduce the energy expenditure in terrain interactions. Gaits developed for this unprecedented configuration are described. A stability criterion was developed which ensures stability of the vehicle in the event of failure of any one of the supporting legs. Periodic gaits developed for the Ambler utilize the Ambler's unique abilities, and continuously satisfy the stability criterion.

  14. Gait recognition based on fusion features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haizhen; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Xi

    2009-10-01

    Gait recognition and analysis is a promising biometrics technology finding applications in numerous sectors of our society. This paper proposes a new fusion algorithm where the static and dynamic features are fused to obtain optimal performance. The new fusion algorithm divides decision situations into two categories. The wavelet moment is used to describe the static features of gait sequence images, and the three widths of the body contour are used to describe the dynamic features. In addition, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for feature transformation of spatial templates is proposed. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs an encouraging recognition rate.

  15. [The experience in employing reciprocal gait orthoses].

    PubMed

    Radło, W; Miklaszewski, K; Gasińska, M; Michno, P

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the experience of the authors in employing reciprocal gait orthoses in a group of 23 patients age 3-25 years (mean age 7.8 years). The orthoses were indicated in patients with flaccid paresis (17 children with myelodysplasia and 3 patients with traumatic paraplegia) and with arthrogryposis (3 patients). The follow-up period was 6 months to 5 years (mean 2.4 years). The authors discuss the principles of construction and operation of reciprocal gait orthoses and types of patients in whom they are recommended. The principles of learning walking and using the orthosis are also presented. PMID:10367535

  16. The Gait Deviation Index Is Associated with Hip Muscle Strength and Patient-Reported Outcome in Patients with Severe Hip Osteoarthritis—A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosenlund, Signe; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Overgaard, Søren; Jensen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Background The Gait Deviation Index summarizes overall gait ‘quality’, based on kinematic data from a 3-dimensional gait analysis. However, it is unknown which clinical outcomes may affect the Gait Deviation Index in patients with primary hip osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between Gait Deviation Index as a measure of gait ‘quality’ and hip muscle strength and between Gait Deviation Index and patient-reported outcomes in patients with primary hip osteoarthritis. Method Forty-seven patients (34 males), aged 61.1 ± 6.7 years, with BMI 27.3 ± 3.4 (kg/m2) and with severe primary hip osteoarthritis underwent 3-dimensional gait analysis. Mean Gait Deviation Index, pain after walking and maximal isometric hip muscle strength (flexor, extensor, and abductor) were recorded. All patients completed the ‘Physical Function Short-form of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS-Physical Function) and the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscales for pain (HOOS-Pain) and quality-of-life (HOOS-QOL). Results Mean Gait Deviation Index was positively associated with hip abduction strength (p<0.01, r = 0.40), hip flexion strength (p = 0.01, r = 0.37), HOOS-Physical Function (p<0.01, r = 0.41) HOOS-QOL (p<0.01, r = 0.41), and negatively associated with HOOS-Pain after walking (p<0.01, r = -0.45). Adjusting the analysis for walking speed did not affect the association. Conclusion Patients with the strongest hip abductor and hip flexor muscles had the best gait ‘quality’. Furthermore, patients with higher physical function, quality of life scores and lower pain levels demonstrated better gait ‘quality’. These findings indicate that interventions aimed at improving hip muscle strength and pain management may to a moderate degree improve the overall gait ‘quality’ in patients with primary hip OA. PMID:27065007

  17. Gait transition dynamics are modulated by concurrent cognitive activity.

    PubMed

    Abdolvahab, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    In tasks with two categorically distinct behavioral possibilities a person beginning with one option will typically switch to the other at a higher value of a control parameter in an ascending (increasing) sequence than in a descending (decreasing) sequence. For example, the switch from walking to running on an accelerating treadmill occurs at a higher speed than the switch from running to walking on a decelerating treadmill. The reported research posed the question of whether this variant of behavioral hysteresis was affected by concurrent cognitive activity. Participants walked or ran on a treadmill with a constant acceleration or deceleration while counting backwards by sevens or ones, or not counting. The degree of hysteresis, the difference between walk-to-run and run-to-walk transition speeds, increased with cognitive difficulty. Specifically, the increased hysteresis was shown to be due to lower run-to-walk transition speeds for the more difficult concurrent cognitive tasks. These results support the hypothesis that cognitive load occupies attentional resources that contribute to triggering human gait transitions. PMID:26092304

