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Sample records for abnormal head position

  1. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  2. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome, Brown’s syndrome, orbital wall fractures, and restricted eye movement associated with thyroid eye disease. 2) Nystagmus: Some patients with nystagmus (jerky eye movements) will acquire a head turn or tilt if ...

  3. Abnormal head position in infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  4. Positional Plagiocephaly (Flattened Head)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Simple practices like changing a baby's sleep position, holding your baby, and providing lots of "tummy time" ... devices to keep your baby in one position. Alternate positions in the crib. Consider how you lay ...

  5. Variation in natural head position and establishing corrected head position.

    PubMed

    Barbera, A L; Sampson, W J; Townsend, G C

    2014-06-01

    Corrected head position (CHP) has been simulated by using the Frankfurt horizontal (FH) for over 100 years but FH varies between individuals. Because CHP is biologically relevant for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, orthognathic surgical planning, and art, this study examined relationships between head position and selected cephalometric planes. Natural head position cephalograms of Aboriginal Australians and two contemporary samples from private orthodontic practices were analysed. Each sample comprised 40 individuals (20 males and 20 females). The Aboriginal Australian sample comprised longitudinal data (T1 early adolescent, T2 late adolescent, and T3 adult), enabling examination of natural head position (NHP) reproducibility over a period of approximately 8 years. Results of reproducibility differences revealed an absolute mean=2.9°, range=-7.9° to 8.2°, and standard deviation=3.6°. Stable basicranial line (SBL), neutral horizontal axis (NHA), FH, palatal plane (P plane), and Krogman-Walker plane (KW plane) demonstrated near parallelism and their mean angulations from the true horizontal (HOR) ranged between -4.6° and 2.4°. While NHP is not consistently reproducible at the individual level, the combined use of multiple planes such as SBL, P plane, and KW plane enables a more consistent CHP to be achieved. PMID:24785580

  6. Head and neck position sense.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Bridget; McNair, Peter; Taylor, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic minor cervical strains are common place in high-impact sports (e.g. tackling) and premature degenerative changes have been documented in sports people exposed to recurrent impact trauma (e.g. scrummaging in rugby) or repetitive forces (e.g. Formula 1 racing drivers, jockeys). While proprioceptive exercises have been an integral part of rehabilitation of injuries in the lower limb, they have not featured as prominently in the treatment of cervical injuries. However, head and neck position sense (HNPS) testing and re-training may have relevance in the management of minor sports-related neck injuries, and play a role in reducing the incidence of ongoing pain and problems with function. For efficacious programmes to be developed and tested, fundamental principles associated with proprioception in the cervical spine should be considered. Hence, this article highlights the importance of anatomical structures in the cervical spine responsible for position sense, and how their interaction with the CNS affects our ability to plan and execute effective purposeful movements. This article includes a review of studies examining position sense in subjects with and without pathology and describes the effects of rehabilitation programmes that have sought to improve position sense. In respect to the receptors providing proprioceptive information for the CNS, the high densities and complex arrays of spindles found in cervical muscles suggest that these receptors play a key role. There is some evidence suggesting that ensemble encoding of discharge patterns from muscle spindles is relayed to the CNS and that a pattern recognition system is used to establish joint position and movement. Sensory information from neck proprioceptive receptors is processed in tandem with information from the vestibular system. There are extensive anatomical connections between neck proprioceptive inputs and vestibular inputs. If positional information from the vestibular system is inaccurate or

  7. Transient Positive Horizontal Head Impulse Test in Pregabalin Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong-Hae; Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Ju-Hoen; Jo, Hyunjin; Lee, Ae Young; Kim, Jae-Moon

    2015-12-01

    Head impulse test (HIT) is helpful to understanding high-frequency vestibulo-ocular reflex in patients with dizziness and imbalance. There are some reports on abnormal HITs in cerebellar disorder. To our knowledge, there was no report of transient bilateral positive head impulse related to antiepileptic drugs. A 65-year-old woman developed dizziness and imbalance after treatment with pregabalin for pain control of radiation cystitis. Neurological examination exhibited positive bilateral HIT results, in addition to ataxia and gaze-evoked rebound nystagmus. Pregabalin intoxication can evoke transient positive horizontal head impulse test as another indicator of cerebellar dysfunction. PMID:26819943

  8. Transient Positive Horizontal Head Impulse Test in Pregabalin Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seong-Hae; Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Ju-Hoen; Jo, Hyunjin; Lee, Ae Young; Kim, Jae-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Head impulse test (HIT) is helpful to understanding high-frequency vestibulo-ocular reflex in patients with dizziness and imbalance. There are some reports on abnormal HITs in cerebellar disorder. To our knowledge, there was no report of transient bilateral positive head impulse related to antiepileptic drugs. A 65-year-old woman developed dizziness and imbalance after treatment with pregabalin for pain control of radiation cystitis. Neurological examination exhibited positive bilateral HIT results, in addition to ataxia and gaze-evoked rebound nystagmus. Pregabalin intoxication can evoke transient positive horizontal head impulse test as another indicator of cerebellar dysfunction. PMID:26819943

  9. Natural head position: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Meiyappan, N.; Tamizharasi, S.; Senthilkumar, K. P.; Janardhanan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Cephalometrics has given us a different perspective of interpreting various skeletal problems in the dentofacial complex. Natural head position (NHP) is a reproducible, physiologically determined aspect of function. To determine NHP, a horizontal or vertical reference line outside the crania was used, but preference was given generally to the horizontal. Various intra and extracranial cephalometric horizontal reference planes have been used to formulate diagnosis and plan individualized treatment for an integrated correction of the malocclusion cephalometrics is constantly undergoing refinements in its techniques and analyses to improve the clinical applications. Even though various methods for establishing NHP have been proposed, still it remains a challenge to the clinicians to implement the concept of NHP thoroughly in all the stages of treatment because of practical difficulties in the clinical scenario. PMID:26538891

  10. Abnormal head movement in a patient with tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Singh, Maneesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The bobble-head doll syndrome is characterised by abnormal head movements. These head movements are usually 'yes-yes' (up and down) type; rarely, head movements are 'no-no' (side-to-side) type. Commonly described causes of the bobble-head doll syndrome include third ventricular tumours, suprasellar arachnoid cysts, aqueductal stenosis and other lesions in the region of the third ventricle of the brain. We report a case of tuberculous meningitis with hydrocephalus; in this patient bobble-head doll syndrome developed following external ventricular drainage. In our patient, placement of intraventricular drain led to massive dilatation of the frontal horn of the left lateral ventricle because of blocked foramina of Monro on the left side. The bobble-head doll syndrome, presumably, developed because of the pressure effect of the dilated third ventricle on the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus, red nucleus and dentatorubrothalamic pathways. We think that distortion of the third ventricle was responsible for the impairment of the functions of all these structures. PMID:23035162

  11. Association between temporomandibular disorders and abnormal head postures.

    PubMed

    Faulin, Evandro Francisco; Guedes, Carlos Gramani; Feltrin, Pedro Paulo; Joffiley, Cláudia Maria Mithie Suda Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the possible correlation between the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and different head postures in the frontal and sagittal planes using photographs of undergraduate students in the School of Dentistry at the Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brazil. In this nonrandomized, cross-sectional study, the diagnoses of TMD were made with the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC)/TMD axis I. The craniovertebral angle was used to evaluate forward head posture in the sagittal plane, and the interpupillary line was used to measure head tilt in the frontal plane. The measurements to evaluate head posture were made using the Software for the Assessment of Posture (SAPO). Students were divided into two study groups, based on the presence or absence of TMD. The study group comprised 46 students and the control group comprised 80 students. Data about head posture and TMD were analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 13. Most cases of TMD were classified as degenerative processes (group III), followed by disk displacement (group II) and muscle disorders (group I). There was no sex predominance for the type of disorder. No association was found between prevalence rates for head postures in the frontal plane and the occurrence of TMD. The same result was found for the association of TMD diagnosis with craniovertebral angle among men and women, and the group that contained both men and women. Abnormal head postures were common among individuals both with and without TMD. No association was found between head posture evaluated in the frontal and sagittal planes and TMD diagnosis with the use of RDC/TMD. PMID:26017489

  12. Head position modulates optokinetic nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Pettorossi, V E; Ferraresi, A; Botti, F M; Panichi, R; Barmack, N H

    2011-08-01

    Orientation and movement relies on both visual and vestibular information mapped in separate coordinate systems. Here, we examine how coordinate systems interact to guide eye movements of rabbits. We exposed rabbits to continuous horizontal optokinetic stimulation (HOKS) at 5°/s to evoke horizontal eye movements, while they were statically or dynamically roll-tilted about the longitudinal axis. During monocular or binocular HOKS, when the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the posterior → anterior (P → A) direction, slow phase eye velocity (SPEV) increased by 3.5-5°/s. When the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the A → P direction, SPEV decreased to ~2.5°/s. We also tested the effect of roll-tilt after prolonged optokinetic stimulation had induced a negative optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN II). In this condition, the SPEV occurred in the dark, "open loop." Modulation of SPEV of OKAN II depended on the direction of the nystagmus and was consistent with that observed during "closed loop" HOKS. Dynamic roll-tilt influenced SPEV evoked by HOKS in a similar way. The amplitude and the phase of SPEV depended on the frequency of vestibular oscillation and on HOKS velocity. We conclude that the change in the linear acceleration of the gravity vector with respect to the head during roll-tilt modulates the gain of SPEV depending on its direction. This modulation improves gaze stability at different image retinal slip velocities caused by head roll-tilt during centric or eccentric head movement. PMID:21735244

  13. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and head position during sleep.

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Kohichiro; Ogita, Hideaki; Funabiki, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether any particular head positions during sleep are associated with BPPV, head position during sleep was monitored for 3 days in 50 BPPV patients after the disappearance of positional nystagmus and in 25 normal control subjects. A gravity sensor was attached to the center of the subject's forehead at home. The positional angle of the head was measured at 5-second intervals during sleep. In BPPV, the posterior semicircular canal was involved in 40 patients and the lateral semicircular canal in 10 patients. Recurrence was found in 22 of 50 BPPV patients. BPPV patients with recurrence were significantly more likely to sleep in the affected-ear-down 45-degree head position than were patients with no history of recurrence (P< 0.02). When the head is in the affected-ear-down 45-degree head position, the non-ampullated half of the posterior semicircular canal and the non-ampullated half of the lateral semicircular canal are nearly in the earth-vertical position, making it easier for detached otoconia to fall into the posterior or lateral semicircular canal and to agglomerate and attain a certain size in the lowest portion of each semicircular canal. Our findings showed that the affected-ear-down 45-degree head position during sleep could be an etiological factor of BPPV, more particularly in patients with recurrent BPPV. PMID:23142834

  14. GPS Position and Heading Circuitry for Ships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Michael P.; Yim, Hester J.; Gomez, Susan F.

    2003-01-01

    Circuit boards that contain radio-frequency (RF) and digital circuitry have been developed by NASA to satisfy a requirement of the Port of Houston Authority for relatively inexpensive Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers that indicate the azimuthal headings as well as the positions of ships. The receiver design utilizes the unique architecture of the Mitel commercial chip-set, which provides for an accurate GPS-based heading-determination device. The major components include two RF front ends (each connected to a separate antenna), a surface-acoustic-wave intermediate-frequency filter between second- and third-stage mixers, a correlator, and a reduced-instruction- set computer. One of the RF front ends operates as a master, the other as a slave. Both RF front ends share a 10-MHz sinusoidal clock oscillator, which provides for more accurate carrier phase measurements between the two antennas. The outputs of the RF front ends are subjected to conventional GPS processing. The commercial-based chip-set design approach provides an inexpensive open architecture GPS platform, which can be used in developing and implementing unique GPS-heading and attitude-determination algorithms for specific applications. The heading is estimated from the GPS position solutions of the two antennas by an algorithm developed specifically for this application. If a third (and preferably a fourth) antenna were added, it would be possible to estimate the attitude of the GPS receiver in three dimensions instead of only its heading in a horizontal plane.

  15. The natural head position. Different techniques of head positioning in the study of craniocervical posture.

    PubMed

    Cuccia, A M; Caradonna, C

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the most important definitions of head posture and the most important methodology to get an natural head posture. After a careful analysis of the literature with no limitations of language or time period, 31 papers were selected. Relevant information was also derived from reference lists of the publications retrieved. The key words used in the search were head posture, cranio-cervical posture, cephalometric analysis, natural head position, lateral cephalometric radiographs, cephalostat, self balance position, mirror position. The definitions of natural head position are various. An accurate head posture registration is time consuming and not particularly feasible on a clinical field. Nevertheless it is possible to apply a craniostat to the patient before the execution of the radiograph without modifying the NHP. The execution of radiographs of the craniocervical zone is connected to the correct position of the head. The NHP is a reproducible positions, and can be useful for making comparisons at any time in the case of the same patient or in comparing different patients cephalometrically. PMID:20027131

  16. Eccentric head positions reveal disorders of conjugate eye movement.

    PubMed Central

    Gresty, M

    1977-01-01

    The effect of head position on conjugate horizontal gaze was studied in healthy adults, in patients with multiple sclerosis without eye movement signs, and in patients with downbeat nystagmus indicative of low brain stem lesions. Displacements of gaze from primary position to 30 degrees left and right were recorded using the electro-oculogram, with the head in the primary position, and turned voluntarily to the left and right (in yaw). The quality of eye movements was noted and peak velocities of saccades were measured. The head turning test trebled the incidence of abnormal eye movements found in the multiple sclerosis patients and increased it by tenfold in the patients with downbeat nystagmus. Disorders of eye movement were also found in approximately 20--30% of healthy subjects tested. Weakness of abduction was the most common eye movement defect and appeared to be posterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia. A hypothesis is made which unifies the theoretical explanations of anterior and posterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia. The most likely cause of the disorders of eye movement observed is vertebrobasilar ischaemia induced by stretching and compression of the vertebral arteries during eccentric head posture. Images PMID:591979

  17. Demonstration of sperm head shape abnormality and clastogenic potential of cypermethrin.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Gautam, A K; Agarwal, K R; Shah, B A; Saiyad, H N

    2004-04-01

    Adult male Swiss albino mice were administered ip. suspension solution of cypermethrin in 0.15% DMSO at the doses of 30 mg, 60 mg and 90 mg/kg b. wt. daily for 5 days. Another group of animals was injected cyclophosphamide ip. (60 mg/kg b. wt.) in similar manner which served as positive control. Effect of cypermethrin on body and testes weight and sperm head morphology was studied. Clastogenic potential of cypermethrin was studied by using modified Allium test. The cytological changes were studied in the root tip cells of Allium cepa after 3 days treatment with three different concentration of cypermethrin (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 microg/ml). The results revealed that body weight gain was considerably reduced in higher dose groups, but the testicular weight did not change significantly in any of the cypermethrin treated groups. However, a significant elevation in the number of abnormal shape of sperm head was noticed in higher dose groups as compared to control. It was observed that the abnormality in the shape of sperm head was dose-dependent. The cytological changes in the root tip cells of Allium cepa indicated that cypermethrin is having toxic effects on the root tip cells in the form of stickiness of chromosomes and also affect the mitotic activity. This study suggest that cypermethrin may have the potential to induce adverse effects on sperm head shape morphology of mouse as well as clastogenic effects on root tip cells of Allium cepa. PMID:15529877

  18. Influence of forward head posture on condylar position.

    PubMed

    Ohmure, H; Miyawaki, S; Nagata, J; Ikeda, K; Yamasaki, K; Al-Kalaly, A

    2008-11-01

    There are several reports suggesting that forward head posture is associated with temporomandibular disorders and restraint of mandibular growth, possibly due to mandibular displacement posteriorly. However, there have been few reports in which the condylar position was examined in forward head posture. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the condyle moves posteriorly in the forward head posture. The condylar position and electromyography from the masseter, temporal and digastric muscles were recorded on 15 healthy male adults at mandibular rest position in the natural head posture and deliberate forward head posture. The condylar position in the deliberate forward head posture was significantly more posterior than that in the natural head posture. The activity of the masseter and digastric muscles in the deliberate forward head posture was slightly increased. These results suggest that the condyle moves posteriorly in subjects with forward head posture. PMID:18808377

  19. Effect of The Swimmer's Head Position on Passive Drag.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Matteo; Gatta, Giorgio

    2015-12-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the head position on passive drag with a towing-line experiment in a swimming pool. The tests were performed on ten male swimmers with regional level swimming skills and at least 10 years of competitive swimming experience. They were towed underwater (at a depth of 60 cm) at three speeds (1.5, 1.7 and 1.9 m/s) and in two body positions (arms above the swimmer's head and arms alongside the body). These two body positions were repeated while the swimmer's head was positioned in three different ways: head-up, head-middle and head-down in relation to the body's horizontal alignment. The results showed a reduction of 4-5.2% in the average passive drag at all speeds when the head was down or aligned to the swimmer's arms alongside the body, in comparison to the head-up position. A major significant decrease of 10.4-10.9% (p < 0.05) was shown when the head was down or aligned at the swimmer's arms above the swimmer's head. The passive drag tended to decrease significantly by a mean of 17.6% (p < 0.001) for all speeds examined with the arms alongside the body position rather than with the arms above the head position. The swimmer's head location may play an important role in reducing hydrodynamic resistance during passive underwater gliding. PMID:26839604

  20. Effect of small head tilt on ocular fundus image: Consideration of proper head positioning for ocular fundus scanning.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin Hae; Kang, Nam Yeo; Kim, Jihyun; Baek, Jiwon; Hong, Seung Woo

    2016-08-01

    Head tilt and resultant ocular cyclotorsion can influence the results of ophthalmologic examinations. Thus, proper head positioning during fundus scanning has been emphasized. However, there is no perfect method to control the head tilt and little is known about the effect of small head tilts. In this study, we investigated the effect of minimal head tilt on the ocular cyclotorsion which we cannot easily detect.Forty-seven participants without ophthalmologic or vestibular abnormalities were recruited as normal subjects. Their faces were positioned at the desired head tilt using a customized adjustable head tilter and facial and fundus photographs of both the left and right eyes were taken in the upright neutral position; as well as at rightward and leftward head tilts of 2°, 4°, and 6°. The actual head tilt was determined using the facial photographs by measuring the slope of a line that intersected the corneal reflexes of both eyes. Rotational changes in the fundus images were recorded and the correlation of these changes with the degree of head tilt was determined.The degree of head tilt was significantly correlated with rotational changes in the fundus images from both the right and left eyes (P < 0.001; right eye: R = 0.897, left eye: R = 0.899). The mean relative compensations for head tilt, mediated by the ocular counterrolling reflex, were 0.376 ± 0.255 in the right eye (range: -0.02 to 1.0), and 0.350 ± 0.263 in the left eye (range: -0.03 to 1.0), and exhibited a significant negative correlation with head tilt (P < 0.05). The mean relative compensation of the right eye did not differ significantly from that of the left eye (P = 0.380), but the value did vary widely among individuals and within individuals.Even very small head tilt was partially and variably compensated for, and caused significant rotation in the fundus image. We concluded that proper head positioning does not guarantee the minimal ocular cyclotorsion change

  1. Effect of small head tilt on ocular fundus image: Consideration of proper head positioning for ocular fundus scanning

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shin Hae; Kang, Nam Yeo; Kim, Jihyun; Baek, Jiwon; Hong, Seung Woo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Head tilt and resultant ocular cyclotorsion can influence the results of ophthalmologic examinations. Thus, proper head positioning during fundus scanning has been emphasized. However, there is no perfect method to control the head tilt and little is known about the effect of small head tilts. In this study, we investigated the effect of minimal head tilt on the ocular cyclotorsion which we cannot easily detect. Forty-seven participants without ophthalmologic or vestibular abnormalities were recruited as normal subjects. Their faces were positioned at the desired head tilt using a customized adjustable head tilter and facial and fundus photographs of both the left and right eyes were taken in the upright neutral position; as well as at rightward and leftward head tilts of 2°, 4°, and 6°. The actual head tilt was determined using the facial photographs by measuring the slope of a line that intersected the corneal reflexes of both eyes. Rotational changes in the fundus images were recorded and the correlation of these changes with the degree of head tilt was determined. The degree of head tilt was significantly correlated with rotational changes in the fundus images from both the right and left eyes (P < 0.001; right eye: R2 = 0.897, left eye: R2 = 0.899). The mean relative compensations for head tilt, mediated by the ocular counterrolling reflex, were 0.376 ± 0.255 in the right eye (range: −0.02 to 1.0), and 0.350 ± 0.263 in the left eye (range: −0.03 to 1.0), and exhibited a significant negative correlation with head tilt (P < 0.05). The mean relative compensation of the right eye did not differ significantly from that of the left eye (P = 0.380), but the value did vary widely among individuals and within individuals. Even very small head tilt was partially and variably compensated for, and caused significant rotation in the fundus image. We concluded that proper head positioning does not guarantee the minimal ocular

  2. Head Position Preference in the Human Newborn: A New Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnqvist, Louise; Hopkins, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Studied head position preference in 20 newborns differing by Cesarean or vaginal delivery and sex. Found that neither factor accounted for differences. The head turned right more often and was maintained longer in this position during quiet wakefulness, regardless of scoring method. When using global scoring, duration of midline position was…

  3. Upper airway collapse during drug induced sleep endoscopy: head rotation in supine position compared with lateral head and trunk position.

