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Sample records for abnormal gastric emptying

  1. Gastric emptying abnormalities in progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sridhar, K.; Magyar, L.; Lange, R.; McCallum, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    The authors studied gastric emptying (GE) in patients with peripheral manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) using a radionuclide method. 18 patients underwent esophageal manometry and a GE study using chicken liver labeled in vivo with Tc-99m sulfur colloid as a marker of solid emptying. GE was also measured in 13 normal volunteers. 4 PSS patients with normal esophageal motility also had normal GE. The GE of 14 PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility was significantly (p < 0.05) delayed; with 67.4% retention of isotope after 2 hours compared to 49.8 in normals. The authors conclude that GE of solids is slow in approximately 2/3 of PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility but is normal if the esophagus is uninvolved; Delayed GE may contribute to the severity of gastroesophageal reflux in PSS patients and the degree of dysphasgia; and Metoclopramide accelerates GE in PSS patients and should have a valuable therapeutic role.

  2. Abnormalities of esophageal and gastric emptying in progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Maddern, G.J.; Horowitz, M.; Jamieson, G.G.; Chatterton, B.E.; Collins, P.J.; Roberts-Thomson, P.

    1984-10-01

    Gastric and esophageal emptying were assessed using scintigraphic techniques in 12 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis and 22 normal volunteers. Esophageal emptying was significantly delayed in the patient group, with 7 of the 12 patients beyond the normal range. Gastric emptying was slower in patients than in controls, with 9 patients being outside the normal range for solid emptying and 7 patients outside the normal range for liquid emptying. Findings from gastric and esophageal emptying tests generally correlated well with symptoms of dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux. However, 2 patients with normal emptying studies had symptomatic heartburn, and 2 patients with delay of both solid and liquid gastric emptying gave no history of gastroesophageal reflux. Delayed gastric emptying may be an important factor in the development of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis.

  3. Diabetic gastroparesis: an abnormality of gastric emptying of solids.

    PubMed

    Wright, R A; Clemente, R; Wathen, R

    1985-06-01

    Gastric emptying is delayed in subjects with gastroparesis diabeticorum. To ascertain whether solid or fluid gastric emptying is affected by visceral autonomic neuropathy, ten severe diabetics with gastroparesis and ten nondiabetic disease matched controls were studied. Subjects were screened to identify the presence or absence of autonomic neuropathy. The gastric emptying of fluids and solids was assessed by standard methodology utilizing a simultaneous dual radionuclide technique. If delayed gastric emptying was present on the initial study, metoclopramide (10mg IV bolus) was administered in a repeat study on a separate day. Screening modalities for autonomic neuropathy were markedly positive for the diabetic group, and were negative in the control group. The gastric emptying rate of fluids was normal in both groups and was not statistically different from previous standards developed using the same methodology (p = 0.53, analysis of covariance). The gastric emptying of solids was markedly delayed in the diabetic group in relation to the control group (p = .0035, analysis of covariance). Metoclopramide normalized delayed solid emptying rates without affecting fluid emptying rates.

  4. Abnormally rapid gastric emptying of an isosmotic liquid meal in patients with megaduodenum.

    PubMed

    Troncon, L E; Aprile, L R; Oliveira, R B; Iazigi, N

    2000-11-01

    Duodenal resistance to gastric outflow is known to participate in the regulation of gastric emptying of liquids in animals, but the role of this mechanism in humans has not been extensively investigated. In this work we studied the gastric emptying of liquids in patients with megaduodenum, who putatively have increased duodenal receptivity to gastroduodenal transfer of liquids. Subjects included eight patients with megaduodenum and eight healthy volunteers. Since megaduodenum in all cases was associated with Chagas' disease, a further reference group consisting of 11 chagasic patients without megaduodenum was also studied. Fasted subjects ingested 200 ml of an isotonic dextrose solution labeled with 15 MBq of technetium-99m coupled to sulfur colloid, as an unabsorbable marker. Images of the anterior aspect of the stomach were taken immediately after test meal ingestion and thereafter up to 1 hr. Decay-corrected counts over the gastric region along time yield the calculation of early (5 min) and late (60 min) gastric retention as well as gastric emptying half-times (T1/2). Early gastric retention in patients with megaduodenum (median; range: 48%; 18-64%) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in both patients without megaduodenum (59%; 40-86%) and controls (82%; 68-99%). T1/2 values in patients with megaduodenum (5 min; 3-17 min) were also significantly lower (P < 0.01) than in patients without megaduodenum (23 min; 4 to >60 min) and controls (29 min; 13-60 min). There were no significant differences between the three groups concerning late gastric retention. We conclude that the early phase of gastric emptying of liquids is abnormally accelerated in patients with megaduodenum, which suggests that increased duodenal receptivity may have a significant effect on the gastroduodenal transfer of liquids in humans.

  5. Models of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, D F

    1977-01-01

    Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

  6. Biphasic nature of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, J A; Urbain, J L; Adler, L P; Charkes, N D; Maurer, A H; Krevsky, B; Knight, L C; Fisher, R S; Malmud, L S

    1988-01-01

    The existence of a lag phase during the gastric emptying of solid foods is controversial. It has been hypothesised that among other early events, the stomach requires a period of time to process solid food to particles small enough to be handled as a liquid. At present no standardised curve fitting techniques exist for the characterisation and quantification of the lag phase or the emptying rate of solids and liquids. We have evaluated the ability of a modified power exponential function to define the emptying parameters of two different solid meals. Dual labelled meals were administered to 24 normal volunteers. The subjects received meals consisting of either Tc-99m in vivo labelled chicken liver or Tc-99m-egg, which have different densities, and In-111-DTPA in water. The emptying curves were biphasic in nature. For solids, this represented an initial delay in emptying or lag phase followed by an equilibrium emptying phase characterised by a constant rate of emptying. The curves were analysed using a modified power exponential function of the form y(t) = 1-(1-e-kt)beta, where y(t) is the fractional meal retention at time t, k is the gastric emptying rate in min-1, and beta is the extrapolated y-intercept from the terminal portion of the curve. The length of the lag phase and half-emptying time increased with solid food density (31 +/- 8 min and 77.6 +/- 11.2 min for egg and 62 +/- 16 min and 94.1 +/- 14.2 min for chicken liver, respectively). After the lag phase, both solids had similar emptying rates, and these rates were identical to those of the liquids. In vitro experiments indicated that the egg meal disintegrated much more rapidly than the chicken liver under mechanical agitation in gastric juice, lending further support to the hypothesis that the initial lag in emptying of solid food is due to the processing of food into particles small enough to pass the pylorus. We conclude that the modified power exponential model permits characterisation of the biphasic

  7. Gastric emptying in postural tachycardia syndrome: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Jong; Singer, Wolfgang; Sletten, David M; Low, Phillip A; Bharucha, Adil E

    2013-08-01

    Autonomic neuropathy is widely recognized to be associated with upper gastrointestinal symptoms and abnormal (i.e., rapid or slow) gastric emptying. While patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) may also have gastrointestinal symptoms, our understanding of gastric-emptying disturbances in POTS is very limited. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between gastric-emptying disturbances and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with POTS. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 22 well-characterized patients with POTS and upper gastrointestinal symptoms in whom autonomic (i.e., postganglionic sudomotor, cardiovagal, and adrenergic) functions and gastric emptying were evaluated using standardized techniques and scintigraphy, respectively. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively to assess clinical features, gastric emptying, and autonomic functions. Over 70 % of patients had nausea and/or vomiting, which was the most common GI symptom; other common symptoms were abdominal pain (59 %), bloating (55 %), and postprandial fullness/early satiety (46 %). Over one-third of patients had abnormal [i.e., rapid (27 %) or delayed (9 %)] gastric emptying. Gastric-emptying disturbances were not significantly associated with GI symptoms, autonomic symptoms or autonomic dysfunction. Over one-third of patients with POTS and gastrointestinal symptoms have abnormal, more frequently rapid than delayed gastric emptying. These findings need to be confirmed in a larger cohort of patients.

  8. Gastric emptying of solids: When should we sample

    SciTech Connect

    Sfakianakis, G.; Spoliansky, G.; Cassady, J.; Barkin, J.; Serafini, A.

    1984-01-01

    Gastric emptying of solids has been studied for 20 normal volunteers using Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid labeled chicken liver or eggs. Residual gastric activity measured in 15 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs was used to calculate gastric emptying. The procedure was proposed and is used to examine patients for suspected abnormal emptying. This approach however ties up one gamma camera and one technologist for a period of 2 1/2 - 3 hrs. Furthermore to classify any value more the 1SD below the mean as abnormal includes 16% of normals as abnormally low (false positives). In order to find the pattern of abnormalities and the best time to study patients we analyzed the results of 54 studies performed in patients with a variety of clinical problems. Gastric emptying was measured in 30 min intervals for 2 1/2 hrs after a standard meal of 2 scrambled eggs labeled with 1 mCi of Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid, 2 slices of bread and 300 ml of juice. To choose the point important to observe the authors studied the distribution of values at each time-point to determine when there is the greatest variability from the reported normal. When there is delayed emptying the 2 1/2 hr observation is the best discriminator and when there is accelerated emptying the 60 min observation is the best discriminator. In the group of patients the 150 min observation had no correlation with the age of the patients. It is possible that sampling at a later time could be more discriminatory. The authors propose sampling at 0, 60, and 150 min time as the most informative and cost effective approach to study the solid gastric emptying. The 2SD rather than 1SD below and above the mean should be used as the level to separate normal from abnormal results.

  9. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

  10. Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

  11. Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of gastric emptying disorders. Clinical usefulness of radionuclide measurements of gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, C.A.; Broderick, W.C.; Van Dyke, D.; Way, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    We studied 53 patients with severe gastrointestinal symptoms thought to be due to a gastric motility disorder. Sixty-six percent had had a previous operation on the stomach, and 21 percent had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Based on clinical, radiographic, and endoscopic findings, 48 patients were thought to have gastroparesis, 3 were thought to have dumping, and 2 had no diagnosis. Measurement of gastric emptying of solids showed that gastric emptying was normal in 12 patients, rapid in 15 patients, and slow in 26 patients. Further evaluation showed that half of the patients with normal gastric emptying, and one third of those with rapid gastric emptying had other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that responded well to surgery. Of those patients with dumping, diet modification was effective in 40 percent, and half of those who did not respond to dietary manipulations did well after reoperation. Nineteen patients with delayed gastric emptying were treated with metoclopramide. Sixty percent of those without previous gastric surgery responded, whereas only 25 percent of those with previous gastric surgery had good results. The rate of gastric emptying improved following reoperation in 9 (90 percent) of 10 patients with delayed gastric emptying (4 who had not responded to metoclopramide). Gastric emptying was measured again in 15 patients after treatment. The changes after treatment paralleled the clinical response. These studies indicate that gastroparesis cannot be reliably diagnosed on the basis of clinical findings and standard tests. Gastric emptying studies are essential to diagnose and treat patients thought to have gastric motility disorders, and to evaluate the results of therapy.

  13. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-03-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets.

  14. The effect of polycarbophil on the gastric emptying of pellets.

    PubMed

    Khosla, R; Davis, S S

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the putative bioadhesive, polycarbophil, on the gastric emptying of a pellet formulation, has been investigated in three fasted subjects. The pellets were radiolabelled with technetium-99m. Gastric emptying was measured using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. The pellets emptied from the stomach rapidly and in an exponential manner. Polycarbophil did not retard the gastric emptying of the pellets.

  15. The effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy on gastric antral myoelectrical activity and gastric emptying in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, H; Azuma, T; Ito, S; Abe, Y; Ono, H; Suto, H; Ito, Y; Yamazaki, Y; Kohli, Y; Kuriyama, M

    1999-10-01

    Dysmotility of the gastroduodenal region and delayed gastric emptying have been considered to play roles in non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD). Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation of the gastric mucosa may affect gastric motility. To evaluate the effects of H. pylori eradication therapy on gastrointestinal motility and symptoms in NUD patients. : Forty-six NUD patients were examined for gastric emptying, antral myoelectrical activity, H. pylori infection, and symptom scores. In H. pylori-positive NUD patients, gastric emptying, antral myoelectrical activity, and symptom scores were also analysed 2 months after cure of H. pylori infection. Sixty-seven per cent of NUD patients were H. pylori-positive. Both abnormal gastric emptying and antral myoelectrical activity were observed in NUD patients. H. pylori-positive NUD patients were divided into three groups according to their gastric emptying: the delayed group, the normal group, and the rapid group. In the delayed and rapid gastric emptying groups, the emptying and symptom scores were improved significantly by eradication. There was no improvement in symptom scores in the normal gastric emptying NUD group by the eradication therapy. Disturbed gastric emptying and antral myoelectrical activity play roles in NUD. H. pylori-induced disturbed gastric emptying may cause some NUD symptoms. Gastric emptying and symptom scores are improved by H. pylori eradication therapy in NUD patients with disturbed gastric emptying; H. pylori eradication therapy is effective in H. pylori-positive NUD patients with disturbed gastric emptying.

  16. Technical considerations in radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, P.E.; Datz, F.L.; Moore, J.G.

    1987-12-01

    This is the final article in a four-part Continuing Education series on quantitative imaging techniques. After studying this article, the reader should be able to: 1) identify proper use of radiopharmaceuticals and meal composition for gastric emptying studies; 2) discuss appropriate imaging techniques; and 3) discuss methods of data analysis.

  17. A review of methods for assessment of the rate of gastric emptying in the dog and cat: 1898-2002.

    PubMed

    Wyse, C A; McLellan, J; Dickie, A M; Sutton, D G M; Preston, T; Yam, P S

    2003-01-01

    Gastric emptying is the process by which food is delivered to the small intestine at a rate and in a form that optimizes intestinal absorption of nutrients. The rate of gastric emptying is subject to alteration by physiological, pharmacological, and pathological conditions. Gastric emptying of solids is of greater clinical significance because disordered gastric emptying rarely is detectable in the liquid phase. Imaging techniques have the disadvantage of requiring restraint of the animal and access to expensive equipment. Radiographic methods require administration of test meals that are not similar to food. Scintigraphy is the gold standard method for assessment of gastric emptying but requires administration of a radioisotope. Magnetic resonance imaging has not yet been applied for assessment of gastric emptying in small animals. Ultrasonography is a potentially useful, but subjective, method for assessment of gastric emptying in dogs. Gastric tracer methods require insertion of gastric or intestinal cannulae and are rarely applied outside of the research laboratory. The paracetamol absorption test has been applied for assessment of liquid phase gastric emptying in the dog, but requires IV cannulation. The gastric emptying breath test is a noninvasive method for assessment of gastric emptying that has been applied in dogs and cats. This method can be carried out away from the veterinary hospital, but the effects of physiological and pathological abnormalities on the test are not known. Advances in technology will facilitate the development of reliable methods for assessment of gastric emptying in small animals.

  18. Assessment of Gastric Emptying in Patients with Autoimmune Gastritis.

    PubMed

    Kalkan, Çağdaş; Soykan, Irfan; Soydal, Çiğdem; Özkan, Elgin; Kalkan, Emra

    2016-06-01

    Symptoms of patients with autoimmune gastritis are not specific, and some patients may present symptoms suggestive of delayed gastric emptying. This study aims to investigate whether any delay in gastric emptying of solid food exists in patients with autoimmune gastritis and, if so, to identify the factors that might affect delayed gastric emptying. A total of 165 patients (106 women) diagnosed as having autoimmune gastritis were analyzed by means of a gastric emptying test. All patients underwent a standardized scintigraphic gastric emptying study. Patients with delayed gastric emptying and normal gastric emptying tests were then compared by means of factors that might affect gastric emptying. Also 65 patients with functional dyspepsia who had a gastric emptying study constituted the control group. The median gastric emptying T ½ time was 127.43 min (min-max 50-953) for patients with AIG and 81 min (min-max 21-121.6) for functional dyspepsia patients (p < 0.001), and median percent retention at 2 h was 63.8 versus 20.2 (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, parameters that affected gastric emptying T ½ time were found as serum gastrin level (OR 1.002, 95 % CI 1.001-1.004, p < 0.001, chronic inflammation (OR 3.689, 95 % CI 1.44-9.39, p < 0.001), and increase in the degree of the atrophy of the gastric mucosa (OR 8.96, 95 % CI 2.98-26.93, p < 0.001). In patients with autoimmune gastritis, gastric emptying is generally delayed. Autoimmune gastritis is an important etiology to explain the finding of delayed gastric emptying on a radionuclide test. This new finding is likely to be relevant to clinicians when evaluating and initiating appropriate medical treatment for patients with autoimmune gastritis manifesting upper gastrointestinal symptoms.

  19. Novel method to assess gastric emptying in humans: the Pellet Gastric Emptying Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choe, S. Y.; Neudeck, B. L.; Welage, L. S.; Amidon, G. E.; Barnett, J. L.; Amidon, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    To further validate the Pellet Gastric Emptying Test (PGET) as a marker of gastric emptying, a randomized, four-way crossover study was conducted with 12 healthy subjects. The study consisted of oral co-administration of enteric coated caffeine (CAFF) and acetaminophen (APAP) pellets in four treatment phases: Same Size (100 kcal), Fasted, Small Liquid Meal (100 kcal), and Standard Meal (847 kcal). The time of first appearance of measurable drug marker in plasma, t(initial), was taken as the emptying time for the markers. Co-administration of same size enteric coated pellets of CAFF and APAP (0.7 mm in diameter) revealed no statistically significant differences in t(initial) values indicating that emptying was dependent only on size and not on chemical make-up of the pellets. Co-administration of different size pellets indicated that the smaller 0.7-mm diameter (CAFF) pellets were emptied and absorbed significantly earlier than the larger 3.6-mm diameter (APAP) pellets with both the Small Liquid Meal (by 35 min) and the Standard Meal (by 33 min) (P<0.05). The differences in emptying of the pellets were not significant in the Fasted Phase. The results suggest that the pellet gastric emptying test could prove useful in monitoring changes in transit times in the fasted and fed states and their impact on drug absorption.

  20. Novel method to assess gastric emptying in humans: the Pellet Gastric Emptying Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choe, S. Y.; Neudeck, B. L.; Welage, L. S.; Amidon, G. E.; Barnett, J. L.; Amidon, G. L.

    2001-01-01

    To further validate the Pellet Gastric Emptying Test (PGET) as a marker of gastric emptying, a randomized, four-way crossover study was conducted with 12 healthy subjects. The study consisted of oral co-administration of enteric coated caffeine (CAFF) and acetaminophen (APAP) pellets in four treatment phases: Same Size (100 kcal), Fasted, Small Liquid Meal (100 kcal), and Standard Meal (847 kcal). The time of first appearance of measurable drug marker in plasma, t(initial), was taken as the emptying time for the markers. Co-administration of same size enteric coated pellets of CAFF and APAP (0.7 mm in diameter) revealed no statistically significant differences in t(initial) values indicating that emptying was dependent only on size and not on chemical make-up of the pellets. Co-administration of different size pellets indicated that the smaller 0.7-mm diameter (CAFF) pellets were emptied and absorbed significantly earlier than the larger 3.6-mm diameter (APAP) pellets with both the Small Liquid Meal (by 35 min) and the Standard Meal (by 33 min) (P<0.05). The differences in emptying of the pellets were not significant in the Fasted Phase. The results suggest that the pellet gastric emptying test could prove useful in monitoring changes in transit times in the fasted and fed states and their impact on drug absorption.

  1. Gastric emptying after surgery for the dumping syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Harries, A. D.; Dew, M. J.; Crawley, E. O.; Leach, K. G.; Salaman, J. R.; Rhodes, J.

    1984-01-01

    The dumping syndrome following gastric surgery for peptic ulcer disease can cause severe morbidity. In this study the benefit of interposition of an antiperistaltic jejunal loop to reverse peristalsis and delay gastric emptying was assessed in four patients with severe symptoms by performing gastric emptying studies pre-operatively, and at 6 months and 24 months following surgery. Gastric emptying was delayed at 6 months but by 2 years had returned to pre-operative values. Patients' symptoms were improved at 6 months and remained so despite the deterioration in gastric emptying. This surgical procedure is of some value to patients with severe symptoms due to the dumping syndrome. PMID:6462993

  2. Gastric Emptying and Vagus Nerve Function After Laparoscopic Partial Fundoplication

    PubMed Central

    Lindeboom, Maud Y. A.; Ringers, Jan; van Rijn, Pieter J. J.; Neijenhuis, Peter; Stokkel, Marcel P. M.; Masclee, Ad A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish the relation between vagus nerve dysfunction, gastric emptying, and antireflux surgery. Summary Background Data: Delayed gastric emptying occurs in up to 40% of reflux patients. After antireflux surgery, gastric emptying becomes normal or is even accelerated. Occasionally, severe gastric stasis is found and is associated with a negative outcome of the antireflux procedure. It has been suggested that injury to the vagus nerve could be the cause of this delayed emptying. Methods: We evaluated in a prospective study gastric emptying of solids and vagus nerve function (pancreatic polypeptide response to hypoglycemia) before and after surgery in 41 patients (22 women; age 43 ± 1.6 years) who underwent laparoscopic hemifundoplication. Results: All patients had relief of reflux symptoms varying from adequate (n = 8) to complete relief (n = 33). Gastric emptying of solids increased significantly (P < 0.001) after operation: lag phase from 19 ± 2 to 10 ± 1 minute, emptying rate (%/h) from 37 ± 2 to 48 ± 5 and half emptying time from 110 ± 8 to 81 ± 4 minutes. Gastric emptying improved to a similar extent in patients with delayed and normal preoperative gastric emptying. Postoperative signs of vagus nerve damage (PP peak < 47pmol/L) were present in 4 patients (10%). In these 4 patients gastric emptying both before and after operation did not differ from patients with normal vagus nerve function. In fact, none of the 41 patients had severely delayed emptying after laparoscopic hemifundoplication. Conclusions: Laparoscopic hemifundoplication affects vagus nerve integrity in 10% of patients, but this does not lead to a delay in gastric emptying. In fact, gastric emptying improved significantly after fundoplication. PMID:15492559

  3. [Empirical study in the relation of gastric mucosal lesion with gastric emptying and gastric acid secretion].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-feng; Xue, Ying-wei

    2008-09-01

    To study the precise cause and the specific procedure about gastric mucosal lesion in rats with water immersion-restraint stress(WRS). One hundred and forty-four Wistar rats were divided into 9 groups randomly: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I group. There were 16 rats in each group. A, B and C groups underwent gastric emptying determination. Emptying rate of gastric fluid was determined with radiate nuclide (99m)Tc. D, E and F groups underwent gastric acid secretion determination after cleaning gastric contents and pylorus ligation. G, H and I groups underwent gastric acid secretion determination after pylorus ligation without cleaning gastric contents. Gastric mucosal lesion ulcer index(UI) was evaluated. The relationship between of gastric mucosal lesion and gastric emptying rate and gastric acid secretion were examined. Gastric emptying rate decreased obviously when the WRS time was prolonged. There were significant differences among B (WRS 2 h), C group (WRS 4 h) and A group (controlled group) (P<0.01). There was also significant difference between B and C group (P<0.01).The rats' gastric acid secretion was inhibited significantly. The differences among E (WRS 2 h), F (WRS 4 h) and D groups (controlled group) were significant (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between F and E groups (P>0.05). The gastric mucosal lesions were aggravated with time of stress. Gastric contents cleaning could effectively prevent gastric mucosal lesions originated by stress .The operation had no influence on this test. There were significant gastric mucosal lesion UI in B and C groups compared with A group (P<0.01). The difference between B and C group was significant (P<0.01).There were no gastric mucosal lesions in A, D, E, F and G groups. However, There was significant difference between I and F group (P<0.01). No significant difference were found among A, D, E, F and G groups (P>0.05). There were significant difference between H and B group and also between I and C group

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GLYCEMIC CONTROL AND GASTRIC EMPTYING IN POORLY CONTROLLED TYPE 2 DIABETES

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Kudva, Yogish; Basu, Ananda; Camilleri, Michael; Low, Phillip A.; Vella, Adrian; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Acute hyperglycemia delays gastric emptying in patients with diabetes. However, it is not clear whether improved control of glycemia affects gastric emptying in these patients. We investigated whether overnight and short-term (6 months) improvements in control of glycemia affect gastric emptying. Methods We studied 30 patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (levels of glycated hemoglobin >9%). We measured gastric emptying using the [13C]-spirulina platensis breath test on the patients’ first visit (visit 1), after overnight administration of insulin or saline, 1 week later (visit 2), and 6 months after intensive therapy for diabetes. We also measured fasting and post-prandial plasma levels of C-peptide, GLP1, and amylin, as well as autonomic functions. Results At visit 1, gastric emptying was normal in 10 patients, delayed in 14, and accelerated in 6; 6 patients had gastrointestinal symptoms; vagal dysfunction was associated with delayed gastric emptying (P<.05). Higher fasting blood levels of glucose were associated with shorter half-times of gastric emptying (thalf) at visits 1 (r= −0.46, P=.01) and 2 (r= −0.43, P=.02). Although blood levels of glucose were lower after administration of insulin (132±7 mg/dl) than saline (211±15 mg/dl; P=0.0002), gastric emptying thalf was not lower after administration of insulin, compared with saline. After 6 months of intensive therapy, levels of glycated hemoglobin decreased from 10.6%±0.3% to 9%±0.4% (P=.0003), but gastric emptying thalf did not change (92±8 min before, 92±7 min after). Gastric emptying did not correlate with plasma levels of GLP1 and amylin. Conclusions Two-thirds of patients with poorly-controlled type 2 diabetes have mostly asymptomatic yet abnormal gastric emptying. Higher fasting blood levels of glucose are associated with faster gastric emptying. Overnight and sustained (6 months) improvements in glycemic control do not affect gastric emptying. PMID:25041866

  5. Relationship between glycemic control and gastric emptying in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Kudva, Yogish; Basu, Ananda; Camilleri, Michael; Low, Phillip A; Vella, Adrian; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2015-03-01

    Acute hyperglycemia delays gastric emptying in patients with diabetes. However, it is not clear whether improved control of glycemia affects gastric emptying in these patients. We investigated whether overnight and short-term (6 mo) improvements in control of glycemia affect gastric emptying. We studied 30 patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (level of glycosylated hemoglobin, >9%). We measured gastric emptying using the [(13)C]-Spirulina platensis breath test on the patients' first visit (visit 1), after overnight administration of insulin or saline, 1 week later (visit 2), and 6 months after intensive therapy for diabetes. We also measured fasting and postprandial plasma levels of C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and amylin, as well as autonomic functions. At visit 1, gastric emptying was normal in 10 patients, delayed in 14, and accelerated in 6; 6 patients had gastrointestinal symptoms; vagal dysfunction was associated with delayed gastric emptying (P < .05). Higher fasting blood levels of glucose were associated with shorter half-times of gastric emptying (thalf) at visits 1 (r = -0.46; P = .01) and 2 (r = -0.43; P = .02). Although blood levels of glucose were lower after administration of insulin (132 ± 7 mg/dL) than saline (211 ± 15 mg/dL; P = .0002), gastric emptying thalf was not lower after administration of insulin, compared with saline. After 6 months of intensive therapy, levels of glycosylated hemoglobin decreased from 10.6% ± 0.3% to 9% ± 0.4% (P = .0003), but gastric emptying thalf did not change (92 ± 8 min before, 92 ± 7 min after). Gastric emptying did not correlate with plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 and amylin. Two-thirds of patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes have mostly asymptomatic yet abnormal gastric emptying. Higher fasting blood levels of glucose are associated with faster gastric emptying. Overnight and sustained (6 mo) improvements in glycemic control do not affect gastric emptying

  6. Gastric emptying in patients with supraventricular tachycardia

    SciTech Connect

    Tanasescu, D.E.; Hamer, A.W.; Marks, J.W.; Mandel, W.J.; Brown, D.E.; Chappel, M.E.; Chapman, D.R.; Waxman, A.D.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) on gastric emptying (GE). Six patients (pts) with episodic SVT had electrophysiological evaluation while a Swan-Ganz catheter was in place. Liquid GE was determined during SVT and twice in sinus rhythm (SR). All studies were done at least 24 hours apart and were analyzed blindly. Serial Anger camera images were obtained over the anterior abdomen after ingestion of 500 ..mu..Ci of Tc-99m S.C. mixed with one ounce of beverage and at 5 minute intervals for 90 minutes. Results are shown in this paper. There were no significant differences in GE between SR on two occasions. Simultaneous hemodynamic measurement during SR and SVT suggested impairment of gastric emptying was related to the extent of hemodynamic change during SVT. The clinical importance of establishing impaired GE in pts with SVT is that reduced GE may delay or prevent absorption of anti-arrhythmic drugs, as the medication will tend to remain in the stomach and not reach the small intestine. This may prevent the use of intermittent outpatient oral drug therapy to terminate episodic SVT.

  7. The effect of metoclopramide on neonatal gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, I; Costalos, C

    1977-01-01

    1 The effect of metoclopramide on gastric emptying was studied on twenty-five occasions in fifteen low birth weight babies. 2 The serial test-meal technique was used. 3 The results indicate that metoclopramide does not promote gastric emptying in the newborn period. PMID:861134

  8. Patient motion artifacts on scintigraphic gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Glowniak, J.V.; Wahl, R.L.

    1985-02-01

    Patient motion during scintigraphic gastric emptying studies can result in the false diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux or of accelerated gastric emptying. A simple means of detecting patient motion, by generating a time-activity curve from a region of interest drawn about a Tc-99m marker, is described.

  9. Visualization of gastric bands on radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; McIntyre, B.; Elgin, D.; Christian, P.; Moore, J.

    1984-01-01

    In the course of performing many gastric emptying studies with radionuclide labeled solid and liquid meals, the authors have noted the appearance of gastric ''bands'' on images. These bands do not appear to be peristaltic contractions because they persist in individual subjects for hours of imaging. Peristaltic contraction waves move and change appearance within a few seconds. Bands have been described in humans at autopsy and in dogs, pigs, and monkeys, typically in transverse and mid-gastric locations. However, because the bands have not been seen on radiographic studies with barium meals, the finding has been ignored in gastro-intestinal and radiologic textbooks. An anatomic basis or physiologic role in regulating gastric emptying is unknown. SPECT imaging of 5 normal subjects after ingestion of Tc-99m sulfur colloid labeled chicken liver meals on two separate study days was performed. Linear photon deficient regions (''bands'') were identified on gastric images in all subjects. Multiple bands were sometimes seen, including a transverse band across the mid lower body of the stomach and a vertical longitudinal band which appeared to bisect the fundus in three subjects. In one subject, multiple body positions including upright, upside-down, and supine, did not alter the appearance or location of the transverse gastric band. Conventional imaging did not always demonstrate presence of the band, since the optimal projection for imaging the band may not have been part of the planar imaging routine. Sixty-four acquisitions over 360/sup 0/ of SPECT imaging showed that bands were seen in some projections and not in others.

  10. A Stable Isotope Breath Test with a Standard Meal for Abnormal Gastric Emptying of Solids in the Clinic and in Research

    PubMed Central

    Szarka, Lawrence A.; Camilleri, Michael; Vella, Adrian; Burton, Duane; Baxter, Kari; Simonson, Julie; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    Aim To validate a [13C]-Spirulina platensis gastric emptying (GE) breath test (GEBT) with a standardized meal. Methods 38 healthy volunteers and 129 patients with clinically suspected delayed GE underwent measurements at 45, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 240 min after a 238 kcal meal labeled test with 100 mg [13C]-Spirulina platensis, and 0.5 mCi 99mTc. We established normal ranges for scintigraphy with this test meal, intra- and inter-individual coefficients of variation (COV) and the ability of the [13C] GEBT breath kPCD (percent dose excreted *1000) values to predict scintigraphic t½, and to categorize GE as delayed, normal or accelerated. Results In health, the 10th and 90th percentile of t½ for scintigraphic GE with this meal are 52 and 86 min; intra-individual COV for scintigraphy and the GEBT were respectively 31% and 27% at 45 min; 17% and 21% at 90 min; 13% and 16% at 120 min; 10% and 13% at 150 min; and 8% and 12% at 180 min. Inter-individual COVs at each time for the [13C] GEBT and scintigraphy were typically ~ 1–4% lower than intra-individual COVs. Individual breath samples at 45, 150 and 180 min predicted GE category: at 80% specificity, 45 and 180 min samples combined were 93% sensitive to identify accelerated GE; 150 and 180 min combined were 89% sensitive for delayed GE. Conclusions [13C]-Spirulina platensis GEBT is as reproducible as scintigraphy; imprecision with both tests reflects physiologic variation. Using 4 breath samples, this method with an off-the-shelf meal is valid to assess GE in clinic and in research. PMID:18406670

  11. Delayed gastric emptying does not normalize after gluten withdrawal in adult celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Usai-Satta, Paolo; Oppia, Francesco; Scarpa, Mariella; Giannetti, Cristiana; Cabras, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Objective Delayed gastric emptying has been frequently detected in patients with untreated celiac disease. According to several studies, gluten withdrawal showed to be effective in normalizing the gastric emptying rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastric emptying rate of solids in patients with celiac disease before and after a gluten-free diet. Methods Twelve adult patients with celiac disease (age range 20-57 years) and 30 healthy controls (age range 30-54 years) underwent a (13)C-octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying. Half emptying time (t1/2) and lag phase (tlag) were calculated. After at least 12 months of a gluten-free diet, celiac patients underwent a new (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. A symptom score was utilized to detect dyspeptic and malabsorption symptoms in all the patients. Results The gastric motility parameters, t1/2 and tlag, were significantly longer in patients than in controls. On a gluten-free diet, surprisingly, the gastric emptying did not normalize despite an improvement of symptom score. No significant correlation between abnormal gastric emptying and specific symptom patterns, anthropometric parameters or severity of histological damage was found. Conclusions This finding supports the hypothesis that gluten-driven mucosal inflammation might determine motor abnormalities by affecting smooth muscle contractility or impairing gut hormone function. The persistence of these abnormalities on a gluten free diet suggests the presence of a persistent low-grade mucosal inflammation with a permanent perturbation of the neuro-immunomodulatory regulation.

  12. Gastric emptying of oral rehydration solutions in acute cholera.

    PubMed

    Collins, B J; Van Loon, F P; Molla, A; Molla, A M; Alam, N H

    1989-08-01

    Gastric emptying of rice powder electrolyte solution and of glucose electrolyte solution was measured by a marker dilution double sampling technique in 14 and in 16 adult patients respectively after intravenous rehydration during an attack of acute cholera. Six patients who received rice powder electrolyte solution and seven who received glucose electrolyte solution re-attended for a repeat study with the same test meal 16 days later, when fully recovered from cholera. No differences in gastric emptying patterns of the two electrolyte solutions were observed, either in the acute or in the recovered patients. Similarly, gastric emptying of both solutions was rapid during acute cholera and comparable to that observed in recovered patients. This study indicates that gastric emptying is not impaired in acute cholera and that the rate of emptying of oral rehydration solutions is adequate to account for their observed clinical efficacy in fast purging patients with acute cholera.

  13. Gastric emptying, postprandial blood pressure, glycaemia and splanchnic flow in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Trahair, Laurence G; Kimber, Thomas E; Flabouris, Katerina; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine gastric emptying, blood pressure, mesenteric artery blood flow, and blood glucose responses to oral glucose in Parkinson’s disease. METHODS: Twenty-one subjects (13 M, 8 F; age 64.2 ± 1.6 years) with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease (Hoehn and Yahr score 1.4 ± 0.1, duration of known disease 6.3 ± 0.9 years) consumed a 75 g glucose drink, labelled with 20 MBq 99mTc-calcium phytate. Gastric emptying was quantified with scintigraphy, blood pressure and heart rate with an automated device, superior mesenteric artery blood flow by Doppler ultrasonography and blood glucose by glucometer for 180 min. Autonomic nerve function was evaluated with cardiovascular reflex tests and upper gastrointestinal symptoms by questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean gastric half-emptying time was 106 ± 9.1 min, gastric emptying was abnormally delayed in 3 subjects (14%). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure fell (P < 0.001) and mesenteric blood flow and blood glucose (P < 0.001 for both) increased, following the drink. Three subjects (14%) had definite autonomic neuropathy and 8 (38%) had postprandial hypotension. There were no significant relationships between changes in blood pressure, heart rate or mesenteric artery blood flow with gastric emptying. Gastric emptying was related to the score for autonomic nerve function (R = 0.55, P < 0.01). There was an inverse relationship between the blood glucose at t = 30 min (R = -0.52, P < 0.05), while the blood glucose at t = 180 min was related directly (R = 0.49, P < 0.05), with gastric emptying. CONCLUSION: In mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease, gastric emptying is related to autonomic dysfunction and a determinant of the glycaemic response to oral glucose. PMID:27239112

  14. Morbid obesity treated by gastroplasty: radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Arnstein, N.B.; Shapiro, B.; Eckhauser, F.E.; Dmuchowski, C.F.; Knol, J.A.; Strodel, W.E.; Nakajo, M.; Swanson, D.P.

    1985-08-01

    Mechanisms by which gastroplasty for morbid obesity causes weight loss are poorly understood. The authors studied the role of altered gastric emptying in 50 patients before surgery, 1-4 weeks after surgery, and 2-24 months after surgery using technetium-99m pentetate in water for liquid meals and a Tc-99m styrene divinylbenzene copolymer resin in oatmeal for semisolid meals. They determined the emptying half-times of the stomach before and after surgery in the proximal and distal compartments. The proximal compartment emptied promptly in the early and late postoperative periods. The distal compartment emptied liquid at rates similar to those before surgery, while the late postoperative emptying of semisolids was significantly faster. No correlation was seen between the emptying half-times or changes thereof and eventual weight loss. Delayed gastric emptying is therefore not the mechanism for satiety and weight loss after gastroplasty has been performed.

  15. Relationship between gastric emptying of solids and gall bladder emptying in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, J N; Grime, J S; Critchley, M; Shields, R

    1985-01-01

    Very little is known about the normal temporal and quantitative relationships between gastric emptying and gall bladder emptying. Using a non-invasive double isotope technique these relationships were investigated in 22 normal healthy adults. 99Tcm EHIDA was used as the biliary tracer and 113Inm labelled bran as the gastric content tracer. Gastric emptying was monoexponential with a t1/2 of 45 +/- 3 minutes (mean +/- SEM). In 15 subjects the gall bladder emptied in relation to eating according to a double exponential function. In these subjects 15.0 +/- 1.6% of gall bladder contents emptied before gastric emptying began. They could be further divided into two clear cut types (p less than 0.001), according to the ejection fraction at 10 minutes and the t1/2 of the first exponential. Emptying of the gall bladder was faster and more of its contents were ejected in subjects with a type I response (n = 9) than in subjects with a type II response (n = 6). In the remaining seven subjects the gall bladder began to empty spontaneously, unrelated to eating. These observations suggest that gall bladder emptying: (a) may have a cephalic phase, (b) can be expressed as a double exponential function, (c) may occur unrelated to eating, (d) which occurs only in relation to eating would appear to be either fast (type I) or slow (type II). PMID:3979907

  16. Gastric emptying of solid food in patients with gastroesophageal reflux

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, S.; Eggli, D.; Van Nostrand, D.; Johnson, L.

    1985-05-01

    While delayed solid gastric emptying (GE) has been reported in patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER), the relationship of GE to daytime and/or nighttime reflux patterns, and the severity of endoscopic esophagitis are unknown. The authors measured GE in a study population of symptomatic patients (n=33) with abnormal 24 hour pH monitoring (24 hr pH). The study population was divided into two groups by esophagoscopy; those with (E+=22); and 2) those without (E-=11) erosive esophagitis and/or Barrett's esophagus. GE was measured in all patients and in 15 normal volunteers (NL) by the in vivo labelling of chicken liver with Tc-99m-SC, which was in turn diced into 1 cm. cubes and given in 7 1/2 oz. of beef stew. Upright one minute anterior and posterior digital images were obtained every 15 min. for 2.5 hours. 24 hour pH was divided into daytime (upright) and nighttime (supine) segments, and acid exposure was defined as % time pH < 4 for that posture. There was no correlation between GE T 1/2 and acid exposure, daytime or nighttime, for the patient population as a whole. However, patients with the longest GE T1/2 tended to have severe daytime reflux. The authors rarely found delayed solid food gastric emptying in patients with reflux; moreover, they found no association between GE and either diurnal reflux patterns on 24 hr pH or the severity of endoscopic esophagitis.

  17. Antropyloroduodenal activity during gastric emptying of liquid meals in humans.

    PubMed

    Dooley, C P; Valenzuela, J E

    1988-07-01

    The present study examines the possible roles of the pylorus and the proximal duodenum in the gastric emptying of two liquid meals in six healthy volunteers. Gastric emptying of a saline meal (150 mM) and an acid meal (120 mM hydrochloric acid) were measured by the double-sampling dye dilution technique while antroduodenal motility was monitored with a continuously perfused catheter system. Pyloric region pressures were measured with a Dent sleeve. The acid meal (t1/2 = 13.5 +/- 1.8 min) emptied significantly (P less than 0.01) slower than the saline meal (t1/2 = 3.5 +/- 0.7 min). This slowing in the emptying of the acid meal was associated with significant (P less than 0.05) increments in tonic pyloric activity and phasic contractions of the proximal duodenum. Thus the gastric emptying of liquid meals is a complex process involving all components of the gastroduodenal region.

  18. Risk factors for delayed gastric emptying caused by anastomosis edema after subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Paik, Hyun-June; Choi, Chang-In; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Jeon, Tae-Yong; Kim, Dong-Heon; Son, Gyung-Mo; Lee, Si-Hak; Hwang, Sun-Hwi

    2014-09-01

    Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is one of the most troublesome complications after subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. We evaluated operative and perioperative variables to assess for independent risk factors of DGE caused by anastomosis edema. The study retrospectively reviewed clinical data of 382 consecutive patients who underwent subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer between 2009 and 2011 at a single institution. Delayed gastric emptying had occurred in twelve patients (3.1%). Univariate analysis revealed high body mass index (>25kg/m2), open gastrectomy, and Billroth II or Roux-en Y reconstructions to be significant factors for delayed gastric emptying. Multivariate analysis identified high body mass index and open gastrectomy as predictors of delayed gastric emptying. To avoid delayed gastric emptying, surgeons should take care in creating the gastrointestinal anastomosis, particularly in patients with high BMI or in cases of open gastrectomy.

  19. Correlation between echographic gastric emptying and appetite: influence of psyllium.

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, J F; Chassany, O; Petit, A; Triki, R; Caulin, C; Segrestaa, J M

    1992-01-01

    The correlation between ultrasonographic gastric emptying and appetite was studied. Echographic evaluation of gastric emptying by measurement of the antral vertical diameter and assessment of sensations of hunger and satiety using analogue visual scales were performed simultaneously in 12 healthy volunteers. Measurements were carried out after the intake of 10.8 g psyllium or placebo in a randomised, crossover, double blind trial. The correlation between echographic gastric emptying and sensations of hunger and satiety was excellent (p < 0.001) after the intake of either psyllium or placebo. Psyllium significantly delayed gastric emptying from the third hour after a meal. It increased the sensation of satiety and decreased hunger at the sixth hour after the meal. The association between echographic measurement and visual scales is a simple method of evaluating the relationship between the stomach and appetite. The pharmacodynamic effect of psyllium should be confirmed by longterm therapeutic trials. PMID:1398229

  20. Delayed Gastric Emptying after Living Donor Hepatectomy for Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Griesemer, Adam D.; Parsons, Ronald F.; Graham, Jay A.; Emond, Jean C.; Samstein, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying is a significant postoperative complication of living donor hepatectomy for liver transplantation and may require endoscopic or surgical intervention in severe cases. Although the mechanism of posthepatectomy delayed gastric emptying remains unknown, vagal nerve injury during intraoperative dissection and adhesion formation postoperatively between the stomach and cut liver surface are possible explanations. Here, we present the first reported case of delayed gastric emptying following fully laparoscopic hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation. Additionally, we also present a case in which symptoms developed after open right hepatectomy, but for which dissection for left hepatectomy was first performed. Through our experience and these two specific cases, we favor a neurovascular etiology for delayed gastric emptying after hepatectomy. PMID:25610698

  1. Gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals at various temperatures: effect of meal temperature for gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Yuko; Amano, Yuji; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Mishima, Yoshiyuki; Moriyama, Nobuyuki; Miyake, Tatsuya; Ishimura, Norihisa; Ishihara, Shunji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2009-01-01

    Patients with functional dyspepsia frequently show delayed gastric emptying, and dietary advice is frequently given for its improvement. If meal temperature influences gastric emptying, advice regarding the meal temperature may become a possible component of dietary therapy. However, little information exists concerning the thermal effect of meals on gastric emptying. The aim of this study was to determine the thermal effect of liquid and solid meals on gastric emptying. The gastric emptying of liquid and solid test meals was examined in healthy volunteers (liquid, n = 25, mean age = 35.7 +/- 9.6 years, male-to-female ratio = 22:3; solid, n = 25, mean age = 35.2 +/- 8.8 years, male-to-female ratio = 20:5). Gastric emptying after the ingestion of liquid or solid meals at three different temperatures (4, 37, and 60 degrees C) was investigated with the [(13)C]-labeled acetate breath test. The lag phase time (T (max-calc)) and the half-emptying time (T (1/2)) were calculated from the (13)CO(2) breath excretion curve as indices of gastric emptying. The values of T (max-calc) at 60 degrees C with both the liquid and solid meals were significantly smaller than those at 37 degrees C (P < 0.05). However, there was no difference in the T (1/2) values. In the analysis of the percent excretion of (13)CO(2) in 1 h (% dose/h) data with the liquid meal test in the earlier phase within 30 min, significantly larger values were found at 60 degrees C than at the other temperatures. These findings suggest that a hot meal significantly accelerates gastric emptying. Meal temperature may be considered as a component of dietary therapy for patients with functional dyspepsia.

  2. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  3. Relationship of gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying in infants and children: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Treves, S.

    1984-05-01

    One hundred twenty-six pediatric patients (0-16 yr of age) with clinically suspected gastroesophageal reflux (GER) were evaluated using radionuclide scintigraphy. Although 46 of the patients (38.3%) had abnormal studies exhibiting evidence of GER, there were no signifcant differences in gastric emptying between patients with and without GER. At 60 min after ingestion, the 76 patients less than 2 yr old had a mean residual of 54%, whereas those over 2 yr of age had a value of 29%. Gastric emptying values may be age-related.

  4. Serial gastric emptying studies: effect of preceding drinks.

    PubMed

    Foster, C; Thompson, N N

    1990-08-01

    A widely used method for evaluating gastric emptying is the serial recovery method, in which several different test drinks are given and recovered in rapid succession. Recently, the validity of this method has been challenged (Brouns et al., Int. J. Sports Med. 8:175-189, 1987) by suggestions that the duodenal contents remaining from previous drinks may influence the gastric emptying of subsequent drinks. To evaluate whether this methodological issue might influence the results of gastric emptying studies, we studied six volunteer subjects. The gastric emptying rate of water was measured following a previous trial with either water or a concentrated maltodextrin solution (23% CHO). All trials were conducted at rest and consisted of a volume of 400 ml. The emptying rate of water was not different following either water or maltodextrin solution (14.9 vs 16.3 ml.min-1). We conclude that the serial recovery method remains a valid technique for measuring the rate of gastric emptying during rest and exercise.

  5. Gastric emptying during exercise: effects of heat stress and hypohydration.

    PubMed

    Neufer, P D; Young, A J; Sawka, M N

    1989-01-01

    To determine the effects of acute heat stress, heat acclimation and hypohydration on the gastric emptying rate of water (W) during treadmill exercise, ten physically fit men ingested 400 ml of W before each of three 15 min bouts of exercise (treadmill, approximately 50% VO2max) on five separate occasions. Stomach contents were aspirated after each exercise bout. Before heat acclimation (ACC), experiments were performed in a neutral (18 degrees C), hot (49 degrees C) and warm (35 degrees C) environment. Subjects were euhydrated for all experiments before ACC. After ACC, the subjects completed two more experiments in the warm (35 degrees C) environment; one while euhydrated and a final one while hypohydrated (-5% of body weight). The volume of ingested water emptied into the intestines at the completion of each exercise bout was inversely correlated (P less than 0.01) with the rectal temperature (r = -0.76). The following new observations were made: 1) exercise in a hot (49 degrees C) environment impairs gastric emptying rate as compared with a neutral (18 degrees C) environment, 2) exercise in a warm (35 degrees C) environment does not significantly reduce gastric emptying before or after heat acclimation, but 3) exercise in a warm environment (35 degrees C) when hypohydrated reduces gastric emptying rate and stomach secretions. Reductions in gastric emptying appear to be related to the severity of the thermal strain induced by an exercise/heat stress.

  6. Solid Test Meal to Measure the Gastric Emptying with Magnetogastrography

    SciTech Connect

    Reynaga-Ornelas, M. G.; Roca-Chiapas, J. M. de ls; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Bernal, J. J.; Sosa, M.

    2008-08-11

    The gastric emptying is the time of evacuating the food ingested from the stomach to the duodenum in a controlled rate. Diverse studies express the results of the gastric emptying in form of half-time (t{sub 1/2}). The Magnetogastrography (MGG) is a biomagnetic technique that has the advantage of not being invasive, radiation free and does not interfere with the privacy of the subject. The objective was to analyze the magnetic signal of magnetic tracers mixed in a solid food to measure gastric emptying using Magnetogastrography. The ingested test meal displayed a magnetic signal, which served to obtain the signal registered by the fluxgate and the peristaltic contractions could be calculated while the stomach was emptying. The solid food product developed results to work satisfactorily in magnetogastrography.

  7. Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in the piebald mouse model for Hirschsprung's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, H.J.; Pitman, K.; Starr, G.; Wood, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in the piebald mouse model for Hirschsprung's disease. These mice exhibited aganglionosis of the terminal segment of the large intestine. This condition was accompanied by fecal stasis and megacolon. Gastric emptying of saline or milk meals was slower in the mice with aganglionic or induced megacolon than in the normal mice, but the rate of emptying was faster than after administration of morphine (10 mg/kg). In the small intestine, the distribution of the radiolabeled marker and the advancing edge of the marker profile were abnormal in the mice with megacolon. There were small differences between the megacolonic and normal mice in the distance traversed by the advancing edge of the intraluminal profile of the marker. These results are evidence for disturbances of gastric and small intestinal motor function that occur in mice secondary to development of megacolon.

  8. Effects of rabeprazole sodium on gastric emptying, electrogastrography, and fullness.

    PubMed

    Jones, Michael P; Shah, Dhiren; Ebert, Christine C

    2003-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors have been reported to delay gastric emptying, but this effect is controversial. Our aim was to determine the effect of rabeprazole sodium on several parameters of gastric function including gastric emptying, myoelectrical activity and ingested water volume required to produce fullness. Fifteen healthy males underwent assessment of solid-phase gastric emptying with the [13C] Spirulina platensis breath test as well as electrogastrography and satiety testing using a 5-min water load. Subjects were evaluated at baseline, after administration of placebo, and after rabeprazole sodium 20 mg daily for one week. No significant differences were seen between groups with respect to solid-phase gastric emptying as measured by T1/2 or T(lag). No differences were seen between baseline, placebo, and rabeprazole with respect to the number of normal electrogastrograms and the volume of water required to produce fullness. In conclusion, one week of therapy with rabeprazole sodium does not significantly alter gastric emptying, myoelectrical activity or threshold to fullness.

  9. Delayed gastric emptying in gastroesophageal reflux disease: the role of malrotation.

    PubMed

    Demirbilek, Savaş; Karaman, Abdurrahman; Gürünlüoğlu, Kubilay; Akin, Melih; Taş, Erkan; Aksoy, Rauf Tuğrul; Kekilli, Ersoy

    2005-06-01

    The association between gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and intestinal malrotation (IM) has been well described. Delayed or impaired gastric emptying in IM is thought to be a contributing factor in the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The current study assessed the role of malrotation in delayed gastric emptying in children with GERD. We also evaluated the interactions between GERD, malrotation, gastric pH abnormalities, and gastric dysmotility. Sixty-seven patients between 1 and 5 years of age (mean 3.08+/-1.2) and with symptoms of GER, such as emesis, reactive or recurrent lung disease, and/or growth retardation, were studied in 2001-2005. Upper and lower gastrointestinal contrast studies were performed for the diagnosis of malrotation. Gastric motility was evaluated with a liquid gastric emptying protocol. GER was documented by upper gastrointestinal studies, scintigraphy, and/or 24-h pH monitoring. In our series of 44 children with GERD, there was an unexpectedly high incidence of IM: 54.5% (24/44). IM has previously been known to occur in 25% of patients with GERD. GERD was found in 24 (82.7%) of 29 patients with IM. Mean nuclear gastric emptying (MNGE) was 51.6+/-8.04 min in patients with isolated GERD and 96.6+/-20.5 min in children with IM and GERD. There was a statistically significant difference in MNGE time (p<0.05) between children with primary GERD and in those with GERD and IM. Esophageal pH monitoring showed that mean fraction time below pH 4 was 7.06+/-1.1% in patients with isolated GERD and 14.7+/-4.1% in patients with IM and GERD. GERD is common in children between 1 and 5 years old. Using gastric emptying studies and esophageal pH monitoring, we have shown that gastric dysmotility and esophageal pH abnormalities are highly prevalent, especially in children with malrotation compared with children with isolated GERD. These findings suggest that malrotation is an important factor responsible for delayed gastric emptying in GERD

  10. [Usefulness of gastric emptying scintigraphy for the evaluation and management of scleroderma related gastroparesis].

    PubMed

    Piskorz, María M; Rank, Gerardo; Velázquez Espeche, María; García Cainzo, Analisa; Pisarevsky, Andrea; Sorda, Juan A; Olmos, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    Scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown cause characterized by fibrotic skin and multiple organs involvement, including the gastrointestinal tract. It occurs mainly in women between 35 and 65 years of age. It is classified as limited or diffuse based on the extent of skin involvement. Gastrointestinal dysmotility is observed in up to 90% of patients with a diffuse and limited scleroderma. It may involve any segment of the gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus to the anus and is related to collagen deposition at the level of enteric and vascular smooth muscle. Gastroparesis is a condition characterized by abnormal gastric motility, delay gastric emptying, in the absence of a mechanical obstruction to outflow. Gastric scintigraphy with radiolabeled solid food is the gold standard for the diagnosis of gastroparesis. Two cases of patients with systemic scleroderma and severe gastroparesis are presented in order to discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic approach, emphasizing the utility of gastric emptying scintigraphy.

  11. Effect of gelatinization on gastric emptying and absorption.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Naruo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Nakayoshi, Tomoko; Tsuboi, Kazuto; Tanishima, Yuichiro; Hanyu, Nobuyoshi; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki

    2008-01-01

    For gastrointestinal functional analysis such as gastric emptying tests, either a liquid or solid meal is used as a test meal. Only a few studies have compared meal characteristics, such as liquid and solid. No previous study has compared test meals that had the same composition but different properties. The aim of this study was to compare the gastric emptying and absorption obtained by 13C-breath test after ingestion of liquid or gelatinized liquid nutrients. Ten healthy volunteers were studied four times, with 2-week intervals. For the test meal, 200 mL of liquid meals (200 kcal) and gelatinized liquid meals were used. Gelatinized liquid nutrients were prepared by mixing 6 g, 12 g and 18 g of Natural psyllium husk with 200 mL of liquid meals. Breath samples were collected for four hours. Gastric emptying were expressed as the time of peak excretion, absorption were expressed as the area under the 13CO2 curve up to the time of peak excretion. Gastric emptying times were 54.5, 54.5, 81.7 and 93.3 min. Absorption was 20.8, 20.9, 27.8 and 29.8% dose. Gelatinization influences gastric emptying, but does not influence absorption. Gelatinized liquid meals may be useful for a substitute for solid meals on gastrointestinal functional analysis.

  12. Effect of cisapride on gastric emptying in dyspeptic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Urbain, J.L.; Siegel, J.A.; Debie, N.C.; Pauwels, S.P.

    1988-07-01

    The effect of the new gastrokinetic agent cisapride on gastric emptying was evaluated in 17 dyspeptic patients using the dual radionuclide technique. Eight patients with idiopathic dyspepsia and nine postsurgical dyspeptic patients were studied and compared to a control group. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined after ingestion of a standardized meal using /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scrambled eggs as the solid phase and (/sup 111/In)DTPA-labeled water as the liquid phase. Following a basal study and on a separate occasion, each patient received an intravenous bolus of 10 mg of cisapride after ingestion of the test meal; 10 of the patients were restudied after a two-week period of chronic oral administration of the drug (10 mg four times a day). Baseline gastric emptying of solids was significantly delayed in idiopathic and postsurgical patients; liquid emptying was only delayed in the postsurgical group. Intravenous and oral administration of cisapride significantly shortened gastric emptying in both groups. In all but one patient, the clinical improvement was confirmed by the test. Cisapride appears to be a good alternative to metoclopramide and domperiodone in the treatment of dyspeptic patients. The dual radionuclide technique appears to be a useful physiologic tool for evaluating and predicting the efficacy of a gastric prokinetic therapy in man.

  13. Canine gastric emptying of polycarbophil: an indigestible, particulate substance.

    PubMed

    Russell, J; Bass, P

    1985-08-01

    We tested whether indigestible solids could empty from the canine stomach independently of gastric burst motor activity. Test meals contained polycarbophil, an indigestible particulate (1-3 mm diameter) substance. Test meals were slurries of 30 or 90 g of radiolabeled polycarbophil particles in saline. Meals were administered via an oral gastric tube. After 4 h, the stomach was drained via a gastric cannula, and the percentage of meal that had emptied into the duodenum was calculated. Antroduodenal motor responses to the meals were monitored with strain-gage force transducers. The motor responses to polycarbophil meals were compared with those after canned food and saline meals. Fifty percent of the 90-g polycarbophil meal emptied by 4 h; this occurred independently of gastric burst motor activity. Both polycarbophil and canned food elicited similar indexed motor responses and both delayed the postprandial reappearance of gastric burst motor activity. We conclude that small indigestible particles can stimulate fed state-like motility and empty from the stomach independently of gastric burst activity.

  14. Role of caloric content on gastric emptying in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Calbet, J A; MacLean, D A

    1997-01-01

    1. This study examined the effects of caloric content (caloric density and the nature of calories) on the rate of gastric emptying using the double-sampling gastric aspiration technique. Four test meals of 600 ml (glucose, 0.1 kcal ml-1; pea and whey peptide hydrolysates, both 0.2 kcal ml-1; milk protein, 0.7 kcal ml-1) were tested in six healthy subjects in random order on four separate occasions. 2. The glucose solution was emptied the fastest with a half-time of 9.4 +/- 1.2 min (P < 0.05) and the milk protein the slowest with a half-time of 26.4 +/- 10.0 min (P < 0.05); the pea peptide hydrolysate and whey peptide hydrolysate solutions had half-times of emptying of 16.3 +/- 5.4 and 17.2 +/- 6.1 min, respectively. The rates of gastric emptying for the peptide hydrolysate solutions derived from different protein sources were not different. 3. Despite the lower rate of gastric emptying for the milk protein solution, the rate of caloric delivery to the duodenum during the early phase of the gastric emptying process was higher than that for the other three solutions (46.3 +/- 6, 63.5 +/- 22, 62.5 +/- 19 and 113.8 +/- 25 cal min-1 kg-1 for the glucose, pea peptide hydrolysate, whey peptide hydrolysate and milk protein meals, respectively; P < 0.05). The caloric density of the test solutions was linearly related to the half-time of gastric emptying (r = 0.96, P < 0.05) as well as to the rate at which calories were delivered to the duodenum (r = 0.99, P < 0.001). 4. This study demonstrates that the rate of gastric emptying is a function of the caloric density of the ingested meal and that a linear relationship exists between these variables. Furthermore, the nature of the calories seems to play a minor role in determining the rate of gastric emptying in humans. PMID:9032702

  15. Gastric emptying of multi-particulate dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Newton, J Michael

    2010-08-16

    The evidence in the literature for the concept that multi-particulate dosage forms below a specific size empty from the stomach as if they were liquids and hence have the potential to provide the best solution to the formulation of controlled release oral dosage forms, has been considered. There is some evidence that particles less than 1.0mm provide a more rapid response than larger size particles but there is also evidence that this is not always the case and that rapid and reproducible gastric emptying of small particles does not always occur when they are administered. There is strong evidence that food can delay the gastric emptying of multi-particulate systems. Some of the misconception for gastric emptying performance of multi-particulate system is shown to be related to the limitation of the study design and limitation of the way the data is processed. Nevertheless, there is clear evidence that multi-particulate systems can provide effective oral controlled release dosage forms. There is still some way to go with experimental techniques which would allow a definitive answer to the issue of how the variability of the gastric emptying of multi-particulate systems of less than 2.0mm arises. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy density of food, gastric emptying, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, J N; Cash, R; Newland, P

    1978-10-01

    Certain receptors in the duodenal mucosa respond to the osomotic effects of the digestion products of dietary carbohydrates and proteins with a resultant slowing of gastric emptying. Other receptors respond to the soaps formed during the digestion of fats. The relative effectiveness of these two sets of receptors is such that foods with equal energy produce equal slowing of gastric emptying. Thus the rate of delivery of energy to the duodenum, and hence to the blood, can be regulated without the energy having been directly measured. The results in the literature that we have examined are consistent with this duodenal system playing some part in the regulation of food intake.

  17. Specific food structures supress appetite through reduced gastric emptying rate

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee, Hameed; Malcolm, Paul; Salt, Louise; van Aken, George

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which gastric layering and retention of a meal could be used to reduce appetite using the same caloric load. Liquid (control) and semi-solid (active) meals were produced with the same protein, fat, carbohydrate, and mass. These were fed to 10 volunteers on separate days in a crossover study, and subjective appetite ratings, gastric contents, and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) were assessed over a period of 3 h. The active meal showed food boluses in the stomach persisting for ∼45 min, slower emptying rates, and lower plasma CCK levels over the first hour. After the first hour, both gastric emptying rates and plasma CCK levels were similar for both systems and slightly increased compared with the unfed situation. Despite the lower plasma CCK levels for the active meal over the first hour, this meal reduced appetite more than the control meal over the 3 h of the study. For a moderately increased plasma CCK level in the fed state, appetite was correlated with the volume of gastric contents rather than gastric emptying rates or plasma CCK. This suggests that enhanced gastric retention was the key factor in decreasing appetite and was probably mediated by a combination of intestinal nutrient sensing and increased viscosity in the stomach. PMID:23578786

  18. Specific food structures supress appetite through reduced gastric emptying rate.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Alan R; Rafiee, Hameed; Malcolm, Paul; Salt, Louise; van Aken, George

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which gastric layering and retention of a meal could be used to reduce appetite using the same caloric load. Liquid (control) and semi-solid (active) meals were produced with the same protein, fat, carbohydrate, and mass. These were fed to 10 volunteers on separate days in a crossover study, and subjective appetite ratings, gastric contents, and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) were assessed over a period of 3 h. The active meal showed food boluses in the stomach persisting for ~45 min, slower emptying rates, and lower plasma CCK levels over the first hour. After the first hour, both gastric emptying rates and plasma CCK levels were similar for both systems and slightly increased compared with the unfed situation. Despite the lower plasma CCK levels for the active meal over the first hour, this meal reduced appetite more than the control meal over the 3 h of the study. For a moderately increased plasma CCK level in the fed state, appetite was correlated with the volume of gastric contents rather than gastric emptying rates or plasma CCK. This suggests that enhanced gastric retention was the key factor in decreasing appetite and was probably mediated by a combination of intestinal nutrient sensing and increased viscosity in the stomach.

  19. Gastric gas and fluid emptying assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ploutz-Snyder, L; Foley, J; Ploutz-Snyder, R; Kanaley, J; Sagendorf, K; Meyer, R

    1999-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to characterize the volumes and rates of gastric emptying of both liquid and gas following the ingestion of beverages of varying carbonation and carbohydrate levels. Eight subjects drank 800 ml each of four test beverages in a counterbalanced order: water, a non-carbonated carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (NC), a lightly carbonated carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (PC), and a carbonated cola (CC). T2-weighted, echoplanar images (25-30 contiguous slices, 1 cm thick, 256 x 128 matrix, TE = 80, 40 cm FOV) of the abdomen were collected at minutes 3,110, 20, 30, 45, and 60 following beverage ingestion. Images were analyzed for gas and liquid volumes. Water and NC emptied the most rapidly, with half times of 21(3) and 31(3) min, respectively [mean (SE)]. PC emptied significantly slower [47 (6) min] and CC slower yet [107 (8) min]. The carbonation content of the beverage accounted for 84% of the variation in emptying time, whereas carbohydrate content did not account for any significant variation. The gastric gas volume of the CC was higher at 2 min post-ingestion compared with all other drinks; however, the rate of emptying of the gas was the same among all beverages. Significantly greater total gastric volumes (gas+ liquid) were associated with the ingestion of CC, and accordingly produced a greater severity of gastric distress, as evaluated with a gastric distress inventory. The high gastric gas volumes (approximately 600 ml) after ingestion of CC suggested a potential source of error in body composition using standard hydrostatic weighing methods. This prediction was tested in nine additional subjects. Ingestion of 800 ml of CC prior to hydrostatic weighing resulted in a 0.7% underestimate of body density and thus an 11% overestimate of percentage body fat compared to measurements made before beverage consumption.

  20. SIRT1 regulates the mouse gastric emptying and intestinal growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study addressed physiological significance of SIRT1 gene on mouse gastrointestinal growth and function (gastric emptying and intestinal growth). SIRT1 (a NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase) is a key cellular energy sensor, and involved in a wide variety of cellular functions including energy me...

  1. Effects of Gelatinization of Enteral Nutrients on Human Gastric Emptying.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Naruo; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Odaira, Hironori; Noro, Takuji; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2010-06-01

    Gastrointestinal side effects, particularly diarrhea, are still the main reasons for discontinuation of enteral nutrition. Gelatinization of liquid meal for the prevention of diarrhea has been reported as effective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of gelatinization of liquid meal on gastric emptying. Ten healthy volunteers were studied two times, with 2-week interval between tests. The total calorific value was set at 225 kcal, and 3 test meals were prepared: liquid meal and 2 types of gelatinized meals. These 2 types of gelatinized meals are different viscosity. (13)C-sodium acetate (100 mg) was thoroughly mixed, and exhaled air was sampled. The results of gastric emptying were expressed as the time of peak excretion (Tmax), and absorption was expressed as the area under the (13)CO2 curve up to Tmax (AUC-Tmax). At the same time, blood samples were collected to measure levels of blood glucose, insulin and gastrin. The mean value of Tmax were 52.0, 77.3 and 85.6 min. Compared to liquid meal, gastric emptying for gelatinized meals was significantly delayed. The mean value of AUC-Tmax were 22.7, 28.7 and 33.7%dose, respectively, and no significant differences in absorption were seen. No significant differences existed in blood glucose, gastrin and insulin. Gelatinization of liquid meal delays gastric emptying. Gelatinized liquid meal may be useful for the management of diarrhea accompanied with enteral nutrition without influencing gastrointestinal hormone and blood glucose.

  2. Abuse history, depression, and somatization are associated with gastric sensitivity and gastric emptying in functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Vandenberghe, Joris; Vos, Rita; Fischler, Benjamin; Demyttenaere, Koen; Tack, Jan

    2011-10-01

    Gastric sensitivity testing relies on subjective reporting and may therefore be influenced by psychosocial factors and somatization. Furthermore, psychological processes may affect gastric motor function (accommodation to a meal emptying) through efferent brain-gut pathways. This study sought to determine the association of abuse history, psychiatric comorbidity, and somatization with gastric sensorimotor function. In 201 patients with functional dyspepsia, gastric sensitivity and accommodation were studied with a barostat. Gastric emptying of solids was studied using a breath test. Sexual and physical abuse history, psychiatric comorbidity (depression and panic disorder), and somatization were assessed using validated questionnaires. Multiple linear regression models were used to identify patient characteristics independently associated with gastric sensitivity and emptying. Age (p = .02), sexual abuse history (p < .001), physical abuse history (p = .004), and somatization (p < .001) were independently associated with gastric discomfort threshold (R(2) = 0.30); a significant depression-by-sexual abuse interaction effect was also found (p = .003). None of the factors studied were associated with gastric accommodation to a meal. Physical abuse history (p = .003) and somatization (p = .048) were independently associated with gastric emptying (R(2) = 0.19). These results demonstrate the complex relationship among abuse history, psychiatric comorbidity, somatization, and gastric sensorimotor (dys)function. Although the psychobiological mechanisms underlying these relationships remain to be determined, the autonomic nervous, stress hormone, and immune systems may be involved.