  18. Assessment of biofeedback rehabilitation in post-stroke patients combining fMRI and gait analysis: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The ability to walk independently is a primary goal for rehabilitation after stroke. Gait analysis provides a great amount of valuable information, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) offers a powerful approach to define networks involved in motor control. The present study reports a new methodology based on both fMRI and gait analysis outcomes in order to investigate the ability of fMRI to reflect the phases of motor learning before/after electromyographic biofeedback treatment: the preliminary fMRI results of a post stroke subject’s brain activation, during passive and active ankle dorsal/plantarflexion, before and after biofeedback (BFB) rehabilitation are reported and their correlation with gait analysis data investigated. Methods A control subject and a post-stroke patient with chronic hemiparesis were studied. Functional magnetic resonance images were acquired during a block-design protocol on both subjects while performing passive and active ankle dorsal/plantarflexion. fMRI and gait analysis were assessed on the patient before and after electromyographic biofeedback rehabilitation treatment during gait activities. Lower limb three-dimensional kinematics, kinetics and surface electromyography were evaluated. Correlation between fMRI and gait analysis categorical variables was assessed: agreement/disagreement was assigned to each variable if the value was in/outside the normative range (gait analysis), or for presence of normal/diffuse/no activation of motor area (fMRI). Results Altered fMRI activity was found on the post-stroke patient before biofeedback rehabilitation with respect to the control one. Meanwhile the patient showed a diffuse, but more limited brain activation after treatment (less voxels). The post-stroke gait data showed a trend towards the normal range: speed, stride length, ankle power, and ankle positive work increased. Preliminary correlation analysis revealed that consistent changes were observed both for the

  19. The Effect of Various Dual Task Training Methods with Gait on the Balance and Gait of Patients with Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    An, Ho-Jung; Kim, Jae-Ic; Kim, Yang-Rae; Lee, Kyoung-Bo; Kim, Dai-Joong; Yoo, Kyung-Tae; Choi, Jung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of various dual task gait training methods (motor dual task gait training, cognitive dual task gait training, and motor and cognitive dual task gait training) on the balance and gait abilities of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-three outpatients performed dual task gait training for 30 minutes per day, three times a week, for eight weeks from June to August, 2012. Balance ability was measured pre-and posttest using the stability test index, the weight distribution index, the functional reach test, the timed up and go test, and the four square step test. Gait ability was measured by the 10 m walk test and a 6 min walk test before and after the training. The paired t-test was used to compare measurements before and after training within each group, and ANOVA was used to compare measurements before and after training among the groups. [Results] Comparisons within each group indicated significant differences in all variables between before and after the training in all three groups. Comparison between the groups showed that the greatest improvements were seen in all tests, except for the timed up and go test, following motor and cognitive dual task gait training. [Conclusion] In a real walking environment, the motor and cognitive dual task gait training was more effective at improving the balance and gait abilities of chronic stroke patients than either the motor dual task gait training or the cognitive dual task gait training alone. PMID:25202199

  20. Hysteresis in the gait transition of a quadruped investigated using simple body mechanical and oscillator network models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoi, Shinya; Yamashita, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchiya, Kazuo

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the dynamics of quadrupedal locomotion by constructing a simple quadruped model that consists of a body mechanical model and an oscillator network model. The quadruped model has front and rear bodies connected by a waist joint with a torsional spring and damper system and four limbs controlled by command signals from the oscillator network model. The simulation results reveal that the quadruped model produces various gait patterns through dynamic interactions among the body mechanical system, the oscillator network system, and the environment. They also show that it undergoes a gait transition induced by changes in the waist joint stiffness and the walking speed. In addition, the gait pattern transition exhibits a hysteresis similar to that observed in human and animal locomotion. We examined the hysteresis mechanism from a dynamic viewpoint.