    PubMed

    Safiruddin, Faiza; Koutsourelakis, Ioannis; de Vries, Nico

    2015-02-01

    Drug induced sedated sleep endoscopy (DISE) is often employed to determine the site, severity and pattern of obstruction in patients with sleep apnea. DISE is usually performed in supine position. We recently showed that the obstruction pattern is different when DISE is performed in lateral position. In this study, we compared the outcomes of DISE performed in supine position with head rotated, with the outcomes of DISE performed with head and trunk in lateral position. The Prospective study design was used in the present study. Sixty patients with OSA (44 male; mean apnea hypopnea index (AHI) 20.8 ± 17.5 events/h) underwent DISE under propofol sedation. Patients were placed in lateral position, and the upper airway collapse was evaluated. The patients were then placed in supine position with the head rotated to the right side. DISE outcomes were scored using the VOTE classification system. In lateral position, nine patients (15.0%) had a complete antero-posterior (A-P) collapse at the level of the velum, nine had a partial A-P collapse. During head rotation and trunk in supine position, at the level of the velum, four patients (6.7%) had a complete A-P collapse, while two patients (3.3%) had a partial A-P collapse. For all other sites, the patterns of collapse were not significantly different between head rotation and lateral position. During DISE, rotation of the head in supine position, and lateral head and trunk position present similar sites, severity and patterns of upper airway collapse, with the exception of collapse at the level of the velum. Here the severity of A-P collapse is less severe during head rotation than in lateral head and trunk position. PMID:25142078

  4. Predictors of Positive Head CT Scan and Neurosurgical Procedures After Minor Head Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kisat, Mehreen; Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Latif, Asad; Villegas, Cassandra V.; Efron, David T.; Stevens, Kent A.; Haut, Elliott R; Schneider, Eric B.; Zafar, Hasnain; Haider, Adil H.

    2012-01-01

    Background There continues to be an ongoing debate regarding the utility of Head CT scans in patients with a normal Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) after minor head injury. The objective of this study is to determine patient and injury characteristics that predict a positive head CT scan or need for a Neurosurgical Procedure (NSP) among patients with blunt head injury and a normal GCS. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of adult patients in the National Trauma Data Bank who presented to the ED with a history of blunt head injury and a normal GCS of 15. The primary outcomes were a positive head CT scan or a NSP. Multivariate logistic regression controlling for patient and injury characteristics was used to determine predictors of each outcome. Results Out of a total of 83,566 patients, 24,414 (29.2%) had a positive head CT scan and 3,476 (4.2%) underwent a NSP. Older patients and patients with a history of fall (as compared to a motor vehicle crash) were more likely to have a positive finding on a head CT scan. Male patients, African-Americans (as compared to Caucasians) and those who presented with a fall were more likely to have a NSP. Conclusions Older age, male gender, ethnicity and mechanism of injury are significant predictors of a positive finding on head CT scans and the need for neurosurgical procedures. This study highlights patient and injury specific characteristics that may help in identifying patients with supposedly minor head injury who will benefit from a head CT scan. PMID:21872271

  5. Gross morphological head and throat abnormalities of the tufted Araucana embryo.

    PubMed

    Pabilonia, M S; Somes, R G

    1981-09-01

    Structural abnormalities of the head and throat of ear-tufted embryos of the Araucana fowl are described. These abnormalities involved the opening to the external auditory meatus and such bones as the mandible, quadrate, columella auris, squamosal, and hyoid apparatus. Structural irregularities are believed to be due to the presence of the Et gene and its influence on the early embryonic closure of the hyomandibular cleft. The diversity of phenotypic expression probably is due to the varied closure of the cleft. PMID:7322992

  6. Dissociating position and heading estimations: rotated visual orientation cues perceived after walking reset headings but not positions.

    PubMed

    Mou, Weimin; Zhang, Lei

    2014-12-01

    This project examined the roles of idiothetic cues due to individuals' movement and allothetic cues independent of individuals' movement in individuals' estimations of their position and heading during locomotion. In an immersive virtual environment, participants learned the locations of five objects and then moved along two legs of a path before positioning the origin and the objects. Participants' estimations of their test position and their test heading were calculated based on the responded objects' locations, using a method of dissociating position estimation and heading estimation developed in this project. Results showed that when a conflicting visual orientation cue was presented after walking, participants relied on the allothetic cues (i.e., the visual orientation cue) for their heading estimation, but on idiothetic cues for their position estimation. These results indicate that after participants updated their position in terms the origin of the path (homing vector) via path integration, they estimated their heading. These results are inconsistent with the theoretical models stipulating that homing vectors are specified in terms of participants' body coordinate systems, but are consistent with the models stipulating that both homing vectors and participants' heading are specified in terms of a fixed reference direction in the environment. PMID:25215931

  7. Bilaterally Abnormal Head Impulse Tests Indicate a Large Cerebellopontine Angle Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Jung; Park, Seong-Ho; Koo, Ja Won; Kim, Chae-Yong; Kim, Young-Hoon; Han, Jung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Tumors involving the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) pose a diagnostic challenge due to their diverse manifestations. Head impulse tests (HITs) have been used to evaluate vestibular function, but few studies have explored the head impulse gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in patients with a vestibular schwannoma. This study tested whether the head impulse gain of the VOR is an indicator of the size of a unilateral CPA tumor. Methods Twenty-eight patients (21 women; age=64±12 years, mean±SD) with a unilateral CPA tumor underwent a recording of the HITs using a magnetic search coil technique. Patients were classified into non-compressing (T1-T3) and compressing (T4) groups according to the Hannover classification. Results Most (23/28, 82%) of the patients showed abnormal HITs for the semicircular canals on the lesion side. The bilateral abnormality in HITs was more common in the compressing group than the non-compressing group (80% vs. 8%, Pearson's chi-square test: p<0.001). The tumor size was inversely correlated with the head impulse gain of the VOR in either direction. Conclusions Bilaterally abnormal HITs indicate that a patient has a large unilateral CPA tumor. The abnormal HITs in the contralesional direction may be explained either by adaptation or by compression and resultant dysfunction of the cerebellar and brainstem structures. The serial evaluation of HITs may provide information on tumor growth, and thereby reduce the number of costly brain scans required when following up patients with CPA tumors. PMID:26754780

  8. Soccer Heading Is Associated with White Matter Microstructural and Cognitive Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namhee; Zimmerman, Molly E.; Kim, Mimi; Stewart, Walter F.; Branch, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of soccer heading with subclinical evidence of traumatic brain injury. Materials and Methods: With institutional review board approval and compliance with HIPAA guidelines, 37 amateur soccer players (mean age, 30.9 years; 78% [29] men, 22% [eight] women) gave written informed consent and completed a questionnaire to quantify heading in the prior 12 months and lifetime concussions. Diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3.0 T was performed (32 directions; b value, 800 sec/mm2; 2 × 2 × 2-mm voxels). Cognitive function was measured by using a computerized battery of tests. Voxelwise linear regression (heading vs fractional anisotropy [FA]) was applied to identify significant regional associations. FA at each location and cognition were tested for a nonlinear relationship to heading by using an inverse logit model that incorporated demographic covariates and history of concussion. Results: Participants had headed 32–5400 times (median, 432 times) over the previous year. Heading was associated with lower FA at three locations in temporo-occipital white matter with a threshold that varied according to location (885–1550 headings per year) (P < .00001). Lower levels of FA were also associated with poorer memory scores (P < .00001), with a threshold of 1800 headings per year. Lifetime concussion history and demographic features were not significantly associated with either FA or cognitive performance. Conclusion: Heading is associated with abnormal white matter microstructure and with poorer neurocognitive performance. This relationship is not explained by a history of concussion. © RSNA, 2013 PMID:23757503

  9. Evaluating the heading in professional soccer players by playing positions.

    PubMed

    Erkmen, Nurtekin

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and coordination of heading in professional soccer players of different positions. A total of 243 professional soccer players were examined for the study. The Federation Internationale de Football Association Medical Assessment and Research Center (F-MARC) test battery was used to evaluate heading in soccer players. In the heading of the ball thrown from middle of the goal, forwards were better than goalkeepers (p < 0.05). There was not a significant statistical difference between defenders, midfielders, and forwards. In the heading of the ball thrown from the right side of the goalpost, defenders were better than goalkeepers (p < 0.05) and forwards were better than goalkeepers, defenders, and midfielders (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the reason for the heading of goalkeepers being worse than the others; goalkeepers use their hands in both training and matches, whereas for forwards and defensive players being better than goalkeepers depends mainly on their positions in soccer. Trainers and coaches should give place specific training programs to improve heading ability in the training schedule of soccer players at a professional level. PMID:19675491

  10. Rotation axes of the head during positioning, head shaking, and locomotion.

    PubMed

    Kunin, Mikhail; Osaki, Yasuhiro; Cohen, Bernard; Raphan, Theodore

    2007-11-01

    Static head orientations obey Donders' law and are postulated to be rotations constrained by a Fick gimbal. Head oscillations can be voluntary or generated during natural locomotion. Whether the rotation axes of the voluntary oscillations or during locomotion are constrained by the same gimbal is unknown and is the subject of this study. Head orientation was monitored with an Optotrak (Northern Digital). Human subjects viewed visual targets wearing pin-hole goggles to achieve static head positions with the eyes centered in the orbit. Incremental rotation axes were determined for pitch and yaw by computing the velocity vectors during head oscillation and during locomotion at 1.5 m/s on a treadmill. Static head orientation could be described by a generalization of the Fick gimbal by having the axis of the second rotation rotate by a fraction, k, of the angle of the first rotation without a third rotation. We have designated this as a k-gimbal system. Incremental rotation axes for both pitch and yaw oscillations were functions of the pitch but not the yaw head positions. The pivot point for head oscillations was close to the midpoint of the interaural line. During locomotion, however, the pivot point was considerably lower. These findings are well explained by an implementation of the k-gimbal model, which has a rotation axis superimposed on a Fick-gimbal system. This could be realized physiologically by the head interface with the dens and occipital condyles during head oscillation with a contribution of the lower spine to pitch during locomotion. PMID:17898142

  11. Treatment with a position feedback-controlled head stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Harris, F A

    1979-08-01

    A position feedback-controlled head stabilizer has been developed to provide cerebral palsied individuals with resistive exercise to strengthen the neck musculature. This apparatus detects "involuntary" head motion and stabilizes the head by applying opposing forces; it also can be used to facilitate muscular contraction by resisting the subject's voluntary movements. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether voluntary head control in cerebral palsied individuals can be improved through systematic exercise using the stabilizer to strengthen the muscles of the neck and improve their balance of action. The findings support the author's contention that this is possible. The apparatus consists of a helmet and shoulder pads, interconnected so that the head is supported in the helmet by a manipulator arm. At its lower end, the manipulator arm is attached to the shoulder pad mounting frame via a gimbal assembly which allows head movement in two planes of tilt (pitch, or forward-and back, and roll, or side-to-side). Feedback control circuitry is so arranged that any deviation of the head from the desired position leads to actuation of pneumatic cylinders, which apply torques to the manipulator gimbal axes so as to oppose or conteract the incipient head movement. It is particularly significant that none of these patients participating in these experiments were at all apprehensive about or resisted being placed in the apparatus. (Even the youngest subject to use the apparatus--five year old-- did not mind being restrained by the shoulder pads or having his head gripped by helment.) While JG utilized the safety release valve quite often during the first few head control training sessions, he soon became confident enough in the action of the stabilizer that he did not even bother to grip the handle of the release valve. While DA had the action of safety valve explained and demonstrated for her, she never bothered to use it even from the outset of her experience

  12. Detecting abnormality in optic nerve head images using a feature extraction analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haogang; Poostchi, Ali; Vernon, Stephen A; Crabb, David P

    2014-01-01

    Imaging and evaluation of the optic nerve head (ONH) plays an essential part in the detection and clinical management of glaucoma. The morphological characteristics of ONHs vary greatly from person to person and this variability means it is difficult to quantify them in a standardized way. We developed and evaluated a feature extraction approach using shift-invariant wavelet packet and kernel principal component analysis to quantify the shape features in ONH images acquired by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph [HRT]). The methods were developed and tested on 1996 eyes from three different clinical centers. A shape abnormality score (SAS) was developed from extracted features using a Gaussian process to identify glaucomatous abnormality. SAS can be used as a diagnostic index to quantify the overall likelihood of ONH abnormality. Maps showing areas of likely abnormality within the ONH were also derived. Diagnostic performance of the technique, as estimated by ROC analysis, was significantly better than the classification tools currently used in the HRT software – the technique offers the additional advantage of working with all images and is fully automated. PMID:25071960

  13. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities by Actively Keeping the Head in an Upright Position with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller through the Control of an Environmental Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Chia-Ju; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2011-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology by applying the Nintendo Wii Remote Controller to the correction of hyperactive limb behavior. This study extended Wii Remote Controller functionality for improper head position (posture) correction (i.e. actively adjusting abnormal head posture) to assess whether two people with multiple…

  14. Birth Position, Neonatal Head Position Preference, and Hand Preference in 19-Week-Old-Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Rhoda S.

    This study investigated the hypotheses that 1) infants delivered from a left occiput anterior or transverse position (LOA/LOT) would exhibit a right supine head orientation in the neonatal examination and a right hand preference at 19 weeks of age; and 2) infants delivered from a right occiput anterior or transverse position (ROA/ROT) would…

  15. The removal of morphologically abnormal sperm forms by phagocytes: a positive role for seminal leukocytes?

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, M J; White, A; Barratt, C L; Bolton, A E; Cooke, I D

    1992-04-01

    A preliminary investigation was undertaken further to determine the function of the leukocytic cells found in semen. We performed semen analysis and quantified leukocyte subsets using immunocytochemical staining techniques in ejaculates of 351 patients. Leukocyte profiles were examined in relation to sperm morphological data for evidence of a sperm removal/selection process. Three types of seminal phagocytic cell were found to contain spermatozoa: small polymorphonuclear leukocytes (approximately 10-12 microns), monocytes of similar size and much larger (30-40 microns) macrophages capable of engulfing multiple sperm heads. The total leukocyte count (P less than 0.01), the numbers of phagocytic cells i.e. polymorphonuclear leukocytes (P less than 0.05), monocyte/macrophages (P less than 0.01) and HLA-DR positive cells (P less than 0.01), were significantly higher in those samples with greater than 50% ideal sperm forms. Significantly fewer of these same cell types were observed in samples with greater than 50% head defects. There was no difference in the number of tail or midpiece defects between leukocytospermic (greater than 10(6)/ml) and non-leukocytospermic semen samples. Oligozoospermic samples contained significantly fewer leukocytes (P less than 0.005), although above a concentration of 5 x 10(6)/ml, the sperm number was not correlated with leukocyte number. These data, along with repeated observation of spermatozoa or sperm fragments within phagocytic cells, support the hypothesis that leukocytes have a role in the removal of abnormal spermatozoa from the ejaculate. PMID:1522196

  16. Mice lacking FABP9/PERF15 develop sperm head abnormalities but are fertile

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Vimal; Asano, Atsushi; Page, Jennifer L.; Nelson, Jacquelyn L.; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Foster, James A.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Weiss, Robert S.; Travis, Alexander J.

    2010-01-01

    The male germ cell-specific fatty acid binding protein 9 (FABP9/PERF15) is the major component of the murine sperm perforatorium and perinuclear theca. Based on its cytoskeletal association and sequence homology to myelin P2 (FABP8), it has been suggested that FABP9 tethers sperm membranes to the underlying cytoskeleton. Furthermore, its upregulation in apoptotic testicular germ cells and its increased phosphorylation status during capacitation suggested multiple important functions for FABP9. Therefore, we investigated specific functions for FABP9 by means of targeted gene disruption in mice. FABP9−/− mice were viable and fertile. Phenotypic analysis showed that FABP9−/− mice had significant increases in sperm head abnormalities (~8% greater than their WT cohorts); in particular, we observed the reduction or absence of the characteristic structural element known as the “ventral spur” in ~10% of FABP9−/− sperm. However, deficiency of FABP9 neither affected membrane tethering to the perinuclear theca nor the fatty acid composition of sperm. Moreover, epididymal sperm numbers were not affected in FABP9−/− mice. Therefore, we conclude that FABP9 plays only a minor role in providing the murine sperm head its characteristic shape and is not absolutely required for spermatogenesis or sperm function. PMID:20920498

  17. [Positional asphyxia--death in a head-down position after falling down stairs].

    PubMed

    Doberentz, Elke; Madea, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of a body in an unusual position such as a head-down position requires thorough investigation. In this article, such a death is reported. A 64-year-old man was found in a head-down position at the bottom of a narrow staircase after obviously falling down the stairs. His head was wedged between the last step and a closed sliding door. Autopsy revealed craniofacial blunt force injuries, a non-dislocated fracture of the 4th cervical vertebral body (with intact ligaments of the spine and cervical cord) and massive cerebral and pulmonary oedema. Although the heart was significantly enlarged (610 g), the coronary arteries showed only minor arteriosclerotic changes. The alcohol concentration measured was 2.06 per mil in blood and 2.67 per mil in urine. The alcohol intoxication increased the risk to fall and together with the trauma of the cervical spine made it impossible for the man to free himself so that he ultimately died in a head-down position. PMID:23136702

  18. Gas cushion control of OVJP print head position

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2014-10-07

    An OVJP apparatus and method for applying organic vapor or other flowable material to a substrate using a printing head mechanism in which the print head spacing from the substrate is controllable using a cushion of air or other gas applied between the print head and substrate. The print head is mounted for translational movement towards and away from the substrate and is biased toward the substrate by springs or other means. A gas cushion feed assembly supplies a gas under pressure between the print head and substrate which opposes the biasing of the print head toward the substrate so as to form a space between the print head and substrate. By controlling the pressure of gas supplied, the print head separation from the substrate can be precisely controlled.