  3. Itopride for gastric volume, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Abid, Shahab; Jafri, Wasim; Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Bilal, Rakhshanda; Awan, Safia; Abbas, Aamir

    2017-02-06

    To study the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia (FD). Randomized controlled trial was conducted to check the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying, capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid and symptoms of FD. We recruited a total of 31 patients having FD on the basis of ROME III criteria. After randomization, itopride was received by 15 patients while 16 patients received placebo. Gastric accommodation was determined using Gastric Scintigraphy. (13)C labeled octanoic breadth test was performed to assess gastric emptying. Capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid drink was checked using satiety drinking capacity test. The intervention group comprised of 150 mg itopride. Patients in both arms were followed for 4 wk. Mean age of the recruited participant 33 years (SD = 7.6) and most of the recruited individuals, i.e., 21 (67.7%) were males. We found that there was no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation as measured at different in volumes in the itopride and control group with the empty stomach (P = 0.14), at 20 min (P = 0.38), 30 min (P = 0.30), 40 min (P = 0.43), 50 min (P = 0.50), 60 min (P = 0.81), 90 min (P = 0.25) and 120 min (P = 0.67). Gastric emptying done on a sub sample (n = 11) showed no significant difference (P = 0.58) between itopride and placebo group. There was no significant improvement in the capacity to tolerate liquid in the itopride group as compared to placebo (P = 0.51). Similarly there was no significant improvement of symptoms as assessed through a composite symptom score (P = 0.74). The change in QT interval in itopride group was not significantly different from placebo (0.10). Our study found no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and maximum tolerated volume in patients with FD.

  4. Itopride for gastric volume, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Shahab; Jafri, Wasim; Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Bilal, Rakhshanda; Awan, Safia; Abbas, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    AIM To study the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS Randomized controlled trial was conducted to check the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying, capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid and symptoms of FD. We recruited a total of 31 patients having FD on the basis of ROME III criteria. After randomization, itopride was received by 15 patients while 16 patients received placebo. Gastric accommodation was determined using Gastric Scintigraphy. 13C labeled octanoic breadth test was performed to assess gastric emptying. Capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid drink was checked using satiety drinking capacity test. The intervention group comprised of 150 mg itopride. Patients in both arms were followed for 4 wk. RESULTS Mean age of the recruited participant 33 years (SD = 7.6) and most of the recruited individuals, i.e., 21 (67.7%) were males. We found that there was no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation as measured at different in volumes in the itopride and control group with the empty stomach (P = 0.14), at 20 min (P = 0.38), 30 min (P = 0.30), 40 min (P = 0.43), 50 min (P = 0.50), 60 min (P = 0.81), 90 min (P = 0.25) and 120 min (P = 0.67). Gastric emptying done on a sub sample (n = 11) showed no significant difference (P = 0.58) between itopride and placebo group. There was no significant improvement in the capacity to tolerate liquid in the itopride group as compared to placebo (P = 0.51). Similarly there was no significant improvement of symptoms as assessed through a composite symptom score (P = 0.74). The change in QT interval in itopride group was not significantly different from placebo (0.10). CONCLUSION Our study found no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and maximum tolerated volume in patients with FD. PMID:28217377

  5. A Simple, Realistic Stochastic Model of Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Yokrattanasak, Jiraphat; De Gaetano, Andrea; Panunzi, Simona; Satiracoo, Pairote; Lawton, Wayne M.; Lenbury, Yongwimon

    2016-01-01

    Several models of Gastric Emptying (GE) have been employed in the past to represent the rate of delivery of stomach contents to the duodenum and jejunum. These models have all used a deterministic form (algebraic equations or ordinary differential equations), considering GE as a continuous, smooth process in time. However, GE is known to occur as a sequence of spurts, irregular both in size and in timing. Hence, we formulate a simple stochastic process model, able to represent the irregular decrements of gastric contents after a meal. The model is calibrated on existing literature data and provides consistent predictions of the observed variability in the emptying trajectories. This approach may be useful in metabolic modeling, since it describes well and explains the apparently heterogeneous GE experimental results in situations where common gastric mechanics across subjects would be expected. PMID:27057750

  6. A Simple, Realistic Stochastic Model of Gastric Emptying.

    PubMed

    Yokrattanasak, Jiraphat; De Gaetano, Andrea; Panunzi, Simona; Satiracoo, Pairote; Lawton, Wayne M; Lenbury, Yongwimon

    2016-01-01

    Several models of Gastric Emptying (GE) have been employed in the past to represent the rate of delivery of stomach contents to the duodenum and jejunum. These models have all used a deterministic form (algebraic equations or ordinary differential equations), considering GE as a continuous, smooth process in time. However, GE is known to occur as a sequence of spurts, irregular both in size and in timing. Hence, we formulate a simple stochastic process model, able to represent the irregular decrements of gastric contents after a meal. The model is calibrated on existing literature data and provides consistent predictions of the observed variability in the emptying trajectories. This approach may be useful in metabolic modeling, since it describes well and explains the apparently heterogeneous GE experimental results in situations where common gastric mechanics across subjects would be expected.

  7. Can transcutaneous recordings detect gastric electrical abnormalities?

    PubMed Central

    Familoni, B O; Bowes, K L; Kingma, Y J; Cote, K R

    1991-01-01

    The ability of transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity to detect gastric electrical abnormalities was determined by simultaneous measurements of gastric electrical activity with surgically implanted serosal electrodes and cutaneous electrodes in six patients undergoing abdominal operations. Transient abnormalities in gastric electrical activity were seen in five of the six patients during the postoperative period. Recognition of normal gastric electrical activity by visual analysis was possible 67% of the time and with computer analysis 95% of the time. Ninety four per cent of abnormalities in frequency were detected by visual analysis and 93.7% by computer analysis. Abnormalities involving a loss of coupling, however, were not recognised by transcutaneous recordings. Transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity assessed by computer analysis can usually recognise normal gastric electrical activity and tachygastria. Current techniques, however, are unable to detect abnormalities in electrical coupling. PMID:1864531

  8. Variability of gastric emptying time using standardized radiolabeled meals

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, P.E.; Brophy, C.M.; Egger, M.J.; Taylor, A.; Moore, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    To define the range of inter- and intra-subject variability on gastric emptying measurements, eight healthy male subjects (ages 19-40) received meals on four separate occasions. The meal consisted of 150 g of beef stew labeled with Tc-99m SC labeled liver (600 ..mu..Ci) and 150 g of orange juice containing In-111 DTPA (100 ..mu..Ci) as the solid- and liquid-phase markers respectively. Images of the solid and liquid phases were obtained at 20 min intervals immediately after meal ingestion. The stomach region was selected from digital images and data were corrected for radionuclide interference, radioactive decay and the geometric mean of anterior and posterior counts. More absolute variability was seen with the solid than the liquid marker emptying for the group. The mean solid half-emptying time was 58 +- 17 min (range 29-92) while the mean liquid half-emptying time was 24 +- 8 min (range 12-37). A nested random effects analysis of variance showed moderate intra-subject variability for solid half-emptying times (rho = 0.4594), and high intra-subject variability was implied by a low correlation (rho = 0.2084) for liquid half-emptying. The average inter-subject differences were 58.3% of the total variance for solids (rho = 0.0017). For liquids, the inter-subject variability was 69.1% of the total variance, but was only suggestive of statistical significance (rho = 0.0666). The normal half emptying time for gastric emptying of liquids and solids is a variable phenomenon in healthy subjects and has great inter- and intra-individual day-to-day differences.

  9. The gastric emptying of food as measured by gamma-scintigraphy and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and its influence on the gastric emptying of tablets of different dimensions.

    PubMed

    Podczeck, Fridrun; Mitchell, Catherine L; Newton, J Michael; Evans, David; Short, Michael B

    2007-11-01

    A study in human volunteers has been designed to evaluate the influence of different food regimes on the gastric emptying of 3 mm and 10 mm diameter tablets. Dextrose and beef drinks were used as liquid food; a mixture of minced beef and mashed potato (shepherd's pie) was used as a solid meal. The gastric emptying of these foods was monitored simultaneously with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and gamma-scintigraphy (GS), and was quantified in terms of the time before gastric emptying started, the lag time, the mean gastric residence time (MGRT) and its variance (VGRT), and the time for complete emptying. The gastric emptying time of the tablets was established by monitoring the position of the tablets, which had been labelled with suitable radio isotopes, by GS. The two systems for monitoring gastric emptying of the foods did not provide equivalent results: times obtained with EIT were generally shorter than those obtained with GS for the liquid foods, but were longer for the solid meal. There was only a slight difference in the emptying times of the two liquid foods, whereas values for MGRT, VGRT and the time for complete emptying were considerably longer for the solid meal. In nearly all instances the tablets emptied after the foods had emptied completely from the stomach. Gastric emptying times were longer for the 3 mm tablets than the 10 mm tablets, whatever food they were taken with. The difference between the median emptying times was significant when the meal was either a dextrose solution or a beef drink, but not when the meal was shepherd's pie. The increase in gastric emptying time of tablets induced by solid food was greater than that associated with the differences in tablet size. By providing a protocol that did not allow the administration of further food until after the tablets had emptied from the stomach, no tablet emptying times exceeded 6 h.

  10. Radionuclide gastric emptying studies in patients with anorexia nervosa

    SciTech Connect

    Domstad, P.A.; Shih, W.J.; Humphries, L.; DeLand, F.H.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-05-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi (/sup 99m/Tc)triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET.

  11. Effects of exercise and carbohydrate composition on gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Neufer, P D; Costill, D L; Fink, W J; Kirwan, J P; Fielding, R A; Flynn, M G

    1986-12-01

    To examine the gastric emptying characteristics of selected test drinks varying in carbohydrate composition and concentration, twenty-five runners ingested 400 ml of a solution in one or more of a series of trials followed by either 15 min seated rest or 15 min running (50 to 70% VO2 max). The solutions tested at rest included water, 5.0% maltodextrin, 3.0% maltodextrin + 2% glucose (MG5.0), and 4.5% maltodextrin + 2.6% fructose (MF7.1). Solutions tested during running included water, MG5.0, MF7.1, 5.5% maltodextrin + 2% glucose, and 5.5% maltodextrin + 2% fructose. At rest and during running, water emptied significantly (P less than 0.5) faster than all other drinks. In the running trials, the volume of gastric residue of 5.5% maltodextrin + 2% fructose (221.7 +/- 11.0 ml) was significantly greater than water (103.4 +/- 19.0 ml), MG5.0 (153.3 +/- 16.8 ml), and MF7.1 (167.3 +/- 14.8), suggesting an inhibitory role of glucose on gastric emptying. Running resulted in a significantly lower volume of gastric residue of water, MG5.0, and MF7.1 (103.4 +/- 19.0, 153.3 +/- 16.8, and 167.3 +/- 14.8 ml, respectively) as compared to the corresponding drinks at rest (209.3 +/- 12.6, 287.7 +/- 16.0, and 271.0 +/- 17.8 ml, respectively). These results suggest a possible advantage for including maltodextrin and fructose as carbohydrate sources in athletic drinks. Furthermore, the rate of gastric emptying is enhanced while running, possibly due to increased mechanical movement of fluid within the stomach.

  12. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 suppresses inhibition of gastric emptying by cholecystokinin (CCK) in mice.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Joanne; Kenny, Susan; Dockray, Graham J

    2013-08-10

    The intestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) delays gastric emptying and inhibits food intake by actions on vagal afferent neurons. Recent studies suggest plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 suppresses the effect of CCK on food intake. In this study we asked whether PAI-1 also modulated CCK effects on gastric emptying. Five minute gastric emptying of liquid test meals was studied in conscious wild type mice (C57BL/6) and in transgenic mice over-expressing PAI-1 in gastric parietal cells (PAI-1H/Kβ mice), or null for PAI-1. The effects of exogenous PAI-1 and CCK8s on gastric emptying were studied after ip administration. Intragastric peptone delayed gastric emptying in C57BL/6 mice by a mechanism sensitive to the CCK-1 receptor antagonist lorglumide. Peptone did not delay gastric emptying in PAI-1-H/Kβ mice. Exogenous CCK delayed gastric emptying of a control test meal in C57BL/6 mice and this was attenuated by administration of PAI-1; exogenous CCK had no effect on emptying in PAI-1-H/Kβ mice. Prior administration of gastrin to increase gastric PAI-1 inhibited CCK-dependent effects on gastric emptying in C57BL/6 mice but not in PAI-1 null mice. Thus, both endogenous and exogenous PAI-1 inhibit the effects of CCK (whether exogenous or endogenous) on gastric emptying. The data are compatible with emerging evidence that gastric PAI-1 modulates vagal effects of CCK.

  13. Gastric emptying of wholemeal and white bread.

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, D S; Goddard, J

    1977-01-01

    We studied the rates at which solid and liquid leave the stomach after meals of wholemeal and white bread by using a double isotope technique. There was no difference in the rates at which the solid phases of the gastric contents left the stomach but liquid left the stomach significantly more rapidly with white bread than with wholemeal bread. Furthermore, the amount of liquid leaving the stomach unaccompanied and therefore unbuffered by solid was significantly greater after while bread than wholemeal bread. These findings may be of significance in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and they provide a rational basis for a possible form of dietary treatment. PMID:604193

  14. [Scintigraphic study of gastric emptying of rehydration drinks in athletes].

    PubMed

    Martínez Gonzálvez, A B; Nuño de la Rosa Y Pozuelo, J A; Sánchez Gascón, F; Villegas García, J A; Mulero Aniorte, F; Contreras Gutiérrez, J C

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate how rehydration beverage ingestion influences gastric emptying rate (in cycle ergometer) at rest and during exercise at 70 % of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). 26 well-trained cyclists performed a preliminary maximal test until exhaustion to evaluate their VO2max, and two submaximal exercise tests at 70 % of their mode-specific VO2max. Each test was separated by one week. During the two submaximal tests, cyclists consumed 200 ml of a 99mTc-DTPA labeled rehydration beverage (A or B) and scintigraphy determinations were performed at rest. After, exercise was initiated for 60 minutes with an intake rate of 200 ml every 15 minutes, making gastric serial scintigraphy determinations. The difference regarding chemical composition between A and B drinks resides in the fact that drink A contains a smaller load in carbohydrates (10.3 g/100 ml versus 15.2 g/100 ml of B), proteins in form of serum milk and antioxidants in form of fruit juice. Both contain ions and vitamins. at rest, gastric count number was significantly reduced (p > 0.000) from 0 to 25 minutes for both A and B beverage. At the end of exercise (60 min), there was greater gastric retention for B beverage than for A, this difference being statistically significant (p < 0.031). The A beverage, a rehydration drink on the market with protein and antioxidants with fruit juice content, has a faster gastric emptying rate than the B sport beverage.

  15. [Effect of erythromycin on electrical activity and gastric emptying of the intrathoracic stomach after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-feng; Liu, Cheng-jun; Shi, Zhi-hua; Liu, Xin-bo; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Fu-shun; Cao, Fu-min; Li, Bao-qing

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effect of erythromycin on electrical activity and emptying of the intrathoracic stomach after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Thirty patients undergoing esophagectomy for cancer and esophagogastrostomy above the aortic arch were divided into the study group (n=15) and the control group (n=15). Electrogastrography and radionuclide gastric emptying were examined for these patients before and 1, 3, 6, 12 months after surgery. Patients in the study group received erythromycin (0.25 g tid po) for 1 week before examination. The wave amplitude (Uv), dominant frequency (CPM) and percentage of normal slow wave (%) of electrogastrogram decreased after surgery and returned to normal at the first postoperative month in the study group and the 12th postoperative month in the control group (P>0.05). Gastric emptying was significantly delayed after esophagectomy, and returned to normal one year after operation in the study group (P>0.05). However, gastric emptying remained abnormal in the control group (P<0.01). Erythromycin improves electrical activity and emptying of the stomach after esophagectomy for cancer. Gastric emptying recovery later than the recovery of electrical activity, which may be related to gastric ischemia and edema.

  16. Effect of wine on gastric emptying in humans.

    PubMed

    Moore, J G; Christian, P E; Datz, F L; Coleman, R E

    1981-12-01

    The effect of wine on gastric emptying of meals was studied in 10 healthy male subjects. A dual radioisotopic method was employed utilizing isotope tracers added to the liquid (111In-diethyltriamine pentaacetic acid) and solid phases (99mT-tagged chicken liver) of the meal. In a random design subjects were fed two standardized 900-g meals containing 450 g of solid food ingredients and 450 g of either Cabernet Sauvignon (mean ethanol concentration = 9500 mg/dl) or low-alcohol Cabernet Sauvignon (mean ethanol concentration = 1312 mg/dl). In addition, 7 of the 10 subjects were fed wine and low-alcohol wine without solid food. Wine, when compared with low-alcohol wine, did not significantly alter gastric emptying of either liquid or solid food components.

  17. Effects of Gelatinization of Enteral Nutrients on Human Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Naruo; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Odaira, Hironori; Noro, Takuji; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal side effects, particularly diarrhea, are still the main reasons for discontinuation of enteral nutrition. Gelatinization of liquid meal for the prevention of diarrhea has been reported as effective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of gelatinization of liquid meal on gastric emptying. Methods Ten healthy volunteers were studied two times, with 2-week interval between tests. The total calorific value was set at 225 kcal, and 3 test meals were prepared: liquid meal and 2 types of gelatinized meals. These 2 types of gelatinized meals are different viscosity. 13C-sodium acetate (100 mg) was thoroughly mixed, and exhaled air was sampled. The results of gastric emptying were expressed as the time of peak excretion (Tmax), and absorption was expressed as the area under the 13CO2 curve up to Tmax (AUC-Tmax). At the same time, blood samples were collected to measure levels of blood glucose, insulin and gastrin. Results The mean value of Tmax were 52.0, 77.3 and 85.6 min. Compared to liquid meal, gastric emptying for gelatinized meals was significantly delayed. The mean value of AUC-Tmax were 22.7, 28.7 and 33.7%dose, respectively, and no significant differences in absorption were seen. No significant differences existed in blood glucose, gastrin and insulin. Conclusions Gelatinization of liquid meal delays gastric emptying. Gelatinized liquid meal may be useful for the management of diarrhea accompanied with enteral nutrition without influencing gastrointestinal hormone and blood glucose. PMID:27942287

  18. Effect of sucralfate on gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, J.M.; Caride, V.J.; Prokop, E.K.; Troncale, F.; McCallum, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients may have accelerated gastric emptying (GE) suggesting that there is an increase in unbuffered gastric acid reaching the duodenum contributing to DU disease. Aluminum-containing antacids were shown to delay GE. The authors' aim was to investigate whether another aluminum-containing compound, Sucralfate, affects GE in normal and DU patients. Nine normal volunteers and 10 patients with documented DU disease were studied. For each test the subject ingested a meal composed of chicken liver Tc-99m-S-C mixed with beef stew and eaten with 4 oz. of water labelled with 100..mu..Ci of III-in-DTPA. On two separate days, subjects received 1 gram of Sucralfate (190 mg of aluminum per gram) or placebo in a randomized double-blind fashion one hour prior to the test meal. GE of liquids and solids in normal subjects was not significantly changed by Sucralfate. Sucralfate in the DU patients significantly slowed liquid emptying in the initial 40 min and solid food throughout the study compared to placebo (p<0.05). This paper summarizes that; GE of solids but not liquids is accelerated in DU patients compared to normal subjects; and sucralfate delays GE of both liquid and solid components of a meal in DU patients but has no effect on GE in normals. The authors conclude that a slowing of gastric emptying possibly mediated by aluminum ions, may be one mechanism by which Sucralfate enhances healing and decreases recurrence of DU.

  19. Relationship Between Control of Glycemia and Gastric Emptying Disturbances in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Halland, Magnus; Bharucha, Adil E

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Hyperglycemia is implicated as a major risk factor for delayed gastric emptying in diabetes mellitus and vice versa. However, the extent to which hyperglycemia can affect gastric emptying and vice versa and the implications for clinical practice are unclear. We systematically reviewed the evidence for this bi-directional relationship and the effects of pharmacotherapy for diabetes on gastric emptying. Methods Full-length articles investigating the relationship between diabetes mellitus and gastroparesis were reviewed primarily to quantify the relationship between blood glucose concentrations and gastrointestinal sensorimotor functions, particularly gastric emptying, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The effects of drugs and hormones, which affect glycemia, on gastrointestinal sensorimotor functions were also evaluated. Results Acute severe hyperglycemia delayed gastric emptying relative to euglycemia in type 1 diabetes; the corresponding effects in type 2 diabetes are unknown. Limited evidence suggests that even mild hyperglycemia (8 mmol/L) can delay gastric emptying in type 1 diabetes. Long-term hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for delayed gastric emptying in type 1 diabetes. There is little evidence that delayed gastric emptying causes hypoglycemia in diabetes and no evidence that improved control of glycemia improves gastric emptying or vice versa. Glucagonlike peptide-1 agonists but not dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors given acutely delay gastric emptying but tachyphylaxis may occur. Conclusions While acute severe and chronic hyperglycemia can delay gastric emptying, there is limited evidence that delayed gastric emptying is an independent risk factor for impaired glycemic control or hypoglycemia in diabetes. The impact of improved glycemic control on gastric emptying and vice versa in diabetes is unknown. PMID:26717862

  20. Relationship Between Control of Glycemia and Gastric Emptying Disturbances in Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Halland, Magnus; Bharucha, Adil E

    2016-07-01

    Hyperglycemia is implicated as a major risk factor for delayed gastric emptying in diabetes mellitus and vice versa. However, the extent to which hyperglycemia can affect gastric emptying and vice versa and the implications for clinical practice are unclear. We systematically reviewed the evidence for this bidirectional relationship and the effects of pharmacotherapy for diabetes on gastric emptying. Full-length articles investigating the relationship between diabetes mellitus and gastroparesis were reviewed primarily to quantify the relationship between blood glucose concentrations and gastrointestinal sensorimotor functions, particularly gastric emptying, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The effects of drugs and hormones that affect glycemia on gastrointestinal sensorimotor functions were also evaluated. Acute severe hyperglycemia delayed gastric emptying relative to euglycemia in type 1 diabetes; the corresponding effects in type 2 diabetes are unknown. Limited evidence suggests that even mild hyperglycemia (8 mmol/L) can delay gastric emptying in type 1 diabetes. Long-term hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for delayed gastric emptying in type 1 diabetes. There is little evidence that delayed gastric emptying causes hypoglycemia in diabetes and no evidence that improved control of glycemia improves gastric emptying or vice versa. Glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists but not dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors given acutely delay gastric emptying, but tachyphylaxis may occur. Although acute severe and chronic hyperglycemia can delay gastric emptying, there is limited evidence that delayed gastric emptying is an independent risk factor for impaired glycemic control or hypoglycemia in diabetes. The impact of improved glycemic control on gastric emptying and vice versa in diabetes is unknown. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanism‐Based Modeling of Gastric Emptying Rate and Gallbladder Emptying in Response to Caloric Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sonne, DP; Hansen, M; Bagger, JI; Lund, A; Rehfeld, JF; Alskär, O; Karlsson, MO; Vilsbøll, T; Knop, FK; Bergstrand, M

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids released postprandially modify the rate and extent of absorption of lipophilic compounds. The present study aimed to predict gastric emptying (GE) rate and gallbladder emptying (GBE) patterns in response to caloric intake. A mechanism‐based model for GE, cholecystokinin plasma concentrations, and GBE was developed on data from 33 patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched nondiabetic individuals who were administered various test drinks. A feedback action of the caloric content entering the proximal small intestine was identified for the rate of GE. The cholecystokinin concentrations were not predictive of GBE, and an alternative model linking the nutrients amount in the upper intestine to GBE was preferred. Relative to fats, the potency on GBE was 68% for proteins and 2.3% for carbohydrates. The model predictions were robust across a broad range of nutritional content and may potentially be used to predict postprandial changes in drug absorption. PMID:28028939

  2. Phenylbutazone prevents the endotoxin-induced delay in gastric emptying in horses.

    PubMed Central

    Valk, N; Doherty, T J; Blackford, J T; Abraha, T W; Frazier, D L

    1998-01-01

    The effect of phenylbutazone on gastric emptying in horses was determined by measuring serum concentrations of acetaminophen. Gastric emptying was determined in normal fasted horses (n = 6), horses given endotoxin intravenously (n = 6), horses given intravenous phenylbutazone (n = 6), and horses given intravenous phenylbutazone plus endotoxin (n = 6). The mean time to reach maximum serum acetaminophen concentration (Tmax), the maximum serum concentration (Cmax), and the area under the serum acetaminophen concentration versus time curve (AUC) were compared among treatment groups. Phenylbutazone did not alter gastric emptying in normal horses. Endotoxin caused a profound delay in gastric emptying, and pretreatment with phenylbutazone abolished this effect. PMID:9684051

  3. Gastric emptying in patients on renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Guz, Galip; Bali, Musa; Poyraz, Nilüfer Yildirim; Bagdatoglu, Oktay; Yeğin, Zeynep Arzu; Doğan, Ibrahim; Atasever, Tamer; Sert, Sevki; Sindel, Sükrü

    2004-11-01

    In addition to gastrointestinal tract symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite, impaired gastric emptying time (GET) may be related to nutritional parameters and nutritional status of patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT). Patients on RRT are affected by several factors such as uremic toxins, the presence of dialysate in the peritoneal cavity, and the drugs used against renal allograft rejection. In this study, we investigated the gastric emptying time and its relationship with biochemical and nutritional parameters in patients on RRT: those on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, and renal transplantation patients. Seventy-five patients, 44 on hemodialysis, 16 on peritoneal dialysis, and 15 renal transplant patients, were included in the study. They were examined for gastric emptying time using a radioisotopic method. The results were compared with the GET of healthy subjects. Each group of patients was evaluated in terms of hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, blood glucose, total protein, albumin, serum lipids, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and body mass index and biceps and triceps skinfold. The mean GET of patients on RRT was significantly longer than the mean GET of healthy subjects (87.8 +/- 23.4 vs. 55 +/- 18 min, p<0.05). The mean GET of each therapy subgroups was significantly longer than the healthy subjects (the mean GET was 85.1 +/- 22.4 min for hemodialysis, 87.7+/-31.8 min for peritoneal dialysis, and 94.6+/-16.7 min for renal transplant patients, respectively, p<0.05). On the other hand, the differences in the mean GET between the three therapy subgroups were not statistically significant (p>0.05). In addition, time on replacement therapy inversely and blood glucose positively correlated with GET in renal transplant patients. In conclusion, GET was longer in patients on all three RRT modalities than in healthy subjects. GET was not significantly different in dialysis patients and renal transplant patients.

  4. Effect of pancreatic polypeptide on gastric accommodation and gastric emptying in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Verschueren, Sofie; Janssen, Pieter; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Hultin, Leif; Tack, Jan

    2014-07-01

    Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is an anorexigenic hormone released from pancreatic F cells upon food intake. We aimed to determine the effect of PP on gastric accommodation and gastric emptying in conscious Wistar HAN rats to investigate whether effects on motor function could contribute to its anorexigenic effects. Intragastric pressure (IGP) was measured through a chronically implanted gastric fistula during the infusion of a nutrient meal (Nutridrink; 0.5 ml/min). Rats were treated with PP (0, 33 and 100 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1)) in combination with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 180 mg·kg(-1)·h(-1)), atropine (3 mg·kg(-1)·h(-1)), or vehicle. Furthermore, the effect of PP was tested after subdiaphragmal vagotomy of the stomach. Gastric emptying of a noncaloric and a caloric meal after treatment with 100 pmol·kg(-1)·min(-1) PP or vehicle was compared using X-rays. PP significantly increased IGP during nutrient infusion compared with vehicle (P < 0.01). L-NAME and atropine significantly increased IGP during nutrient infusion compared with vehicle treatment (P < 0.005 and 0.01, respectively). The effect of PP on IGP during nutrient infusion was abolished in the presence of L-NAME and in the presence of atropine. In vagotomized rats, PP increased IGP compared with intact controls (P < 0.05). PP significantly delayed gastric emptying of both a noncaloric (P < 0.05) and a caloric (P < 0.005) meal. PP inhibits gastric accommodation and delays gastric emptying, probably through inhibition of nitric oxide release. These results indicate that, besides the well-known centrally mediated effects, PP might decrease food intake through peripheral mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. A comparison of the gastric emptying characteristics of selected sports drinks.

    PubMed

    Murray, R; Bartoli, W; Stofan, J; Horn, M; Eddy, D

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of repeated ingestion of drinks containing varying concentrations of carbohydrate on gastric emptying rate during steady-state exercise. On five separate occasions, 14 subjects cycled for 90 min at an average power output of 151 +/- 2 W. At 15-min intervals, subjects ingested 227 +/- 3 ml of either water, 4% carbohydrate (CHO), 6% CHO, or 8% CHO. Gastric volume was determined prior to each drink and at 90 min using the modified double-sampling technique. Gross gastric volumes were significantly greater and mean gastric emptying rates and the percentage of ingested beverage emptied from the stomach were significantly less for 8% CHO. These data indicate that repeated ingestion of an 8% CHO beverage during exercise significantly reduces gastric emptying rate, whereas lower concentrations of carbohydrate do not. In addition, beverage osmolality is not as important as beverage energy content in influencing gastric emptying rate at these carbohydrate concentrations.

  6. The TRPA1 agonist, methyl syringate suppresses food intake and gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Son, Hee Jin; Song, Seo Hyeon; Jung, Myungji; Kim, Yiseul; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1) expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastric motility, gastric emptying, and food intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of methyl syringate, a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut hormone levels in imprinting control region (ICR) mice. The administration of methyl syringate suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with ruthenium red (RR), a general cation channel blocker, and HC-030031, a selective TRPA1 antagonist, inhibited methyl syringate-induced reduction of food intake and delayed gastric emptying in ICR mice. Methyl syringate also increased plasma peptide YY (PYY) levels, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. The elevation in PYY was blocked by treatment with RR and HC-030031. The present findings indicate that methyl syringate regulates food intake and gastric emptying through a TRPA1-mediated pathway and, by extension, can contribute to weight suppression.

  7. Botulinum toxin A as a treatment for delayed gastric emptying in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Max L.; Fransson, Boel A.; Barry, Sabrina L.

    2014-01-01

    A toy Australian shepherd dog was referred for bile peritonitis following excision of a biliary mucocele. Subsequent delayed gastric emptying was refractory to prokinetic therapy but responded to injection of botulinum toxin A into the muscularis layer of the pylorus; a novel therapy for delayed gastric emptying in dogs. PMID:24982520

  8. Botulinum toxin A as a treatment for delayed gastric emptying in a dog.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Max L; Fransson, Boel A; Barry, Sabrina L

    2014-07-01

    A toy Australian shepherd dog was referred for bile peritonitis following excision of a biliary mucocele. Subsequent delayed gastric emptying was refractory to prokinetic therapy but responded to injection of botulinum toxin A into the muscularis layer of the pylorus; a novel therapy for delayed gastric emptying in dogs.

  9. Inhibitory effect of the anorexic compound oleoylethanolamide on gastric emptying in control and overweight mice.

    PubMed

    Aviello, Gabriella; Matias, Isabel; Capasso, Raffaele; Petrosino, Stefania; Borrelli, Francesca; Orlando, Pierangelo; Romano, Barbara; Capasso, Francesco; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2008-04-01

    Gastric emptying regulates food intake. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA), an endogenous acylethanolamide chemically related to the endocannabinoid anandamide, inhibits food intake, but its effect on gastric emptying is unknown. Here, we investigated the effect and the role of OEA on gastric emptying in mice fed either a standard (STD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks. Gastric emptying was reduced by OEA, but not by its saturated analog, palmitoylethanolamide. The effect of OEA was unaffected by rimonabant (cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist), SR144528 (cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist), 5'-iodoresiniferatoxin (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 antagonist), or MK886 (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha) antagonist. Compared to STD mice, HFD mice showed delayed gastric emptying and higher levels of gastric OEA. HFD-induced increase in OEA levels was accompanied by increased expression of the OEA-synthesizing enzyme N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-selective phospholipase D and decreased expression of the OEA-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase. These results might suggest that elevation of gastric OEA could possibly contribute to the delayed gastric emptying observed in HFD-fed animals. HFD regulates OEA levels in the stomach through an increase of its biosynthesis and a decrease of its enzymatic degradation. The inhibitory effect of OEA on gastric emptying here observed might underlie part of the anorexic effects of this compound previously reported.

  10. Observations on the relation between alcohol absorption and the rate of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, S

    1981-01-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) is absorbed slowly from the stomach and rapidly from the small intestine, and the rate of its absorption depends on the rate of gastric emptying. When gastric emptying is fast, the absorption of alcohol is fast. When gastric emptying is slow the absorption of alcohol is delayed and peak blood alcohol concentrations are reduced. Alterations of the gastric emptying rate, which may have a physiologic, pharmacologic or pathologic cause, markedly influence the rate of alcohol absorption. The gastric emptying rate makes an important contribution to inter- and intraindividual variations in the rate of alcohol absorption and therefore the timing and magnitude of the acute intoxicating effect of an oral dose of alcohol. PMID:7459787

  11. Accelerated Gastric Emptying but No Carbohydrate Malabsorption 1 Year After Gastric Bypass Surgery (GBP)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gary; Agenor, Keesandra; Pizot, Justine; Kotler, Donald P.; Harel, Yaniv; Van Der Schueren, Bart J.; Quercia, Iliana; McGinty, James

    2013-01-01

    Background Following gastric bypass surgery (GBP), there is a post-prandial rise of incretin and satiety gut peptides. The mechanisms of enhanced incretin release in response to nutrients after GBP is not elucidated and may be in relation to altered nutrient transit time and/or malabsorption. Methods Seven morbidly obese subjects (BMI=44.5±2.8 kg/m2) were studied before and 1 year after GBP with a d-xylose test. After ingestion of 25 g of d-xylose in 200 mL of non-carbonated water, blood samples were collected at frequent time intervals to determine gastric emptying (time to appearance of d-xylose) and carbohydrate absorption using standard criteria. Results One year after GBP, subjects lost 45.0±9.7 kg and had a BMI of 27.1±4.7 kg/m2. Gastric emptying was more rapid after GBP. The mean time to appearance of d-xylose in serum decreased from 18.6±6.9 min prior to GBP to 7.9±2.7 min after GBP (p=0.006). There was no significant difference in absorption before (serum d-xylose concentrations=35.6±12.6 mg/dL at 60 min and 33.9±9.1 mg/dL at 180 min) or 1 year after GBP (serum d-xylose=31.5± 18.1 mg/dL at 60 min and 27.2±11.9 mg/dL at 180 min). Conclusions These data confirm the acceleration of gastric emptying for liquid and the absence of carbohydrate malabsorption 1 year after GBP. Rapid gastric emptying may play a role in incretin response after GBP and the resulting improved glucose homeostasis. PMID:22527599

  12. Acetaminophen absorption kinetics in altered gastric emptying: establishing a relevant pharmacokinetic surrogate using published data.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2015-06-01

    Acetaminophen has been used as a tool for clinical and nonclinical experimental designs that evaluate gastric emptying because acetaminophen is not absorbed in stomach but efficiently absorbed from the small intestine. Published pharmacokinetic data of acetaminophen in subjects with normal gastric emptying vs. impaired gastric emptying (i.e., morphine treatment) were evaluated to select a key surrogate. Using Caverage (average concentration), computed from the exposure within the first hour, individual rank distribution was plotted across different studies. Caverage was highly correlated with Cmax (maximum concentration) in subjects with normal gastric emptying (R(2) = .7532) but not in those where gastric emptying was impaired (R(2) = .0213). The 50th percentile value of the distribution pattern of 1/Caverage in acetaminophen+morphine-treated group (coincided with the first shift in the slope) was considered as the cutoff point to figure out the impaired gastric emptying. The individual rank distribution plots for 1/Caverage across different studies supported similar trends in subjects with normal gastric emptying but showed a distinct distribution pattern in the cohort of impaired gastric emptying. Caverage, calculated within the first hour of dosing of acetaminophen (average concentration at 0-1 hour, C0-1havg), can be used as a key surrogate to distinguish the effects of gastric emptying on the absorption of acetaminophen. A 4 μg/mL C0-1havg of acetaminophen (dose: 1.5 g) may be used as cutoff point in future clinical investigations of acetaminophen to clarify the role of gastric emptying.

  13. Involvement of endogenous opiates in regulation of gastric emptying of fat test meals in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fioramonti, J.; Fargeas, M.J.; Bueno, L.

    1988-08-01

    The role of endogenous opioids and cholecystokinin (CCK) in gastric emptying was investigated in mice killed 30 min after gavage with /sup 51/Cr-radiolabeled liquid meals. The meals consisted of 0.5 ml of milk or one of five synthetic meals containing arabic gum, glucose and/or arachis oil and/or casein. Naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc) significantly (P less than 0.01) accelerated gastric emptying of milk and meals containing fat but did not modify gastric emptying of nonfat meals. The CCK antagonist asperlicin (0.1 mg/kg ip) increased by 25% gastric emptying of milk. The gastric emptying of meals containing glucose and casein but not fat was reduced after administration of the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8, 4 micrograms/kg ip). This decrease was antagonized by both asperlicin (10 mg/kg ip) and naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc). Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of an opiate antagonist that poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier, methyl levallorphan (10 micrograms/kg), did not modify gastric emptying of milk but accelerated it when peripherally administered (0.1 mg/kg sc). Similarly, asperlicin (icv) administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg did not affect milk emptying. These results indicate that endogenous opiates are involved at peripheral levels in the regulation of gastric emptying of fat meals only and that such regulation involves release of CCK.

  14. Influence of SDZ RAD vs. MMF on gastric emptying in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Maes, Bart D; Evenepoel, Pieter; Kuypers, Dirk; Geypens, Benny; Ghoos, Yvo; Vanrenterghem, Yves

    2003-06-01

    SDZ RAD and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) are increasingly used in the prevention of renal allograft rejection. SDZ RAD, having a macrolide structure, and MMF, known with gastrointestinal side-effects, may have gastric motility modifying properties. Gastric emptying was examined 1 yr after renal transplantation in eight patients taking corticosteroids (CS), cyclosporin A (CsA) and SDZ RAD and six patients treated with CS, CsA and MMF. Comparing the two groups, no significant differences in gastric emptying of solids and liquids were noted. Compared with normal volunteers, solid gastric emptying was faster in the SDZ RAD group and similar in the MMF group. It is concluded that in stable renal transplant recipients treated with MMF, gastric emptying was normal. Because of the impact on drug absorption and gastrointestinal symptoms, further studies are indicated to corroborate the potential prokinetic properties of SDZ RAD.

  15. 13C-sodium acetate breath test for evaluation of gastric emptying times in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, S; Jansen, N; Failing, K; Neiger, R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess solid phase gastric emptying via non-invasive 13C-sodium acetate breath test in large breed dogs with or without gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Dogs were recruited into one of the following groups: group 1 = healthy large breed dogs with no history of GDV, group 2 = dogs that underwent elective abdominal surgery for reasons unrelated to the gastrointestinal tract, and group 3 = dogs that underwent laparotomy and gastropexy to correct GDV. The dogs were fed a test meal containing 100 mg 13C-sodium acetate (for group 2 and 3, this was < 48 hours post-operatively). Breath samples were obtained at baseline and every 30 minutes for 3 hours, then every hour for a total of 7 hours. 12CO2/13CO2 ratio was measured for each breath sample via non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy and 25%, 50% and 75% gastric emptying times were calculated and compared between groups. Gastric emptying times were significantly prolonged in dogs undergoing surgery (group 2) compared to group 1 and 3. Also, gastric emptying times of dogs with GDV were significantly prolonged compared to controls, but not to the same extent as dogs in group 2. There was a significant effect of abdominal surgery on gastric emptying times. Surprisingly, dogs after GDV surgery and gastropexy had shorter gastric emptying times than dogs undergoing laparotomy for reasons other than GDV, but still prolonged compared to healthy controls. The reason for these differences requires further study.

  16. Metoclopramide ameliorates the effects of endotoxin on gastric emptying of acetaminophen in horses.

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, T J; Andrews, F M; Abraha, T W; Osborne, D; Frazier, D L

    1999-01-01

    The effect of metoclopramide on gastric emptying of a liquid marker in horses was evaluated by measuring serum concentrations of acetaminophen. Gastric emptying was determined in normal, fasted horses (n = 7), horses given endotoxin intravenously (n = 7), and horses given intravenous metoclopramide plus endotoxin (n = 6). The mean time to reach maximum serum acetaminophen concentration (Tmax), the maximum serum concentration (Cmax), and the area under the serum acetaminophen concentration vs time curve (AUC) were compared among treatment groups. Endotoxin caused a profound delay in gastric emptying, and pretreatment with metoclopramide significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated this effect. PMID:9918332

  17. Treatment of vomiting and of gastric emptying suppression in primates after gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, A.; Dorval, E.D.; O'Connell, L.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Total body irradiation is followed within minutes by nausea and vomiting. In dogs, the authors found that gastric emptying was suppressed for at least 3 hours after exposure to 8 Gy Cobalt-60; in addition, pretreatment with domperidone (D) could prevent vomiting without improving gastric emptying. In the present studies, the authors used a primate model to further investigate the possibility of treating radiation induced vomiting and delayed gastric emptying. Gastric emptying was measured using either (1) radionuclide imaging after intragastric administration of chicken liver tagged in vivo with 1 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid and water containing 0.2 mCi In-111-DTPA; or (2) a Tc-99 m-DPTA dilution technique. Chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied in the basal state receiving either saline (S; 1.0 ml), D (0.1 mg/kg) or metoclopramide (M; 0.15 mg/kg). All monkeys were then exposed to total body irradiation (8 Gy, Cobalt-60) after receiving either S, D or M. Vomiting was observed in 5 of 6 monkeys receiving S or D but in only one of 5 animals pretreated with M. Gastric emptying was unaffected by any drug in the basal state (S: 5.54 +- 0.86; D: 6.21 +- 1.01; P: 6.52 +- 0.95%/min; means +- SE). After irradiation, emptying was completely abolished in animals treated with S (0.2 +- 0.2%/min) or D (0.1 +- 0.1%/min; in contrast, pretreatment with M improved gastric emptying significantly (1.81 +- 0.52%/min. Thus, gastric emptying is suppressed in monkeys who vomit after exposure to total body irradiation. In addition, vomiting is prevented and suppression of gastric emptying is improved by M, a dopamine antagonist that acts centrally but not by D, a peripherally acting dopamine antagonist.

  18. Effects of pramlintide, an amylin analogue, on gastric emptying in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Vella, A; Lee, J S; Camilleri, M; Szarka, L A; Burton, D D; Zinsmeister, A R; Rizza, R A; Klein, P D

    2002-04-01

    Pramlintide delays gastric emptying, possibly by a centrally mediated mechanism. Our aim was to determine whether the effects of pramlintide on gastric emptying differ in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who had no history of complications. Using a randomized, three-period, two-dose, crossover design, we studied the effects of 0, 30, or 60 microg t.i.d. pramlintide subcutaneously for 5 days each in six type 1 and six type 2 diabetic subjects. Gastric emptying of solids was measured by 13C-Spirulina breath test. Plasma pancreatic polypeptide (HPP) response to the test meal was also measured. Relative to placebo [t 50% 91 +/- 6 min (means +/- SEM)], pramlintide equally delayed gastric emptying following 30 or 60 microg t.i.d. (268 +/- 37 min, 329 +/- 49 min, respectively; P < 0.01]. Postprandial HPP levels were lower in response to 30 and 60 microg pramlintide compared to placebo. There were no significant differences in the effects on gastric emptying or HPP levels between type 1 and type 2 diabetic subjects. Pramlintide delays gastric emptying in diabetes unassociated with clinically detected complications. Further studies are needed in diabetic patients with impaired gastric motor function.

  19. The effect of macronutrients on gastric volume responses and gastric emptying in humans: A magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Oliver; Steingoetter, Andreas; Menne, Dieter; van der Voort, Ivo R; Kwiatek, Monika A; Boesiger, Peter; Weishaupt, Dominik; Thumshirn, Miriam; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner

    2007-01-01

    The effects of macronutrients on gastric volume changes, emptying, and gastrointestinal symptoms are incompletely understood. Three liquid meals of 500 ml (fat emulsion, 375 kcal; protein solution, 375 kcal; glucose solution, 400 kcal) were infused into the stomach of 12 healthy volunteers on three occasions. Studies were performed in seated body position using an open-configuration magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. MRI imaging sequences, assessing stomach and meal volumes, were performed prior to and at times t = 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 25, 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min after meal administration. Areas under the curve for the early emptying phase (0-15 and 0-45 min) were calculated, and characteristics of the volume curves were analyzed by a gastric emptying model. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by a self-report scale. Initial (t = 0 min) and early postprandial gastric volumes were highest for glucose because of lower initial emptying. However, in the early emptying phase the characteristics of the volume curves for stomach and meal were uniform for all macronutrients. Perceptions of fullness and satiety were linearly associated with postprandial gastric volumes, but not with macronutrient composition. Isovolumic macronutrient meals modulate gastric volume response by initial meal emptying patterns. Macronutrient specific accommodation responses, as shown in barostat studies, are not reflected as gastric volume responses under noninvasive conditions.

  20. Effect of carbonated water on gastric emptying and intragastric meal distribution.

    PubMed

    Pouderoux, P; Friedman, N; Shirazi, P; Ringelstein, J G; Keshavarzian, A

    1997-01-01

    Carbonated water has long been advocated to relieve dyspeptic symptoms, suggesting that it may alter gastric motility via gastric distension. This study aimed to determine the effect of carbonated water on gastric emptying of a radiolabeled mixed meal in eight healthy volunteers. Meal emptying and its distribution within the stomach were assessed with carbonated and still water in a crossover study. Emptying of both solid and liquid, including the duration of the lag phase, was identical for both drinks. However, the proximal stomach contained a greater proportion of solids (74 +/- 7% vs 56 +/- 8%, P < 0.05) and liquids (43 +/- 5% vs 27 +/- 4%, P < 0.05) with carbonated water as opposed to still water. Retention of the meal within the proximal stomach ended with the lag phase and was likely related to proximal distension. In conclusion, carbonated water did not alter overall gastric emptying but profoundly modified intragastric distribution of the meal.

  1. Delayed gastric emptying and improvement with domperidone in a patient with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Russell, D M; Freedman, M L; Feiglin, D H; Jeejeebhoy, K N; Swinson, R P; Garfinkel, P E

    1983-09-01

    A woman with anorexia nervosa who displayed severe bloating after eating was treated with domperidone, a novel compound with prokinetic properties. Both subjective ratings of satiety and assessment of gastric emptying documented improvement.

  2. Effect of tryptophan and its metabolites on gastric emptying of liquid meals in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cooke, A R; Ward, W O

    1976-09-01

    The effects of tryptophan and its metabolites were studied to determine whether the known inhibiting effect of tryptophan on emptying was due to local or systemic effects or due to tryptophan metabolites. In five dogs with chronic gastric fistulas, instillation of 300 ml of DL-kynurenine (5mM), 5-hydroxytryptophan (mM), or 5-hydroxytryptamine (20 mM) into the gut did not slow gastric emptying. Furthermore, iv infusion of L-tryptophan (5, 20, 50 mM), DL-kynurenine (2, 5, 10 mM), 5-hydroxytryptamine (2mM, 10 mM), and 3-indolepyruvic acid (2, 5, 10 mM) also did not slow gastric emptying. These studies indicate that tryptophan slows gastric emptying by exciting a receptor in the gut and not by a direct effect on the stomach or brain or via its major metabolites.

  3. Risk factors for delayed gastric emptying after esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Benedix, Frank; Willems, Tobias; Kropf, Siegfried; Schubert, Daniel; Stübs, Patrick; Wolff, Stephanie

    2017-05-01

    Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is a common functional disorder after esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction. Little is known about risk factors that can predict this debilitating complication. Patients who underwent elective esophagectomy from 2008 to 2016 in a single center were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnosis of DGE was based on clinical, radiological, and endoscopic findings. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to identify patient-, tumor-, and procedure-related factors that increase the risk of DGE. One hundred eighty-two patients were included. Incidence of DGE was 39.0%. Overall, 27 (14.8%) needed an endoscopic intervention. Patients in the DGE group had a longer hospital stay (p < 0.01). No differences were found for the 30-day (p = 1.0) and hospital mortality (p = 1.0). On univariate analyses, a significant influence on DGE was demonstrated for pre-existing pulmonary comorbidity (p = 0.04), an anastomotic leak (p < 0.01), and postoperative pulmonary complications (pneumonia: p = 0.02, pleural empyema: p < 0.01, and adult respiratory distress syndrome: p = 0.03). Furthermore, there was a non-significant trend toward an increased risk for DGE for the following variable: female gender (p = 0.09) and longer operative time (p = 0.09). On multivariate analysis, only female gender (p = 0.03) and anastomotic leak (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with an increased risk for DGE. DGE is a frequent complication following esophagectomy that can successfully be managed with conservative or endoscopic measures. DGE did not increase mortality but was associated with increased morbidity and prolonged hospitalization. We identified risk factors that increase the incidence of DGE. However, this has to be confirmed in future studies with standardized definition of DGE.

  4. Improved gastric emptying in diabetic rats by irbesartan via decreased serum leptin and ameliorated gastric microcirculation.

    PubMed

    He, L; Sun, Y; Zhu, Y; Ren, R; Zhang, Y; Wang, F

    2014-09-05

    Diabetic gastroparesis (DG) is a common clinical complication of diabetes mellitus. Leptin may cause delayed gastric emptying in the central and peripheral pathways. Microcirculatory disturbances in the stomach make gastric smooth muscles and nerves hypoxic-ischemic, thereby impairing gastric motility. Irbesartan is an angiotensin II (ATII) receptor blocker that indirectly decreases serum leptin levels and improves blood vessel endothelia. This study examined the effect of irbesartan on DG and its relationship with serum leptin levels and microcirculatory disturbances of the stomach. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes and were then treated with or without 0.012 g·kg(-1)·d(-1) irbesartan by gavage. After six weeks of treatment, the gastric evacuation rate (GER) was measured using phenol red. Serum leptin levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Endothelin (ET) in the stomach tissue was examined using a radioimmunoassay, whereas chemical colorimetry was used to measure the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity of stomach tissues. The mRNA expression of the ATII receptor (AT1R) was assessed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with irbesartan significantly increased the GER of diabetic rats and reduced the serum leptin levels, as well as decreased the ET content and AT1R mRNA expression in the stomach (P<0.05). Changes in the cNOS activity after irbesartan intervention were not significant (P>0.05), whereas iNOS activity was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Irbesartan can alleviate hyperglycemia-induced delayed gastric emptying, which is associated with decreased serum leptin levels and improved microcirculation in the stomach.

  5. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount.

  6. Highly variable gastric emptying in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, T V; Johnson, C P; Kalbfleisch, J H; Roza, A M; Wood, C M; Weisbruch, J P; Soergel, K H

    1995-01-01

    Some diabetic patients--particularly those with nausea and vomiting--frequently have evidence of delayed gastric emptying while other diabetic patients may in fact exhibit accelerated gastric emptying. Whether the presence or absence of symptoms of upper gastrointestinal dysfunction correlated with objective measures of gastric emptying in insulin dependent diabetic subjects was investigated. Twenty one insulin dependent diabetic patients underwent a solid phase gastric emptying scintiscan using in vivo labelled chicken liver. Thirteen patients had symptoms suggestive of gastrointestinal dysfunction (nausea, vomiting, early satiety, or constipation), while eight patients had no gastrointestinal symptoms. Eleven patients had orthostatic hypotension. All patients had been diabetic since childhood or adolescence. As a group, the diabetic patients showed a half time (T50) of gastric emptying (mean (SD) 150.0 min (163.7) that was not significantly different from that of 12 healthy control subjects (148.1 min (62.4)). Those diabetic patients without gastrointestinal symptoms and without orthostatic hypotension, however, showed a gastric emptying half time (70.1 min (41.6)) that was significantly faster than that of the control subjects. Conversely, those diabetic patients with nausea, vomiting, and early satiety (or early satiety alone) showed T50 values that were significantly greater than those of the diabetic patients without these symptoms. No correlation was found between the T50 value and the duration of diabetes, the fasting blood glucose at the time of study, or the respiratory variation in heart rate (E:I ratio). These observations indicate that highly variable rates of gastric emptying occur in insulin dependent diabetic patients, and that accelerated gastric emptying may occur in diabetic patients who have no symptoms of gastrointestinal dysfunction. PMID:7672674

  7. Applied potential tomography in the measurement of gastric emptying in infants.

    PubMed

    Nour, S; Mangnall, Y F; Dickson, J A; Johnson, A G; Pearse, R G

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using applied potential tomography (APT), a noninvasive and nonradioactive method, to measure the rate of gastric emptying in preterm babies and infants < 3 months old. APT, a form of electrical impedance tomography, creates tomographic images of tissue resistivity to a small electrical current and has been used to study gastric emptying in adults. The rate of gastric emptying of 53 preterm infants and 29 term infants was measured. The test feed was either milk (formula milk or expressed breast milk) or Dioralyte (a commercial rehydration solution). When a nasogastric tube was present, the results obtained by APT were validated by comparing the volume of feed estimated to be present with the volume that could be aspirated. All infants completed the investigation without any problems. APT demonstrated a slower rate of emptying of milk feeds than Dioralyte and showed that milk and Dioralyte feeds in preterm babies emptied at a similar rate to feeds in term infants. In validation studies, gastric emptying has been observed in 44 of 47 studies, and this finding was confirmed by aspiration of the nasogastric tube. Applied potential tomography is a safe, noninvasive method for measuring gastric emptying in small infants.

  8. The pattern of gastric emptying: a new view of old results

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Anthony

    1966-01-01

    1. Gastric emptying has until now been regarded as exponential in form, but this pattern does not account for all phases of a meal. 2. A pattern of emptying in which the square root of the volume of meal remaining declines linearly with time has been shown to account for the experimental results with less error. PMID:5937408

  9. Gastric emptying in Parkinson's disease: patients with and without response fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Djaldetti, R; Baron, J; Ziv, I; Melamed, E

    1996-04-01

    Delayed gastric emptying may be an important pharmacokinetic mechanism underlying some of the response fluctuations that develop after long-term levodopa therapy. We performed a radionuclide gastric emptying study using a standard Tc-99m colloid-labeled solid meal in 30 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 15 fluctuators with "delayed-on" and "no-on" phenomena, and 15 nonfluctuators. Fasting patients were given the standard meal, and gastric emptying was monitored with a gamma camera positioned over the stomach, recording data for 1 hour. PD patients had prolonged gastric emptying measured after 60 minutes compared with the normal control subjects (70.7 +/- 16% versus < 60%). Gastric retention measured after 1 hour was increased in patients with fluctuations compared with patients without fluctuations (77.4 +/- 15.5% versus 64.0 +/- 14.3%; p < 0.05). Half-time emptying was significantly delayed in patients with, as compared with those without, response fluctuations (221 +/- 202 minutes versus 85 +/- 31 minutes; p < 0.05). This demonstrates that delayed gastric emptying is common in PD patients and is more marked in those with response fluctuations. The stomach is an important target organ in PD, affected either by the basic PD pathology, chronic drug administration, or both.

  10. Oatmeal particle size alters glycemic index but not as a function of gastric emptying rate.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Alan R; Bajka, Balazs H; Rigby, Neil M; Wilde, Peter J; Alves-Pereira, Fatima; Mosleth, Ellen F; Rieder, Anne; Kirkhus, Bente; Salt, Louise J

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which oat particle size in a porridge could alter glucose absorption, gastric emptying, gastrointestinal hormone response, and subjective feelings of appetite and satiety. Porridge was prepared from either oat flakes or oat flour with the same protein, fat, carbohydrate, and mass. These were fed to eight volunteers on separate days in a crossover study, and subjective appetite ratings, gastric contents, and plasma glucose, insulin, and gastrointestinal hormones were determined over a period of 3 h. The flake porridge gave a lower glucose response than the flour porridge, and there were apparent differences in gastric emptying in both the early and late postprandial phases. The appetite ratings showed similar differences between early- and late-phase behavior. The structure of the oat flakes remained sufficiently intact to delay their gastric emptying, leading to a lower glycemic response, even though initial gastric emptying rates were similar for the flake and flour porridge. This highlights the need to take food structure into account when considering relatively simple physiological measures and offering nutritional guidance.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The impact of food structure on glycemic response even in simple foods such as porridge is dependent on both timing of gastric emptying and the composition of what is emptied as well as duodenal starch digestion. Thus structure should be accounted for when considering relatively simple physiological measures and offering nutritional guidance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Gender difference in the gastric emptying measured by magnetogastrography using a semi-solid test meal.

    PubMed

    Córdova-Fraga, Teodoro; De la Roca-Chiapas, José María; Solís, Silvia; Sosa, Modesto; Bernal-Alvarado, Jesús; Hernández, Enedino; Hernández-González, Martha

    2008-12-01

    evidence of gender-related differences in gastric emptying have been reported in the literature. Usually, those researches have focusing only with solid or liquid meal and invasive techniques. The objective of this study was to know the differences in the half time of gastric emptying and frequency of peristaltic contractions measured with magnetogastrography (MGG) on healthy subjects, using a semi-solid test meal. the study was carried out in 16 healthy subjects without gastrointestinal disease history they were divided in two groups, 8 male and 8 female. A test meal composed by 250 ml of yogurt and 3 grs of magnetite (Fe3O4), was employed. the gastric emptying half times were found to be 32.3 +/- 10.8 and 36.0 +/- 6.7 minutes, for men and women, respectively. Magnetogastrography modality presented in this study is a useful technique to measure the gastric emptying and the peristaltic contractions frequency. The studies were performed in healthy subjects without side effects. Using this technique a significant statistical difference (p<0.05) on gastric emptying from healthy volunteers was obtained between men and women. a contribution of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of magnetogastrography to analyze gender differences in the gastric emptying half time using a semi-solid test meal.

  12. Effect of anxiety on the rate of gastric emptying of liquids.

    PubMed

    Lydon, A; McGinley, J; Cooke, T; Duggan, P F; Shorten, G D

    1998-10-01

    The efficacy of preoperative fasting is reduced in the presence of any factor which delays gastric emptying. We examined the association between anxiety and gastric emptying in adult patients undergoing elective surgery. Immediately before operation, 21 patients completed both a Spielberger state trait inventory (used to quantify current anxiety state (STAIs) and anxiety predisposition (STAIt)), and the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (used to quantify anxiety and need for information). Gastric emptying was measured using the paracetamol absorption technique. Four to 10 weeks later, gastric emptying and STAI were measured again. Patients were more anxious before than after operation (STAIs = mean 35.4 (SD 10.9) and 25 (4.1), respectively; P = 0.0004). Neither anxiety state (P = 0.40) nor measures of anxiety relative to anxiety predisposition (P = 0.86) influenced gastric emptying (as measured by area under the paracetamol absorption-time curve). This contrasts with previous findings that anxiety in patients with low anxiety predisposition scores delays gastric emptying.

  13. Disintegration kinetics of food gels during gastric digestion and its role on gastric emptying: an in vitro analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing; Ye, Aiqian; Lad, Mita; Ferrua, Maria; Dalgleish, Douglas; Singh, Harjinder

    2015-03-01

    The understanding of the disintegration and gastric emptying of foods in the stomach is important for designing functional foods. In this study, a dynamic stomach model (human gastric simulator, HGS) was employed to investigate the disintegration and subsequent emptying of two differently structured whey protein emulsion gels (soft and hard gels).The gels were mechanically ground into fragments to reproduce the particle size distribution of an in vivo gel bolus. The simulated gel bolus was prepared by mixing gel fragments and artificial saliva, and exposed to 5 hours of simulated gastric digestion in the presence and absence of pepsin. Results showed that regardless of pepsin, the soft gel always disintegrated faster than the hard gel. The presence of pepsin significantly accelerated the disintegration of both gels. In particular, it enhanced abrasion of the soft gel into fine particles (<0.425 mm) after 180 min of processing. The emptying of the gels was influenced by the combined effects of the original particle size of the gel boluses and their disintegration kinetics in the HGS. In the presence or absence of pepsin, the larger particles of the soft gel emptied slower than the hard one during the first 120 min of process. However, in the presence of pepsin, the soft gel emptied faster than the hard one after 120 min because of a higher level of disintegration. These findings highlight the role of food structure, bolus properties and biochemical effects on the disintegration and gastric emptying patterns of gels during gastric digestion.

  14. Lack of modulation of gastric emptying by dietary nitrate in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Terai, Shiho; Iijima, Katsunori; Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Ara, Nobuyuki; Uno, Kaname; Abe, Yasuhiko; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Ohara, Shuichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2009-05-01

    Nitric oxide produced endogenously in vagal neurons modulates gastrointestinal motor activity as an important non-adrenergic and non-cholinergic neurotransmitter. Other than through endogenous biosynthesis, a high concentration of nitric oxide also occurs by chemical reactions within the stomach in the presence of gastric acid through the entero-salivary re-circulation of dietary nitrate. Although dietary nitrate can be a potential source of nitric oxide in the human stomach, there has been no report on the effect of dietary nitrate on gastric motor function. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of dietary nitrate on gastric emptying, one of the major parameters for the gastric motor function. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent a placebo-controlled (310 mg sodium nitrate or placebo), double-blind, crossover trial. Since a sufficient amount of gastric acid is essential for dietary nitrate-derived nitric oxide generation in the stomach, the same protocol was repeated after 1-week treatment with a proton pump inhibitor, rabeprazole. Gastric emptying was evaluated by (13)C-octanoate breath test. The sodium nitrate ingestion did not affect gastric emptying either prior to or during rabeprazole treatment, although rabeprazole treatment itself significantly delayed gastric emptying, being independent of the dietary nitrate load. Confirmation of the delayed gastric emptying with rabeprazole indicates the sensitivity of the breath test employed in the present study. In conclusion, despite the potential nitrogen source of exogenous nitric oxide, the ingestion of 310 mg sodium nitrate, which is equivalent to the average daily intake of Japanese adults, does not affect gastric emptying in healthy volunteers.

  15. Gastric emptying during walking and running: effects of varied exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Neufer, P D; Young, A J; Sawka, M N

    1989-01-01

    Gastric emptying is increased during running (50%-70% maximal aerobic uptake, VO2max) as compared to rest. Whether this increase varies as a function of mode (i.e. walking vs running) and intensity of treadmill exercise is unknown. To examine the gastric emptying characteristics of water during treadmill exercise performed over a wide range of intensities relative to resting conditions, 10 men ingested 400 ml of water prior to each of six 15 min exercise bouts or 15 min of seated rest. Three bouts of walking exercise (1.57 m.s-1) were performed at increasing grades eliciting approximately 28%, 41% or 56% of VO2max. On a separate day, three bouts of running (2.68 ms-1) exercise were performed at grades eliciting approximately 57%, 65% or 75% of VO2max. Gastric emptying was increased during treadmill exercise at all intensities excluding 75% VO2max as compared to rest. Gastric emptying was similar for all intensities during walking and at 57% and 65% VO2max during running. However, running at 74% VO2max decreased the volume of original drink emptied as compared to all lower exercise intensities. Stomach secretions were markedly less during running as compared to walking and rest. These data demonstrate that gastric emptying is similarly increased during both moderate intensity (approximately 28%-65% VO2max) walking or running exercise as compared to resting conditions. However, gastric emptying decreases during high intensity exercise. Increases in gastric emptying during moderate intensity treadmill exercise may be related to increases in intragastric pressure brought about by contractile activity of the abdominal muscles.

  16. Effect of metoclopramide on normal and delayed gastric emptying in gastroesophageal reflux patients

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.M.; Lange, R.C.; McCallum, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Gastric emptying has an important role in the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The effect of metoclopramide, a gastric prokinetic agent, in gastroesophageal reflux patients with normal as well as delayed emptying was investigated. Twenty-six patients with subjective and objective evidence of gastroesophageal reflux ingested an egg salad sandwich meal labeled with /sub 99m/technetium-DTPA for a baseline study, and then again on a separate day after receiving oral metoclopramide, 10 mg, 30 min prior to the test meal. The mean percent isotope remaining in the stomach after 90 min improved significantly from 70.3 +/- 3.9% (SEM) to 55.2 +/- 4.2% after metoclopramide. Fourteen (54%) had a basal emptying in the normal range of 34-69% retention of isotope at 90 min, (means +/- 2 SD), while it was slow in 12 (46%). For those with delayed basal gastric emptying, the mean retention of 88.9 +/- 2.9% at 90 min was significantly decreased by metoclopramide to 68.6 +/- 6.1%. In those patients with a normal basal gastric emptying and a mean retention of 54.4 +/- 2.3% at 90 min, there was also significant improvement (P less than 0.025) to 43.6 +/- 3.6% after metoclopramide. These data indicate that metoclopramide increased gastric emptying in gastroesophageal reflux patients with normal as well as delayed gastric emptying. Therefore on a patient management level a trial of metoclopramide is warranted in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease and is not limited by the gastric emptying status of the patient.

  17. Relation between gastric emptying rate and energy intake in children compared with adults.

    PubMed Central

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Geypens, B J; Hiele, M I; Rutgeerts, P J

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of gastric emptying rate of solids in children is difficult because the available methods are either invasive or induce a substantial radiation burden. In this study the newly developed 13C octanoic acid breath test was used to examine the gastric emptying rate of solids and milk in healthy children and to compare gastric emptying in children and adults. Fifteen healthy children and three groups of nine healthy adults were studied, using three different test meals labelled with 50 mg of 13C octanoic acid: a low caloric pancake (150 kcal), a high caloric pancake (250 kcal), and 210 ml of milk (134 kcal). Breath samples were taken before and at regular intervals after ingestion of the test meal, and analysed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The gastric emptying parameters were derived from the 13CO2 excretion curves by non-linear regression analysis. No significant difference was found between children and adults in the emptying rate of the low caloric solid test meal. In children as well as in adults, increasing the energy content of the solid meal resulted in a significantly slower emptying rate. The milk test meal, however, was emptied at a faster rate in adults and at slower rate in children compared with the low caloric solid test meal. Moreover, the emptying rate of milk in children was significantly slower than in adults. In conclusion, a similar gastric emptying rate of solids but a slower emptying of full cream milk was shown in children of school age compared with adults, using the non-radioactive 13C octanoic acid breath test. PMID:7883214

  18. Effect of Exercise Intensity on Subsequent Gastric Emptying Rate in Humans.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gethin H; Watson, Phillip; Shirreffs, Susan M; Maughan, Ronald J

    2016-04-01

    Previous investigations have suggested that exercise at intensities greater than 70% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) reduces gastric emptying rate during exercise, but little is known about the effect of exercise intensity on gastric emptying in the postexercise period. To examine this, 8 healthy participants completed 3 experimental trials that included 30 min of rest (R), low-intensity (L; 33% of peak power output) exercise, or high-intensity (H; 10 × 1 min at peak power output followed by 2 min rest) exercise. Thirty minutes after completion of exercise, participants ingested 595 ml of a 5% glucose solution, and gastric emptying rate was assessed via the double-sampling gastric aspiration method for 60 min. No differences (p > .05) were observed in emptying characteristics for total stomach volume or test meal volume between the trials, and the quantity of glucose delivered to the intestine did not differ between trials (p > .05). Half-emptying times did not differ (p = .902) between trials and amounted to 22 ± 9, 22 ± 9, and 22 ± 7 min (M ± SD) during the R, L, and H trials, respectively. These results suggest that exercise has little effect on postexercise gastric emptying rate of a glucose solution.

  19. Gastric Emptying Assessment in Frequency and Time Domain Using Bio-impedance: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Franco, R.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Hernández, E.; Córdova, T.; Sosa, M.; Gutiérrez, G.; Reyes, P.; Mendiola, C.

    2006-09-01

    The impedance assessment to measure gastric emptying and in general gastric activity has been reported since 1985. The physiological interpretation of these measurements, is still under research. This technique usually uses a single frequency, and the conductivity parameter. The frequency domain and the Fourier analysis of the time domain behavior of the gastric impedance in different gastric conditions (fasting state, and after food administration) has not been explored in detail. This work presents some insights of the potentiality of these alternative methodologies to measure gastric activity.

  20. Gastric emptying of a light hospital breakfast. A study using real time ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Søreide, E; Hausken, T; Søreide, J A; Steen, P A

    1996-05-01

    While intake of clear fluids 2-3 h before surgery is considered safe as it does not influence gastric content, it is not known if the same applies to a light breakfast meal. We therefore studied gastric emptying of a light breakfast in healthy, female volunteers without evidence of gastrointestinal motility disorders. The test meal consisted of one slice of buttered toast with jam, one cup of coffee without milk or sugar and one glass of pulp-free orange juice taken together with a paracetamol mixture. Using gastric ultrasonography, the stomach was identified without problems in all subjects, and gastric emptying curves using changes in gastric antral area and serum-paracetamol were obtained. Emptying of the fluid phase started immediately after intake of the meal. All subjects had solid particles in the stomach 120 min after the meal, 3 patients were considered empty after 180 min, 6 after 210 min and all after 240 min. The gastric antral area returned to fasting value significantly faster than the disappearance of solid particles; median 150 min versus 210 min; P = 0.01. Our results show that in healthy subjects the stomach cannot be considered empty for solid particles the first 4 h after a light breakfast meal. To secure some safety limits, we suggest a 6-h mandatory preoperative fast after a light breakfast.