  1. Design and experimental gait analysis of a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's peristaltic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hongbin; Wang, Chenghao; Li, Suyi; Xu, Jian; Wang, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports the experimental progress towards developing a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's body structure and locomotion mechanism. To mimic the alternating contraction and elongation of a single earthworm's segment, a robust, servomotor based actuation mechanism is developed. In each robot segment, servomotor-driven cords and spring steel belts are utilized to imitate the earthworm's longitudinal and circular muscles, respectively. It is shown that the designed segment can contract and relax just like an earthworm's body segment. The axial and radial deformation of a single segment is measured experimentally, which agrees with the theoretical predictions. Then a multisegment earthworm-like robot is fabricated by assembling eight identical segments in series. The locomotion performance of this robot prototype is then extensively tested in order to investigate the correlation between gait design and dynamic locomotion characteristics. Based on the principle of retrograde peristalsis wave, a gait generator is developed for the multi-segment earthworm-like robot, following which gaits of the robot can be constructed. Employing the generated gaits, the 8-segment earthworm-like robot can successfully perform both horizontal locomotion and vertical climb in pipes. By changing gait parameters, i.e., with different gaits, locomotion characteristics including average speed and anchor slippage can be significantly tailored. The proposed actuation method and prototype of the multi-segment in-pipe robot as well as the gait generator provide a bionic realization of earthworm's locomotion with promising potentials in various applications such as pipeline inspection and cleaning.

  2. The Effects of Stroke Type, Locus, and Extent on Long-Term Outcome of Gait Rehabilitation: The LEAPS Experience.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Stephen E; Dobkin, Bruce; Wu, Samuel S; Pei, Qinglin; Duncan, Pamela W

    2016-08-01

    Background Paresis in stroke is largely a result of damage to descending corticospinal and corticobulbar pathways. Recovery of paresis predominantly reflects the impact on the neural consequences of this white matter lesion by reactive neuroplasticity (mechanisms involved in spontaneous recovery) and experience-dependent neuroplasticity, driven by therapy and daily experience. However, both theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that type of stroke (large vessel distribution/lacunar infarction, hemorrhage), locus and extent of infarction (basal ganglia, right-hemisphere cerebral cortex), and the presence of leukoaraiosis or prior stroke might influence long-term recovery of walking ability. In this secondary analysis based on the 408 participants in the Locomotor Experience Applied Post-Stroke (LEAPS) study database, we seek to address these possibilities. Methods Lesion type, locus, and extent were characterized by the 2 neurologists in the LEAPS trial on the basis of clinical computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans. A series of regression models was used to test our hypotheses regarding the effects of lesion type, locus, extent, and laterality on 2- to 12-month change in gait speed, controlling for baseline gait speed, age, and Berg Balance Scale score. Results Gait speed change at 1 year was significantly reduced in participants with basal ganglia involvement and prior stroke. There was a trend toward reduction of gait speed change in participants with lacunar infarctions. The presence of right-hemisphere cortical involvement had no significant impact on outcome. Conclusions Type, locus, and extent of lesion, and the loss of substrate for neuroplastic effect as a result of prior stroke may affect long-term outcome of rehabilitation of hemiparetic gait. PMID:26498434

  3. A Pilot Clinical Trial to Objectively Assess the Efficacy of Electroacupuncture on Gait in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Using Body Worn Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background Gait disorder, a key contributor to fall and poor quality of life, represents a major therapeutic challenge in Parkinson’s disease (PD). The efficacy of acupuncture for PD remains unclear, largely due to methodological flaws and lack of studies using objective outcome measures. Objective To objectively assess the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) for gait disorders using body-worn sensor technology in patients with PD. Methods In this randomized pilot study, both the patients and assessors were masked. Fifteen PD patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 10) or to a control group (n = 5). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after completion of three weekly EA treatments. Measurements included gait analysis during single-task habitual walking (STHW), dual-task habitual walking (DTHW), single-task fast walking (STFW), dual-task fast walking (DTFW). In addition, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), SF-12 health survey, short Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain were utilized. Results All gait parameters were improved in the experimental group in response to EA treatment. After adjustment by age and BMI, the improvement achieved statistical significant level for gait speed under STHW, STFW, and DTFW (9%-19%, p<0.05) as well as stride length during DTFW (9%, p = 0.037) and midswing speed during STFW (6%, p = 0.033). No significant changes were observed in the control group (p>0.110). The highest correlation between gait parameters and UPRDS scores at baseline was observed between gait speed during STFW and UPDRS II (r = -0.888, p = 0.004). The change in this gait parameter in response to active intervention was positively correlated with baseline UPDRS (r = 0.595, p = 0.057). Finally, comparison of responses to treatment between groups showed significant improvement, prominently in gait speed (effect size 0.32–1.16, p = 0.001). Conclusions This study provides the objective

  4. Analysis of Human Gait Radar Signal Using Reassigned WVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun

    Human gait is one of the biological features for human recognition. The key feature of gait can be acquired by analyzing the human echo signal to CW radar. Based on the data from the test CW gait radar, the methods for analyzing multi-component non-stationary signal are discussed in detail. The comparison among the application STFT, WVD, Pseudo-smoothed WVD and its improvements in gait signal are given, and the basic method for gait feature extraction based on time-frequency analysis is proposed. The results in this paper will be a well support for further research.