  19. The Modified Concorde Position with an Intraoperative Skew Head Rotation: Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    TAKASUNA, Hiroshi; TANAKA, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    The Concorde position was developed to approach pineal and cerebellar lesions with a midline suboccipital craniotomy. The neutral head position is needed to divide the occipital muscles symmetrically. The patient’s head is tilted to the right and the face is turned to the right for the microscopic procedure to keep the midline of the patient’s head axis straight in the surgical field for comfortable and accurate surgical manipulation. However, intraoperative repositioning of the patient’s head is somewhat difficult to release the holding arm of the Sugita head holder in the original method. We found that a skew head rotation by fixing the head asymmetrically in the Sugita head holder is very quick and convenient to obtain the optimal head position both for a craniotomy and a microscopic procedure. PMID:26226983

  20. Binocular vision and abnormal head posture in children when watching television

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Di; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Dai, Shu-Zhen; Peng, Hai-Ying; Wang, Li-Ya

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the association between the binocular vision and an abnormal head posture (AHP) when watching television (TV) in children 7-14y of age. METHODS Fifty normal children in the normal group and 52 children with an AHP when watching TV in the AHP group were tested for spherical equivalents, far and near fusional convergence (FC) and fusional divergence (FD) amplitudes, near point of convergence, far and near heterophoria, accommodative convergence/ accommodation ratio and stereoacuity. The values of these tests were compared between the two groups. The independent t test was applied at a confidence level of 95%. RESULTS The far and near FC amplitudes and far FD amplitudes were lower in the AHP group (the far FC amplitudes: break point 13.6±5.4Δ, recovery point 8.7±5.4Δ. The near FC amplitudes: break point 14.5±7.3Δ, recovery point 10.3±5.1Δ. The far FD amplitudes: break point 3.9±2.7Δ, recovery point 2.6±2.3Δ) compared with those in the normal group (the far FC amplitudes: break point 19.1±6.2Δ, recovery point 12.4±4.5Δ. The near FC amplitudes: break point 22.3±8.0Δ, recovery point 16.1±5.7Δ. The far FD amplitudes: break point 7.0±2.1Δ, recovery point 4.6±1.9Δ). Other tests presented no statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION An association between the reduced FC and FD amplitudes and the AHP in children when watching TV is proposed in the study. This kind of AHP is considered to be an anomalous manifestation which appears in a part of puerile patients of fusional vergence dysfunction. PMID:27275434

  1. Positional Asphyxia: Death Due to Unusual Head-Down Position in a Narrow Space.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Vinod Ashok; Ghodake, Dattatray G; Kharat, Rajesh D

    2016-06-01

    Death due to a head-down position with hyperflexion of the neck is a rare event. A person accidentally falling into a narrow space and remaining in an upside-down position with no timely recovery may experience positional or postural asphyxia. It is a critical condition arising out of particular body positions, leading to mechanical obstruction of respiration. The precipitating factors are intoxication due to alcohol, drugs, obesity, psychiatric illnesses, and injuries. A 30-year-old unmarried woman, weighing 82 kg and with a body mass index of 31.24, was found in a narrow space between the bed and the wall in a naked state and in a head-down position with hyperflexion of the neck. The distribution of lividity was consistent with the position of the body at the scene. Blood was oozing from the mouth and nostrils, and signs of asphyxia were present. The toxicological analyses of viscera, blood, and urine were negative for alcohol, drugs, and poisons. Glucose levels in the blood (86 mg/dL) as well as urine and vitreous humor levels (68 mg/dL) were within normal limits. On microscopic examination, there were no findings of coronary atherosclerosis, whereas the brain and lung were edematous. After meticulous examination, we ruled out sexual assault, autoerotic asphyxia, epilepsy, psychiatric illness, diabetes, toxicity, and coronary artery disease. Death was attributed to the accidental fall of the obese individual being stuck in a narrow space, resulting in positional asphyxia. It is imperative to recognize the precipitating or risk factors before labeling positional asphyxia as a cause of death. PMID:26840099

  2. Heading in the right direction? An innovative approach toward proper patient head positioning

    SciTech Connect

    Grush, William H.; Steffen, Gary A

    2002-12-31

    An in-house-manufactured modification of the standard A-F foam rubber head-neck supports (aka. Timo Supports) was designed to eliminate clinical setup problems with head immobilization and instability during treatment, thus providing for a more comfortable head rest for the patient. The custom design of this head holder seeks to eliminate superior-to-inferior shift, and minimize the lateral right-to-left rotational movement of the head when coupled with an AquaPlast casting system. By focusing attention to the seating of the occipital portion of the head and contour of the patient's neck, the aforementioned problems of movement were addressed, while adhering to the interests of patient comfort in this modified head support system.

  3. Control of ignition timing upon occurrence of abnormality in a reference crank angle position sensing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, S.; Ono, T.; Narisawa, N.

    1987-09-01

    A method is described of controlling ignition timing of an internal combustion engine when an abnormality develops in a system for sensing a reference crank angle position of a crankshaft of the engine, in which the timing at which an ignition coil starts and stops conducting is controlled on the basis of a first pulse signal generated once per at least two revolutions of the crankshaft at a predetermined crank angle position associated with a particular cylinder of the engine, a second pulse signal indicative of a predetermined reference crank angle position of the crankshaft for each cylinder, and a third pulse signal indicative of predetermined angular positions of the crankshaft.

  4. Changes in upper-extremity muscle activities due to head position in subjects with a forward head posture and rounded shoulders

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jung Won; Son, Sung Min; Lee, Na Kyung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated upper-extremity muscle activities in natural, ideal, and corrected head positions. [Subjects and Methods] Forty subjects with a forward head posture and rounded shoulder were recruited and randomly assigned to the natural head position group (n = 13), ideal head position group (n = 14), or corrected head position group (n = 13). Muscle activities were measured using a four-channel surface electromyography system at the sternocleidomastoideus, upper and lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles on the right side during an overhead reaching task. [Results] The muscle activities of the upper trapezius and serratus anterior differed significantly among head positions. Post hoc tests revealed significant differences between natural and ideal head positions, and natural and ideal head positions for both the upper trapezius and serratus anterior. [Conclusion] Recovery of normal upper trapezius and serratus anterior muscle functions plays an important role in correcting forward head posture and rounded shoulders. PMID:26180310

  5. Time Orientation in the Positive and Negative Free Phantasies of Mildly Abnormal Versus Normal High School Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychlak, Joseph F.

    1973-01-01

    This study contrasts a group of mildly'' abnormal high school males with matched normals in a two-session free phantasy procedure. Mildly abnormal boys phantasized more negative contents than normal boys. Normal boys projected more positive phantasies into the future than mildly abnormal boys. A logical learning theory'' embracing the…

  6. Intrapartum Ultrasound Assessment of Fetal Head Position, Tip The Scale: Natural or Instrumental Delivery?

    PubMed Central

    ADAM, G.; SIRBU, O.; VOICU, C.; DOMINIC, D.; TUDORACHE, STEFANIA; CERNEA, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to observe the behavior of the fetal head position during labor, when starting from occiput anterior or posterior position and also to determine their importance in labor management (if the starting fetal head position can be a strong argument in favour of vaginal or cesarean delivery). Methods:187 patients in labor were included in this study, with gestational age over 37 weeks and estimated fetal weight over 2500 g, singleton pregnancy, cephalic presentation, empty urinary bladder. For these patients the ultrasound assessed parameters were: fetal head position at the beginning of labour and fetal head rotation during labour. Results: 89,18 percent of the patients starting from OTP (occiput transverse or posterior position) had a vaginal birth after an anterior rotation of the fetal head, and only 10,82 % presented persitent occiput posterior requiring cesarean section for delivery. Furthermore, considering only initial occiput posterior position, we observed an increased rate for cesarean section delivery (22,72%) by persistence of this position during labour. None of the patients starting with an anterior fetal head position rotated posteriorly. Conclusions: vaginal delivery in occiput anterior position was the most common result in both OTP and OP fetal head initial position. The main reason for cesarean delivery was persistent OP position. Patients with occiput posterior position were subsequent only to an initial posterior/transverse position. PMID:24791200

  7. Clinical manifestations that predict abnormal brain computed tomography (CT) in children with minor head injury

    PubMed Central

    Alharthy, Nesrin; Al Queflie, Sulaiman; Alyousef, Khalid; Yunus, Faisel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) used in pediatric pediatrics brain injury (TBI) to ascertain neurological manifestations. Nevertheless, this practice is associated with adverse effects. Reports in the literature suggest incidents of morbidity and mortality in children due to exposure to radiation. Hence, it is found imperative to search for a reliable alternative. Objectives: The aim of this study is to find a reliable clinical alternative to detect an intracranial injury without resorting to the CT. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study was undertaken in patients (1-14 years) with blunt head injury and having a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 13-15 who had CT performed on them. Using statistical analysis, the correlation between clinical examination and positive CT manifestation is analyzed for different age-groups and various mechanisms of injury. Results: No statistically significant association between parameteres such as Loss of Consciousness, ‘fall’ as mechanism of injury, motor vehicle accidents (MVA), more than two discrete episodes of vomiting and the CT finding of intracranial injury could be noted. Analyzed data have led to believe that GCS of 13 at presentation is the only important clinical predictor of intracranial injury. Conclusion: Retrospective data, small sample size and limited number of factors for assessing clinical manifestation might present constraints on the predictive rule that was derived from this review. Such limitations notwithstanding, the decision to determine which patients should undergo neuroimaging is encouraged to be based on clinical judgments. Further analysis with higher sample sizes may be required to authenticate and validate findings. PMID:25949038

  8. Effect of The Swimmer’s Head Position on Passive Drag

    PubMed Central

    Cortesi, Matteo; Gatta, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the head position on passive drag with a towing-line experiment in a swimming pool. The tests were performed on ten male swimmers with regional level swimming skills and at least 10 years of competitive swimming experience. They were towed underwater (at a depth of 60 cm) at three speeds (1.5, 1.7 and 1.9 m/s) and in two body positions (arms above the swimmer’s head and arms alongside the body). These two body positions were repeated while the swimmer’s head was positioned in three different ways: head-up, head-middle and head-down in relation to the body’s horizontal alignment. The results showed a reduction of 4–5.2% in the average passive drag at all speeds when the head was down or aligned to the swimmer’s arms alongside the body, in comparison to the head-up position. A major significant decrease of 10.4–10.9% (p < 0.05) was shown when the head was down or aligned at the swimmer’s arms above the swimmer’s head. The passive drag tended to decrease significantly by a mean of 17.6% (p < 0.001) for all speeds examined with the arms alongside the body position rather than with the arms above the head position. The swimmer’s head location may play an important role in reducing hydrodynamic resistance during passive underwater gliding. PMID:26839604

  9. Effect of positive acceleration (+gz) on electrocardiogram of subjects with vasoregulatory abnormality.

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, P K; Balasubramanian, K V; Dham, S K; Rai, K; Hoon, R S

    1977-01-01

    ST-T wave changes in the electrocardiogram detected during routine examination and aggravated by erect posture, hyperventilation, and exercise in apparently healthy young individuals have been termed vasoregulatory abnormalities. No evidence of ischaemic heart disease has been found in such subjects. Ten young healthy air crew with vasoregulatory abnormalities were subjected to maximal exercise on treadmill and procedure repeated after 120 mg propranolol daily for 3 days. After one week, they were subjected to a stress of positive acceleration (+gz) in a human centrifuge at 2-5 g and 3-5 g for 15 seconds each at a constant rate of rise of 0-1 g/s and the electrocardiogram was monitored during and in the post-acceleration phase. The procedure was repeated after propranolol 120 mg daily for 3 days. The stress of positive acceleration resulted in pronounced prominence of P waves and inversion of T waves (as has been reported in normal subjects) with minimal ST depression in the electrocardiogram. ST segment depression during exercise, at heart rates corresponding to those achieved during peak centrifuge runs, was significantly more pronounced. The ST, P, and T wave changes were returned to normal after propranolol. It is concluded that minimal ST segment depression after stress of positive acceleration as compared with conspicuous ST segment depression during exercise at corresponding heart rates, and their normalisation after propranolol, rules out ischaemia as an aetiological factor in subjects with vasoregulatory abnormalities. Images PMID:849393

  10. Effect of different head positions on the jaw closing point during tapping movements.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Nishigawa, K; Bando, E; Hosoki, M

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of different head positions on jaw closing points during tapping movements. The jaw movements of 20 adult volunteers were assessed using a new jaw-tracking device. All subjects had stable maximal intercuspation with their natural dentitions. The subjects were asked to seat on a dental chair with their head upright, and tapping movements were recorded for 5 s without any further instructions. After the chair was reclined to the horizontal position, tapping movements were also recorded with the head in the supine position. The location of the tapping point was defined as the jaw position which was the most closed to the maximum intercuspal position during each tapping stroke. Fifteen tapping points were obtained from the upright and supine head positions of each subject. Six-hundred tapping points were compared to evaluate the effects of different head positions. With the head upright, tapping points were relatively stable and close to the jaw position at the maximum intercuspation. However, in the supine position, tapping points varied widely and shifted forward. The average distance between the positions of the incisal point at the maximum intercuspation and at the tapping points was 0.11 mm (SD, 0.10) in the upright position and 0.30 mm (SD, 0.08) in the supine position. A Wilcoxon signed rank test showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) between these distances. We conclude that tapping points shift anteriorly in the supine position. PMID:18976269

  11. Abnormal Development of the Femoral Head Epiphysis in an Infant with no Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Apparent on Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Atalar, Hakan; Gunay, Cuneyd; Aytekin, Mahmut Nedim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the investigation of hip development in newborns and infants, ultrasonography and radiography are widely used, but their optimal roles in this setting remain controversial. Case Report: Here we describe an 8.5-month-old infant who had undergone hip radiography at a primary care facility and was referred to our hospital to be evaluated for developmental dysplasia of the hip. Ultrasonography showed no developmental dysplasia of the hip according to standard criteria, but developmental retardation of the femoral head was apparent on the radiograph. Conclusion: This patient's findings demonstrate that abnormalities in femoral head epiphysis development can go undetected during routine ultrasonographic evaluations for developmental dysplasia of the hip. PMID:27298982

  12. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection & cervical abnormalities in HIV-positive women in eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Jaya; Chourasia, Ankita; Thakur, Minaxi; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Agrawal, Nisha Rani

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Methods: We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Results: Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85%) were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9%) were of high-risk (HR) HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%); non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR), 2.56 (1.26-5.19)], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46)], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56)] and CD4 ≤350/μl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83)] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33%) patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM) cytology, three (1.60%) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 32 (17.11%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 10 (5.35%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and three (1.60%) had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49)] and CD4 ≤350/μl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20)] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Interpretation &conclusions: Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women. PMID:26997018

  13. Expression of prion protein is closely associated with pathological and clinical progression and abnormalities of p53 in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Nai-Song; Xiao, Kang; Chen, Li-Na; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Ji, Jia-Fu; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-02-01

    Prion protein (PrP) is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein that functions as a unique pathogenic agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). In the past decade, overexpression of PrP was observed in a number of human malignant tumors, such as gastric, breast and pancreatic cancer. However, the role of PrP expression in squamous cell carcinoma is rarely documented. To screen PrP expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCCs), the paraffin-embedded specimens of 92 pathologically diagnosed HNSCCs were assessed by PrP-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC). A total of 55.43% (51/92) of the tested carcinoma tissues were PrP-positive. The rate of positivity and the staining intensity of PrP were closely related with the pathological degree of the HNSCCs; a higher rate of PrP expression was noted in the group of poorly differentiated cancers. PrP-positivity rates increased along with the progression of the clinical grade of the carcinomas. Further evaluation of the associations between PrP expression and the data concerning p53 abnormalities and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in these samples as previously described, revealed that PrP-positive staining was more frequently detected in the tissues with p53-positive accumulation and the wild-type TP53 gene. The patients with a proline (Pro) polymorphism in SNP72 of TP53 showed significantly higher PrP-positive rates than those with arginine (Arg). No notable difference in PrP expression was identified between the HPV-positive and HPV-negative group. These data indicate a close association of PrP expression with clinical and histological differentiation of HNSCCs, as well as abnormalities of p53. PMID:26718886

  14. Comparison of Abnormal Cervical Cytology from HIV Positive Women, Female Sex Workers and General Population

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Homeira; Asadi, Nasrin; Foroughinia, Leila; Salehi, Alireza; Kuhnavard, Safieh; Akbarzadeh, Mojgan; Ravanbod, Hamid Reza; Mohamadalian, Ferdos; Kasraeian, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background Sex workers and HIV seropositive women are at high risk of abnormal cervical cytology. The objective of this study was to compare the cervical cytology among three groups of women: active sex workers, HIV-infected women, and general population in Iran. Methods This was a cross-sectional study performed in Hazrat Zeinab, Lavan clinics and drop in center (DIC) in Shiraz, Iran. This study was performed from October 2009 to October 2011. A total of 266 patients were assigned into three groups: sex-workers (85), HIV positive patients (100), and general population (81). Pap smear was performed for all participants from the exocervix and endocervix, using a plastic Ayres’s spatula and cytobrush. The samples were sent to a pathology center, using a liquid-based media.  Results The risk of cervical infection in sex workers and HIV positive women was greater than the general population (OR=5.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]:2.24, 13.40), (OR=3.71, 95% CI:1.52, 9.09), respectively. The frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in the HIV positive and sex worker groups was higher than the general population (OR=6. 76, 95% CI:2.25, 20.32), (OR=3. 80, 95% CI:1.19, 12.07), respectively. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were associated with CD4 cell count<200Í106/L, P=0.021 and P<0.001, respectively. Conclusion Vaginal infections were seen more often in the sex worker group, and abnormal cervical cytology was greater in the HIV positive group. PMID:26005687

  15. Resting position of the head and malocclusion in a group of patients with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Mihi, Victoria; Orellana, Lorena M.; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy are found as a result of these disorders, along with associated neuromuscular functional alterations that affect the resting position of the head. In this context, the resting position of the head could be responsible for several skeletal and dental occlusal disorders among patients with cerebral palsy. Objective: To assess the presence of malocclusions in patients with cerebral palsy, define the most frequent types of malocclusions, and evaluate how the resting position of the head may be implicated in the development of such malocclusions. Study design: Forty-four patients aged between 12-55 years (18 males and 26 females) were studied. Occlusal conditions, the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), changes in the resting position of the head, and breathing and swallowing functions were assessed. Results: Orthodontic treatment was required by 70.8% of the patients, the most frequent malocclusions being molar class II, open bite and high overjet. These individuals showed altered breathing and swallowing functions, as well as habit and postural disorders. The resting position of the head, especially the hyperextended presentation, was significantly correlated to high DAI scores. Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that patients with cerebral palsy are more susceptible to present malocclusions, particularly molar class II malocclusion, increased open bite, and high overjet. Such alterations in turn are more common in patients with a hyperextended position of the head. Key words:Cerebral palsy, malocclusion, head position, disabled patients. PMID:24596627

  16. Waardenburg-like features with cataracts, small head size, joint abnormalities, hypogonadism, and osteosarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Parry, D M; Safyer, A W; Mulvihill, J J

    1978-01-01

    A 32-year-old black man was observed with osteosarcoma and multiple anomalies including deafness, hypopigmentation, cataracts, small head size, hypogonadism, and restricted joint mobility. The birth defects may comprise a new syndrome or combination of syndromes, of which the malignancy may be a part. Images PMID:273099

  17. An Investigation of Horizontal Combined Eye-Head Tracking in Patients with Abnormal Vestibular and Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, William P.; Leigh, R. John; Seidman, Scott H.; Billian, Carl

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of smooth ocular pursuit (SP) and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during horizontal, combined eye-head tracking (CEHT) in patients with abnormalities of either the VOR or SP movements. Our strategy was to apply transient stimuli that capitalized on the different latencies to onset of SP and the VOR. During CEHT of a target moving at 15 deg/sec, normal subjects and patients with VOR deficits all tracked the target with a gain close to 1.O. When the heads of normal subjects were suddenly and unexpectedly braked to a halt during CEHT, the eye promptly began to move in the orbit to track the target, but eye-in-orbit velocity transiently fell to about 60-70% of target velocity. In patients with deficient labyrinthine function, following the onset of the head brake, eye movements to track the target were absent, and SP movements were not generated until about 100 msec later. In patients with deficient SP, CEHT was superior to SP tracking with the head stationary; after the onset of the head brake, tracking eye movements were initiated promptly, but eye velocity was less than 50% of target velocity and increased only slightly thereafter. These results indicate that at least two mechanisms operate to overcome the VOR and allow gaze to track the target during CEHT: (1) the SP system provides a signal to cancel a normally-operating VOR (this cancellation signal is not needed by labyrinthine-deficient patients who have no VOR to cancel), and (2) a reduction of the gain of the VOR is achieved, an ability that is preserved even in patients with cerebral lesions that impair SP.