  1. The TRPA1 Agonist, Methyl Syringate Suppresses Food Intake and Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seo Hyeon; Jung, Myungji; Kim, Yiseul; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1) expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastric motility, gastric emptying, and food intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of methyl syringate, a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut hormone levels in imprinting control region (ICR) mice. The administration of methyl syringate suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with ruthenium red (RR), a general cation channel blocker, and HC-030031, a selective TRPA1 antagonist, inhibited methyl syringate-induced reduction of food intake and delayed gastric emptying in ICR mice. Methyl syringate also increased plasma peptide YY (PYY) levels, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. The elevation in PYY was blocked by treatment with RR and HC-030031. The present findings indicate that methyl syringate regulates food intake and gastric emptying through a TRPA1-mediated pathway and, by extension, can contribute to weight suppression. PMID:23990963

  2. Influences of breast milk composition on gastric emptying in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Perrella, Sharon L; Hepworth, Anna R; Simmer, Karen N; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether specific biochemical and energy concentrations influence gastric emptying of unfortified and fortified mother's own milk (MOM) in stable preterm infants, and whether gastric emptying differs between feeds of unfortified MOM and feeds fortified with S-26 or FM 85 human milk fortifier (HMF) when infants are fed the same volume under similar conditions. Influences of infant gestation, age, and weight, and feed characteristics were also explored. Stomach volumes of 25 paired unfortified and fortified MOM feeds were monitored prefeed and postfeed delivery and at 30-minute intervals thereafter. For each feed, MOM samples were analyzed to determine concentrations of total protein, casein, whey, carbohydrate, lactose, fat, and energy. Fortified feed compositions were calculated by adding fortifier biochemical and energy concentrations to unfortified MOM concentrations. Ultrasound images were used to calculate infant stomach volumes. Statistical comparisons were made of paired stomach volume measurements. Higher feed concentrations of casein were associated with faster gastric emptying during feed delivery (P = 0.007). When compared with unfortified MOM, S-26 fortified feeds emptied similarly, whereas FM 85 fortified feeds emptied more slowly both during feed delivery and during the postprandial period (P = 0.002, <0.001, respectively). Gastric emptying was slower for 2-hourly feeds compared with that for 3-hourly feeds (P = 0.003) and in supine position compared with that in prone (P = 0.001). Breast milk composition influences gastric emptying in stable preterm infants, with feeds of higher casein concentration emptying faster during feeding than otherwise equivalent feeds, and FM 85 fortified MOM emptying more slowly than unfortified MOM.

  3. Gastric emptying for solids in patients with duodenal ulcer before and after highly selective vagotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Mistiaen, W.; Van Hee, R.; Blockx, P.; Hubens, A. )

    1990-03-01

    In a series of 31 duodenal ulcer patients (23 males and 8 females), who underwent a highly selective vagotomy, gastric emptying characteristics of a solid meal, labeled with (99mTc)stannous colloid, were assessed before, two weeks and six months after operation. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopy and x-ray; failure of treatment with H2 antagonists or antacids during 1-18 (mean 5) years was the direct indication for operative treatment. A temporary delay in gastric emptying is noted two weeks after operation (T1/2: 124 vs 57 min). After six months, gastric emptying time has practically normalized. It appears that this is the result of the preservation of the antropyloric vagal nerve supply. In these patients, a 10% recurrence rate is noted, comparable to the results in the literature. Highly selective vagotomy proves to be a safe and effective procedure with few side effects. It does not impair gastric motility.

  4. Plasma catecholamines and postoperative gastric emptying and small intestinal propulsion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Dubois, A; Henry, D P; Kopin, I J

    1975-03-01

    The role of adrenal medullary discharge of catecholamines on inhibition of gastric emptying and small intestinal propulsion after laparotomy was examined in rats. The rate of movement of a 51Cr-labeled liquid test meal, which had been introduced by gastric intubation, out of the stomach and through the small intestine, was retarded 12 hr after laparotomy. Adrenal demedullation produced a striking decrease in plasma catecholamines and abolished surgically induced elevation of the catecholamines, but had no significant effect on gastric emptying or intestinal propulsion in rats subjected to laparotomy or in the unoperated control animals. Thus circulating catecholamines play little if any role in controlling normal gastroinestinal motility or in the postoperative decrease in rate of gastric emptying and small intestinal motility.

  5. Assessment of the Prevalence of Diabetic Gastroparesis and Validation of Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy for Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Zeinab; Khatib, Foad; Tabib, Seyed Masoud; Javadi, Hamid; Jafari, Esmail; Aghaghazvini, Leila; Mahmoud-Pashazadeh, Ali; Nabipour, Iraj; Assadi, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Gastroparesis is defined as delayed gastric emptying and is a common medical condition in diabetic patients. Scintigraphy is commonly used as a standard diagnostic procedure for the quantitative assessment of gastroparesis. The aims of this study were to determine an optimum imaging time for the diagnosis of gastroparesis, to assess the prevalence of gastroparesis, to evaluate the correlation between endoscopy and scintigraphy findings as well as the correlation between gastric emptying with patient genders, blood glucose concentration, and functional dyspepsia. Methods: Gastric emptying was assessed in 50 diabetic patients with a mean age of 50.16 years. For evaluation of gastric emptying, a test meal containing 2 pieces of toast, 120 cc non-labeled water and fried egg labeled with 1 mCi of 99mTc was given to each patient. The scintigraphy was performed immediately after ingestion and was repeated at 1, 1.5, 2 and 4 hours after ingestion. In some patients, an additional 90-minute dynamic scan was also acquired. Results: The prevalence of gastroparesis in this study population was determined as 64%. Also, the results of this study revealed that a 4-hour scan after ingestion is more relevant than a 90-minute dynamic scan for the evaluation of delayed gastric emptying. There was no statistically significant difference between 1-hour and 2-hour scans, 1-hour and 90-minute scans, 2-hour and 90-minute scans, 2-hour and 4-hour scans. Likewise there was no significant correlation between blood glucose levels, gender and calculated values of gastric emptying time in all groups. Conclusion: According to our findings, it can be suggested that the prevalence of gastroparesis is higher than that mentioned in some previous studies. Also, this study indicates that a gastric emptying scintigraphy at 2 and 4 hours after meal ingestion might provide the anticipated clinical information in diabetic patients with dyspepsia without other evident reasons. PMID:28291006

  6. Effect of solids, caloric content on dual-phase gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Maegdenbergh, V.; Urbain, J.L.; Siegel, J.A.; Mortelmans, L.; De Roo, M. Temple Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA )

    1990-03-01

    The dual-phase gastric emptying technique is routinely employed to determine the differential emptying of solids and liquids in a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal diseases. Composition, acidity, volume, caloric density, physical form and viscosity of the test means have been shown to be important determinants for the quantitative evaluation of gastric emptying. In this study, the authors have evaluated the effect of increasing the caloric content of the solid portion of a physiologic test mean on both solid and liquid emptying kinetics in health male volunteers. They observed that increasing solid caloric content delayed emptying of both solids and liquids. For the solid phase, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and decrease in emptying rate; for liquids a longer emptying rate was also obtained. They conclude that modification of the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only affects the emptying of the solid phase but also alters the emptying of the liquid component of the meal.

  7. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ-induced delay in gastric emptying: role of central corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Broccardo, M; Scaccianoce, S; Del Bianco, P; Agostini, S; Petrella, C; Improta, G

    2005-12-01

    When injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) in rats, nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) delays gastric emptying and increases plasma corticosterone levels. Our aim in this study was to investigate changes in gastric emptying of a phenol red meal, and the plasma corticosterone response to N/OFQ in adrenalectomized (ADX) rats, in ADX rats injected with corticosterone at 1, 24 and 72 h before the gastric emptying assay, and in intact rats i.c.v. pretreated with a glucocorticoid antagonist (RU486) and with a corticotropin-releasing factor receptor antagonist (alpha-helical CRF9-41). In adrenal intact rats, i.c.v. injection of N/OFQ (2.5 nmol rat-1) significantly delayed gastric emptying (by 70%) and increased plasma corticosterone concentrations. Conversely, in ADX rats, N/OFQ left gastric emptying unchanged. In ADX rats, corticosterone injected at 1, 24 and 72 h before the gastric emptying assay almost restored the N/OFQ-induced delay in gastric emptying. Finally, pretreatment with RU486- and alpha-helical CRF9-41 abolished the N/OFQ-induced inhibition of gastric emptying. These findings suggest that central N/OFQ inhibits gastric emptying through an integrated orphaninergic system-CRF interaction in which corticosterone plays a permissive role.

  8. Density-dependent gastroretentive microparticles motion in human gastric emptying studied using computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shilei; Wang, Bochu; Wang, Yazhou

    2015-04-05

    Density-dependent gastroretentive drug delivery systems have been used to prolong the gastric retention time of drugs since the 1960s. The design of density-dependent gastroretentive dosage forms, however, usually focuses on specific parameters rather than combines with the fluid dynamics of dosage form in the gastric emptying. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to develop a 2-D model of multiple-phase flows for the simulation of gastric emptying and gastroretentive microparticles motion, and the influence of microparticle density, microparticle viscosity, and gastric juice viscosity on the gastric retention were studied. The recirculating flows, formed in the gastric emptying, could mix the conventional-density microparticles and transport them to the pylorus. However, the low-density microparticles remained floating on the surface of gastric juice, while the high-density microparticles could sink and deposit in the bottom of the stomach. The remaining integral area of microparticles was higher than 90% after 18.33min of simulation when the density of microparticles was lower than 550kg/m(3) or higher than 2500kg/m(3), which was higher compared to conventional-density microparticles (67.05%). These results are in good agreement with experimental data previously reported. In addition, the viscosity of microparticle and gastric juice also influenced the remaining integral area of gastroretentive microparticles. This study shows that the multiple-phase computational fluid dynamics models could provide detailed insights into the fluid dynamics of density-dependent gastroretentive microparticles in gastric emptying, which offers a powerful tool to further understand the mechanism of gastric retention for gastroretentive dosage forms and study the influence of different parameters on their ability for gastric retention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric emptying rate in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Leontiadis, Grigoris I; Minopoulos, George I; Maltezos, Efstratios; Kotsiou, Stamatia; Manolas, Konstantinos I; Simopoulos, Konstantinos; Hatseras, Dimitrios

    2004-06-15

    The pathogenesis of delayed gastric emptying in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether gastric emptying rate in NUD patients was associated with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and whether it was affected by eradication of the infection. Gastric emptying rate of a mixed solid-liquid meal was assessed by the paracetamol absorption method in NUD patients and asymptomatic controls (n=17). H pylori status was assessed by serology and biopsy urease test. H pylori-positive NUD patients (n=23) received 10-day triple eradication therapy. H pylori status was re-assessed by biopsy urease test four weeks later, and if eradication was confirmed, gastric emptying rate was re-evaluated. Thirty-three NUD patients and 17 controls were evaluated. NUD patients had significantly delayed gastric emptying compared with controls. The mean maximum plasma paracetamol concentration divided by body mass (Cmax/BM) was 0.173 and 0.224 mg/L.kg respectively (P=0.02), the mean area under plasma paracetamol concentration-time curve divided by body mass (AUC/BM) was 18.42 and 24.39 mg.min/L.kg respectively (P=0.01). Gastric emptying rate did not differ significantly between H pylori-positive and H pylori-negative NUD patients. The mean Cmax/BM was 0.172 and 0.177 mg/L.kg respectively (P=0.58), the mean AUC/BM was 18.43 and 18.38 mg.min/L.kg respectively (P=0.91). Among 14 NUD patients who were initially H pylori-positive, confirmed eradication of the infection did not significantly alter gastric emptying rate. The mean Cmax/BM was 0.171 and 0.160 mg/L.kg before and after Hp eradication, respectively (P=0.64), the mean AUC/BM was 17.41 and 18.02 mg.min/L.kg before and after eradication, respectively (P=0.93). Although gastric emptying is delayed in NUD patients compared with controls, gastric emptying rate is not associated with H pylori status nor it is affected by eradication of the infection.

  10. Effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric emptying rate in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Leontiadis, Grigoris I; Minopoulos, George I; Maltezos, Efstratios; Kotsiou, Stamatia; Manolas, Konstantinos I; Simopoulos, Konstantinos; Hatseras, Dimitrios

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The pathogenesis of delayed gastric emptying in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether gastric emptying rate in NUD patients was associated with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and whether it was affected by eradication of the infection. METHODS: Gastric emptying rate of a mixed solid-liquid meal was assessed by the paracetamol absorption method in NUD patients and asymptomatic controls (n = 17). H pylori status was assessed by serology and biopsy urease test. H pylori-positive NUD patients (n = 23) received 10-day triple eradication therapy. H pylori status was re-assessed by biopsy urease test four weeks later, and if eradication was confirmed, gastric emptying rate was re-evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-three NUD patients and 17 controls were evaluated. NUD patients had significantly delayed gastric emptying compared with controls. The mean maximum plasma paracetamol concentration divided by body mass (Cmax/BM) was 0.173 and 0.224 mg/L·kg respectively (P = 0.02), the mean area under plasma paracetamol concentration-time curve divided by body mass (AUC/BM) was 18.42 and 24.39 mg·min/L·kg respectively (P = 0.01). Gastric emptying rate did not differ significantly between H pylori-positive and H pylori-negative NUD patients. The mean Cmax/BM was 0.172 and 0.177 mg/L·kg respectively (P = 0.58), the mean AUC/BM was 18.43 and 18.38 mg·min/ L·kg respectively (P = 0.91). Among 14 NUD patients who were initially H pylori-positive, confirmed eradication of the infection did not significantly alter gastric emptying rate. The mean Cmax/BM was 0.171 and 0.160 mg/L·kg before and after Hp eradication, respectively (P = 0.64), the mean AUC/BM was 17.41 and 18.02 mg·min/L·kg before and after eradication, respectively (P = 0.93). CONCLUSION: Although gastric emptying is delayed in NUD patients compared with controls, gastric emptying rate is not associated with H pylori status nor it is affected by eradication of the

  11. Characteristics of Patients with Chronic Unexplained Nausea and Vomiting and Normal Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Colvin, Ryan; Yates, Katherine; Hasler, William L.; Abell, Thomas L.; Ünalp-Arida, Aynur; Nguyen, Linda; Farrugia, Gianrico; Koch, Kenneth L.; Parkman, Henry P.; Snape, William J.; Lee, Linda; Tonascia, James; Hamilton, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Chronic nausea and vomiting with normal gastric emptying is a poorly understood syndrome; we analyzed its characteristics. Methods We collected and analyzed data from 425 patients with chronic nausea and vomiting, enrolled at 6 centers by the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium in the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Gastroparesis Registry. Results Among the patients, 319 (75%) had delayed emptying, defined by the results of a standardized, low-fat meal, and 106 had normal gastric emptying. Patients with or without delayed emptying did not differ in age, sex, or race, although those with normal gastric emptying were less likely to be diabetic. Symptom severity indices were similar between groups for nausea, retching, vomiting, stomach fullness, inability to complete a meal, feeling excessively full after meals, loss of appetite, bloating, and visibly larger stomach. There were no differences in health care utilization, quality of life indices, depression, or trait anxiety scores. However, state anxiety scores were slightly higher among patients with delayed gastric emptying. Total gastroparesis cardinal symptom index scores were not correlated with gastric retention after 2 or 4 hours in either group. Patients with the syndrome were not adequately captured by the stand-alone criteria for the Rome III diagnoses of chronic idiopathic nausea and functional vomiting. With rare exceptions, the diagnosis remained stable after a 48-weeks follow-up period. Conclusions Patients with nausea and vomiting with normal gastric emptying represent a significant medical problem and are, for the most part, indistinguishable from those with gastroparesis. This syndrome is not categorized in the medical literature—it might be a separate clinical entity. PMID:21397732

  12. Duodenal control of gastric emptying in the milk-fed calf.

    PubMed

    Bell, F R; Mostaghni, K

    1975-02-01

    1. It has been ascertained experimentally that an open duodenal cannula does not cause any marked variation in emptying of the abomasum when compared to the rate of emptying of the normal viscus or when the cannulae are closed. 2. Duodenal re-entrant cannulae provide a preparation whereby it is possible to infuse the duodenum via the distal cannula and to collect simultaneously the effluent fluid of the abomasum from the proximal arm of the cannula (Fig. 1). 3. With this preparation the duodenal infusate is not contaminated by the gastric effluent and thus the duodenal stimulus can be restricted to the single non-varying effect of the infusate. 4. In the milk-fed calf using this preparation the following facts have been established. (a) On infusion into the duodenum, hypotonic and isotonic solutions of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate increase abomasal emptying; bicarbonate being the more effective stimulus. (b) Potassium chloride, calcium chloride, glucose and hydrochloric acid inhibit gastric emptying when infused into the duodenum. (c) Ammonium chloride, urea, lactose and acetic acid have little effect. (d) Hypertonic solutions of all substances tested were inhibitory to gastric emptying when infused into the duodenum. 5. It has been demonstrated unequivocally that it is the effect of the infusate in the duodenum which controls gastric emptying for when the stomach is isolated from the duodenum, gastric emptying can be manipulated from the duodenum whatever the stomach contents may be. 6. Our results bring firm experimental confirmation of the views discussed by Hunt & Knox (1968) that gastric outflow is regulated by mechanisms initiated from receptors situated in the duodenum.

  13. Applied potential tomography. A new noninvasive technique for measuring gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Avill, R.; Mangnall, Y.F.; Bird, N.C.; Brown, B.H.; Barber, D.C.; Seagar, A.D.; Johnson, A.G.; Read, N.W.

    1987-04-01

    Applied potential tomography is a new, noninvasive technique that yields sequential images of the resistivity of gastric contents after subjects have ingested a liquid or semisolid meal. This study validates the technique as a means of measuring gastric emptying. Experiments in vitro showed an excellent correlation between measurements of resistivity and either the square of the radius of a glass rod or the volume of water in a spherical balloon when both were placed in an oval tank containing saline. Altering the lateral position of the rod in the tank did not alter the values obtained. Images of abdominal resistivity were also directly correlated with the volume of air in a gastric balloon. Profiles of gastric emptying of liquid meals obtained using applied potential tomography were very similar to those obtained using scintigraphy or dye dilution techniques, provided that acid secretion was inhibited by cimetidine. Profiles of emptying of a mashed potato meal using applied potential tomography were also very similar to those obtained by scintigraphy. Measurements of the emptying of a liquid meal from the stomach were reproducible if acid secretion was inhibited by cimetidine. Thus, applied potential tomography is an accurate and reproducible method of measuring gastric emptying of liquids and particulate food. It is inexpensive, well tolerated, easy to use, and ideally suited for multiple studies in patients, even those who are pregnant.

  14. Applied potential tomography. A new noninvasive technique for measuring gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Avill, R; Mangnall, Y F; Bird, N C; Brown, B H; Barber, D C; Seagar, A D; Johnson, A G; Read, N W

    1987-04-01

    Applied potential tomography is a new, noninvasive technique that yields sequential images of the resistivity of gastric contents after subjects have ingested a liquid or semisolid meal. This study validates the technique as a means of measuring gastric emptying. Experiments in vitro showed an excellent correlation between measurements of resistivity and either the square of the radius of a glass rod or the volume of water in a spherical balloon when both were placed in an oval tank containing saline. Altering the lateral position of the rod in the tank did not alter the values obtained. Images of abdominal resistivity were also directly correlated with the volume of air in a gastric balloon. Profiles of gastric emptying of liquid meals obtained using applied potential tomography were very similar to those obtained using scintigraphy or dye dilution techniques, provided that acid secretion was inhibited by cimetidine. Profiles of emptying of a mashed potato meal using applied potential tomography were also very similar to those obtained by scintigraphy. Measurements of the emptying of a liquid meal from the stomach were reproducible if acid secretion was inhibited by cimetidine. Thus, applied potential tomography is an accurate and reproducible method of measuring gastric emptying of liquids and particulate food. It is inexpensive, well tolerated, easy to use, and ideally suited for multiple studies in patients, even those who are pregnant.

  15. Altered gastric emptying and prevention of radiation-induced vomiting in dogs. [Cobalt 60 irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, A.; Jacobus, J.P.; Grissom, M.P.; Eng, R.R.; Conklin, J.J.

    1984-03-01

    The relation between radiation-induced vomiting and gastric emptying is unclear and the treatment of this condition is not established. We explored, therefore, (a) the effect of cobalt 60 irradiation on gastric emptying of solids and liquids and (b) the possibility of preventing radiation-induced vomiting with the dopamine antagonist, domperidone. Twenty dogs were studied on two separate days, blindly and in random order, after i.v. injection of either a placebo or 0.06 mg/kg domperidone. On a third day, they received 8 Gy (800 rads) whole body irradiation with cobalt 60 gamma-rays after either placebo (n . 10) or domperidone (n . 10). Before each study, each dog was fed chicken liver tagged in vivo with 99mTc-sulfur colloid (solid marker), and water containing 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (liquid marker). Dogs were placed in a Pavlov stand for the subsequent 3 h and radionuclide imaging was performed at 10-min intervals. Irradiation produced vomiting in 9 of 10 dogs given placebo but only in 1 of 10 dogs pretreated with domperidone (p less than 0.01). Gastric emptying of liquids and solids was significantly suppressed by irradiation (p less than 0.01) after both placebo and domperidone. These results demonstrate that radiation-induced vomiting is accompanied by suppression of gastric emptying. Furthermore, domperidone prevents vomiting produced by ionizing radiation but does not alter the accompanying delay of gastric emptying.

  16. Evaluation of the use of ultrasonography in the study of liquid gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Marzio, L.; Giacobbe, A.; Conoscitore, P.; Facciorusso, D.; Frusciante, V.; Modoni, S.

    1989-05-01

    Gastric emptying of two different test liquid meals (500 ml isotonic saline and 500 ml skimmed milk, 1.8% fat) has been measured in 10 (saline) and in 19 (milk) normal volunteers by means of real-time ultrasonography (RUS) and scintigraphy, employed simultaneously. In each subject, saline and milk contained 37 MBq of diethylenetriaminopentacetic acid (DPTA) marked with 99mTc. Determinations were made thereafter every 5 min up to 45 min with saline and every 30 min up to a maximum of 220 min with milk. The determination of gastric emptying by RUS was obtained indirectly through the measurement of gastric dimensions, with a single scan performed at the epigastrium, while the subject was kept in a standing position. At each observation, the percent decrease of gastric measurements and the decay in radioactivity over the gastric region were calculated, blind, by two independent examiners. Linear regression and correlation coefficient were subsequently computed for gastric measurements and decay in radioactivity. The results show that the values obtained with RUS do not differ grossly from the ones obtained with scintigraphy. This suggests that the ultrasonographic determination of gastric dimensions with a single section of the stomach may be a valuable method for use in the evaluation of gastric emptying of liquids.

  17. Gastric emptying of indigestible tablets in relation to composition and time of ingestion of meals studied by metal detector.

    PubMed

    Ewe, K; Press, A G; Bollen, S; Schuhn, I

    1991-02-01

    Enteric-coated tablets leave the stomach mainly during the interdigestive phase. Composition as well as time of ingestion of meals may influence their gastric emptying considerably. In 12 normal volunteers gastric emptying of a plastic tablet with a metal core was followed by a metal detector in relation to different compositions and various times of ingestion of meals. With an empty stomach and after ingestion of 250 ml water, the mean time for gastric emptying of the tablet was 38 +/- 11 min (mean +/- SEM) and 38 +/- 8 min. Two hundred fifty milliliters of milk (652 kJ) and a formula diet (1000 kJ) delayed gastric emptying time to 128 +/- 14 and 152 +/- 6 min, respectively (P less than 0.05). Breakfast (2200 kJ) further retarded gastric emptying compared with both liquids to 249 +/- 24 min (P less than 0.05). There was a close correlation between nutritive density and gastric emptying of the tablet (r = 0.92; P less than 0.001). Main meals also delayed gastric emptying of tablets when compared to empty stomach (P less than 0.05). A snack after breakfast further delayed gastric emptying from 201 +/- 10 to 278 +/- 19 min (P less than 0.05). The largest delay was observed following ingestion of breakfast, lunch, dinner, and additional snacks (509 +/- 220 min). We conclude that the delay of gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets by food is related to its nutritive density and eating habits. The gastric emptying of an enteric coated tablet that is ingested early in the morning may be delayed until late at night when several meals and snacks are ingested during the day, leading to unwanted alterations in bioavailability and to possible adverse effects.

  18. Yohimbine ameliorates the effects of endotoxin on gastric emptying of the liquid marker acetaminophen in horses.

    PubMed Central

    Meisler, S D; Doherty, T J; Andrews, F M; Osborne, D; Frazier, D L

    2000-01-01

    The effect of yohimbine pretreatment on gastric emptying of a liquid marker in horses was evaluated by measuring serum concentrations of acetaminophen. Gastric emptying was determined in normal, fasted horses, in horses given endotoxin (E. coli 055 B5; 0.2 microg/kg) intravenously, and in horses given yohimbine (0.25 mg/kg, IV, over 30 minutes) plus endotoxin. Acetaminophen (20 mg/kg) was given by stomach tube 15 minutes after the endotoxin infusion. Blood samples for acetaminophen analysis were collected, and time to reach the peak serum concentration (Tmax), the maximum serum concentration (Cmax) and the area under the acetaminophen serum concentration versus time curve (AUC) were determined for each treatment group. Endotoxin significantly increased Tmax, indicating a profound delay in gastric emptying and yohimbine pretreatment significantly (P < or = 0.05) prevented this effect. PMID:11041497

  19. A relation between the chain length of fatty acids and the slowing of gastric emptying

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J. N.; Knox, M. T.

    1968-01-01

    1. Test meals of solutions and suspensions of potassium and sodium salts of a series of saturated fatty acids, from C2 to C18, were given to healthy subjects. 2. From the volume of these meals recovered after a fixed interval the relative effectiveness of the salts of the acids in slowing gastric emptying was assessed. 3. On a molar basis the salts of fatty acids from acetic up to decanoic were relatively ineffective in slowing gastric emptying. 4. The salts of fatty acids with 12-18 carbon atoms were much more effective than those with up to 10 carbon atoms. Myristate was the most effective of the salts. 5. Buffering the test meals with 33 mM sodium citrate increased the effectiveness of the salts in slowing gastric emptying. PMID:5639357

  20. Assessment of gastric emptying in normal subjects with sucralfate (Carafate) and Amphojel

    SciTech Connect

    Marano, A.R.; Prokop, E.K.; Caride, V.J.; McCallum, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum-containing antacids (e.g Amphojel) and aluminum-containing compounds such as sucralfate (Carafate) have been shown in animal and human studies to delay gastric emptying, and are one proposed mechanism of action for healing of duodenal ulcers. Therefore, the authors designed a study to study the effects of Carafate and Amphojel on gastric emptying. Ten normal volunteers of mean age 27 years with no previous history of upper gastrointestinal diseases were studied. For each test the subject ingested a meal composed of 30gm of cooked chicken liver injected with lmCi of 99m-Tc-S-C, mixed with 7.5 oz. of beef stew, and eaten with 4 oz. of water labeled with 100..mu..Ci of 111-In-DTPA. Immediately after ingestion of the meal, the subject was placed supine under a gamma camera. Gastric emptying (GE) was expressed as percent emptied. On separate days the subject was given either lgm of Carafate (190mg Al/gm) or placebo in a double blind fashion one hour prior to the test meal. On the third day, each subject was given 30cc of Amphojel (105mg Al/5cc) followed 30 minutes later by the test meal. GE at 2 hours for the solid meal was 60%, 69%, and 54% and 79%, 86% and 68% at 3 hours for placebo, Carafate, and Amphojel respectively. A small but not significant difference in gastric emptying between Amphojel and placebo was seen from 2 to 3 hours. For the liquid meal approximately 90% emptying was present at 1 hour for all three studies. Further studies are needed to determine whether these medications administered in the standard doses given here may affect gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients.

  1. The volume and energy content of meals as determinants of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J N; Stubbs, D F

    1975-01-01

    1. Results were collected from thirty-three published and unpublished studies of gastric emptying. The volumes of the meals ranged from 50 to 1250 ml., and composition varied from pure carbohydrates to ordinary food. 2. From the published composition of the meals, their nutritive density, as kcal/ml. (4-18 KJ/ml.) was computed: it ranged from zero to 2-3 kcal/ml. 3. The volume of each meal, or test meal, delivered to the duodenum in 30 min was determined, assuming that gastric emptying was exponential. 4. The greater the nutritive density of a meal, the less was the volume transferred to the duodenum in 30 min. The original volume of meal given was not a determinant of the rate of emptying (ml./min). 5. The slowing of gastric emptying with a meal of high nutritive density was not sufficient to prevent an increased rate of delivery of energy to the duodenum (nutritive density times volume delivered in unit time) with a meal of high nutritive density. 6. Assuming an appropriate relationship for the interaction of a stimulus (kcal/ml.) and duodenal receptors, it was possible to predict a rate of gastric emptying for each meal, given its nutritive density. Knowing the initial volume of the meal, it was possible to predict the mean half time for its emptying. 7. There were eight sets of anomalous results: in four the volumes of meal given were less than 200 ml.; explanations of the anomalies in the other four results could not be provided. 8. The results are consistent with equal slowing of gastric emptying by the duodenal action of the products of digestion of isocaloric amounts of fat, protein and carbohydrate, for example, 4 g fat or 9 g carbohydrate, both 36 kcal, taking carbohydrate and protein as 4 kcal/g and fat as 9 kcal/g. PMID:1127608

  2. Effects of juice from Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on gastric emptying in male rats.

    PubMed

    Pu, Hsiao-Fung; Huang, Wei-Ju; Tseng, Wen-Min; Wang, Shyi-Wu; Liu, Yu-Wen; Doong, Ming-Long; Wang, Paulus S

    2004-12-31

    The effects of juice from Morinda citrifolia (noni) on gastric emptying, gastrointestinal transit, and plasma level of cholecystokinin (CCK) in rats were studied. Male rats were given noni by gavage at levels of 0.25, 1, or 4 ml/kg once per day for one or 7 days. The rats in the control group were given water, while the rats in the experimental group were fasted overnight before measurement of gastrointestinal motility. Gastrointestinal motility was assessed in rats 15 min after intragastric instillation of a test meal containing charcoal (10%) and Na251CrO4 (0.5 microCi/ml). Gastric emptying was determined by measuring the amount of radiolabeled chromium contained in the small intestine as a percentage of the initial amount received. Then, gastrointestinal transit was evaluated by calculating the geometric center of distribution of the radiolabeled marker. Finally, blood samples were collected for measurement of CCK by radioimmunoassay. The administration of noni at 0.25 ml/kg, but not at 1 ml/kg and 4 ml/kg, for 1 day significantly inhibited gastric emptying. In contrast, gastric emptying was significantly inhibited by oral noni (0.25, 1, or 4 ml/kg) for 7 days. Intraperitoneal injection of lorglumide (5 or 10 mg/kg), a selective CCK1 receptor antagonist, effectively attenuated the noni-induced inhibition of gastric emptying. The intestinal transit and body weight, food intake, water intake, urine volume as well as feces weight were not altered by the administration of noni either acutely or chronically, but the administration of oral noni (1 ml/kg) for 7 days increased the level of plasma CCK in male rats. These results suggest that oral noni inhibits gastric emptying in male rats via a mechanism involving stimulation of CCK secretion and CCK1 receptor activation.

  3. Effects of cisapride on gastric emptying of oil and aqueous meal components, hunger, and fullness.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, K L; Horowitz, M; Carney, B I; Sun, W M; Chatterton, B E

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cisapride on gastric emptying of extracellular fat and hunger and fullness 10 volunteers consumed a meal consisting of 60 ml technectium-99m (99mTc)-V-thiocyanate labelled olive oil and 290 ml indium-113m (113mIn) labelled soup after taking cisapride (10 mg four times daily orally) and placebo, each for four days, in randomised, double blind fashion. Gastric emptying was quantified scintigraphically. Hunger and fullness before and after the meal were evaluated using visual analogue scales. Cisapride accelerated gastric emptying of oil and aqueous components by reducing the lag phase mean (SEM) (20.3 (7.0) min v 40.7 (4.1) min (p < 0.05) for oil and 4.1 (2.5) min v 10.0 (3.1) min (p < 0.05) for aqueous). Cisapride had no effect on the post-lag emptying rate of oil. Treatment with cisapride was associated with reduced retention of oil in the proximal stomach (p < 0.05). Subjects were more hungry before ingestion of the meal while receiving cisapride (6.7 (0.9) v 3.9 (0.7), p < 0.001). The scores for hunger at 120 and 180 minutes were inversely related to gastric emptying of oil on both cisapride (r > -0.62, p < 0.05) and placebo (r > -0.86, p < 0.001). Fullness increased after the meal while receiving placebo (p < 0.01), but not cisapride and postprandial fullness was less with cisapride at (30 min; 0.4 (0.3) v 3.3 (1.0), p < 0.05). With placebo, but not cisapride, the score for fullness at 15 minutes was inversely related to emptying of the aqueous phase (r = 0.68, p < 0.05). These results show that in normal volunteers after ingestion of an oil/aqueous meal: (a) postprandial hunger is inversely related to gastric emptying of oil, while fullness is inversely related to gastric emptying of the aqueous phase, (b) cisapride affects the intragastric distribution and accelerates gastric emptying of both oil and aqueous meal components, and (c) cisapride increases preprandial hunger and reduces postprandial fullness. PMID:8675080

  4. Study of gastrointestinal opiate receptors: the role of the mu receptor on gastric emptying: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.; Sullivan, S.

    1983-08-01

    Animal and in vitro experiments suggest that opiates exert their actions by interaction with possibly five different subtypes of opiate receptors, identified as mu, kappa, sigma, delta, and epsilon. As yet there is no conclusive evidence for their existence in man. Our experiments on morphine and the enkephalin analog DAMME have suggested at least two types of opiate receptors involved in gastric secretion. In this study we have used the very powerful and nonselective opiate agonist etorphine to stimulate as many of the different opiate receptors as possible. We have then attempted to block selectively the ..mu.. receptor by administering a small dose of naloxone. Etorphine delayed gastric emptying whereas naloxone alone had no effect. In combination, the inhibitory effect of etorphine on gastric emptying was incompletely prevented while the subjective effects of etorphoine were completely abolished. These results may indicate that ..mu.. receptors are important in the regulation of gastric emptying, but that other (non-..mu..) receptors are also involved. The radionuclide study of gastric emptying, as used here, is a potentially powerful tool in physiological research on the gastrointestinal tract.

  5. Tumor-associated gastroparesis with esophageal carcinoma. Use of intravenous metoclopramide during radionuclide gastric emptying studies to predict clinical response

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, A.I.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fleischer, D.E.

    1989-07-01

    This case report describes a patient with esophageal carcinoma and tumor-associated gastroparesis. The radionuclide gastric emptying study diagnosed very delayed liquid and solid gastric emptying. Metoclopramide was administered intravenously during the study and was able to predict a good response to oral therapy.

  6. Gastric emptying and quality of life after pancreatoduodenectomy with retrocolic or antecolic gastroenteric anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Eshuis, W J; de Bree, K; Sprangers, M A G; Bennink, R J; van Gulik, T M; Busch, O R C; Gouma, D J

    2015-08-01

    Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is a major problem after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). A recent multicentre randomized trial reported no difference in gastric emptying rates between retrocolic and antecolic reconstruction routes. The present study looked at quality of life with these two approaches and the correlation with gastric emptying. This was a substudy of patients completing a panel of quality-of-life questionnaires within a randomized trial comparing retrocolic and antecolic gastroenteric reconstruction after PD. Gastric emptying was assessed by scintigraphy 1 week after surgery. Quality of life was measured with the EuroQoL - 5D questionnaire (EQ-5D), the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) with its pancreatic cancer module (PAN26), and the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). There were 38 patients in the retrocolic and 35 in the antecolic group. Baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes were similar in the two groups. Median time to half-emptying of stomach content after surgery was 145 and 64 min in the retrocolic and antecolic group respectively (P = 0.189). Median percentages of residual activity after 2 h were 64 and 28 per cent respectively (P = 0.213). Quality of life did not differ at any time point between the groups. At 2 weeks after surgery, patients with DGE had significantly worse outcomes on two EQ-5D domains, ten QLQ-C30/PAN26 subscales, and two GIQLI subscales and total score. Effect sizes were moderate to large. The route of gastroenteric reconstruction after PD does not influence either gastric emptying at scintigraphy or quality of life. The impact of DGE on quality of life is clinically significant. Registration number NTR1697 (www.trialregister.nl). © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Use of radionuclide imaging to determine gastric emptying of carbohydrate solutions during exercise.

    PubMed Central

    MacLaren, D; Miles, A; O'Neill, I; Critchley, M; Grime, S; Stockdale, H

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the repeatability of continual assessment of the gastric emptying rates of carbohydrate solutions in exercising subjects using 99mtechnetium labelling. METHODS--Gastric emptying of a 5% glucose solution and an iso-osmotic maltodextrin solution was measured using 3 MBq of 99mtechnetium labelled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) and continuous gamma camera imaging in five male subjects. The subjects performed four 1 h trials at 70% VO2 peak on a cycle ergometer. After 15 min, 200 ml of a radiolabelled solution of glucose or maltodextrin were ingested in a blind crossover protocol. The two solutions were each ingested on separate occasions (trial 1 and trial 2) to establish repeatability. RESULTS--Statistical analysis showed no differences between trial 1 and trial 2 for both solutions. There were no significant differences for the emptying rates between the two test solutions. CONCLUSIONS--Posterior imaging using a computer linked gamma camera following the ingestion of 99mtechnetium labelled DTPA mixed with carbohydrate solutions provides a repeatable method of assessing gastric emptying characteristics in exercising subjects. This technique showed no significant differences between the emptying rates of a single dose of iso-osmotic glucose or maltodextrin solution. Images Fig 1 PMID:8665111

  8. The Effect on Moderate Altitude UPON Human Gastric Emptying Time

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-03-01

    physiological aliment . The emptying time, therefore, of a mixture of barium and food may perhaps differ somewhat from that of food alone. Determination of the... psychological stresses a vigorous program of preven- tive psychology had been undertaken as described above. The day prior to his first run each subject was

  9. Gastric emptying and postprandial glucose excursions in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because amylin is co-secreted with insulin from beta cells, patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) are deficient in both insulin and amylin. Amylin delays gastric emptying and suppresses glucagon in the postprandial period. Hence, we hypothesized that children with complication-naive T1DM have acceler...

  10. Gastric emptying scintigraphy results in children are affected by age, anthropometric factors, and study duration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A standardized 4-hour adult-based gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) protocol is increasingly being used in children to evaluate for gastroparesis. We sought to determine the effect of age, anthropometrics, and study duration on GES results using this protocol in children. Retrospective review of c...

  11. Effect of carob bean on gastric emptying time in Thai infants.

    PubMed

    Vivatvakin, Boosba; Buachum, Vacharee

    2003-01-01

    Thickening agents, such as carob bean gum or galactomannan, have been successfully administered for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in infants. To study the effect of carob bean gum on gastric emptying and to symptoms of regurgitation, we recruited 20 full term Thai infants (mean age=13.4+/-7 week; mean body weight=4943+/-1272gm) without pathological gastroesophageal reflux. Initially, we determined half time gastric emptying (T 1/2 GET) by Tc99m radioscintigraphy method (mean T 1/2 GET=116.1+/-72 min) in infants consuming standard infant cow's milk formula for 2 weeks. Afterwards, carob bean infant formula was given for 2-4 weeks and weight gain, vomiting symptoms, night cough, colic, flatus, defaecation character and T 1/2 GET were assessed. There were statistically significant improvements in symptoms of vomiting (a smaller quantity P<0.001 and frequency of vomiting P<0.0001) and improvements in weight gain per week (W1=121.2+106.9gm, W2=221.3+136.1gm; P=0.005) when infants consumed the carob bean formula. However, there was no significance difference in gastric emptying half time (GET1=116.1+72, GET2=148.5+130.9; P=0.154). In conclusion, carob bean gum, as a thickening agent, improves the clinical symptoms of regurgitating infants, but does not significantly alter the gastric emptying physiology.

  12. Supplementing glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying rate in preterm pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Premature infants frequently present with gastroduodenal motor dysfunction, which is manifest clinically as feeding intolerance resulting from slow gastric emptying. Glutamate (GLU) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the body and multiple GLU receptors and transporters have been found in th...

  13. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs re...

  14. Oral versus intubated feeding and the effect on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses, gastric emptying and satiety.

    PubMed

    Morey, S; Shafat, A; Clegg, M E

    2016-01-01

    Cephalic phase responses (CPR) are important in early initiation of digestion and maximal absorption of nutrients prior to ingestion. Bypassing CPR has been shown to have consequences on metabolic responses that may influence satiety. The aim of this study was to investigate if using gastric intubation to bypass oro-pharyngeal and oesophageal exposure would reduce CPR including insulin and blood glucose and whether these impact on gastric emptying and satiety. Ten male subjects were tested on 2 occasions, 3-7 days apart after an overnight fast, in randomized order. Subjects were cannulated and intubated with a gastric tube for both tests. For test one, subjects ate 400 ml soup with a spoon and for test two the soup was infused into the stomach at an equivalent rate. Subsequently measurements of glycaemic (GR) and insulinaemic responses (IR) from cannula samples, breath samples for measurement of gastric emptying using the [(13)C] sodium acetate breath test and visual analogue scales (VAS) for satiety were taken over 180 min. There were differences in IR over the first 15 min (Oral: 169.0 ± 22.1; Gastric 124.1 ± 18.8; t(9) = 2.67; p = 0.028) but no difference in GR. There were differences in gastric emptying half time (Oral: 85.0 ± 2.7; Gastric 79.4 ± 3.3; t(9) = 2.40; p = 0.04) and ascension time (Oral: 68.2 ± 2.2; Gastric 64.0 ± 2.2; t(9) = 2.57; p = 0.03) with food taking longer to empty from the stomach on the Oral test day than on the Gastric test day. There was no significant difference in the satiety ratings. This study demonstrated that bypassing oro-pharyngeal and oesophageal exposure decreases the normal physiological CPR with detriment to IR and gastric emptying.

  15. Effect of sumatriptan on gastric emptying: A crossover study using the BreathID system

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Yasunari; Sekino, Yusuke; Yamada, Eiji; Higurashi, Takuma; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Sakai, Eiji; Endo, Hiroki; Iida, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Takashi; Fujita, Koji; Yoneda, Masato; Koide, Tomoko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Goto, Ayumu; Abe, Yasunobu; Gotoh, Eiji; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi; Inamori, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of oral sumatriptan on gastric emptying using a continuous 13C breath test (BreathID system). METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, 2-way crossover study. The subjects fasted overnight and were randomly assigned to receive a test meal (200 kcal/200 mL) 30 min after pre-medication with sumatriptan 50 mg (sumatriptan condition), or the test meal alone (control condition). Gastric emptying was monitored for 4 h after administration of the test meal by the 13C-acetic acid breath test performed continually using the BreathID system. Then, using Oridion Research Software (β version), the time taken for emptying of 50% of the labeled meal (T1/2) similar to the scintigraphy lag time for 10% emptying of the labeled meal (Tlag), the gastric emptying coefficient (GEC), and the regression-estimated constants (β and κ) were calculated. The statistical significance of any differences in the parameters were analyzed using Wilcoxon’s signed-rank test. RESULTS: In the sumatriptan condition, significant differences compared with the control condition were found in T1/2 [median 131.84 min (range, 103.13-168.70) vs 120.27 min (89.61-138.25); P = 0.0016], Tlag [median 80.085 min (59.23-125.89) vs 61.11 min (39.86-87.05); P = 0.0125], and β [median 2.3374 (1.6407-3.8209) vs 2.0847 (1.4755-2.9269); P = 0.0284]. There were no significant differences in the GEC or κ between the 2 conditions. CONCLUSION: This study showed that oral sumatriptan significantly delayed gastric emptying of a liquid meal. PMID:22807611

  16. Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying and ultrasonographic assessment of antral area: relation to appetite.

    PubMed Central

    Hveem, K; Jones, K L; Chatterton, B E; Horowitz, M

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasound measurement of gastric emptying has potential advantages over scintigraphy, but there is little information about its accuracy. AIMS: The relation between ultrasonographic measurements of antral area and (a) scintigraphic measurements of gastric emptying and intragastric distribution of liquids (b) postprandial satiation, were evaluated. SUBJECTS: Seven normal volunteers were studied. METHOD: Each subject drank 75 g dextrose dissolved in 350 ml of water (300 kcal) or beef soup (20 kcal), both labelled with technetium-99m sulphur colloid on separate days and had measurement of gastric emptying by scintigraphy and ultrasound. RESULTS: Scintigraphic and ultrasound 50% emptying times (T50s) were comparable and longer (p < 0.001) for dextrose than soup mean (SEM) (dextrose 107 (16) min v 108 (18) min, soup 24 (4) min v 23 (5) min). There were close correlations between scintigraphic and ultrasound T50s (dextrose r = 0.94, p < 0.005, soup r = 0.97, p < 0.001) and between the time at which the distal stomach content decreased from its maximum value by 50% (measured scintigraphically) and the ultrasound T50 (dextrose r = 0.95, p < 0.005, soup r = 0.99, p < 0.0001). In contrast, there was no significant relation between the distal stomach content when expressed as a percentage of the maximum content in the total stomach and the ultrasound T50. After dextrose, fullness was related (r = 0.92, p < 0.01) to the postprandial increase in antral area measured by ultrasound. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound measurements of gastric emptying are: (a) of comparable sensitivity to scintigraphy in quantifying emptying of both low and high nutrient liquids (b) correlate with postprandial satiation, suggesting that the latter may be mediated by antral distension. PMID:8984016

  17. Effect of 50% distal small bowel resection on gastric emptying in Rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, A W; Moossa, A R; Skinner, D B

    1977-01-01

    The effect of bowel resection, sufficient to cause gastric secretory changes, on gastric emptying is unknown. Gastric evacuation was characterized in 8 Rhesus monkeys by a modification of George's double sampling test meal. Fifty per cent distal small bowel resection was then performed. Gastric emptying was again studied at 6 weeks and 6 months. The rate constant fell from -0.00289 +/- 0.000467 (+/-1 SEM) to -0.00232 +/- 0.00106 during the early phase, but role to -0.00308 +/- 0.00186 by 6 months, neither value being statistically different from the preoperative values. T1/2 rose from 125.2 +/- 19.2 mins to 367 +/- 173.4 mins by 6 weeks and to 380.9 +/- 161.6 mins by the end of the experiments. Corresponding values for T were: control period 425.8 +/- 63.2 mins, early phase 1223 +/- 589 mins and late phase 1245.9 +/- 529.6 mins. None of these changes were statistically significant. Alterations in emptying time within each animal were consistent at the two postoperative phases. Although the two animals showing acceleration of evacuation were those with least change in secretion, compensation for the observed increase in output of gastric juice did not materially alter the results. PMID:402124

  18. Characterizing the dynamic interaction among gastric emptying, glucose absorption, and glycemic control in nondiabetic obese adults.

    PubMed

    Wilbaux, Mélanie; Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Beglinger, Christoph; Pfister, Marc

    2017-03-01

    The effects of altered gastric emptying on glucose absorption and kinetics are not well understood in nondiabetic obese adults. The aim of this work was to develop a physiology-based model that can characterize and compare interactions among gastric emptying, glucose absorption, and glycemic control in nondiabetic obese and lean healthy adults. Dynamic glucose, insulin, and gastric emptying (measured with breath test) data from 12 nondiabetic obese and 12 lean healthy adults were available until 180 min after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 10, 25, and 75 g of glucose. A physiology-based model was developed to characterize glucose kinetics applying nonlinear mixed-effects modeling with NONMEM7.3. Glucose kinetics after OGTT was described by a one-compartment model with an effect compartment to describe delayed insulin effects on glucose clearance. After the interactions between individual gastric emptying and glucose absorption profiles were accounted for, the glucose absorption rate was found to be similar in nondiabetic obese and lean controls. Baseline glucose concentration was estimated to be only marginally higher in nondiabetic obese subjects (4.9 vs. 5.2 mmol/l), whereas insulin-dependent glucose clearance in nondiabetic obese subjects was found to be cut in half compared with lean controls (0.052 vs. 0.029 l/min) and the insulin concentration associated with 50% of insulin-dependent glucose elimination rate was approximately twofold higher in nondiabetic obese subjects compared with lean controls (7.1 vs. 15.3 μU/ml). Physiology-based models can characterize and compare the dynamic interaction among gastric emptying, glucose absorption and glycemic control in populations of interest such as lean healthy and nondiabetic obese adults. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Influence of laxatives on gastric emptying in healthy warmblood horses evaluated with the acetaminophen absorption test.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Alice; Koeller, Gábor; Seiwert, Bettina; Abraham, Getu; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2014-01-01

    The use of laxatives is crucial in the treatment of horses with caecal or large colon impaction.To reach the large intestinal contents and resolve the impaction, laxatives must leave the stomach and pass through the small intestine.The aim of this study was to prove whether isotonic solutions of saline cathartics do not affect gastric emptying rate in contrast to hypertonic solutions. Six, fasted, healthy, adult Warmblood horses were used in a randomized study design with 1.8% sodium sulfate (1.8% Na2SO4), 4.2% magnesium sulfate (4.2% MgSO4), 25% sodium sulfate (25% Na2SO4), 25% magnesium sulfate (25% MgSO4) and water at either 20 ml/kg BW (Water 20) or 4 ml/kg BW (Water 4), administered via nasogastric intubation. For indirect measurement of liquid-phase gastric emptying, the liquid-phase passage marker acetaminophen (20 mg/kg BW in 200 ml water) was added to each trial. Serum samples were collected at predetermined time points for pharmacokinetic analysis. The time to reach maximum serum concentration (Tmax) was considered as gastric emptying rate. Compared to Water 4, Tmax of 25% Na2SO4 and 25% MgSO4 was reached significantly later, the maximum serum concentration (Cmax) of acetaminophen was significantly lower and the area under the curve determined up to 90 min (AUC90) was significantly smaller. Isotonic solutions of saline cathartics (1.8% Na2SO4, 4.2% MgSO4) did not influence the gastric emptying rate. Hypertonic solutions of saline cathartics (25% Na2SO4, 25% MgSO4) significantly delayed the gastric emptying rate.

  20. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of baclofen on liquid and solid gastric emptying in rats.

    PubMed

    Collares, Edgard Ferro; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a potent inhibitory neurotransmitter. There is evidence that GABA(B) receptors located in the dorsal complex and in afferent fibers of the vagus nerve participate in the control of gastrointestinal motility. To assess the intracerebroventricularly (ICV) and intravenously (IV) effect of baclofen, a GABA(B) receptor agonist, on liquid and solid gastric emptying in rats. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (n = 6-8 animals) were used. Gastric emptying of liquid test meals labeled with phenol red was evaluated by the determination of percent gastric retention (%GR) 10 and 15 min after orogastric administration of saline and 10% glucose meals, respectively. Baclofen was injected ICV (1 and 2 µg/animal) through a tube implanted into the lateral ventricle of the brain and was injected IV (1 and 2 mg/kg) into a tail vein. The gastric emptying of liquid was determined 10 or 30 min after ICV and IV baclofen administration, respectively. The gastric emptying of the solid meal was assessed by the determination of percent gastric retention 2 h after the beginning of the ingestion of the habitual ratio by the animal, consumed over a period of 30 min. Baclofen was administered ICV (1 and 2 µg/animal) or IV (1 and 2 mg/kg) immediately after the end of the ingestion of the solid meal. The control groups received vehicle (sterile saline solution) ICV or IV. The group of animals receiving baclofen ICV (2 mg/animal) presented a significantly lower (P<0.05, Tukey test) %GR (mean ± SEM) of the saline (18.1 ± 2.5%) compared to control (33.2 ± 2.2%). In the group receiving the drug IV, the gastric retention of the same test meal did not differ from control. ICV and IV administration of baclofen had no effect on the gastric emptying of the 10% glucose solution compared to control. ICV administration of 1 or 2 mg baclofen/animal significantly increased the gastric retention of the solid test meal (57.9 ± 6.5% and 66.6 ± 6.3%, respectively

  2. Xylitol vs glucose: Effect on the rate of gastric emptying and motilin, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide release

    SciTech Connect

    Salminen, E.K.; Salminen, S.J.; Porkka, L.; Kwasowski, P.; Marks, V.; Koivistoinen, P.E.

    1989-06-01

    The effect of xylitol and glucose on the rate of gastric emptying and intestinal transit and on motilin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and insulin release were studied in human volunteers. A single oral dose of 200 mL water containing 30 g glucose or 30 g xylitol, mixed with a /sup 99m/technetium-tin (99mTc-Sn) colloid, was used. Similar dosing without the label was used in motilin, GIP, and insulin studies. Xylitol decreased the rate of gastric emptying but concomitantly accelerated intestinal transit compared with glucose. The half-times for gastric emptying were 77.5 +/- 4.6 and 39.8 +/- 3.4 min after ingestion of xylitol and glucose solutions, respectively. Glucose suppressed motilin and stimulated GIP secretion; xylitol stimulated motilin secretion but had no effect on GIP, which is currently the main candidate for the role of enterogastrone. The accelerated intestinal transit and increase in plasma motilin observed after xylitol ingestion were thought to be causally related to the diarrhea and gastrointestinal discomfort produced by it.

  3. Comparison of the barium test meal and the gamma camera scanning technic in measuring gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Perkel, M.S.; Fajman, W.A.; Hersh, T.

    1981-09-01

    In 21 patients with nonresected stomachs and symptoms of delayed gastric emptying, obstruction was excluded by upper gastrointestinal series and upper endoscopy; all had abnormal results of barium test meal (BTM) study. Each had repeat BTM after the administration of 10 mg of metoclopramide. Each patient also had two gamma camera studies after a technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid labeled meal; normal saline or metoclopramide was administered before each test in a blinded and random manner. Half-time (T 1/2) and percentage of isotope remaining at six hours (GC6) were recorded. Ten asymptomatic controls had a gamma camera scanning study, and seven of these had a BTM. Nine of 19 patients had a T 1/2 in the normal range, and in 12 of 19 patients the GC6 was in the normal range. The magnitude of retention of barium at six hours on the BTM did not correlate with the T 1/2 (r = 0.076) or the GC6 (r = 0.296). Thus, these tests were not comparable in this study. By regression analysis, a significant reduction was shown in the amount of retained food and barium (P < .01), the T 1/2 (P < .01), and the GC6 (P < .01) after intramuscular administration of metoclopramide, indicating that both tests were able to evaluate the effects of this drug.

  4. Comparison of the barium test meal and the gamma camera scanning technic in measuring gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Perkel, M.S.; Fajman, W.A.; Hersh, T.; Moore, C.; Davidson, E.D.; Haun, C.

    1981-09-01

    In 21 patients with nonresected stomachs and symptoms of delayed gastric emptying, obstruction was excluded by upper gastrointestinal series and upper endoscopy; all had abnormal results of barium test meal (BTM) study. Each had repeat BTM after the administration of 10 mg of metoclopramide. Each patient also had two gamma camera studies after a technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid labeled meal; normal saline or metoclopramide was administered before each test in a blinded and random manner. Half-time (T1/2) and percentage of isotope remaining at six hours (GC6) were recorded. Ten asymptomatic controls had a gamma camera scanning study, and seven of these had a BTM. Nine of 19 patients had a T1/2 in the normal range, and in 12 of 19 patients the GC6 was in the normal range. The magnitude of retention of barium at six hours on the BTM did not correlate with the T1/2 (r . 0.076) or the GC6 (r. 0.296). Thus, these tests were not comparable in this study. By regression analysis, a significant reduction was shown in the amount of retained food and barium (P less than .01), the T1/2 (P less than .01), and the GC6 (P less than .01) after intramuscular administration of metoclopramide, indicating that both tests were able to evaluate the effects of this drug.

  5. Gastric emptying of a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution in healthy volunteers depends on osmotically active particles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chol; Okabe, Tadashi; Sakurai, Minoru; Kanaya, Koji; Ishihara, Keiichi; Inoue, Tetsuo; Kumita, Shin-ichiro; Sakamoto, Atsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative ingestion of only clear fluids until 2 hours before induction of anesthesia is a common preoperative fasting regimen. Gastric emptying times, however, vary among clear fluids. We therefore investigated the gastric emptying of 2 clear glucose-electrolyte drinks. A 2-way crossover study was performed in 10 healthy volunteers. After fasting, the volunteers drank 500 mL of either OS-1(®), an oral rehydration solution, or Pocari Sweat(®), a popular sports drink, over 3 minutes in a standing position. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the drinking of each test fluid. The difference in gastric emptying between OS-1(®) and Pocari Sweat(®) was evaluated by comparing gastric fluid volume, flow rate, and residual ratio. We also compared the flow rates of sodium, potassium, carbohydrates, and osmotically active particles in the 2 test fluids. Gastric fluid volume 30 minutes after drinking was significantly smaller for OS-1(®) (76.0 ± 57.0 mL) than for Pocari Sweat(®) (158.1 ± 73.5 mL, p<0.01), although the volumes did not differ before or immediately after drinking. The flow rate was significantly faster for OS-1(®) (10.66 ± 3.34 mL) than for Pocari Sweat(®) (8.68 ± 3.02 mL/min, p<0.05), and the residual ratio was significantly smaller for OS-1(®) (21 ± 14% than for Pocari Sweat(®) (41 ± 19%, p<0.01). The flow rates of sodium, potassium, and glucose differed significantly between OS-1(®) and Pocari Sweat(®), whereas the flow rate of osmotically active particles did not. Gastric emptying is significantly faster for OS-1(®) than for Pocari Sweat(®).

  6. No influence of carbonation on glycemic response, gastric emptying, and satiety of sweetened drinks.

    PubMed

    Lau, Evelyn Rou Lin; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of carbonation of sweetened beverages on glycemic response, gastric emptying, and satiety. After an overnight fast, 15 healthy individuals (6 women, 9 men) consumed a 500 mL beverage containing 50 g glucose that was noncarbonated (NC), low carbonated (LC), or high carbonated (HC) at a standardized rate of consumption (100 mL/min). Blood glucose was measured at baseline and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after beverage consumption. Antral cross-sectional area was measured using ultrasound at baseline, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 90, and 120 min; for the estimation of gastric volume and gastric emptying rate. Satiety was assessed using electronic visual analog scales at the same time points as the blood glucose measurement. There were no significant differences in glycemic response among the test beverages. Higher carbonation levels significantly increased antral cross-sectional area during the first 20 min after beverage consumption (P < 0.010) but did not translate into significant differences in gastric volume or gastric emptying rates. There was no significant effect of carbonation on satiety, but the area under the curve for thirst was significantly lower for HC compared with NC (P = 0.009). The carbonation of a simple glucose solution did not increase glycemic response nor alter gastric emptying and subjective feelings of satiety (with the exception of thirst). The present study suggests that carbonation does not alter glycemic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ectopic jejunal pacemakers and gastric emptying after Roux gastrectomy: Effect of intestinal pacing

    SciTech Connect

    Karlstrom, L.; Kelly, K.A. )

    1989-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether ectopic pacemakers are present after meals in the Roux limbs of dogs after vagotomy and Roux gastrectomy, whether these pacemakers slow gastric emptying of liquids or solids, and whether abolishing the pacemakers with electric pacing might speed any slow emptying that occurs. In six dogs that underwent vagotomy and Roux gastrectomy and in four dogs that underwent vagotomy and Billroth gastrectomy (controls), myoelectric activity of the Roux limb or duodenum was measured during gastric emptying of a 500 kcal mixed meal of 99mTc-labeled cooked egg and 111In-labeled milk. Roux dogs were tested with and without pacing of the Roux limb. Roux dogs showed ectopic pacemaker in the Roux limb that drove the pacesetter potentials of the limb in a reverse, or orad, direction during 57% of the postprandial recordings. Billroth dogs had no ectopic pacemakers (p less than 0.05). Liquids emptied more slowly in Roux dogs (half-life (t1/2) = 121 +/- 15 minutes) than in Billroth dogs (t1/2 = 43 +/- 9 minutes; p less than 0.05), but solids emptied similarly in both groups of dogs (t1/2 approximately 8 hours). Pacing the Roux limb abolished the ectopic pacemakers, restored the slow emptying of liquids to the more rapid rate found in the Billroth dogs (t1/2: paced Roux, 72 +/- 15 minutes; Billroth, 43 +/- 9 minutes; p greater than 0.05) and did not change emptying of solids. The conclusion was that ectopic pacemakers present in the Roux limb after vagotomy and Roux gastrectomy drove the limb in a reverse direction and slowed emptying of liquids after the operation. The defect was corrected by pacing the Roux limb in a forward direction.

  8. Sustained delayed gastric emptying during repeated restraint stress in oxytocin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Babygirija, R; Zheng, J; Bülbül, M; Cerjak, D; Ludwig, K; Takahashi, T

    2010-11-01

    We have recently shown that impaired gastric motility observed in acute restraint stress was restored following repeated restraint stress in mice. Repeated restraint stress up-regulates oxytocin mRNA expression and down-regulates corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA expression at the hypothalamus. Oxytocin knockout mice (OXT-KO) have been widely used to study the central oxytocin signalling pathways in response to various stressors. We studied the effects of acute and repeated restraint stress on solid gastric emptying and hypothalamic CRF mRNA expression in wild-type (WT) and OXT-KO mice. Heterozygous (HZ) parents (B6; 129S-Oxt(tm1Wsy)/J mice) were bred in our animal facility. Male OXT-KO, WT and HZ littermates were used for the study. Solid gastric emptying was measured following acute restraint stress (for 90 min) or repeated restraint stress (for five consecutive days). Expression of CRF mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was measured by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. There were no significant differences of gastric emptying in WT (68.4 ± 4.1%, n = 6), HZ (71.8 ± 3.1%, n = 6) and OXT-KO (70.6 ± 3.1%, n = 6) mice in nonstressed conditions. Acute stress significantly delayed gastric emptying in OXT-KO mice (33.10 ± 2.5%, n = 6) WT (39.1 ± 1.1%, n = 6) and HZ mice (35.8 ± 1.2%, n = 6). Following repeated restraint stress loading, gastric emptying was significantly restored in WT (68.3 ± 4.5%, n = 6) and HZ mice (63.1 ± 2.6%, n = 6). By contrast, gastric emptying was still delayed in OXT-KO mice (34.7 ± 1.3%, n = 6) following repeated restraint stress. The increase in CRF mRNA expression at the PVN was much pronounced in OXT-KO mice compared to WT or HZ mice following repeated restraint stress. These findings suggest that central oxytocin plays a pivotal role in mediating the adaptation mechanism following repeated restraint stress in mice.

  9. Expression of 5-HT3 receptors by extrinsic duodenal afferents contribute to intestinal inhibition of gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Raybould, Helen E; Glatzle, Jorg; Robin, Carla; Meyer, James H; Phan, Thomas; Wong, Helen; Sternini, Catia

    2003-03-01

    Intestinal perfusion with carbohydrates inhibits gastric emptying via vagal and spinal capsaicin-sensitive afferent pathways. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of 1) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(3) receptors (5-HT(3)R) in mediating glucose-induced inhibition of gastric emptying and 2) 5-HT(3)R expression in vagal and spinal afferents in innervating the duodenum. In awake rats fitted with gastric and duodenal cannulas, perfusion of the duodenum with glucose (50 and 100 mg) inhibited gastric emptying. Intestinal perfusion of mannitol inhibited gastric emptying only at the highest concentration (990 mosm/kgH(2)O). Pretreatment with the 5-HT(3)R antagonist tropisetron abolished both glucose- and mannitol-induced inhibition of gastric emptying. Retrograde labeling of visceral afferents by injection of dextran-conjugated Texas Red into the duodenal wall was used to identify extrinsic primary afferents. Immunoreactivity for 5-HT(3)R, visualized with an antibody directed to the COOH terminus of the rat 5-HT(3)R, was found in >80% of duodenal vagal and spinal afferents. These results show that duodenal extrinsic afferents express 5-HT(3)R and that the receptor mediates specific glucose-induced inhibition of gastric emptying. These findings support the hypothesis that enterochromaffin cells in the intestinal mucosa release 5-HT in response to glucose, which activates 5-HT(3)R on afferent nerve terminals to evoke reflex changes in gastric motility. The primary glucose sensors of the intestine may be mucosal enterochromaffin cells.

  10. Studies of the reproducibility, acquisition and analysis of gastric emptying studies in pediatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, J.H.K.; Rosen, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    The analysis, reproducibility and acquisition of gastric emptying data in a pediatric population was evaluated by obtaining data simultaneously with anterior and posterior gamma camera detectors, repetitive studies in patients and by the use of power exponential analysis, in addition to conventional monoexponential methodology. 13 patients with a variety of gastroesophageal pathologies were studied with simultaneous anterior and posterior gamma camera data acquisition. Excluding 4 subjects with substantial emesis, there was no statistical difference in data obtained anteriorly and posteriorly. The anterior scan in general revealed more rapid initial emptying compared to the posterior scan, resulting in a smaller shape factor (S) when power exponential function analysis was employed. T1/2 using either simple monoexponential or power exponential calculations showed no difference for data obtained anteriorly or posteriorly. T3/4 showed larger values in posteriorly obtained data as compared to anteriorly obtained data. 7 patients had repetitive studies performed at intervals from 1-9 days. Data so obtained showed no statistical difference in T1/2, T3/4 or S derived, either by single exponential or power exponential. The authors conclude therefore that gastric emptying data in a pediatric age group appears to be reproducible in repetitive studies. There appears to be no difference in data acquired anteriorly or posteriorly. The utilization of a power exponential analysis of gastric emptying data may augment the description of data by providing a quantitative expression of a multiexponential function.

  11. Effects of surgical correction of neuromuscular scoliosis on gastric myoelectrical activity, emptying, and upper gastrointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jalanko, Tuomas; Helenius, Ilkka; Pakarinen, Mikko; Puisto, Ville; Salminen, Päivi; Peltonen, Jari; Rintala, Risto; Koivusalo, Antti

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal complications are frequent after surgical correction of neuromuscular scoliosis, but the effects of scoliosis surgery on gastric function and upper gastrointestinal symptoms over the long term are unknown. Thirty-one children (16 spastic, 15 flaccid patients) who underwent surgical correction of neuromuscular scoliosis were included in a prospective follow-up study. Median (range) age at surgery was 14.9 (5-20) years and follow-up time 4.3 (2-8) years. Electrogastrography (n=28), gastric emptying scintigraphy (n=17), and structured upper gastrointestinal symptoms questionnaire (n=26) were evaluated before and after surgery. The results were related to patients' clinical state, type and extent of corrective spinal surgery, and gastrointestinal complications. The median main scoliosis curve of 81 degrees (51-129 degrees) was corrected to 25 degrees (1.0-85 degrees) after surgery. In electrogastrogram, power ratio increased from preoperative 1.4 (0.30-11) to postoperative 6.2 (1.2-26) in the spastic group (P=0.008), whereas in the flaccid group, power ratio remained unchanged at 2.2 (0.1-17). Patients with prolonged postoperative paralytic ileus had the most substantial increase in gastric power ratio (P=0.038). Correction of sagittal spinal balance correlated with increased postprandial normogastric activity after surgery (R=0.459; P=0.004). The gastric emptying results, upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and body mass index were not significantly altered after scoliosis surgery. Gastric myoelectrical power increased after surgical correction of spastic neuromuscular scoliosis and was associated with prolonged postoperative paralytic ileus. Correction of poor, stooped spinal balance improved gastric myoelectrical activity. The net effect of scoliosis surgery on gastric emptying, upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and clinical nutritional state was minimal.