  5. Allometric control of human gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Lori Ann

    results suggest the need to change the interpretation of ``noise'' in such time series data. Suggesting the concept of how the gait data will be analyzed, with regards to treating strides as being random, may need to be rethought.

  6. The Association of Medication-Use and Frailty-Related Factors with Gait Performance in Older Patients

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Maartje H.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Kosse, Nienke M.; de Vries, Oscar J.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2016-01-01

    The increased fall risk associated with the use of psychotropic drugs might be caused by underlying problems in postural control that are induced by sedative side-effects of these drugs. The current literature on the effects of psychotropics on postural control only examined acute single-drug effects, and included relatively healthy young elderly. Consequently, it is unclear what the impact of the long-term use of these drugs is on gait in frail older persons with polypharmacy. Therefore, it was aimed in the present study to explore the association between the use of psychotropics, multiple other medications, frailty-related parameters and gait performance in older patients. Eighty older persons (79±5.6 years) were recruited. Comorbid diseases, frailty-related parameters, and medication-use were registered. Trunk accelerations during a 3-minute-walking-task were recorded, whereof walking speed, mean stride times, coefficient of variation (CV) of stride times, and step consistency were determined. Multivariate Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression analysis was used to examine the association between population characteristics and medication-use, versus gait parameters. A PLS-model existing of four latent variables was built, explaining 45% of the variance in four gait parameters. Frailty-related factors, being female, and laxative-use were most strongly associated with lower walking speed, higher mean stride times, higher CV of stride times, and less consistent steps. In conclusion, frailty-related parameters were stronger associated with impaired gait performance than the use of psychotropic drugs. Possibly, at a certain frailty-level, the effect of the deterioration in physical functioning in frailty is so large, that the instability-provoking side-effects of psychotropic drugs have less impact on gait. PMID:26901048

  7. The Association of Medication-Use and Frailty-Related Factors with Gait Performance in Older Patients.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Maartje H; van Campen, Jos P C M; Kosse, Nienke M; de Vries, Oscar J; Beijnen, Jos H; Lamoth, Claudine J C

    2016-01-01

    The increased fall risk associated with the use of psychotropic drugs might be caused by underlying problems in postural control that are induced by sedative side-effects of these drugs. The current literature on the effects of psychotropics on postural control only examined acute single-drug effects, and included relatively healthy young elderly. Consequently, it is unclear what the impact of the long-term use of these drugs is on gait in frail older persons with polypharmacy. Therefore, it was aimed in the present study to explore the association between the use of psychotropics, multiple other medications, frailty-related parameters and gait performance in older patients. Eighty older persons (79±5.6 years) were recruited. Comorbid diseases, frailty-related parameters, and medication-use were registered. Trunk accelerations during a 3-minute-walking-task were recorded, whereof walking speed, mean stride times, coefficient of variation (CV) of stride times, and step consistency were determined. Multivariate Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression analysis was used to examine the association between population characteristics and medication-use, versus gait parameters. A PLS-model existing of four latent variables was built, explaining 45% of the variance in four gait parameters. Frailty-related factors, being female, and laxative-use were most strongly associated with lower walking speed, higher mean stride times, higher CV of stride times, and less consistent steps. In conclusion, frailty-related parameters were stronger associated with impaired gait performance than the use of psychotropic drugs. Possibly, at a certain frailty-level, the effect of the deterioration in physical functioning in frailty is so large, that the instability-provoking side-effects of psychotropic drugs have less impact on gait. PMID:26901048

  8. Effects of using the nintendo wii fit plus platform in the sensorimotor training of gait disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Giovanna Barros; Leite, Marco Antônio A; Orsini, Marco; Pereira, João Santos

    2014-01-17

    The use of the Nintendo Wii has been considered a good alternative in the motor rehabilitation of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD), requiring simultaneous interaction to develop strategies for physical, visual, auditory, cognitive, psychological and social activities in the performing of virtual activities, resulting in improvement in functional performance and gait. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of virtual sensorimotor activity on gait disorders in people with PD. Fifteen