  18. Effect of head and jaw position on respiratory-related motion of the genioglossus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mingshu; Brown, Elizabeth C; Hatt, Alice; Cheng, Shaokoon; Bilston, Lynne E

    2016-04-01

    Head and jaw position influence upper airway patency and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the main upper airway dilator muscle, the genioglossus. However, it is not known whether changes in genioglossus EMG activity translate into altered muscle movement during respiration. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of head and jaw position on dilatory motion of the genioglossus in healthy adult men during quiet breathing by measuring the displacement of the posterior tongue in six positions--neutral, head extension, head rotation, head flexion, mouth opening, and mandibular advancement. Respiratory-related motion of the genioglossus was imaged with spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM) in 12 awake male participants. Tissue displacement was quantified with harmonic phase (HARP) analysis. The genioglossus moved anteriorly beginning immediately before or during inspiration, and there was greater movement in the oropharynx than in the velopharynx in all positions. Anterior displacements of the oropharyngeal tongue varied between neutral head position (0.81 ± 0.41 mm), head flexion (0.62 ± 0.45 mm), extension (0.39 ± 0.19 mm), axial rotation (0.39 ± 0.2 mm), mouth open (1.24 ± 0.72 mm), and mandibular advancement (1.08 ± 0.65 mm). Anteroposterior displacement increased in the mouth-open position and decreased in the rotated position relative to cross-sectional area (CSA) (P = 0.002 and 0.02, respectively), but CSA did not independently predict anteroposterior movement overall (P = 0.057). The findings of this study suggest that head position influences airway dilation during inspiration and may contribute to variation in airway patency in different head positions. PMID:26796752

  19. Assessment of a head support system to prevent pediatric out-of-position: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Forman, Jason L; Ash, Joseph H; Kent, Richard; Alba, Juan J; Segui-Gomez, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Head injuries are the most common severe injuries sustained by pediatric occupants in road traffic crashes. Preventing children from adopting positions that can result in an increased injury risk due to unfavorable interactions with the restraints is fundamental. The objective of this paper was to assess the effect of a head support system (SS) on the lateral position of the head, the vertical position of the sternum and the shoulder belt fit. Thirty pediatric rear-seat passengers were exposed to two 75-minute trials. Volunteers were restrained by a three-point belt and, if needed, used the appropriate child restraint system for their anthropometry (high-back booster, low-back booster, no booster). A case crossover study was designed in which the volunteers used the head support system (SS) during one of the trials, acting as their own controls (No SS) in the other. Compared to the control group, the head support reduced significantly the 90(th) percentile value of the absolute value of the relative lateral motion of the head, regardless of the restraint used. The system also reduced the maximum downward position of the sternal notch within the low-back booster group. As for the belt fit, the use of the head support improved significantly the position of the shoulder belt on the occupant in the low-back booster and in the no booster groups. PMID:24406966

  20. Carrying Position Independent User Heading Estimation for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation with Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhi-An; Wang, Guofeng; Hu, Ying; Cui, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel heading estimation approach for indoor pedestrian navigation using the built-in inertial sensors on a smartphone. Unlike previous approaches constraining the carrying position of a smartphone on the user’s body, our approach gives the user a larger freedom by implementing automatic recognition of the device carrying position and subsequent selection of an optimal strategy for heading estimation. We firstly predetermine the motion state by a decision tree using an accelerometer and a barometer. Then, to enable accurate and computational lightweight carrying position recognition, we combine a position classifier with a novel position transition detection algorithm, which may also be used to avoid the confusion between position transition and user turn during pedestrian walking. For a device placed in the trouser pockets or held in a swinging hand, the heading estimation is achieved by deploying a principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach. For a device held in the hand or against the ear during a phone call, user heading is directly estimated by adding the yaw angle of the device to the related heading offset. Experimental results show that our approach can automatically detect carrying positions with high accuracy, and outperforms previous heading estimation approaches in terms of accuracy and applicability. PMID:27187391

  1. Carrying Position Independent User Heading Estimation for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation with Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhi-An; Wang, Guofeng; Hu, Ying; Cui, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel heading estimation approach for indoor pedestrian navigation using the built-in inertial sensors on a smartphone. Unlike previous approaches constraining the carrying position of a smartphone on the user's body, our approach gives the user a larger freedom by implementing automatic recognition of the device carrying position and subsequent selection of an optimal strategy for heading estimation. We firstly predetermine the motion state by a decision tree using an accelerometer and a barometer. Then, to enable accurate and computational lightweight carrying position recognition, we combine a position classifier with a novel position transition detection algorithm, which may also be used to avoid the confusion between position transition and user turn during pedestrian walking. For a device placed in the trouser pockets or held in a swinging hand, the heading estimation is achieved by deploying a principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach. For a device held in the hand or against the ear during a phone call, user heading is directly estimated by adding the yaw angle of the device to the related heading offset. Experimental results show that our approach can automatically detect carrying positions with high accuracy, and outperforms previous heading estimation approaches in terms of accuracy and applicability. PMID:27187391

  2. Head position modifies cerebrovascular response to orthostatic stress.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Timothy D; Serrador, Jorge M; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2003-01-31

    Previous experiments have shown that the vestibular system participates in cardiovascular control. However, the effects of vestibular activation on cerebrovascular regulation are not known. Therefore, the present experiment tested the hypothesis that specific vestibular activations may be beneficial to cerebral circulation during simulated orthostatic stress. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (CBV; Doppler ultrasound) was measured to examine the effects of head-down neck flexion (HDNF) compared to head-down neck extension (HDNE) with and without lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -40 mmHg) (n=9). The change in CBV (DeltaCBV) during HDNF and HDNE were not different during baseline conditions, however, during LBNP, DeltaCBV was greater in HDNE compared to HDNF (-5.5+/-3.2 cm/s, -11+/-4.6%) vs. (-0.7+/-1.0 cm/s, -1.9+/-1.9%), respectively (P<0.05). Concomitantly, the change in cerebrovascular resistance (DeltaCVR) between rest and LBNP was also greater during HDNE (0.48+/-0.08 mmHg/cm per s, 42.8+/-10.8%) compared with HDNF (0.26+/-0.05 mmHg/cm per s, 22+/-4.1%) (P<0.05). P(ET)CO(2) was greater in HDNE (45+/-2 mmHg) compared to HDNF (42+/-2 mmHg; P<0.05) during LBNP. These results suggest that the vestibular system may affect cerebrovascular tone during simulated postural stress by either constriction or dilation, depending on the vestibular stimulus. PMID:12531493

  3. Analysis of the effect of swimmer's head position on swimming performance using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zaïdi, H; Taïar, R; Fohanno, S; Polidori, G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this numerical work is to analyze the effect of the position of the swimmer's head on the hydrodynamic performances in swimming. In this initial study, the problem was modeled as 2D and in steady hydrodynamic state. The geometry is generated by the CAD software CATIA and the numerical simulation is carried out by the use of the CFD Fluent code. The standard k-epsilon turbulence model is used with a specific wall law. Three positions of the head were studied, for a range of Reynolds numbers about 10(6). The obtained numerical results revealed that the position of the head had a noticeable effect on the hydrodynamic performances, strongly modifying the wake around the swimmer. The analysis of these results made it possible to propose an optimal position of the head of a swimmer in underwater swimming. PMID:18374343

  4. Human leader and robot follower team: correcting leader's position from follower's heading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borenstein, Johann; Thomas, David; Sights, Brandon; Ojeda, Lauro; Bankole, Peter; Fellars, Donald

    2010-04-01

    In multi-agent scenarios, there can be a disparity in the quality of position estimation amongst the various agents. Here, we consider the case of two agents - a leader and a follower - following the same path, in which the follower has a significantly better estimate of position and heading. This may be applicable to many situations, such as a robotic "mule" following a soldier. Another example is that of a convoy, in which only one vehicle (not necessarily the leading one) is instrumented with precision navigation instruments while all other vehicles use lower-precision instruments. We present an algorithm, called Follower-derived Heading Correction (FDHC), which substantially improves estimates of the leader's heading and, subsequently, position. Specifically, FHDC produces a very accurate estimate of heading errors caused by slow-changing errors (e.g., those caused by drift in gyros) of the leader's navigation system and corrects those errors.

  5. Influences of the position of the head on posture while lifting.

    PubMed

    Ishida, H; Watanabe, S; Eguchi, A; Kobara, K

    2008-01-01

    In clinical training of some lower back pain patients, teaching them to control their lumbar lordosis during lifting may be difficult. Therefore, another effective method for lifting technique is required. In standing, head cannot move without some compensating postural adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of head position on lifting posture. Fourteen healthy male volunteers (22.6 +/- 4.4 years old) lifted a case while maintaining two different head positions; a downward position and an upright position. In the upright position, activities of the latissimus dorsi and vastus lateralis significantly increased, and these of the biceps femoris significantly decreased during the initial 100 msec phase of lifting. There were no differences in the activities of the upper trapezius, lumbar extensor muscles (L3, L5), and obliquus abdominis under the two conditions. There were also no differences in the lumbar angle when the case was lifted. The flexion angles of the hip, knee, and ankle significantly increased, and the lumbar spine moved closer to the case. Lifting posture was influenced by the head position. Advantages included being able to shift loads on the body from the lower back to the legs, to move the lumbar spine closer to the case, and to relatively increase the moment of lumbar extension. The weight of the head as it moved upward and back, and the weight of the rear part of the body as it moved downward and forward helped to maintain balance. PMID:18551836

  6. The Impact of Reverse Trendelenburg Versus Head-up Position on Intraoperative Bleeding of Elective Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Nooraei, Navid; Dabbagh, Ali; Niazi, Feizolah; Mohammadi, Siamak; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Radmand, Golnar; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: In spite of several efforts for decreasing blood loss, our experience sometimes shows that some patients bleed more profusely during rhinoplasty. Patient position could have deep impact on bleeding amount during surgical procedures. Objective: In this study, we aimed to compare reverse trendelenburg position and head-up position on intra-operative bleeding of elective rhinoplasty. This was to check the effects of reverse trendelenburg position and head up position on the intraoperative bleeding of elective rhinoplasty. Methods: In this study, 30 ASA I (American Society of Anesthesiology physical condition classification) patients between 18 and 40 years of age who were candidate to rhinoplasty operations for first time were included. Patients were randomly assigned to reverse trendelenburg or head-up position. Exclusion criteria was any history or lab indicating coagulation problems or using any drug. All gauzes used and the blood that accumulated in the aspirator throughout the operation were calculated. Results: Our results showed that the mean amount of blood loss in reverse trendelenburg was lower (77.00 ± 13.20 ml) than head-up position (83.33 ± 21.18 ml), although, there was no statistical difference between two groups. However, there was no significant differences among two groups in different aspects of hemodynamic determinants and bleeding amount during and after rhinoplasty. Conclusions: Our results showed that patient bleeding is not increased because of positioning per se. In conclusion, perhaps in the future reverse trendelenburg will be given more often during rhinoplasry. PMID:24498500

  7. Effect of head position on cephalometric evaluation of the soft-tissue facial profile

    PubMed Central

    Hoogeveen, RC; Sanderink, GCH; Berkhout, WER

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: During a cone beam CT scan, the patient is in an upright or supine position. This position depends on the brand and type of the scanner. The aims of this study are: (1) to investigate if the head position has an effect on cephalometric evaluation of the soft-tissue facial profile, comparing the recordings in natural head position (NHP) and supine head position (SHP) and (2) to investigate if age, gender and body mass index (BMI) are contributing factors to the effect of the head position. Methods: 90 subjects were photographed in profile both in NHP and in SHP. 12 soft-tissue angular and linear cephalometric values were calculated. Two-way random intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to determine observer reliability. Paired t-tests and linear regression analyses were performed to investigate the differences between the head positions and the influence of age, gender and BMI. Results: Intraobserver reliability was generally high. Paired t-tests showed significant changes as a result of head positioning (p < 0.0001) in 9 of the 12 measurements. These differences were small and clinically not relevant, except for the “lower face—throat angle”. Regression analysis revealed no relevant influence of age, gender and BMI. Conclusions: Cephalometric soft-tissue evaluation from a recording in SHP is generally reliable, except for the throat–chin area where a clinically relevant difference was found. The contour of the submandibular tissues in SHP causes the chin to appear more prominently. This can cause incorrect orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:23412462

  8. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  9. Metabolic abnormalities associated with weight loss during chemoirradiation of head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Alexander; Jabbari, Siavash; Worden, Francis P.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Nyquist, Gurston G.; Tsien, Christina; Schipper, Matthew J.; Urba, Susan . E-mail: eisbruch@umich.edu

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: Weight loss caused by acute mucositis and dysphagia is common during concurrent chemoirradiation (chemo-RT) of head-and-neck (HN) cancer. The metabolic consequences of weight loss during chemo-RT were investigated. Patients and Methods: Ninety-six patients with locally advanced HN cancer were treated from 1995 to 2001 on protocols that consisted of 1 to 2 cycles of induction cisplatin/5-fluorouracil followed by irradiation (70 Gy over 7 weeks) concurrent with cisplatin (100 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 weeks). Body weights and metabolic evaluations were obtained before and during induction chemotherapy and chemo-RT. Greatest percent changes in weight and in the laboratory values were calculated for each phase of therapy. Results: During induction chemotherapy, significant changes were found in BUN, BUN:creatinine ratio, HCO{sub 3}, Mg, and albumin, but not in creatinine, Na, K, or weight. During chemo-RT, significant additional changes were observed in all parameters measured, including increases in BUN, creatinine, BUN: creatinine ratio, and HCO{sub 3} and decreases in Mg, albumin, Na, K, and weight. The magnitude of most of these changes was significantly greater during chemo-RT than during induction chemotherapy. During chemo-RT, 35% of the patients had more than 10% body weight loss and 6 patients had an increase in creatinine of more than 100%, including 5 patients with Grade 2 nephrotoxicity, all of whom had weight loss 10% or more. Significant correlations were found between weight loss and creatinine (p < 0.0001) or BUN (p = 0.0002) rises, but not with BUN:creatinine ratio or other metabolic changes. Age, gender, tobacco history, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of nephrotoxicity. Conclusions: Weight loss during cisplatin-containing chemo-RT was found to be associated with reduced kidney function. These findings do not establish cause-effect relationships; however, they highlight the importance of intensive supportive

  10. Tilt angles and positive response of head-up tilt test in children with orthostatic intolerance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing; Wang, Yuli; Ochs, Todd; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at examining three tilt angle-based positive responses and the time to positive response in a head-up tilt test for children with orthostatic intolerance, and the psychological fear experienced at the three angles during head-up tilt test. A total of 174 children, including 76 boys and 98 girls, aged from 4 to 18 years old (mean 11.3±2.8 years old), with unexplained syncope, were randomly divided into three groups, to undergo head-up tilt test at the angles of 60°, 70° and 80°, respectively. The diagnostic rates and times were analysed, and Wong-Baker face pain rating scale was used to access the children's psychological fear. There were no significant differences in diagnostic rates of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and vasovagal syncope at different tilt angles during the head-up tilt test (p>0.05). There was a significant difference, however, in the psychological fear at different tilt angles utilising the Kruskal-Wallis test (χ2=36.398, p<0.01). It was mildest at tilt angle 60° utilising the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p<0.01). A positive rank correlation was found between the psychological fear and the degree of tilt angle (r(s)=0.445, p<0.01). Positive response appearance time was 15.1±14.0 minutes at 60° for vasovagal syncope children. There was no significant difference in the time to positive response, at different tilt angles during the head-up tilt test for vasovagal syncope or for postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Hence, it is suggested that a tilt angle of 60° and head-up tilt test time of 45 minutes should be suitable for children with vasovagal syncope. PMID:24124665

  11. The Study of Gonadal Hormonal Abnormalities and Sexual Dysfunction in HIV Positive Females: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Kallikadavil, Abithraj; Shivaswamy, Rajendraprasad; Menon, Vineetha Bharathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Every endocrine gland has been reported to be affected at varying rates in HIV. HIV is a highly stigmatized chronic disease with a substantial co-occurrence of mental and sexual health problems; however the sexual health problems in women have not been extensively studied. Aim To study the gonadal hormonal abnormalities and sexual dysfunction in HIV positive female patients and its possible association. Materials and Methods This descriptive/exploratory study was conducted in the Department of General Medicine at a tertiary care hospital from September 2013 to August 2015. The study group included 50 diagnosed HIV-positive patients. They were also subjected to specific questions regarding sexual dysfunction by female counselors using female sexual function index. Visits of the subjects were scheduled independent of the menstrual cycle. Hormonal levels (free testosterone, FSH, LH) were measured. Results Out of 50 patients, 26 patients in our study had sexual dysfunction (52%). Patients with age group between 30-39 years had the maximum sexual dysfunction compared to the other groups (<0.001). Patients with a CD4 count between 200 and 499 had the maximum sexual dysfunction (<0.02). Mean duration of HIV in the study was 30 months in sexual dysfunction group which was significant (p<0.005). Hormonal levels were found to be in normal range. All the study patients reported desire, arousal and lubrication problems whereas orgasm and satisfaction problems were noted in 60% patients with pain reported in 52%. Conclusion We identified that although the hormonal levels were in the normal range, they were comparatively in the lower range in the dysfunction group than the non-dysfunctional group. Both free testosterone and FSH levels were low indicating involvement of the pituitary rather than the gonads. We also conclude that duration of HIV and also level of CD4 count is related to sexual dysfunction. PMID:27190860

  12. Increase of the electric field in head-on collisions between negative and positive streamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihaddadene, Mohand A.; Celestin, Sebastien

    2015-07-01

    Head-on collisions between negative and positive streamer discharges have recently been suggested to be responsible for the production of high electric fields leading to X-rays emissions. Using a plasma fluid approach, we model head-on collisions between negative and positive streamers. We observe the occurrence of a very strong electric field at the location of the streamer collision. However, the enhancement of the field produces a strong increase in the electron density, which leads to a collapse of the field over only a few picoseconds. Using a Monte Carlo model, we have verified that this process is therefore not responsible for the acceleration of a significant number of electrons to energy >1 keV. We conclude that no significant X-ray emission could be produced by the head-on encounter of nonthermal streamer discharges. Moreover, we quantify the optical emissions produced in the streamer collision.

  13. Compliant head probe for positioning electroencephalography electrodes and near-infrared spectroscopy optodes.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G

    2013-02-01

    A noninvasive head probe that combines near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) for simultaneous measurement of neural dynamics and hemodynamics in the brain is presented. It is composed of a compliant expandable mechanism that accommodates a wide range of head size variation and an elastomeric web that maintains uniform sensor contact pressure on the scalp as the mechanism expands and contracts. The design is intended to help maximize optical and electrical coupling and to maintain stability during head movement. Positioning electrodes at the inion, nasion, central, and preauricular fiducial locations mechanically shapes the probe to place 64 NIRS optodes and 65 EEG electrodes following the 10-5 scalp coordinates. The placement accuracy, precision, and scalp pressure uniformity of the sensors are evaluated. A root-mean-squared (RMS) positional precision of 0.89 ± 0.23 mm, percent arc subdivision RMS accuracy of 0.19 ± 0.15%, and mean normal force on the scalp of 2.28 ± 0.88 N at 5 mm displacement were found. Geometric measurements indicate that the probe will accommodate the full range of adult head sizes. The placement accuracy, precision, and uniformity of sensor contact pressure of the proposed head probe are important determinants of data quality in noninvasive brain monitoring with simultaneous NIRS-EEG. PMID:23377012

  14. Controlling mouse pointer position using an infrared head-operated joystick.

    PubMed

    Evans, D G; Drew, R; Blenkhorn, P

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the motivation for and the design considerations of a low-cost head-operated joystick. The paper briefly summarizes the requirements of head-operated mouse pointer control for people with disabilities before discussing a set of technological approaches that can be used to satisfy these requirements. The paper focuses on the design of a head-operated joystick that uses infrared light emitting diodes (LED's) and photodetectors to determine head position, which is subsequently converted into signals that emulate a Microsoft mouse. There are two significant findings. The first is that, while nonideal device characteristics might appear to make the joystick difficult to use, users naturally compensate for nonlinearities, in a transparent manner, because of visual feedback of mouse pointer position. The second finding, from relatively informal, independent trials, indicates that disabled users prefer a head-operated device that has the characteristics of a joystick (a relative pointing device) to those of a mouse (an absolute pointing device). PMID:10779114

  15. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer: effects of treatment with chemotherapy and radiation to the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, N.; Toth, B.B.; Hoar, R.E.; Ried, H.L.; Sullivan, M.P.; McNeese, M.D.