  12. Gastric emptying procedures in the self-poisoned patient: are we forcing gastric content beyond the pylorus?

    PubMed Central

    Saetta, J P; March, S; Gaunt, M E; Quinton, D N

    1991-01-01

    A prospective, randomized, single-blind study was carried out to determine whether gastric content is forced into the small bowel when gastric-emptying procedures are employed in self-poisoned patients. They were asked to swallow barium-impregnated polythene pellets, immediately prior to either gastric lavage or ipecacuanha-induced emesis. A second group of patients, who did not require treatment, were used as controls. Sixty patients were recruited to the study. The data show a significant difference in the number of residual pellets in the small bowel of the treated group (n = 40), when compared with the control group (P less than 0.0001). There was no statistical difference in the number of pellets in the small bowel when the treated groups were compared with each other. In addition, the inefficiency of gastric-emptying procedures is highlighted; 58.5% of the total number of pellets ingested were retained in the gastrointestinal tract of the ipecacuanha-treated group, while 51.8% of total pellets ingested were retained in the gastric lavage-treated group. Images Figure 1. PMID:1674963

  13. Effect of meal temperature on gastric emptying of liquids in man.

    PubMed

    Sun, W M; Houghton, L A; Read, N W; Grundy, D G; Johnson, A G

    1988-03-01

    Serial studies were carried out on six healthy volunteers (19-24 years) to investigate the effect of meal temperature [either 4 degrees C (cold), 37 degrees C (control) or 50 degrees C (warm)] on the rate of gastric emptying of a radiolabelled isosmotic drink of orange juice. The mean maximum intragastric temperature occurred 60 seconds after the onset of ingestion of the warm drink and reached 43.0 degrees C (0.4) mean (SD) while the mean minimum intragastric temperature occurred 45 seconds after the onset of ingestion of the cold drink and reached 21.2 degrees C (1.9). Intragastric temperature then returned to body temperature within 20-30 minutes of ingestion of the warm and cold drinks. Warm and cold drinks appeared to empty from the stomach more slowly than the control drink. The initial rate of gastric emptying of the cold drink was significantly slower than the control drink (p less than 0.05) and the difference in emptying rates between cold and control drinks were significantly correlated with the differences in intragastric temperatures (p less than 0.01). The difference in the initial emptying rates between warm and control drinks were not statistically significant.

  14. Practical solid and liquid phase markers for studying gastric emptying in man

    SciTech Connect

    Thomforde, G.M.; Brown, M.L.; Malagelada, J.R.

    1985-03-01

    This paper presents a method used to evaluate solid and liquid phase markers for radionuclide gastric emptying studies. The authors conducted in vitro and in vivo comparative experiments employing several radiolabeled markers. Among the solid phase markers tested, Tc-99m-sulfur colloid in vivo-labeled liver and I-131-fiber performed optimally. However, Tc-99M sulfur colloid in scrambled egg showed very acceptable performance and it is significantly easier to prepare. Among liquid phase markers, they found In-111-DTPA stabilized with 1% albumin to be a good agent and appropriate for dual isotope emptying studies.

  15. Measuring of Gastric Emptying in Egyptian Pediatric Patients with Portal Hypertension by Using Real-time Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Fahmy, Mona E.; Osman, Mahmoud A.; Mahmoud, Rehab A.; Mohamed, Lamiaa K.; Seif-elnasr, Khaled I.; Eskander, Ayman E.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Among the various methods for evaluating gastric emptying, the real-time ultrasound is safe, does not require intubation, or rely on either radiologic or radionuclide technique. The aim of our work was to measure the gastric emptying in pediatric patients with portal hypertension by using the real-time ultrasound. Patients and Methods: Forty patients with portal hypertension with mean age 7 ± 2.8 years and 20 healthy children as a control group underwent gastric emptying study by using real-time ultrasound. The cross-sectional area of the gastric antrum was measured in the fasting state and then each subject was allowed to drink tap water then calculated by using formula area (π longitudinal × anteroposterior diameter/4). The intragastric volume was assumed to be directly proportional to the cross-sectional area of the antrum. Results: The mean gastric emptying half-time volume was significantly delayed in portal hypertension patients (40 ± 6.8 min) compared with the control subjects (27.1 ± 3.6) min (P<0.05). Patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction had significant delayed gastric emptying in comparison to patients with portal hypertension due to other etiologies (36.14 ± 4.9 vs 44.41 ± 6.04 min; P<0.01). Conclusion: Ultrasound is a noninvasive and a reliable method for measuring gastric emptying in pediatric patients. Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in patients with portal hypertension. Etiology of portal hypertension may influence gastric emptying time in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:22249091

  16. A gamma variate model that includes stretched exponential is a better fit for gastric emptying data from mice

    PubMed Central

    Bajzer, Željko; Gibbons, Simon J.; Coleman, Heidi D.; Linden, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive breath tests for gastric emptying are important techniques for understanding the changes in gastric motility that occur in disease or in response to drugs. Mice are often used as an animal model; however, the gamma variate model currently used for data analysis does not always fit the data appropriately. The aim of this study was to determine appropriate mathematical models to better fit mouse gastric emptying data including when two peaks are present in the gastric emptying curve. We fitted 175 gastric emptying data sets with two standard models (gamma variate and power exponential), with a gamma variate model that includes stretched exponential and with a proposed two-component model. The appropriateness of the fit was assessed by the Akaike Information Criterion. We found that extension of the gamma variate model to include a stretched exponential improves the fit, which allows for a better estimation of T1/2 and Tlag. When two distinct peaks in gastric emptying are present, a two-component model is required for the most appropriate fit. We conclude that use of a stretched exponential gamma variate model and when appropriate a two-component model will result in a better estimate of physiologically relevant parameters when analyzing mouse gastric emptying data. PMID:26045615

  17. A gamma variate model that includes stretched exponential is a better fit for gastric emptying data from mice.

    PubMed

    Bajzer, Željko; Gibbons, Simon J; Coleman, Heidi D; Linden, David R; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2015-08-01

    Noninvasive breath tests for gastric emptying are important techniques for understanding the changes in gastric motility that occur in disease or in response to drugs. Mice are often used as an animal model; however, the gamma variate model currently used for data analysis does not always fit the data appropriately. The aim of this study was to determine appropriate mathematical models to better fit mouse gastric emptying data including when two peaks are present in the gastric emptying curve. We fitted 175 gastric emptying data sets with two standard models (gamma variate and power exponential), with a gamma variate model that includes stretched exponential and with a proposed two-component model. The appropriateness of the fit was assessed by the Akaike Information Criterion. We found that extension of the gamma variate model to include a stretched exponential improves the fit, which allows for a better estimation of T1/2 and Tlag. When two distinct peaks in gastric emptying are present, a two-component model is required for the most appropriate fit. We conclude that use of a stretched exponential gamma variate model and when appropriate a two-component model will result in a better estimate of physiologically relevant parameters when analyzing mouse gastric emptying data.

  18. Altered Gastric Emptying and Prevention of Radiation-Induced Vomiting in Dogs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    nausea and vomiting is common10ily oh- of 10 dog$ pt’etrtolted wvith domperidone (p) < 0.01). served. These symptoms can occur after total body Gastric...Gastroenterol of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting . Postgrad Med 1981;16(Suppl 67):33-6. 1979;55(Suppl 1):50-4. V.a, ...00_© 000 ’-- Altered gastric emptying and prevention of radiation-induced vomiting in dogs A. Dubois cc I J. P. Jacobus M. P. Grissom R.R. Eng J. J

  19. Centrally administered urocortin 3 inhibits food intake and gastric emptying in mice.

    PubMed

    Ushikai, Miharu; Asakawa, Akihiro; Sakoguchi, Takeo; Tanaka, Chie; Inui, Akio

    2011-04-01

    Urocortin 3 (Ucn3) is recognized as a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family, which plays an important role in regulating food intake. We investigated the effects of centrally administered Ucn3 on food intake and gastric emptying in mice. Intracerebroventricular (ICV)administration of Ucn3 (0.1–1 nmol per mouse) decreased food intake in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of Ucn3 on food intake was less potent than that of centrally administered CRF and Urocortin 1. ICV administration of Ucn3 (0.1–1 nmol per mouse) decreased the gastric emptying rate in a dose-dependent manner. Ucn3 decreased food intake in high-fat diet-fed obese mice as well as in lean mice. These results indicated that Ucn3 influences feeding behavior and gut motility, and may be a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of eating and functional gastrointestinal disorders.

  20. Effects of escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb from horse chestnuts on gastric emptying in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Li, Y; Murakami, T; Yamahara, J; Yoshikawa, M

    1999-03-05

    Inhibitory effects of the saponin fraction and its principal constituents, escins Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb, from horse chestnuts on gastric emptying were investigated in mice loaded with a non-nutrient or nutrient meal. The saponin fraction and escins Ia-IIb inhibited gastric emptying of a 1.5% carboxymethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC-Na) meal by 11.1-54.2% (12.5-200 mg/kg). Escins Ia-IIb (50 mg/kg) also inhibited gastric emptying of a 40% glucose meal by 21.1-23.5% except for escin Ia, a milk meal by 18.4-33.1%, and a 30% ethanol meal by 13.5-15.9%. The effects of escins Ia-IIb on gastric emptying of the CMC-Na meal were attenuated by pretreatment with streptozotocin (100 mg/kg, i.v.), capsaicin (75 mg/kg in total, s.c.), or insulin (1 U/kg, s.c.). The effect of insulin was reduced by glucose (2 g/kg, i.v.) which can directly nourish the brain, but not by fructose (2 g/kg, i.v.) which cannot be utilized by the brain. The effects of escins Ia-IIb (50 mg/kg) were overridden in 60% ethanol-loaded mice, in which the central nervous system was suppressed by ethanol. These results suggest that capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves and central nervous system partly participate in the effects of escins Ia-IIb.

  1. Prevalence and determinants of delayed gastric emptying in hospitalised Type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Kojecky, Vladimir; Bernatek, Jaromir; Horowitz, Michael; Zemek, Stanislav; Bakala, Jiri; Hep, Ales

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of delayed gastric emptying (GE) in older patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: One hundred and forty seven patients with Type 2 diabetes, of whom 140 had been hospitalised, mean age 62.3 ± 8.0 years, HbA1c 9.1% ± 1.9%, treated with either oral hypoglycemic drugs or insulin were studied. GE of a solid meal (scintigraphy), autonomic nerve function, upper gastrointestinal symptoms, acute and chronic glycemic control were evaluated. Gastric emptying results were compared to a control range of hospitalised patients who did not have diabetes. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was delayed (T50 > 85 min) in 17.7% patients. Mean gastric emptying was slower in females (T50 72.1 ± 72.1 min vs 56.9 ± 68.1 min, P = 0.02) and in those reporting nausea (112.3 ± 67.3 vs 62.7 ± 70.0 min, P < 0.01) and early satiety (114.0 ± 135.2 vs 61.1 ± 62.6 min, P = 0.02). There was no correlation between GE with age, body weight, duration of diabetes, neuropathy, current glycemia or the total score for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. CONCLUSION: Prolonged GE occurs in about 20% of hospitalised elderly patients with Type 2 diabetes when compared to hospitalised patients who do not have diabetes. Female gender, nausea and early satiety are associated with higher probability of delayed GE. PMID:18330949

  2. Prostacyclin inhibits gastric emptying and small-intestinal transit in rats and dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Ruwart, M.J.; Rush, B.D.

    1984-08-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) antagonizes 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2-induced diarrhea in rats, presumably by inhibiting the fluid accumulation of ''enteropooling'' in the small intestine. The effect of PGI2 on gastric emptying, small intestinal transit, and colonic transit was examined in rats and dogs to determine if interference with propulsion might also contribute to the antidiarrheal properties of this compound. Rats implanted with chronic duodenal cannulas were given subcutaneous PGI2 (0.1-1000 microgram/kg) followed 10 min later by intragastric /sup 2/Cr and a visually detectable duodenal transit marker. Forty-five minutes later, the animals were killed. Subcutaneous PGI2 inhibited gastric emptying maximally at 10 micrograms/kg. Small-intestinal transit was significantly decreased at 50 micrograms/kg and almost completely suppressed at 1.0 mg/kg. Subcutaneous naloxone (0.5 mg/kg) given 10 min before and 20 min after subcutaneous PGI2 administration did not block PGI2's effects. Intravenous or oral PGI2, had none of these effects. Small intestinal transit was only decreased by PGI2 infusion, suggesting that this parameter was more sensitive to a sustained blood level than gastric emptying. Hourly injections of subcutaneous PGI2 (0.5 mg/kg) had no effect on rat colonic transit measured over a 3-h period after deposition of the transit marker through a colonic cannula in a manner similar to that described for small-intestinal transit above. Small-intestinal transit was also measured in dogs given a barium suspension through a chronic duodenal cannula. In vehicle-treated dogs, barium reached the cecal area in an average of 2.8 h after instillation. In PGI2-treated dogs, barium never reached the cecum in the 5-h examination period. Thus, PGI2 inhibits gastric emptying in rat and small-intestinal transit in rat and dog but has no effect on rat colonic transit.

  3. The effect of metoclopramide on gastric emptying of solid meals1

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, B. D.; Bowen-Jones, E.; Dixon, R.; Dymock, I. W.; Cowley, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of metoclopramide has been studied on the emptying of solid meals labelled with 51Cr and monitored with a gamma camera. Metoclopramide, 10 mg iv or a dummy injection, was given randomly and double blind to 10 normal subjects and to 10 patients within three months of a truncal vagotomy and pyloroplasty. All were tested in the recumbent position. Metoclopramide had no effect on emptying rates in the normal subjects nor in four postvagotomy patients who had emptying within the normal range (T½ 30-150 min). In six patients with abnormally delayed emptying (mean T½ 369 min) metoclopramide produced a significant improvement (mean T½ 194 min, p < 0·01). ImagesFig 1Fig 2 PMID:4605245

  4. Effects of peripherally administered urocortin 3 on feeding behavior and gastric emptying in mice

    PubMed Central

    TERASHI, MUTSUMI; ASAKAWA, AKIHIRO; CHENG, KAI-CHUN; KOYAMA, KEN-ICHIRO; CHAOLU, HUKE; USHIKAI, MIHARU; INUI, AKIO

    2011-01-01

    Human and mouse urocortin 3 (Ucn3) were first identified in 2001. Ucn3 binds selectively to corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF-R2). Previous studies have shown that centrally administered Ucn3 decreases food intake in rats. However, the role of Ucn3 in the regulation of gut motility remains to be determined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of peripherally administered Ucn3 on food intake and gastric emptying in mice. After intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of Ucn3, food intake was measured in the light and dark phases, and the rate of gastric emptying was determined. We found that i.p. administration of Ucn3 significantly inhibited feeding behavior in mice, and significantly delayed gastric emptying 1–2 h after administration in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Ucn3 contributes to the modulation of feeding behavior and gut motility. Thus, Ucn3 and CRF-R2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal and eating disorders. PMID:22977506

  5. Gastric Emptying After Pickle-Juice Ingestion in Rested, Euhydrated Humans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kevin C.; Mack, Gary W.; Knight, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Small volumes of pickle juice (PJ) relieve muscle cramps within 85 seconds of ingestion without significantly affecting plasma variables. This effect may be neurologic rather than metabolic. Understanding PJ's gastric emptying would help to strengthen this theory. Objective: To compare gastric emptying and plasma variables after PJ and deionized water (DIW) ingestion. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten men (age  =  25.4 ± 0.7 years, height  =  177.1 ± 1.6 cm, mass  =  78.1 ± 3.6 kg). Intervention(s): Rested, euhydrated, and eunatremic participants ingested 7 mL·kg−1 body mass of PJ or DIW on separate days. Main Outcome Measure(s): Gastric volume was measured at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion (using the phenol red dilution technique). Percentage changes in plasma volume and plasma sodium concentration were measured preingestion (−45 minutes) and at 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes postingestion. Results: Initial gastric volume was 624.5 ± 27.4 mL for PJ and 659.5 ± 43.8 mL for DIW (P > .05). Both fluids began to empty within the first 5 minutes (volume emptied: PJ  =  219.2 ± 39.1 mL, DIW  =  305.0 ± 40.5 mL, P < .05). Participants who ingested PJ did not empty further after the first 5 minutes (P > .05), whereas in those who ingested DIW, gastric volume decreased to 111.6 ± 39.9 mL by 30 minutes (P < .05). The DIW group emptied faster than the PJ group between 20 and 30 minutes postingestion (P < .05). Within 5 minutes of PJ ingestion, plasma volume decreased 4.8% ± 1.6%, whereas plasma sodium concentration increased 1.6 ± 0.5 mmol·L−1 (P < .05). Similar changes occurred after DIW ingestion. Calculated plasma sodium content was unchanged for both fluids (P > .05). Conclusions: The initial decrease in gastric volume with both fluids is likely attributable to gastric distension. Failure of the PJ group to empty afterward is likely due to PJ

  6. Neural mechanisms and delayed gastric emptying of liquid induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; Almeida, Eros Antonio de

    2015-02-01

    In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1 mA/10 s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN.

  7. A Mechanistic Model of Intermittent Gastric Emptying and Glucose-Insulin Dynamics following a Meal Containing Milk Components

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, Jayden A. R.; Berends, Harma; Steele, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    To support decision-making around diet selection choices to manage glycemia following a meal, a novel mechanistic model of intermittent gastric emptying and plasma glucose-insulin dynamics was developed. Model development was guided by postprandial timecourses of plasma glucose, insulin and the gastric emptying marker acetaminophen in infant calves fed meals of 2 or 4 L milk replacer. Assigning a fast, slow or zero first-order gastric emptying rate to each interval between plasma samples fit acetaminophen curves with prediction errors equal to 9% of the mean observed acetaminophen concentration. Those gastric emptying parameters were applied to glucose appearance in conjunction with minimal models of glucose disposal and insulin dynamics to describe postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. The final model contains 20 parameters, 8 of which can be obtained by direct measurement and 12 by fitting to observations. The minimal model of intestinal glucose delivery contains 2 gastric emptying parameters and a third parameter describing the time lag between emptying and appearance of glucose in plasma. Sensitivity analysis of the aggregate model revealed that gastric emptying rate influences area under the plasma insulin curve but has little effect on area under the plasma glucose curve. This result indicates that pancreatic responsiveness is influenced by gastric emptying rate as a consequence of the quasi-exponential relationship between plasma glucose concentration and pancreatic insulin release. The fitted aggregate model was able to reproduce the multiple postprandial rises and falls in plasma glucose concentration observed in calves consuming a normal-sized meal containing milk components. PMID:27253712

  8. The effects of consuming carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages on gastric emptying and fluid absorption during and following exercise.

    PubMed

    Murray, R

    1987-01-01

    A variety of beverages formulated to provide fluid, carbohydrates, and electrolytes during and following exercise are commercially available. Such 'sport drinks' commonly contain 4 to 8% carbohydrate (as glucose, fructose, sucrose or maltodextrins) and small amounts of electrolytes (most often sodium, potassium, and chloride). The efficacy of consuming such beverages has been questioned primarily because of concern that beverage carbohydrate content may inhibit gastric emptying rate and fluid absorption during exercise, thereby jeopardizing physiological homeostasis and impairing exercise performance. Gastric motor activity, and consequently gastric emptying rate, is governed by neural and humoral feedback provided by receptors found in the gastric musculature and proximal small intestine. Gastric emptying rate may be influenced by a variety of factors including, but not limited to, the caloric content, volume, osmolality, temperature, and pH of the ingested fluid, diurnal and interindividual variation, metabolic state (rest/exercise), and the ambient temperature. The caloric content of the ingested fluid appears to be the most important variable governing gastric emptying rate, providing a mean caloric efflux from the stomach of 2.0 to 2.5 kcal/min for ingested fluid volumes less than 400 ml. At rest, gastric emptying is inhibited by solutions containing calories in a manner independent of the nutrient source (i.e. carbohydrate, fat or protein). Consequently, plain water is known to empty from the stomachs of resting subjects at rates faster than solutions containing calories. Gastric emptying is increasingly inhibited as the caloric content of the ingested fluid increases. During moderate exercise (less than 75% VO2max), gastric emptying occurs at a rate similar to that during rest; more intense exercise appears to inhibit gastric emptying. When fluids are consumed at regular intervals throughout prolonged exercise (greater than 2 hours), postexercise aspiration

  9. Comprehensive Assessment of Gastric Emptying with a Stable Isotope Breath Test

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Camilleri, Michael; Veil, Erica; Burton, Duane; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2012-01-01

    Background The [13C]-Spirulina platensis gastric emptying breath test (GEBT) with 5 samples is accurate relative to scintigraphy. This study was primarily designed to further validate this GEBT using a slightly different process for incorporating [13C] in Spirulina and to evaluate the utility of additional samples for assessing early gastric emptying. Methods After a 223 kcal test meal labeled with 99mTc and [13C]-Spirulina platensis, scintigraphic images and 5 breath samples (45, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes, GEBT5) were collected in 14 controls (Part A). In Part B, 9 breath samples were collected at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, and 240 minutes (GEBT9) in 30 subjects (15 controls, 15 dyspepsia). Using correlation between [13C] breath excretion and scintigraphic emptying, lag time (t10, time for 10% emptying), emptying at 30 min (GE30), and half time (t50) were estimated for GEBT5 (Parts A and B) and GEBT9 (Part B). Key Results t50 values for scintigraphy, GEBT5, and GEBT9 were highly concordant. t10 by GEBT9 (90% CI, 6–15 minutes) was more strongly correlated (CCC 0.80 [95% CI, 0.63–0.90]) with scintigraphy (90% CI, 5–12 minutes), than GEBT5 (10–19 minutes, CCC 0.73 [95% CI, 0.54–0.85]). The correlation between estimated values (GEBT9) and linearly interpolated values (GEBT5) was closer at 60 (CCC 0.95 [95% CI, 0.91–0.97]) than 30 minutes (CCC 0.81 [95% CI, 0.71–0.89]). Conclusions & Inferences The [13C]-Spirulina platensis GEBT can accurately measure GE. While 5 and 9 samples are equally accurate for measuring t50, GEBT9 provides a more comprehensive assessment of early GE (t10 and GE30). PMID:23216872

  10. Specific adaptation of gastric emptying to diets with differing protein content in the rat: is endogenous cholecystokinin implicated?

    PubMed Central

    Shi, G; Leray, V; Scarpignato, C; Bentouimou, N; Varannes, S; Cherbut, C; Galmiche, J

    1997-01-01

    Background—Recent studies indicate that gastric emptying may be influenced by patterns of previous nutrient intake. Endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK), whose synthesis and release can be affected by dietary intake, has a major role in the regulation of gastric emptying. 
Aims—To evaluate the influence of diets with differing protein content on gastric emptying of differing liquid test meals and plasma CCK levels in the rat and to check whether the inhibitory effect of exogenous CCK on gastric emptying is modified after long term intake of diets with differing protein content. 
Methods—Rats were fed for three weeks with high protein, medium protein (regular), or low protein diet. On day 22 gastric emptying of a peptone meal was studied. In addition, basal and postprandial CCK levels after the different dietary regimens were measured by bioassay. The time course of dietary adaptation was studied and its specificity assessed through the use of different (peptone, glucose, and methylcellulose) test meals. The effect of exogenous CCK-8 on gastric emptying was studied at the end of the adaptation period (three weeks).
Results—Feeding the animals with a high protein diet for three weeks resulted in a significant (p<0.05) acceleration (by 21.2(8.2)%) of gastric emptying while feeding with a low protein diet was followed by a significant (p<0.05) delay (by 24.0 (6.2)%) in the emptying rate. When the time course of the effect of dietary adaptation on gastric emptying was studied, it appeared that at least two weeks are required for dietary protein to be effective. The regulatory effect of dietary protein on gastric emptying proved to be dependent on meal composition. Only the emptying rate of a protein containing meal (40% peptone) was significantly modified by previous dietary intake. No significant (p>0.05) changes were observed with glucose and methylcellulose meals whose emptying rates were similar in rats receiving a high protein or low protein diet. A

  11. Desvenlafaxine succinate ameliorates visceral hypersensitivity but delays solid gastric emptying in rats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fei; Lei, Yong; Li, Shiying; Song, Gengqing; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2013-08-15

    Desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS) is a novel serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DVS on visceral hypersensitivity and solid gastric emptying in a rodent model of gastric hyperalgesia. Twenty-eight gastric hyperalgesia rats and 20 control rats were used. Visceral sensitivity during gastric distention (GD) was assessed by recording of electromyogram (EMG) at pressures of 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg. DVS with doses of 1, 10, and 30 mg/kg were administrated by gavage, 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY-100635, 0.3 mg/kg) was given subcutaneously, and 5-HT2A antagonist (ketanserin, 1 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally. The level of norepinephrine in plasma was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that 1) visceral hypersensitivity induced by acetic acid was validated. 2) DVS dose-dependently reduced visceral hypersensitivity in the gastric hypersensitivity rats. The EMG (% of baseline value without GD) during GD at 60 and 80 mmHg with DVS at a dose of 30 mg/kg were 119.4 ± 2.3% (vs. saline 150.9 ± 2.7%, P < 0.001) and 128.2 ± 3.2% (vs. saline 171.1 ± 2.4%, P < 0.001). Similar findings were observed at a dose of 10 mg/kg. DVS at a dose of 1 mg/kg reduced visceral hypersensitivity only during GD at 60 mmHg. 3) Neither WAY-100635 nor ketanserin blocked the effect of DVS on visceral sensitivity. 4) DVS at 30 mg/kg significantly increased plasma NE level (P = 0.012 vs. saline). 5) DVS at 30 mg/kg significantly delayed solid gastric emptying (P < 0.05 vs. saline). We conclude that DVS reduces visceral sensitivity in a rodent model of visceral hypersensitivity and delays solid gastric emptying. Caution should be made when DVS is used for treating patients.

  12. Comparison of Tc-99m labeled liver and liver pate as markers for solid-phase gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, P.E.; Moore, J.G.; Datz, F.L.

    1984-03-01

    A radionuclide marker for studies of solid-phase gastric emptying should have a high labeling efficiency and remain relatively stable during gastric emptying. The availability of materials and the ease of preparation are also considerations in selecting radionuclide markers. The stability of intracellularly labeled chicken liver, surface-labeled chicken liver, and labeled pureed meat (liver pate) incubated with hydrochloric acid solution or gastric juice have been compared. Intracellularly labeled chicken liver and labeled liver pate were also compared in gastric emptying studies in humans. In vitro results demonstrated labeling efficiencies greater than 92% for both intracellularly labeled liver and labeled liver pate. The pate labeled with Tc-99m sulfur colloid was more stable than Tc-99m surface-labeled liver in vitro and its prepartion was easier than with the intracellular labeling technique. Gastric emptying studies on normal subjects demonstrated equal performance of the intracellularly labeled liver and the labeled liver pate. Labeled liver pate is thus an alternative to intracellularly labeled chicken liver in measuring solid-phase gastric emptying.

  13. Effects of drink carbonation on the gastric emptying characteristics of water and flavored water.

    PubMed

    Zachwieja, J J; Costill, D L; Widrick, J J; Anderson, D E; McConell, G K

    1991-03-01

    The intent of this study was to determine whether adding carbonation to either water or a low calorie sport drink would affect gastric emptying (GE). Fifteen subjects rode for 20 minutes on a cycle ergometer at 55% of max VO2. After 5 minutes of exercise, the subjects ingested 5.5 ml/kg body weight of a test solution: water (W), carbonated water (CW), and a low calorie sport drink in both a carbonated (C2C) and noncarbonated (2C) form. At the end of each ride, the stomach was emptied through gastric aspiration. The results indicate that carbonation has no effect on GE. However, the type of drink did have an effect on GE, as both 2C and C2C emptied from the stomach at a slower rate than either W or CW. Subjective ratings of gastrointestinal comfort were similar for both carbonated and noncarbonated forms, and at no time did the subjects report discomfort. The results were independent of the exercise challenge, as exercise intensity, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion did not differ between experimental trials. It is concluded that carbonation does not affect the GE characteristics of a drink taken during submaximal exercise, but the flavoring system of the low calorie beverage decreased the rate of GE by as much as 25% when compared to water.

  14. Relationships of the early insulin secretory response and oral disposition index with gastric emptying in subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Marathe, Chinmay S; Rayner, Christopher K; Lange, Kylie; Bound, Michelle; Wishart, Judith; Jones, Karen L; Kahn, Steven E; Horowitz, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The oral disposition index, the product of the early insulin secretory response during an oral glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity, is used widely for both the prediction of, and evaluation of the response to interventions, in type 2 diabetes. Gastric emptying, which determines small intestinal exposure of nutrients, modulates postprandial glycemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether the insulin secretory response and the disposition index (DI) related to gastric emptying in subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Thirty-nine subjects consumed a 350 mL drink containing 75 g glucose labeled with (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid. Gastric emptying (by scintigraphy), blood glucose (G) and plasma insulin (I) were measured between t = 0-120 min. The rate of gastric emptying was derived from the time taken for 50% emptying (T50) and expressed as kcal/min. The early insulin secretory response was estimated by the ratio of the change in insulin (∆I0-30) to that of glucose at 30 min (∆G0-30) represented as ∆I0-30/∆G0-30 Insulin sensitivity was estimated as 1/fasting insulin and the DI was then calculated as ∆I0-30/∆G0-30 × 1/fasting insulin. There was a direct relationship between ∆G0-30 and gastric emptying (r = 0.47, P = 0.003). While there was no association of either ∆I0-30 (r = -0.16, P = 0.34) or fasting insulin (r = 0.21, P = 0.20), there were inverse relationships between the early insulin secretory response (r = -0.45, P = 0.004) and the DI (r = -0.33, P = 0.041), with gastric emptying. We conclude that gastric emptying is associated with both insulin secretion and the disposition index in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, such that when gastric emptying is relatively more rapid, both the early insulin secretory response and the disposition index are less. These findings should be interpreted as "hypothesis generating" and provide the rationale for longitudinal studies to examine the impact of baseline

  15. To determine the effect of metoclopramide on gastric emptying in severe head injuries: a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Marino, L V; Kiratu, E M; French, S; Nathoo, N

    2003-02-01

    To determine the effect of 8-hourly administration of 10 mg intravenous metoclopramide, over a 48-h period on gastric emptying in severe head injury (SHI), 22 patients were prospectively randomized (Glasgow Coma Score of 3-8) to receive 2 ml of intravenous metoclopramide or 2 ml of 5% saline 8-hourly for 48 h. Baseline and serial blood paracetamol absorption assays were performed at time (t) = 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min on day 0 and day 2. The area under the curve between the day 0 and day 2 was used to measure the degree of gastric emptying. In SHI, sequential doses of metoclopramide did not appear to improve gastric motility within subject comparisons (p = 0.65) and between subject comparisons (placebo p = 0.4 and drug p = 0.12). Metoclopramide has no significant prokinetic effect on gastric emptying in SHI patients when given in the early postinjury period.

  16. The use of esophageal transit and gastric emptying studies in the evaluation of patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Schuchert, Matthew J; Pettiford, Brian L; Abbas, Ghulam; Oostdyk, Alicia; Landreneau, James R; Kilic, Arman; Landreneau, Joshua P; Luketich, James D; Landreneau, Rodney J

    2010-12-01

    Preservation of esophageal and gastric function is a hallmark principle in ensuring optimal surgical outcomes after gastric fundoplication. In this study, we evaluated the impact of fundoplication on esophageal transit and gastric emptying using scintigraphy studies and related these functional findings to symptomatic outcomes. A total of 106 consecutive patients (37 women, 69 men) with both preoperative and 6-month postoperative nuclear scintigraphy studies undergoing partial (Toupet) fundoplication at a single institution were analyzed. Primary variables included alterations in esophageal transit and gastric emptying times after fundoplication (1 = rapid; 2 = normal; 3 = mild delay; 4 = severe delay). Symptomatic variables included heartburn, regurgitation, dysphagia, pulmonary symptoms, and bloating. Mean age was 57.2 years. Symptomatic improvement was achieved in 91.5% of patients. Significant reduction of all symptoms (heartburn, regurgitation, pulmonary symptoms, and dysphagia) was noted after fundoplication, except gas bloating (4.7 vs. 20.8%). There were no significant differences in preoperative and postoperative esophageal transit (2.53 vs. 2.52) and gastric emptying (2.13 vs. 2.06) scores after fundoplication. Interestingly, 17% of esophageal transit times and 18% of gastric emptying times improved after fundoplication. However, worsening scores were seen in 16 and 12%, respectively. There was no significant postoperative dysphagia, even in patients with impaired transit times. Nuclear scintigraphic assessment of esophageal transit and gastric emptying are valuable, user-friendly tools to identify and avoid functional motility problems in the setting of fundoplication. These studies seem to be a reasonable alternative to manometry in assessing esophageal function before surgery in this setting. Postoperative symptoms may be related to objective changes in esophageal transit or gastric emptying. The causes may be iatrogenic in nature or related to vagal

  17. Gastric Emptying and Curding of Pasteurized Donor Human Milk and Mother's Own Milk in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Perrella, Sharon L; Hepworth, Anna R; Gridneva, Zoya; Simmer, Karen N; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of fortification and composition on gastric emptying and curding in un/fortified pairs of mother's own milk (MOM, n = 17) and pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM, n = 15) in preterm infants. Retained meal proportions (%) and curding were determined from sonography. Immediate and subsequent postprandial % were higher for PDHM (23%, P = 0.026; 15%, P = 0.006) and fortified meals (31.5%; 8.8%, both P < 0.001), whereas higher casein, whey, and lactose concentrations were associated with lower immediate postprandial % (all P < 0.006). Curding did not affect emptying. Influences of fortification, pasteurization, and differing breast milk compositions are small and unlikely implicated in preterm feeding intolerance.

  18. [Effects of acute hypobaric hypoxia on gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion: experiment with rats].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-min; Chen, Ying; Mao, Gao-ping; Ma, Lu-na; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Ying-hui

    2006-09-12

    To investigate the impact of acute hypobaric hypoxia on the gastrointestinal motility. Eighty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups to be fed with (99)Tc(m)-labeled test food: ground level control group, put in the hypobaric chamber for 30 minutes; 3000 m simulated altitude group, exposed to the environment of simulated altitude of 3000 m for 30 minutes; 5000 m simulated altitude group, exposed to the environment of simulated altitude of 5000 m for 30 minutes; and mosapride + 5000 m simulated altitude group, fed with mosapride 2 mg/kg by perfusing stomach and fed with isotope-labeled test food 30 minutes later, and then exposed to 5000 m simulated altitude for 30 minutes. By the end of experiment the rats were killed, their stomachs were taken out to calculate the gastric emptying rate. Their intestine from pylorus to ileocecum was taken out to measure the intestinal propulsion function by using charcoal particle method. At the beginning and at the end of experiment abdominal arterial blood samples were collected to detect the plasma motilin and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations. The gastric emptying rate of the 5000 m simulated altitude group was 41% +/- 10%, significantly lower than that of the ground level group (62% +/- 12%, P < 0.01), and the charcoal transit rate of the 5000 m simulated altitude group was 37% +/- 8%, significantly lower than that of the ground level group (61% +/- 13%, P < 0.01). The gastric emptying rate and intestine propulsion rate of the 3000 m simulated altitude group were not significantly different from those of the ground level group. The gastric emptying rate of the mosapride + 5000 m simulated altitude group was 55% +/- 12%, significantly higher than that of the 5000 m simulated altitude group (P < 0.05), however, the intestine propulsion rate of the mosapride + 5000 m simulated altitude group was not significantly different from that of the 5000 m simulated altitude group (P > 0.05). The plasma motilin level of the

  19. A two-component nonlinear mixed effects model for longitudinal data, with application to gastric emptying studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Inyoung; Cohen, Noah D; Roussel, Allen; Wang, Naisyin

    2010-07-30

    Gastric emptying studies are of great interest in human and veterinary medical research to evaluate effects of medications or diets for promoting gastrointestinal motility and to examine unintended side-effects of new or existing medications, diets, or procedures. Summarizing gastric emptying data is important to allow easier comparison between treatments or groups of subjects and comparisons of results among studies. The standard method for assessing gastric emptying is by using scintigraphy and summarizing the nonlinear emptying of the radioisotope. A popular model for fitting gastric emptying data is the power exponential model. This model can only describes a globally decreasing pattern and thus has the limitation of poorly describing localized intragastric events that can occur during emptying. Hence, we develop a new model for gastric emptying studies to improve population and individual inferences using a mixture of nonlinear mixed effects models. One mixture component is based on a power exponential model which captures globally decreasing patterns. The other is based on a locally extended power exponential model which captures both local bumping and rapid decay. We refer to this mixture model as a two-component nonlinear mixed effects model. The parameters in our model have clear graphical interpretations that provide a more accurate representation and summary of the curves of gastric emptying pattern. Two methods are developed to fit our proposed model: one is the mixture of an Expectation Maximization algorithm and a global two-stage method and the other is the mixture of an Expectation Maximization algorithm and the Monte Carlo Expectation Maximization algorithm. We compare our methods using simulation, showing that the two approaches are comparable to one another. For estimating the variance and covariance matrix, the second approach appears approximately more efficient and is also numerically more stable in some cases. Our new model and approaches are

  20. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    SciTech Connect

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-03

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  1. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs(1-3).

    PubMed

    Bauchart-Thevret, Caroline; Stoll, Barbara; Benight, Nancy M; Olutoye, Oluyinka; Lazar, David; Burrin, Douglas G

    2013-05-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs received partial enteral nutrition (25%) as milk-based formula supplemented with MSG at 0, 1.7, 3.0, and 4.3 times the basal protein-bound glutamate intake (468 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) from d 4 to 8 of life (n = 5-8). Whole-body respiratory calorimetry and (13)C-octanoic acid breath tests were performed on d 4, 6, and 8. Body weight gain, stomach and intestinal weights, and arterial plasma glutamate and glutamine concentrations were not different among the MSG groups. Arterial plasma glutamate concentrations were significantly higher at birth than after 8 d of partial enteral nutrition. Also at d 8, the significant portal-arterial concentration difference in plasma glutamate was substantial (∼500 μmol/L) among all treatment groups, suggesting that there was substantial net intestinal glutamate absorption in preterm pigs. MSG supplementation dose-dependently increased gastric emptying time and decreased breath (13)CO2 enrichments, (13)CO2 production, percentage of (13)CO2 recovery/h, and cumulative percentage recovery of (13)C-octanoic acid. Circulating glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) concentration was significantly increased by MSG but was not associated with an increase in intestinal mucosal growth. In contrast to our hypothesis, our results suggest that adding MSG to partial enteral nutrition slows the gastric emptying rate, which may be associated with an inhibitory effect of increased circulating GLP-2.

  2. Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on gastric emptying and incretin hormone release in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Bellon, Max; Wishart, Judith M.; Young, Richard; Blackshaw, L. Ashley; Jones, Karen L.; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K.

    2009-01-01

    The incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), play an important role in glucose homeostasis in both health and diabetes. In mice, sucralose, an artificial sweetener, stimulates GLP-1 release via sweet taste receptors on enteroendocrine cells. We studied blood glucose, plasma levels of insulin, GLP-1, and GIP, and gastric emptying (by a breath test) in 7 healthy humans after intragastric infusions of 1) 50 g sucrose in water to a total volume of 500 ml (∼290 mosmol/l), 2) 80 mg sucralose in 500 ml normal saline (∼300 mosmol/l, 0.4 mM sucralose), 3) 800 mg sucralose in 500 ml normal saline (∼300 mosmol/l, 4 mM sucralose), and 4) 500 ml normal saline (∼300 mosmol/l), all labeled with 150 mg 13C-acetate. Blood glucose increased only in response to sucrose (P < 0.05). GLP-1, GIP, and insulin also increased after sucrose (P = 0.0001) but not after either load of sucralose or saline. Gastric emptying of sucrose was slower than that of saline (t50: 87.4 ± 4.1 min vs. 74.7 ± 3.2 min, P < 0.005), whereas there were no differences in t50 between sucralose 0.4 mM (73.7 ± 3.1 min) or 4 mM (76.7 ± 3.1 min) and saline. We conclude that sucralose, delivered by intragastric infusion, does not stimulate insulin, GLP-1, or GIP release or slow gastric emptying in healthy humans. PMID:19221011

  3. Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on gastric emptying and incretin hormone release in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Bellon, Max; Wishart, Judith M; Young, Richard; Blackshaw, L Ashley; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K

    2009-04-01

    The incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), play an important role in glucose homeostasis in both health and diabetes. In mice, sucralose, an artificial sweetener, stimulates GLP-1 release via sweet taste receptors on enteroendocrine cells. We studied blood glucose, plasma levels of insulin, GLP-1, and GIP, and gastric emptying (by a breath test) in 7 healthy humans after intragastric infusions of 1) 50 g sucrose in water to a total volume of 500 ml (approximately 290 mosmol/l), 2) 80 mg sucralose in 500 ml normal saline (approximately 300 mosmol/l, 0.4 mM sucralose), 3) 800 mg sucralose in 500 ml normal saline (approximately 300 mosmol/l, 4 mM sucralose), and 4) 500 ml normal saline (approximately 300 mosmol/l), all labeled with 150 mg 13C-acetate. Blood glucose increased only in response to sucrose (P<0.05). GLP-1, GIP, and insulin also increased after sucrose (P=0.0001) but not after either load of sucralose or saline. Gastric emptying of sucrose was slower than that of saline (t50: 87.4+/-4.1 min vs. 74.7+/-3.2 min, P<0.005), whereas there were no differences in t50 between sucralose 0.4 mM (73.7+/-3.1 min) or 4 mM (76.7+/-3.1 min) and saline. We conclude that sucralose, delivered by intragastric infusion, does not stimulate insulin, GLP-1, or GIP release or slow gastric emptying in healthy humans.

  4. Spectrum of gastric emptying patterns in adult patients with cyclic vomiting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, R A; Lavenbarg, T H; McCallum, R W

    2010-12-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) in adults is a disorder characterized by recurrent and stereotypic episodes of severe nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain separated by symptom-free intervals. Both rapid and delayed gastric emptying (GE) have been observed but the reports involved small numbers of CVS patients. We performed a retrospective study of 92 adult patients who met Rome Ш diagnostic criteria for CVS between 2003 and 2009 at the Kansas University Medical Center. Gastric emptying was measured by a standardized scintigraphic method involving a low fat (2%) isotope labeled egg white meal of 250 Kcal, with anterior and posterior gastric imaging in the standing position obtained at 0, 1, 2, 4 h after meal ingestion. Rapid GE was defined as <50% isotope retention at 1st h and/or <30% at 2nd h and delayed GE as >10% at 4 h. Ninety two patients were analyzed: 47 males and 45 females mean of age 37 ± 12 years (range: 20-68 years). There were 27 patients with a personal history of migraine headache, 30 with history of marijuana use, 12 had diabetes mellitus (DM) and 10 had irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) as an accompanying diagnosis. Fifty four patients (59%) met criteria for rapid GE, 25 (27%) had normal GE and 13 (14%) had slow GE. Eighty percent of patients with co-existing IBS symptoms were identified as rapid. The subset with delayed emptying was often associated with narcotics use, DM and marijuana use (P < 0.05). (i) In adult CVS patients, GE is generally either rapid or normal. (ii) Cyclic vomiting syndrome is an important new etiology to explain the finding of rapid GE on a radionuclide test. (iii) The small subset of CVS patients (14%) whose GE was slow were explained by the role of narcotics and/or marijuana. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The effect of gluten on intestinal fermentation, gastric and gallbladder emptying in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Michele; Carnevale Maffè, Gabriella; Bergonzi, Manuela; Mengoli, Caterina; Formagnana, Pietro; Di Sabatino, Antonio; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between gluten ingestion and gastrointestinal tract function is a matter of debate. We analysed the effect of gluten on gastric and gallbladder emptying and intestinal fermentation in healthy volunteers. Ultrasound measurement of gastric and gallbladder emptying after both gluten-containing and gluten-free meals was performed in 18 volunteers (8 women, age 25.0±2.5 years; BMI 22±1.9). Breath hydrogen excretion after a gluten-containing meal, a gluten-free meal and a gluten-free meal with added gluten powder was measured in 16 volunteers (10 women, age 25.2±2.7 years; BMI 22±1.8). The severity of symptoms was monitored. Gluten presence in the meals was not recognised. Gastric emptying time was 81.6±13.8min after gluten-containing and 73.9±21.6min after gluten-free meals (p=0.11). Percentage ejection fraction after gluten-containing meals was 60±9% and 60.6±6% after gluten-free meals (p=0.68). Peak and cumulative hydrogen excretion were significantly higher after gluten-containing than after gluten-free meals (peak: 12.5±7.3 vs 6.5±5.1 parts-per-million, p<0.01; and cumulative: 2319±1720 vs 989±680 parts-per-million/minute, respectively; p<0.01). Adding gluten powder to the gluten-free meal did not modify fermentation. Symptoms were mild and not different after the meals. In healthy volunteers, gluten may induce gastrointestinal alterations. Further studies are needed to clarify which patients could benefit from dietary modification. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  7. Semimechanistic model describing gastric emptying and glucose absorption in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Alskär, Oskar; Bagger, Jonatan I; Røge, Rikke M; Knop, Filip K; Karlsson, Mats O; Vilsbøll, Tina; Kjellsson, Maria C

    2016-03-01

    The integrated glucose-insulin (IGI) model is a previously published semimechanistic model that describes plasma glucose and insulin concentrations after glucose challenges. The aim of this work was to use knowledge of physiology to improve the IGI model's description of glucose absorption and gastric emptying after tests with varying glucose doses. The developed model's performance was compared to empirical models. To develop our model, data from oral and intravenous glucose challenges in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy control subjects were used together with present knowledge of small intestinal transit time, glucose inhibition of gastric emptying, and saturable absorption of glucose over the epithelium to improve the description of gastric emptying and glucose absorption in the IGI model. Duodenal glucose was found to inhibit gastric emptying. The performance of the saturable glucose absorption was superior to linear absorption regardless of the gastric emptying model applied. The semiphysiological model developed performed better than previously published empirical models and allows better understanding of the mechanisms underlying glucose absorption. In conclusion, our new model provides a better description and improves the understanding of dynamic glucose tests involving oral glucose.

  8. Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Darwiche, Gassan; Björgell, Ola; Almér, Lars-Olof

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous studies on healthy people show that vinegar delays gastric emptying and lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying rate on diabetes mellitus patients. Methods Ten patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic gastroparesis, including one patient who had undergone vagotomy, were included and completed the investigator blinded crossover trial. The gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured using standardized real-time ultrasonography. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water (GER1), or 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water with 30 ml apple cider vinegar (GER2). The subjects drank 200 ml water daily before breakfast one week before the measurement of GER1. The same subjects drank 200 ml water with 30 ml vinegar daily before breakfast for two weeks before the measurement of GER2. Results The median values of GER1 and GER2 were 27% and 17%, respectively. The effect of vinegar on the rate of gastric emptying was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study shows that vinegar affects insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic gastroparesis by reducing the gastric emptying rate even further, and this might be a disadvantage regarding to their glycaemic control. Trial registration number ISRCTN33841495. PMID:18093343

  9. Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Darwiche, Gassan; Björgell, Ola; Almér, Lars-Olof

    2007-12-20

    Previous studies on healthy people show that vinegar delays gastric emptying and lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying rate on diabetes mellitus patients. Ten patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic gastroparesis, including one patient who had undergone vagotomy, were included and completed the investigator blinded crossover trial. The gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured using standardized real-time ultrasonography. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water (GER1), or 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water with 30 ml apple cider vinegar (GER2). The subjects drank 200 ml water daily before breakfast one week before the measurement of GER1. The same subjects drank 200 ml water with 30 ml vinegar daily before breakfast for two weeks before the measurement of GER2. The median values of GER1 and GER2 were 27% and 17%, respectively. The effect of vinegar on the rate of gastric emptying was statistically significant (p < 0.05). This study shows that vinegar affects insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic gastroparesis by reducing the gastric emptying rate even further, and this might be a disadvantage regarding to their glycaemic control. ISRCTN33841495.

  10. [The effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on the gastric emptying of rats: a pretreatment evaluation using dexamethasone and methylene blue].

    PubMed

    Collares, Edgard Ferro; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes

    2003-01-01

    The nitric oxide might be a putative mediator of the decrease in gastric emptying induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in rats. For that, we evaluated the effect of the pretreatment intravenous with dexamethasone and methylene blue in the retardation process of gastric emptying induced by intravenous application of lipopolysaccharide in rats. Dexamethasone has been shown to inhibit the induction of NOS II (induced NO-synthase) while the methylene blue, that blocks the soluble guanylyl cyclase, inhibits nitric oxide synthases and, in addition, inactivates nitric oxide directly. Male Wistar rats, specific patogenic free, were used after a 24 hour fast and 1 hour-water withdrawn. The pretreatment was performed using dexamethasone solutions (3 and 6 mg/kg), methylene blue (2 mg/kg) or sterile vehicle. The treatment consisted in the application of lipopolysaccharide (50 mug/kg) or vehicle. The time period between the pretreatment and treatment was 10 minutes, excluding the study with dexamethasone 6 mg/kg that was 1 hour. The gastric emptying was evaluated 1 hour after the lipopolysaccharide application, except for two studies with dexamethasone 3 mg/kg in which the time periods were 2 and 8 hours. A saline solution containing phenol red was used as the test meal. The gastric emptying was determined by measuring gastric retention 10 minutes after the orogastric infusion of the test meal. The pretreatment with dexamethasone or methylene blue and treatment with vehicle did not have effect in the gastric emptying comparing to the control group. We found that pretreatment with dexamethasone in the studies for 1 hour and 2 hours did not interfere in the retardation of the gastric emptying produced by endotoxin. Nevertheless, in the eighth period study with this drug there was a significant reduction of gastric retention in the endotoxin-treated animals in relation to the unpretreated ones. Meanwhile, the pretreatment with the methylene blue completely blocked the action

  11. Gastric Emptying During Exercise: Effects of Acute Heat Stress, Acclimation and Hypohydration,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    P D NEUFER ET AL OCT 87 F/ 6ll / U E//E///EEEEI/EEl.."/ ;Ii’o~’" own~ a.- Uclas Oi i SECURIr" CLAssifraiA% FILE ATION PAGE om oATIONPAGEOMO NO 0704...Gastric emptying during exercise: effects of acute heat stress, acclimation and hypohydration 12 PERSONA TSfi Neufer , Andrew J. Young and Michael N...RPT " DTIC USERS Unclas 22a NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 22c OFFICE SYMBOL P. Darrell Neufer 617-651-4834 SGRD-UE

  12. Conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, N.; Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (<20 min) and coveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  13. A conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, N.; Swanson, D.; Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (less than 20 min) and conveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  14. NMDA Receptors of Gastric-Projecting Neurons in the Dorsal Motor Nucleus of the Vagus Mediate the Regulation of Gastric Emptying by EA at Weishu (BL21).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Cheng, Bin; Jing, Xianghong; Qiao, Yongfa; Gao, Xinyan; Yu, Huijuan; Zhu, Bing; Qiao, Haifa

    2012-01-01

    A large number of studies have been conducted to explore the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) for the treatment of gastrointestinal motility. While several lines of evidence addressed the basic mechanism of EA on gastrointestinal motility regarding effects of limb and abdomen points, the mechanism for effects of the back points on gastric motility still remains unclear. Here we report that the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist kynurenic acid inhibited the gastric emptying increase induced by high-intensity EA at BL21 and agonist NMDA enhanced the effect of the same treatment. EA at BL21 enhanced NMDAR, but not AMPA receptor (AMPAR) component of miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) in gastric-projecting neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). In sum, our data demonstrate an important role of NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission of gastric-projecting DMV neurons in mediating EA at BL21-induced enhancement of gastric emptying.

  15. Neural Mechanisms and Delayed Gastric Emptying of Liquid Induced Through Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Wilson Ranu Ramirez; Ozaki, Michiko Regina; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Collares, Edgard Ferro; de Almeida, Eros Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background In pathological situations, such as acute myocardial infarction, disorders of motility of the proximal gut can trigger symptoms like nausea and vomiting. Acute myocardial infarction delays gastric emptying (GE) of liquid in rats. Objective Investigate the involvement of the vagus nerve, α 1-adrenoceptors, central nervous system GABAB receptors and also participation of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in GE and gastric compliance (GC) in infarcted rats. Methods Wistar rats, N = 8-15 in each group, were divided as INF group and sham (SH) group and subdivided. The infarction was performed through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. GC was estimated with pressure-volume curves. Vagotomy was performed by sectioning the dorsal and ventral branches. To verify the action of GABAB receptors, baclofen was injected via icv (intracerebroventricular). Intravenous prazosin was used to produce chemical sympathectomy. The lesion in the PVN of the hypothalamus was performed using a 1mA/10s electrical current and GE was determined by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (% GR) of a saline meal. Results No significant differences were observed regarding GC between groups; vagotomy significantly reduced % GR in INF group; icv treatment with baclofen significantly reduced %GR. GABAB receptors were not conclusively involved in delaying GE; intravenous treatment with prazosin significantly reduced GR% in INF group. PVN lesion abolished the effect of myocardial infarction on GE. Conclusion Gastric emptying of liquids induced through acute myocardial infarction in rats showed the involvement of the vagus nerve, alpha1- adrenergic receptors and PVN. PMID:25494017

  16. Enhancement of intragastric acid stability of a fat emulsion meal delays gastric emptying and increases cholecystokinin release and gallbladder contraction.

    PubMed

    Marciani, Luca; Wickham, Martin; Singh, Gulzar; Bush, Debbie; Pick, Barbara; Cox, Eleanor; Fillery-Travis, Annette; Faulks, Richard; Marsden, Charles; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C

    2007-06-01

    Preprocessed fatty foods often contain calories added as a fat emulsion stabilized by emulsifiers. Emulsion stability in the acidic gastric environment can readily be manipulated by altering emulsifier chemistry. We tested the hypothesis that it would be possible to control gastric emptying, CCK release, and satiety by varying intragastric fat emulsion stability. Nine healthy volunteers received a test meal on two occasions, comprising a 500-ml 15% oil emulsion with 2.5% of one of two emulsifiers that produced emulsions that were either stable (meal A) or unstable (meal B) in the acid gastric environment. Gastric emptying and gallbladder volume changes were assessed by MRI. CCK plasma levels were measured and satiety scores were recorded. Meal B layered rapidly owing to fat emulsion breakdown. The gastric half-emptying time of the aqueous phase was faster for meal B (72 +/- 13 min) than for meal A (171 +/- 35 min, P < 0.008). Meal A released more CCK than meal B (integrated areas, respectively 1,095 +/- 244 and 531 +/- 111 pmol.min.l(-1), P < 0.02), induced a greater gallbladder contraction (P < 0.02), and decreased postprandial appetite (P < 0.05), although no significant differences were observed in fullness and hunger. We conclude that acid-stable emulsions delayed gastric emptying and increased postprandial CCK levels and gallbladder contraction, whereas acid-instability led to rapid layering of fat in the gastric lumen with accelerated gastric emptying, lower CCK levels, and reduced gallbladder contraction. Manipulation of the acid stability of fat emulsion added to preprocessed foods could maximize satiety signaling and, in turn, help to reduce overconsumption of calories.

  17. Weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a South American herbal preparation in overweight patients.

    PubMed

    Andersen, T; Fogh, J

    2001-06-01

    Obesity and overweight may soon affect more than half of the population in some regions of the world and are associated with diabetes, hypertension and other diseases that cause morbidity, mortality and high health-care expenditure. No one approach, whether dietetic management, medication, or commercial weight loss programme, can alone solve the problem--all potential treatments need to be investigated and exploited. Among the herbal preparations known to non-western cultures are materials which may have applications in modulating physiological processes which influence gut motility, food intake and energy balance. One such mixed herbal preparation is 'YGD' containing Yerbe Maté (leaves of Ilex paraguayenis), Guarana (seeds of Paullinia cupana) and Damiana (leaves of Turnera diffusa var. aphrodisiaca). This study had two distinct aims: to determine the effect of a herbal preparation 'YGD' containing Yerbe Maté, Guarana and Damiana on gastric emptying; to determine the effect of the same preparation on weight loss over 10 days and 45 days and weight maintenance over 12 months. Gastric emptying was observed using ultrasound scanning in seven healthy volunteers following YGD and placebo capsules taken with 420 mL apple juice. Body weight was observed before and after 10 days of treatment with three YGD capsules or three placebo capsules before each meal for 10 days in 44 healthy overweight patients attending a primary health care centre. Forty-seven healthy overweight patients entered a double-blind placebo-controlled parallel trial of three capsules of YGD capsules before each main meal for 45 days compared with three placebo capsules on body weight. Body weight was monitored in 22 patients who continued active (YGD capsules) treatment for 12 months. The herb preparation YGD was followed by a prolonged gastric emptying time of 58 +/- 15 min compared to 38 +/- 7.6 min after placebo (P = 0.025). Body weight reductions were 0.8 +/- 0.05 kg after YGD capsules compared

  18. Histamine delays gastric emptying of solid food in man through histamine, receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Sridhar, K.; Lange, R.; McCallum, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have shown that histamine (H) contracts the cat pylorus and duodenum through H/sub 1/ receptor mechanisms. The authors investigated the effect of H infusion on gastric emptying (GE) and the role of H/sub 1/ and H/sub 2/ receptor blockade in healthy volunteers. Radionuclide GE studies were performed using chicken liver labeled in vivo with /sup 99m/Technetium-sulfur colloid as a marker of solid food. Study days were as follows: a baseline GE study (Day 1); H infused continuously IV at a rate of 40 ..mu..g/kg/hr during the GE study (Day 2); an IV bolus of 50 mg of diphenhydramine (Day 3), or 300 mg cimetidine (Day 4) given just prior to the continuous infusion of H; a final day when cimetidine was given alone (Day 5). GE was monitored for 2 hours on each day. The results of days 1, 2 and 3 are summarized below (+p<0.05 vs baseline or Day 1). Pretreatment with cimetidine (Day 4) augmented the delay in GE induced by H infusion, while cimetidine without H (Day 5) had no effect on GE. The authors conclude that: 1) H given at a dose which elicits maximal acid secretory response in man significantly delays GE; and 2) H/sub 1/ receptor blockade but not H/sub 2/ blockade prevented this effect. Histamine may play a modulatory role in human gastric emptying through an H/sub 1/ receptor mechanism.

  19. Energy and macronutrient composition of breakfast affect gastric emptying of lunch and subsequent food intake, satiety and satiation.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Miriam; Shafat, Amir

    2010-06-01

    Satiety and food intake are closely related to gastrointestinal transit and specifically gastric emptying. High-fat (HF) meals empty more slowly from the stomach yet are less satiating than isoenergetic low-fat (LF) meals. The current study examines how gastric emptying and satiety at lunch are affected by energy and macronutrient content of breakfast. Nine male volunteers consumed either (1) a HF breakfast, (2) a LF breakfast isoenergetic to HF (LFE) or (3) a LF breakfast of equal mass to HF (LFM). Gastric emptying half time measured using the sodium [(13)C] acetate breath test was delayed after HF compared to LF meals (HF: 102 + or - 11, LFE: 96 + or - 13, LFM: 95 + or - 13 min, mean + or - SD). Fullness increased and desire to eat decreased following the LFE breakfast measured using visual analogue scales. Eating a HF breakfast increased the energy, fat and protein from an ad libitum buffet meal given 4h after lunch. In conclusion, eating a HF breakfast delayed gastric emptying of lunch and increased food intake 7 h later compared to a LFM breakfast. These data suggest both mass and energy content of food regulate subsequent appetite and feeding and demonstrate the hyperphagic effect of a single HF meal.

  20. Gastric emptying of oil and aqueous meal components in pancreatic insufficiency: effects of posture and on appetite.

    PubMed

    Carney, B I; Jones, K L; Horowitz, M; Sun, W M; Penagini, R; Meyer, J H

    1995-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of posture on gastric emptying, intragastric distribution, and satiation after a meal containing oil and aqueous phases in patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Five patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) consumed 60 ml 99mTc-labeled (V)-thiocyanate olive oil and 290 ml 113mIn-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid soup while sitting and while lying in the left lateral decubitus position. Hunger and fullness before and after the meal were recorded. Results were compared with those obtained in 11 normal volunteers. In both postures emptying of oil was faster (P < 0.01) in CF patients. Emptying of the aqueous phase was faster (P < 0.01) in CF patients in the decubitus position. In normal subjects there was no overall difference in emptying of oil between the two postures, whereas emptying of the aqueous phase was delayed (P < 0.01) in the decubitus position. In CF patients emptying of oil was faster (P < 0.01) in the decubitus position, and emptying of the aqueous phase was only slightly faster (P < 0.05) in the sitting position. For both postures there was greater retention (P < 0.05) of oil in the proximal stomach in normal subjects than CF patients. Hunger decreased (P < 0.05) after the meal in the control subjects, but there was no change in CF patients. These results indicate that in CF patients with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency 1) gastric emptying of nonhomogenized fat is faster than normal, 2) gravity affects gastric emptying of oil, and 3) effects of a fatty meal on hunger are reduced.

  1. A new flexible plug and play scheme for modeling, simulating, and predicting gastric emptying

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In-silico models that attempt to capture and describe the physiological behavior of biological organisms, including humans, are intrinsically complex and time consuming to build and simulate in a computing environment. The level of detail of description incorporated in the model depends on the knowledge of the system’s behavior at that level. This knowledge is gathered from the literature and/or improved by knowledge obtained from new experiments. Thus model development is an iterative developmental procedure. The objective of this paper is to describe a new plug and play scheme that offers increased flexibility and ease-of-use for modeling and simulating physiological behavior of biological organisms. Methods This scheme requires the modeler (user) first to supply the structure of the interacting components and experimental data in a tabular format. The behavior of the components described in a mathematical form, also provided by the modeler, is externally linked during simulation. The advantage of the plug and play scheme for modeling is that it requires less programming effort and can be quickly adapted to newer modeling requirements while also paving the way for dynamic model building. Results As an illustration, the paper models the dynamics of gastric emptying behavior experienced by humans. The flexibility to adapt the model to predict the gastric emptying behavior under varying types of nutrient infusion in the intestine (ileum) is demonstrated. The predictions were verified with a human intervention study. The error in predicting the half emptying time was found to be less than 6%. Conclusions A new plug-and-play scheme for biological systems modeling was developed that allows changes to the modeled structure and behavior with reduced programming effort, by abstracting the biological system into a network of smaller sub-systems with independent behavior. In the new scheme, the modeling and simulation becomes an automatic machine readable and

  2. Longer oral exposure with modified sham feeding does not slow down gastric emptying of low- and high-energy-dense gastric loads in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Wijlens, Anne G M; Erkner, Alfrun; Mars, Monica; de Graaf, Cees

    2015-02-01

    A long oral exposure to food and a high-energy density of food have been shown to increase satiety feelings. The effect of energy density is predominantly caused by an inhibition of gastric emptying. It is hypothesized that prolonging oral exposure may have an additional effect on this inhibition of gastric emptying. However, little human data are available to support this hypothesis. The objective was to assess the effect of the duration of oral exposure to food on gastric emptying rate of gastric loads (GLs) low and high in energy density and on satiety feelings. Twenty-six healthy men [mean ± SD age: 22 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 1] participated in a randomized crossover trial with 4 treatments and a control. Treatments consisted of either 1- or 8-min modified sham feeding (MSF) of cake, and a GL of either 100 or 700 kcal infused in the stomach via a nasogastric tube (500 mL, 62.5 mL/min). The control consisted of no MSF and a GL of 500 mL of water. Gastric emptying rate was assessed with a (13)C breath test. Breath samples and satiety feelings were collected at fixed time points until 90 min after start of the treatment. Gastric emptying rate and satiety feelings were not affected by duration of MSF (P ≥ 0.27). However, the 700-kcal GL treatments slowed gastric emptying [41% lower area under the curve (AUC)] and increased satiety feelings (22-31% higher AUC) compared with the 100-kcal GL treatments (P < 0.001). No interaction between MSF duration and energy density of GL was found (P ≥ 0.44). Higher gastric energy density inhibited gastric emptying and increased satiety feelings in healthy young men. However, prolonging oral exposure to food did not have an additional effect. This study provides more insight in satiety regulation. This trial was registered at trialregister.nl as NTR3601. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Empty calories and phantom fullness: a randomized trial studying the relative effects of energy density and viscosity on gastric emptying determined by MRI and satiety.

    PubMed

    Camps, Guido; Mars, Monica; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul Am

    2016-07-01

    Stomach fullness is a determinant of satiety. Although both the viscosity and energy content have been shown to delay gastric emptying, their relative importance is not well understood. We compared the relative effects of and interactions between the viscosity and energy density on gastric emptying and perceived satiety. A total of 15 healthy men [mean ± SD age: 22.6 ± 2.4 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.6 ± 1.8] participated in an experiment with a randomized 2 × 2 crossover design. Participants received dairy-based shakes (500 mL; 50% carbohydrate, 20% protein, and 30% fat) that differed in viscosity (thin and thick) and energy density [100 kcal (corresponding to 0.2 kcal/mL) compared with 500 kcal (corresponding to 1 kcal/mL)]. After ingestion, participants entered an MRI scanner where abdominal scans and oral appetite ratings on a 100-point scale were obtained every 10 min until 90 min after ingestion. From the scans, gastric content volumes were determined. Overall, the gastric emptying half-time (GE t50) was 54.7 ± 3.8 min. The thin 100-kcal shake had the lowest GE t50 of 26.5 ± 3.0 min, followed by the thick 100-kcal shake with a GE t50 of 41 ± 3.9 min and the thin 500-kcal shake with a GE t50 of 69.5 ± 5.9 min, and the thick 500-kcal shake had the highest GE t50 of 81.9 ± 8.3 min. With respect to appetite, the thick 100-kcal shake led to higher fullness (58 points at 40 min) than the thin 500-kcal shake (48 points at 40 min). Our results show that increasing the viscosity is less effective than increasing the energy density in slowing gastric emptying. However, the viscosity is more important to increase the perceived fullness. These results underscore the lack of the satiating efficiency of empty calories in quickly ingested drinks such as sodas. The increase in perceived fullness that is due solely to the increased viscosity, which is a phenomenon that we refer to as phantom fullness, may be useful in lowering energy intake. This trial was

  4. Egg labeling methods for gastric emptying scintigraphy are not equivalent in producing a stable solid meal.

    PubMed

    Knight, Linda C; Kantor, Steven; Doma, Siva; Parkman, Henry P; Maurer, Alan H

    2007-11-01

    A wide range of radiolabeled test meals have been used for gastric emptying scintigraphy. The purpose of this study was to test whether (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid-labeled liquid egg white is as stable as 2 fresh whole eggs labeled with (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid and whether the cooking method is important. Whole eggs and liquid egg white were mixed with (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid and cooked by either microwaving or frying on a griddle. The cooked eggs were tested for breakdown after 2 and 4 h of incubation in gastric fluid or HCl. Labeled liquid egg white, prepared by either method of cooking, exhibited less breakdown in gastric fluid than whole eggs. Whole eggs cooked in the microwave exhibited significantly more breakdown than liquid egg white. (99m)Tc-Sulfur colloid binds better to egg whites compared with whole eggs. These results emphasize the need to evaluate the stability of new radiolabeled test meal preparations, including the method of cooking.

  5. The effects of a carbonated carbohydrate drink on gastric emptying, gastrointestinal distress, and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Zachwieja, J J; Costill, D L; Beard, G C; Robergs, R A; Pascoe, D D; Anderson, D E

    1992-09-01

    To determine the effect of a carbonated carbohydrate (CHO) drink on gastric function and exercise performance, eight male cyclists completed four 120-min bouts of cycling. Each bout consisted of a 105-min ride at 70% VO2max followed by a 15-min self-paced performance ride. During each trial, one of four test solutions was ingested: carbonated CHO (C-10%), noncarbonated CHO (NC-10%), carbonated non-CHO (C), and noncarbonated non-CHO (NC). Following the performance ride, the subjects had their stomach contents removed by aspiration. There were no significant differences in gastric emptying (GE) except for Trial C-10%, which averaged 13.3% less than NC. However, there was no difference in the perception of gastrointestinal comfort between this trial and any other. Average power output during the performance ride was not significantly different between carbonated and noncarbonated trials, or between CHO-fed and no-CHO trials; however, the subjects worked at a greater intensity when fed CHO. Finally, acid base status did not change when a carbonated drink was ingested. This indicates that adding carbonation to a sport drink does not significantly alter gastric function, the perception of GI comfort, or exercise performance.

  6. Natural sweetener agave inhibits gastric emptying in rats by a cholecystokinin-2- and glucagon like peptide-1 receptor-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bihter Gürler, E; Özbeyli, Dilek; Buzcu, Hülya; Bayraktar, Sezin; Carus, İrem; Dağ, Beyza; Geriş, Yasemin; Jeral, Seda; Yeğen, Berrak Ç

    2017-02-22

    Low-calorie sweeteners are considered to be beneficial in calorie control, but the impact of these sweeteners on gastric emptying is not well described. The purpose of this study was to compare the gastric emptying rate of agave nectar with those of glucose and fructose, and to evaluate the interaction of cholecystokinin (CCK)-1, CCK-2 and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors in agave-induced alterations in gastric emptying. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with gastric cannulas. Following the recovery, the gastric emptying rates of glucose, fructose and agave at 12.5%, 15% or 50% concentrations were measured and compared with that of saline. GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin fragment 9-39 (30 μg kg(-1)), CCK-1 receptor antagonist devazepide (1 mg kg(-1)) or gastrin/CCK-2 receptor antagonist YM022 (1 mg kg(-1)) was injected subcutaneously 1 min before the emptying of glucose, fructose or agave at their 50% concentrations. When compared with saline emptying, gastric emptying of glucose was significantly delayed at its 25% and 50% concentrations, but the emptying of 12.5% glucose was not different from that of saline. Agave emptying, which was delayed with respect to saline emptying, was not altered by CCK-1 receptor blockade; but agave emptied from the stomach as rapidly as saline following the blockade of either CCK-2 or GLP-1 receptors. The findings demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of agave on gastric emptying is mediated by both CCK-2 and GLP-1 receptors, suggesting that natural sweeteners including agave may have satiating effects through the inhibition of gastric motility via enteroendocrine mechanisms.