    1984-06-01

    Sixty-eight long-term survivors of childhood cancer were evaluated for dental and maxillofacial abnormalities. Forty-five patients had received maxillofacial radiation for lymphoma, leukemia, rhabdomyosarcoma, and miscellaneous tumors. Forty-three of the 45 patients and the remaining 23 who had not received maxillofacial radiation also received chemotherapy. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities were detected in 37 of the 45 (82%) radiated patients. Dental abnormalities comprised foreshortening and blunting of roots, incomplete calcification, premature closure of apices, delayed or arrested tooth development, and caries. Maxillofacial abnormalities comprised trismus, abnormal occlusal relationships, and facial deformities. The abnormalities were more severe in those patients who received radiation at an earlier age and at higher dosages. Possible chemotherapeutic effects in five of 23 patients who received treatment for tumors located outside the head and neck region comprised acquired amelogenesis imperfecta, microdontia of bicuspid teeth, and a tendency toward thinning of roots with an enlarged pulp chamber. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities should be recognized as a major consequence of maxillofacial radiation in long-term survivors of childhood cancer, and attempts to minimize or eliminate such sequelae should involve an effective interaction between radiation therapists, and medical and dental oncologists.

  16. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer: effects of treatment with chemotherapy and radiation to the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, N; Toth, B B; Hoar, R E; Ried, H L; Sullivan, M P; McNeese, M D

    1984-06-01

    Sixty-eight long-term survivors of childhood cancer were evaluated for dental and maxillofacial abnormalities. Forty-five patients had received maxillofacial radiation for lymphoma, leukemia, rhabdomyosarcoma, and miscellaneous tumors. Forty-three of the 45 patients and the remaining 23 who had not received maxillofacial radiation also received chemotherapy. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities were detected in 37 of the 45 (82%) radiated patients. Dental abnormalities comprised foreshortening and blunting of roots, incomplete calcification, premature closure of apices, delayed or arrested tooth development, and caries. Maxillofacial abnormalities comprised trismus, abnormal occlusal relationships, and facial deformities. The abnormalities were more severe in those patients who received radiation at an earlier age and at higher dosages. Possible chemotherapeutic effects in five of 23 patients who received treatment for tumors located outside the head and neck region comprised acquired amelogenesis imperfecta, microdontia of bicuspid teeth, and a tendency toward thinning of roots with an enlarged pulp chamber. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities should be recognized as a major consequence of maxillofacial radiation in long-term survivors of childhood cancer, and attempts to minimize or eliminate such sequelae should involve an effective interaction between radiation therapists, and medical and dental oncologists. PMID:6728583

  17. National Head Start Association Position Paper: A Look at Head Start's Health Services and Their Value to Our Nation's Poorest Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Angela; Greene, Sarah; Allen, Ben; Ryan, Joel; Kane, Elizabeth; Shillady, Amy; Hansen, Jacquelyn

    Since its inception, Head Start has used a varied and comprehensive approach to meet the needs of children in poverty. This position paper of the National Head Start Association asserts that the programs current federal-to-local guidance and funding structure under the Department of Health and Human Services is effective and argues that valuable…

  18. The embryonic development of ear-tufts and associated structural head and neck abnormalities of the Araucana fowl.

    PubMed

    Pabilonia, M S; Somes, R G

    1983-08-01

    Developing embryonic structural abnormalities of ear-tufted embryos of the Araucana fowl are described. These abnormal structures are peduncle, cleft, ear opening, tympanic membrane, and columella auris. The structural abnormalities are believed to be due to the early incomplete fusion of the hyoid and mandibular arches from the distal part of the ear opening to the neck area. PMID:6634592

  19. Frequency of head-impact-related outcomes by position in NCAA division I collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Christine M; Kiernan, Patrick T; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Montenigro, Philip H; McKee, Ann C; Stern, Robert A

    2015-03-01

    Concussions and subconcussive impacts sustained in American football have been associated with short- and long-term neurological impairment, but differences in head impact outcomes across playing positions are not well understood. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine has identified playing position as a key risk factor for concussion in football and one for which additional research is needed. This study examined variation in head impact outcomes across primary football playing positions in a group of 730 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes, using a self-report questionnaire. Although there were no significant differences between position groups in the number of diagnosed concussions during the 2012 football season, there were significant differences between groups in undiagnosed concussions (p=0.008) and "dings" (p<0.001); offensive linemen reported significantly higher numbers than most other positions. Significant differences were found between position groups in the frequencies of several postimpact symptoms, including dizziness (p<0.001), headache (p<0.001), and seeing stars (p<0.001) during the 2012 football season, with offensive linemen reporting significantly more symptoms compared to most other groups. There were also positional differences in frequency of returning to play while symptomatic (p<0.001) and frequency of participating in full-contact practice (p<0.001). Offensive linemen reported having returned to play while experiencing symptoms more frequently and participating in more full-contact practices than other groups. These findings suggest that offensive linemen, a position group that experiences frequent, but low-magnitude, head impacts, develop more postimpact symptoms than other playing positions, but do not report these symptoms as a concussion. PMID:25155288

  20. Frequency of Head-Impact–Related Outcomes by Position in NCAA Division I Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Kiernan, Patrick T.; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Montenigro, Philip H.; McKee, Ann C.; Stern, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Concussions and subconcussive impacts sustained in American football have been associated with short- and long-term neurological impairment, but differences in head impact outcomes across playing positions are not well understood. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine has identified playing position as a key risk factor for concussion in football and one for which additional research is needed. This study examined variation in head impact outcomes across primary football playing positions in a group of 730 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes, using a self-report questionnaire. Although there were no significant differences between position groups in the number of diagnosed concussions during the 2012 football season, there were significant differences between groups in undiagnosed concussions (p=0.008) and “dings” (p<0.001); offensive linemen reported significantly higher numbers than most other positions. Significant differences were found between position groups in the frequencies of several postimpact symptoms, including dizziness (p<0.001), headache (p<0.001), and seeing stars (p<0.001) during the 2012 football season, with offensive linemen reporting significantly more symptoms compared to most other groups. There were also positional differences in frequency of returning to play while symptomatic (p<0.001) and frequency of participating in full-contact practice (p<0.001). Offensive linemen reported having returned to play while experiencing symptoms more frequently and participating in more full-contact practices than other groups. These findings suggest that offensive linemen, a position group that experiences frequent, but low-magnitude, head impacts, develop more postimpact symptoms than other playing positions, but do not report these symptoms as a concussion. PMID:25155288

  1. Human Preferences for Conformation Attributes and Head-And-Neck Positions in Horses.

    PubMed

    Caspar, Georgina L; Dhand, Navneet K; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Human preferences for certain morphological attributes among domestic animals may be entirely individual or, more generally, may reflect evolutionary pressures that favor certain conformation. Artificial selection for attributes, such as short heads and crested necks of horses, may have functional and welfare implications because there is evidence from other species that skull shape co-varies with behaviour. Crested necks can be accentuated by flexion of the neck, a quality that is often manipulated in photographs vendors use when selling horses. Equine head-and-neck positions acquired through rein tension can compromise welfare. Our investigation was designed to identify conformations and postures that people are attracted to when choosing their 'ideal' horse. Participants of an internet survey were asked to rate their preference for horse silhouettes that illustrated three gradations of five variables: facial shape, crest height, ear length, ear position and head-and-neck carriage. There were 1,234 usable responses. The results show that overall preferences are for the intermediate, rather than extreme, morphological choices (p=<0.001). They also indicate that males are 2.5 times less likely to prefer thicker necks rather than the intermediate shape, and 4 times more likely to prefer the thinner neck shape. When compared to the novice participants, experienced participants were 1.9 times more likely to prefer a thicker neck shape than the intermediate neck shape and 2.8 times less likely to prefer a thinner neck shape than the intermediate neck shape. There was overall preference of 93% (n=939) for the category of head carriage 'In front of the vertical'. However, novice participants were 1.8 times more likely to choose 'behind the vertical' than 'in front of the vertical'. Our results suggest that people prefer a natural head carriage, concave facial profile (dished face), larger ears and thicker necks. From these survey data, it seems that some innate

  2. Structural and biochemical abnormalities in the absence of acute deficits in mild primary blast-induced head trauma.

    PubMed

    Walls, Michael K; Race, Nicholas; Zheng, Lingxing; Vega-Alvarez, Sasha M; Acosta, Glen; Park, Jonghyuck; Shi, Riyi

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT), if not fatal, is nonetheless potentially crippling. It can produce a wide array of acute symptoms in moderate-to-severe exposures, but mild BINT (mBINT) is characterized by the distinct absence of acute clinical abnormalities. The lack of observable indications for mBINT is particularly alarming, as these injuries have been linked to severe long-term psychiatric and degenerative neurological dysfunction. Although the long-term sequelae of BINT are extensively documented, the underlying mechanisms of injury remain poorly understood, impeding the development of diagnostic and treatment strategies. The primary goal of this research was to recapitulate primary mBINT in rodents in order to facilitate well-controlled, long-term investigations of blast-induced pathological neurological sequelae and identify potential mechanisms by which ongoing damage may occur postinjury. METHODS A validated, open-ended shock tube model was used to deliver blast overpressure (150 kPa) to anesthetized rats with body shielding and head fixation, simulating the protective effects of military-grade body armor and isolating a shock wave injury from confounding systemic injury responses, head acceleration, and other elements of explosive events. Evans Blue-labeled albumin was used to visualize blood-brain barrier (BBB) compromise at 4 hours postinjury. Iba1 staining was used to visualize activated microglia and infiltrating macrophages in areas of peak BBB compromise. Acrolein, a potent posttraumatic neurotoxin, was quantified in brain tissue by immunoblotting and in urine through liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry at 1, 2, 3, and 5 days postinjury. Locomotor behavior, motor performance, and short-term memory were assessed with open field, rotarod, and novel object recognition (NOR) paradigms at 24 and 48 hours after the blast. RESULTS Average speed, maximum speed, and distance traveled in an open-field exploration paradigm did not show

  3. Is radiation dose reduction the right answer for HPV-positive head and neck cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Kimple, Randall J.; Harari, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNC) related to human papillomavirus (HPV) represent a growing and distinct patient cohort with unique molecular and epidemiologic characteristics. These patients have markedly improved survival outcomes compared to those with traditional HNC, leading some to advocate for treatment dose reduction. In this article, we review ongoing clinical trials investigating several ways to reduce therapeutic intensity for patients with HPV-positive HNC, discuss the risks and benefits associated with these trials, and summarize the data underlying the advancement of dose reduction trials for patients with HPV-positive HNC. PMID:24134946

  4. Is radiation dose reduction the right answer for HPV-positive head and neck cancer?

    PubMed

    Kimple, Randall J; Harari, Paul M

    2014-06-01

    Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNC) related to human papillomavirus (HPV) represent a growing and distinct patient cohort with unique molecular and epidemiologic characteristics. These patients have markedly improved survival outcomes compared to those with traditional HNC, leading some to advocate for treatment dose reduction. In this article, we review ongoing clinical trials investigating several ways to reduce therapeutic intensity for patients with HPV-positive HNC, discuss the risks and benefits associated with these trials, and summarize the data underlying the advancement of dose reduction trials for patients with HPV-positive HNC. PMID:24134946

  5. Characteristics of Cervical Position Sense in Subjects with Forward Head Posture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Lee, Hae-Yong; Yong, Min-Sik

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of forward head posture (FHP) on proprioception by determining the cervical position-reposition error. [Subjects and Methods] A sample population was divided into two groups in accordance with the craniovertebral angle: the FHP group and the control group. We measured the craniovertebral angle, which is defined as the angle between a horizontal line passing through C7 and a line extending from the tragus of the ear to C7. The error value of the cervical position sense after cervical flexion, extension, and rotation was evaluated using the head repositioning accuracy test. [Results] There were significant differences in the error value of the joint position sense (cervical flexion, extension, and rotation) between the FHP and control groups. In addition, there was an inverse correlation between the craniovertebral angle and error value of the joint position sense. [Conclusion] FHP is associated with reduced proprioception. This result implies that the change in the muscle length caused by FHP decreases the joint position sense. Also, proprioception becomes worse as FHP becomes more severe. PMID:25435690

  6. Biological Basis for Increased Sensitivity to Radiation Therapy in HPV-Positive Head and Neck Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Bol, V.; Grégoire, V.

    2014-01-01

    Although development of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) is commonly linked to the consumption of tobacco and alcohol, a link between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and a subgroup of head and neck cancers has been established. These HPV-positive tumors represent a distinct biological entity with overexpression of viral oncoproteins E6 and E7. It has been shown in several clinical studies that HPV-positive HNSCCs have a more favorable outcome and greater response to radiotherapy. The reason for improved prognosis of HPV-related HNSCC remains speculative, but it could be owned to multiple factors. One hypothesis is that HPV-positive cells are intrinsically more sensitive to standard therapies and thus respond better to treatment. Another possibility is that HPV-positive tumors uniquely express viral proteins that induce an immune response during therapy that helps clear tumors and prevents recurrence. Here, we will review current evidence for the biological basis of increased radiosensitivity in HPV-positive HNSCC. PMID:24804233

  7. Biomechanical optimization of subject-specific implant positioning for femoral head resurfacing to reduce fracture risk.

    PubMed

    Miles, Brad; Kolos, Elizabeth; Appleyard, Richard; Theodore, Willy; Zheng, Keke; Li, Qing; Ruys, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Peri-prosthetic femoral neck fracture after femoral head resurfacing can be either patient-related or surgical technique-related. The study aimed to develop a patient-specific finite element modelling technique that can reliably predict an optimal implant position and give minimal strain in the peri-prosthetic bone tissue, thereby reducing the risk of peri-prosthetic femoral neck fracture. The subject-specific finite element modelling was integrated with optimization techniques including design of experiments to best possibly position the implant for achieving minimal strain for femoral head resurfacing. Sample space was defined by varying the floating point to find the extremes at which the cylindrical reaming operation actually cuts into the femoral neck causing a notch during hip resurfacing surgery. The study showed that the location of the maximum strain, for all non-notching positions, was on the superior femoral neck, in the peri-prosthetic bone tissue. It demonstrated that varus positioning resulted in a higher strain, while valgus positioning reduced the strain, and further that neutral version had a lower strain. PMID:27098752

  8. Serious head and neck injury as a predictor of occupant position in fatal rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Freeman, M D; Dobbertin, K; Kohles, S S; Uhrenholt, L; Eriksson, A

    2012-10-10

    Serious head and neck injuries are a common finding in fatalities associated with rollover crashes. In some fatal rollover crashes, particularly when ejection occurs, the determination of which occupant was driving at the time of the crash may be uncertain. In the present investigation, we describe the analysis of rollover crash data from the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System for the years 1997 through 2007 in which we examined the relationship between a serious head and neck injury in an occupant and a specified degree of roof deformation at the occupant's seating position. We found 960 occupants who qualified for the analysis, with 142 deaths among the subjects. Using a ranked composite head and neck injury score (the HNISS) we found a strong relationship between HNISS and the degree of roof crush. As a result of the analysis, we arrived at a predictive model, in which each additional unit increase in HNISS equated to an increased odds of roof crush as follows: for ≥8 cm of roof crush compared with <8 cm by 4%, for ≥15 cm of roof crush compared to <8 cm by 6% and for ≥30 cm of roof crush compared to <8 cm by 11%. We describe two hypothetical scenarios in which the model could be applied to the real world investigation of occupant position in a rollover crash-related fatality. PMID:22742739

  9. Toxicity of Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Nicholas J.; Mitchell, James; Grew, David; DeLacure, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To examine the acute morbidity of high dose head and neck RT and CRT in patients with infected with HIV. Methods and Materials: All HIV-positive patients who underwent radiation therapy for head and neck cancer in our department between 2004 and 2008 were reviewed. Treatment related data were examined. All treatments were delivered with megavoltage photon beams or electron beams. Patients were evaluated by an attending radiation oncologist for toxicity and response on a weekly basis during therapy and monthly after treatment in a multidisciplinary clinic. Acute toxicities were recorded using the Radiation Therapy and Oncology Group (RTOG) common toxicity criteria. Response to treatment was based on both physical exam as well as post-treatment imaging as indicated. Results: Thirteen patients who underwent RT with a diagnosis of HIV were identified. Median age was 53 years and median follow-up was 22 months. Twelve had squamous cell carcinoma and one had lymphoproliferative parotiditis. Median radiation dose was 66.4 Gy and median duration of treatment was 51 days. The median number of scheduled radiotherapy days missed was zero (range 0 to 7). One patient (8%) developed Grade 4 confluent moist desquamation. Eight patients (61%) developed Grade 3 toxicity. Conclusion: Based on our results, HIV-positive individuals appear to tolerate treatment for head and neck cancer, with toxicity similar to that in HIV-negative individuals.

  10. Structural and Functional Abnormalities of Retinal Ganglion Cells Measured In Vivo at the Onset of Optic Nerve Head Surface Change in Experimental Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Fortune, Brad; Burgoyne, Claude F.; Cull, Grant A.; Reynaud, Juan; Wang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To compare peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), RNFL retardance, and retinal function at the onset of optic nerve head (ONH) surface topography change in experimental glaucoma (EG). Methods. Thirty-three rhesus macaques had three or more weekly baseline measurements in both eyes of ONH surface topography, peripapillary RNFLT, RNFL retardance, and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Laser photocoagulation was then applied to the trabecular meshwork of one eye to induce chronic elevation of IOP and weekly recordings continued alternating between ONH surface topography and RNFLT during one week and RNFL retardance and mfERG the next week. Data were pooled for the group at the onset of ONH surface topography change in each EG eye, which was defined as the first date when either the mean position of the disc (MPD) fell below the 95% confidence limit of each eye's individual baseline range and/or when the topographic change analysis (TCA) map was subjectively judged as having demonstrated change, whichever came first. Analysis of variance with post hoc tests corrected for multiple comparisons were used to assess parameter changes. Results. At onset of ONH surface topography change, there was no significant difference for RNFLT versus baseline or fellow control eyes. RNFL retardance and mfERG were significantly reduced in the recordings just prior (median of 9 days) to ONH onset (P < 0.01) and had progressed significantly (P < 0.001) an average of 17 days later (median of 7 days after ONH onset). RNFLT did not exhibit significant thinning until 15 days after onset of ONH surface topography change (P < 0.001). Conclusions. These results support the hypothesis that during the course of glaucomatous neurodegeneration, axonal cytoskeletal and retinal ganglion cell functional abnormalities exist before thinning of peripapillary RNFL axon bundles begins. PMID:22589428

  11. True Pathologic Abnormality versus Artifact Foot Position and Magic Angle Artifact in the Peroneal Tendons with 3T Imaging.

    PubMed

    Horn, Deena B; Meyers, Steven; Astor, William

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a commonly ordered examination by many foot and ankle surgeons for ankle pain and suspected peroneal tendon pathologic abnormalities. Magic angle artifact is one of the complexities associated with this imaging modality. Magic angle refers to the increased signal on magnetic resonance images associated with the highly organized collagen fibers in tendons and ligaments when they are orientated at a 55° angle to the main magnetic field. We present several examples from a clinical practice setting using 3T imaging illustrating a substantial reduction in magic angle artifact of the peroneal tendon in the prone plantarflexed position compared with the standard neutral (right angle) position. PMID:26429616

  12. Method of detecting abnormality in a reference crank angle position detection system of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.

    1987-05-12

    A method is described of detecting abnormality in a reference crank angle position detection system of a control system for controlling an internal combustion engine. The method comprises a crankshaft, the control system using at least reference pulses generated, respectively, at predetermined crank angles of the crankshaft and detected by the reference crank angle position detection system. Crank angle pulses are generated, respectively, at other predetermined angles of the crankshaft and with a pulse repetition period shorter than that of the reference pulses, for controlling the engine.

  13. Comparison of the head and neck position of elite dressage horses during top-level competitions in 1992 versus 2008.

    PubMed

    Lashley, Morgan J J O; Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Vernooij, J C M; Back, W; Clayton, Hilary M

    2014-12-01

    Among veterinary surgeons, interest has recently increased in the role of the horse's neck as a causative factor in complex locomotor disturbances. Specifically, controversy surrounds the trend for the head to be carried behind the vertical (BHV) in contravention of Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) rules. The aim of this study was to determine whether the head angulation of elite dressage horses has changed over the last 25 years, and whether head angulation correlates with the competition score awarded. Head angle was measured from videos recorded during the Grand Prix test at the 1992 Olympic Games and the 2008 World Cup Final, during collected canter (CC), collected trot (CT), passage (Pa), and piaffe (Pi). Head angulations were BHV in CC and CT in both 1992 and 2008. The likelihood of being BHV during Pa or Pi was significantly greater in 2008 than in 1992 (P <0.05). Higher scores correlated significantly with head positions that were further BHV during Pi in 2008 (P <0.05). Head angulations were orientated BHV in all paces in 2008, whereas in 1992 this was only the case for CT and CC. These findings support the hypothesis that, in recent years, FEI dressage judges have not penalised horses for a head position BHV. The findings also support the need for further studies of the effects of head and neck position on the health of horses. PMID:25296851

  14. Natural position of the head: review of two-dimensional and three-dimensional methods of recording.

    PubMed

    Cassi, D; De Biase, C; Tonni, I; Gandolfini, M; Di Blasio, A; Piancino, M G

    2016-04-01

    Both the correct position of the patient's head and a standard system for the acquisition of images are essential for objective evaluation of the facial profile and the skull, and for longitudinal superimposition. The natural position of the head was introduced into orthodontics in the late 1950s, and is used as a postural basis for craniocervical and craniofacial morphological analysis. It can also have a role in the planning of the surgical correction of craniomaxillofacial deformities. The relatively recent transition in orthodontics from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional imaging, and from analogue to digital technology, has renewed attention in finding a versatile method for the establishment of an accurate and reliable head position during the acquisition of serial records. In this review we discuss definition, clinical applications, and procedures to establish the natural head position and their reproducibility. We also consider methods to reproduce and record the position in two and three planes. PMID:26896079

  15. Sensorimotor aspects of high-speed artificial gravity: II. The effect of head position on illusory self motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mast, F. W.; Newby, N. J.; Young, L. R.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of cross-coupled stimuli on the semicircular canals are shown to be influenced by the position of the subject's head with respect to gravity and the axis of rotation, but not by the subject's head position relative to the trunk. Seventeen healthy subjects made head yaw movements out of the horizontal plane while lying on a horizontal platform (MIT short radius centrifuge) rotating at 23 rpm about an earth-vertical axis. The subjects reported the magnitude and duration of the illusory pitch or roll sensations elicited by the cross-coupled rotational stimuli acting on the semicircular canals. The results suggest an influence of head position relative to gravity. The magnitude estimation is higher and the sensation decays more slowly when the head's final position is toward nose-up (gravity in the subject's head x-z-plane) compared to when the head is turned toward the side (gravity in the subject's head y-z-plane). The results are discussed with respect to artificial gravity in space and the possible role of pre-adaptation to cross-coupled angular accelerations on earth.

  16. The impact of reorienting cone-beam computed tomographic images in varied head positions on the coordinates of anatomical landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hun; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the coordinates of anatomical landmarks on cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images in varied head positions before and after reorientation using image analysis software. Materials and Methods CBCT images were taken in a normal position and four varied head positions using a dry skull marked with 3 points where gutta percha was fixed. In each of the five radiographic images, reference points were set, 20 anatomical landmarks were identified, and each set of coordinates was calculated. Coordinates in the images from the normally positioned head were compared with those in the images obtained from varied head positions using statistical methods. Post-reorientation coordinates calculated using a three-dimensional image analysis program were also compared to the reference coordinates. Results In the original images, statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. However, post-reorientation, no statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. Conclusion The changes in head position impacted the coordinates of the anatomical landmarks in three-dimensional images. However, reorientation using image analysis software allowed accurate superimposition onto the reference positions. PMID:27358821

  17. Human Preferences for Conformation Attributes and Head-And-Neck Positions in Horses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human preferences for certain morphological attributes among domestic animals may be entirely individual or, more generally, may reflect evolutionary pressures that favor certain conformation. Artificial selection for attributes, such as short heads and crested necks of horses, may have functional and welfare implications because there is evidence from other species that skull shape co-varies with behaviour. Crested necks can be accentuated by flexion of the neck, a quality that is often manipulated in photographs vendors use when selling horses. Equine head-and-neck positions acquired through rein tension can compromise welfare. Our investigation was designed to identify conformations and postures that people are attracted to when choosing their ‘ideal’ horse. Participants of an internet survey were asked to rate their preference for horse silhouettes that illustrated three gradations of five variables: facial shape, crest height, ear length, ear position and head-and-neck carriage. There were 1,234 usable responses. The results show that overall preferences are for the intermediate, rather than extreme, morphological choices (p=<0.001). They also indicate that males are 2.5 times less likely to prefer thicker necks rather than the intermediate shape, and 4 times more likely to prefer the thinner neck shape. When compared to the novice participants, experienced participants were 1.9 times more likely to prefer a thicker neck shape than the intermediate neck shape and 2.8 times less likely to prefer a thinner neck shape than the intermediate neck shape. There was overall preference of 93% (n=939) for the category of head carriage ‘In front of the vertical’. However, novice participants were 1.8 times more likely to choose ‘behind the vertical’ than ‘in front of the vertical’. Our results suggest that people prefer a natural head carriage, concave facial profile (dished face), larger ears and thicker necks. From these survey data, it seems that some

  18. Effect of Head Position on Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure in Cats: Comparison with Artificial Model

    PubMed Central

    Klarica, Marijan; Radoš, Milan; Draganić, Pero; Erceg, Gorislav; Orešković, Darko; Maraković, Jurica; Bulat, Marin

    2006-01-01

    Aim To demonstrate that changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure in the cranial cavity and spinal canal after head elevation from the horizontal level occur primarily due to the biophysical characteristics of the CSF system, ie, distensibility of the spinal dura. Methods Experiments in vivo were performed on cats and a new artificial model of the CSF system with dimensions similar to the CSF system in cats, consisting of non-distensible cranial and distensible spinal part. Measurements of the CSF pressure in the cranial and spinal spaces were performed in chloralose-anesthetized cats (n = 10) in the horizontal position on the base of a stereotaxic apparatus (reference zero point) and in the position in which the head was elevated to 5 cm and 10 cm above that horizontal position. Changes in the CSF pressure in the cranial and spinal part of the model were measured in the cranial part positioned in the same way as the head in cats (n = 5). Results When the cat was in the horizontal position, the values of the CSF pressure in the cranial (11.9 ± 1.1 cm H2O) and spinal (11.8 ± 0.6 cm H2O) space were not significantly different. When the head was elevated 5 cm or 10 cm above the reference zero point, the CSF pressure in the cranium significantly decreased to 7.7 ± 0.6 cm H2O and 4.7 ± 0.7 cm H2O, respectively, while the CSF pressure in the spinal space significantly increased to 13.8 ± 0.7 cm H2O and 18.5 ± 1.6 cm H2O, respectively (P<0.001 for both). When the artificial CSF model was positioned in the horizontal level and its cranial part elevated by 5 cm and 10 cm, the changes in the pressure were the same as those in the cats when in the same hydrostatic position. Conclusions The new model of the CSF system used in our study faithfully mimicked the changes in the CSF pressure in cats during head elevation in relation to the body. Changes in the pressure in the model were not accompanied by the changes in fluid volume in

  19. Neofunctionalization of embryonic head patterning genes facilitates the positioning of novel traits on the dorsal head of adult beetles.

    PubMed

    Zattara, Eduardo E; Busey, Hannah A; Linz, David M; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Moczek, Armin P

    2016-07-13

    The origin and integration of novel traits are fundamental processes during the developmental evolution of complex organisms. Yet how novel traits integrate into pre-existing contexts remains poorly understood. Beetle horns represent a spectacular evolutionary novelty integrated within the context of the adult dorsal head, a highly conserved trait complex present since the origin of insects. We investigated whether otd1/2 and six3, members of a highly conserved gene network that instructs the formation of the anterior end of most bilaterians, also play roles in patterning more recently evolved traits. Using ablation-based fate-mapping, comparative larval RNA interference (RNAi) and transcript sequencing, we found that otd1/2, but not six3, play a fundamental role in the post-embryonic formation of the adult dorsal head and head horns of Onthophagus beetles. By contrast, neither gene appears to pattern the adult head of Tribolium flour beetles even though all are expressed in the dorsal head epidermis of both Onthophagus and Tribolium We propose that, at least in beetles, the roles of otd genes during post-embryonic development are decoupled from their embryonic functions, and that potentially non-functional post-embryonic expression in the dorsal head facilitated their co-option into a novel horn-patterning network during Onthophagus evolution. PMID:27412276

  20. Head Position and Football Equipment Influence Cervical Spinal-Cord Space During Immobilization.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Ryan T; Mattacola, Carl G; Sitler, Michael R; Maldjian, Catherine

    2002-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of head position and football equipment (ie, helmet and shoulder pads) on cervical spinal cord space in individuals lying supine on a spine board. DESIGN AND SETTING: The independent variables were head position (0-cm, 2-cm, and 4-cm occiput elevation with no helmet and shoulder pads and with helmet and shoulder pads) and cervical spine level (C3, C4, C5, C6, and C7). The 3 dependent variables were sagittal space available for the cord (SAC) (mm), sagittal spinal-cord diameter (mm), and cervical-thoracic angle ( degrees ), determined via magnetic resonance imaging. SUBJECTS: Twelve men (age = 24.3 +/- 2.1 years; height = 181.1 +/- 5.7 cm; weight = 93.9 +/- 3.6 kg). MEASUREMENTS: Sagittal space available for the cord was determined by subtracting the sagittal spinal-cord diameter from the corresponding sagittal spinal-canal diameter. The spinal-canal diameter was measured as the shortest distance from the vertebral body to the spinolaminar line at each of the spinal levels. Each measurement was taken 3 times, and the 3 measurements were averaged. RESULTS: Sagittal space available for the cord was significantly greater (P <.01) for 0-cm (mean = 5.50 mm) than for 2-cm (mean = 4.86 mm) and 4-cm (mean = 5.07 mm) occiput elevation. SAC was also significantly greater (P <.01) for the equipment condition (mean = 5.34 mm) than for the 2-cm and 4-cm elevation levels. No significant difference (P =.093) in SAC existed between 0-cm elevation and the equipment condition. CONCLUSIONS: The helmet and shoulder pads should be left on during spine-board immobilization of the injured football player. Similarly, during spine-board immobilization of an individual without football helmet and shoulder pads, the head should be maintained at 0 cm of occiput elevation. Sagittal spinal-cord space is optimized in both of these conditions. PMID:12937433

  1. Patterned Contractile Forces Promote Epidermal Spreading and Regulate Segment Positioning during Drosophila Head Involution.

    PubMed

    Czerniak, Natalia Dorota; Dierkes, Kai; D'Angelo, Arturo; Colombelli, Julien; Solon, Jérôme

    2016-07-25

    Epithelial spreading is a fundamental mode of tissue rearrangement occurring during animal development and wound closure. It has been associated either with the collective migration of cells [1, 2] or with actomyosin-generated forces acting at the leading edge (LE) and pulling the epithelial tissue [3, 4]. During the process of Drosophila head involution (HI), the epidermis spreads anteriorly to envelope the head tissues and fully cover the embryo [5]. This results in epidermal segments of equal width that will give rise to the different organs of the fly [6]. Here we perform a quantitative analysis of tissue spreading during HI. Combining high-resolution live microscopy with laser microsurgery and genetic perturbations, we show that epidermal movement is in part, but not solely, driven by a contractile actomyosin cable at the LE. Additional driving forces are generated within each segment by a gradient of actomyosin-based circumferential tension. Interfering with Hedgehog (Hh) signaling can modulate this gradient, thus suggesting the involvement of polarity genes in the regulation of HI. In particular, we show that disruption of these contractile forces alters segment widths and leads to a mispositioning of segments. Within the framework of a physical description, we confirm that given the geometry of the embryo, a patterned profile of active circumferential tensions can indeed generate propelling forces and control final segment position. Our study thus unravels a mechanism by which patterned tensile forces can regulate spreading and positioning of epithelial tissues. PMID:27397891

  2. HPV Positive Head and Neck Cancers: Molecular Pathogenesis and Evolving Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Dok, Rüveyda; Nuyts, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a highly heterogeneous disease that is the result of tobacco and/or alcohol abuse or infection with high-risk Human papillomaviruses. Despite the fact that HPV positive HNSCC cancers form a distinct clinical entity with better treatment outcome, all HNSCC are currently treated uniformly with the same treatment modality. At present, biologic basis of these different outcomes and their therapeutic influence are areas of intense investigation. In this review, we will summarize the molecular basis for this different outcome, novel treatment opportunities and possible biomarkers for HPV positive HNSCC. In particular, the focus will be on several molecular targeted strategies that can improve the chemoradiation response by influencing DNA repair mechanisms. PMID:27043631

  3. Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus–Positive Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gillison, Maura L.; Chaturvedi, Anil K.; Anderson, William F.; Fakhry, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is now established as the principal cause of an increase in incidence of a subset of head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNCs) in numerous geographic regions around the world. Further study of the epidemiology of HPV-positive HNC will be critical to the development and implementation of public health interventions to reverse these global incidence trends. Here, recent data are reviewed to provide insight into several topics, including incidence trends and projections for HPV-positive HNC; the worldwide HPV-attributable fraction; sex disparities in cancer risk; the epidemiology of oral HPV infection; the latency period between infection and cancer; the potential impact of prophylactic HPV vaccination; and prospects for secondary prevention through screening for oral HPV infection or seroreactivity to viral antigens. The identification of a single necessary cause for any cancer provides a rare and perhaps extraordinary opportunity for cancer prevention. PMID:26351338

  4. HPV Positive Head and Neck Cancers: Molecular Pathogenesis and Evolving Treatment Strategies.

    PubMed

    Dok, Rüveyda; Nuyts, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a highly heterogeneous disease that is the result of tobacco and/or alcohol abuse or infection with high-risk Human papillomaviruses. Despite the fact that HPV positive HNSCC cancers form a distinct clinical entity with better treatment outcome, all HNSCC are currently treated uniformly with the same treatment modality. At present, biologic basis of these different outcomes and their therapeutic influence are areas of intense investigation. In this review, we will summarize the molecular basis for this different outcome, novel treatment opportunities and possible biomarkers for HPV positive HNSCC. In particular, the focus will be on several molecular targeted strategies that can improve the chemoradiation response by influencing DNA repair mechanisms. PMID:27043631

  5. Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus-Positive Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gillison, Maura L; Chaturvedi, Anil K; Anderson, William F; Fakhry, Carole

    2015-10-10

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is now established as the principal cause of an increase in incidence of a subset of head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNCs) in numerous geographic regions around the world. Further study of the epidemiology of HPV-positive HNC will be critical to the development and implementation of public health interventions to reverse these global incidence trends. Here, recent data are reviewed to provide insight into several topics, including incidence trends and projections for HPV-positive HNC; the worldwide HPV-attributable fraction; sex disparities in cancer risk; the epidemiology of oral HPV infection; the latency period between infection and cancer; the potential impact of prophylactic HPV vaccination; and prospects for secondary prevention through screening for oral HPV infection or seroreactivity to viral antigens. The identification of a single necessary cause for any cancer provides a rare and perhaps extraordinary opportunity for cancer prevention. PMID:26351338

  6. JAK2V617F-positive endothelial cells contribute to clotting abnormalities in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Etheridge, S. Leah; Roh, Michelle E.; Cosgrove, Megan E.; Sangkhae, Veena; Fox, Norma E.; Chen, Junmei; López, José A.; Kaushansky, Kenneth; Hitchcock, Ian S.

    2014-01-01

    The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) V617F mutation is the primary pathogenic mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Although thrombohemorrhagic incidents are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with MPNs, the events causing these clotting abnormalities remain unclear. To identify the cells responsible for the dysfunctional hemostasis, we used transgenic mice expressing JAK2V617F in specific lineages involved in thrombosis and hemostasis. When JAK2V617F was expressed in both hematopoietic and endothelial cells (ECs), the mice developed a significant MPN, characterized by thrombocytosis, neutrophilia, and splenomegaly. However, despite having significantly higher platelet counts than controls, these mice showed severely attenuated thrombosis following injury. Interestingly, platelet activation and aggregation in response to agonists was unaltered by JAK2V617F expression. Subsequent bone marrow transplants revealed the contribution of both endothelial and hematopoietic compartments to the attenuated thrombosis. Furthermore, we identified a potential mechanism for this phenotype through JAK2V617F-regulated inhibition of von Willebrand factor (VWF) function and/or secretion. JAK2V617F+ mice display a condition similar to acquired von Willebrand syndrome, exhibiting significantly less high molecular weight VWF and reduced agglutination to ristocetin. These findings greatly advance our understanding of thrombohemorrhagic events in MPNs and highlight the critical role of ECs in the pathology of hematopoietic malignancies. PMID:24469804

  7. Anti-phase boundaries pinned abnormal positive magnetoresistance in Mg doped nanocrystalline zinc spinel ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Feng; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2008-02-01

    Two series of Ni and Mg substituted Zn 1-xM xFe 2O 4 (M = Ni, Mg) nanocrystals with different concentration were fabricated by thermal decomposition of EDTA precursor complexes at 600 °C. By changing the doping ions from Ni to Mg, magnetoresistance (MR) changes from negative to positive. The appearance of positive MR in Mg doped ferrite nanocrystals can be mainly attributed to the asymmetric magnetic scattering enhancement of carriers through antiferromagnetic-coupled anti-phase grain boundaries and the suppress of spin-polarized electron tunneling by doping.

  8. Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

  9. New Phenomenon of Abnormal Auditory Perception Associated with Emotional and Head Trauma: Pathological Confirmation by SPECT Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephane, Massoud; Hill, Thomas; Matthew, Elizabeth; Folstein, Marshal

    2004-01-01

    We report the case of an immigrant who suffered from death threats and head trauma while a prisoner of war in Kuwait. Two months later, he began to hear conversations that had taken place previously. These perceptions occurred spontaneously or were induced by the patient's effortful concentration. The single photon emission computerized tomography…

  10. Inter- and Intrafractional Positional Uncertainties in Pediatric Radiotherapy Patients With Brain and Head and Neck Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Beltran, Chris; Krasin, Matthew J.; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To estimate radiation therapy planning margins based on inter- and intrafractional uncertainty for pediatric brain and head and neck tumor patients at different imaging frequencies. Methods: Pediatric patients with brain (n = 83) and head and neck (n = 17) tumors (median age = 7.2 years) were enrolled on an internal review board-approved localization protocol and stratified according to treatment position and use of anesthesia. Megavoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) was performed before each treatment and after every other treatment. The pretreatment offsets were used to calculate the interfractional setup uncertainty (SU), and posttreatment offsets were used to calculate the intrafractional residual uncertainty (RU). The SU and RU are the patient-related components of the setup margin (SM), which is part of the planning target volume (PTV). SU data was used to simulate four intervention strategies using different imaging frequencies and thresholds. Results: The SM based on all patients treated on this study was 2.1 mm (SU = 0.9 mm, RU = 1.9 mm) and varied according to treatment position (supine = 1.8 mm, prone = 2.6 mm) and use of anesthesia (with = 1.7 mm, without = 2.5 mm) because of differences in the RU. The average SU for a 2-mm threshold based on no imaging, once per week imaging, initial five images, and daily imaging was 3.6, 2.1, 2.2, and 0.9 mm, respectively. Conclusion: On the basis of this study, the SM component of the PTV may be reduced to 2 mm for daily CBCT compared with 3.5 mm for weekly CBCT. Considering patients who undergo daily pretreatment CBCT, the SM is larger for those treated in the prone position or smaller for those treated under anesthesia because of differences in the RU.