  7. Comparison of technetium-99m sulfur colloid and technetium-99m albumin colloid labeled solid meals for gastric emptying studies.

    PubMed

    Taillefer, R; Douesnard, J M; Beauchamp, G; Guimond, J

    1987-08-01

    A Tc-99m albumin colloid (Tc-AC) kit has been introduced as an alternative to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) for liver-spleen imaging. Since there is no need for boiling, the use of Tc-AC reduces preparation time and manipulation. Tc-SC is one of the most commonly used radiopharmaceuticals for the labeling of solid-phase markers in gastric emptying studies. In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the labeling efficiency and stability in hydrochloric acid and in human gastric juice of intracellularly labeled chicken liver and scrambled eggs labeled with Tc-SC and Tc-AC. Gastric emptying studies also were performed on 20 healthy volunteers with both Tc-SC and Tc-AC labeled scrambled egg sandwiches. There was no significant difference between Tc-SC and Tc-AC in the labeling efficiency of chicken liver (98% +/- 1% for Tc-SC, 96% +/- 2% for Tc-AC) and scrambled eggs (92% +/- 2% for Tc-SC, 91% +/- 3% for Tc-AC). However, both Tc-SC and Tc-AC labeled scrambled eggs showed a lower stability than chicken liver, particularly in human gastric juice. Gastric emptying curves from both meals in 20 normal subjects were also similar, with a mean half-emptying time of 85 +/- 13 minutes and 87 +/- 16 minutes for the meals containing Tc-SC and Tc-AC respectively. Tc-AC is a reliable alternative to Tc-SC as a radiotracer for solid-phase gastric emptying studies.

  8. Effect of intragastric acid stability of fat emulsions on gastric emptying, plasma lipid profile and postprandial satiety.

    PubMed

    Marciani, Luca; Faulks, Richard; Wickham, Martin S J; Bush, Debbie; Pick, Barbara; Wright, Jeff; Cox, Eleanor F; Fillery-Travis, Annette; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C

    2009-03-01

    Fat is often included in common foods as an emulsion of dispersed oil droplets to enhance the organoleptic quality and stability. The intragastric acid stability of emulsified fat may impact on gastric emptying, satiety and plasma lipid absorption. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether, compared with an acid-unstable emulsion, an acid-stable fat emulsion would empty from the stomach more slowly, cause more rapid plasma lipid absorption and cause greater satiety. Eleven healthy male volunteers received on two separate occasions 500 ml of 15 % (w/w) [13C]palmitate-enriched olive oil-in-water emulsion meals which were either stable or unstable in the acid gastric environment. MRI was used to measure gastric emptying and the intragastric oil fraction of the meals. Blood sampling was used to measure plasma lipids and visual analogue scales were used to assess satiety. The acid-unstable fat emulsion broke and rapidly layered in the stomach. Gastric emptying of meal volume was slower for the acid-stable fat emulsion (P < 0.0001; two-way ANOVA). The rate of energy delivery of fat from the stomach to the duodenum was not different up to t = 110 min. The acid-stable emulsion induced increased fullness (P < 0.05), decreased hunger (P < 0.0002), decreased appetite (P < 0.0001) and increased the concentration of palmitic acid tracer in the chylomicron fraction (P < 0.04). This shows that it is possible to delay gastric emptying and increase satiety by stabilising the intragastric distribution of fat emulsions against the gastric acid environment. This could have implications for the design of novel foods.

  9. The effect of short-term dietary supplementation with glucose on gastric emptying of glucose and fructose and oral glucose tolerance in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, M; Cunningham, K M; Wishart, J M; Jones, K L; Read, N W

    1996-04-01

    Recent observations indicate that gastric emptying may be influenced by patterns of previous nutrient intake. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of a high glucose diet on gastric emptying of glucose and fructose, and the impact of any changes in gastric emptying on plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide in response to glucose and fructose loads. Gastric emptying of glucose and fructose (both 75 g dissolved in 350 ml water) were measured in seven normal volunteers on separate days while each was on a "standard' diet and an identical diet supplemented with 440 g/day of glucose for 4-7 days. Venous blood samples for measurement of plasma glucose, insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels were taken immediately before and for 180 min after ingestion of glucose and fructose loads. Dietary glucose supplementation accelerated gastric emptying of glucose (50% emptying time 82 +/- 8 vs 106 +/- 10 min, p = 0.004) and fructose (73 +/- 9 vs 106 +/- 9 min, p = 0.001). After ingestion of glucose, plasma concentrations of insulin (p < 0.05) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (p < 0.05) were higher during the glucose-supplemented diet. In contrast, plasma glucose concentrations at 60 min and 75 min were lower (p < 0.05) on the glucose-supplemented diet. We conclude that short-term supplementation of the diet with glucose accelerates gastric emptying of glucose and fructose, presumably as a result of reduced feedback inhibition of gastric emptying from small intestinal luminal receptors. More rapid gastric emptying of glucose has a significant impact on glucose tolerance.

  10. The Effect of Short-Term Dietary Fructose Supplementation on Gastric Emptying Rate and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Adora M. W.; McLaughlin, John; Maughan, Ronald J.; Gilmore, William; Evans, Gethin H.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine gastric emptying rate and gastrointestinal hormone responses to fructose and glucose ingestion following 3 days of dietary fructose supplementation. Using the 13C-breath test method, gastric emptying rates of equicaloric fructose and glucose solutions were measured in 10 healthy men with prior fructose supplementation (fructose supplement, FS; glucose supplement, GS) and without prior fructose supplementation (fructose control, FC; glucose control, GC). In addition, circulating concentrations of acylated ghrelin (GHR), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were determined, as well as leptin, lactate, and triglycerides. Increased dietary fructose ingestion resulted in accelerated gastric emptying rate of a fructose solution but not a glucose solution. No differences in GIP, GLP-1, or insulin incremental area under curve (iAUC) were found between control and supplement trials for either fructose or glucose ingestion. However, a trend for lower ghrelin iAUC was observed for FS compared to FC. In addition, a trend of lower GHR concentration was observed at 45 min for FS compared to FC and GHR concentration for GS was greater than GC at 10 min. The accelerated gastric emptying rate of fructose following short-term supplementation with fructose may be partially explained by subtle changes in delayed postprandial ghrelin suppression. PMID:28287413

  11. The Effect of Short-Term Dietary Fructose Supplementation on Gastric Emptying Rate and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Yau, Adora M W; McLaughlin, John; Maughan, Ronald J; Gilmore, William; Evans, Gethin H

    2017-03-10

    This study aimed to examine gastric emptying rate and gastrointestinal hormone responses to fructose and glucose ingestion following 3 days of dietary fructose supplementation. Using the (13)C-breath test method, gastric emptying rates of equicaloric fructose and glucose solutions were measured in 10 healthy men with prior fructose supplementation (fructose supplement, FS; glucose supplement, GS) and without prior fructose supplementation (fructose control, FC; glucose control, GC). In addition, circulating concentrations of acylated ghrelin (GHR), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were determined, as well as leptin, lactate, and triglycerides. Increased dietary fructose ingestion resulted in accelerated gastric emptying rate of a fructose solution but not a glucose solution. No differences in GIP, GLP-1, or insulin incremental area under curve (iAUC) were found between control and supplement trials for either fructose or glucose ingestion. However, a trend for lower ghrelin iAUC was observed for FS compared to FC. In addition, a trend of lower GHR concentration was observed at 45 min for FS compared to FC and GHR concentration for GS was greater than GC at 10 min. The accelerated gastric emptying rate of fructose following short-term supplementation with fructose may be partially explained by subtle changes in delayed postprandial ghrelin suppression.

  12. Small particle size of a solid meal increases gastric emptying and late postprandial glycaemic response in diabetic subjects with gastroparesis.

    PubMed

    Olausson, Eva A; Alpsten, Magne; Larsson, Annhild; Mattsson, Håkan; Andersson, Henrik; Attvall, Stig

    2008-05-01

    Our goal was to investigate if food of small particle size increases the gastric emptying rate and lessens the fall in postprandial blood glucose in seven subjects with Type 1 diabetes and gastroparesis. Two solid meals of identical composition but of different particle size, with 5MBq (99m)Tc added to the meals, were ingested in randomized order in seven subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and gastroparesis and seven healthy subjects. During 180min blood glucose and insulin concentrations were measured and gastric emptying of the ingested meals was registered by a gamma camera. The lag phase in the stomach was significantly shorter, the radioactivity remaining in the stomach after 120min (T(120)) was significant less and the postprandial blood glucose dip was less and of shorter duration after a small particle (SP) meal, compared to a large particle (LP) meal in diabetic subjects. Gastric emptying did not differ significantly between groups after an SP meal. Food of small particle size increases the gastric emptying rate and reduces the postprandial blood glucose dip in both magnitude and duration in Type 1 diabetic subjects with gastroparesis, which is likely to be of importance in achieving good metabolic control.

  13. Subtotal nephrectomy inhibits the gastric emptying of liquid in awake rats

    PubMed Central

    da Graça, José Ronaldo Vasconcelos; Parente, Cynara Carvalho; Fiúza, Robério Ferreira; da Silva, Pedro Alberto Freitas; Mota, Bruno Teixeira; Salles, Luiz Derwal; Silva, Camila Meirelles de Souza; da Silva, Moisés Tolentino Bento; de Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt; dos Santos, Armenio Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of blood volume (BV) is attained through a functional interaction between the cardiovascular and renal systems. The gastrointestinal tract also adjusts its permeability and motor behavior after acute BV imbalances. We evaluated the effect of progressive nephron loss on gut motility. Male Wistar rats were subjected or not (sham) to 5/6 partial nephrectomy (PNX) in two steps (0 and 7th day). After further 3, 7, or 14 days, PNX and sham operation (control) rats were instrumented to monitor mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), heart rate (HR), and blood collection for biochemical analysis. The next day, they were gavage fed with a liquid test meal (phenol red in glucose solution), and fractional dye recovery determined 10, 20, or 30 min later. The effect of nonhypotensive hypovolemia and the role of neuroautonomic pathways on PNX-induced gastric emptying (GE) delay were also evaluated. Compared with the sham-operated group, PNX rats exhibited higher (P < 0.05) MAP and CVP values as well as increased values of gastric dye recovery, phenomenon proportional to the BV values. Gastric retention was prevented by prior hypovolemia, bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, coelic ganglionectomy + splanchnicectomy, guanethidine, or atropine pretreatment. PNX also inhibited (P < 0.05) the marker's progression through the small intestine. In anesthetized rats, PNX increased (P < 0.05) gastric volume, measured by a balloon catheter in a barostat system. In conclusion, the progressive loss of kidney function delayed the GE rate, which may contribute to gut dysmotility complaints associated with severe renal failure. PMID:25677547

  14. Estimation of gastric emptying time (GET) in clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) using X-radiography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Khoo Mei; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2014-09-01

    This study examines the movement of food item and the estimation of gastric emptying time using the X-radiography techniques, in the clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) fed in captivity. Fishes were voluntarily fed to satiation after being deprived of food for 72 hours, using pellets that were tampered with barium sulphate (BaSO4). The movement of food item was monitored over different time of feeding. As a result, a total of 36 hours were needed for the food items to be evacuated completely from the stomach. Results on the modeling of meal satiation were also discussed. The size of satiation meal to body weight relationship was allometric, with the power value equal to 1.28.

  15. Ghrelin and obestatin levels in type 2 diabetic patients with and without delayed gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Igor A; Koebnick, Corinna; Tasi, Atingwa M; Hahn, Eckhart Georg; Konturek, Peter C

    2009-10-01

    Alterations in the neurohumoral regulation of the upper intestine may change rhythmicity and pattern of ghrelin and obestatin, the latter presumably antagonizing ghrelin effects. Five nongastroparetic diabetic patients and five with gastroparesis were investigated. Over 390 min including breakfast and lunch, ghrelin was significantly lower in patients with gastroparesis compared with in those without (P = 0.015). Ghrelin subsequent to lunch decreased significantly (P = 0.011) in patients without gastroparesis, but not in gastroparetic patients (P = 0.669). Obestatin was similar in both groups and unchanged. No significant differences in ghrelin-to-obestatin ratio were observed (P = 0.530). Loss of rhythmicity in the ghrelin levels of gastroparetic diabetics highlights the importance of integrity of the neurohumoral-intestinal axis. Stable diurnal obestatin levels do not support the concept of interaction between ghrelin and obestatin in terms of regulation of food intake and gastric emptying.

  16. Estimation of gastric emptying time (GET) in clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) using X-radiography technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Khoo Mei; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2014-09-03

    This study examines the movement of food item and the estimation of gastric emptying time using the X-radiography techniques, in the clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) fed in captivity. Fishes were voluntarily fed to satiation after being deprived of food for 72 hours, using pellets that were tampered with barium sulphate (BaSO{sub 4}). The movement of food item was monitored over different time of feeding. As a result, a total of 36 hours were needed for the food items to be evacuated completely from the stomach. Results on the modeling of meal satiation were also discussed. The size of satiation meal to body weight relationship was allometric, with the power value equal to 1.28.

  17. The Impact of Food Viscosity on Eating Rate, Subjective Appetite, Glycemic Response and Gastric Emptying Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Hsu, Walter H.; Hollis, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV) and a high viscosity (HV) semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020), with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively) while fullness was higher (P<0.001). In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001), higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001) and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001). However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods. PMID:23818981

  18. The International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery definition of delayed gastric emptying and the effects of various surgical modifications on the occurrence of delayed gastric emptying after pancreatoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Rajesh; Pal, Sujoy

    2017-08-15

    A number of definitions have been used for delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after pancreatoduodenectomy and the reported rates varied widely. The International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition is the current standard but it is not used universally. In this comprehensive review, we aimed to determine the acceptance rate of ISGPS definition of DGE, the incidence of DGE after pancreatoduodenectomy and the effect of various technical modifications on its incidence. We searched PubMed for studies regarding DGE after pancreatoduodenectomy that were published from 1 January 1980 to 1 July 2015 and extracted data on DGE definition, DGE rates and comparison of DGE rates among different technical modifications from all of the relevant articles. Out of 435 search results, 178 were selected for data extraction. The ISGPS definition was used in 80% of the studies published since 2010 and the average rates of DGE and clinically relevant DGE were 27.7% (range: 0-100%; median: 18.7%) and 14.3% (range: 1.8%-58.2%; median: 13.6%), respectively. Pylorus preservation or retrocolic reconstruction were not associated with increased DGE rates. Although pyloric dilatation, Braun's entero-enterostomy and Billroth II reconstruction were associated with significantly lower DGE rates, pyloric ring resection appears to be most promising with favorable results in 7 out of 10 studies. ISGPS definition of DGE has been used in majority of studies published after 2010. Clinically relevant DGE rates remain high at 14.3% despite a number of proposed surgical modifications. Pyloric ring resection seems to offer the most promising solution to reduce the occurrence of DGE. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gastric emptying and intestinal absorption of ingested water and saline by hypovolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Edward M; Bykowski, Michael R; Hossler, Carrie A Smith; Curtis, Kathleen S; Smith, James C

    2009-12-07

    Recent experiments showed that in a one-bottle test conducted 16h after sc injection of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution, hypovolemic rats consumed water or 0.30 M NaCl in an initial drinking episode but did not empty the ingested fluid from the stomach or absorb it from the small intestine very rapidly, certainly not as rapidly as when 0.15M NaCl was consumed (Smith et al., Am J Physiol 292: R2089-R2099, 2007). The present experiments examined the patterns of water and 0.30 M NaCl ingestion and the movement of consumed fluid through the gastrointestinal tract when PEG-treated rats were given a two-bottle delayed-access test. We found that both fluids always were consumed in the first drinking episode, that the fluid mixture ingested was equivalent to 0.10-0.15M NaCl, and that gastric emptying rate and net fluid absorption from the small intestine usually were much faster than when PEG-treated rats drank either water or hypertonic saline alone. Thus, ingestion of water and 0.30 M NaCl by hypovolemic rats in the same episode adaptively facilitated the movement into the circulation of a near-isotonic fluid that is ideal for restoring plasma volume deficits.

  20. Gastric Water Emptying under Fed State Clinical Trial Conditions Is as Fast as under Fasted Conditions.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Michael; Scholz, Elisabeth; Koziolek, Mirko; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Weitschies, Werner

    2017-10-05

    The Magenstrasse (stomach road) describes the fast emptying of ingested liquids from the postprandial stomach. The occurrence of the Magenstrasse has great importance for drugs administered together with food as it represents a shortcut through the fed stomach and allows rapid onset of plasma levels. In this study, we investigated the effect of different meals and their texture and fat content on the occurrence of the Magenstrasse. Since the administration of water is common 60 min after drug intake in clinical trials, we also investigated the effect of time point of water administration on the Magenstrasse by a second water administration. The texture of solid meals and a higher amount of solid food components turned out to favor the presence of the Magenstrasse. On the other hand, the effect of fat content of the meals was negligible. Additionally, the gastric emptying of water was comparable between the first and the second (60 min later) fluid administration, which could lead to an entrainment of drug substance. So far, the Magenstrasse is proven for water; an investigation of other liquid vehicles might be interesting for further mechanistic understanding and utilization. It turned out that the phenomenon of the Magenstrasse can also occur at later time points in clinical studies and may have great impact on the pharmacokinetic profiles obtained in these studies.

  1. Gastric emptying of a solid meal is accelerated by the removal of dietary fibre naturally present in food.

    PubMed Central

    Benini, L; Castellani, G; Brighenti, F; Heaton, K W; Brentegani, M T; Casiraghi, M C; Sembenini, C; Pellegrini, N; Fioretta, A; Minniti, G

    1995-01-01

    Exogenous fibre added to liquid meals delays gastric emptying. Its effect on solid meals is uncertain, and nothing is known of the effect on gastric emptying of fibre naturally present in food. This study therefore looked at gastric emptying of two different solid meals in eight healthy subjects and their blood glucose responses. The meals were exactly equivalent except for the total dietary fibre content (high fibre 20 g, low fibre 4 g of dietary fibre per 1000 kcal) and supplied 870 kcal (700 kcal women), 47% of which was from carbohydrates, 36% from fats, and 17% from proteins. Ultrasonography was used to measure antral diameters before the meal (basal), immediately after it (time 0), and at 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes. In addition, subjects filled in a questionnaire on their feelings of hunger, epigastric fullness, and satiety before the meal and at hourly intervals after it. Basal and maximal postprandial antral sections were similar for the two meals (basal section: 283.9 (29.5) v 340.9 (44.7) mm2 for the low and the high fibre meal, NS; maximal postprandial section: 1726 (101.9) v 1593 (120.4) mm2, NS). Total gastric emptying time was significantly reduced by fibre removal (186.0 (15.6) v 231.7 (17.3) minutes after the low and the high fibre meal, p < 0.05). Blood glucose was higher after the low fibre meal, and the area under the glycaemic curve significantly greater (226 (23.1) v 160 (20.0) mmol/min/dl-1, p < 0.05). No difference was found in satiety or fullness feelings, but hunger returned more rapidly after the low fibre meal. In conclusion, fibre naturally present in food delays gastric emptying of a solid meal, reduces the glycaemic response, and delays the return of hunger. PMID:7615267

  2. Gastric emptying, intestinal absorption of electrolytes and exercise performance in electrolyte-supplemented horses.

    PubMed

    Lindinger, Michael I; Ecker, Gayle L

    2013-01-01

    Horses lose considerably more electrolytes through sweating during prolonged exercise than can be readily replaced through feeds. The present study tested an oral electrolyte supplement (ES) designed to replace sweat electrolyte losses. We measured gastric emptying of 3 litres of ES (using gamma imaging of (99)Tc-sulfide colloid), the absorption of Na(+) and K(+) from the gastrointestinal tract using (24)Na(+) and (42)K(+), and the distribution of these ions in the body by measuring radioactivity within plasma and sweat during exercise. Three litres of ES emptied from the stomach as fast as water, with a half-time of 47 min, and appeared in plasma by 10 min after administration (n = 4 horses). Peak values of plasma (24)Na(+) and (42)K(+) radioactivity occurred at 20-40 min, and a more rapid disappearance of K(+) radioactivity from plasma was indicative of movement of K(+) into cells (n = 3 horses). In a randomized crossover experiment (n = 4 horses), 1 h after administration of placebo (water), 1 or 3 litres of ES containing (24)Na(+), horses exercised on a treadmill at 30% of peak oxygen uptake until voluntary fatigue. The (24)Na(+) appeared in sweat at 10 min of exercise, and when horses received 3 litres of ES the duration to voluntary fatigue was increased in all horses by 33 ± 10%. It is concluded that an oral ES designed to replace sweat ion losses was rapidly emptied from the gastrointestinal tract, rapidly absorbed in the upper intestinal tract and rapidly distributed within the body. The ES clearly served as a reservoir to replace sweat ion losses during exercise, and administration of ES prior to exercise resulted in increased duration of submaximal exercise.

  3. Impaired gastric emptying of a solid test meal in patients with Parkinson's disease using 13C-sodium octanoate breath test.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Oliver; Wieczorek, Joerg; Mueller, Thomas; Przuntek, Horst; Schmidt, Wolfgang E; Woitalla, Dirk

    2005-03-03

    Up to now gastric emptying in patients with Parkinson's disease was determined by radioscintigraphy. The 13C-sodium octanoate breath test (OBT) has been established for the non-invasive evaluation of gastric emptying with a solid test meal. The aim of the study was to evaluate the OBT in patients with Parkinson's disease and to investigate the prevalence of delayed gastric emptying for solids in PD and the relationship to clinical staging patterns. Twenty-two healthy subjects and 36 patients with different clinical stages of PD classified using Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were studied. Each fasting control and patient received a solid test meal (241 kcal) labelled with 100 mg of 13C-sodium octanoate. Breath samples were obtained before substrate administration and then in 15-min intervals over 4 h. The 13CO2/12CO2 ratio was determined in each breath sample as delta over baseline. Time to peak (t(peak)), gastric half emptying time (t1/2b), lag phase (t(lagb)) and gastric emptying coefficient (GEC) were calculated. Significant differences in t(peak), t1/2b, t(lagb) and GEC were found between patients and healthy volunteers (p<0.0001), with a 60% delay in gastric half emptying time in the patient group. Gastric half emptying time was different between clinical disease groups (H&Y 0-2 versus H&Y 2.5-5, p=0.001; UPDRS 0-30 versus UPDRS 61-92, p<0.05). The OBT detects a significant delay in gastric emptying of a solid test meal in patients with PD. Delayed gastric emptying for solids is associated with disease severity.

  4. The glycemic response to fibre rich foods and their relationship with gastric emptying and motor functions: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Gopirajah, R; Raichurkar, Keshav Prakash; Wadhwa, Rajkumar; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2016-09-14

    The chief motor functions of human stomach, namely receiving, storing, mixing and emptying, influence the absorption of ingested food and hence determine the glycemic response to the meal. However, among these functions, the gastric emptying pattern of the stomach is essentially regulated by the meal characteristics such as particle size, volume, nutrient composition and viscosity. Understanding the complex relationship between the stomach motor functions and the physicochemical characteristics of meal on glycemic control needs more attention in the formulation of functional foods. Hence, the objective of this study is to employ the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique in ten healthy human volunteers to elucidate the relationship between the motor functions of the stomach and the glycemic response to fibre rich foods. For this, wheat and oat based breakfast meals were selected as fibre rich foods with low (0.042 Pa s) and high (0.266 Pa s) viscosity, respectively. Although wheat meal had a lower viscosity compared to oatmeal, the gastric emptying was found to be delayed for the former due to its high caloric density. This was reflected in the glycemic response as well, with wheat meal having a lower area under the curve (AUC) value than oatmeal. The antral contraction frequency is significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with delayed gastric emptying in the case of high nutrient wheat meal. Overall, the study demonstrated the synergistic effect of gastric emptying, stomach motor functions and physicochemical characteristics of food on the glycemic response to a meal. This information will aid in the development of functional foods with specific end applications.

  5. Stress profile, coping style, anxiety, depression, and gastric emptying as predictors of functional dyspepsia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    De la Roca-Chiapas, José M; Solís-Ortiz, Silvia; Fajardo-Araujo, Martha; Sosa, Modesto; Córdova-Fraga, Teodoro; Rosa-Zarate, Alma

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether gastric emptying, stomach peristaltic frequencies, stress profile, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and salivary cortisol levels could predict functional dyspepsia (FD). Magnetogastrography (MGG) was used to measure gastric emptying time and the gastric peristaltic frequencies in 15 patients with FD diagnosis and in 17 healthy volunteers. In all the participants, stress profile, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were evaluated by means of standardized questionnaires, and morning salivary samples were collected for the measurement of cortisol levels. A univariate logistic regression model was used to examine the probability of the measured variables to predict the presence of FD. The univariate logistic regression model showed that the half-time of gastric emptying (OR=1.16 P=.01); the subscale of stress items (OR=1.08, P=.003); negative appraisal of subscale coping strategies (OR=1.03, P=0.007); anxiety (OR=1.05, P=.01); and depression (OR=1.23, P=.02) had a significant predictive value for the presence of FD. However, by applying the stricter multiple comparison criteria, only stress, negative appraisal, and anxiety arose as predictors of FD. The FD patients compared with healthy volunteers showed significantly elevated half-time of gastric emptying (P<.0006), high scores in the subscales of stress (P<.000003), in behavior type "A" (P<.04), in coping styles (P<.008), in depression (P<.0004), and in anxiety (P<.0002). These findings indicate that psychosocial stress, mood symptoms, and coping style are predictors of FD. The stress shows high sensibility and specificity in the patients with FD, indicating a contribution in the etiopathogenesis of dyspepsia.

  6. [Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. III. Study of gastric retention of a sodium citrate solution using an experimental model of metabolic acidosis in rats].

    PubMed

    Baracat, E C; Collares, E F

    1992-01-01

    The gastric emptying of sodium citrate solution 0.25 mEq/ml was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by orogastric infusion of 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water. The 3 solutions content was 2 ml/100 g weight of the animal. Six hours after the infusion, there was a moderate metabolic acidosis in the group with ammonium citrate. This 6 hour interval marked the beginning of the gastric emptying study. The test meal (sodium citrate 0.25 mEq/ml) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric emptying of sodium citrate was studied at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after the infusion, and the results showed no differences between the 3 groups. The data suggest that the duodenal receptors to pH were more effective do determine the pattern of gastric response than the acidosis.

  7. Correlation between gastric transit time measured by video capsule endoscopy and gastric emptying determined by the continuous real-time 13C breath test (BreathID system).

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Takashi; Inamori, Masahiko; Endo, Hiroki; Matsuura, Mizue; Uchiyama, Shiori; Yamada, Eiji; Sekino, Yusuke; Sakai, Eiji; Higurashi, Takuma; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Akimoto, Keiko; Iida, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Koide, Tomoko; Shibata, Wataru; Ida, Tomonori; Kusakabe, Akihiko; Gotoh, Eiji; Nakajima, Atsushi; Maeda, Shin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possible existence of a correlation between the gastric transit time (GTT) measured by video capsule endoscopy (VCE) and the parameters of gastric emptying determined using 13C breath test (BreathID system). Eight healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. The subjects were randomly assigned to undergo VCE using the PillCam SB capsule endoscopy system or the 13C breath test for 4 hours after a test meal (400 kcal per 400 mL) containing 100 mg of 13C acetic acid administered after overnight fasting. The VCE images were analyzed and the GTT was determined using the proprietary RAPID software. The parameters, namely T lag, T 1/2 and GEC were calculated using the Oridion Research Software (β version). The GTT measured by VCE and the parameters of gastric emptying were compared statistically. No significant correlation was observed between the GTT and T lag (p = 0.5263), T 1/2 (p = 0.4100) or GEC (p = 0.2410), as determined by calculation of the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. GTT measured by VCE cannot serve as asubstitute for the gastric emptying time measured bythe 13C breath test.

  8. Sweetness and bitterness taste of meals per se does not mediate gastric emptying in humans.

    PubMed

    Little, Tanya J; Gupta, Nili; Case, R Maynard; Thompson, David G; McLaughlin, John T

    2009-09-01

    In cell line and animal models, sweet and bitter tastants induce secretion of signaling peptides (e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 and cholecystokinin) and slow gastric emptying (GE). Whether human GE and appetite responses are regulated by the sweetness or bitterness per se of ingested food is, however, unknown. We aimed to determine whether intragastric infusion of "equisweet" (Study A) or "equibitter" (Study B) solutions slow GE to the same extent, and whether a glucose solution made sweeter by the addition of saccharin will slow GE more potently than glucose alone. Healthy nonobese subjects were studied in a single-blind, randomized fashion. Subjects received 500-ml intragastric infusions of predetermined equisweet solutions of glucose (560 mosmol/kgH(2)O), fructose (290 mosmol/kgH(2)O), aspartame (200 mg), and saccharin (50 mg); twice as sweet glucose + saccharin, water (volumetric control) (Study A); or equibitter solutions of quinine (0.198 mM), naringin (1 mM), or water (Study B). GE was evaluated using a [(13)C]acetate breath test, and hunger and fullness were scored using visual analog scales. In Study A, equisweet solutions did not empty similarly. Fructose, aspartame, and saccharin did not slow GE compared with water, but glucose did (P < 0.05). There was no additional effect of the sweeter glucose + saccharin solution (P > 0.05, compared with glucose alone). In Study B, neither bitter tastant slowed GE compared with water. None of the solutions modulated perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that, in humans, the presence of sweetness and bitterness taste per se in ingested solutions does not appear to signal to influence GE or appetite perceptions.

  9. Free fatty acids have more potent effects on gastric emptying, gut hormones, and appetite than triacylglycerides.

    PubMed

    Little, Tanya J; Russo, Antonietta; Meyer, James H; Horowitz, Michael; Smyth, Douglas R; Bellon, Max; Wishart, Judith M; Jones, Karen L; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2007-10-01

    The effects of fat on gastric emptying (GE), gut hormones, and energy intake are dependent on digestion to free fatty acids (FFAs). In animals, small intestinal oleic acid inhibits energy intake more potently than the triacylglyceride (TG) triolein, but there is limited information about the comparative effects of FFA and TG in human beings. We compared the effects of FFA and TG on GE, gut hormone secretion, appetite, and energy intake in healthy males. Nine men (age, 23 +/- 2 y; body mass index, 22 +/- 1 kg/m(2)) were studied on 3 occasions to evaluate the effects of (1) 40 g oleic acid (FFA, 1830 kJ), (2) 40 g macadamia oil (TG, 1856 kJ; both 600-mL oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with 4% milk protein and labeled with 15 MBq (123)I), or (3) 600 mL 4% milk protein (control, 352 kJ), administered intragastrically, on GE, plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide-YY (PYY) levels, appetite perceptions, and subsequent energy intake. GE of FFA was much slower than that of TG (P < .05), with greater retention of FFA, than TG, in the proximal stomach (P < .001). Hunger was less (P < .05), and fullness was greater (P < .05), after FFA when compared with control and TG. Increases in plasma CCK and PYY levels were greater after FFA than TG or control (P < .05). Energy intake tended to be less after FFA compared with TG (control, 4754 +/- 610 kJ; TG, 5463 +/- 662 kJ; FFA, 4199 +/- 410 kJ). FFAs empty from the stomach more slowly, but stimulate CCK and PYY and suppress appetite more potently than TG in healthy human beings.

  10. Effect of meal volume and calorie load on postprandial gastric function and emptying: studies under physiological conditions by combined fiber-optic pressure measurement and MRI.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, Monika A; Menne, Dieter; Steingoetter, Andreas; Goetze, Oliver; Forras-Kaufman, Zsofia; Kaufman, Elad; Fruehauf, Heiko; Boesiger, Peter; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Fox, Mark R

    2009-11-01

    This study assessed the effects of meal volume (MV) and calorie load (CL) on gastric function. MRI and a minimally invasive fiber-optic recording system (FORS) provided simultaneous measurement of gastric volume and pressure changes during gastric filling and emptying of a liquid nutrient meal in physiological conditions. The gastric response to 12 iso-osmolar MV-CL combinations of a multinutrient drink (MV: 200, 400, 600, 800 ml; CL: 200, 300, 400 kcal) was tested in 16 healthy subjects according to a factorial design. Total gastric volume (TGV) and gastric content volume (GCV = MV + secretion) were measured by MRI during nasogastric meal infusion and gastric emptying over 60 min. Intragastric pressure was assessed at 1 Hz by FORS. The dynamic change in postprandial gastric volumes was described by a validated three-component linear exponential model. The stomach expanded with MV, but the ratio of GCV:MV at t(0) diminished with increasing MV (P < 0.01). Postprandial changes in TGV followed those of GCV. Intragastric pressure increased with MV, and this effect was augmented further by CL (P = 0.02); however, the absolute pressure rise was <4 mmHg. A further postprandial increase of gastric volumes was observed early on before any subsequent volume decrease. This "early" increase in GCV was greater for smaller than larger MV (P < 0.01), indicating faster initial gastric emptying of larger MV. In contrast, volume change during filling and in the early postprandial period were unaffected by CL. In the later postprandial period, gastric emptying rate continued to be more rapid with high MVs (P < 0.001); however, at any given volume, gastric emptying was slowed by higher CL (P < 0.001). GCV half-emptying time decreased with CL at 18 +/- 6 min for each additional 100-kcal load (P < 0.001). These findings indicate that gastric wall stress (passive strain and active tone) provides the driving force for gastric emptying, but distal resistance to gastric outflow regulates

  11. Upregulation of bile acid receptor TGR5 and nNOS in gastric myenteric plexus is responsible for delayed gastric emptying after chronic high-fat feeding in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Shiyi; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Guanpo; Lu, Yuanxu

    2014-01-01

    Chronic high-fat feeding is associated with functional dyspepsia and delayed gastric emptying. We hypothesize that high-fat feeding upregulates gastric neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression, resulting in delayed gastric emptying. We propose this is mediated by increased bile acid action on bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) located on nNOS gastric neurons. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed regular chow or a high-fat diet for 2 wk. Rats fed the high-fat diet were subjected to concurrent feeding with oral cholestyramine or terminal ileum resection. TGR5 and nNOS expression in gastric tissue was measured by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and Western blot. Gastric motility was assessed by organ bath and solid-phase gastric emptying studies. The 2-wk high-fat diet caused a significant increase in neurons coexpressing nNOS and TGR5 in the gastric myenteric plexus and an increase in nNOS and TGR5 gene expression, 67 and 111%, respectively. Enhanced nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) relaxation, deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced inhibition in fundic tissue, and a 26% delay in gastric emptying accompanied these changes. A 24-h incubation of whole-mount gastric fundus with DCA resulted in increased nNOS and TGR5 protein expression, 41 and 37%, respectively. Oral cholestyramine and terminal ileum resection restored the enhanced gastric relaxation, as well as the elevated nNOS and TGR5 expression evoked by high-fat feeding. Cholestyramine also prevented the delay in gastric emptying. We conclude that increased levels of circulatory bile acids induced by high-fat feeding upregulate nNOS and TGR5 expression in the gastric myenteric plexus, resulting in enhanced NANC relaxation and delayed gastric emptying. PMID:25540233

  12. Dipyrone in association with atropine inhibits the effect on gastric emptying induced by hypoglycemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Collares, E.F.; Vinagre, A.M.; Collares-Buzato, C.B.

    2017-01-01

    Atropine (AT) and dipyrone (Dp) induce a delay of gastric emptying (GE) of liquids in rats by inhibiting muscarinic receptors and activating β2-adrenergic receptors, respectively. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of pretreatment with AT and Dp, given alone or in combination, on the effect of hypoglycemia in the liquid GE in rats. Male Wistar adult rats (280-310 g) were pretreated intravenously with AT, Dp, AT plus Dp or their vehicle and then treated 30 min later with iv insulin or its vehicle (n=8-10 animals/group). Thirty min after treatment, GE was evaluated by determining, in awake rats, the percent gastric retention (%GR) of a saline meal labeled with phenol red administered by gavage. The results indicated that insulin induced hypoglycemia in a dose-dependent manner resulting in a significant reduction in %GR of liquid only at the highest dose tested (1 U/kg). Pretreatment with AT significantly increased %GR in the rats treated with 1 U/kg insulin. Surprisingly, after pretreatment with AT, the group treated with the lowest dose of insulin (0.25 U/kg) displayed significantly lower %GR compared to its control (vehicle-treated group), which was not seen in the non-pretreated animals. Pretreatment with Dp alone at the dose of 40 mg/kg induced an increase in %GR in both vehicle and 0.25 U/kg-treated rats. A higher dose of Dp alone (80 mg/kg) significantly reduced the effect of a marked hypoglycemia induced by 1 U/kg of insulin on GE while in combination with AT the effect was completely abolished. The results with AT suggest that moderate hypoglycemia may render the inhibitory mechanisms of GE ineffective while Dp alone and in combination with AT significantly overcame the effect of hypoglycemia on GE. PMID:28876363

  13. Dipyrone in association with atropine inhibits the effect on gastric emptying induced by hypoglycemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Collares, E F; Vinagre, A M; Collares-Buzato, C B

    2017-08-31

    Atropine (AT) and dipyrone (Dp) induce a delay of gastric emptying (GE) of liquids in rats by inhibiting muscarinic receptors and activating β2-adrenergic receptors, respectively. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of pretreatment with AT and Dp, given alone or in combination, on the effect of hypoglycemia in the liquid GE in rats. Male Wistar adult rats (280-310 g) were pretreated intravenously with AT, Dp, AT plus Dp or their vehicle and then treated 30 min later with iv insulin or its vehicle (n=8-10 animals/group). Thirty min after treatment, GE was evaluated by determining, in awake rats, the percent gastric retention (%GR) of a saline meal labeled with phenol red administered by gavage. The results indicated that insulin induced hypoglycemia in a dose-dependent manner resulting in a significant reduction in %GR of liquid only at the highest dose tested (1 U/kg). Pretreatment with AT significantly increased %GR in the rats treated with 1 U/kg insulin. Surprisingly, after pretreatment with AT, the group treated with the lowest dose of insulin (0.25 U/kg) displayed significantly lower %GR compared to its control (vehicle-treated group), which was not seen in the non-pretreated animals. Pretreatment with Dp alone at the dose of 40 mg/kg induced an increase in %GR in both vehicle and 0.25 U/kg-treated rats. A higher dose of Dp alone (80 mg/kg) significantly reduced the effect of a marked hypoglycemia induced by 1 U/kg of insulin on GE while in combination with AT the effect was completely abolished. The results with AT suggest that moderate hypoglycemia may render the inhibitory mechanisms of GE ineffective while Dp alone and in combination with AT significantly overcame the effect of hypoglycemia on GE.

  14. Xenin-25 delays gastric emptying and reduces postprandial glucose levels in humans with and without Type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sara; Reeds, Dominic N.; Crimmins, Dan L.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Laciny, Erin; Wang, Songyan; Tran, Hung D.; Griest, Terry A.; Rometo, David A.; Dunai, Judit; Wallendorf, Michael J.; Ladenson, Jack H.; Polonsky, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    Xenin-25 (Xen) is a neurotensin-related peptide secreted by a subset of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-producing enteroendocrine cells. In animals, Xen regulates gastrointestinal function and glucose homeostasis, typically by initiating neural relays. However, little is known about Xen action in humans. This study determines whether exogenously administered Xen modulates gastric emptying and/or insulin secretion rates (ISRs) following meal ingestion. Fasted subjects with normal (NGT) or impaired (IGT) glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; n = 10–14 per group) ingested a liquid mixed meal plus acetaminophen (ACM; to assess gastric emptying) at time zero. On separate occasions, a primed-constant intravenous infusion of vehicle or Xen at 4 (Lo-Xen) or 12 (Hi-Xen) pmol·kg−1·min−1 was administered from zero until 300 min. Some subjects with NGT received 30- and 90-min Hi-Xen infusions. Plasma ACM, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, Xen, GIP, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were measured and ISRs calculated. Areas under the curves were compared for treatment effects. Infusion with Hi-Xen, but not Lo-Xen, similarly delayed gastric emptying and reduced postprandial glucose levels in all groups. Infusions for 90 or 300 min, but not 30 min, were equally effective. Hi-Xen reduced plasma GLP-1, but not GIP, levels without altering the insulin secretory response to glucose. Intense staining for Xen receptors was detected on PGP9.5-positive nerve fibers in the longitudinal muscle of the human stomach. Thus Xen reduces gastric emptying in humans with and without T2DM, probably via a neural relay. Moreover, endogenous GLP-1 may not be a major enhancer of insulin secretion in healthy humans under physiological conditions. PMID:24356886

  15. Mosapride Accelerates the Delayed Gastric Emptying of High-Viscosity Liquids: A Crossover Study Using Continuous Real-Time 13C Breath Test (BreathID System)

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Yasunari; Sekino, Yusuke; Yamada, Eiji; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Higurashi, Takuma; Sakai, Eiji; Iida, Hiroshi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Nonaka, Takashi; Ikeda, Tamon; Fujita, Koji; Yoneda, Masato; Koide, Tomoko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Goto, Ayumu; Abe, Yasunobu; Gotoh, Eiji; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims The administration of liquid nutrients to patients is often accompanied by complications such as gastroesophageal reflux. To prevent gastroesophageal reflux, high-viscosity liquid meals are used widely, however, it still remains controversial whether high-viscosity liquid meals have any effect on the rate of gastric emptying. The present study was conducted with the aim of determining whether high-viscosity liquid meals had any effect on the rate of gastric emptying and mosapride might accelerate the rate of gastric emptying of high-viscosity liquid meals. Methods Six healthy male volunteers underwent 3 tests at intervals of > 1 week. After fasting for > 8 hours, each subject received one of three test meals (liquid meal only, high-viscosity liquid meal [liquid meal plus pectin] only, or high-viscosity liquid meal 30 minutes after intake of mosapride). A 13C-acetic acid breath test was performed, which monitored the rate of gastric emptying for 4 hours. Using the Oridion Research Software (β version), breath test parameters were calculated. The study parameters were examined for all the 3 test conditions and compared using the Freidman test. Results Gastric emptying was significantly delayed following intake of a high-viscosity liquid meal alone as compared with a liquid meal alone; however, intake of mosapride prior to a high-viscosity liquid meal was associated with a significantly accelerated rate of gastric emptying as compared with a high-viscosity liquid meal alone. Conclusions This study showed that high-viscosity liquid meals delayed gastric emptying: however, mosapride recovered the delayed rate of gastric emptying by high-viscosity liquid meals. PMID:22148109

  16. Effects of straight alkyl chain, extra hydroxylated alkyl chain and branched chain amino acids on gastric emptying evaluated using a non-invasive breath test in conscious rats

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Orie; Iwasawa, Kaori; Shimizu, Kimiko

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Some amino acids been known to influence gastric emptying. Thus we have evaluated the effects of straight alkyl chain, extra hydroxylated alkyl chain and branched chain amino acids on gastric emptying. Materials and Methods: Gastric emptying was evaluated in rats after feeding with Racol (nutrient formulae) containing [1-13C] acetic acid. Using a breath test, the content of 13CO2 in their expired air was measured by infrared analyzers. Rats were orally administered with test amino acids, while control rats were administered orally with distilled water. Results: The expired 13CO2 content in the expired air increased with time, peaked after about 30 min and decreased thereafter. Among the amino acids having an alkyl chain, l-serine, l-alanine and l-glycine, significantly decreased the 13CO2 content and Cmax, and delayed Tmax, suggesting inhibition and delay of gastric emptying. AUC120 min values of l-alanine and l-glycine also decreased significantly. l-Threonine significantly decreased 13CO2 content and delayed Tmax, but had no influence on Cmax and AUC120 min values, suggesting a delay of gastric emptying. l-Isoleucine and l-leucine and l-valine significantly decreased 13CO2 content, suggesting inhibition of the gastric emptying, but Cmax, Tmax and AUC120 min values were not significantly affected. Conclusion: The results show that the amino acids used in the present study had different effects on gastric emptying. Moreover, it was found that inhibition and delay of gastric emptying were clearly classifiable by analyzing the change in 13CO2 content of the expired air and the Cmax, Tmax and AUC120 min values. PMID:27169776

  17. Effect of Nigella sativa L. seed extract on cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Riyaz, Ambreena; Nazir, Shahid; Khushtar, Mohammad; Mishra, Anuradha; Jahan, Yasmeen; Ahmad, Asad

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of Nigella sativa L. seed extract against cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying, in a rat model. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five equal groups as follows: Group I or control group, Group II (cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p at day 5), Group III (N. sativa L. 250 mg/kg for 5 days + cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p on day 5), Group IV (N. sativa L. 500 mg/kg for 5 days + cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p on day 5) and Group V (ondansetron 3 mg/kg/day, per os + cisplatin 10 mg/kg, i.p on day 5). Phenol red meal was adopted to estimate gastric emptying in different groups of the rats. Gastric emptying was significantly increased (p < 0.01) in N. sativa L. seed extract-pretreated rats (Group III and Group IV) when compared to cisplatin treatment alone (Group II). However, ondansetron produced significantly (p < 0.01) better reversal than N. sativa L. seed extract.

  18. KDR-5169, a new gastrointestinal prokinetic agent, enhances gastric contractile and emptying activities in dogs and rats.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, Shigeki; Masuda, Naoyuki; Koizumi, Takashi; Kitazawa, Makio; Nakane, Tokio; Miyata, Hiroshi

    2002-01-11

    KDR-5169, 4-amino-5-chloro-N-[1-(3-fluoro-4-methoxybenzyl)piperidin-4-yl]-2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)benzamide hydrochloride dihydrate, is a new prokinetic with a dual action, i.e., stimulation of the 5-HT4 receptor and antagonism of the dopamine D2 receptor. In this study, we determined in vitro activities of KDR-5169 towards both receptors and demonstrated the effect of the compound on gastrointestinal motor activity in conscious dogs and rats. In dogs, intravenous KDR-5169 stimulated upper gastrointestinal motility in the fasting state and also eliminated the depressive effect of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) on this motility in the postprandial state. The effect of KDR-5169 on gastric emptying was further characterized by the use of three rat gastroparesis models (dopamine D2 receptor agonist (quinpirol)-, abdominal surgery-, or combined-situation-induced). Domperidone (a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist) was effective in the quinpirol-delay and combination-delay models, and cisapride and mosapride (5-HT4 receptor agonists) were effective in the surgery-delay model. Only KDR-5169 eliminated the delay of gastric emptying in all three models. In addition, KDR-5169 accelerated emptying to above the normal level in the combination-delay model. These results suggest that KDR-5169 would be effective in various types of gastric ileus caused by different mechanisms.

  19. Suppression of Oral Sweet Taste Sensation with Gymnema sylvestre Affects Postprandial Gastrointestinal Blood Flow and Gastric Emptying in Humans.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Hideaki; Eguchi, Kohei; Miyamoto, Kanae; Fujimoto, Masaki; Endo, Masako Yamaoka; Aso-Someya, Nami; Kobayashi, Toshio; Hayashi, Naoyuki; Fukuba, Yoshiyuki

    2017-05-01

    An oral sweet taste sensation (OSTS) exaggerates digestive activation transiently, but whether it has a role after swallowing a meal is not known. Gymnema sylvestre (GS) can inhibit the OSTS in humans. We explored the effect of the OSTS of glucose intake on gastrointestinal blood flow, gastric emptying, blood-glucose, and plasma-insulin responses during the postprandial phase. Eight participants ingested 200 g (50 g × 4 times) of 15% glucose solution containing 100 mg of 13C-sodium acetate after rinsing with 25 mL of 2.5% roasted green tea (control) or 2.5% GS solution. During each protocol, gastrointestinal blood flow and gastric emptying were measured by ultrasonography and 13C-sodium acetate breath test, respectively. Decreased subjective sweet taste intensity was observed in all participants in the GS group. The time to attain a peak value of blood flow in the celiac artery and gastric emptying were delayed in the GS group compared with the control group. At the initial phase after glucose intake, blood-glucose and plasma-insulin responses were lower in the GS group than those for the control group. These results suggest that the OSTS itself has a substantial role in controlling postprandial gastrointestinal activities, which may affect subsequent glycemic metabolism. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The slowing of gastric emptying by four strong acids and three weak acids

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J. N.; Knox, M. T.

    1972-01-01

    1. Test meals of 750 ml. water containing a range of concentrations of hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, cyclamic (cyclohexylsulphamic), tartaric, L-ascorbic and citric acids were instilled into the stomachs of sixteen healthy subjects. 2. The greater the concentration of an acid in the instilled meal, the greater was the volume of meal recovered after a fixed interval. 3. For the weak acids, tartaric, ascorbic and citric, the concentrations which gave a recovery of 450 ml., out of the 750 ml. instilled, increased with increase in the molecular weight of the acid. 4. For the strong acids, hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric and cyclamic, the concentrations which gave a recovery of 450 ml., out of the 750 ml. instilled, were approximately equal. These concentrations were less than those for weak acids. 5. The strong acids with high molecular weights were slightly more effective in slowing gastric emptying than were those with low molecular weights. 6. The approximate equality of effectiveness of nitric, sulphuric and cyclamic acids to hydrochloric acid is attributed to the presence of chloride ion in the duodenal contents. Thus all the strong acids instilled produce an environment of hydrochloric acid around the receptor. 7. A model for a duodenal receptor responding to acids is proposed. PMID:5037069

  1. Relationship between clinical features and gastric emptying disturbances in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Camilleri, Michael; Forstrom, Lee A; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2009-03-01

    Gastric emptying (GE) may be delayed or rapid in diabetes mellitus. We sought to ascertain differences in risk factors or associated features (i.e. diabetic 'phenotype') among patients with diabetes who have rapid, slow or normal GE. From a database of patients in whom gastrointestinal transit was assessed by scintigraphy, we compared the diabetic phenotype in diabetic patients with rapid, slow and normal GE. Of 129 patients, 55 (42%) had normal, 46 (36%) had delayed and 28 (22%) patients had rapid GE. In each GE category, there was an approximately equal number of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In multivariable analyses, significant weight loss (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.09-7.23) and neuropathy (OR, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.007-12.89) were the risk factors for delayed and rapid GE, respectively. Insulin therapy (OR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01-0.53) was associated with a lower risk of rapid compared to normal GE. However, other manifestations or characteristics of the diabetes 'phenotype' (i.e. type and duration of diabetes, glycosylated haemoglobin levels, and extraintestinal complications) were not useful for discriminating normal from delayed or rapid GE. At a specificity of 60%, clinical features were 73% sensitive for discriminating between normal and delayed GE and 80% sensitive for discriminating normal from rapid GE. Diabetes is associated with slow and rapid GE. Because the diabetic phenotype is of limited utility for identifying disordered GE, GE should be assessed in patients with diabetes and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  2. Sex difference in the effects of alcohol on gastric emptying in healthy volunteers: a study using the (13)C breath test.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Miyuki; Funakoshi, Akihiro; Miyasaka, Kyoko; Sekime, Ayako

    2013-01-01

    Several studies on alcohol and gastric emptying using the (13)C breath test showed that alcohol consumption delayed gastric emptying of meals in healthy male subjects. However, they did not employ female subjects, and the retention time of alcoholic beverages in the stomach has not been examined, yet. We examined the retention time (= gastric emptying rate) of alcoholic beverages in the stomach in healthy male and female subjects. We also examined whether the congeners (nonalcoholic components) of red wine have any effect on gastric emptying. The retention time of 60 mL of red wine, vodka, congeners of red wine, or mineral water, was measured using a (13)C labeled acetic acid breath test. In male subjects, the retention time of wine and vodka was significantly longer than that of congeners and mineral water. In female subjects, although the (13)C content in the breath was slightly but significantly decreased by wine and congeners, but not by vodka, and the parameters for gastric emptying did not differ significantly among the 4 drinks. That is, alcohol hardly influenced the retention time in female subjects. In conclusion, there are sex differences in the gastric emptying rate of alcohol.

  3. Expression of gastrointestinal nesfatin-1 and gastric emptying in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus- and ventrolateral hypothalamic nucleus-lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zi-Bin; Deng, Run-Jun; Sun, Gui-Rong; Wei, Liang-Zhou; Kong, Xin-Juan; Ding, Xue-Li; Jing, Xue; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Ge, Yin-Lin

    2014-06-14

    To determine the expression levels of gastrointestinal nesfatin-1 in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH)-lesioned (obese) and ventrolateral hypothalamic nucleus (VLH)-lesioned (lean) rats that exhibit an imbalance in their energy metabolism and gastric mobility. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a VMH-lesioned group, a VLH-lesioned group, and their respective sham-operated groups. The animals had free access to food and water, and their diets and weights were monitored after surgery. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining were used to analyse the levels of NUCB2 mRNA and nesfatin-1 immunoreactive (IR) cells in the stomach, duodenum, small intestine, and colon, respectively. Gastric emptying was also assessed using a modified phenol red-methylcellulose recovery method. The VMH-lesioned rats fed normal chow exhibited markedly greater food intake and body weight gain, whereas the VLH-lesioned rats exhibited markedly lower food intake and body weight gain. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 IR cells were localised in the lower third and middle portion of the gastric mucosal gland and in the submucous layer of the enteric tract. Compared with their respective controls, gastric emptying was enhanced in the VMH-lesioned rats (85.94% ± 2.27%), whereas the VLH lesions exhibited inhibitory effects on gastric emptying (29.12% ± 1.62%). In the VMH-lesioned rats, the levels of NUCB2 mRNA and nesfatin-1 protein were significantly increased in the stomach and duodenum and reduced in the small intestine. In addition, the levels of NUCB2 mRNA and nesfatin-1 protein in the VLH-lesioned rats were decreased in the stomach, duodenum, and small intestine. Our study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 level in the stomach and duodenum is positively correlated with body mass. Additionally, there is a positive relationship between gastric emptying and body mass. The results of this study indicate that gastrointestinal nesfatin-1 may play a significant role in gastric

  4. Effect of drink carbohydrate content on postexercise gastric emptying, rehydration, and the calculation of net fluid balance.

    PubMed

    Clayton, David J; Evans, Gethin H; James, Lewis J

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the gastric emptying and rehydration effects of hypotonic and hypertonic glucose-electrolyte drinks after exercise-induced dehydration. Eight healthy males lost ~1.8% body mass by intermittent cycling and rehydrated (150% of body mass loss) with a hypotonic 2% (2% trial) or a hypertonic 10% (10% trial) glucose-electrolyte drink over 60 min. Blood and urine samples were taken at preexercise, postexercise, and 60, 120, 180, and 240 min postexercise. Gastric and test drink volume were determined 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min postexercise. At the end of the gastric sampling period 0.3% (2% trial) and 42.1% (10% trial; p < .001) of the drinks remained in the stomach. Plasma volume was lower (p < .01) and serum osmolality was greater (p < .001) at 60 and 120 min during the 10% trial. At 240 min, 52% (2% trial) and 64% (10% trial; p < .001) of the drinks were retained. Net fluid balance was greater from 120 min during the 10% trial (p < .001). When net fluid balance was corrected for the volume of fluid in the stomach, it was greater at 60 and 120 min during the 2% trial (p < .001). These results suggest that the reduced urine output following ingestion of a hypertonic rehydration drink might be mediated by a slower rate of gastric emptying, but the slow gastric emptying of such solutions makes rehydration efficiency difficult to determine in the hours immediately after drinking, compromising the calculation of net fluid balance.

  5. Clinical implications of chromosomal abnormalities in gastric adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chew-Wun; Chen, Gen-Der; Fann, Cathy S.-J.; Lee, Anna F.-Y.; Chi, Chin-Wen; Liu, Jacqueline M.; Weier, Ulli; Chen, Jeou-Yuan

    2003-06-23

    Gastric carcinoma (GC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and has a very poor prognosis. Genetic imbalances in 62 primary gastric adenocarcinomas of various histopathologic types and pathologic stages and six gastric cancer-derived cell lines were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization, and the relationship of genomic abnormalities to clinical features in primary GC was evaluated at a genome-wide level. Eighty-four percent of the tumors and all six cell lines showed DNA copy number changes. The recurrent chromosomal abnormalities including gains at 15 regions and losses at 8 regions were identified. Statistical analyses revealed that gains at 17q24-qter (53 percent), 20q13-qter (48 percent), 1p32-p36 (42 percent), 22q12-qter (27 percent), 17p13-pter (24 percent), 16p13-pter (21 percent), 6p21-pter (19 percent), 20p12-pter (19 percent), 7p21-pter (18 percent), 3q28-qter (8 percent), and 13q13-q14 (8 percent), and losses at 18q12-qter (11 percent), 3p12 (8 percent), 3p25-pter (8 percent), 5q14-q23 (8 percent), and 9p21-p23 (5 percent), are associated with unique patient or tumor-related features. GCs of differing histopathologic features were shown to be associated with distinct patterns of genetic alterations, supporting the notion that they evolve through distinct genetic pathways. Metastatic tumors were also associated with specific genetic changes. These regions may harbor candidate genes involved in the pathogenesis of this malignancy.

  6. Regulation of gastric emptying rate and its role in nutrient-induced GLP-1 secretion in rats after vertical sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Adam P; Smith, Eric P; Begg, Denovan P; Grayson, Bernadette E; Sisley, Stephanie; Greer, Todd; Sorrell, Joyce; Lemmen, Lisa; LaSance, Kati; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J; D'Alessio, David A; Sandoval, Darleen A

    2014-02-15

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) are effective weight loss surgeries that also improve glucose metabolism. Rapid, early rises of circulating insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations following food ingestion are characteristic of these procedures. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that postprandial hormone release is due to increased nutrient emptying from the stomach. Radioscintigraphy and chemical and radiolabeled tracers were used to examine gastric emptying in rat models of VSG and RYGB surgery. Intraduodenal nutrient infusions were used to assess intestinal GLP-1 secretion and nutrient sensitivity in VSG rats compared with shams. Five minutes after a nutrient gavage, the stomachs of RYGB and VSG rats were completely emptied, whereas only 6.1% of the nutrient mixture had emptied from sham animals. Gastric pressure was increased in VSG animals, and rats with this procedure did not inhibit gastric emptying normally in response to increasing caloric loads of dextrose or corn oil, and they did not respond to neural or endocrine effectors of gastric motility. Finally, direct infusion of liquid nutrients into the duodenum caused significantly greater GLP-1 release in VSG compared with shams, indicating that increases in GLP-1 secretion after VSG are the result of both greater gastric emptying rates and altered responses at the level of the intestine. These findings demonstrate greatly accelerated gastric emptying in rat models of RYGB and VSG. In VSG this is likely due to increased gastric pressure and reduced responses to inhibitory feedback from the intestine.

  7. Regulation of gastric emptying rate and its role in nutrient-induced GLP-1 secretion in rats after vertical sleeve gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Adam P.; Smith, Eric P.; Begg, Denovan P.; Grayson, Bernadette E.; Sisley, Stephanie; Greer, Todd; Sorrell, Joyce; Lemmen, Lisa; LaSance, Kati; Woods, Stephen C.; Seeley, Randy J.; D'Alessio, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) are effective weight loss surgeries that also improve glucose metabolism. Rapid, early rises of circulating insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations following food ingestion are characteristic of these procedures. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that postprandial hormone release is due to increased nutrient emptying from the stomach. Radioscintigraphy and chemical and radiolabeled tracers were used to examine gastric emptying in rat models of VSG and RYGB surgery. Intraduodenal nutrient infusions were used to assess intestinal GLP-1 secretion and nutrient sensitivity in VSG rats compared with shams. Five minutes after a nutrient gavage, the stomachs of RYGB and VSG rats were completely emptied, whereas only 6.1% of the nutrient mixture had emptied from sham animals. Gastric pressure was increased in VSG animals, and rats with this procedure did not inhibit gastric emptying normally in response to increasing caloric loads of dextrose or corn oil, and they did not respond to neural or endocrine effectors of gastric motility. Finally, direct infusion of liquid nutrients into the duodenum caused significantly greater GLP-1 release in VSG compared with shams, indicating that increases in GLP-1 secretion after VSG are the result of both greater gastric emptying rates and altered responses at the level of the intestine. These findings demonstrate greatly accelerated gastric emptying in rat models of RYGB and VSG. In VSG this is likely due to increased gastric pressure and reduced responses to inhibitory feedback from the intestine. PMID:24368666

  8. Structural identifiability analysis of pharmacokinetic models using DAISY: semi-mechanistic gastric emptying models for 13C-octanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon

    2011-04-01

    Structural identifiability analysis is necessary for efficient parameter estimation and it is concerned with determination of whether the parameters in a model can be identified from specified experiments with perfect input-output data. Structural identifiability analysis is very important in mathematical modelling of biological and biomedical experiments and should be considered at the design stage of these experiments. There are three possible outcomes from a structural identifiability analysis; globally/uniquely identifiable, locally/non-uniquely identifiable or non-identifiable/unidentifiable. An ideal outcome is a globally/uniquely identifiable model, however a locally/non-uniquely identifiable outcome can help to identify areas of the model or experiment that need improvement. Despite the importance of structural identifiability analysis, it is still not widely used due to the heavy computational burden involved and the lack of software. A new software package, DAISY, that implemented differential algebra for identifiability analysis was recently released. DAISY is freely available, easy to use and does not require any high-level programming skill. The (13)C-octanoic acid breath test is now widely used for assessing the rate of gastric emptying in patients. Unlike scintigraphy, which is the gold standard and is a direct measure of the rate of gastric emptying, the (13)C-octanoic acid breath test is an indirect method for assessing the rate of gastric emptying. However the (13)C-octanoic acid breath test is cheaper, safer and easy to perform. Because the rate of excretion of (13)CO(2) in breath does not only reflect the rate of gastric emptying but other processes involved between the ingestion of (13)C-octanoic acid and elimination of (13)CO(2) in breath, the parameters commonly derived from the excretion data are not direct measures of gastric emptying. The aim of this paper was to propose a new semi-mechanistic model for the analysis of (13)C-octanoic acid

  9. [Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. II. Study, in an experimental model in rats, of gastric retention of a sodium bicarbonate solution].

    PubMed

    Belangero, V M; Collares, E F

    1992-01-01

    The gastric emptying of a 0.25 M sodium bicarbonate solution was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by a previous (6 hours) orogastric infusion of a 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one previously infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water, in the same volume that further solutions. Every animal was fed with 2 ml/100 g of its weight of these solutions. The test meal (bicarbonate solution) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric retentions were determined 6 hours after those first meals at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes. The results demonstrated that the gastric retentions of the bicarbonate solution were significantly lower in the acidotic group than that one of water group (at 20 minutes) and that one of the sodium chloride (at 10, 20 and 30 minutes). The data here presented suggest that metabolic acidosis accelerates the gastric emptying of a sodium bicarbonate solution.

  10. Antidiabetic and gastric emptying inhibitory effect of herbal Melia azedarach leaf extract in rodent models of diabetes type 2 mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Seifu, Daniel; Gustafsson, Lars E; Chawla, Rajinder; Genet, Solomon; Debella, Asfaw; Holst, Mikael; Hellström, Per M

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes type 2 is associated with impaired insulin production and increased insulin resistance. Treatment with antidiabetic drugs and insulin strives for normalizing glucose homeostasis. In Ethiopian traditional medicine, plant extracts of Melia azedarach are used to control diabetes mellitus and various gastrointestinal disorders. The objective of this study was to clarify the antidiabetic effects of M. azedarach leaf extracts in diabetic type 2 experimental animals. In this study, mice were injected with Melia extract intraperitoneally. Plasma glucose was studied by using tail vein sampling in acute experiments over 4 h and chronic experiments over 21 days with concurrent insulin and body weight assessments. Glucose tolerance was studied by using intraperitoneal glucose (2 mg/g) tolerance test over 120 min. Gastric emptying of a metabolically inert meal was studied by the gastric retention of a radioactive marker over 20 min. Melia extracts displayed acute, dose-dependent antidiabetic effects in ob/ob mice similar to glibenclamide (p<0.05–0.001). Long-term administration of Melia extract reduced plasma glucose (p<0.001) and insulin (p<0.01–0.001) levels over 21 days, concurrent with body weight loss. Glucose tolerance test showed reduced basal glucose levels (p<0.05–0.01), but no difference was found in glucose disposal after long-term treatment with Melia extract. In addition, the Melia extract at 400 mg/kg slowed gastric emptying rate of normal Sprague-Dawley (p<0.001) and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats (p<0.001) compared with controls. It is concluded that the M. azedarach leaf extract elicits diabetic activity through a multitargeted action. Primarily an increased insulin-sensitizing effect is at hand, resulting in blood glucose reduction and improved peripheral glucose disposal, but also through reduced gastric emptying and decreased insulin demand. PMID:28360538

  11. Influence of hippophae rhamnoides on two appetite factors, gastric emptying and metabolic parameters, in children with functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Mantian; Qiu, Xiaoshan; Yue, Dianchao; Cai, Yongyi; Mo, Qingping

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to explore in children with functional dyspepsia the effect of hippophae rhamnoides on the levels of plasma appetite factors and on their gastrointestinal motility. A hundred and twenty children with functional dyspepsia were randomly divided into three groups: Group I (treated with hippophae rhamnoides), Group II (treated with domperidone), and Group III (treated with hippophae rhamnoides plus domperidone). The treatment lasted for eight weeks. The levels of plasma leptin (LP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were measured before and after treatment. All patients underwent a gastric emptying (GE) test by ultrasound (US) to measure the rate of postprandial gastric antrum residual, at 30min, 60min, 90min and 120min. The average value of subcutaneous fat, body fat percentage, upper arm girth and body mass index (BMI) were also measured. To compare the US with the radionuclide GE test 14 healthy adults volunteers were tested by both GE techniques. We found that the levels of LP and NPY in plasma were markedly higher after treatment in Groups I and III than in Group II. The postprandial gastric antrum remains at 60min, 90min and 120min in Groups I and III fell greatly and the thickness of skin fold (SF), body fat percentage and arm girth increased (P<0.05). The GE half emptying time of a mixed liquid-solid food measured by B US and by the radionuclide technique in the same individuals was similar (P>0.05). In conclusion, in children's functional dyspepsia, our study showed that hippophae rhamnoides increases the levels of appetite factors, leptin and neuropeptide Y, increases gastric emptying and gastrointestinal digestive function, children's growth and development.

  12. Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on the digestive system measured by simultaneous monitoring of gastric motility, gastric emptying activity and postprandial pancreaticobiliary secretion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Mizumoto, Akiyoshi; Itoh, Zen

    2005-07-01

    Relationships between the NO synthase inhibitor and gastric and pancreaticobiliary functions measured simultaneously in the digestive state have been little studied. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of NO synthase inhibitor on integrated digestive function in conscious dogs. A strain gauge force transducer was implanted on the gastric antrum of 6 mongrel dogs to measure gastric contractile activity and two duodenal cannulas were inserted into the proximal and distal sites to measure the gastric emptying rate and the pancreaticobiliary output into the duodenum using our novel method. Postprandial pancreatic and biliary secretion were presented as amylase and bile acid activity, respectively. Furthermore, a cervical cannula was placed into the superior vena cava as a route for the administration of NO synthase inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg-h. In a group given L-NNA, gastric contractile activity after ingestion was significantly enhanced, but the emptying rates of gastric solids and liquids were significantly suppressed in comparison with the control. The mean 0-1 h amylase integrated output was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in comparison with the control, and the mean bile acid integration of 0-1 h output was also significantly (P < 0.01) decreased. A possible explanation for this observation is that smaller volumes of nutrient are delivered into the duodenum; however, it could also be that postprandial pancreaticobiliary secretion is inhibited by an alteration of blood flow or by a change in contractions of the sphincter of Oddi after the administration of L-NNA.

  13. [Effect of Helicobacter pylori on gastric emptying in non-ulcer dyspepsia--evaluation of Helicobacter pylori by 13C-urea breath test].

    PubMed

    Abe, K

    1999-03-01

    Non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) is a common disorder in clinical field. The pathogenesis of NUD are still unclear especially the participation of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in NUD is controversy. Aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of H. pylori at view of urea breath test on liquids and solids gastric emptying in patients with NUD. H. pylori positive (n = 24) and negative NUD subjects (n = 11), and H. pylori positive non-NUD subjects (n = 10) as control group were studied. Liquids and solids gastric emptying was evaluated according to the acetaminophen method and sulfamethzole modified method delta 13C-AUC was calculated as estimation of H. pylori by 13C-urea breath test. H. pylori positive NUD was classified into high delta 13C-AUC group (n = 11), median group (n = 8) and low group (n = 5). High delta 13C-AUC group (n = 6) and low delta 13C-AUC group (n = 4) group were treated by eradication therapy. In H. pylori positive NUD subjects, high and low delta 13C-AUC group were estimated the changes of liquids and solids gastric emptying, symptoms before and after eradication. H. pylori positive NUD group has higher liquids gastric emptying that H. pylori negative NUD group (7.6 +/- 2.8 vs. 4.9 +/- 1.4, p = 0.0022). No difference was observed between H. pylori positive and H. pylori negative group of solids gastric emptying. There was no significant difference in liquids gastric emptying among high-, median- and low-delta 13C-AUC group of H. pylori positive NUD subjects. Solids gastric emptying was significantly delayed in high delta 13C-AUC group compared with low delta 13C-AUC group (10.3 +/- 3.7 vs. 5.3 +/- 3.1, p = 0.014). delta 13C-AUC was not correlated to liquids gastric emptying, but to solids gastric emptying (r = -0.573. p = 0.006). In Non-NUD group as control group, delta 13C-AUC has not correlation to liquids and solids gastric emptying H. pylori positive NUD has higher delta 13C-AUC than Non-NUD group. Eradicated low delta 13C-AUC group did

  14. Delayed gastric emptying following pancreaticoduodenectomy: Incidence, risk factors, and healthcare utilization

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Somala; Van Buren II, George; McElhany, Amy; Silberfein, Eric J; Fisher, William E

    2017-01-01

    AIM To characterize incidence and risk factors for delayed gastric emptying (DGE) following pancreaticoduodenectomy and examine its implications on healthcare utilization. METHODS A prospectively-maintained database was reviewed. DGE was classified using International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery criteria. Patients who developed DGE and those who did not were compared. RESULTS Two hundred and seventy-six patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) (> 80% pylorus-preserving, antecolic-reconstruction). DGE developed in 49 patients (17.8%): 5.1% grade B, 3.6% grade C. Demographic, clinical, and operative variables were similar between patients with DGE and those without. DGE patients were more likely to present multiple complications (32.6% vs 4.4%, ≥ 3 complications, P < 0.001), including postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) (42.9% vs 18.9%, P = 0.001) and intra-abdominal abscess (IAA) (16.3% vs 4.0%, P = 0.012). Patients with DGE had longer hospital stay (median, 12 d vs 7 d, P < 0.001) and were more likely to require transitional care upon discharge (24.5% vs 6.6%, P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, predictors for DGE included POPF [OR = 3.39 (1.35-8.52), P = 0.009] and IAA [OR = 1.51 (1.03-2.22), P = 0.035]. CONCLUSION Although DGE occurred in < 20% of patients after PD, it was associated with increased healthcare utilization. Patients with POPF and IAA were at risk for DGE. Anticipating DGE can help individualize care and allocate resources to high-risk patients. PMID:28396720

  15. Relationships of Early And Late Glycemic Responses With Gastric Emptying During An Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    PubMed

    Marathe, Chinmay S; Horowitz, Michael; Trahair, Laurence G; Wishart, Judith M; Bound, Michelle; Lange, Kylie; Rayner, Christopher K; Jones, Karen L

    2015-09-01

    The early glycemic response during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is directly related to the rate of gastric emptying (GE). There is little information about the effect of GE on the blood glucose at either 60 min (a predictor of diabetes) or 120 min (used diagnostically). This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between glycemic responses at 30, 60, and 120 min and GE following a 75-g OGTT in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Eighty-two subjects in the general community without diabetes (57 NGT, 25 IGT) and 16 with T2D consumed a 75-g glucose drink labeled with (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid. GE (by scintigraphy) and glycemia were measured from t = 0-120 min and relationships between blood glucose (absolute, change from baseline, and area under the curve) and GE at 30, 60, and 120 min determined. There were no differences in GE. There were relationships between the blood glucose at 30 min and GE (NGT: r = 0.40; P < .01; IGT: r = 0.49; P = .02; T2D: r = 0.62; P = .01). There was also a relationship between the blood glucose at 60 min and GE in IGT (r = 0.52; P = .02) and T2D (r = 0.77; P < .01), but not NGT (r = 0.16; P = .24). In NGT, there was an inverse relationship between blood glucose at 120 min and GE (r = -0.30; P = .02), but not in IGT (r = 0.05; P = .82) or T2D (r = 0.37; P = .16). GE is a determinant of the glycemic response to an OGTT in NGT, IGT, and T2D but these relationships differ and are time dependent.

  16. The effect of agar jelly on energy expenditure, appetite, gastric emptying and glycaemic response.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Miriam E; Shafat, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Agar contains a high amount of soluble fibre and has been shown to delay gastric emptying (GE) without impacting on glycaemic response (GR). The current study aimed to further the limited data on the effect of agar on metabolism by assessing the effects on GE and GR as well as appetite- and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT). In this randomized control trial, eleven healthy volunteers were tested on two occasions following an overnight fast. Following baseline and resting measurements, volunteers were either fed a fruit-flavoured drink (liquid) or consumed a fruit-flavoured jelly (jelly). The two were exactly the same in composition except the jelly contained 4 g of agar crystals. Both contained 50 g of available carbohydrate. DIT was measured using indirect calorimetry, GE using the (13)C sodium acetate breath test, appetite using visual analogue scale and GR using finger prick blood samples. The jelly significantly delayed GE across all time points-latency phase (p = 0.07), lag phase (p = 0.04), half-time (p < 0.0001), ascension time (p = 0.025). The jelly also increased all appetite parameters-hunger (p = 0.006), fullness (p = 0.035), desire to eat (p = 0.03) and prospective consumption (p = 0.011). However, there were no significant differences in either GR or postprandial DIT between the liquid and jelly. Agar delays GE and increases appetite but does not change GR or DIT most probably due to the increase in viscosity caused by the agar jelly.

  17. Relationship Between Gastric Emptying and Diurnal Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Gopanandan; Kudva, Yogish C; Low, Phillip A; Camilleri, Michael; Basu, Ananda; Bharucha, Adil E

    2017-02-01

    In type 1 diabetes (T1D), delayed gastric emptying (GE) may predispose to a mismatch between insulin delivery and glucose absorption. Previous studies evaluated, only partly, the relationship between delayed GE and postprandial, but not diurnal, glycemia. To assess the relationship between GE disturbances and glycemic control in T1D and the effects of accelerating GE on glycemic control. This was a randomized placebo-controlled trial in 30 patients with T1D on an insulin pump at an academic medical center. GE was evaluated with a [13C]-Spirulina breath test at baseline (GEbaseline), during intravenous saline or erythromycin (2 or 3 mg/kg; GEiv), and after 7 days of oral erythromycin or placebo (GEoral). Weighed meals were provided throughout the study. These were GE and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). The baseline glycosylated hemoglobin was 7.6% ± 0.8% (60 ± 8.7 mmol/mol); 12 patients (40%) had delayed GE; faster GE was associated with a greater postprandial CGM-based glucose, but slower GE was not associated with postprandial hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dL). Intravenous (3 mg/kg) but not oral erythromycin accelerated GE. The relationship between GE and glycemia differed between the postprandial periods and the entire day. After adjusting for carbohydrate intake and insulin consumption, faster GE was associated with more hyperglycemia during the postprandial period but lower glucose values across the entire study. In T1D, pharmacologically mediated acceleration of GE increases postprandial CGM-based glucose. In contrast, delayed GE is associated with greater CGM-based glucose values over the entire day.

  18. Enteral nutrition reduces delayed gastric emptying after standard pancreaticoduodenectomy with child reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rayar, Michel; Sulpice, Laurent; Meunier, Bernard; Boudjema, Karim

    2012-05-01

    Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is a common complication following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Our retrospective study aimed to evaluate the influence of enteral nutrition (EN) on DGE incidence after standard PD with antrectomy and Child reconstruction. We retrospectively analyzed 275 consecutive patients who underwent standard PD between January 2000 and September 2009. Patients operated on after January 2005 received EN (EN group, n = 152) until total oral alimentation. Patients operated on prior to 2005 did not receive EN (control group, n = 123) and were orally fed after removing the nasogastric tube. Primary endpoint was the incidence of DGE according to the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery criteria. Secondary endpoints were the incidence of any other complications. The incidence of DGE was 26% vs. 38% (p = 0.04) in the EN and control groups, respectively, with 17% vs. 19% for grade B DGE (NS) and 9% vs. 19% for grade C DGE (p = 0.02). The differences in DGE did not significantly decrease the duration of stay (18 ± 11 vs. 19 ± 13 days; NS). Postpancreatectomy hemorrhage was significantly reduced in the EN group (8% vs. 20%, p = 0.008), with the incidence of postoperative pancreatic fistula being similar in both groups (15% vs. 12%; NS). Using multivariate analysis, EN (p = 0.047, OR = 0.559 [0.315; 0.994]), operative time (p < 0.001, OR = 1.007 [1.003; 1.010]), and patient age (p = 0.014, OR = 1.031 [1.006; 1.057]) were independent factors affecting the incidence of DGE. EN reduces DGE and postpancreatectomy hemorrhage after PD.

  19. Diunsaturated Aldehyde, trans,trans-2,4-Decadienal in the Intestinal Lumen Suppresses Gastric Emptying through Serotonin Signaling in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hira, Tohru; Yahagi, Asuka; Nishimura, Saki; Sakaino, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Takatoshi; Hara, Hiroshi

    2015-09-23

    We recently demonstrated that a diunsaturated aldehyde, trans,trans-2,4-decadienal (2,4-decadienal), potently stimulated secretion of cholecystokinin in the enteroendocrine cell line. Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin and serotonin play critical roles in reducing postprandial gastric emptying. In the present study, we first demonstrated that oral administration of 2,4-decadienal (50-100 mg/kg) reduced gastric emptying rate in rats, assessed by both the acetaminophen absorption test and the phenol red recovery method. In contrast, saturated aldehyde, alcohol, and fatty acids having the same chain length as 2,4-decadienal did not affect the gastric emptying rate. Duodenal administration of 2,4-decadienal potently reduced gastric emptying rate, but intraperitoneal administration did not. Furthermore, the gastric inhibitory effect of 2,4-decadienal was attenuated by treatment with a serotonin receptor antagonist. These results demonstrated that 2,4-decadienal in the small intestinal lumen has a potent inhibitory effect on gastric emptying, possibly through stimulation of the serotonin-producing enteroendocrine cells.

  20. A fully coupled bolus-esophageal-gastric model for esophageal emptying based on the immersed boundary method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Wenjun; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we develop a fully coupled bolus-esophageal-gastric model to study esophageal emptying based on the immersed boundary method. The model includes an esophageal segment, an ellipsoid-shaped stomach, and a bolus. It can easily handle the passive and active function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Two groups of case studies are presented. The first group is about the influence from tissue anisotropy. Simulation shows that the weaker (or more compliant) part suffers from a higher wall shear stress and higher pressure load when the bolus is filled in and emptied from the LES segment. This implies a degradation cycle in which a weaker tissue becomes much weaker due to an increased load, a possible pathway to the esophageal lower diverticulum. The second group is about bulge formation resulting from asymmetric anatomy and a compliant LES. In particular, we find a right bulge tends to develop for a compliant LES. The bulge is most pronounced with a highest stiffness of the gastric wall. This implies that the competition between the LES stiffness and gastric wall stiffness might be another factor related to the esophageal lower diverticulum. The support of Grant R01 DK56033 and R01 DK079902 from NIH is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. [The effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on the gastric emptying of rats: a pretreatment evaluation using Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)].

    PubMed

    Collares, Edgard Ferro; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes

    2006-01-01

    There is evidence that nitric oxide plays a role in the decrease in gastric emptying induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. To evaluate the effect of pretreatment with Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester, one competitive inhibitor of the nitric oxide synthases, on the gastric emptying delay induced by lipopolysaccharide. Male Wistar rats, SPF, were used after 24 h fast and 1 h-water withdrawn. The pretreatment was done intravenously with vehicle (saline) or N(w)-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester in the doses of 0.5, 1, 2.5 e 5 mg/kg. After 10 min, the animals were treated iv with lipopolysaccharide (50 microg/kg) or received vehicle (saline). The gastric emptying was evaluated 1 h after the lipopolysaccharide administration. A saline solution containing phenol red was used as the test meal. The gastric emptying was indirectly assessed by the determination of percent gastric retention of the test meal 10 min after orogastric administration. The animals pretreated with vehicle and treatment with lipopolysaccharide have significant rise of the gastric retention (average = 57%) in comparison with the controls receiving only vehicle (38.1%). The pretreatment with the different doses of N(w)-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester did not modify per se the gastric retention in comparison with the animals pretreated with vehicle. Pretreatment with N(w)-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester with the dose of 1 mg/kg determined a discrete but significant reduction in the gastric retention (52%) of animals treated with lipopolysaccharide in comparison with vehicle-pretreated rats. Paradoxically, animals pretreated with 2.5 or 5 mg of N(w)-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester/kg followed by treatment with lipopolysaccharide displayed a significantly higher gastric retention (74.7% and 80.5%, respectively) as compared to their controls, pretreated with the same doses of the inhibitor and treated with vehicle (40.5% and 38.7%, respectively) and to those pretreated with vehicle and treated with

  2. The addition of locust bean gum but not water delayed the gastric emptying rate of a nutrient semisolid meal in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Darwiche, Gassan; Björgell, Ola; Almér, Lars-olof

    2003-01-01

    Background Most of the previous studies regarding the effects of gel-forming fibres have considered the gastric emptying of liquid or solid meals after the addition of pectin or guar gum. The influence of locust bean gum, on gastric emptying of nutrient semisolid meals in humans has been less well studied, despite its common occurrence in foods. Using a standardised ultrasound method, this study was aimed at investigating if the gastric emptying in healthy subjects could be influenced by adding locust been gum, a widely used thickening agent, or water directly into a nutrient semisolid test meal. Methods The viscosity of a basic test meal (300 g rice pudding, 330 kcal) was increased by adding Nestargel (6 g, 2.4 kcal), containing viscous dietary fibres (96.5%) provided as seed flour of locust bean gum, and decreased by adding 100 ml of water. Gastric emptying of these three test meals were evaluated in fifteen healthy non-smoking volunteers, using ultrasound measurements of the gastric antral area to estimate the gastric emptying rate (GER). Results The median value of GER with the basic test meal (rice pudding) was estimated at 63 %, (range 47 to 84 %), (the first quartile = 61 %, the third quartile = 69 %). Increasing the viscosity of the rice pudding by adding Nestargel, resulted in significantly lower gastric emptying rates (p < 0.01), median GER 54 %, (range 7 to 71 %), (the first quartile = 48 %, the third quartile = 60 %). When the viscosity of the rice pudding was decreased (basic test meal added with water), the difference in median GER 65 %, (range 38 to 79 %), (the first quartile = 56 %, the third quartile = 71 %) was not significantly different (p = 0.28) compared to the GER of the basic test meal. Conclusions We conclude that the addition of locust bean gum to a nutrient semisolid meal has a major impact on gastric emptying by delaying the emptying rate, but that the addition of water to this test meal has no influence on gastric emptying in healthy

  3. Effect of cinnamon on gastric emptying, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipemia, glycemia, and appetite responses to high-fat breakfast

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. Methods A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Results Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p < 0.05). Strong relationships were evident (p < 0.05) between GE Thalf and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78), eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84) and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72). The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. Conclusions 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration Trial registration number: at http://www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT01350284 PMID:21899741

  4. Dietary actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases gastric digestion and the gastric emptying rate of several dietary proteins in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Hindmarsh, Jason P; Gonzalez, Lucrecia; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2014-04-01

    Dietary actinidin influences the extent to which some dietary proteins are digested in the stomach, and it is hypothesized that the latter modulation will in turn affect their gastric emptying rate (GE). In this study, the effect of dietary actinidin on GE and gastric digestion of 6 dietary protein sources was determined in growing rats. Each dietary protein source [beef muscle, gelatin, gluten, soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein isolate, and zein] was included in 2 semisynthetic diets as the sole nitrogen source. For each protein source, 1 of the 2 diets contained actinidin [76.5 U/g dry matter (DM)] in the form of ground freeze-dried green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward), whereas the other diet contained freeze-dried gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis cv. Hort16A), which is devoid of actinidin (3.4 U/g DM). For both diets, dietary kiwifruit represented 20% of the diet on a DM basis. The real-time GE was determined in rats gavaged with a single dose of the diets using magnetic resonance spectroscopy over 150 min (n = 8 per diet). Gastric protein digestion was determined based on the free amino groups in the stomach chyme collected from rats fed the diets (n = 8 per diet) that were later killed. GE differed across the protein sources [e.g., the half gastric emptying time (T(½)) ranged from 157 min for gluten to 266 min for zein] (P < 0.05). Dietary actinidin increased the gastric digestion of beef muscle (0.6-fold), gluten (3.2-fold), and SPI (0.6-fold) and increased the GE of the diets containing beef muscle (43% T(½)) and zein (23% T(½); P < 0.05). There was an inverse correlation between gastric protein digestion and DM retained in the stomach (r = -0.67; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin increased gastric protein digestion and accelerated the GE for several dietary protein sources. GE may be influenced by gastric protein digestion, and dietary actinidin can be used to modulate GE and protein digestion in the stomach of some

  5. Oxytocin prolongs the gastric emptying time in patients with diabetes mellitus and gastroparesis, but does not affect satiety or volume intake in patients with functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Borg, Julia; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2012-03-16

    Oxytocin is released in response to a fatty meal. Blockage of the oxytocin receptor led to slower gastric emptying whereas stimulation resulted in less satiety in healthy volunteers. Patients with diabetes mellitus and gastroparesis lack oxytocin elevation, and dyspepsia is partly caused by reduced fundus accommodation causing early satiety and related symptoms. The aim of this study was thus to examine the effect of oxytocin on gastric emptying, satiety and volume intake in patients with gastrointestinal pathology. Gastric emptying scintigraphy was performed twice in 12 patients with diabetic gastroparesis, once with oxytocin and once with saline as intravenous infusions. The patients scored their sensation of satiety using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The gastric emptying in patients with gastroparesis was prolonged during oxytocin infusion (p = 0.034) without affecting satiety. A slow satiety drinking test was performed in 14 patients with functional dyspepsia. The patients scored their satiety every five minutes until maximal satiety was reached, and the total volume was determined. The VAS was also completed 30 minutes afterwards. The test was performed twice, once with oxytocin and once with saline as intravenous infusions. There was no difference in satiety scores or volume of nutrient intake between saline and oxytocin infusions, either before, during or after the meal. Oxytocin prolongs gastric emptying in patients with diabetes mellitus and gastroparesis, but has no effect on volume of nutrient intake or satiety and other related symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia.

  6. Inhibition of gastric emptying and intestinal transit by amphetamine through a mechanism involving an increased secretion of CCK in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Doong, Ming-Luen; Lu, Chien-Chen; Kau, Mei-Mei; Tsai, Shiow-Chwen; Chiao, Yu-Chung; Chen, Jiann-Jong; Yeh, Jiun-Yih; Lin, Ho; Huang, Seng-Wong; Chen, Tseng-Shing; Chang, Full-Young; Wang, Paulus S

    1998-01-01

    The effect of amphetamine on gastrointestinal (GI) transit and the plasma levels of cholecystokinin (CCK) were studied in male rats. Gastric emptying was inhibited both acutely and chronically by the administration of amphetamine. GI transit was decreased by the acute administration of amphetamine but not affected by the chronic administration of amphetamine. Plasma CCK levels were increased dose-dependently by amphetamine. Proglumide, a CCK receptor antagonist, prevented amphetamine-induced inhibition of gastric emptying and the decrease in GI transit in male rats. The selective CCKA receptor antagonist, lorglumide, dose-dependently attenuated the amphetamine-induced inhibition of gastric emptying in male rats. In contrast, the selective CCKB receptor antagonist, PD 135,158, did not reverse the effect of amphetamine on gastric emptying. Both lorglumide and PD 135,158 reversed the inhibitory effect of amphetamine on GI transit in male rats. These results suggest that amphetamine-induced inhibition of gastric emptying and intestinal transit is due in part to a mechanism associated with the hypersecretion of endogenous CCK. PMID:9720782

  7. Effect of bran, ispaghula, and inert plastic particles on gastric emptying and small bowel transit in humans: the role of physical factors.

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, A; Vincent, R M; Perkins, A C; Spiller, R C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coarse bran is known to accelerate transit through the whole gut and to increase stool weight. This effect is much reduced by grinding the bran, suggesting that particle size influences gut motor patterns. AIMS: To compare the effect of 15 g coarse bran with 15 g inert plastic particles and 7 g of ispaghula on the gastric emptying and small bowel transit of a rice pudding test meal. SUBJECTS: 13 healthy volunteers. METHODS: Transit of 99mTc labelled rice studied by gamma-scintigraphy measuring gastric emptying and colonic arrival over 10 hours. Small bowel transit was estimated from the difference between time to 50% gastric emptying and 50% colonic arrival. RESULTS: Bran delayed gastric emptying by 22 (SEM 8) minutes compared with control values of 88 (SEM 6) minutes p < 0.05. Ispaghula and plastic particles had no significant effect. Small bowel transit was accelerated compared with control values of 322 (SEM 29) minutes, decreasing by 95 (29) minutes and 62 (22) minutes after bran and plastic particles respectively. Ispaghula again showed no significant effect. CONCLUSION: Coarse bran delays gastric emptying and accelerates small bowel transit. The marked acceleration of small bowel transit also seen with inert plastic particles may be due to increased upper gut secretions after stimulation of enteric nerves. PMID:9071936

  8. Biologic gastric emptying time in diabetic patients, using Tc-99m-labeled resin-oatmeal with and without metoclopramide

    SciTech Connect

    Domstad, P.A.; Kim, E.E.; Coupal, J.J.; Beihn, R.; Yonts, S.; Choy, Y.C.; Mandelstam, P.; DeLand, F.H.

    1980-11-01

    Biologic gastric emptying time (BGET) was measured in 24 patients with severe diabetes mellitus complicated by vascular damage and peripheral or sensory neuropathy. This population had a BGET of 192 +- 32.9 min (mean +- s.e.m. normal 40 to 85 min). Patients with diabetic gastroenteropathy had prolongation of BGET to 295 +- 45 (p < 0.05). Metoclopramide significantly shortened BGET in this subgroup to 101 +- 40 min, with return to normal values in eight of the 12 patients given the drug. The Tc-99m-labeled resin-oatmeal test meal used as described in this study provides a reliable measure of BGET and of the response to metoclopramide.

  9. Impact of intracerebroventricular obestatin on plasma acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1 levels, and on gastric emptying in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Lee, Wei-Jei; Chong, Keong; Lee, Shou-Dong; Liao, You-Di

    2012-07-01

    Obestatin, which is a putative 23-amino-acid peptide, is derived from the C-terminal part of the mammalian preproghrelin gene. Nesfatin-1 mRNA is co-expressed with ghrelin in gastric endocrine X/A-like cells; therefore, nesfatin-1 may also interact with preproghrelin gene products in the stomach. In this study, we investigated the impact of obestatin on the plasma levels of acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1, and on the gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal 2 h after an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection in conscious, fasted rats. The rats were implanted with ICV catheters. Plasma levels of acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and nesfatin-1, expected to be co-expressed with obestatin, were measured, whereas the human/rat corticotropin-releasing factor (h/rCRF) was applied as an inhibitor of gastric emptying. The ICV administration of obestatin (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 nmol/rat) did not modify the plasma acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin levels, the acyl ghrelin/des-acyl ghrelin ratio and nesfatin-1 concentrations. The ICV acute administration of obestatin had no influence on the 2-h rate of gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal, but the ICV h/rCRF injection delayed it. The weight of food ingested 1 h before ICV injection significantly, but negatively correlated with the gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal. Our study indicates that the ICV injection of obestatin does not change the 2-h rate of gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal and the relatively weak interrelationships between ghrelin gene products and nesfatin-1. However, the weight of the ingested food negatively affects the gastric emptying of a solid nutrient meal in conscious, fasted rats.

  10. Early identification of drug-induced impairment of gastric emptying through physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) simulation of plasma concentration-time profiles in rat.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sheila Annie; Hultin, Leif

    2008-02-01

    Inhibition of gastric emptying rate can have adverse effects on the absorption of food and nutrients. The absorption phase of the plasma concentration-time profile of a compound administered orally to pre-clinical species reflects among others, the gastric and intestinal transit kinetics, and can thus assist in the early identification of delayed gastric emptying. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the value of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling in the early identification of drug induced impairment of gastric emptying from pharmacokinetic profiles. To our knowledge, this is first time that the value of a generic PBPK model for hypothesis testing has been demonstrated with examples. A PBPK model built in-house using MATLAB package and incorporating absorption, metabolism, distribution, biliary and renal elimination models has been employed for the simulation of concentration-time profiles. PBPK simulations of a few compounds that are currently in drug discovery projects show that the observed initial absorption phase of their concentration-time profiles in rat were consistent with reduced gastric emptying rates. The slow uptake of these compounds into the systemic circulation is reflected in their pharmacokinetic profiles but it is not obvious until PBPK simulations are done. Delayed gastric emptying rates of these compounds in rats were also independently observed in x-ray imaging. PBPK simulations can provide early alerts to drug discovery projects, besides aiding the understanding of complex mechanisms that determine the lineshapes of pharmacokinetic profiles. The application of PBPK simulations in the early detection of gastric emptying problems with existing data and without the need to resort to additional animal studies, is appealing both from an economic and ethical standpoint.

  11. Radiopaque markers to evaluate gastric emptying and small intestinal transit time in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Chandler, M L; Guilford, G; Lawoko, C R

    1997-01-01

    Determinations of gastric emptying time (GET) and small intestinal transit time (SITT) are useful in detecting gastrointestinal motility disorders and partial obstructions of the pylorus or small intestine. Barium-impregnated, polyethylene radiopaque spheres with diameters of 1.5 mm and 5.0 mm have been developed for quantitative assessment of gastrointestinal transit. The purpose of this study was to evaluate GET and SITT using these radiopaque spheres in 10 healthy cats. The cats were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: fasted, fed, and fed plus sedation (acetylpromazine maleate 0.10 mg/kg subcutaneously). A repeated measures study design was used. The mean GETs of 50%, 75%, and 90% of the 1.5-mm and the 5-mm spheres in the unfed cats were 0.36, 0.58, and 0.74 hours, and 0.41, 0.68, and 1.02 hours, respectively. These values were significantly (P < or = .05) more rapid than the GETs of 50%, 75%, and 90% of the 1.5-mm and 5-mm spheres of either the sedated fed cats (4.39, 5.68, 6.65 and 5.15, 5.99, 6.91 hours) or the unsedated fed cats (6.43, 8.12, 9.06 and 7.49, 8.49, 9.22 hours). The mean GETs of 50% and 75% of the 1.5-mm and 5-mm and of 90% of the 1.5-mm spheres were significantly (P < or = .05) more rapid in sedated than in unsedated fed cats. The GET of 50% of the 1.5-mm spheres was significantly more rapid (P < or = .05) than that of the 5-mm spheres in the fed cats. The mean SITTs, which ranged from 2.25 to 3.05 hours, were not significantly different (P > .05) among the treatment groups or between the 1.5-mm and 5-mm spheres. The GET of spheres given to fasted cats is significantly more rapid than that of fed cats. Subcutaneous injection of acetylpromazine speeds GET in fed cats. The SITT of small and large spheres was not influenced by feeding or by acetylpromazine injection.

  12. Circulating Ghrelin Acts on GABA Neurons of the Area Postrema and Mediates Gastric Emptying in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Agustina; Cornejo, María P; Fernandez, Gimena; De Francesco, Pablo N; Garcia-Romero, Guadalupe; Uriarte, Maia; Zigman, Jeffrey M; Portiansky, Enrique; Reynaldo, Mirta; Perello, Mario

    2017-05-01

    Ghrelin is known to act on the area postrema (AP), a sensory circumventricular organ located in the medulla oblongata that regulates a variety of important physiological functions. However, the neuronal targets of ghrelin in the AP and their potential role are currently unknown. In this study, we used wild-type and genetically modified mice to gain insights into the neurons of the AP expressing the ghrelin receptor [growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)] and their role. We show that circulating ghrelin mainly accesses the AP but not to the adjacent nucleus of the solitary tract. Also, we show that both peripheral administration of ghrelin and fasting induce an increase of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in GHSR-expressing neurons of the AP, and that GHSR expression is necessary for the fasting-induced activation of AP neurons. Additionally, we show that ghrelin-sensitive neurons of the AP are mainly γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic, and that an intact AP is required for ghrelin-induced gastric emptying. Overall, we show that the capacity of circulating ghrelin to acutely induce gastric emptying in mice requires the integrity of the AP, which contains a population of GABA neurons that are a target of plasma ghrelin. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  13. Prospective randomized clinical trial of a change in gastric emptying and nutritional status after a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy: comparison between an antecolic and a vertical retrocolic duodenojejunostomy

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Naoya; Chijiiwa, Kazuo; Ohuchida, Jiro; Hiyoshi, Masahide; Nagano, Motoaki; Otani, Kazuhiro; Kondo, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Although an antecolic duodenojejunostomy was reported to reduce post-operative delayed gastric emptying (DGE) compared with a retrocolic duodenojejunostomy after a pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD), the long-term effects of these procedures have rarely been studied. The aim of this prospective, randomized, clinical trial was to investigate the influence of the reconstruction route on post-operative gastric emptying and nutrition. Methods Reconstruction was performed in 116 patients with an antecolic duodenojejunostomy (A group, n = 58) or a vertical retrocolic duodenojejunostomy (VR group, n = 58). Post-operative complications, including DGE, gastric emptying variables assessed by 13C-acetate breath test and nutrition, were compared between the two groups for 1 year post-operatively. Results The incidence of DGE was not significantly different between the procedures (A group: 12.1%; VR group: 20.7%, P = 0.316). At post-operative month 1, gastric emptying was prolonged in the VR versus the A group but not significantly so. At post-operative month 6, gastric emptying was accelerated significantly in the A versus the VR group. Post-operative weight recovery was significantly better in the VR versus the A group at post-operative month 12 (percentage of pre-operative weight, A group: 93.8 ± 1.2%; VR group: 98.5 ± 1.3%, P = 0.015). Conclusions A vertical retrocolic duodenojejunostomy was an acceptable procedure for the lower incidence of DGE and may contribute to better weight gain affected by moderate gastric emptying. PMID:23991719

  14. Fast pouch emptying, delayed small intestinal transit, and exaggerated gut hormone responses after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Dirksen, C; Damgaard, M; Bojsen-Møller, K N; Jørgensen, N B; Kielgast, U; Jacobsen, S H; Naver, L S; Worm, D; Holst, J J; Madsbad, S; Hansen, D L; Madsen, J L

    2013-04-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) causes extensive changes in gastrointestinal anatomy and leads to reduced appetite and large weight loss, which partly is due to an exaggerated release of anorexigenic gut hormones. To examine whether the altered passage of foods through the gastrointestinal tract after RYGB could be responsible for the changes in gut hormone release, we studied gastrointestinal motility with a scintigraphic technique as well as the secretion of the gut hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36 ) in 17 patients>1 year after RYGB and in nine healthy control subjects. At meal completion, a smaller fraction of liquid and solid radiolabeled marker was retained in the pouch of RYGB patients than in the stomach of control subjects (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). Accordingly, pouch emptying in patients was faster than gastric emptying in control subjects (P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively liquid and solid markers). For the solid marker, small intestinal transit was slower in patients than control subjects (P = 0.034). Colonic transit rate did not differ between the groups. GLP-1 and PYY3-36 secretion was increased in patients compared to control subjects and fast pouch emptying of the liquid marker was associated with high gut hormone secretion. After RYGB, the bulk of foods pass without hindrance into the small intestine, while the small intestinal transit is prolonged. The rapid exposure of the gut epithelium contributes to the exaggerated release of GLP-1 and PYY3-36 after RYGB. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Effects of Posture and Meal Volume on Gastric Emptying, Intestinal Transit, Oral Glucose Tolerance, Blood Pressure and Gastrointestinal Symptoms After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nam Q; Debreceni, Tamara L; Burgstad, Carly M; Wishart, Judith M; Bellon, Max; Rayner, Chris K; Wittert, Gary A; Horowitz, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of posture and drink volume on gastric/pouch emptying (G/PE), intestinal transit, hormones, absorption, glycaemia, blood pressure and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms after gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)). Ten RYGB subjects were studied on four occasions in randomized order (sitting vs. supine posture; 50 vs. 150 ml of labelled water mixed with 3 g 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG) and 50 g glucose). G/PE, caecal arrival time (CAT), blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), peptide YY (PYY), 3-OMG, blood pressure, heart rate and GI symptoms were assessed over 240 min. Controls were ten volunteers with no medical condition or previous abdominal surgery, who were studied with the 150-ml drink in the sitting position. Compared to controls, PE (P < 0.001) and CAT (P < 0.001) were substantially more rapid in RYGB subjects. In RYGB, PE was more rapid in the sitting position (2.5 ± 0.7 vs. 16.6 ± 5.3 min, P = 0.02) and tends to be faster after 150 ml than the 50-ml drinks (9.5 ± 2.9 vs. 14.0 ± 3.5 min, P = 0.16). The sitting position and larger volume drinks were associated with greater releases of insulin, GLP-1 and PYY, as well as more hypotension (P < 0.01), tachycardia (P < 0.01) and postprandial symptoms (P < 0.001). Pouch emptying, blood pressure and GI symptoms after RYGB are dependent on both posture and meal volume.

  16. Gastric emptying and short-term digestibility of thermally oxidized sunflower oil used for frying in fasted and nonfasted rats.

    PubMed

    Olivero David, Raul; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco José; Bastida, Sara; Benedi, Juana; González-Muñoz, María José

    2010-08-25

    Four-hour in vivo digestibility of sunflower oil used in frying was tested in fasted and nonfasted rats. For three consecutive days, 12 male Wistar rats received 1 g of unused oil (controls, C), while 12 received 1 g of used oil (test group, T). On the night of day 3, 6 rats from each group were fasted (FC, FT) while the other 6 animals from each group had free access to food (NFC, NFT). On day 4, FC and NFC received 2 g of unused oil, while FT and NFT received 2 g of used oil. Luminal gastric and intestinal fats were studied by column and HPSE chromatography after endogenous corrections. Gastric emptying in FT was significantly slower than in NFT and FC. The luminal gastric fat profile differed from that of the oils administered, suggesting that nonoxidized triacylglycerols passed quickly into the intestines. All glyceridic compounds present in the luminal intestinal fat were affected by oil type (at least P < 0.01). Oil digestibility value order was FT < NFT < FC < NFC. FT and NFT presented lower (P < 0.001) triacylglycerol polymer and dimer digestibilities than NFC and FC. In conclusion, oil type determined luminal intestinal fat compounds and their digestibility more than nutritional status.

  17. A comparison of gastric emptying of soluble solid meals and clear fluids matched for volume and energy content: a pilot crossover study.

    PubMed

    Okabe, T; Terashima, H; Sakamoto, A

    2017-08-14

    We previously demonstrated that the gastric emptying time of different liquids with the same volume mainly depended on their energy content, regardless of differences in composition. In this crossover study, we investigated whether the same applies when soluble solid foods are ingested with water. Ten healthy volunteers ingested one of five test diets consisting of two test meals (Calorie Mate(®) 100 and 200 kcal) and three test solutions (water and glucose solutions of 100 and 200 kcal), each given in a volume of 400 ml, and then underwent ultrasonography to measure the gastric antral cross-sectional area every 10 min for 120 min. The gastric emptying time was defined as the time for the antral cross-sectional area to revert to its initial value. When test diets with the same energy content were ingested, the gastric emptying curves were nearly identical, regardless of whether the original form was solid or liquid. The median (IQR[range]) gastric emptying times of Calorie Mate(®) of 100 kcal with water vs. isocaloric glucose solution were 65 (60-78 [50-80]) vs. 65 (60-70 [50-80]) min (p = 0.58), and for Calorie Mate(®) of 200 kcal with water vs. isocaloric glucose solution they were 100 (93-108 [90-120]) vs. 105 (90-110 [90-120]) min (p = 0.54). The median (IQR [range]) for water was 40 (30-40 [30-50]) min. Energy content may be a critical determinant of the gastric emptying time when ingesting soluble solid diets with water. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Coffee for morning hunger pangs. An examination of coffee and caffeine on appetite, gastric emptying, and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Grant, Gary; Horner, Katy; King, Neil; Leveritt, Michael; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has a number of potential health benefits. Coffee may influence energy expenditure and energy intake, which in turn may affect body weight. However, the influence of coffee and its constituents - particularly caffeine - on appetite remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of coffee consumption (with and without caffeine) on appetite sensations, energy intake, gastric emptying, and plasma glucose between breakfast and lunch meals. In a double-blind, randomised crossover design. Participants (n = 12, 9 women; Mean ± SD age and BMI: 26.3 ± 6.3 y and 22.7 ± 2.2 kg•m⁻²) completed 4 trials: placebo (PLA), decaffeinated coffee (DECAF), caffeine (CAF), and caffeine with decaffeinated coffee (COF). Participants were given a standardised breakfast labelled with ¹³C-octanoic acid and 225 mL of treatment beverage and a capsule containing either caffeine or placebo. Two hours later, another 225 mL of the treatment beverage and capsule was administered. Four and a half hours after breakfast, participants were given access to an ad libitum meal for determination of energy intake. Between meals, participants provided exhaled breath samples for determination of gastric emptying; venous blood and appetite sensations. Energy intake was not significantly different between the trials (Means ± SD, p> 0.05; Placebo: 2118 ± 663 kJ; Decaf: 2128 ± 739 kJ; Caffeine: 2287 ± 649 kJ; Coffee: 2016 ± 750 kJ); Other than main effects of time (p <0.05), no significant differences were detected for appetite sensations or plasma glucose between treatments (p > 0.05). Gastric emptying was not significantly different across trials (p > 0.05). No significant effects of decaffeinated coffee, caffeine or their combination were detected. However, the consumption of caffeine and/or coffee for regulation of energy balance

  19. Gastric myoelectrical activity in patients with Parkinson's disease: evidence of a primary gastric abnormality.

    PubMed

    Soykan, I; Lin, Z; Bennett, J P; McCallum, R W

    1999-05-01

    Parkinson's disease patients may experience various gastrointestinal symptoms; however, the exact pathophysiology of these symptoms is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of gastric myoelectrical activity in patients with Parkinson's disease. Eleven patients with Parkinson's disease and 10 healthy subjects participated in the study. Patients were stratified as "receiving dopaminergic therapy" (N = 5) and "off therapy" (N = 6). Gastric myoelectrical activity was measured by means of surface electrogastrography (EGG) for 30 min before and for 90 min after a standardized meal. The dominant frequency, postprandial EGG power change, and the percentage of normal 2-4 cycles/min (cpm) slow-wave activity in the three groups were calculated and compared. The mean postprandial EGG power increase in the untreated patients was smaller than in the treated patients (-3.11 +/- 1.01 and 1.17 +/- 1.96 dB; P = 0.072). Moreover, both of these values were significantly decreased when compared to the control group (untreated vs control: -3.11 +/- 1.01 vs 8.01 +/- 1.86 dB; P = 0.04 and treated vs control: 1.17 +/- 1.96 vs 8.01 +/- 1.86 dB; P = 0.02). The percentage of normal 2-4 cpm slow waves in untreated patients was not different from the treated patients (82.6 +/- 6.6% vs 75.8 +/- 13.6%, P = NS) or from the control group (88.2 +/- 5.4%, P = NS). The dominant frequency after the meal was similar to that in the fasting state both in the untreated (3.3 +/- 0.1 vs 3.2 +/- 0.2 cpm; P = NS) and treated patients (3.2 +/- 0.1 vs 3.1 +/- 0.1 cpm, P = NS), whereas the dominant frequency significantly increased postprandially in the control group (2.88 +/- 0.12 vs 3.05 +/- 0.16; P < 0.05). Abnormalities in gastric myoelectrical activity in untreated Parkinson's disease patients reflect direct involvement of the gastrointestinal tract by the primary disease process. EGG can be regarded as a useful diagnostic tool in evaluating gastrointestinal

  20. Gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and glycemic responses to erythritol and xylitol in lean and obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K; Cajacob, Lucian; Keller, Nino; Doody, Alison; Rehfeld, Jens F; Drewe, Juergen; Peterli, Ralph; Beglinger, Christoph; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin

    2016-06-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity and a possible association with increasing sucrose consumption, nonnutritive sweeteners are gaining popularity. Given that some studies indicate that artificial sweeteners might have adverse effects, alternative solutions are sought. Xylitol and erythritol have been known for a long time and their beneficial effects on caries prevention and potential health benefits in diabetic patients have been demonstrated in several studies. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are released from the gut in response to food intake, promote satiation, reduce gastric emptying (GE), and modulate glucose homeostasis. Although glucose ingestion stimulates sweet taste receptors in the gut and leads to incretin and gastrointestinal hormone release, the effects of xylitol and erythritol have not been well studied. Ten lean and 10 obese volunteers were given 75 g of glucose, 50 g of xylitol, or 75 g of erythritol in 300 ml of water or placebo (water) by a nasogastric tube. We examined plasma glucose, insulin, active GLP-1, CCK, and GE with a [(13)C]sodium acetate breath test and assessed subjective feelings of satiation. Xylitol and erythritol led to a marked increase in CCK and GLP-1, whereas insulin and plasma glucose were not (erythritol) or only slightly (xylitol) affected. Both xylitol and erythritol induced a significant retardation in GE. Subjective feelings of appetite were not significantly different after carbohydrate intake compared with placebo. In conclusion, acute ingestion of erythritol and xylitol stimulates gut hormone release and slows down gastric emptying, whereas there is no or only little effect on insulin release. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Effect of an abrupt switch from a milk-based to a fibre-based diet on gastric emptying rates in pigs: difference between origins of fibre.

    PubMed

    Boudry, Gaëlle; Guérin, Sylvie; Henri Malbert, Charles

    2004-12-01

    A characteristic dietary feature at weaning is a switch from a milk-based to plant-based diet, i.e. from a non-fibrous to a fibrous diet. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of such an abrupt dietary switch on gastric emptying rate in pigs maintained on a milk substitute after weaning. Eighteen piglets were kept on a milk substitute for 5 weeks after weaning and were then switched to wheat-based or barley-based diets or kept on the milk substitute (six piglets per group). All piglets were fasted for 1 d before the switch and daily food intake was then increased linearly to reach initial values within 3 d. The gastric emptying rate was measured by gamma-scintigraphy before and after the switch. Corpo-antral peristalsis was also evaluated by the use of high-frequency scintigraphic frames. The gastric emptying rate of the wheat-based diet was accelerated on days 1 to 3 after the switch, but was similar to that in the milk-substitute group thereafter. This acceleration was concomitant with an enhanced frequency of corpo-antral waves on days 2 and 3. Conversely, the gastric emptying rate of the barley-based diet tended to be enhanced on day 2, but was delayed on days 4 and 5, without any change in frequency of corpo-antral waves. We conclude that a switch from a non-fibrous to a fibrous diet alters the gastric emptying rate differently depending on the type of dietary fibre.

  2. Effects of randomized whey-protein loads on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying, and plasma gut-hormone concentrations in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Standfield, Scott; Jones, Karen L; Lange, Kylie; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2017-09-01

    Background: Protein- and energy-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. Information about the effects of protein on energy intake and related gastrointestinal mechanisms and whether these differ between men and women is limited.Objective: We determined the effects of whey protein on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying, and gut hormones in healthy older men and women.Design: Eight older women and 8 older men [mean ± SEM age: 72 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 25 ± 1] were studied on 3 occasions in which they received protein loads of 30 g (120 kcal) or 70 g (280 kcal) or a flavored water control drink (0 kcal). At regular intervals over 180 min, appetite (visual analog scales), gastric emptying (3-dimensional ultrasonography), and blood glucose and plasma gut-hormone concentrations [insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)] were measured, and ad libitum energy intake was quantified from a buffet meal (180-210 min; energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying in the men have been published previously).Results: Energy intake at the buffet meal was ∼80% higher in older men than in older women (P < 0.001). Energy intake was not suppressed by protein compared with the control in men or women (P > 0.05). There was no effect of sex on gastric emptying, appetite, gastrointestinal symptoms, glucose, or gut hormones (P > 0.05). There was a protein load-dependent slowing of gastric emptying, an increase in concentrations of insulin, glucagon, cholecystokinin, GIP, GLP-1, and PYY, and an increase in total energy intake (drink plus meal: 12% increase with 30 g and 32% increase with 70 g; P < 0.001). Energy intake at the buffet meal was inversely related to the stomach volume and area under the curve of hormone concentrations (P < 0.05).Conclusion: In older men and women, whey-protein drinks load

  3. Direct comparison of solid-phase gastric emptying times assessed by means of a carbon isotope-labeled sodium acetate breath test and technetium Tc 99m albumin colloid radioscintigraphy in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Silke; Götte, Birte; Borsch, Christian; Kunz, Clemens; Failing, Klaus; Neiger, Reto

    2014-07-01

    To directly compare solid-phase gastric emptying times assessed by means of a [(13)C]sodium acetate breath test ([(13)C]-SABT) and technetium Tc 99m albumin colloid radioscintigraphy ((99m)Tc-ACR) in healthy cats. 12 healthy cats. After ingestion of a test meal containing 50 mg of [(13)C]sodium acetate and 250 MBq of (99m)Tc-albumin colloid, each cat underwent simultaneous [(13)C]-SABT and (99m)Tc-ACR on 2 consecutive days. Breath samples and scintigrams were acquired at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 300, 360, 480, and 600 minutes after meal ingestion. Quartiles of gastric emptying (25%, 50%, and 75%) were calculated for breath test analysis by use of the area under the curve of the (13)C:(12)C ratio. Quartiles of gastric emptying times were extrapolated from the scintigraphic findings by beans of nonlinear curve regression analysis. Mean ± SD gastric half-emptying (50%) times obtained with [(13)C]-SABT and (99m)Tc-ACR, were 239 ± 28 minutes and 276 ± 59 minutes, respectively. A 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that mean gastric emptying times determined with [(13)C]-SABT and (99m)Tc-ACR differed significantly. For the stages of gastric emptying, Pearson correlation between the 2 methods was good at 25% (r = 0.655) and weak at 50% (r = 0.588) and 75% (r = 0.566)of gastric emptying. Results indicated that the [(13)C]-SABT can be a valid alternative to (99m)Tc-ACR in healthy cats; it was easy to perform, was tolerated well by the cats, and had acceptable correlation to scintigraphic findings at gastric emptying of 25%, 50% and 75%. Studies in cats with delayed gastric emptying will be needed to verify the validity of the [(13)C]-SABT.

  4. Reduction of the Incidence of Delayed Gastric Emptying in Side-to-Side Gastrojejunostomy in Subtotal Stomach-Preserving Pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toru; Ambo, Yoshiyasu; Noji, Takehiro; Okada, Naoya; Takada, Minoru; Shimizu, Toru; Suzuki, On; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Kashimura, Nobuichi; Kishida, Akihiro; Hirano, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    One of the most common morbidities of pancreaticoduodenectomies is delayed gastric emptying (DGE). The recent advent of subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (SSPPD) attempts to lessen this troublesome complication; however, the incidence of DGE still remains to be 4.5-20%. This study aims to evaluate whether the incidence of DGE can be reduced by the side-to-side gastric greater curvature-to-jejunal anastomosis in comparison with the gastric stump-to-jejunal end-to-side anastomosis in SSPPD. Between October 2007 and September 2012, a total of 160 consecutive patients who had undergone SSPPD were analyzed retrospectively. In the first period (October 2007-March 2010), gastrojejunostomy was performed with end-to-side anastomosis in 80 patients (SSPPD-ETS group). In the second period (April 2010-September 2012), gastrojejunostomy was performed with the greater curvature side-to-jejunal side anastomosis in 80 patients (SSPPD-STS group). The postoperative data were collected prospectively in a database and reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of DGE was 21.3% in the SSPPD-ETS group and 2.5% in the SSPPD-STS group (P = 0.0002). According to the classification of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS), the incidence of DGE of grades A, B, and C were 5, 5, and 7 in the SSPPD-ETS group and 0, 2, and 0 in the SSPPD-STS group, respectively. The overall morbidity and postoperative hospital stay of the two groups were not significantly different. The greater curvature side-to-side anastomosis of gastrojejunostomy is associated with a reduced incidence of DGE after SSPPD.

  5. Phenylalanine flux and gastric emptying are not affected by replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet of adult cats consuming frequent small meals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Decreasing the rate of protein emptying from the stomach may improve efficiency of utilization of dietary amino acids for protein deposition. Some studies in rats and humans have shown casein to be more slowly released from the stomach than whey protein. To test if casein induces a slower rate of gastric emptying in cats than whey protein, L-[1-13C]phenylalanine (Phe) was dosed orally into 9 adult cats to estimate gastric emptying and whole-body Phe flux. Results Concentrations of indispensable amino acids in plasma were not significantly affected by dietary protein source. First-pass splanchnic extraction of Phe was not different between diets and averaged 50% (SEM = 3.8%). The half-time for gastric emptying averaged 9.9 min with casein and 10.3 min with whey protein, and was not significantly different between diets (SEM = 1.7 min). Phenylalanine fluxes were 45.3 and 46.5 μmol/(min · kg) for casein- and whey-based diets, respectively (SEM = 4.7 μmol/(min · kg)). Conclusions In adult cats fed frequent small meals, the replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet does not affect supply or utilization of amino acids. These two milk proteins appear to be equally capable of meeting the dietary amino acid needs of cats. PMID:25266643

  6. The effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors on the gastric emptying and small intestine transit in the male rats following traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Khaksari, Mohammad; Shahrokhi, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): This study was carried out to investigate the effects of COX-2 selective inhibitor (Celecoxib) or non-selective COX inhibitor (Ibuprofen) on gastrointestinal motility. Materials and Methods: The rats were randomly divided into five groups including: intact, sham, traumatic brain injury (TBI) group (intact rats under TBI), Celecoxib group (10 mg/kg), Ibuprofen group (10 mg/kg). Rats of the treatment groups received gavages at 1 hr before the TBI induction. The TBI was moderate and diffused using the Marmarou method. The gastric emptying and small intestine transit were measured by phenol red method. Results: The gastric emptying didn’t change following TBI induction compared to intact group. The consumption of ibuprofen or celecoxib didn’t have any effect on gastric emptying compared to sham group. TBI induction didn’t have any effect on the intestinal transit. Also, there was no significant difference between ibuprofen or celecoxib consumption vs. sham group (P>0.05). Conclusion: The COX-2 selective inhibitor (celecoxib) or non-selective COX inhibitor (ibuprofen) have no effects on gastric or small bowel transit. Further work is necessary to investigate the effects of non-selective COX inhibitors and their impact on gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:25140201

  7. Cold ambient temperature reverses abdominal surgery-induced delayed gastric emptying and decreased plasma ghrelin levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Luckey, Andrew; Yuan, Pu-Qing; Wang, Lixin; Taché, Yvette

    2010-12-01

    We investigated whether acute cold-induced vagal activation through brainstem thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) signaling influences abdominal surgery-induced delayed gastric emptying (GE) in fasted rats. Laparotomy and cecal palpation or sham (short anesthesia alone) was performed 10 min before or 30 min after cold exposure (4-6°C) lasting 90 min. Non-nutrient GE was assessed during 70-90 min of cold exposure. Control groups remained at room temperature (RT). The stable TRH analog, RX-77368 (50 ng/rat) was injected intracisternally immediately before surgery and GE monitored 30-50 min postsurgery in rats maintained at RT. Plasma acyl (AG) and total ghrelin levels were assessed using the new RAPID blood processing method and radioimmunoassays. Desacyl ghrelin (DAG) was derived from total minus AG. In rats maintained at RT, abdominal surgery decreased GE by 60% compared to sham. Cold before or after surgery or RX-77368 normalized the delayed GE. In non-fasted rats, cold exposure increased plasma AG and DAG levels at 2 h (2.4- and 2.7-times, respectively) and 4 h (2.2- and 2.0-times, respectively) compared to values in rats maintained at RT. In fasted rats, abdominal surgery decreased AG and DAG levels by 2.4- and 2.1-times, respectively, at 90 min. Cold for 90 min after surgery normalized AG and DAG levels to those observed in sham-treated animals kept at RT. These data indicate that endogenous (cold exposure) and exogenous (TRH analog) activation of medullary TRH vagal signaling prevent abdominal surgery-induced delayed GE. The restoration of circulating AG levels inhibited by abdominal surgery may contribute to alleviate postoperative gastric ileus. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Gastric emptying of a liquid nutrient meal in the critically ill: relationship between scintigraphic and carbon breath test measurement.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M J; Besanko, L K; Burgstad, C M; Fraser, R J; Bellon, M; O'Connor, S; Russo, A; Jones, K L; Lange, K; Nguyen, N Q; Bartholomeusz, F; Chatterton, B; Horowitz, M

    2011-10-01

    It is assumed that delayed gastric emptying (GE) occurs frequently in critical illness; however, the prevalence of slow GE has not previously been assessed using scintigraphy. Furthermore, breath tests could potentially provide a convenient method of quantifying GE, but have not been validated in this setting. The aims of this study were to (i) determine the prevalence of delayed GE in unselected, critically ill patients and (ii) evaluate the relationships between GE as measured by scintigraphy and carbon breath test. Prospective observational study. Mixed medical/surgical intensive care unit. 25 unselected, mechanically ventilated patients (age 66 years (49-72); and 14 healthy subjects (age 62 years (19-84)). GE was measured using scintigraphy and (14)C-breath test. A test meal of 100 ml Ensure (standard liquid feed) labelled with (14)C octanoic acid and (99m)Technetium sulphur colloid was placed in the stomach via a nasogastric tube. Gastric 'meal' retention (scintigraphy) at 60, 120, 180 and 240 min, breath test t(50) (BTt(50)), and GE coefficient were determined. Of the 24 patients with scintigraphic data, GE was delayed at 120 min in 12 (50%). Breath tests correlated well with scintigraphy in both patients and healthy subjects (% retention at 120 min vs BTt(50); r(2)=0.57 healthy; r(2)=0.56 patients; p≤0.002 for both). GE of liquid nutrient is delayed in approximately 50% of critically ill patients. Breath tests correlate well with scintigraphy and are a valid method of GE measurement in this group.

  9. Gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time in patients with irritable bowel syndrome determined with 99mTc-labeled pellets and scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, O.H.; Gjorup, T.; Christensen, F.N.

    1986-12-01

    A new method employing 99mTc-labeled pellets for determination of the gastric emptying rate and small bowel transit time is described. The participants were six normal subjects and 16 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (eight with diarrhea and eight with obstipation as the primary complaint). The gastric emptying rate was the same in the three groups. The patients in the obstipation group had a significantly longer small bowel transit time than the normals (P less than 0.02) and the patients in the diarrhea group (P less than 0.01). There was no demonstrable difference between the small bowel transit time in the normals and in the patients in the diarrhea group.

  10. Preventive effect of sesquiterpenes from bay leaf on blood ethanol elevation in ethanol-loaded rat: structure requirement and suppression of gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Shimoda, H; Uemura, T; Yoshikawa, M

    1999-09-20

    The methanolic extract from the leaves of Laurus nobilis (bay leaf, laurel) potently inhibited the elevation of blood ethanol level in ethanol-loaded rat. Through bioassay-guided separation, costunolide, dehydrocostus lactone, and santamarine were isolated as the active constituents and the alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone structure was found to be essential for the preventive effect on ethanol absorption. In addition, the retardation of gastric emptying seemed to be partially involved in the preventive effects.

  11. Evaluation of gastric emptying time, gastrointestinal transit time, sedation score, and nausea score associated with intravenous constant rate infusion of lidocaine hydrochloride in clinically normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca A; Kierski, Katharine R; Jones, Brian G

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To quantify nausea and sedation scores, gastric emptying time, and gastrointestinal transit time after IV administration of a lidocaine hydrochloride bolus followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI) in clinically normal dogs. ANIMALS 6 Beagles. PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs were fed thirty 1.5-mm barium-impregnated spheres (BIPS) and received a saline (0.9% NaCl) solution bolus (0.05 mL/kg) IV (time 0) followed by a CRI at 10 mL/h, a lidocaine bolus (1 mg/kg) IV followed by a CRI at 25 μg/kg/min, or a lidocaine bolus (1 mg/kg) IV followed by a CRI at 50 μg/kg/min; CRIs were for 12 hours. Nausea and sedation scores were assessed and abdominal radiographs obtained immediately after feeding of BIPS and every hour for 12 hours and again 16 hours after CRI start. Percentage of BIPSs in the small and large intestines, gastric emptying time, and gastrointestinal transit time were assessed. RESULTS Gastric emptying time did not differ significantly among treatments. Significantly more BIPS were in the large intestine 4 to 7 hours after treatment start for the 50-μg/kg/min treatment than for the other 2 treatments. Six hours after treatment start, significantly more BIPS were in the large intestine for the 25-μg/kg/min treatment than for the saline solution treatment. Higher sedation and nausea scores were associated with the 50-μg/kg/min CRI. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In clinically normal dogs, lidocaine CRI did not significantly affect gastric emptying. However, gastrointestinal transit time was mildly decreased and sedation and nausea scores increased in dogs administered a lidocaine CRI at clinically used doses.

  12. Actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases the digestion and rate of gastric emptying of meat proteins in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Olson, Trent D; Purba, Ajitpal S; Drummond, Lynley N; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-03-28

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary actinidin on the kinetics of gastric digestion of beef muscle proteins and on the rate of stomach emptying in growing pigs. For this purpose, 120 pigs (mean body weight 28 (sd 2·9) kg) were fed beef muscle protein-based diets containing either actinidin (fresh green kiwifruit pulp or gold kiwifruit pulp supplemented with purified actinidin) or no actinidin (fresh gold kiwifruit pulp or green kiwifruit pulp with inactivated actinidin). Additionally, fifteen pigs were fed with a protein-free diet to determine the endogenous protein flow. Pigs were euthanised at exactly 0·5, 1, 3, 5 and 7 h postprandially (n 6 per time point for each kiwifruit diet and n 3 for protein-free diet). Stomach chyme was collected for measuring gastric retention, actinidin activity, individual beef muscle protein digestion based on SDS-PAGE and the degree of hydrolysis based on the appearance of free amino groups. The stomach emptying of DM and N was faster when actinidin was present in the diet (P< 0·05): the half gastric emptying time of DM was 137 v. 172 min ( ± 7·4 min pooled standard error) for the diets with and without actinidin, respectively. The presence of dietary actinidin in the stomach chyme increased the digestion of beef muscle protein (P< 0·05) and, more specifically, those proteins with a high molecular weight (>34 kDa; P< 0·05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin fed in the form of fresh green kiwifruit increased the rate of gastric emptying and the digestion of several beef muscle proteins.

  13. Effect of surfactants, gastric emptying, and dosage form on supersaturation of dipyridamole in an in vitro model simulating the stomach and duodenum.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A; Fadda, H M

    2014-08-04

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gastric emptying patterns, surfactants, and dosage form on the supersaturation of a poorly soluble weakly basic drug, dipyridamole, using an in vitro model mimicking the dynamic environment of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and, furthermore, to evaluate the usefulness of this model in establishing correlations to in vivo bioavailability for drugs with solubility/dissolution limited absorption. A simulated stomach duodenum model comprising four compartments was used to assess supersaturation and precipitation kinetics as a function of time. It integrates physiologically relevant fluid volumes, fluid transfer rates, and pH changes of the upper GI tract. Monoexponential gastric emptying patterns simulating the fasted state were compared to linear gastric emptying patterns simulating the fed state. The effect of different surfactants commonly used in oral preparations, specifically, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), poloxamer-188, and polysorbate-80, on dipyridamole supersaturation was investigated while maintaining surface tension of the simulated gastric fluids at physiological levels and without obtaining artificial micellar solubilization of the drug. The supersaturation behavior of different dose strengths of dipyridamole was explored. Significant levels of dipyridamole supersaturation were observed in the duodenal compartment under all the different in vivo relevant conditions explored. Dipyridamole supersaturation ratios of up to 11-fold have been observed, and supersaturation has been maintained for up to 120 min. Lower duodenal concentrations of dipyridamole were observed under linear gastric emptying patterns compared to mononexponential gastric emptying. The mean duodenal area under concentration-time curves (AUC60min) for the dipyridamole concentration profile in the duodenal compartment is significantly different for all the surfactants explored (P < 0.05). Our investigations with the different

  14. [Bouveret's syndrome: biliary ileus manifested by acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and impaired gastric emptying].

    PubMed

    Simonek, J; Lischke, R; Drábek, J; Pafko, P

    2002-05-01

    The authors present a very rare case of impaired gastric evacuation, known as Bouveret's syndrome, caused by a large biliary concrement wedged in the duodenum as a result of the development of a cholecystoduodenal fistula in a 77-year-old man. The condition was manifested clinically by developed high ileus and subsequent haemorrhage into the upper GIT. The diagnosis was established on the background of the clinical picture, passage through the upper GIT and endoscopy. As the attempt to remove the concrement endoscopically failed, laparotomy had to be used. In the conclusion of this case-record the authors discuss the method of assessment of the correct diagnosis endoscopically and possibilities of therapeutic strategy.

  15. The(13)C-octanoic acid breath test for detection of effects of meal composition on the rate of solid-phase gastric emptying in ponies.

    PubMed

    Wyse, C A; Murphy, D M; Preston, T; Sutton, D G; Morrison, D J; Christley, R M; Love, S

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the(13)C-octanoic acid breath test for detection of alterations in the rate of solid-phase gastric emptying, induced by changes in test meal composition, in ponies. After a 14 hour fast the ponies (n = 4) ingested a test meal with 0, 35 or 70 ml soya oil, and labelled with 250 mg(13)C-octanoic acid. Each pony was given each of the three test meals on three separate occasions, in a randomised order. Exhaled breath samples were collected for 12 hours after ingestion of the test meal. Breath samples were analysed by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Three indices of breath(13)C-enrichment were computed, half-dose recovery time (t 1/2), gastric emptying coefficient (GEC) and time to peak breath(13)C-excretion t(max). The(13)C-octanoic acid breath test was a reliable means of assessing the significantly decreased rate of gastric emptying in the pony, associated with addition of soya oil to the test meal. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  16. Differential effects of grape juice on gastric emptying and renal function from cisplatin-induced acute adverse toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ko, J-L; Tsai, C-H; Liu, T-C; Lin, M-Y; Lin, H-L; Ou, C-C

    2016-08-01

    Grape skin and seeds contain large amounts of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, resveratrol, and proanthocyanidins, which possess antioxidant activities. Cisplatin is widely used in the treatment of cancer. High doses of cisplatin have also been known to produce acute adverse effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of antioxidant properties of whole grape juice (with skin and seeds) on cisplatin-induced acute gastrointestinal tract disorders and nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Gastric emptying is significantly increased in whole grape juice-pretreated rats when compared to cisplatin treatment alone. The expression of ghrelin mRNA of stomach is increased in rats with whole grape juice. However, pretreatment with whole grape juice did not reduce renal function markers in acute renal toxicity. No significant changes were recorded in the oxidative stress/antioxidant status parameters of any study group. In contrast, pretreatment with whole grape juice slightly improved tubular cell vacuolization, tubular dilatation, and cast formation in renal tubules. These results show that consumption of whole grape juice induces somewhat beneficial effects in preventing cisplatin-mediated dyspepsia but does not offer protection against cisplatin-induced acute renal toxicity.

  17. Meal sequence and glucose excursion, gastric emptying and incretin secretion in type 2 diabetes: a randomised, controlled crossover, exploratory trial.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Hitoshi; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Shimizu, Shinobu; Minami, Kohtaro; Maeda, Haruyo; Seino, Susumu; Nakada, Koji; Nosaka, Chihiro; Murotani, Kenta; Kurose, Takeshi; Seino, Yutaka; Yabe, Daisuke

    2016-03-01

    Investigation of dietary therapy for diabetes has focused on meal size and composition; examination of the effects of meal sequence on postprandial glucose management is limited. The effects of fish or meat before rice on postprandial glucose excursion, gastric emptying and incretin secretions were investigated. The experiment was a single centre, randomised controlled crossover, exploratory trial conducted in an outpatient ward of a private hospital in Osaka, Japan. Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 12) and healthy volunteers (n = 10), with age 30-75 years, HbA1c 9.0% (75 mmol/mol) or less, and BMI 35 kg/m(2) or less, were randomised evenly to two groups by use of stratified randomisation, and subjected to meal sequence tests on three separate mornings; days 1 and 2, rice before fish (RF) or fish before rice (FR) in a crossover fashion; and day 3, meat before rice (MR). Pre- and postprandial levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucagon as well as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide were evaluated. Gastric emptying rate was determined by (13)C-acetate breath test involving measurement of (13)CO2 in breath samples collected before and after ingestion of rice steamed with (13)C-labelled sodium acetate. Participants, people doing measurements or examinations, and people assessing the outcomes were not blinded to group assignment. FR and MR in comparison with RF ameliorated postprandial glucose excursion (AUC-15-240 min-glucose: type 2 diabetes, FR 2,326.6 ± 114.7 mmol/l × min, MR 2,257.0 ± 82.3 mmol/l × min, RF 2,475.6 ± 87.2 mmol/l × min [p < 0.05 for FR vs RF and MR vs RF]; healthy, FR 1,419.8 ± 72.3 mmol/l × min, MR 1,389.7 ± 69.4 mmol/l × min, RF 1,483.9 ± 72.8 mmol/l × min) and glucose variability (SD-15-240 min-glucose: type 2 diabetes, FR 1.94 ± 0.22 mmol/l, MR 1.68 ± 0.18 mmol/l, RF 2.77 ± 0.24 mmol/l [p < 0.05 for FR

  18. Nissen fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux: No deterioration of gastric emptying measured by 13C-acetate breath test

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Tadao; Honda, Shohei; Miyagi, Hisayuki; Minato, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To study the gastric emptying 30 days after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (NF) in gastroesophageal reflux. Materials and Methods: Three patients were evaluated with 13C-acetate breath test (ABT) performed pre and post-NF. The liquid test meal consisted of Racol™ mixed with 13C-acetate. Results: In the patient without neurological impairment (NI), the preoperative t½ex and t lag were 0.900 and 0.510 hours, respectively. The postoperative t½ex and t lag were 0.959 and 0.586 hours, respectively. In one patient with NI, the preoperative t½ex and t lag were 1.828 and 1.092 hours, respectively. The postoperative t½ex and t lag were 2.081 and 1.025 hours, respectively. In the other patient with NI, the preoperative t½ex and t lag were 2.110 and 0.980 hours, respectively. The postoperative t½ex and t lag were 1.118 and 0.415 hours, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that 13C-ABT parameters did not worsen in any of the children after laparoscopic NF. PMID:22121311

  19. An orally active motilin receptor antagonist, MA-2029, inhibits motilin-induced gastrointestinal motility, increase in fundic tone, and diarrhea in conscious dogs without affecting gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Ken-ichi; Onoma, Mitsu; Muramatsu, Hiroyasu; Sudo, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Shoshin; Shiokawa, Rie; Yogo, Kenji; Kamei, Kenshi; Cynshi, Osamu; Kuromaru, Osamu; Peeters, Theo L; Takanashi, Hisanori

    2009-08-01

    The pharmacological properties of MA-2029, a selective and competitive motilin receptor antagonist, were investigated in conscious dogs after oral administration. Gastrointestinal contractile activity was recorded by chronically implanted force transducers. The proximal gastric volume was measured with a barostat under constant pressure. Gastric emptying was examined using the paracetamol absorption test. MA-2029 (0.3-10 mg/kg, p.o.) administered in the interdigestive state inhibited gastrointestinal contractions induced by motilin (3 microg/kg, i.v.) in a dose-dependent manner. MA-2029 (0.3-3 mg/kg, p.o.) also inhibited the occurrence of spontaneous phase III contractions, even though MA-2029 had no effect on basal gastrointestinal motility or basal gastric emptying even at 10 and 30 mg/kg p.o. The inhibitory effect of MA-2029 on motilin-induced gastrointestinal motility corresponded to its plasma concentration. Motilin (0.3 microg/kg/h, i.v. infusion) reduced the proximal gastric volume by about 50% of control during isobaric distension. This effect was also inhibited by MA-2029 (1-10 mg/kg, p.o.) in a dose-dependent manner. In the digestive state, injection of motilin (3 microg/kg, i.v.) induced diarrhea in 9 of 11 dogs. MA-2029 (1-30 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the incidence of diarrhea induced by motilin in a dose-dependent manner. The results indicate that MA-2029 inhibits hypermotility induced by motilin in conscious dogs without having an effect on the basal gastrointestinal tone or gastric emptying rate. MA-2029 may be useful in treating gastrointestinal disorders in which the pathogenesis involves the elevation of circulating motilin.

  20. Associations between meal size, gastric emptying and post-prandial plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations in meal-fed cats.