  11. VALIDATION OF AN INDEXED RADIOTHERAPY HEAD POSITIONING DEVICE FOR USE IN DOGS AND CATS.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Katherine S; Théon, Alain P; Dieterich, Sonja; Kent, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Setup variability affects the appropriate delivery of radiation and informs the setup margin required to treat radiation patients. Twenty-four veterinary patients with head and neck cancers were enrolled in this prospective, cross-sectional study to determine the accuracy of an indexed board immobilization device for positioning. Couch position values were defined at the first treatment based on setup films. At subsequent treatments, patients were moved to the previously defined couch location, orthogonal films were acquired, table position was modified, and displacement was recorded. The mean systematic displacement, random displacement, overall displacement, and mean displacement values of the three-dimensional (3D) vector were calculated. Three hundred thirty-two pairs of orthogonal setup films were analyzed for displacement in cranial-caudal, lateral, and dorsal-ventral directions. The mean systematic displacements were 0.5, 0.8, and 0.5 mm, respectively. The mean random displacements were 1.0, 1.1, and 0.7 mm, respectively. The overall displacements were 1.1, 1.4, and 0.9 mm, respectively. The mean 3D vector value was 1.6 mm with a standard deviation of 1.2 mm. Ninety-five percent of the vectors were <3.6 mm. These values were compared to data obtained with a previously used immobilization device. A t-test was used to compare the two devices. The 3D vector, random displacement in all directions, and overall displacement in the cranial-caudal and dorsal-ventral directions were significantly smaller than displacements with the previous device. The precision and accuracy of the indexed board device was superior to the historical head and neck device. PMID:25832454

  12. Comparison of susceptibility to motion sickness during rotation at 30 rpm in the earth-horizontal, 10 deg head-up, and 10 deg head-down positions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Lackner, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Normal persons rotated about an earth-horizontal axis vary in their susceptibility to motion sickness. An experimental study was conducted to measure intraindividual differences in susceptibility in 12 subjects when rotated 10 deg head up and 10 deg head down as well as in the horizontal position. Subjects assumed the test-position 60 min prior to rotation, thus providing an opportunity for translocation of body fluids. Physiological and psychological measurements were conducted throughout the experiment. There were no intraindividual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness in the three positions tested, although there were significant differences in vital capacity, demonstrating the expected fluid shifts. It was concluded that, in the sample of subjects tested, short-term effects of fluid shifts greater than those that would be manifested in zero gravity had no definite effect on motion sickness susceptibility.

  13. Influence of long-term head-down body position on innervation density in extremity blood vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorant, M.; Raffai, G.; Nadasy, G.; Feher, E.; Monos, E.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to quantitate and compare the density of nerve terminals (NTD), as well as of their synaptic vesicle population (SyVD) in saphenous and brachial vein and artery, obtained from rats maintained in the horizontal or head-down tilted (HDT) position for two weeks. The same technique was applied as that for the head-up tilt study.

  14. Seating arrangements for children with insufficient head control: lessons from trials using the i2i head & neck positioning & support system.

    PubMed

    Uyama, Sachie; Hanaki, Keiichi

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] An insufficient head control is the most troublesome condition for children with impaired mobility who require optimal seating. [Subjects and Methods] We report on the clinical trial of the newly developed i2i head & neck positioning & support system called i2i for locomotively disabled children with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). [Results] Two major advantages of the i2i were observed in the trial. The first was its favorable effect on the alignment of the spine to prevent scoliosis and to provide stable breathing and optimal seating, which resulted in improvement of the children's activities of daily living (ADL). The second was its direct application of force to the head rather than indirectly to the pelvis in a conventional seat arrangement. The conventional way of head support is based on stabilization of the trunk which is based on stabilization of the pelvis by some seating arrangement. [Conclusion] The trial of the i2i device demonstrated its usefulness in helping PVL children with insufficient head control develop their abilities while preventing secondary disability. PMID:25931766

  15. Seating arrangements for children with insufficient head control: lessons from trials using the i2i head & neck positioning & support system

    PubMed Central

    Uyama, Sachie; Hanaki, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] An insufficient head control is the most troublesome condition for children with impaired mobility who require optimal seating. [Subjects and Methods] We report on the clinical trial of the newly developed i2i head & neck positioning & support system called i2i for locomotively disabled children with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). [Results] Two major advantages of the i2i were observed in the trial. The first was its favorable effect on the alignment of the spine to prevent scoliosis and to provide stable breathing and optimal seating, which resulted in improvement of the children’s activities of daily living (ADL). The second was its direct application of force to the head rather than indirectly to the pelvis in a conventional seat arrangement. The conventional way of head support is based on stabilization of the trunk which is based on stabilization of the pelvis by some seating arrangement. [Conclusion] The trial of the i2i device demonstrated its usefulness in helping PVL children with insufficient head control develop their abilities while preventing secondary disability. PMID:25931766

  16. Comparison of craniofacial morphology, head posture and hyoid bone position with different breathing patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Ekizer, Abdullah; Uysal, Tancan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in craniofacial morphology, head posture and hyoid bone position between mouth breathing (MB) and nasal breathing (NB) patients. Methods Mouth breathing patients comprised 34 skeletal Class I subjects with a mean age of 12.8 ± 1.5 years (range: 12.0–15.2 years). Thirty-two subjects with skeletal Class I relationship were included in the NB group (mean 13.5 ± 1.3 years; range: 12.2–14.8 years). Twenty-seven measurements (15 angular and 12 linear) were used for the craniofacial analysis. Additionally, 12 measurements were evaluated for head posture (eight measurements) and hyoid bone position (four measurements). Student’s t-test was used for the statistical analysis. Probability values <0.05 were accepted as significant. Results Statistical comparisons showed that sagittal measurements including SNA (p < 0.01), ANB (p < 0.01), A to N perp (p < 0.05), convexity (p < 0.05), IMPA (p < 0.05) and overbite (p < 0.05) measurements were found to be lower in MB patients compared to NB. Vertical measurements including SN-MP (p < 0.01) and PP-GoGn (p < 0.01), S-N (p <0.05) and anterior facial height (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in MB patients, while the odontoid proses and palatal plane angle (OPT-PP) was greater and true vertical line and palatal plane angle (Vert-PP) was smaller in MB patients compared to NB group (p < 0.05 for both). No statistically significant differences were found regarding the hyoid bone position between both groups. Conclusions The maxilla was more retrognathic in MB patients. Additionally, the palatal plane had a posterior rotation in MB patients. However, no significant differences were found in the hyoid bone position between MB and NB patients. PMID:23960542

  17. Evaluating positional accuracy using megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography for IMRT with head-and-neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Motegi, Kana; Kohno, Ryosuke; Ueda, Takashi; Shibuya, Toshiyuki; Ariji, Takaki; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Akimoto, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Accurate dose delivery is essential for the success of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for patients with head-and-neck (HN) cancer. Reproducibility of IMRT dose delivery to HN regions can be critically influenced by treatment-related changes in body contours. Moreover, some set-up margins may not be adaptable to positional uncertainties of HN structures at every treatment. To obtain evidence for appropriate set-up margins in various head and neck areas, we prospectively evaluated positional deviation (δ values) of four bony landmarks (i.e. the clivus and occipital protuberance for the head region, and the mental protuberance and C5 for the neck region) using megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography during a treatment course. Over 800 δ values were analyzed in each translational direction. Positional uncertainties for HN cancer patients undergoing IMRT were evaluated relative to the body mass index. Low positional accuracy was observed for the neck region compared with the head region. For the head region, most of the δ was distributed within ±5 mm, and use of the current set-up margin was appropriate. However, the δ values for the neck region were within ±8 mm. Especially for overweight patients, a few millimeters needed to be added to give an adequate set-up margin. For accurate dose delivery to targets and to avoid excess exposure to normal tissues, we recommend that the positional verification process be performed before every treatment. PMID:24449713

  18. DEK promotes HPV-positive and -negative head and neck cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Adams, A K; Hallenbeck, G E; Casper, K A; Patil, Y J; Wilson, K M; Kimple, R J; Lambert, P F; Witte, D P; Xiao, W; Gillison, M L; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, K A; Wise-Draper, T M; Wells, S I

    2015-02-12

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, and patient outcomes using current treatments remain poor. Tumor development is etiologically associated with tobacco or alcohol use and/or human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPV-positive HNSCCs, which frequently harbor wild-type p53, carry a more favorable prognosis and are a biologically distinct subgroup when compared with their HPV-negative counterparts. HPV E7 induces expression of the human DEK gene, both in vitro and in vivo. In keratinocytes, DEK overexpression is sufficient for causing oncogenic phenotypes in the absence of E7. Conversely, DEK loss results in cell death in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells at least in part through p53 activation, and Dek knockout mice are relatively resistant to the development of chemically induced skin papillomas. Despite the established oncogenic role of DEK in HPV-associated cervical cancer cell lines and keratinocytes, a functional role of DEK has not yet been explored in HNSCC. Using an established transgenic mouse model of HPV16 E7-induced HNSCC, we demonstrate that Dek is required for optimal proliferation of E7-transgenic epidermal cells and for the growth of HNSCC tumors. Importantly, these studies also demonstrate that DEK protein is universally upregulated in both HPV-positive and -negative human HNSCC tumors relative to adjacent normal tissue. Furthermore, DEK knockdown inhibited the proliferation of HPV-positive and -negative HNSCC cells, establishing a functional role for DEK in human disease. Mechanistic studies reveal that attenuated HNSCC cell growth in response to DEK loss was associated with reduced expression of the oncogenic p53 family member, ΔNp63. Exogenous ΔNp63 expression rescued the proliferative defect in the absence of DEK, thereby establishing a functional DEK-ΔNp63 oncogenic pathway that promotes HNSCC. Taken together, our data demonstrate that DEK stimulates HNSCC cellular growth and identify

  19. DEK promotes HPV positive and negative head and neck cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Allie K.; Hallenbeck, Grace E.; Casper, Keith A.; Patil, Yash J.; Wilson, Keith M.; Kimple, Randall J.; Lambert, Paul F.; Witte, David P.; Xiao, Weihong; Gillison, Maura L.; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; Wise-Draper, Trisha M.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, and patient outcomes using current treatments remains poor. Tumor development is etiologically associated with tobacco or alcohol use and/or HPV infection. HPV positive HNSCCs, which frequently harbor wild-type p53, carry a more favorable prognosis and are a biologically distinct subgroup when compared to their HPV negative counterparts. HPV E7 induces expression of the human DEK gene, both in vitro and in vivo. In keratinocytes, DEK overexpression is sufficient for causing oncogenic phenotypes in the absence of E7. Conversely, DEK loss results in cell death in HPV positive cervical cancer cells at least in part through p53 activation, and Dek knockout mice are relatively resistant to the development of chemically induced skin papillomas. Despite the established oncogenic role of DEK in HPV associated cervical cancer cell lines and keratinocytes, a functional role of DEK has not yet been explored in HNSCC. Using an established transgenic mouse model of HPV16 E7 induced HNSCC, we demonstrate that Dek is required for optimal proliferation of E7-transgenic epidermal cells and for the growth of HNSCC tumors. Importantly, these studies also demonstrate that DEK protein is universally up-regulated in both HPV positive and negative human HNSCC tumors relative to adjacent normal tissue. Furthermore, DEK knockdown inhibited the proliferation of HPV positive and negative HNSCC cells, establishing a functional role for DEK in human disease. Mechanistic studies reveal that attenuated HNSCC cell growth in response to DEK loss was associated with reduced expression of the oncogenic p53 family member, ΔNp63. Exogenous ΔNp63 expression rescued the proliferative defect in the absence of DEK, thereby establishing a functional DEK-ΔNp63 oncogenic pathway that promotes HNSCC. Taken together, our data demonstrate that DEK stimulates HNSCC cellular growth and identify ΔNp63 as a novel DEK

  20. Defining Optimal Head-Tilt Position of Resuscitation in Neonates and Young Infants Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data.

    PubMed

    Bhalala, Utpal S; Hemani, Malvi; Shah, Meehir; Kim, Barbara; Gu, Brian; Cruz, Angelo; Arunachalam, Priya; Tian, Elli; Yu, Christine; Punnoose, Joshua; Chen, Steven; Petrillo, Christopher; Brown, Alisa; Munoz, Karina; Kitchen, Grant; Lam, Taylor; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Allen, Robert H; Acharya, Soumyadipta

    2016-01-01

    Head-tilt maneuver assists with achieving airway patency during resuscitation. However, the relationship between angle of head-tilt and airway patency has not been defined. Our objective was to define an optimal head-tilt position for airway patency in neonates (age: 0-28 days) and young infants (age: 29 days-4 months). We performed a retrospective study of head and neck magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of neonates and infants to define the angle of head-tilt for airway patency. We excluded those with an artificial airway or an airway malformation. We defined head-tilt angle a priori as the angle between occipito-ophisthion line and ophisthion-C7 spinous process line on the sagittal MR images. We evaluated medical records for Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) and exposure to sedation during MRI. We analyzed MRI of head and neck regions of 63 children (53 neonates and 10 young infants). Of these 63 children, 17 had evidence of airway obstruction and 46 had a patent airway on MRI. Also, 16/63 had underlying HIE and 47/63 newborn infants had exposure to sedative medications during MRI. In spontaneously breathing and neurologically depressed newborn infants, the head-tilt angle (median ± SD) associated with patent airway (125.3° ± 11.9°) was significantly different from that of blocked airway (108.2° ± 17.1°) (Mann Whitney U-test, p = 0.0045). The logistic regression analysis showed that the proportion of patent airways progressively increased with an increasing head-tilt angle, with > 95% probability of a patent airway at head-tilt angle 144-150°. PMID:27003759

  1. Defining Optimal Head-Tilt Position of Resuscitation in Neonates and Young Infants Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Bhalala, Utpal S.; Hemani, Malvi; Shah, Meehir; Kim, Barbara; Gu, Brian; Cruz, Angelo; Arunachalam, Priya; Tian, Elli; Yu, Christine; Punnoose, Joshua; Chen, Steven; Petrillo, Christopher; Brown, Alisa; Munoz, Karina; Kitchen, Grant; Lam, Taylor; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.; Allen, Robert H.; Acharya, Soumyadipta

    2016-01-01

    Head-tilt maneuver assists with achieving airway patency during resuscitation. However, the relationship between angle of head-tilt and airway patency has not been defined. Our objective was to define an optimal head-tilt position for airway patency in neonates (age: 0–28 days) and young infants (age: 29 days–4 months). We performed a retrospective study of head and neck magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of neonates and infants to define the angle of head-tilt for airway patency. We excluded those with an artificial airway or an airway malformation. We defined head-tilt angle a priori as the angle between occipito-ophisthion line and ophisthion-C7 spinous process line on the sagittal MR images. We evaluated medical records for Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) and exposure to sedation during MRI. We analyzed MRI of head and neck regions of 63 children (53 neonates and 10 young infants). Of these 63 children, 17 had evidence of airway obstruction and 46 had a patent airway on MRI. Also, 16/63 had underlying HIE and 47/63 newborn infants had exposure to sedative medications during MRI. In spontaneously breathing and neurologically depressed newborn infants, the head-tilt angle (median ± SD) associated with patent airway (125.3° ± 11.9°) was significantly different from that of blocked airway (108.2° ± 17.1°) (Mann Whitney U-test, p = 0.0045). The logistic regression analysis showed that the proportion of patent airways progressively increased with an increasing head-tilt angle, with > 95% probability of a patent airway at head-tilt angle 144–150°. PMID:27003759

  2. Ocular Reflex Phase During Off-Vertical Axis Rotation In Humans Is Modified By Head-On-Trunk Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott; Clement, Gilles; Denise, Pierre; Reschke, Millard

    2005-01-01

    Constant velocity Off-Vertical Axis Rotation (OVAR) imposes a continuously varying orientation of the head and body relative to gravity. The ensuing ocular reflexes include modulation of both horizontal and torsional eye velocity as a function of the varying linear acceleration along the lateral plane. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the modulation of these ocular reflexes would be modified by different head-on-trunk positions. Ten human subjects were rotated in darkness about their longitudinal axis 20 deg off-vertical at constant rates of 45 and 180 deg/s, corresponding to 0.125 and 0.5 Hz. Binocular responses were obtained with video-oculography with the head and trunk aligned, and then with the head turned relative to the trunk 40 deg to the right or left of center. Sinusoidal curve fits were used to derive amplitude, phase and bias velocity of the eye movements across multiple cycles for each head-on-trunk position. Consistent with previous studies, the modulation of torsional eye movements was greater at 0.125 Hz while the modulation of horizontal eye movements was greater at 0.5 Hz. Neither amplitude nor bias velocities were significantly altered by head-on-trunk position. The phases of both torsional and horizontal ocular reflexes, on the other hand, shifted towards alignment with the head. These results are consistent with the modulation of torsional and horizontal ocular reflexes during OVAR being primarily mediated by the otoliths in response to the sinusoidally varying linear acceleration along the interaural head axis.

  3. Increased radiosensitivity of HPV-positive head and neck cancers: Molecular basis and therapeutic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mirghani, Haïtham; Amen, Furrat; Tao, Yungan; Deutsch, Eric; Levy, Antonin

    2015-12-01

    Human papillomavirus driven head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), particularly oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), are characterized by a significant survival advantage over their HPV-negative counterparts. Although the reasons behind this are still not fully elucidated, it is widely accepted that these tumors have a higher response to ionizing radiation that might explain their favorable outcomes. Potential underlying intrinsic mechanisms include impaired DNA repair abilities, differences in activated repopulation-signaling pathways and cell cycle control mechanisms. The role of the microenvironment is increasingly highlighted, particularly tumor oxygenation and the immune response. Recent studies have shown a distinct pattern of intratumoral immune cell infiltrates, according to HPV status, and have suggested that an increased cytotoxic T-cell based antitumor immune response is involved in improved prognosis of patients with HPV-positive OPSCC. These significant milestones, in the understanding of HPV-induced HNSCC, pave the way to new therapeutic opportunities. This article reviews the current evidence on the biological basis of increased radiosensitivity in HPV-positive HNSCC and discusses potential therapeutic implications. PMID:26476574

  4. Contribution of Head Position, Standing Surface, and Vision to Postural Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pociask, Fredrick D; DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Goldberg, Allon; Adamo, Diane E

    2016-01-01

    Postural control requires the integration of sensorimotor information to maintain balance and to properly position and orient the body in response to external stimuli. Age-related declines in peripheral and central sensory and motor function contribute to postural instability and falls. This study investigated the contribution of head position, standing surface, and vision on postural sway in 26 community-dwelling older adults. Participants were asked to maintain a stable posture under conditions that varied standing surface, head position, and the availability of visual information. Significant main and interaction effects were found for all three factors. Findings from this study suggest that postural sway responses require the integration of available sources of sensory information. These results have important implications for fall risks in older adults and suggest that when standing with the head extended and eyes closed, older adults may place themselves at risk for postural disequilibrium and loss of balance. PMID:26709429

  5. Physical and Psychological Effects of Head Treatment in the Supine Position Using Specialized Ayurveda-Based Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Iwawaki, Yoko; Uebaba, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Yoko; Takishita, Yukie; Harada, Kiyomi; Shibata, Akemi; Narumoto, Jin; Fukui, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To clarify the physical and psychological effects of head massage performed in the supine position using Ayurveda-based techniques (head treatment). Design: Twenty-four healthy female students were included in the study. Using a crossover study design, the same participants were enrolled in both the head treatment intervention group and control group. There was an interval of 1 week or more between measurements. Outcome measures: The physiologic indices measured included blood pressure and heart rate fluctuations (high frequency and low frequency/high frequency). The psychological markers measured included liveliness, depression, and boredom using the visual analogue scale method. State anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory method. Results: The parasympathetic nerve activity increased immediately after head treatment. Upon completion of head treatment, the parasympathetic nerve predominance tended to gradually ease. Head treatment boosted freshness and relieved anxiety. Conclusions: The results suggest that head treatment has a relaxing and refreshing effect and may be used to provide comfort. PMID:27163344

  6. Ex vivo viscoelastic characterization of head and neck tissue abnormalities using ultrasound-stimulated vibro-acoustography (USVA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccabi, Ashkan; Garritano, James; Arshi, Armin; Saddik, George; Tajudeen, Bobby A.; St. John, Maie; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2014-03-01

    In the absence of an imaging technique that offers a highly dynamic range detection of malignant tissue intra-operatively, surgeons are often forced to excise excess healthy tissue to ensure clear margins of resection. Techniques that are currently used in the detection of tumor regions include palpation, optical coherence tomography (OCT) elastography, dye injections, and conventional ultrasound to pinpoint the affected area. However, these methods suffer from limitations such as minimal specificity, low contrast, and limited depth of penetration. Lack of specificity and low contrast result in the production of vague disease margins and fail to provide a reliable guidance tool for surgeons. The proposed work presents an alternative diagnostic technique, ultrasound-stimulated vibro-acoustography (USVA), which may potentially provide surgeons with detailed intra-operative imagery characterized by enhanced structural boundaries and well-defined borders based on the viscoelastic properties of tissues. We demonstrate selective imaging using ex vivo tissue samples of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with the presence of both malignant and normal areas. Spatially resolved maps of varying acoustic properties were generated and show good contrast between the areas of interest. While the results are promising, determining the precision and sensitivity of the USVA imaging system in identifying boundary regions as well as intensities of ex vivo tissue targets may provide additional information to non-invasively assess confined regions of diseased tissues from healthy areas.