    PubMed

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Filippich, L J; Morton, J M; O'Leary, C A

    2015-08-01

    Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations are increased for 12-24 h in healthy cats following moderate- to high-carbohydrate meals. This study investigated associations between gastric emptying time and post-prandial plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations in cats fed an extruded dry, high-carbohydrate, moderate-fat, low-protein diet (51, 28, 21% metabolizable energy, respectively) once daily by varying meal volume. Eleven healthy, non-obese, neutered adult cats were enrolled in a prospective study and fed to maintain body weight. Ultrasound examinations were performed for up to 26 h, and blood collections over 24 h after eating meals containing approximately 100% and 50% of the cats' daily caloric intake (209 and 105 kJ/kg BW, respectively). Gastric emptying time was increased after a meal of 209 kJ/kg BW compared with 105 kJ/kg BW (median gastric emptying times 24 and 14 h, respectively; p = 0.03). Time for glucose to return to fasting was longer after the 209 kJ/kg BW meal (median 20 h; 25th and 75th percentiles 15 and 23 h, respectively) than the 105 kJ/kg BW meal (13, 12 and 14 h; p < 0.01); however, peak glucose was not higher after the 209 kJ/kg BW meal compared with the 105 kJ/kg BW meal [(mean ± SD) 6.6 ± 0.6 and 7.8 ± 1.2 mmol/l, respectively, p = 0.07]. Times for insulin to return to fasting were not significantly longer after the 209 kJ/kg BW meal than the 105 kJ/kg BW meal (p = 0.29). d- and l-lactate concentrations were not associated with gastric emptying time or post-prandial blood glucose and insulin. Based on results obtained, prolonged gastric emptying contributes to prolonged post-prandial hyperglycemia in cats meal fed a high-carbohydrate, low-protein, dry diet and fasting times for cats' meal-fed diets of similar composition should be 14-26 h, depending on meal size.

  1. Interleukin-11 promotes the progress of gastric carcinoma via abnormally expressed versican.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenwei; Zhang, Jianpeng; Miao, Lei; Liu, Ke; Yang, Shengsheng; Pan, Chuanyong; Jiao, Binghua

    2012-01-01

    Versican, a ubiquitous component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), accumulates both in tumor stroma and cancer cells and is highly regulated by various cytokines. The aberrant expression of versican and its isoforms is known to modulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration, all of which are features of the invasion and metastasis of cancer; versican is also known to favour the homeostasis of the ECM. Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is an important cytokine that exhibits a wide variety of biological effects in gastric cancer development. Here, we analysed the expression of versican isoforms and found that the major isoforms expressed by both gastric carcinoma tissue and gastric cell lines were V0 and V1, and V1 was significantly higher in gastric carcinoma tissue. The treatment of the gastric cell lines AGS and MKN45 with rhIL-11 resulted in a significant increase in the expression of V0 and V1. Exogenous IL-11 increased migration in AGS and MKN45 cells, whereas these effects were reversed when the expression of V0 and V1 were abolished by siRNA targeting versican V0/V1. Collectively, these findings suggest that the abnormally expressed versican and its isoforms participate, at least in part, in the progress of gastric carcinoma triggered by IL-11.

  2. Abnormal amphiregulin expression correlates with gastric cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Yong, Hongmei; Zhu, Huijun; Ni, Daguang; Tang, Sijie; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Wei; Ding, Guipeng; Zhu, Jin; Li, Xiaohua; Feng, Zhenqing

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a global health issue with a high mortality rate. Early diagnosis and tracking of GC is a challenge due to a lack of reliable tools. Amphiregulin (AREG) is a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family that activates growth signaling upon binding of EGF receptors. Elevated AREG expression is associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer. Here, we investigated whether increased AREG expression is a disease indicator and/or prognostic biomarker for GC. We used tissue microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess AREG expression in clinical tissue specimens at various stages of GC and a conducted bioinformatics analysis to evaluate the value of AREG over-expression as a GC biomarker. We found that both mRNA and protein expression of AREG were increased in the tissues of GC patients when compared to tissues from non-cancer patients or normal tissues. High expression of AREG was also associated with GC clinicopathological characteristics and poor survival. Thus, over-expression of AREG could serve as a novel GC biomarker, and active surveillance of its expression could be a novel approach to GC diagnosis and monitoring. PMID:27713123

  3. Acute effect of alginate-based preload on satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Georg Jensen, Morten; Kristensen, Mette; Belza, Anita; Knudsen, Jes C; Astrup, Arne

    2012-09-01

    Viscous dietary fibers such as sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed have received much attention lately for their potential role in energy regulation through the inhibition of energy intake and increase of satiety feelings. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect on postprandial satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate (GER), by the paracetamol method, of two different volumes of an alginate-based preload in normal-weight subjects. In a four-way placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 20 subjects (age: 25.9 ± 3.4 years; BMI: 23.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to receive a 3% preload concentration of either low volume (LV; 9.9 g alginate in 330 ml) or high volume (HV; 15.0 g alginate in 500 ml) alginate-based beverage, or an iso-volume placebo beverage. The preloads were ingested 30 min before a fixed breakfast and again before an ad libitum lunch. Consumption of LV-alginate preload induced a significantly lower (8.0%) energy intake than the placebo beverage (P = 0.040) at the following lunch meal, without differences in satiety feelings or paracetamol concentrations. The HV alginate significantly increased satiety feelings (P = 0.038), reduced hunger (P = 0.042) and the feeling of prospective food consumption (P = 0.027), and reduced area under the curve (iAUC) paracetamol concentrations compared to the placebo (P = 0.05). However, only a 5.5% reduction in energy intake was observed for HV alginate (P = 0.20). Although they are somewhat contradictory, our results suggest that alginate consumption does affect satiety feelings and energy intake. However, further investigation on the volume of alginate administered is needed before inferring that this fiber has a possible role in short-term energy regulation.

  4. Influence of habitual physical activity on gastric emptying in healthy males and relationships with body composition and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; Cleghorn, Geoffrey J; King, Neil A

    2015-08-14

    Although a number of studies have examined the role of gastric emptying (GE) in obesity, the influences of habitual physical activity level, body composition and energy expenditure (EE) on GE have received very little consideration. In the present study, we compared GE in active and inactive males, and characterised relationships with body composition (fat mass and fat-free mass) and EE. A total of forty-four males (active n 22, inactive n 22; BMI 21-36 kg/m2; percentage of fat mass 9-42%) were studied, with GE of a standardised (1676 kJ) pancake meal being assessed by the [13C]octanoic acid breath test, body composition by air displacement plethysmography, RMR by indirect calorimetry, and activity EE (AEE) by accelerometry. The results showed that GE was faster in active compared with inactive males (mean half-time (t 1/2): active 157 (sd 18) and inactive 179 (sd 21) min, P< 0.001). When data from both groups were pooled, GE t 1/2 was associated with percentage of fat mass (r 0.39, P< 0.01) and AEE (r - 0.46, P< 0.01). After controlling for habitual physical activity status, the association between AEE and GE remained, but not that for percentage of fat mass and GE. BMI and RMR were not associated with GE. In summary, faster GE is considered to be a marker of a habitually active lifestyle in males, and is associated with a higher AEE level and a lower percentage of fat mass. The possibility that GE contributes to a gross physiological regulation (or dysregulation) of food intake with physical activity level deserves further investigation.

  5. Delayed Gastric Emptying Is Associated With Early and Long-term Hyperglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Adil E; Batey-Schaefer, Barbara; Cleary, Patricia A; Murray, Joseph A; Cowie, Catherine; Lorenzi, Gayle; Driscoll, Marsha; Harth, Judy; Larkin, Mary; Christofi, Marielle; Bayless, Margaret; Wimmergren, Nyra; Herman, William; Whitehouse, Fred; Jones, Kim; Kruger, Davida; Martin, Cathy; Ziegler, Georgia; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Nathan, David M

    2015-08-01

    After the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study continued to show persistent benefit of prior intensive therapy on neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). The relationship between control of glycemia and gastric emptying (GE) is unclear. We assessed GE with a (13)C-spirulina breath test and symptoms in 78 participants with type 1 diabetes at year 20 of EDIC. The relationship between delayed GE and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), complications of DM, and gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated. GE was normal (37 participants; 50%), delayed (35 participants; 47%), or rapid (2 participants; 3%). The latest mean HbA1c was 7.7%. In univariate analyses, delayed GE was associated with greater DCCT baseline HbA1c and duration of DM before DCCT (P ≤ .04), greater mean HbA1c over an average of 27 years of follow-up evaluation (during DCCT-EDIC, P = .01), lower R-R variability during deep breathing (P = .03) and severe nephropathy (P = .05), and a greater composite upper gastrointestinal symptom score (P < .05). In multivariate models, retinopathy was the only complication of DM associated with delayed GE. Separately, DCCT baseline HbA1c (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.3) and duration of DM (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.01-1.3) before DCCT entry and mean HbA1c during DCCT-EDIC (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.04-4.5) were associated independently with delayed GE. In the DCCT/EDIC study, delayed GE was remarkably common and associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and with measures of early and long-term hyperglycemia. ClinicalTrials.gov numbers NCT00360815 and NCT00360893. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Possible involvement of dopamine and dopamine2 receptors in the inhibitions of gastric emptying by escin Ib in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Li, Y; Yoshikawa, M

    2000-11-03

    It was previously reported that escin Ib isolated from horse chestnut inhibited gastric emptying (GE) in mice, in which the capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves (CPSN), the central nervous system and endogenous prostaglandins (PGs) were involved. In the present study, the possible involvement of dopamine and dopamine receptors in the inhibition of GE by escin Ib were investigated in mice. GE inhibition by escin Ib (25 mg/kg, p.o.) was attenuated after pretreatment with a single bolus of DL-alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine methyl ester (400 mg/kg, s.c., an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase), reserpine (5 mg/kg, p.o., a catecholamine depletor), 6-hydroxydopamine (80 mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine depletor). Furthermore, pretreatment with spiperone (0.5-5 mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine2 receptor antagonist), haloperidol (0.5-10 mg/kg, s.c.) and metoclopramide (1-10 mg/kg, s.c.) (centrally acting dopamine2 receptor antagonists) attenuated the effect of escin Ib. Domperidone (0.1-5 mg/kg, s.c., a peripheral-acting dopamine2 antagonist) showed a weak attenuation, but SCH 23390 (1-5 mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine, receptor antagonist) did not. It is postulated that escin Ib inhibits GE, at least in part, mediated by CPSN, to stimulate the synthesis and/or release of dopamine, to act through central dopamine2 receptor, which in turn causes the release of PGs.

  7. Molecular weight of barley β-glucan influences energy expenditure, gastric emptying and glycaemic response in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Thondre, P S; Shafat, A; Clegg, M E

    2013-12-01

    Barley β-glucan (BG) has been shown to reduce glycaemic response (GR) in some studies. It is hypothesised that this reduction may be a function of its physical properties that delay gastric emptying (GE). The effect of these changes in GR and GE on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is not known. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of BG of different molecular weights and purities on GR, GE and DIT in healthy subjects. This was a randomised, single-blind, repeated-measures design where fifteen healthy subjects were tested on three occasions following an overnight fast. Following the baseline measurements, the volunteers were fed a soup containing high-molecular-weight BG (HBG), a soup containing low-molecular-weight BG (LBG) or a control soup with no BG (CHO). Following the consumption of the breakfast, GR was measured using finger-prick blood samples, GE was determined using the 13C-octanoic acid breath test and DIT was measured using indirect calorimetry. There was a difference in GR AUC between the soups after 60 min but not after 120 min. The CHO and LBG meals had a greater GR than the HBG meal. There were differences in all GE time points, with the HBG meal having the slowest GE time. There was a correlation between the GR and the initial GE times. There were differences in total DIT between the three test meals with the HBG meal having the lowest DIT. The present study indicates that HBG has the ability to delay GE due to increased viscosity, resulting in a decreased GR and DIT.

  8. Comparison of the effects of clonidine, loperamide and metoclopramide in two models of gastric emptying in the rat.

    PubMed

    Goineau, Sonia; Guillaume, Philippe; Castagné, Vincent

    2015-02-01

    Several methods are used to evaluate gastric emptying (GE) in rats, which is an important endpoint in preclinical drug development. Although phenol red model or monitoring of plasma acetaminophen levels are well-established procedures for GE assessment, their capacity to detect the effects of pharmacological agents has rarely been compared. This study was therefore designed to evaluate clonidine with loperamide and metoclopramide in the two test models. Rats were administered phenol red or acetaminophen test meals. The remaining amount of phenol red in the stomach or the time course of plasma acetaminophen levels was then measured. In the phenol red test, loperamide (8 mg/kg, p.o.) and clonidine (100 μg/kg, s.c.) decreased GE (-88 and -42%, P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). Metoclopramide (10 mg/kg, s.c.) accelerated GE (+42%, P < 0.01). Loperamide reduced acetaminophen plasma levels (-45% at T15 min, P < 0.05), suggesting a delayed GE. Clonidine and metoclopramide increased acetaminophen plasma levels (+115 and +152% at T15 min, P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively), suggesting an accelerated GE. The three substances did not affect plasma acetaminophen levels when acetaminophen was subcutaneously injected, thereby suggesting that acetaminophen metabolism/excretion was not modified. Whereas the phenol red test allows the evaluation of GE at a single time point, the measurement of plasma acetaminophen levels over the time would appear more informative. Nevertheless, the fact that clonidine, in contrast to expectation, increased plasma acetaminophen levels, suggests that data obtained with the acetaminophen method should be interpreted with caution for new chemical entities susceptible to modify absorption of acetaminophen from the small intestine.

  9. Relationship between postprandial changes in cardiac left ventricular function, glucose and insulin concentrations, gastric emptying, and satiety in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Lindstedt, Sandra; Björgell, Ola; Dencker, Magnus

    2011-03-23

    The digestion of food is known to alter the hemodynamics of the body significantly. The purpose of this study was to study the postprandial changes in stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and left ventricular (LV) longitudinal systolic and diastolic functions measured with tissue Doppler imaging, in relation to gastric emptying rate (GER), satiety, and glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy subjects. Twenty-three healthy subjects were included in this study. The fasting and postprandial changes at 30 min and 110 min in CO, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were measured. Moreover, tissue Doppler imaging systolic (S'), early (E') and late (A') mitral annular diastolic velocities were measured in the septal (s) and lateral (l) walls. Glucose and insulin concentrations, and satiety were measured before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the meal. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15-90 min after ingestion of the meal. This study show that both CO, systolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the septum (S's) and lateral wall (S'l), the early diastolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the lateral wall (E'l), the late diastolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the septum (A's) and lateral wall (A'l) increase significantly, and were concomitant with increased satiety, antral area, glucose and insulin levels. The CO, HR and SV at 30 min were significantly higher, and the diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower, than the fasting. The satiety was correlated to HR and diastolic blood pressure. The insulin level was correlated to HR. This study shows that postprandial CO, HR, SV and LV longitudinal systolic and diastolic functions increase concomitantly with increased satiety, antral area, and glucose and insulin levels. Therefore, patients should not eat prior to, or during, cardiac evaluation as the effects of a meal may affect the results and their interpretation.

  10. Delayed Gastric Emptying is Associated with Early and Long-Term Hyperglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Batey-Schaefer, Barbara; Cleary, Patricia A.; Murray, Joseph A.; Cowie, Catherine; Lorenzi, Gayle; Driscoll, Marsha; Harth, Judy; Larkin, Mary; Christofi, Marielle; Bayless, Margaret; Wimmergren, Nyra; Herman, William; Whitehouse, Fred; Jones, Kim; Kruger, Davida; Martin, Cathy; Ziegler, Georgia; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Nathan, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims After the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study continued to demonstrate persistent benefit of prior intensive therapy on neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM)., The relationship between control of glycemia and gastric emptying (GE) is unclear. Methods We assessed GE with a 13C-spirulina breath test and symptoms in 78 participants with type 1 diabetes at year 20 of EDIC. The relationship between delayed GE and HbA1c, complications of DM, and gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated. Results GE was normal (37 participants, 50%), delayed (35 participants, 47%), or rapid (2 participants, 3%). The latest mean HbA1c was 7.7%. In univariate analyses, delayed GE was associated with greater DCCT baseline HbA1c and duration of DM prior to DCCT (P ≤ 0.04), greater mean HbA1c over an average of 27 years of follow up (during DCCT-EDIC, P = 0.01), lower R-R variability during deep breathing (P=0.03) and severe nephropathy (P=0.05) and a greater composite upper gastrointestinal symptom score (P<0.05). In multivariate models, retinopathy was the only complication of DM associated with delayed GE. Separately, DCCT baseline HbA1c (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) and duration of DM (OR 1.2, 95%CI 1.01–1.3) prior to DCCT entry and mean HbA1c during DCCT-EDIC (OR 2.2, 95%CI 1.04–4.5) were independently associated with delayed GE. Conclusions In the DCCT/EDIC study, delayed GE was remarkably common and associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and with measures of early and long-term hyperglycemia. ClinicalTrials.gov numbers NCT00360815 and NCT00360893. PMID:25980755

  11. Assessment of gastric motility using meal labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid

    SciTech Connect

    Matolo, N.M.; Stadalnik, R.C.

    1983-12-01

    During a 2 year period, 83 patients with gastric motility problems were evaluated using radionuclide imaging. The patients presented with epigastric distress, postprandial fullness, pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; signs and symptoms suggestive of either gastroparesis or gastric outlet obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal series or endoscopy, or both, demonstrated no mechanical obstruction. After oral administration of a 300 g meal labeled with 600 muCi of technetium-99m sulfur colloid, a gastric emptying study consisting of serial images and data acquisition was performed. Of the patients studied, 52 had had peptic ulcer surgery, 17 were suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux, 8 were diabetic and suspected of having visceral enteropathy, and 6 had a history of irritable bowel syndrome. The normal mean gastric half emptying time was 77 +/- 16 minutes. Of the patients who had had gastric surgery, 90.4 percent had abnormal emptying: 69.2 percent had delayed gastric emptying and 21.2 percent had rapid gastric emptying time; 9.6 percent had normal emptying time. Of the gastroesophageal reflux group, all but two had normal gastric emptying time; 65 percent demonstrated gastroesophageal reflux within 15 minutes. Two of the patients with irritable bowel syndrome had prolonged emptying; the rest had normal emptying. All diabetic patients with gastroparesis had prolonged gastric emptying time, and all responded favorably to metoclopramide. Of the patients who previously had peptic ulcer surgery and had prolonged emptying time, 72 percent also responded favorably to metoclopramide. We conclude that radionuclide gastric imaging is a useful diagnostic test for the measurement of gastric emptying in patients with a variety of gastrointestinal motility disorders and may be helpful in assessing medical therapy and selecting those who may be candidates for surgery.

  12. Ginger extract reduces delayed gastric emptying and nosocomial pneumonia in adult respiratory distress syndrome patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Shariatpanahi, Zahra Vahdat; Taleban, Fourogh Azam; Mokhtari, Majid; Shahbazi, Shaahin

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ginger extract on delayed gastric emptying, developing ventilator-associated pneumonia, and clinical outcomes in adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thirty-two ARDS patients who were dependent on mechanical ventilation and fed via nasogastric tube were studied. After enrollment, patients were randomized to 2 groups. The control group received 1 g of coconut oil as placebo, and the study group received 120 mg of ginger extract. The amount of feeding tolerated at the first 48 hours of feeding, amount of feeding tolerated during the entire study period, nosocomial pneumonia, number of intensive care unit (ICU)-free days, number of ventilator-free days, and mortality were evaluated during 21 days of intervention. There was a significant difference between the ginger group and the control group in the amount of feeding tolerated at the first 48 hours of enteral feeding (51% vs 57%, P < .005). There was a trend toward a decrease in pneumonia in the ginger group (P = .07). The overall in-ICU mortality was 15.6%, with no significant difference in the 2 groups. The number of ventilator-free days and that of ICU-free days were lower in the control group compared with the ginger group (P = .04 and P = .02). This study showed that gastric feed supplementation with ginger extract might reduce delayed gastric emptying and help reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in ARDS. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Prognostic value of serum tumor abnormal protein in gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    LAN, FENG; ZHU, MING; QI, QIUFENG; ZHANG, YAPING; LIU, YONGPING

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation of protein occurs in nearly all types of cancers and has been confirmed to be associated with tumor progression, metastasis and the survival rate of patients. The present study aimed to explore the prognostic value of tumor abnormal protein (TAP) in gastric cancer patients. TAP was detected in the blood of 42 gastric cancer patients and 56 healthy volunteers by using the TAP testing kit. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of TAP. In total, 64.3% of gastric cancer patients were positive for TAP, and TAP was significantly correlated with poor prognosis [progression-free survival (PFS), 4.2 vs. 12.6 months; P=0.043]. TAP [hazard ratio (HR), 64.487; P<0.01), differentiation (HR, 17.279; P<0.01) and TNM stage (HR, 45.480; P<0.01) were found to be independent predictive factors for PFS. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that TAP is associated with a reduced PFS in gastric cancer patients. The results of the present study therefore indicated that the TAP test has significant prognostic value for gastric cancer patients. PMID:27330802

  14. Standardisation of tracer and type of meal in the evaluation of gastric emptying and colon transit rates in normal beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Dormehl, I C; Pilloy, W; Jordaan, J H; Jacobs, D J; du Plessis, M

    1984-01-01

    The transit 111In-labelled polymer beads of different particle sizes in the stomach and colon of five healthy Beagle dogs was monitored after intake of different kinds of meal by a gamma camera and data processor system. The various meals studied were a solid balanced type of dog food mixed with milk, pure milk, and finally a meal of raw meat. The polymer beads carried triethylenetetramine type functions which efficiently chelated 111In+3 from an aqueous solution of InCl3. These labelled beads were well mixed into the food before being offered to the dogs. Gastric emptying curves from which half-times of emptying (T 1/2) could be obtained are presented and statistically compared. Good quality images with quantification of the colon transit rate also became possible. It appeared that standardisation of the tracer and of the meal is compulsory for relevant and reproducible results.

  15. Delayed gastric emptying and reduced postprandial small bowel water content of equicaloric whole meal bread versus rice meals in healthy subjects: novel MRI insights

    PubMed Central

    Marciani, L; Pritchard, S E; Hellier-Woods, C; Costigan, C; Hoad, C L; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Postprandial bloating is a common symptom in patients with functional gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Whole meal bread (WMB) often aggravates such symptoms though the mechanisms are unclear. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the intragastric fate of a WMB meal (11% bran) compared with a rice pudding (RP) meal. Subjects/Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers completed this randomised crossover study. They fasted overnight and after an initial MRI scan consumed a glass of orange juice with a 2267 kJ WMB or an equicaloric RP meal. Subjects underwent serial MRI scans every 45 min up to 270 min to assess gastric volumes and small bowel water content, and completed a GI symptom questionnaire. Results: The MRI intragastric appearance of the two meals was markedly different. The WMB meal formed a homogeneous dark bolus with brighter liquid signal surrounding it. The RP meal separated into an upper liquid layer and a lower particulate layer allowing more rapid emptying of the liquid compared with solid phase (sieving). The WMB meal had longer gastric half-emptying times (132±8 min) compared with the RP meal (104±7 min), P<0.008. The WMB meal was associated with markedly reduced MRI-visible small bowel free mobile water content compared with the RP meal, P<0.0001. Conclusions: WMB bread forms a homogeneous bolus in the stomach, which inhibits gastric sieving and hence empties slower than the equicaloric rice meal. These properties may explain why wheat causes postprandial bloating and could be exploited to design foods that prolong satiation. PMID:23594839

  16. The effects of repeated ingestion of high and low glucose-electrolyte solutions on gastric emptying and blood 2H2O concentration after an overnight fast.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gethin H; Shirreffs, Susan M; Maughan, Ronald J

    2011-12-01

    The addition of carbohydrate to drinks designed to have a role in rehydrating the body is commonplace. The gastric emptying and fluid uptake characteristics following repeated ingestion of drinks with high and low glucose concentrations were examined in eight subjects (three male and five female). Following a 13 h fluid restriction period, the subjects ingested a volume of test solution amounting to 3 % of the initial body mass over a period of 60 min. Test drinks were 2 and 10 % glucose-electrolyte solutions with osmolalities of 189 (SD 3) and 654 (SD 3) mOsm/kg, respectively. The initial bolus of each test solution contained 10 g of (2)H(2)O. Blood samples were collected throughout drinking and for 60 min afterwards. Gastric volumes were determined via gastric aspiration at 15 min intervals for 120 min. No difference between trials in total stomach volume was observed until 30 min after the ingestion of the first bolus of test drink, but blood (2)H concentration was increased during both trials 10 min after ingestion of the first bolus. Blood (2)H concentration was greater at this time point during the 2 % glucose trial than during the 10 % glucose trial and remained higher for the duration of the trial with the exception of one time point. Urine volume at the end of the trial was greater in the 2 % glucose trial than in the 10 % glucose trial. It is concluded that the reduced overall rate of fluid uptake following ingestion of the 10 % glucose solution was due largely to a relatively slow rate of gastric emptying.

  17. Psychosocial distress is associated with abnormal gastric myoelectrical activity in patients with functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tseng-Shing; Lee, Ying-Chiao; Chang, Full-Young; Wu, Han-Chang; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2006-07-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a heterogeneous and loosely defined clinical syndrome that is characterized by persistent or recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen without any identifiable structural or biochemical basis. Gastric myoelectrical activity in functional dyspepsia patients with gastric reddish streaks as a subgroup has not previously been investigated and the potential role of psychosocial distress in the genesis of gastric dysrhythmia in patients with FD is unclear. Electrogastrography was performed in 45 patients with FD and 35 healthy controls for 30 min in the fasting state and 30 min postprandially. Psychological distress and the number and severity of stressful life events were measured using self-rating questionnaires. FD patients had a higher percentage of pre- and postprandial dysrhythmia, lower dominant frequency, and a higher instability coefficient as compared to healthy controls. In FD patients, severity of stressful life events was positively correlated with the percentage of tachygastria in the fasting state (r=0.43, p=0.005) and marginally positively correlated with the percentage of postprandial tachygastria (r=0.253, p=0.098) and instability coefficient of the dominant frequency (r=0.256, p=0.093). Total number of stressful life events was marginally positively correlated with fasting tachygastria (r=0.25, p=0.098) and instability coefficient of the postprandial dominant frequency (r=0.287, p=0.056). Interpersonal sensitivity was found to be negatively correlated with fasting dominant frequency in FD patients (r= - 0.311, p<0.05). FD patients with gastric reddish streaks have abnormal fasting and postprandial gastric myoelectrical activity. Perceived severity of stressful life events and interpersonal sensitivity are associated with disturbance of gastric myoelectrical activity.

  18. Influence of simulated weightlessness on the oral pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen as a gastric emptying probe in man: a plasma and a saliva study.

    PubMed

    Gandia, Peggy; Bareille, Marie-Pierre; Saivin, Sylvie; Le-Traon, Anne Pavy; Lavit, Michel; Guell, Antonio; Houin, Georges

    2003-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of simulated weightlessness on gastric emptying, using acetaminophen as a probe and -6 degrees head-down bed rest to simulate zero gravity. Eighteen volunteers were given 1 g of acetaminophen orally before the bed rest and at days 1, 18, and 80. Cmax, tmax, AUC0- infinity, AUC0-t, and t1/2 were calculated for plasma and saliva. The plasma Cmax showed a significant increase (10.43 microg/mL [day 1] to 14.74 microg/mL [day 80]), while tmax significantly decreased (1.41 h [day 1] to 0.91 h [day 80]). Similar results were obtained with saliva, and there were significant increases in the AUCs. The good correlation between the plasma and saliva data suggests that saliva sampling can be valid for acetaminophen pharmacokinetics. The changes in Cmax and tmax indicated more rapid drug absorption, which could have been as a result of faster gastric emptying or an increased blood flow to the intestine.

  19. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-09-25

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  20. The effects of temperature on gastric emptying time of malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus, Bloch & Schneider 1801) using X-radiography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Sabuj Kanti; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Water temperature can influence the metabolic rate of ectothermal animal such as, fish. This study aims to investigate the gastric emptying time (GET) of malabar blood snapper (L. malabaricus) at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) fed with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-8 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (18 h) was obsereved at 30°C, whereas the longest (28 h) GET was seen at 22°C. GET was increased with increasing temperature up to 30°C whereas decreased at extreme (34°C) and stress temperature (22°C). The findings of this study suggest to culture L. malabaricus at 26-30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges escalate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commercially important fish species. Overall, the data obtained from this study may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of malabar blood snapper.

  1. The Dynamics of Gastric Emptying and Self-Reported Feelings of Satiation Are Better Predictors than Gastrointestinal Hormones of the Effects of Lipid Emulsion Structure on Fat Digestion in Healthy Adults-a Bayesian Inference Approach.

    PubMed

    Steingoetter, Andreas; Buetikofer, Simon; Curcic, Jelena; Menne, Dieter; Rehfeld, Jens F; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Wooster, Tim J

    2017-02-22

    Background: Limited information exists on the relation between fat emulsion structure and its effect on the release of gastrointestinal hormones and feelings of satiation.Objective: We investigated the impact of fat emulsion droplet size, gravitational and acid stability, and redispersibility on gastrointestinal responses and sought to deduce the relative importance of the hormones ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide YY (PYY) in controlling fat emptying and related satiation.Methods: Within a randomized, double-blind, 4-armed crossover study, an extensive data set was generated by MRI of gastric function, analysis of hormone profiles, and ratings of satiation in healthy participants [10 women and 7 men with a mean ± SD age of 25 ± 7 y and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 22 ± 1] after intake of 4 different fat emulsions. Iterative Bayesian model averaging variable selection was used to investigate the influence of hormone profiles in controlling fat emulsion emptying and satiation.Results: The emulsion structure had a distinct effect on the gastric emptying (primary outcome), gastrointestinal hormone profiles, and ratings of satiation (secondary outcomes). Gravitational and acid stability were stronger modulators of fat emptying and hormone profiles than were emulsion droplet size or redispersibility. Cholecystokinin and PYY were most strongly affected by fat emulsion instability and droplet size. Although both hormones were relevant predictors of gastric emptying, only PYY was identified as a relevant predictor of satiation.Conclusions: This work indicates that evenly dispersed, stable, small-emulsion droplets within the stomach lead to prolonged gastric distension, longer ghrelin suppression, and accelerated fat sensing (cholecystokinin and PPY), triggering prolonged feelings of satiation. It suggests that the effects of emulsion instability and droplet size on energy consumption are best studied by assessing changes in gastric

  2. Central administration of pan-somatostatin agonist ODT8-SST prevents abdominal surgery-induced inhibition of circulating ghrelin, food intake and gastric emptying in rats.

    PubMed

    Stengel, A; Goebel-Stengel, M; Wang, L; Luckey, A; Hu, E; Rivier, J; Taché, Y

    2011-07-01

      Activation of brain somatostatin receptors (sst(1-5) ) with the stable pan-sst(1-5) somatostatin agonist, ODT8-SST blocks acute stress and central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated activation of endocrine and adrenal sympathetic responses. Brain CRF signaling is involved in delaying gastric emptying (GE) immediately post surgery. We investigated whether activation of brain sst signaling pathways modulates surgical stress-induced inhibition of gastric emptying and food intake. Fasted rats were injected intracisternally (i.c.) with somatostatin agonists and underwent laparotomy and 1-min cecal palpation. Gastric emptying of a non-nutrient solution and circulating acyl and desacyl ghrelin levels were assessed 50min post surgery. Food intake was monitored for 24 h. The abdominal surgery-induced inhibition of GE (65%), food intake (73% at 2h) and plasma acyl ghrelin levels (67%) was completely prevented by ODT8-SST (1μg per rat, i.c.). The selective sst(5) agonist, BIM-23052 prevented surgery-induced delayed GE, whereas selective sst(1) , sst(2) , or sst(4) agonists had no effect. However, the selective sst(2) agonist, S-346-011 (1μg per rat, i.c.) counteracted the abdominal surgery-induced inhibition of acyl ghrelin and food intake but not the delayed GE. The ghrelin receptor antagonist, [D-Lys(3) ]-GHRP-6 (0.93mg kg(-1) , intraperitoneal, i.p.) blocked i.p. ghrelin-induced increased GE, while not influencing i.c. ODT8-SST-induced prevention of delayed GE and reduced food intake after surgery. ODT8-SST acts in the brain to prevent surgery-induced delayed GE likely via activating sst(5) . ODT8-SST and the sst(2) agonist prevent the abdominal surgery-induced decrease in food intake and plasma acyl ghrelin indicating dissociation between brain somatostatin signaling involved in preventing surgery-induced suppression of GE and feeding response. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Effects of Bolus and Continuous Nasogastric Feeding on Gastric Emptying, Small Bowel Water Content, Superior Mesenteric Artery Blood Flow, and Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Abeed H.; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L.; Costigan, Carolyn; Marciani, Luca; Macdonald, Ian A.; Bowling, Timothy E.; Lobo, Dileep N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to demonstrate the effect of continuous or bolus nasogastric feeding on gastric emptying, small bowel water content, and splanchnic blood flow measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the context of changes in plasma gastrointestinal hormone secretion. Background: Nasogastric/nasoenteral tube feeding is often complicated by diarrhea but the contribution of feeding strategy to the etiology is unclear. Methods: Twelve healthy adult male participants who underwent nasogastric intubation before a baseline MRI scan, received 400 mL of Resource Energy (Nestle) as a bolus over 5 minutes or continuously over 4 hours via pump in this randomized crossover study. Changes in gastric volume, small bowel water content, and superior mesenteric artery blood flow and velocity were measured over 4 hours using MRI and blood glucose and plasma concentrations of insulin, peptide YY, and ghrelin were assayed every 30 minutes. Results: Bolus nasogastric feeding led to significant elevations in gastric volume (P < 0.0001), superior mesenteric artery blood flow (P < 0.0001), and velocity (P = 0.0011) compared with continuous feeding. Both types of feeding reduced small bowel water content, although there was an increase in small bowel water content with bolus feeding after 90 minutes (P < 0.0068). Similarly, both types of feeding led to a fall in plasma ghrelin concentration although this fall was greater with bolus feeding (P < 0.0001). Bolus feeding also led to an increase in concentrations of insulin (P = 0.0024) and peptide YY (P < 0.0001), not seen with continuous feeding. Conclusion: Continuous nasogastric feeding does not increase small bowel water content, thus fluid flux within the small bowel is not a major contributor to the etiology of tube feeding-related diarrhea. PMID:25549202

  4. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, parallel-group clinical trial to assess the effects of teduglutide on gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Teduglutide, a recombinant analog of human glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2, is a novel therapy recently approved for the treatment of adult patients with short bowel syndrome who are dependent on parenteral support. Previous studies assessing the effect of GLP-2 on gastric emptying in humans have yielded inconsistent results, with some studies showing no effect and others documenting a GLP-2–dependent delay in gastric emptying. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of teduglutide on gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects, as measured by the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen. Methods This double-blind, parallel-group, single-center study enrolled and randomized 36 healthy subjects (22 men, 14 women) to receive subcutaneous doses of teduglutide 4 mg or placebo (2:1 ratio; 23:13) once daily on Days 1 through 10 in the morning. Gastric emptying of a mixed nutrient liquid meal was assessed by measuring acetaminophen levels predose and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 hours after administration of 1000 mg acetaminophen on Days 0 and 10. The primary study endpoint was a pharmacokinetic analysis of acetaminophen absorption in subjects receiving teduglutide or placebo. Results No significant differences in gastric emptying of liquids (acetaminophen area under the concentration [AUC] vs time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration, AUC extrapolated to infinity, maximum concentration [Cmax], and time to Cmax) were observed on Day 10 in subjects receiving teduglutide 4 mg versus subjects receiving placebo. There were no serious adverse events (AEs), deaths, or discontinuations due to an AE reported during the study. Conclusions Teduglutide 4 mg/day for 10 days does not affect gastric emptying of liquids in healthy subjects as measured by acetaminophen pharmacokinetics. No unexpected safety signals were observed. Trial registration This study was registered at Clinical

  5. Biphasic effect of duodenal ulcerogens cysteamine (C), mepirizole (M) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropryridine (MPTP) on gastric emptying in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Pihan, G.; Kline, T.J.; Szabo, S.

    1986-03-01

    The effect of acute or chronic administration of duodenal ulcerogens on gastric emptying (GE) of a liquid meal was investigated. In Sprague-Dawley rats (150-200g) 2 ml of /sup 51/Cr in 2% dextrose (5000 CPM) was given intragastrically and the GE half life was established as 7.6 min (controls). In acute experiments, C (30mg/100g), M (40mg/100g) or MPTP (4mg/100g) injected subcutaneously all delayed GE at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hr by 15-77%. Maximal GE delay (p<0.05) by 77, 48 or 71% was found 1, 1 or 2 hr after C, M or MPTP, respectively. In chronic experiments, C (22mg/100g) was given x3 on the first day and once daily (25mg/100g) for 3 or 10 additional days. M (20mg/100g) once daily and MPTP (4mg/100g) x3 daily were given for 4 or 11 days. GE was measured on the 5th and 12th day. Chronically, MPTP accelerated GE by 63 and 31% at 5 and 12 days (p<0.05) and C and M did not change GE. The severity of duodenal ulcers correlated (p<0.05) with the amount of /sup 51/Cr remaining in the stomach: r=-0.68, -0.74 and -0.70 after C, M and MPTP, respectively. Acute administration of duodenal ulcerogens delay GE in rats. Chronic treatment with duodenal ulcerogens either accelerates or does not change GE. The most severe chronic ulcers exhibit the most rapid emptying. The authors data suggest that rapid GE might be a secondary rather than a primary alteration in duodenal ulceration.

  6. Timing of postexercise carbohydrate-protein supplementation: roles of gastrointestinal blood flow and mucosal cell damage on gastric emptying in humans.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Hideaki; Harada, Nao; Miyamoto, Kanae; Fujimoto, Masaki; Fujita, Chiaki; Endo, Masako Yamaoka; Kobayashi, Toshio; Miura, Akira; Fukuba, Yoshiyuki

    2017-09-01

    It is well known that protein ingestion immediately after exercise greatly stimulates muscle protein synthesis during the postexercise recovery phase. However, immediately after strenuous exercise, the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa is frequently injured by hypoperfusion in the organ/tissue, possibly resulting in impaired GI function (e.g., gastric emptying; GE). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of GI blood flow on the GE rate. Eight healthy young subjects performed an intermittent supramaximal cycling exercise for 30 min, which consisted of a 120% V̇o2peak for 20 s, followed by 20 W for 40 s. The subjects ingested 300 ml of a nutrient drink containing carbohydrate-protein at either 5 min postexercise in one trial (PE-5) or 30 min postexercise in another trial (PE-30). In the control trial (Con), the subjects ingested the same drink without exercise. The celiac artery blood flow (CABF) and superior mesenteric artery blood flow (SMABF) and GE rate were assessed by ultrasonography. Before drink ingestion in PE-5, CABF significantly decreased from baseline, whereas in PE-30, it returned to baseline. Following drink ingestion in PE-5, CABF did not change from baseline, but it significantly increased in PE-30 and Con. SMABF increased significantly later in PE-5 than in PE-30 and Con. The GE rate was consistently slower in PE-5 than in PE-30 and Con. In conclusion, the CABF response after exercise seems to modulate the subsequent GE rate and SMABF response.NEW & NOTEWORTHY A carbohydrate-protein drink was ingested at either 5 min (i.e., profoundly decreased celiac artery blood flow; CABF) or 30 min (i.e., already recovered CABF) postexercise. In the 5-min postexercise trial, the gastric emptying (GE) rate and superior mesenteric artery blood flow (SMABF) response were slower than those in the 30-min postexercise trial. The GE rate and SMABF response may be altered depending on the postexercise CABF response. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological

  7. Central administration of pansomatostatin agonist ODT8-SST prevents abdominal surgery-induced inhibition of circulating ghrelin, food intake and gastric emptying in rats

    PubMed Central

    STENGEL, A.; GOEBEL-STENGEL, M.; WANG, L.; LUCKEY, A.; HU, E.; RIVIER, J.; TACHÉ, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background Activation of brain somatostatin receptors (sst1-5) with the stable pan-sst1-5 somatostatin agonist, ODT8-SST blocks acute stress and central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated activation of endocrine adrenal sympathetic responses. Brain CRF signaling is involved in delaying gastric emptying (GE) immediately post surgery. We investigated whether activation of brain sst signaling pathways modulates surgical stress-induced inhibition of gastric emptying and food intake. Methods Fasted rats were injected intracisternally (i.c.) with somatostatin agonists and underwent laparotomy and 1-min cecal palpation. GE of a non-nutrient solution and circulating acyl and desacyl ghrelin levels were assessed 50 min post surgery. Food intake was monitored for 24h. Key results The abdominal surgery-induced inhibition of GE (65%), food intake (73% at 2h) and plasma acyl ghrelin levels (67%) was completely prevented by ODT8-SST (1μg/rat, i.c.). The selective sst5 agonist, BIM-23052 prevented surgery-induced delayed GE, whereas selective sst1, sst2 or sst4 agonists had no effect. However, the selective sst2 agonist, S-346-011 (1μg/rat, i.c.) counteracted the abdominal surgery-induced inhibition of acyl ghrelin and food intake but not the delayed GE. The ghrelin receptor antagonist, [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (0.93 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, i.p.) blocked i.p. ghrelin-induced increased GE, while not influencing i.c. ODT8-SST-induced prevention of delayed GE and reduced food intake after surgery. Conclusions & Inferences ODT8-SST acts in the brain to prevent surgery-induced delayed GE likely via activating sst5. ODT8-SST and the sst2 agonist prevent the abdominal surgery-induced decrease in food intake and plasma acyl ghrelin indicating dissociation between brain somatostatin signaling involved in preventing surgery-induced suppression of GE and feeding response. PMID:21569179

  8. Evidence for the involvement of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Vinagre, A.M.; Collares, E.F.

    2013-01-01

    Dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At) delay liquid gastric emptying (GE) in rats. We evaluated adrenergic participation in this phenomenon in a study in male Wistar rats (250-300 g) pretreated subcutaneously with guanethidine (GUA), 100 mg·kg−1·day−1, or vehicle (V) for 2 days before experimental treatments. Other groups of animals were pretreated intravenously (iv) 15 min before treatment with V, prazosin (PRA; 1 mg/kg), yohimbine (YOH; 3 mg/kg), or propranolol (PRO; 4 mg/kg), or with intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of 25 µg PRO or V. The groups were treated iv with saline or with 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. %GR (mean±SE, n=8) indicated that GUA abolished the effect of Dp (GUA vs V=31.7±1.6 vs 47.1±2.3%) and of At (33.2±2.3 vs 54.7±3.6%) on GE and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.1±3.2 vs 67.2±3.1%). PRA and YOH did not modify the effect of the drugs. %GR (mean±SE, n=8) indicated that iv, but not icv, PRO abolished the effect of Dp (PRO vs V=29.1±1.7 vs 46.9±2.7%) and At (30.5±1.7 vs 49±3.2%) and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.4±2.6 vs 59.5±3.1%). These data suggest activation of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in the delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazolone derivatives. PMID:24068187

  9. New ghrelin agonist, HM01 alleviates constipation and L-dopa-delayed gastric emptying in 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Karasawa, H.; Pietra, C.; Giuliano, C.; Garcia-Rubio, S.; Xu, X.; Yakabi, S.; Taché, Y.; Wang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Constipation and L-dopa-induced gastric dysmotility are common gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We investigate the novel ghrelin agonist, HM01 influence on GI motor dysfunctions in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rats. Methods HM01 pharmacological profiles were determined in vitro and in vivo in rats. We assessed changes in fecal output and water content, and gastric emptying (GE) in 6-OHDA rats treated or not with orogastric (og) HM01 and L-dopa/carbidopa (LD/CD, 20/2 mg kg−1). Fos immunoreactivity (ir) cells in specific brain and lumbosacral spinal cord were quantified. Key results HM01 displayed a high binding affinity to ghrelin receptor (Ki: 1.42 ± 0.36 nM), 4.3±1.0 h half-life and high brain/plasma ratio. 6-OHDA rats had reduced daily fecal output (22%) and water intake (23%) compared to controls. HM01 (3 and 10 mg kg−1) similarly reversed the decreased 4-h fecal weight and water content in 6-OHDA rats. Basal GE was not modified in 6-OHDA rats, however, LD/CD (once or daily for 8 days) delayed GE in 6-OHDA and control rats that was prevented by HM01 (3 mg kg−1 acute or daily before LD/CD). HM01 increased Fos-ir cell number in the area postrema, arcuate nucleus, nucleus tractus solitarius and lumbosacral intermediolateral column of 6-OHDA rats where 6-OHDA had a lowering effect compared to controls. Conclusions & Inferences 6-OHDA rats display constipation- and adipsia-like features of PD and L-dopa-inhibited GE. The new orally active ghrelin agonist, HM01 crosses the blood brain barrier and alleviates these alterations suggesting a potential benefit for PD with GI disorders. PMID:25327342

  10. The effect of pirenzepine on gastric emptying and salivary flow rate: constraints on the use of saliva paracetamol concentrations for the determination of paracetamol pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, F; Edwards, C; Rawlins, M D

    1992-01-01

    1. The effects of pirenzepine on gastric emptying, salivary flow and saliva paracetamol concentrations were investigated in healthy volunteers. 2. Pirenzepine significantly reduced the area under the saliva flow-time curves (7.29 +/- 3.30 g min-1 h without pirenzepine; 4.19 +/- 2.59 g min-1 h with pirenzepine, P less than 0.01). Pirenzepine had no significant effect on plasma paracetamol Cmax (17.5 +/- 7.8 micrograms ml-1 without pirenzepine; 12.6 +/- 7.7 micrograms ml-1 with pirenzepine), plasma tmax (0.2 h (0.2-0.8 h) without pirenzepine; (0.2 h 0.2-0.8 h) with pirenzepine) and plasma AUC(0.6 h) (32.3 +/- 7.2 micrograms ml-1 h without pirenzepine; 30.3 +/- 6.5 micrograms ml-1 h with pirenzepine). 3. Mean ratios of saliva:plasma paracetamol AUC (1.06 +/- 0.24 without pirenzepine; 1.84 +/- 0.48 with pirenzepine, P less than 0.001) and saliva:plasma paracetamol Cmax (1.7 +/- 1.0 without pirenzepine; 6.5 +/- 2.7 with pirenzepine, P less than 0.01) were significantly increased by pirenzepine pretreatment, but there was a poor correlation between the percentage change in the area under the saliva flow-time curve and the percentage change in saliva paracetamol AUC (r = 0.47, P = 0.21). 4. The findings suggest that a) pirenzepine is a more selective antagonist of the muscarinic receptors in salivary glands than those in gastric smooth muscle and b) caution is required when using saliva paracetamol concentrations to determine the pharmacokinetics of the drug in the presence of other agents which may influence salivary flow rate. PMID:1576053

  11. Evidence for the involvement of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine in rats.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, A M; Collares, E F

    2013-09-01

    Dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At) delay liquid gastric emptying (GE) in rats. We evaluated adrenergic participation in this phenomenon in a study in male Wistar rats (250-300 g) pretreated subcutaneously with guanethidine (GUA), 100 mg·kg-1·day-1, or vehicle (V) for 2 days before experimental treatments. Other groups of animals were pretreated intravenously (iv) 15 min before treatment with V, prazosin (PRA; 1 mg/kg), yohimbine (YOH; 3 mg/kg), or propranolol (PRO; 4 mg/kg), or with intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of 25 µg PRO or V. The groups were treated iv with saline or with 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. %GR (mean ± SE, n=8) indicated that GUA abolished the effect of Dp (GUA vs V=31.7 ± 1.6 vs 47.1 ± 2.3%) and of At (33.2 ± 2.3 vs 54.7 ± 3.6%) on GE and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.1 ± 3.2 vs 67.2 ± 3.1%). PRA and YOH did not modify the effect of the drugs. %GR (mean ± SE, n=8) indicated that iv, but not icv, PRO abolished the effect of Dp (PRO vs V=29.1 ± 1.7 vs 46.9 ± 2.7%) and At (30.5 ± 1.7 vs 49 ± 3.2%) and significantly reduced the effect of AA (48.4 ± 2.6 vs 59.5 ± 3.1%). These data suggest activation of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in the delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazolone derivatives.

  12. Anti-Obesity and Anti-Hyperglycemic Effects of Cinnamaldehyde via altered Ghrelin Secretion and Functional impact on Food Intake and Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Susana; Michlig, Stephanie; de Senarclens-Bezençon, Carole; Meylan, Jenny; Meystre, Julie; Pezzoli, Maurizio; Markram, Henry; le Coutre, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon extract is associated to different health benefits but the active ingredients or pathways are unknown. Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) imparts the characteristic flavor to cinnamon and is known to be the main agonist of transient receptor potential-ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1). Here, expression of TRPA1 in epithelial mouse stomach cells is described. After receiving a single-dose of CIN, mice significantly reduce cumulative food intake and gastric emptying rates. Co-localization of TRPA1 and ghrelin in enteroendocrine cells of the duodenum is observed both in vivo and in the MGN3-1 cell line, a ghrelin secreting cell model, where incubation with CIN up-regulates expression of TRPA1 and Insulin receptor genes. Ghrelin secreted in the culture medium was quantified following CIN stimulation and we observe that octanoyl and total ghrelin are significantly lower than in control conditions. Additionally, obese mice fed for five weeks with CIN-containing diet significantly reduce their cumulative body weight gain and improve glucose tolerance without detectable modification of insulin secretion. Finally, in adipose tissue up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation was observed. Taken together, the results confirm anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obesity effects of CIN opening a new approach to investigate how certain spice derived compounds regulate endogenous ghrelin release for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25605129

  13. Gastric emptying and intestinal transit times of radiopaque markers in cats fed a high-fiber diet with and without low-dose intravenous diazepam.

    PubMed

    Chandler, M L; Guilford, W G; Lawoko, C R; Whittem, T

    1999-01-01

    Reference ranges for gastric emptying time (GET), small intestinal transit time (SITT), and colonic transit time of 1.5-mm and 5-mm radiopaque markers in healthy cats fed a high-fiber meal were determined, and the influence of low-dose diazepam intravenous injection on the gastrointestinal transit of the markers was examined. The mean GETs and SITTs, and the mean residence times (MRTs) and geometric centers (GCs) of markers in the colon were determined. The effect of intravenous diazepam injection and marker size on these parameters was examined. Diazepam injection had no significant influence on gastrointestinal transit. The GETs of the 1.5-mm markers were significantly more rapid than those of the 5.0-mm markers. There were no significant differences between the SITTs or GCs of the 1.5-mm and 5.0-mm markers. Reference values were developed for GET, SITT, and colonic transit of radiopaque markers for cats fed a high-fiber meal. Diazepam injection had no effect on these parameters.

  14. Feasibility of measuring gastric emptying time, with a wireless motility device, after subjects consume fiber-matched liquid and solid breakfasts.

    PubMed

    Willis, Holly J; Thomas, William; Willis, David J; Slavin, Joanne L

    2011-08-01

    To explore the feasibility and sensitivity of a new technology for measuring gastric emptying time (GET) in appetite research, and also to compare appetite after subjects consumed macronutrient- and fiber-matched liquid and solid meals. Fourteen women (BMI of 21.2 ± 0.3) participated in this randomized, crossover study. On two separate days, fasted subjects consumed liquid (fruit juices and skim milk) and solid (oatmeal, blueberries, and apples) breakfasts. Both meals had 10 g of fiber and 410 kcal. GET was assessed with the SmartPill GI Motility System®, appetite was assessed with visual analog scales, and food intake was measured at lunch. Despite the same amount of fiber, GET was about 1h longer after the oatmeal than after the liquids. Subjects were less hungry after the oatmeal than after the liquids. Satisfaction and fullness were marginally improved with the oatmeal compared to the liquids. There was a negative association between GET and hunger. Lunchtime food and beverage intake did not differ between treatments. The SmartPill appears feasible and sensitive in appetite research, but has limitations. A solid meal with naturally occurring fiber from oatmeal and whole fruits increased GET and decreased hunger more than a liquid meal with added fiber.

  15. Delayed gastric emptying improved by straight stomach reconstruction with twisted anastomosis to the jejunum after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) in 118 consecutive patients at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Masui, Toshihiko; Doi, Ryuchiro; Kawaguchi, Yoshiya; Uemoto, Shinji

    2012-05-01

    Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is a leading cause of complication after pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD). Its incidence has been reported to range from 5 to 57%. We describe a modified reconstruction method, which resulted in a low rate of DGE. Between April 2003 and March 2008, we performed PPPD and reconstruction using an antecolic method in 118 consecutive patients. After PPPD, reconstruction was done using conventional Child procedure in 12 patients (PPPD group) and with the following modifications in the remaining 106 patients (PPPDR group): duodenojejunostomy was performed using the straight method and the jejunum was anastomosed with a 30° counterclockwise twist. We evaluated the incidence of DGE based on the grading system defined by the International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS). The PPPDR group had a lower incidence of DGE than the PPPD group (PPPD), occurring in 7 patients (7%) versus 4 patients (33%), respectively. However, the overall morbidity rates and postoperative hospital stays of the two groups did not differ significantly. Straight stomach reconstruction with a twisted anastomosis could reduce the incidence of DGE after PPPD reconstruction.

  16. Anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of cinnamaldehyde via altered ghrelin secretion and functional impact on food intake and gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Susana; Michlig, Stephanie; de Senarclens-Bezençon, Carole; Meylan, Jenny; Meystre, Julie; Pezzoli, Maurizio; Markram, Henry; le Coutre, Johannes

    2015-01-21

    Cinnamon extract is associated to different health benefits but the active ingredients or pathways are unknown. Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) imparts the characteristic flavor to cinnamon and is known to be the main agonist of transient receptor potential-ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1). Here, expression of TRPA1 in epithelial mouse stomach cells is described. After receiving a single-dose of CIN, mice significantly reduce cumulative food intake and gastric emptying rates. Co-localization of TRPA1 and ghrelin in enteroendocrine cells of the duodenum is observed both in vivo and in the MGN3-1 cell line, a ghrelin secreting cell model, where incubation with CIN up-regulates expression of TRPA1 and Insulin receptor genes. Ghrelin secreted in the culture medium was quantified following CIN stimulation and we observe that octanoyl and total ghrelin are significantly lower than in control conditions. Additionally, obese mice fed for five weeks with CIN-containing diet significantly reduce their cumulative body weight gain and improve glucose tolerance without detectable modification of insulin secretion. Finally, in adipose tissue up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation was observed. Taken together, the results confirm anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obesity effects of CIN opening a new approach to investigate how certain spice derived compounds regulate endogenous ghrelin release for therapeutic intervention.

  17. Hyperglycemia Increases Interstitial Cells of Cajal via MAPK1 and MAPK3 Signaling to ETV1 and KIT, Leading to Rapid Gastric Emptying.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yujiro; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Saravanaperumal, Siva Arumugam; Bardsley, Michael R; Smestad, John A; Lorincz, Andrea; Eisenman, Seth T; Cipriani, Gianluca; Nelson Holte, Molly H; Al Khazal, Fatimah J; Syed, Sabriya A; Gajdos, Gabriella B; Choi, Kyoung Moo; Stoltz, Gary J; Miller, Katie E; Kendrick, Michael L; Rubin, Brian P; Gibbons, Simon J; Bharucha, Adil E; Linden, David R; Maher, Louis James; Farrugia, Gianrico; Ordog, Tamas

    2017-08-01

    Depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) is common in diabetic gastroparesis. However, in approximately 20% of patients with diabetes, gastric emptying (GE) is accelerated. GE also occurs faster in obese individuals, and is associated with increased blood levels of glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. To understand the fate of ICCs in hyperinsulinemic, hyperglycemic states characterized by rapid GE, we studied mice with mutation of the leptin receptor (Lepr(db/db)), which in our colony had accelerated GE. We also investigated hyperglycemia-induced signaling in the ICC lineage and ICC dependence on glucose oxidative metabolism in mice with disruption of the succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit C gene (Sdhc). Mice were given breath tests to analyze GE of solids. ICCs were studied by flow cytometry, intracellular electrophysiology, isometric contractility measurement, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and metabolite assays; cells and tissues were manipulated pharmacologically and by RNA interference. Viable cell counts, proliferation, and apoptosis were determined by methyltetrazolium, Ki-67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, bromodeoxyuridine, and caspase-Glo 3/7 assays. Sdhc was disrupted in 2 different strains of mice via cre recombinase. In obese, hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic female Lepr(db/db) mice, GE was accelerated and gastric ICC and phasic cholinergic responses were increased. Female Kit(K641E/+) mice, which have genetically induced hyperplasia of ICCs, also had accelerated GE. In isolated cells of the ICC lineage and gastric organotypic cultures, hyperglycemia stimulated proliferation by mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1)- and MAPK3-dependent stabilization of ets variant 1-a master transcription factor for ICCs-and consequent up-regulation of v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT) receptor tyrosine kinase. Opposite

  18. Understanding the significance, reasons and patterns of abnormal vital signs after gastric bypass for morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Bellorin, Omar; Abdemur, Abraham; Sucandy, Iswanto; Szomstein, Samuel; Rosenthal, Raul J

    2011-06-01

    Anastomotic leaks and bleeding are the two most feared major complications in patients undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass (LRYGB). This study was designed to evaluate if there is a clinical correlation between abnormal vital signs and postoperative leaks and bleeding. After IRB approval and adherence to HIPAA guidelines, a retrospective review of medical records was performed on 518 patients who underwent LRYGB between October 2002 and October 2006. Vital signs from each patient were monitored hourly. Eight patients out of 518 (1.54%) were discovered to have anastomotic leak. A marked increase in heart rate up to 120 bpm at 20 h after surgery occurred in five of eight patients (62.5%). Of the eight patients who had a leak, seven (87.5%) experienced sustained tachycardia above 120 bpm. On the other hand, 20 patients out of 518 (3.86%) were discovered to have postoperative bleeding. A gradual rather than a dramatic increase in heart rate was recorded in 17 of 20 patients (85%) starting 8 h after surgery. Five patients (25%) had unsustained tachycardia above 120 bpm. Twelve patients in this group (60%) were seen to have cyclical tachycardia that never exceeded 120 bpm at any point during hospitalization. Marginal hypotension was found in seven patients (35%) in this group. Sustained tachycardia with a heart rate exceeding 120 bpm appears to be an indicator of anastomotic leak. Tachycardia less than 120 bpm that has occurred in a cyclical pattern strongly pointed toward postoperative bleeding. Anastomotic leaks and bleeding are the two most feared major complications in patients undergoing LRYGB. This study was designed to evaluate if there is a clinical correlation between abnormal vital signs and postoperative leaks and bleeding.

  19. Gastric bypass surgery improves metabolic and hepatic abnormalities associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Klein, Samuel; Mittendorfer, Bettina; Eagon, J Christopher; Patterson, Bruce; Grant, Lafaine; Feirt, Nikki; Seki, Ekihiro; Brenner, David; Korenblat, Kevin; McCrea, Jennifer

    2006-05-01

    Most patients with extreme obesity have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although gastric bypass (GBP) surgery is the most common bariatric operation performed in obese patients in the United States, the effect of GBP surgery-induced weight loss on the metabolic and hepatic abnormalities associated with NAFLD are not clear. Whole-body glucose, fatty acid and lipoprotein kinetics, liver histology, and hepatic cellular factors involved in inflammation and fibrogenesis were evaluated in 7 extremely obese subjects (body mass index, 58 +/- 4 kg/m(2)) before and 1 year after GBP surgery. At 1 year after surgery, subjects lost 29% +/- 5% of initial body weight (P < .01); palmitate rate of appearance in plasma, an index of adipose tissue lipolysis, decreased by 47% +/- 4% (P < .01); endogenous glucose production rate decreased by 27% +/- 7% (P < .01); and very-low-density lipoprotein-triglyceride secretion rate decreased by 44% +/- 9% (P < .05). In addition, GBP surgery-induced weight loss decreased hepatic steatosis but did not change standard histologic assessments of inflammation and fibrosis. However, there was a marked decrease in hepatic factors involved in regulating fibrogenesis (collagen-alpha1(I), transforming growth factor-beta1, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 expression and alpha-smooth muscle actin content) and inflammation (macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 and interleukin 8 expression) (P < .05, compared with values before weight loss). These data demonstrate that weight loss induced by GBP surgery normalizes the metabolic abnormalities involved in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of NAFLD and decreases the hepatic expression of factors involved in the progression of liver inflammation and fibrosis.

  20. Abnormal expression of paxillin correlates with tumor progression and poor survival in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Paxillin (PXN) has been found to be aberrantly regulated in various malignancies and involved in tumor growth and invasion. The clinicopathological and prognostic significance of PXN in gastric cancer is still unclear. Methods The expression of PXN was determined in paired gastric cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of PXN in 239 gastric cancer patients. Statistical analysis was applied to investigate the correlation between PXN expression and clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis in patients. Additionally, the effects of PXN on gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration were also evaluated. Results PXN was up-regulated in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines as compared with adjacent normal tissues and normal gastric epithelial cell line GES-1. Overexpression of PXN was correlated with distant metastasis (P = 0.001) and advanced tumor stage (P = 0.021) in gastric cancer patients. Patients with high PXN expression tended to have poor prognosis compared with patients with low PXN expression (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that PXN expression was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.020). Moreover, ectopic expression of PXN promotes cell proliferation and migration in AGS cells whereas knockdown of PXN inhibits cell proliferation and migration in SGC7901 cells. Conclusions PXN plays an important role in tumor progression and may be used as a potential prognostic indicator in gastric cancer. PMID:24180516

  1. Gastric emptying, mouth-to-cecum transit, and glycemic, insulin, incretin, and energy intake responses to a mixed-nutrient liquid in lean, overweight, and obese males.

    PubMed

    Seimon, Radhika V; Brennan, Ixchel M; Russo, Antonietta; Little, Tanya J; Jones, Karen L; Standfield, Scott; Wishart, Judith M; Horowitz, Michael; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2013-02-01

    Observations relating to the impact of obesity on gastric emptying (GE) and the secretion of gut hormones are inconsistent, probably because of a lack of studies in which GE, gastrointestinal hormone release, and energy intake (EI) have been evaluated concurrently with previous patterns of nutrient intake. GE is known to be a major determinant of postprandial glycemia and incretin secretion in health and type 2 diabetes. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of a mixed-nutrient drink on GE, oro-cecal transit, blood glucose, insulin and incretin concentrations and EI, and the relationship between the glycemic response to the drink with GE in lean, overweight, and obese subjects. Twenty lean, 20 overweight, and 20 obese males had measurements of GE, oro-cecal transit, and blood glucose, insulin, GLP-1, and GIP concentrations for 5 h after ingestion of a mixed-nutrient drink (500 ml, 532 kcal); EI at a subsequent buffet lunch was determined. Habitual EI was also quantified. Glycemic and insulinemic responses to the drink were greater in the obese (both P < 0.05) when compared with both lean and overweight, with no significant differences in GE, intragastric distribution, oro-cecal transit, incretins, or EI (buffet lunch or habitual) between groups. The magnitude of the rise in blood glucose after the drink was greater when GE was relatively more rapid (r = -0.55, P < 0.05). In conclusion, in the absence of differences in habitual EI, both GE and incretin hormones are unaffected in the obese despite greater glucose and insulin responses, and GE is a determinant of postprandial glycemia.

  2. Dietary green-plant thylakoids decrease gastric emptying and gut transit, promote changes in the gut microbial flora, but does not cause steatorrhea.

    PubMed

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Weström, Björn; Linninge, Caroline; Bonn, Peter; Farrell, Mary; Rehfeld, Jens F; Montelius, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Green-plant thylakoids increase satiety by affecting appetite hormones such as ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The objective of this study was to investigate if thylakoids also affect gastrointestinal (GI) passage and microbial composition. To analyse the effects on GI passage, 16 rats were gavage-fed a control or thylakoid-supplemented high-fat diet (HFD) 30 min before receiving Evans blue. Another 16 rats were fed a control HFD or thylakoid HFD for two weeks prior to the intragastric challenge with Evans blue. The amount of Evans blue in the stomach and the distance of migration in the intestines after 30 min were used as a measurement of gastric emptying and intestinal transit. These were reduced by thylakoid supplementation in the acute study, and however not significantly also after the two-week diet study. The second aim of the study was to investigate if thylakoid-supplementation affects the gut microbiota and amount of faecal fat in healthy human volunteers (n = 34) receiving thylakoid or placebo treatments for three months. Microbiota was analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and qPCR, and faecal fat was extracted by dichloromethane. The total bacteria, and specifically the Bacteriodes fragilis group, were increased by thylakoid treatment versus placebo, while thylakoids did not cause steatorrhea. Dietary supplementation with thylakoids thus affects satiety both via appetite hormones and GI fullness, and affects the microbial composition without causing GI adverse effects such as steatorrhea. This suggests thylakoids as a novel agent in prevention and treatment of obesity.

  3. Effect of Human Milk Appetite Hormones, Macronutrients, and Infant Characteristics on Gastric Emptying and Breastfeeding Patterns of Term Fully Breastfed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Gridneva, Zoya; Kugananthan, Sambavi; Hepworth, Anna R.; Tie, Wan J.; Lai, Ching T.; Ward, Leigh C.; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.

    2016-01-01

    Human milk (HM) components influence infant feeding patterns and nutrient intake, yet it is unclear how they influence gastric emptying (GE), a key component of appetite regulation. This study analyzed GE of a single breastfeed, HM appetite hormones/macronutrients and demographics/anthropometrics/body composition of term fully breastfed infants (n = 41, 2 and/or 5 mo). Stomach volumes (SV) were calculated from pre-/post-feed ultrasound scans, then repeatedly until the next feed. Feed volume (FV) was measured by the test-weigh method. HM samples were analyzed for adiponectin, leptin, fat, lactose, total carbohydrate, lysozyme, and total/whey/casein protein. Linear regression/mixed effect models were used to determine associations between GE/feed variables and HM components/infant anthropometrics/adiposity. Higher FVs were associated with faster (−0.07 [−0.10, −0.03], p < 0.001) GE rate, higher post-feed SVs (0.82 [0.53, 1.12], p < 0.001), and longer GE times (0.24 [0.03, 0.46], p = 0.033). Higher whey protein concentration was associated with higher post-feed SVs (4.99 [0.84, 9.13], p = 0.023). Longer GE time was associated with higher adiponectin concentration (2.29 [0.92, 3.66], p = 0.002) and dose (0.02 [0.01, 0.03], p = 0.005), and lower casein:whey ratio (−65.89 [−107.13, −2.66], p = 0.003). FV and HM composition influence GE and breastfeeding patterns in term breastfed infants. PMID:28036041

  4. Effect of Human Milk Appetite Hormones, Macronutrients, and Infant Characteristics on Gastric Emptying and Breastfeeding Patterns of Term Fully Breastfed Infants.

    PubMed

    Gridneva, Zoya; Kugananthan, Sambavi; Hepworth, Anna R; Tie, Wan J; Lai, Ching T; Ward, Leigh C; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2016-12-28

    Human milk (HM) components influence infant feeding patterns and nutrient intake, yet it is unclear how they influence gastric emptying (GE), a key component of appetite regulation. This study analyzed GE of a single breastfeed, HM appetite hormones/macronutrients and demographics/anthropometrics/body composition of term fully breastfed infants (n = 41, 2 and/or 5 mo). Stomach volumes (SV) were calculated from pre-/post-feed ultrasound scans, then repeatedly until the next feed. Feed volume (FV) was measured by the test-weigh method. HM samples were analyzed for adiponectin, leptin, fat, lactose, total carbohydrate, lysozyme, and total/whey/casein protein. Linear regression/mixed effect models were used to determine associations between GE/feed variables and HM components/infant anthropometrics/adiposity. Higher FVs were associated with faster (-0.07 [-0.10, -0.03], p < 0.001) GE rate, higher post-feed SVs (0.82 [0.53, 1.12], p < 0.001), and longer GE times (0.24 [0.03, 0.46], p = 0.033). Higher whey protein concentration was associated with higher post-feed SVs (4.99 [0.84, 9.13], p = 0.023). Longer GE time was associated with higher adiponectin concentration (2.29 [0.92, 3.66], p = 0.002) and dose (0.02 [0.01, 0.03], p = 0.005), and lower casein:whey ratio (-65.89 [-107.13, -2.66], p = 0.003). FV and HM composition influence GE and breastfeeding patterns in term breastfed infants.

  5. Effect of peppermint oil and caraway oil on gastrointestinal motility in healthy volunteers: a pharmacodynamic study using simultaneous determination of gastric and gall-bladder emptying and orocaecal transit time.

    PubMed

    Goerg, K J; Spilker, Th

    2003-02-01

    Although peppermint oil and caraway oil are frequently used in herbal drugs for abdominal discomfort and pain, the pharmacological insights into their effects on the gastrointestinal tract are poor. The pharmacodynamic effects of 90 mg peppermint oil (WS 1340) and 50 mg caraway oil (WS 1520) on the motility of the stomach and gall-bladder, and on the orocaecal transit time, in comparison with placebo, 10 mg cisapride and 10 mg n-butylscopolamine, were studied in 12 healthy volunteers. The study involved simultaneous ultrasonic determination of gastric and gall-bladder emptying, together with assessment of the orocaecal transit time using the lactulose H2 breath test. The combination of these methods allows three gastrointestinal organs to be studied in one subject simultaneously. The antral filling time was comparable with placebo, peppermint oil, caraway oil and cisapride, whereas it was significantly shortened (P = 0.04, two-sided paired t-test) with n-butylscopolamine. The gastric emptying time did not differ significantly between placebo, peppermint oil, caraway oil and cisapride, but was significantly prolonged by n-butylscopolamine (P = 0.04, two-sided paired t-test). Complete inhibition of gall-bladder emptying was caused by both oils and n-butylscopolamine. Cisapride significantly shortened gall-bladder emptying compared with placebo (P = 0.02, two-sided signed rank test). The orocaecal transit time was significantly prolonged by peppermint oil (P = 0.004) and n-butylscopolamine (P = 0.002), but not significantly prolonged by caraway oil (P = 0.06); it was significantly shortened by cisapride (P = 0.04, all two-sided paired t-test). Peppermint oil and caraway oil show a relaxing effect on the gall-bladder and the former slows small intestinal transit. Further studies should investigate the effects of both oils on a maximal contraction stimulus on the gall-bladder, and in patients suffering from motility disorders.

  6. Effect of L-Tryptophan and L-Leucine on Gut Hormone Secretion, Appetite Feelings and Gastric Emptying Rates in Lean and Non-Diabetic Obese Participants: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group Trial

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Häfliger, Simon; Meili, Julian; Doody, Alison; Rehfeld, Jens F; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph; Wölnerhanssen, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) play a role as satiation factors. Strategies to enhance satiation peptide secretion could provide a therapeutic approach for obesity. Carbohydrates and lipids have been extensively investigated in relation to peptide release. In contrast, the role of proteins or amino acids is less clear. Our aim was to compare the effects of the amino acids L-tryptophan (L-trp) and L-leucine (L-leu) separately on gastric emptying and gut peptide secretion. Participants/Methods The study was conducted as a randomized (balanced), double-blind, parallel-group trial. A total of 10 lean and 10 non-diabetic obese participants were included. Participants received intragastric loads of L-trp (0.52 g and 1.56 g) and L-leu (1.56 g), dissolved in 300 mL tap water; 75 g glucose and 300 mL tap water served as control treatments. Results Results of the study are: i) L-trp at the higher dose stimulates CCK release (p = 0.0018), and induces a significant retardation in gastric emptying (p = 0.0033); ii) L-trp at the higher dose induced a small increase in GLP-1 secretion (p = 0.0257); iii) neither of the amino acids modulated subjective appetite feelings; and iv) the two amino acids did not alter insulin or glucose concentrations. Conclusions L-trp is a luminal regulator of CCK release with effects on gastric emptying, an effect that could be mediated by CCK. L-trp’s effect on GLP-1 secretion is only minor. At the doses given, the two amino acids did not affect subjective appetite feelings. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02563847 PMID:27875537

  7. Prospective controlled study of effect of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on small bowel transit time and gastric emptying half-time in morbidly obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shashank; Shah, Poonam; Todkar, Jayashree; Gagner, Michel; Sonar, S; Solav, S

    2010-03-04

    Published data on sleeve gastrectomy (SG) have indicated better remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and improvement in satiety compared with other restrictive procedures. Mechanisms in addition to rapid, extensive weight loss are responsible for the restoration of the euglycemic state. To prospectively evaluate the role of laparoscopic SG on gastric emptying half-time and small bowel transit time (SBTT) and effect of these on weight loss, satiety, and improvement in T2DM. A total of 67 subjects were studied. Of these 67 subjects, 24 were lean controls (body mass index 22.2 +/- 2.84 kg/m(2)), 20 were severely and morbidly obese patients with T2DM who had not undergone SG (body mass index 37.73 +/- 5.35 kg/m(2)), and 23 were severely and morbidly obese patients with T2DM after SG (body mass index 40.71 +/- 6.59 kg/m(2)). All 67 patients were evaluated for gastric emptying half-time and SBTT using scintigraphic imaging. Imaging was performed every 15 minutes up to the ileocecal region. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire was administered simultaneously. Fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, and glycated hemoglobin were assessed. Nonparametric analysis of variance and the Mann-Whitney U test were applied. The mean SBTT was significantly lower (P <.05) in the post-SG group (199 +/- 65.7 minutes) than in the non-SG group (281.5 +/- 46.2 minutes) or control group (298.1 +/- 9.2 minutes). The gastric emptying half-time values were also significantly shorter (P <.05) in the post-SG (52.8 +/- 13.5 minutes) than in the non-SG (73.7 +/- 29.0 minutes) and control (72.8 +/- 29.6 minutes) groups. The glycated hemoglobin, fasting blood sugar, and postprandial sugar were all significantly lower after SG. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire findings revealed significantly earlier satiety (29.0 +/- 7.2) for the post-SG patients (P <.05) compared with the non-SG (45.8 +/- 9.0) and control (37.9 +/- 6.2) subjects. A decreased gastric emptying half-time and SBTT

  8. Hyperprolactinaemia and the empty sella.

    PubMed

    Thwin, M; Brophy, B P

    2012-04-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia is an endocrine abnormality seen not infrequently in the population with empty sella; a radiological and anatomical diagnosis of a deformed and enlarged sella turcica. Often there is no associated pathology within the pituitary gland itself, lending to the hypothesis that the empty sella syndrome per se has a yet-to-be defined role in hyperprolactinemia. We report a patient who presented initially with non-specific symptoms of meningeal irritation and viral illness on a long background of galactorrhoea. The patient demonstrated elevated serum prolactin, and a diagnosis of empty sella was made on the basis of MRI findings.

  9. Empty Quarter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Empty Quarter - February 1st, 20003 Description: White pinpricks of cloud cast ebony shadows on the Rub' al Khali, or Empty Quarter, near the border between Saudi Arabia and Yemen. The lines of wind-sculpted sand are characteristic of immense sand deserts, or sand seas, and the Rub' al Khali is the largest desert of this type in the world. A highland ridge is just high enough to disturb the flow of the lines. In the center of that interruption lies the Saudi Arabian town of Sharurah. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  10. Reconstruction of normal and abnormal gastric electrical sources using a potential based inverse method

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J HK; Du, P; Cheng, L K

    2013-01-01

    The use of cutaneous recordings to non-invasively characterize gastric slow wave had limited clinical acceptance, primarily due to the uncertainty in relating the recorded signal to the underlying gastric slow waves. In this study we aim to distinguish and quantitatively reconstruct different slow wave patterns using an inverse algorithm. Slow wave patterns corresponding to normal, retrograde and uncoupled activity at different frequencies were imposed on a model of the stomach surface. Gaussian noise (10% peak-to-peak) was added to cutaneous potentials and the Greensite-Tikhonov inverse method was used to reconstruct the potentials on the stomach. The effectiveness of the number or location of electrodes on the accuracy of the inverse solutions was investigated using four different electrode configurations. Results showed the reconstructed solutions were able to reliably distinguish the different slow wave patterns and waves with lower frequency were better correlated to the known solution than those with higher. The use of up to 228 electrodes improved the accuracy of the inverse solutions. However, the use of 120 electrodes concentrated around the stomach was able to achieve similar results. The most efficient electrode configuration for our model involved 120 electrodes with an inter-electrode distance of 32 mm. PMID:24137714

  11. Reconstruction of normal and abnormal gastric electrical sources using a potential based inverse method.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H K; Du, P; Cheng, L K

    2013-09-01

    The use of cutaneous recordings to non-invasively characterize gastric slow waves has had limited clinical acceptance, primarily due to the uncertainty in relating the recorded signal to the underlying gastric slow waves. In this study we aim to distinguish and quantitatively reconstruct different slow wave patterns using an inverse algorithm. Slow wave patterns corresponding to normal, retrograde and uncoupled activity at different frequencies were imposed on a stomach surface model. Gaussian noise (10% peak-to-peak) was added to cutaneous potentials and the Greensite-Tikhonov inverse method was used to reconstruct the potentials on the stomach. The effectiveness of the number or location of electrodes on the accuracy of the inverse solutions was investigated using four different electrode configurations. Results showed the reconstructed solutions were able to reliably distinguish the different slow wave patterns and waves with lower frequency were better correlated to the known solution than those with higher. The use of up to 228 electrodes improved the accuracy of the inverse solutions. However, the use of 120 electrodes concentrated around the stomach was able to achieve similar results. The most efficient electrode configuration for our model involved 120 electrodes with an inter-electrode distance of 32 mm.

  12. [Effects of a series of food substances on motor and emptying function of the gastric stump and diverting intestinal loop after stomach resection and truncal vagotomy].

    PubMed

    Loranskaia, T I; Khoromskiĭ, L N; Benedikt, V V

    1986-01-01

    Altogether 253 patients operated on for peptic ulcer were examined for the action of 30 foods on motor and evacuatory function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop. 213 patients were subjected to gastric resection after Hofmeister-Finsterer and 40 patients to antrum resection and truncal vagotomy. Proceeding from the action on motor function of the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop the foods were distributed into three groups: with a stimulation, inhibitory of weak effects on the function. The first group included beef and fish broths, boiled meat, rye bread, cabbage, tomato, apple, cherry and black currant juices, rhubarb infusion, fresh kefir, carrot and pumpkin purees. The group of foods producing an inhibitory action comprised milk and milk whey, cottage cheese, sugar, butter, sunflower oil, lard, rice and oat decoctions, mashed potatoes and potato juice, buckwheat porridge and semolina, wheat bread, raw eggs, and honey. The action of the same foods was found to be different as regards the effect on the gastric stump and efferent intestinal loop, on tonic and contractile functions of the organs. The dietetic management of patients undergoing gastric operations should be carried out on a strictly individualized basis with allowance made for the functions of the gastric stump and intestinal loop and for the action of foods on the organs.

  13. ABNORMAL GASTRIC AND COLONIC PERMEABILITY IN CHILDREN WITH RECURRENT ABDOMINAL PAIN (RAP)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent histologic studies have suggested evidence of low grade inflammation in many patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Additionally, small intestinal permeability recently has been reported to be abnormal in some adults with IBS. Whether the same is true for children with RAP, a condition...

  14. Some early results related to electrical impedance of normal and abnormal gastric tissue.

    PubMed

    Keshtkar, A; Salehnia, Z; Somi, M H; Eftekharsadat, A T

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and most patients with gastric cancer are being diagnosed in advanced stages of the disease so they do not gain any survival chance from conventional surgical, chemotherapeutic or radiotherapeutic methods. These are relatively high cost procedures in terms of both time and money. This study considers the introduction of a novel minimally invasive diagnostic technique which shows the relationship between histopathology and the electrical impedance spectrum in the human stomach. In this study, 4 electrode technique was used to differentiate tissues from each other using Tabriz Mark 1 electrical impedance system (30 different frequencies in the range of 2 kHz to 1 MHz). A total of 97 points from 45 patients were studied in terms of their biopsy reports matching to the electrical impedance measurements (in vivo). After impedance measurements and applying calibration factors, a non-parametric statistical technique, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate the difference among the groups. According to the calculation of respective data using this spectroscopy system, the resistivity of the normal group was higher than that of the benign group, and the resistivity of these groups were higher than that of the malignant group at frequencies between 470 kHz and 1 MHz (P < 0.05). In these frequencies, the impedivity of the dysplastic tissue was significantly lower than that of the other groups (P < 0.05). Also, Cole equation fitting procedure was used to generate a scatter plot of the malignant and benign points: it shows in general, benign points had higher values of R than the malignant points. Therefore, electrical impedance spectroscopy can be a useful technique to characterize the stomach tissue. Copyright © 2011 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Empty Spaces.

    PubMed

    Hulkower, Adira

    2017-09-01

    "I'm Jewish, you know, and my mother said, 'Always trust the rabbis.'" I never heard Mr. Weisman's refrain from his own lips. I never heard him say any words all. By the time I met him he was in a vegetative state, a man on the precipice of invisibility-white hair, thin pale limbs, melting into sheets of the same color. When I think about Mr. Weisman, I see empty spaces-the absence of his voice, the too-large bed for his shrinking frame, the always-empty chair by his bedside, and most of all, the myriad gaps in his life story. He was what in hospitals is often called a "patient alone": someone who lacks decisional capacity and has no surrogate to make medical decisions for him. Mr. Weisman's aloneness prompted his primary team to consult our bioethics service in order to formulate goals of care for him, including the possibility of hospice care. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  16. Effect of selective β-adrenoceptor blockade and surgical resection of the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex on delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine in rats

    PubMed Central

    Vinagre, A.M.; Collares, E.F.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence for participation of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in delayed liquid gastric emptying (GE) induced in rats by dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At). The present study aimed to determine whether β-adrenoceptors are involved in delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazole derivatives and the role of the prevertebral sympathetic nervous system in this condition. Male Wistar rats weighing 220-280 g were used in the study. In the first experiment rats were intravenously pretreated with vehicle (V), atenolol 30 mg/kg (ATE, β1-adrenergic antagonist), or butoxamine 25 mg/kg (BUT, β2-adrenergic antagonist). In the second experiment, rats were pretreated with V or SR59230A 2 mg/kg (SRA, β3-adrenergic antagonist). In the third experiment, rats were subjected to surgical resection of the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex or to sham surgery. The groups were intravenously treated with saline (S), 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At, 15 min after pretreatment with the antagonists or V and nine days after surgery. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. The %GR (means±SE, n=6) values indicated that BUT abolished the effect of Dp (BUT+Dp vs V+Dp: 35.0%±5.1% vs 56.4%±2.7%) and At (BUT+At vs V+At: 33.5%±4.7% vs 52.9%±2.6%) on GE, and significantly reduced (P<0.05) the effect of AA (BUT+AA vs V+AA: 48.0%±5.0% vs 65.2%±3.8%). ATE, SRA, and sympathectomy did not modify the effects of treatments. These results suggest that β2-adrenoceptor activation occurred in delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by the phenylpyrazole derivatives dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine. Additionally, the released neurotransmitter did not originate in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex. PMID:26840714

  17. Effect of selective β-adrenoceptor blockade and surgical resection of the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex on delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine in rats.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, A M; Collares, E F

    2016-03-01

    There is evidence for participation of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in delayed liquid gastric emptying (GE) induced in rats by dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At). The present study aimed to determine whether β-adrenoceptors are involved in delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazole derivatives and the role of the prevertebral sympathetic nervous system in this condition. Male Wistar rats weighing 220-280 g were used in the study. In the first experiment rats were intravenously pretreated with vehicle (V), atenolol 30 mg/kg (ATE, β1-adrenergic antagonist), or butoxamine 25 mg/kg (BUT, β2-adrenergic antagonist). In the second experiment, rats were pretreated with V or SR59230A 2 mg/kg (SRA, β3-adrenergic antagonist). In the third experiment, rats were subjected to surgical resection of the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex or to sham surgery. The groups were intravenously treated with saline (S), 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At, 15 min after pretreatment with the antagonists or V and nine days after surgery. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. The %GR (means±SE, n=6) values indicated that BUT abolished the effect of Dp (BUT+Dp vs V+Dp: 35.0%±5.1% vs 56.4%±2.7%) and At (BUT+At vs V+At: 33.5%±4.7% vs 52.9%±2.6%) on GE, and significantly reduced (P<0.05) the effect of AA (BUT+AA vs V+AA: 48.0%±5.0% vs 65.2%±3.8%). ATE, SRA, and sympathectomy did not modify the effects of treatments. These results suggest that β2-adrenoceptor activation occurred in delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by the phenylpyrazole derivatives dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine. Additionally, the released neurotransmitter did not originate in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex.

  18. Gastric sensitivity and reflexes: basic mechanisms underlying clinical problems.

    PubMed

    Azpiroz, Fernando; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Grundy, David; Tack, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Both reflex and sensory mechanisms control the function of the stomach, and disturbances in these mechanisms may explain the pathophysiology of disorders of gastric function. The objective of this report is to perform a literature-based critical analysis of new, relevant or conflicting information on gastric sensitivity and reflexes, with particular emphasis on the comprehensive integration of basic and clinical research data. The stomach exerts both phasic and tonic muscular (contractile and relaxatory) activity. Gastric tone determines the capacity of the stomach and mediates both gastric accommodation to a meal as well as gastric emptying, by partial relaxation or progressive recontraction, respectively. Perception and reflex afferent pathways from the stomach are activated independently by specific stimuli, suggesting that the terminal nerve endings operate as specialized receptors. Particularly, perception appears to be related to stimulation of tension receptors, while the existence of volume receptors in the stomach is uncertain. Reliable techniques have been developed to measure gastric perception and reflexes both in experimental and clinical conditions, and have facilitated the identification of abnormal responses in patients with gastric disorders. Gastroparesis is characterised by impaired gastric tone and contractility, whereas patients with functional dyspepsia have impaired accommodation, associated with antral distention and increased gastric sensitivity. An integrated view of fragmented knowledge allows the design of pathophysiological models in an attempt to explain disorders of gastric function, and may facilitate the development of mechanistically orientated treatments.

  19. Abnormal DNA-PKcs and Ku 70/80 expression may promote malignant pathological processes in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Xie, Chuan; Yang, Zhen; Chen, Jiang; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2013-10-28

    To determine the expression of the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) and the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer (Ku 70/80) in gastric carcinoma. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 146 gastric carcinoma patients [Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-negative: 89 and H. pylori-positive: 57] and 34 from normal subjects (H. pylori-negative: 16 and H. pylori-positive: 18) via surgery and endoscopic detection from April 2011 to August 2012 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University. Pathological diagnosis and classification were made according to the criteria of the World Health Organization and the updated Sydney system. An ''in-house'' rapid urease test and modified Giemsa staining were employed to detect H. pylori infection. The expression of DNA-PKcs and the Ku 70/80 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. Overall, the positive rates of both DNA-PKcs and Ku 70/80 were significantly increased in gastric cancer (χ(2) = 133.04, P < 0.001 for DNA-PKcs and χ(2) = 13.06, P < 0.01 for Ku) compared with normal gastric mucosa. There was hardly any detectable expression of DNA-PKcs in normal gastric mucosa, and the positive rate of DNA-PKcs protein expression in patients with a normal gastric mucosa was 0% (0/34), whereas the rate in gastric cancer (GC) was 93.8% (137/146). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. Additionally, the positive rate of Ku 70/80 was 79.4% (27/34) in normal gastric mucosa and 96.6% (141/146) in gastric cancer. The DNA-PKcs protein level was significantly increased in gastric cancer (Mann-Whitney U = 39.00, P < 0.001), compared with normal gastric mucosa. In addition, there was a significant difference in the expression of Ku 70/80 (Mann-Whitney U = 1117.00, P < 0.001) between gastric cancer and normal gastric mucosa. There was also a significant difference in Ku70/80 protein expression between GC patients with and without H. pylori infection (P < 0.05). Spearman analysis showed a negative

  20. Motility abnormalities in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    DuPont, Andrew W; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Harold, Stephen A; Snyder, Ned; Galler, Greg W; Garcia-Torres, Francisco; DuPont, Herbert L

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal pathophysiology in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is largely unknown. The lactulose breath test has been used to identify small bowel bacterial overgrowth in these patients. We studied intestinal transit in patients with IBS using of the SmartPill® (SP) wireless pH/pressure recording capsule and performed lactulose breath tests to look for physiologic abnormalities. A total of 35/46 (76%) of the IBS patients had prolonged gastric emptying times. Constipation-predominant disease was associated with prolonged gut transit times. The mean hours ± SD for colonic transit time in the constipation group was 71.7 ± 61.1 (n = 13) compared with 22.5 ± 14.9 (n = 14) for diarrhea-predominant and 26.4 ± 21.5 (n = 20) for mixed clinical subtype (p = 0.0010). No correlation between small bowel transit time and abnormal breath hydrogen or methane excretion in the 46 combined patients with IBS was seen. Delayed gastric emptying was identified in IBS and in some patients may contribute to at least a component of their symptoms. Constipation-predominant IBS is associated with prolonged gut transit times. Otherwise, transit abnormalities do not appear to be important in IBS. Intestinal transit did not correlate with breath test results.

  1. Effects of corydaline from Corydalis tuber on gastric motor function in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Ho; Son, Miwon; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prokinetic and gastric-relaxing effects of the isoquinoline alkaloid corydaline, which was extracted from Corydalis tubers (CT). Corydaline is a marker compound used for quality control of DA-9701, a prokinetic agent formulated from extracts of Pharbitidis semen and Corydalis tuber that is currently in clinical trials in Korea for the treatment of functional dyspepsia (FD). DA-9701 was previously reported to be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of abnormalities in gastrointestinal motor function in FD patients; however, the therapeutic effects of corydaline on FD have yet to be demonstrated in an in vivo study. In the current study, oral administration of corydaline not only significantly accelerated gastric emptying in normal rats but also improved delayed gastric emptying to near normal levels. Furthermore, corydaline induced significant gastric relaxation, shifting the pressure-volume curve towards higher volumes compared to controls. These results suggest that corydaline promotes gastric emptying and small intestinal transit and facilitates gastric accommodation.

  2. Oesophageal and gastric motor activity in patients with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, A; Bergmann, H; Abatzi, T A; Schneider, C; Wiesnagrotzki, S; Höbart, J; Steiner-Mittelbach, G; Gaupmann, G; Kugi, A; Stacher-Janotta, G

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies showed that symptoms of oesophageal motor disorders can be misinterpreted as indicating anorexia nervosa and that in primary anorexia nervosa gastric motility is frequently impaired. We investigated in 32 women with bulimia nervosa whether symptoms of oesophageal motor disorders could be obscured by or be mistaken as forming part of bulimic behaviour, and whether impaired gastric motility was frequent as well. Oesophageal motility was normal in 18 of 26 patients studied, another four had incomplete lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation. Two patients had vigorous achalasia and each one achalasia and diffuse oesophageal spasm, all of whom experienced two types of vomiting: one self-induced and one involuntary, in which the vomit was non-acidic and tasted as the preceding meal. Gastric emptying of a semisolid meal was studied in all patients except of the eight with oesophageal motor abnormalities. Emptying was significantly slower than in healthy controls and grossly delayed in nine of 24 patients. Antral contraction amplitudes were lower and increased less postcibally than in controls. In conclusion (i) bulimic behaviour can obscure symptoms of oesophageal motor disorders and (ii) gastric emptying is frequently delayed in bulimia nervosa. PMID:2323585

  3. Gastric physiology and function: effects of fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Moukarzel, A A; Sabri, M T

    1996-10-01

    The stomach stores food and starts digesting protein and fat. Lipids, sugars, certain amino acids, and nutrients of high osmolality trigger sensory mechanisms from the intestine which inhibit gastric emptying. Food rich in carbohydrates leaves the stomach slower than protein-rich food, and emptying is slowest after a meal containing lipid. For carbohydrate beverages, the gastric emptying rate is primarily determined by the volume, caloric content, and osmolality of fluid ingested. Gastric emptying rates vary among isocaloric beverages of different type (e.g., sucrose, fructose, galactose) or forms (e.g., maltodextrins, starches) of carbohydrate. For instance, gastric emptying is faster for a fructose solution compared with isocaloric glucose and galactose solutions. A maltodextrin or a sucrose solution empties faster than a glucose solution. This is possibly due to the greater inhibitory feedback associated with the introduction of glucose in the duodenum. In addition, fruit juices contain soluble fibers which further modulate the gastric emptying. Noninvasive methods to study gastric emptying have recently been developed. The pattern of the myoelectric activity of the gastric contraction and the effect of meals on this pattern can now be recorded by cutaneous electrodes. In healthy children ingesting different juices, the myoelectric pattern of the stomach (indicator of the gastric emptying) correlates with the carbohydrate absorption (measured by breath hydrogen excretion). Fast gastric emptying was associated with greater production of breath hydrogen. The malabsorption of juice carbohydrates may in part be related to their effect on gastric motility.

  4. Assessment of gastric sensorimotor function in paediatric patients with unexplained dyspeptic symptoms and poor weight gain.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, I; Vos, R; Tack, J

    2007-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that impaired meal accommodation or hypersensitivity to distention are highly prevalent in adult functional dyspepsia (FD). Our aim was to investigate whether similar abnormalities also occur in paediatric FD. Sixteen FD patients (15 girls, 10-16 years) were studied. The severity (0-3; 0, absent; 3, severe) of eight dyspeptic symptoms (epigastric pain, fullness, bloating, early satiety, nausea, vomiting, belching and epigastric burning) and the amount of weight loss were determined by questionnaire. All children underwent a gastric barostat study after an overnight fast to determine sensitivity to distention and meal-induced accommodation, which were compared with normal values in young adults (18-22 years). On a separate day, all patients underwent a gastric emptying breath test. A mean weight loss of 4.8 +/- 0.9 kg was present in 14 children. Compared with controls, patients had lower discomfort thresholds to gastric distention (8.8 +/- 1.0 mmHg vs 13.9 +/- 1.9 mmHg, P < 0.02) and gastric accommodation (87 +/- 25 mL vs 154 +/- 20 mL P < 0.04). Hypersensitivity to distention and impaired accommodation were present in respectively nine (56%) and 11 (69%) patients. No relationship was found between barostat and gastric emptying, which was delayed in only three patients. The majority of children with unexplained epigastric symptoms have abnormalities of gastric sensorimotor function.

  5. Effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 on blood pressure, heart rate, gastric emptying, mesenteric blood flow and glycaemic responses to oral glucose in older individuals with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Trahair, Laurence G; Horowitz, Michael; Stevens, Julie E; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Standfield, Scott; Piscitelli, Diana; Rayner, Christopher K; Deane, Adam M; Jones, Karen L

    2015-08-01

    A postprandial fall in BP occurs frequently in older individuals and in patients with type 2 diabetes. The magnitude of this decrease in BP is related to the rate of gastric emptying (GE). Intravenous administration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) attenuates the hypotensive response to intraduodenal glucose in healthy older individuals. We sought to determine the effects of exogenous GLP-1 on BP, GE, superior mesenteric artery (SMA) flow and glycaemic response to oral ingestion of glucose in healthy older individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes. Fourteen older volunteers (six men, eight women; age 72.1 ± 1.1 years) and ten patients with type 2 diabetes (six men, four women; age 68.7 ± 3.4 years; HbA1c 6.6 ± 0.2% [48.5 ± 2.0 mmol/mol]; nine with blood glucose managed with metformin, two with a sulfonylurea and one with a dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitor) received an i.v. infusion of GLP-1 (0.9 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) or saline (154 mmol/l NaCl) for 150 min (t = -30 min to t = 120 min) in randomised order. At t = 0 min, volunteers consumed a radiolabelled 75 g glucose drink. BP was assessed with an automated device, GE by scintigraphy and SMA flow by ultrasonography. Blood glucose and serum insulin were measured. GLP-1 attenuated the fall in diastolic BP after the glucose drink in older individuals (p < 0.05) and attenuated the fall in systolic and diastolic BP in patients with type 2 diabetes (p < 0.05). GE was faster in patients with type 2 diabetes than in healthy individuals (p < 0.05). In both groups, individuals had slower GE (p < 0.001), decreased SMA flow (p < 0.05) and a lower degree of glycaemia (p < 0.001) when receiving GLP-1. Intravenous GLP-1 attenuates the hypotensive response to orally administered glucose and decreases SMA flow, probably by slowing GE. GLP-1 and 'short-acting' GLP-1 agonists may be useful in the management of postprandial hypotension.

  6. Gastric Motor Dysfunction in Patients With Functional Gastroduodenal Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Park, Seon-Young; Acosta, Andrés; Camilleri, Michael; Burton, Duane; Harmsen, W Scott; Fox, Jean; Szarka, Lawrence A

    2017-09-12

    The pathophysiology of dyspeptic symptoms is complex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of gastric emptying (GE), gastric accommodation (GA), and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, to assess vagal dysfunction) in a large cohort with functional gastroduodenal symptoms. We reviewed demographic, clinical features, and results of gastric motor and vagal function studies of 1,287 patients (74.0% females, mean age 43.1±15.4 years) who had undergone both single photon emission computed tomography GA and scintigraphic GE. Accommodation was based on postprandial to fasting gastric volume ratio (VR). Electrocardiograms were available and analyzed for RSA in 300 patients. There were 29.8% patients with normal GE and GA, 21.9% with abnormal GA only, 27.1% with abnormal GE only, and 21.1% with abnormal GA and GE. There were numerical differences in GA among patients with normal, accelerated, and delayed GE (P=0.062, by χ(2)). Increased GA (VR >3.85) was more prevalent in patients with delayed GE compared to accelerated GE (14.0% vs. 6.8%, P=0.004). Decreased VRs (median 2.9) were observed with accelerated GE compared to normal GE (median 3.1, P<0.05). Nausea and vomiting were more prevalent (in contrast to the less prevalent bloating) in patients with delayed compared to accelerated or normal GE (all P<0.05). In patients with diminished RSA, there was higher prevalence of reduced GA (41.5%) compared to those with preserved RSA (29.2%, P=0.031). Multivariable analysis showed associations of the main abdominal symptoms with gender, body mass index, gastric emptying, diabetes, and prior abdominal surgery. Patients with symptoms of functional gastroduodenal disorders may have one or more gastric motor dysfunctions and reduced RSA; among the patients with abnormal gastric motor functions, vomiting suggests delayed GE, whereas reduced RSA is associated with reduced GA.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 12 September 2017; doi:10.1038/ajg.2017.264.

  7. How empty is an empty loss cone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissbein, Amir; Sari, Re'em

    2017-06-01

    We consider two-body relaxation in a spherical system with a loss cone. Considering two-dimensional angular momentum space, we focus on 'empty loss cone' systems, where the typical scattering during a dynamical time jd is smaller than the size of the loss cone jlc. As a result, the occupation number within the loss cone is significantly smaller than outside. Classical diffusive treatment of this regime predict exponentially small occupation number deep in the loss cone. We revisit this classical derivation of occupancy distribution of objects in the empty loss cone regime. We emphasize the role of the rare large scatterings and show that the occupancy does not decay exponentially within the loss cone, but it is rather flat, with a typical value ˜[(jd/jlc)]2ln -2(jlc/jmin ) compared to the occupation in circular angular momentum (where jmin is the smallest possible scattering). Implication are that although the loss cone for tidal break of Giants or binaries is typically empty, tidal events that occur significantly inside the loss cone (β ≳ 2) are almost as common as those with β ≅ 1, where β is the ratio between the tidal radius and the periastron. The probability for event with penetration factor >β decreases only as β-1 rather than exponentially. This effect has no influence on events characterized by full loss cone, such as tidal disruption event of ˜1 m⊙ main-sequence star.

  8. Effect of pirenzepine on gallbladder emptying in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Keshavarzian, A.; Fitzpatrick, M.L.; Anagnostides, A.; Chadwick, V.S.

    1986-11-01

    The effect of the selective antimuscarinic agent, pirenzepine, on gallbladder function was studied in six healthy volunteers, using /sup 99m/Tc HIDA (N-(2,6-diethylthenyl) carbamoylmethyl iminodiacetic acid) hepatobiliary scanning. Pirenzepine, in doses that inhibit gastric acid secretion, did not alter gallbladder emptying responses to sham feeding stimulation or to a test meal.

  9. [Gastric volvulus].

    PubMed

    Solórzano, J; Acosta, D; Morales, H; Vásquez, F; Mora, G; Chávez, M; Andrade, D; Joutteaux, R; Sánchez, I; García, D; Valenzuela, E

    2006-10-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare condition in pediatric population in which there is an abnormal rotation of one part of the stomach around itself. It's a surgical emergency. We report a six year old female admitted in the emergency due to upper abdominal distention, nausea without vomiting, physical exam revealed upper abdominal distention and abdominal tenderness, no bowel sounds. Laparotomy was performed and a gastric volvulus with occlusive vascular involvement was found. In the post operative period she required a second laparotomy due to adhesions in small bowel.

  10. Relating gastric scintigraphy and symptoms to motility capsule transit and pressure findings in suspected gastroparesis.

    PubMed

    Hasler, W L; May, K P; Wilson, L A; Van Natta, M; Parkman, H P; Pasricha, P J; Koch, K L; Abell, T L; McCallum, R W; Nguyen, L A; Snape, W J; Sarosiek, I; Clarke, J O; Farrugia, G; Calles-Escandon, J; Grover, M; Tonascia, J; Lee, L A; Miriel, L; Hamilton, F A

    2017-09-05

    Wireless motility capsule (WMC) findings are incompletely defined in suspected gastroparesis. We aimed to characterize regional WMC transit and contractility in relation to scintigraphy, etiology, and symptoms in patients undergoing gastric emptying testing. A total of 209 patients with gastroparesis symptoms at NIDDK Gastroparesis Consortium centers underwent gastric scintigraphy and WMCs on separate days to measure regional transit and contractility. Validated questionnaires quantified symptoms. Solid scintigraphy and liquid scintigraphy were delayed in 68.8% and 34.8% of patients; WMC gastric emptying times (GET) were delayed in 40.3% and showed 52.8% agreement with scintigraphy; 15.5% and 33.5% had delayed small bowel (SBTT) and colon transit (CTT) times. Transit was delayed in ≥2 regions in 23.3%. Rapid transit was rarely observed. Diabetics had slower GET but more rapid SBTT versus idiopathics (P ≤ .02). GET delays related to greater scintigraphic retention, slower SBTT, and fewer gastric contractions (P ≤ .04). Overall gastroparesis symptoms and nausea/vomiting, early satiety/fullness, bloating/distention, and upper abdominal pain subscores showed no relation to WMC transit. Upper and lower abdominal pain scores (P ≤ .03) were greater with increased colon contractions. Constipation correlated with slower CTT and higher colon contractions (P = .03). Diarrhea scores were higher with delayed SBTT and CTT (P ≤ .04). Wireless motility capsules define gastric emptying delays similar but not identical to scintigraphy that are more severe in diabetics and relate to reduced gastric contractility. Extragastric transit delays occur in >40% with suspected gastroparesis. Gastroparesis symptoms show little association with WMC profiles, although lower symptoms relate to small bowel or colon abnormalities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Acute gastric dilatation in a patient with anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype.

    PubMed

    Tweed-Kent, Ailis M; Fagenholz, Peter J; Alam, Hasan B

    2010-10-01

    Acute gastric dilatation is a rare complication of anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype that results from gastrointestinal abnormalities, including decreased gastric motility and delayed gastric emptying. Early diagnosis and intervention is critical since delay may result in gastric necrosis, perforation, shock, and death. We report a 26-year-old female with anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype, who presented with abdominal pain and nausea after a binge episode. Abdominal radiography and computed tomography showed a grossly dilated stomach measuring 32 cm × 17.9 cm consistent with acute gastric dilatation. She underwent exploratory laparotomy with gastrotomy and gastric decompression, and recovered uneventfully. Initially, the patient denied the binge episode, as many patients with eating disorders do, but later revealed an extensive history of anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype. This case stresses the importance of obtaining a thorough history of eating disorders and maintaining a high index of suspicion for acute gastric dilatation in young women who present with abdominal pain and distention.

  12. Psychoanalytic perspectives on emptiness.

    PubMed

    Levy, S T

    1984-01-01

    A clinical example illustrates the thesis that the experience of feeling empty, like any other mental event, can be understood in terms of the conflicting wishes, prohibitions , compromises, and gratifications that color any experience in ways that clarify its meaning. Theoretical hypotheses which explain mental events and experiences as the result of deficiencies of structures are difficult to translate into therapeutic practices. This is especially true in the case of the experience of emptiness which, in and of itself and often vigorously, asserts an absence of content. The equating of deficiencies of structures, however formulated, with deficiencies in mental content or activity can result in unconsciously joining the empty patient in repudiating important aspects of internal life, maintaining ultimately pathological gratifications , and often contributing to treatment stalemates in which the "absence of content" is often preferred to the presence of frightening wishes, fantasies, and memories.

  13. Stomach emptiness in fishes: Sources of variation and study design implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vinson, M.R.; Angradi, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections and reports on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs. The mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs among all species, locations, habitats, seasons, regions, and collection methods was 26.4%. Mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs varied significantly among fish collection gear types, taxonomic orders, trophic groups, feeding behaviors, and habitats, and with species length at maturity. Most of the variation in percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was explained by species length at maturity, fish collection gear type, and two autecological factors: trophic group (piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > non-piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs) and feeding habitat (water column feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > benthic feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs). After accounting for variation with fish length, the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs did not vary with the stomach removal collection method (dissection vs. gastric lavage), feeding time (diurnal or nocturnal), or time of collection (day or night). The percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was similar between fresh and saltwater fish, but differed within finer habitat classifications and appeared to follow a general prey availability or productivity gradient: percentage of individuals with empty stomachs of open ocean collections > estuary collections, lentic > lotic, and pelagic > littoral. Gear type (active or passive) was the most influential factor affecting the occurrence of empty stomachs that can be readily controlled by researchers.

  14. Inactivation of NKX6.3 in the stomach leads to abnormal expression of CDX2 and SOX2 required for gastric-to-intestinal transdifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung H; Choi, Sung S; Kim, Olga; Choi, Won S; Park, Yong K; Nam, Suk W; Lee, Jung Y; Park, Won S

    2016-02-01

    Intestinal metaplasia in gastric mucosa is considered a preneoplastic lesion that progresses to gastric cancer. However, the molecular networks underlying this lesion formation are largely unknown. NKX6.3 is known to be an important regulator in gastric mucosal epithelial differentiation. In this study, we characterized the effects of NKX6.3 that may contribute to gastric intestinal metaplasia. NKX6.3 expression was significantly reduced in gastric mucosae with intestinal metaplasia. The mRNA expression levels of both NKX6.3 and CDX2 predicted the intestinal metaplasia risk, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.9414 and 0.9971, respectively. Notably, the NKX6.3 expression level was positively and inversely correlated with SOX2 and CDX2, respectively. In stable AGS(NKX6.3) and MKN1(NKX6.3) cells, NKX6.3 regulated the expression of CDX2 and SOX2 by directly binding to the promoter regions of both genes. Nuclear NKX6.3 expression was detected only in gastric epithelial cells without intestinal metaplasia. Furthermore, NKX6.3-induced TWSG1 bound to BMP4 and inhibited BMP4-binding activity to BMPR-II. These data suggest that NKX6.3 might function as a master regulator of gastric differentiation by affecting SOX2 and CDX2 expression and the NKX6.3 inactivation may result in intestinal metaplasia in gastric epithelial cells.

  15. Empty Quarter, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    In the northeast end of the Saudi Arabian desert called the Rub-Al-Khali (Empty Quarter) (21.0N, 53.0E) is the great sand dune field known as the Ash Shaiba. Here, the dunes reach great heights and are held at the maximum angle of repose by the wind. Any disturbance of the base will cause a great cascade of sand burying an intruder like a great wave. The dunes are of a classic style known as 'Barcans'.

  16. [Effect of Saussurea lappa on gastric functions].

    PubMed

    Chen, S F; Li, Y Q; He, F Y

    1994-07-01

    The patients with chronic superficial gastritis were selected in the study. The variation in gastric acidity output, serum gastrin and plasma somatostatin concentration were observed during the Saussurea lappa decoction (SLD) perfusion into the stomach. There was no significant changes in acidity output, serum gastrin and plasma somatostatin concentration after the perfusion of SLD (P > 0.05). Changes in gastric emptying and plasma motilin concentration were observed after oral administration of the SLD in 5 healthy volunteers. The time of gastric emptying was markedly shortened after oral administration of SLD (P < 0.01). A significant increase occurred in plasma motilin concentration at 30 min. after oral administration of SLD (P < 0.01). It revealed that SLD could accelerate the gastric emptying and increase the endogenous motilin release.

  17. Opportunity's Empty Nest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's now-empty lander, the Challenger Memorial Station, at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was acquired on the 24th martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's mission at approximately 13:00 Local Solar Time. This is a mosaic image consisting of 12 color images acquired with the camera's red, green and blue filters. The color balance has been set to approximate the colors that a human eye would see.

  18. Opportunity's Empty Nest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's now-empty lander, the Challenger Memorial Station, at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was acquired on the 24th martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's mission at approximately 13:00 Local Solar Time. This is a mosaic image consisting of 12 color images acquired with the camera's red, green and blue filters. The color balance has been set to approximate the colors that a human eye would see.

  19. Schizophernia and empty sella - casual or correlated?

    PubMed

    Wix-Ramos, Richard Joseph; Capote, Eduardo; Mendoza, Milet; Garcia, Margreth; Ezequiel, Uribe

    2011-04-01

    A male patient, 44 years old, with schizophrenia which started at the age of 18. At his last follow-up visit, laboratory tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed, revealing the presence of a sellar arachnoidocele. To our knowledge, there is only one similar case report of a set of male monozygotic triplets with schizophrenia and empty sella syndrome. High-resolution chromosome analysis found an extra band at chromosome 15p in all the triplets and their father. We performed a similar evaluation in our patient and his family to compare the results and identify new information on neuroanatomical abnormalities, hormonal alterations or genetic origins of schizophrenia.

  20. Sluggish gallbladder emptying and gastrointestinal transit after intake of common alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Kasicka-Jonderko, A; Jonderko, K; Gajek, E; Piekielniak, A; Zawislan, R

    2014-02-01

    To study the movement along the gut and the effect upon the gallbladder volume of alcoholic beverages taken in the interdigestive state. The study comprised three research blocks attended by 12 healthy subjects each. Within a given research block volunteers underwent three examination sessions held on separate days, being offered an alcoholic beverage, or an aqueous ethanol solution of an identical proof, or a corresponding volume of isotonic glucose solution; the order of administration of the drinks was randomized. The beverages tested were: beer (4.7% vol, 400 ml), red wine (13.7% vol, 200 ml), whisky (43.5% vol, 100 ml) within the "Beer", "Wine", and "Whisky" research block, respectively. Gastric myoelectrical activity was examined electrogastrographically, gastric emptying with ¹³C-sodium acetate breath test, orocaecal transit with lactulose H₂ breath test, gallbladder emptying with ultrasonography, breath ethanol with alcotest. The study showed that alcoholic beverages were emptied from the stomach significantly slower than isotonic glucose. Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation only (beer, red wine) were emptied from the stomach more slowly than ethanol solutions of identical proof, while gastric evacuation of whisky (distillation product) and matching alcohol solution was similar. The slower gastric evacuation of alcoholic beverages and ethanol solutions could not be ascribed to a disorganization of the gastric myoelectrical activity. The orocaecal transit of beer and red wine did not differ from that of isotonic glucose, whereas the orocaecal transit of whisky and high proof ethanol was markedly prolonged. Red wine and whisky, and to a similar extent control ethanol solutions caused an inhibition and delay of gallbladder emptying. We concluded that alcoholic beverages taken on an empty stomach exert a suppressive effect upon the transport function of the digestive tract and gallbladder emptying. The extent of this action depends on the type of a

  1. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Danquechin Dorval, E.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.; Dubois, A.

    1985-08-01

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive beta-endorphin.

  2. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Dorval, E.D.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.

    1985-08-01

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive Beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total-body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total-body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive Beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive Beta endorphin.

  3. Emptiness in agoraphobia patients.

    PubMed

    Milrod, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    In light of new research findings about the efficacy of psychodynamic treatment for panic disorder and agoraphobia, it seems a prudent time to carefully address psychoanalytic thinking about the treatment of agoraphobia. The literature has highlighted oedipal contributions to its genesis and clinical unraveling in psychoanalysis. While those contributions are indeed central to the disorder, structural deficits in the self-representation often become a central focus of treatment once symptomatic remission has been achieved in psychoanalytic treatment. This aspect of the clinical presentation of agoraphobia has not yet been specifically addressed in the psychiatric literature. Some aspects of the phenomenon have been described by psychoanalysts. It is more difficult to treat this "emptiness" than the overt symptoms of agoraphobia, as described in DSM-IV. Nonetheless, this phenomenon may be one of the contributors to the chronicity of the disorder. Two clinical cases illustrate these points.

  4. [Study on effect of spine surgery on gastric function and its efficacy of relevant treatments].

    PubMed

    Lin, X; Wu, J; Du, J

    2000-11-01

    To study the effect of spine surgery (SpS) on gastric function and the efficacy of relevant treatments. Sixty patients in the spine surgery group, 20 patients in the extremity surgery (ES) group and 20 healthy subjects in the control group were observed. Electrogastrography (EGG) was used to observe gastroelectric activity before and after operation. Twenty patients among the SpS group were examined with barium meal under actinoscopy to observe the gastric peristaltic waves before and after operation. The SpS group was randomly subdivided into 3 groups, and treated by Xiangsha Yangwei pill (XSYW), moxibustion and motilium respectively. At the same time, the EGG of various groups was observed and the change of preoperative and postoperative EGG were compared. The gastroelectric rhythm of SpS group was remarkably abnormal, both frequency and amplitude of EGG were significantly different from the other two groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The gastric peristaltic waves were reduced, and the emptying time was obviously prolonged. EGG was significantly improved after either of the three treatments statistically (P < 0.05), the effect of XSYW was the best, but in comparing with the other two, the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). SpS could change the gastroelectric rhythm to cause the gastric functional disorder and induce gastroparesis, EGG can get satisfactory results in the diagnosis of these illnesses. XSYW, moxibustion and motilium all have significant effects on the gastric function after SpS.

  5. Obesity and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Yongning; Qiao, Liang

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is an important public health problem worldwide. It increases the risk of many chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Meanwhile, obesity is a major risk factor for several types of cancer including gastric cancer. Possible mechanisms linking obesity with gastric cancer may include obesity associated gastro-oesophageal reflux, insulin resistance, altered levels of adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin, and an abnormally increased blood level of insulin-like growth factor (IGF). Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-recognized risk factor for peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Recent studies have revealed an increased prevalence of H. pylori infection in obese patients, providing another clue for the increased incidence of gastric cancer in obese population. If this connection can be confirmed in animal models and a large cohort of patients, then eradicating H. pylori together with life style modification in obese individuals may help prevent the development of gastric cancer in the increasingly obese population.

  6. Selected Endoscopic Gastric Devices for Obesity.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Kartik; Rothstein, Richard I

    2017-04-01

    This article focuses on the stomach target devices that are currently in various stages of development. Approved intragastric balloons, devices targeting small bowel and aspiration techniques, are described in other contributions to this issue. Bariatric endoscopic devices targeting the stomach directly alter gastric physiology and promote weight loss by potentially changing functional gastric volume, gastric emptying, gastric wall compliance, neurohormonal signaling, and, thereby, satiety. Many stomach-targeting devices are on the horizon for clinical use, and further study will determine the safety and efficacy for clinical use.

  7. Esophageal motility disorders after gastric banding.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, R W; Deveney, C W; McConnell, D B; Wolfe, B M; Jobe, B A

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effects of gastric banding on esophageal function are not well described. This report describes a 28-year-old woman who developed signs and symptoms of abnormal esophageal motility and lower esophageal sphincter hypotension after gastric banding for morbid obesity. The current literature addressing the effects of gastric banding on esophageal function in light of this case report is discussed.

  8. Gastric protein hydrolysis of raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Drechsler, Krista C; Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2016-11-15

    Gastric protein hydrolysis may influence gastric emptying rate and subsequent protein digestibility in the small intestine. This study examined the gastric hydrolysis of dietary protein from raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig as a model for the adult human. The gastric hydrolysis of almond proteins was quantified by performing tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent image analysis. There was an interaction between digestion time, stomach region, and almond type for gastric protein hydrolysis (p<0.05). Gastric emptying rate of protein was a significant (p<0.05) covariate in the gastric protein hydrolysis. In general, greater gastric protein hydrolysis was observed in raw almonds (compared to roasted almonds), hypothesized to be related to structural changes in almond proteins during roasting. Greater gastric protein hydrolysis was observed in the distal stomach (compared to the proximal stomach), likely related to the lower pH in the distal stomach.

  9. Prolonged idiopathic gastric dilatation following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Julia L; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described.

  10. Prolonged idiopathic gastric dilatation following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, Julia L.; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A.

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described. PMID:24975870

  11. Potent inhibitory effect of alcoholic beverages upon gastrointestinal passage of food and gallbladder emptying.

    PubMed

    Kasicka-Jonderko, Anna; Jonderko, Krzysztof; Bożek, Małgorzata; Kamińska, Magdalena; Mgłosiek, Patrycja

    2013-12-01

    Current knowledge about the effect of alcoholic beverages on postprandial functioning of the digestive system is scarce and inconsistent. This study addresses their influence upon meal movement along the gut and meal-induced gallbladder emptying. Three examination blocks involved each 12 healthy volunteers. Ingestion of a solid 1485 kJ meal was followed by intake of 400 ml beer (4.7%vol), 200 ml red wine (13.7%vol) or 100 ml whisky (43.5%vol) or matching volumes of control fluids. Gastric myoelectrical activity and emptying, orocecal transit and gallbladder emptying was monitored noninvasively. Alcoholic beverages (beer, red wine, whisky) caused a significant slowdown of the gastric evacuation of the solid meal, the delay being the more potent, the greater was the concentration of ethanol. This inhibitory effect was not caused by interference with the gastric myoelectric activity. Alcoholic beverages produced only by fermentation (beer, red wine), at odds with the effect of their counterpartying aqueous ethanol solutions, did not elongate the orocecal transit of the solid food. Products of distillation-whisky and high proof ethanol solution--elicited a profound delay of the orocecal transit. Alcoholic beverages exerted an inhibitory effect upon the meal-stimulated gallbladder emptying, the magnitude of which increased in the order: beer → red wine → whisky. Alcoholic beverages exert an inhibitory effect upon the gastric emptying of a solid food and the meal-induced gallbladder emptying, whereas the effect upon the orocecal transit depends on the type of a beverage-whisky elicits a delay but beer or red wine are devoid of this effect.

  12. Gastric Electrical Stimulation for Abdominal Pain in Patients with Symptoms of Gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Lahr, Christopher J.; Griffith, James; Subramony, Charu; Halley, Lindsey; Adams, Kristen; Paine, Elizabeth R.; Schmieg, Robert; Islam, Saleem; Salameh, Jay; Spree, Danielle; Kothari, Truptesh; Kedar, Archana; Nikitina, Yana; Abell, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal pain physiology may be better understood studying electrophysiology, histology, and symptom scores in patients with the symptoms of gastroparesis (Gp) treated with gastric electrical stimulation (GES). Ninety-five Gp patients’ symptoms were recorded at baseline and during temporary and permanent GES. Gastric-emptying times and cutaneous, mucosal, and serosal electrogastrograms were obtained. S100-stained, full-thickness gastric biopsies were compared with autopsy controls. Sixty-eight patients reported severe pain at baseline. Severe pain patients’ mean pain scores decreased with temporary GES from 3.62 to 1.29 (P < 0.001) and nonsevere pain from 1.26 to 0.67 (P = 0.01). With permanent GES, severe mean pain scores fell to 2.30 (P < 0.001); nonsevere pain changed to 1.60 (P = 0.221). Mean follow-up was 275 days. Mean cutaneous, mucosal, and serosal frequencies and frequency-to-amplitude ratios were markedly higher than literature controls. For patients with Gp overall and subdivided by etiology and severity of pain, S-100 neuronal fibers were significantly reduced in both muscularis propria layers. GES improved severe pain associated with symptoms of Gp. This severe pain is associated with abnormal electrogastrographic activity and loss of S100 neuronal fibers in the stomach’s inner and outer muscularis propria and, therefore, could be the result of gastric neuropathy. PMID:23635579

  13. Nature Abhors an Empty Vacuum,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Schrodingers cat .) Perhaps it migt still be possible to approximate the standard view (in which "observations" replace mixed states by pure states) in...8217AD-A106 362 MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTE--ETC F/ S 20/10I NATURE ABHORS AN EMPTY VACUUM,(U) AUG Si M MINSKY N0001479’C-0260...COVERED S ŕ Nature Abhors an Empty Vacuumemorandum _ _ _ _ _A. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER J. AUTHN0R(a) S .. CONTRACT onGRANT NUM0E .,- ’.A Marvin

  14. Sentence Processing with Empty Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Edward; Hickok, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    Pickering and Barry's recent argument against the existence of empty categories (ECs) in human sentence processing is disputed. It is argued here that ECs may still play a linking role between thematic role assigners and wh-phrases. One possible parsing algorithm is given that accounts for Pickering and Barry's data. (28 references) (Author/LB)

  15. Empty Signifiers, Education and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz

    2007-01-01

    The paper assumes that education is part of the process of discursive construction of society. The theoretical framework on which this argument is based includes Ernesto Laclau's theory of the "ontological impossibility and political necessity of society", and the role discourse and empty signifiers play in the establishment of political…

  16. 14 CFR 31.16 - Empty weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.16 Empty weight. The empty weight must be determined by weighing the balloon with installed equipment but without lifting gas or heater fuel....

  17. 14 CFR 31.16 - Empty weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.16 Empty weight. The empty weight must be determined by weighing the balloon with installed equipment but without lifting gas or heater fuel....

  18. 14 CFR 31.16 - Empty weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.16 Empty weight. The empty weight must be determined by weighing the balloon with installed equipment but without lifting gas or heater fuel....

  19. 14 CFR 31.16 - Empty weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.16 Empty weight. The empty weight must be determined by weighing the balloon with installed equipment but without lifting gas or heater fuel....

  20. 49 CFR 173.29 - Empty packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty packagings. 173.29 Section 173.29... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.29 Empty packagings. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an empty packaging containing only the residue of...

  1. Gastric giardiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, C.; De Boni, M.; Cielo, R.; Laurino, L.; Pelosio, P.; Braidotti, P.; Viale, G.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of gastric giardiasis in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and to define the clinicopathological correlates of gastric Giardia lamblia infection. METHODS: Consecutive gastric biopsy specimens (n = 15,023) from 11,085 patients, taken at Feltre City Hospital (north eastern Italy) from January 1986 to December 1991, were histologically and immunocytochemically examined for the occurrence of G lamblia trophozoites. Three gastric biopsy specimens from patients harbouring G lamblia infection, who repeated endoscopy before treatment, were also examined electron microscopically. RESULTS: Forty one patients (0.37% of the population study) harboured gastric giardiasis. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of dyspepsia, epigastric pain, or abdominal distension. Only two patients had diarrhoea at the time of investigation. Giardiasis was clinically unsuspected in all cases, although the nine patients who also had duodenal biopsies performed had concomitant intestinal giardiasis. Gastric giardiasis was invariably associated with chronic atrophic gastritis. Intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa and Helicobacter pylori infection were found in 32 and 37 of the 41 patients with gastric giardiasis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The invariable association of gastric giardiasis with chronic atrophic gastritis, most often showing intestinal metaplasia and H pylori infection, indicates that a decreased gastric acidity is a prerequisite for localisation of G lamblia to the gastric mucosa. Though its possible role as a gastric pathogen remains to be elucidated, these findings suggest that trophozoites should be carefully searched for when examining gastric biopsy specimens showing chronic atrophic gastritis. Images PMID:1452790

  2. Noncoagulating Enteral Formula Can Empty Faster From the Stomach: A Double-Blind, Randomized Crossover Trial Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kuyumcu, Sena; Menne, Dieter; Curcic, Jelena; Goetze, Oliver; Klebach, Marianne; Abrahamse, Evan; Hofman, Zandrie; Fried, Michael; Schwizer, Werner; Steingoetter, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    The gastric accumulation of enteral formulas in tube-fed patients leads to an increased risk of vomiting and regurgitation. Gastric secretion-induced coagulation of proteins in enteral formulas might lead to gastric accumulation of solid protein particles that further increase the risk of upper digestive intolerance. This study used magnetic resonance imaging to noninvasively assess the half-emptying time (t50) of enteral formulas differing in protein composition. Three isocaloric (450 kcal) and isovolumetric (300 mL) enteral formulas, 1 with a noncoagulating P4 protein blend and 2 with coagulating casein-dominant protein blends, were compared in a double-blind, randomized, 3-way crossover study in 21 healthy volunteers. Gastric content emptying curves were fitted with the LinExp model to compute t50 and the parameter κ with κ > 1 reflecting the accumulation of gastric secretion. t50 and κ were compared between all 3 enteral formulas. The formula that emptied fastest was identified by an ordinal mixed model using the ranks of t50. As indicated by values for κ > 1, all enteral formulas induced gastric secretion. No differences were detected for t50. However, the noncoagulating formula emptied fastest in 74% of all participants (P = .004). This study demonstrates that a noncoagulating enteral formula can empty faster from the stomach compared with coagulating formulas in a large cohort of healthy volunteers. Investigations on the efficiency of the noncoagulating P4 protein blend in patients requiring tube feeding will further elucidate its potential for reducing upper digestive intolerance during enteral nutrition. Trial NTR2979. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  3. Gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, H.O. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer.

  4. [Study on gastric motility and its relevant factors in type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Han, G; Li, X; Tian, H; Tong, N; Ouyang, Q; Yin, P

    2001-06-01

    In this study radionuclide semi-liquid gastric emptying (GE) study was adopted to test the gastric motility in 129 patients with type 2 diabetes. Further study was made to explore the relationship between gastric motility disorder of diabetes and the influential factors. The variables to be measured and analyzed were age, BMI, duration of illness, level of glycemia, HbAlc, plasma insulin, motilin, gastrin, glucagon and Mg2+. Of the 129 cases, 80 had delayed GE with an occurrence of 62.02%, and there was a close correlation between gastric motility disorder and the duration of illness, BMI, FPG, PPG, serum insulin, motilin levels and HbAlc as well. These findings imply that gastric motility disorder of diabetes is influenced by multiple factors. The results also suggest that gastric motiligy disorder is much more common than expected, and radionuclide gastric emptying test is a useful aid for the early detection of this clinical entity.

  5. Gastric microbiome and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Brawner, Kyle M; Morrow, Casey D; Smith, Phillip D

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of the stomach is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. The single strongest risk factor for gastric cancer is Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastric inflammation. Among persons with H. pylori infection, strain-specific components, host immune responses, and environmental factors influence the risk for gastric disease, including adenocarcinoma of the stomach, although only a small proportion of infected persons develop the malignancy. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have uncovered a complex community of noncultivatable inhabitants of the human stomach. The interaction between these inhabitants, collectively referred to as the gastric microbiota, and H. pylori likely affects gastric immunobiology and possibly the sequelae of H. pylori infection. Thus, characterization of the gastric microbiota in subjects with and without H. pylori infection could provide new insight into gastric homeostasis and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated disease, including gastric cancer.

  6. Gastric Microbiome and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Kyle M.; Morrow, Casey D.; Smith, Phillip D.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of the stomach is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. The single strongest risk factor for gastric cancer is Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastric inflammation. Among persons with H. pylori infection, strain-specific components, host immune responses, and environmental factors influence the risk for gastric disease, including adenocarcinoma of the stomach, although only a small proportion of infected persons develop the malignancy. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have uncovered a complex community of non-cultivatable inhabitants of the human stomach. The interaction between these inhabitants, collectively referred to as the gastric microbiota, and H. pylori likely impacts gastric immunobiology and possibly the sequelae of H. pylori infection. Thus, characterization of the gastric microbiota in subjects with and without H. pylori infection could provide new insight into gastric homeostasis and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated disease, including gastric cancer. PMID:24855010

  7. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography comparison of gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Fu, Qiang; Dong, You-Wen; Liu, Jian-Jing; Song, Xiu-Yu; Dai, Dong; Zuo, Cong; Xu, Wen-Gui

    2016-09-14

    To compare (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) features in gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. Patients with newly diagnosed gastric lymphoma or gastric carcinoma who underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment were included in this study. We reviewed and analyzed the PET/CT features of gastric wall lesions, including FDG avidity, pattern (focal/diffuse), and intensity [maximal standard uptake value: (SUVmax)]. The correlation of SUVmax with gastric clinicopathological variables was investigated by χ(2) test, and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the differential diagnostic value of SUVmax-associated parameters in gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. Fifty-two patients with gastric lymphoma and 73 with gastric carcinoma were included in this study. Abnormal gastric FDG accumulation was found in 49 patients (94.23%) with gastric lymphoma and 65 patients (89.04%) with gastric carcinoma. Gastric lymphoma patients predominantly presented with type I and type II lesions, whereas gastric carcinoma patients mainly had type III lesions. The SUVmax (13.39 ± 9.24 vs 8.35 ± 5.80, P < 0.001) and SUVmax/THKmax (maximal thickness) (7.96 ± 4.02 vs 4.88 ± 3.32, P < 0.001) were both higher in patients with gastric lymphoma compared with gastric carcinoma. ROC curve analysis suggested a better performance of SUVmax/THKmax in the evaluation of gastric lesions between gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma in comparison with that of SUVmax alone. PET/CT features differ between gastric lymphoma and carcinoma, which can improve PET/CT evaluation of gastric wall lesions and help differentiate gastric lymphoma from gastric carcinoma.

  8. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography comparison of gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Fu, Qiang; Dong, You-Wen; Liu, Jian-Jing; Song, Xiu-Yu; Dai, Dong; Zuo, Cong; Xu, Wen-Gui

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) features in gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. METHODS Patients with newly diagnosed gastric lymphoma or gastric carcinoma who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment were included in this study. We reviewed and analyzed the PET/CT features of gastric wall lesions, including FDG avidity, pattern (focal/diffuse), and intensity [maximal standard uptake value: (SUVmax)]. The correlation of SUVmax with gastric clinicopathological variables was investigated by χ2 test, and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the differential diagnostic value of SUVmax-associated parameters in gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. RESULTS Fifty-two patients with gastric lymphoma and 73 with gastric carcinoma were included in this study. Abnormal gastric FDG accumulation was found in 49 patients (94.23%) with gastric lymphoma and 65 patients (89.04%) with gastric carcinoma. Gastric lymphoma patients predominantly presented with type I and type II lesions, whereas gastric carcinoma patients mainly had type III lesions. The SUVmax (13.39 ± 9.24 vs 8.35 ± 5.80, P < 0.001) and SUVmax/THKmax (maximal thickness) (7.96 ± 4.02 vs 4.88 ± 3.32, P < 0.001) were both higher in patients with gastric lymphoma compared with gastric carcinoma. ROC curve analysis suggested a better performance of SUVmax/THKmax in the evaluation of gastric lesions between gastric lymphoma and gastric carcinoma in comparison with that of SUVmax alone. CONCLUSION PET/CT features differ between gastric lymphoma and carcinoma, which can improve PET/CT evaluation of gastric wall lesions and help differentiate gastric lymphoma from gastric carcinoma. PMID:27678362

  9. Gastric and enteric involvement in progressive systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Ellen C

    2008-01-01

    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) is a chronic multisystem disease characterized by excess deposition of connective tissue in skin and internal organs, associated with microvasculature changes and immunologic abnormalities. Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract may occur in 2 stages, a neuropathic disorder followed by a myopathy. Gastric emptying is delayed in 10% to 75% of patients and correlates with symptoms of early satiety, bloating, and emesis. Compliance of the fundus is increased although perception of fullness is normal. Myoelectric abnormalities have been found in some studies. Treatments include metoclopramide, cisapride, and erythromycin. Bleeding from telangiectasias and watermelon stomach is treated endoscopically. Small bowel involvement in PSS occurs in 17% to 57% of patients. The migrating motor complexes are reduced or absent, predisposing to bacterial overgrowth. Malabsorption may also be due to pancreatic insufficiency. Barium enemas demonstrate pancolonic involvement in 10% to 50% of patients with PSS. Wide-mouthed diverticuli, involving all layers of the intestinal wall, are characteristic. Pseudoobstruction may respond to octreotide or prucalopride therapy. Complications include pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis, stercoral ulcerations, and perforation. Fecal incontinence may be due to dysfunction of the internal anal sphincter, a smooth muscle responsible for most of the resting anal sphincter pressure. Anal manometry may show a reduction or loss of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex. Treatments include biofeedback, sacral nerve stimulation, and surgery. PSS involves the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. Studies are needed to define effective treatments in these diseases, which cause great morbidity.

  10. Gastric digestion of raw and roasted almonds in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Roman, Maxine J; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Burri, Betty J; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2013-11-01

    Almonds are an important dietary source of lipids, protein, and α-tocopherol. It has been demonstrated that the physical form of almond kernels influences their digestion and absorption, but the role of thermal processes on the digestion of almonds has received little attention. The objectives of this study were to examine the gastric emptying and nutrient composition of gastric chyme from pigs (used as a model for the adult human) fed a single meal of either raw or roasted almonds over a 12-h postprandial period (72 pigs total, 6 pigs at each diet-time combination). Concentrations of glucose, triacylglycerols, and α-tocopherol in peripheral plasma during the 12-h postprandial period were determined. For dry matter and lipid, the gastric emptying profile was not different between raw and roasted almonds. Roasting almonds also did not influence gastric pH, or plasma glucose or triacylglycerols levels. In contrast, the gastric emptying of protein was more rapid for raw almonds compared to roasted almonds (P < 0.01) and intragastric protein content exhibited segregation (P < 0.001) throughout the stomach, with raw almonds having a higher level of segregation compared to roasted almonds. Postprandial plasma α-tocopherol levels were, on average 33% greater (P < 0.001) after consumption of raw almonds, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of α-tocopherol in raw almonds compared to roasted almonds. Roasting of almonds did not influence the overall gastric emptying process, but did lead to differences in the distribution of protein in the stomach and to the gastric emptying of protein. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  12. Are empty methadone bottles empty? An analytic study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methadone maintenance treatment is the most widely prescribed treatment for opiate dependence with proven benefits for patients. In naïve users or in case of recreational misuse, methadone can be a source of potentially lethal intoxications, resulting in fatal overdoses. A few cases of infantile intoxications have been described in the literature, some of which resulted in death. Nowadays, more than 50,000 bottles are used every day in France, most of which are thrown away in the bin. Relatives at home, especially children, can have access to these empty bottles. This study aims to determine whether the residual quantity of methadone in the bottles is associated with a risk of intoxication for someone who has a low tolerance to opiates, such as a child. Methods The methadone dosage left in a sample of 175 bottles recapped after use by the patients taking their maintenance treatment in an addiction treatment program centre was analysed during a 2-week period in March 2013. Results The mean residual quantity of methadone left in each bottle after use is 1.9 ± 1.8 mg and 3.3 ± 2.4 mg in the sample of 60 mg bottles. Conclusions There is a potential danger of accidental overdose with empty bottles of methadone syrup, especially for children. To take into account this hazard, several harm reduction strategies can be proposed, such as favouring the taking of the treatment within the delivery centres rather than the ‘take home’ doses, asking methadone users to bring back their used bottles, and raising patients’ awareness of the intoxication risks and the necessary everyday precautions. For stable patients with take home methadone, the use of capsules could be considered. PMID:24990630

  13. Gastric vascular and motor responses to anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats, in comparison to those with hemorrhagic or vasodilator-induced hypotension.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Yuhichi; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Wei; Tanida, Mamoru; Kurata, Yasutaka

    2017-01-31

    Anaphylactic shock is life-threatening, but pathophysiology of the stomach lesion remains unclear. We determined gastric hemodynamics and gastric functions during anaphylactic hypotension, as compared to hypotension induced by hemorrhage or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in anesthetized and ovalbumin-sensitized Sprague-Dawley rats. Systemic arterial pressure, portal venous pressure, and gastric arterial blood flow were measured, and gastric vascular resistance (GVR) was determined. Separately, the intragastric pressure (IGP) and gastric effluent, as a measure of gastric flux, were continuously measured. During anaphylaxis, GVR decreased only transiently at 0.5 min, followed by an increase. IGP increased markedly, while gastric flux decreased. During hemorrhage, GVR and IGP increased, while gastric flux did not change. When SNP was injected, both GVR and IGP decreased and gastric flux increased only just after injection. In conclusion, gastric vasodilatation occurs only transiently after antigen injection, and gastric motility increases, but gastric emptying deceases during anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats.

  14. Ischemic Gastropathic Ulcer Mimics Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Saleh; Lahav, Ziv; Rmeileh, Ayman Abu; Mizrahi, Meir

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer due to mesenteric ischemia is a rare clinical finding. As a result, few reports of ischemic gastric ulcers have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis of ischemic gastropathy is seldom considered in patients presenting with abdominal pain and gastric ulcers. In this case report, we describe a patient with increasing abdominal pain, weight loss, and gastric ulcers, who underwent extensive medical evaluation and whose symptoms were resistant to medical interventions. Finally he was diagnosed with chronic mesenteric ischemia, and his clinical and endoscopic abnormalities resolved after surgical revascularization of both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk. PMID:27579191

  15. Ischemic Gastropathic Ulcer Mimics Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Daher, Saleh; Lahav, Ziv; Rmeileh, Ayman Abu; Mizra