  7. Automatic Detection and Reproduction of Natural Head Position in Stereo-Photogrammetry

    PubMed Central

    Hsung, Tai-Chiu; Lo, John; Li, Tik-Shun; Cheung, Lim-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an automatic orientation calibration and reproduction method for recording the natural head position (NHP) in stereo-photogrammetry (SP). A board was used as the physical reference carrier for true verticals and NHP alignment mirror orientation. Orientation axes were detected and saved from the digital mesh model of the board. They were used for correcting the pitch, roll and yaw angles of the subsequent captures of patients’ facial surfaces, which were obtained without any markings or sensors attached onto the patient. We tested the proposed method on two commercial active (3dMD) and passive (DI3D) SP devices. The reliability of the pitch, roll and yaw for the board placement were within ±0.039904°, ±0.081623°, and ±0.062320°; where standard deviations were 0.020234°, 0.045645° and 0.027211° respectively. Conclusion: Orientation-calibrated stereo-photogrammetry is the most accurate method (angulation deviation within ±0.1°) reported for complete NHP recording with insignificant clinical error. PMID:26125616

  8. Hyomental distance in the different head positions and hyomental distance ratio in predicting difficult intubation

    PubMed Central

    Kalezić, Nevena; Lakićević, Mirko; Miličić, Biljana; Stojanović, Marina; Sabljak, Vera; Marković, Dejan

    2016-01-01

    The hyomental distance ratio (HMDR) is the ratio between the hyomental distance (HMD) (the distance between the hyoid bone and the tip of the chin) at the extreme of head extension (HMDe) and the one in the neutral position (HMDn). The objective of the study was to examine the predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of HMDe, HMDn, and HMDR in predicting difficult endotracheal intubation (DI). A prospective study included 262 patients that underwent elective surgical operations. The following parameters were observed as possible predictors of DI: HMDR, HMDe, HMDn, Mallampati score, and body mass index (BMI). The cut-off points for the DI predictors were HMDe <5.3 cm, HMDn ≤5.5 cm, and HMDR ≤1.2. The assessment that DI existed was made by the anesthesiologist while performing laryngoscopy by applying the Cormack-Lehane classification. DI was present in 13 patients (5%). No significant difference was observed in the frequency of DI with regard to the sex, age, and BMI of the patients. Our research indicated HMDR as the best predictor of DI with a sensitivity of 95.6% and specificity of 69.2%. HMDR can be used in the everyday work of anesthesiologists because HMDR values ≤1.2 may reliably predict DI.

  9. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Head-Down Contact and Spearing in Tackle Football

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Jonathan F.; Clarke, Kenneth S.; Peterson, Thomas R.; Torg, Joseph S.; Weis, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations that decrease the risk of cervical spine fractures and dislocations in football players. Background: Axial loading of the cervical spine resulting from head-down contact is the primary cause of spinal cord injuries. Keeping the head up and initiating contact with the shoulder or chest decreases the risk of these injuries. The 1976 rule changes resulted in a dramatic decrease in catastrophic cervical spine injuries. However, the helmet-contact rules are rarely enforced and head-down contact still occurs frequently. Our recommendations are directed toward decreasing the incidence of head-down contact. Recommendations: Educate players, coaches, and officials that unintentional and intentional head-down contact can result in catastrophic injuries. Increase the time tacklers, ball carriers, and blockers spend practicing correct contact techniques. Improve the enforcement and understanding of the existing helmet-contact penalties. PMID:15085218

  10. A Demonstration of Individualized Positive Behavior Support Interventions by Head Start Staff to Address Children's Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Mary D.; Walker, Virginia L.; Snell, Martha E.; Smith, Carol G.

    2013-01-01

    Following the implementation of Tier 1 and Tier 2 Positive Behavior Support (PBS) strategies in six Head Start (HS) classrooms, three children in two classrooms were identified who had significant behavioral challenges and met the criteria for the use of individualized PBS. The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate whether the effects of…

  11. Effects of hip and head position on ankle range of motion, ankle passive torque, and passive gastrocnemius tension.

    PubMed

    Andrade, R J; Lacourpaille, L; Freitas, S R; McNair, P J; Nordez, A

    2016-01-01

    Ankle joint range of motion (ROM) is notably influenced by the position of the hip joint. However, this result remains unexplained. Thus, the aim of this study was to test if the ankle passive torque and gastrocnemius muscle tension are affected by the hip and the head positions. The torque and the muscle shear elastic modulus (measured by elastography to estimate muscle tension) were collected in nine participants during passive ankle dorsiflexions performed in four conditions (by combining hip flexion at 90 or 150°, and head flexed or neutral). Ankle maximum dorsiflexion angle significantly decreased by flexing the hip from 150 to 90° (P < 0.001; mean difference 17.7 ± 2.5°), but no effect of the head position was observed (P > 0.05). Maximal passive torque and shear elastic modulus were higher with the hip flexed at 90° (P < 0.001). During submaximal ROM, no effects of the head and hip positioning (P > 0.05) were found for both torque and shear elastic modulus at a given common ankle angle among conditions. Shifts in maximal ankle angle due to hip angle manipulation are not related neither to changes in passive torque nor tension of the gastrocnemius. Further studies should be addressed to better understand the functional role of peripheral nerves and fasciae in the ankle ROM limits. PMID:25676048

  12. Radiological study of the knee joint line position measured from the fibular head and proximal tibial landmarks.

    PubMed

    Havet, Eric; Gabrion, Antoine; Leiber-Wackenheim, Frederic; Vernois, Joël; Olory, Bruno; Mertl, Patrice

    2007-06-01

    Restoring the joint line level is one of the surgical challenges during revision of total knee arthroplasty. The position of the tibial surface is commonly estimated by its distance to the apex of fibular head, but no study evaluating this distance accurately has been published yet. The purpose of this work was to study the distance between the knee joint line and the apex of the fibular head and the proximal tibia, particularly the tibial tuberosity. Variability with clinical data and relations with other local measurements have been evaluated on knee radiographs (an antero-posterior view, a medio-lateral view and an anteroposterior full length view) of 100 subjects (125 knees). Results showed no correlation between the joint line-fibular head apex distance and any clinical data of the patients, or any other performed measurements. Relations between tibial measurements and the sexe or the height of the subjects were noted. Besides, the review of the 25 bilateral cases did not show statistically significant side difference but the descriptive analysis showed too large discrepancies for the joint line-fibular head apex distance to be used as a landmark. We conclude that the fibular head apex cannot be used as a morphologic landmark to determine the knee joint line position. Its interest in clinical and surgical practice must be discussed. PMID:17440678

  13. Proprioceptive encoding of head position in the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Paulk, Angelique; Gilbert, Cole

    2006-10-01

    Because the eyes of insects cannot be moved independently of the head, information about head posture is essential for stabilizing the visual world or providing information about the direction of gaze. We examined the external anatomy and physiological capabilities of a head posture proprioceptor, the prosternal organ (PO), located at the base of the neck in the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Family: Stratiomyidae). The PO is sexually isomorphic and is composed of two fused plates of about 130 mechanosensory hairs set in asymmetrical sockets whose orientation varies across the organ. A multi-joint mechanical coupling between the head, neck membrane, and contact sclerites deflects the hairs more or less to increase or decrease their level of excitation. The PO sensory afferents project to the central nervous system (CNS) via a pair of bilateral prosternal nerves (PN) to the fused thoracic ganglia. Simultaneous recording of spiking activity in the PN and videotaping of wind-induced and voluntary head movements around all three axes of head rotation reveal that a few PN afferents are active at rest, but activity increases tonically in response to head deflections. Activity is significantly modulated by change in head angles around the pitch (+/-40 degrees ), yaw (+/-30 degrees ) and roll (more than +/-90 degrees ) axes, although the dynamic range of spiking activity differs for each axis of rotation. Prosternal nerve afferents are bilaterally excited (inhibited) by pitch down (up); excited (inhibited) by head yaw toward the ipsilateral (contralateral) side; excited by roll down toward the ipsilateral side, but little inhibited by roll toward the opposite side. Although bilateral comparison of activity in PN afferents reliably encodes head posture around a given rotational axis, from the point of view of the CNS, the problem of encoding head posture is ill-posed with three axes of rotation and only two streams of afferent information. Furthermore, when the

  14. The Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework: Promoting Positive Outcomes in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children 3-5 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Head Start, US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a revision of the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework (2000), renamed The Head Start Child Development and Learning Framework: Promoting Positive Outcomes in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children 3-5 Years Old. The Framework outlines the essential areas of development and learning that are to be used by Head Start programs…

  15. The reproducibility of the head position for a laser scan using a novel morphometric analysis for orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Soncul, M; Bamber, M A

    2000-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of the head position for a three-dimensional soft tissue laser scan (lasergraph) using thin-plate splines, for orthognathic surgery planning and follow-up. 60 laser scans of five subjects (12 scans per subject) were obtained at specified intervals. The head was positioned in the lateral view using a spirit level, an engineering device for setting horizontal surfaces, to adjust the Frankfort horizontal plane parallel to the ground. The projection of a narrow beam of longitudinal laser light was used to adjust the axial plane for the frontal view. These scanned images (lasergraphs) were digitised and the co-ordinates of the landmarks recorded. The digitised laser scans were compared using thin-plate splines analysis. The mean difference between the scans due to variations in head position was 0.0135 +/- 0.0109 g x cm2/ sec2 in the lateral view and 0.0090 +/- 0.0054 g x cm2/sec2 in the frontal view. This represents an overall distortion error of less than 2% when following up the surgical change of a typical bimaxillary osteotomy case with 6 mm maxillary advancement and 3 mm mandibular set-back. It is concluded that facial laser scans (lasergraphs) with the Frankfort horizontal plane set using a head rest and spirit level, and the axial plane set using projection of a vertical laser light on the facial midline, are highly reproducible. PMID:10833142

  16. The Incidence of Complications Associated With Molding Helmet Therapy: An Avoidable Risk in the Treatment of Positional Head Deformities?

    PubMed

    Freudlsperger, Christian; Bodem, Jens P; Kargus, Steffen; Castrillon-Oberndorfer, Gregor; Hoffman, Jürgen; Engel, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Molding helmet therapy using an individual head orthosis presents a widely accepted treatment option for children with positional head deformities; however, studies addressing the incidence of complications during helmet therapy are rare. The current study evaluates the incidence of complications in 205 children with positional head deformity undergoing molding helmet therapy. Children were classified according to the severity of their deformity as presented by the Cranial Vault Asymmetry Index (CVAI) and the Cephalic Index (CI). Fifty-nine (28.8%) of our patients presented a moderate and 146 (71.2%) a severe form of a positional head deformity. Of these children, 166 (81.0%) were diagnosed for plagiocephaly, 19 (9.3%) were brachycephalic, and 20 (9.7%) showed a combination of plagiocephaly and brachycephaly. Overall, 54 children (26.3%) showed minor complications during their helmet molding including pressure sores (13.7%), ethanol erythema (2.9%), skin erosions/skin infections (4.3%), or deficient fitting (5.4%). Children with a combination of plagiocephaly and brachycephaly (n = 20) showed the highest risk for complications, which was significantly higher compared with children with plagiocephaly (50% vs 22.3%; P = 0.012). Irrespective of the type of positional head deformity, no statistical difference was revealed between the moderate and the severe form. Minor complications are a relatively frequent event during helmet molding therapy. Especially children with a combination of plagiocephaly-brachycephaly are at high risk for complications. A reduction of this rate might be reached by a close follow-up for a short period between helmet manufacturing adjustments. PMID:26080239

  17. Random Positional Variation Among the Skull, Mandible, and Cervical Spine With Treatment Progression During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Peter H. Ahn, Andrew I.; Lee, C. Joe; Shen Jin; Miller, Ekeni; Lukaj, Alex; Milan, Elissa; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur K.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: With 54{sup o} of freedom from the skull to mandible to C7, ensuring adequate immobilization for head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT) is complex. We quantify variations in skull, mandible, and cervical spine movement between RT sessions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three sequential head-and-neck RT patients underwent serial computed tomography. Patients underwent planned rescanning at 11, 22, and 33 fractions for a total of 93 scans. Coordinates of multiple bony elements of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine were used to calculate rotational and translational changes of bony anatomy compared with the original planning scan. Results: Mean translational and rotational variations on rescanning were negligible, but showed a wide range. Changes in scoliosis and lordosis of the cervical spine between fractions showed similar variability. There was no correlation between positional variation and fraction number and no strong correlation with weight loss or skin separation. Semi-independent rotational and translation movement of the skull in relation to the lower cervical spine was shown. Positioning variability measured by means of vector displacement was largest in the mandible and lower cervical spine. Conclusions: Although only small overall variations in position between head-and-neck RT sessions exist on average, there is significant random variation in patient positioning of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine elements. Such variation is accentuated in the mandible and lower cervical spine. These random semirigid variations in positioning of the skull and spine point to a need for improved immobilization and/or confirmation of patient positioning in RT of the head and neck.

  18. The “New” Head and Neck Cancer Patient—Young, Nonsmoker, Nondrinker, and HPV Positive: Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Deschler, Daniel G.; Richmon, Jeremy D.; Khariwala, Samir S.; Ferris, Robert L.; Wang, Marilene B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The near epidemic rise of the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) presents the practitioner with a “new” head and neck cancer patient, vastly different from those with the traditional risk factors who formed the basis of most practitioners’ training experience. Accordingly, a thorough and disease-specific evaluation process is necessitated. This article will review the evaluation of the HPV-related cancer patient, including a review of the HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer epidemic from the surgeon’s perspective, evaluation of the primary lesion, evaluation of the neck mass, and role of imaging, to provide a framework for addressing the challenging questions patients may ask. Data Sources Available peer-reviewed literature and practice guidelines. Review Methods Assessment of selected specific topics by authors solicited from the Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology Committee of the American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation and the American Head and Neck Society. Conclusions and Implications for Practice The dramatic rise in OPSSC related to HPV is characterized by a “new” cancer patient who is younger and lacks traditional risk factors. Today’s caregiver must be prepared to appropriately evaluate, counsel, and treat these patients with HPV-positive disease with the expectation that traditional treatment algorithms will evolve to maintain or improve current excellent cure rates while lessening treatment related side effects. PMID:24925311

  19. Positional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for People With Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome or Suspected Craniovertebral or Cervical Spine Abnormalities: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an inherited disorder affecting the connective tissue. EDS can manifest with symptoms attributable to the spine or craniovertebral junction (CVJ). In addition to EDS, numerous congenital, developmental, or acquired disorders can increase ligamentous laxity in the CVJ and cervical spine. Resulting abnormalities can lead to morbidity and serious neurologic complications. Appropriate imaging and diagnosis is needed to determine patient management and need for complex surgery. Some spinal abnormalities cause symptoms or are more pronounced while patients sit, stand, or perform specific movements. Positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) allows imaging of the spine or CVJ with patients in upright, weight-bearing positions and can be combined with dynamic maneuvers, such as flexion, extension, or rotation. Imaging in these positions could allow diagnosticians to better detect spinal or CVJ abnormalities than recumbent MRI or even a combination of other available imaging modalities might allow. Objectives To determine the diagnostic impact and clinical utility of pMRI for the assessment of (a) craniovertebral or spinal abnormalities among people with EDS and (b) major craniovertebral or cervical spine abnormalities among symptomatic people. Data Sources A literature search was performed using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, and EBM Reviews, for studies published from January 1, 1998, to September 28, 2014. Review Methods Studies comparing pMRI to recumbent MRI or other available imaging modalities for diagnosis and management of spinal or CVJ abnormalities were reviewed. All studies of spinal or CVJ imaging in people with EDS were included as well as studies among people with suspected major CVJ or cervical spine abnormalities (cervical or craniovertebral spine instability, basilar invagination, cranial settling, cervical stenosis, spinal cord compression, Chiari

  20. Resilience against All Odds: A Positive Psychology Perspective of Adolescent-Headed Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lethale, Praline S.; Pillay, Jace

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the AIDS pandemic, adolescent-headed families are becoming a common trend in South Africa. However, little is known about the experiences of the adolescent, especially within the school context. Hence the purpose of this article was to explore the experiences of adolescents within the school context. During our initial review of…

  1. Cortisol Reactivity is Positively Related to Executive Function in Preschool Children Attending Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas; Razza, Rachel Peters

    2005-01-01

    This study examined relations among cortisol reactivity and measures of cognitive function and social behavior in 4- to 5-year-old children (N=169) attending Head Start. Saliva samples for the assay of cortisol were collected at the beginning, middle, and end of an approximately 45-min testing session. Moderate increase in cortisol followed by…

  2. Higher Micronutrient Intake Is Associated With Human Papillomavirus-Positive Head and Neck Cancer: A Case-Only Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Anna E.; Duffy, Sonia A.; Sanchez, Gloria I.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Terrell, Jeffrey E.; Hebert, James R.; Light, Emily; Bradford, Carol R.; D’Silva, Nisha J.; Carey, Thomas E.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Peterson, Karen E.; Rozek, Laura S.

    2012-01-01

    No studies have investigated dietary differences between head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive tumors and patients with HPV-negative tumors. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between diet and HPV status in HNSCC patients. Cases of HNSCC were recruited from 2 clinical centers participating in the University of Michigan Head and Neck Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE). HPV tissue genotyping was performed, and epidemiological and dietary data collected. Multivariable logistic regression tested whether pretreatment consumption of 12 selected micronutrients was significantly associated with HPV-positive status in 143 patients newly diagnosed with cancer of the oral cavity or pharynx. After controlling for age, sex, body mass index, tumor site, cancer stage, problem drinking, smoking, and energy intake, significant and positive associations were observed between vitamin A, vitamin E, iron, β-carotene, and folate intake and HPV-positive status (Ptrend < 0.05), suggesting that diet may be a factor in the improved prognosis documented in those with HPV-positive HNSCC. Dietary differences by HPV status should be considered in prognostic studies to better understand the influence of diet on HNSCC survival. PMID:21667401

  3. SU-E-T-589: Optimization of Patient Head Angle Position to Spare Hippocampus During the Brain Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, G; Kang, Y; Kang, S; Kim, T; Kim, D; Suh, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Hippocampus is one of the important organs which controls emotions, behaviors, movements the memorizing and learning ability. In the conventional head & neck therapy position, it is difficult to perform the hippocampal-sparing brain radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to investigate optimal head angle which can save the hippocampal-sparing and organ at risk (OAR) in conformal radiation therapy (CRT), Intensity modulation radiation therapy (IMRT) and helical tomotherapy (HT). Methods: Three types of radiation treatment plans, CRT, IMRT and Tomotherapy plans, were performed for 10 brain tumor patients. The image fusion between CT and MRI data were used in the contour due to the limited delineation of the target and OAR in the CT scan. The optimal condition plan was determined by comparing the dosimetric performance of the each plan with the use of various parameters which include three different techniques (CRT, IMRT, HT) and 4 angle (0, 15, 30, 40 degree). The each treatment plans of three different techniques were compared with the following parameters: conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), target coverage, dose in the OARs, monitor units (MU), beam on time and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: HI, CI and target coverage was most excellent in head angle 30 degree among all angle. When compared by modality, target coverage and CI showed good results in IMRT and TOMO than compared to the CRT. HI at the head angle 0 degrees is 1.137±0.17 (CRT), 1.085±0.09 (IMRT) and 1.077±0.06 (HT). HI at the head angle 30 degrees is 1.056±0.08 (CRT), 1.020±0.05 (IMRT) and 1.022±0.07 (HT). Conclusion: The results of our study show that when head angle tilted at 30 degree, target coverage, HI, CI were improved, and the dose delivered to OAR was reduced compared with conventional supine position in brain radiation therapy. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R&D program (No. 2013M2A2A7043498) and the Mid

  4. Myofibrillar myopathy with abnormal foci of desmin positivity. II. Immunocytochemical analysis reveals accumulation of multiple other proteins.

    PubMed

    De Bleecker, J L; Engel, A G; Ertl, B B

    1996-05-01

    The two major types of lesions in myofibrillar myopathy consist of hyaline spheroidal structures composed of compacted myofibrillar residues, and nonhyaline lesions that comprise foci of myofibrillar destruction. We employed immunocytochemical analysis to further characterize these abnormalities. The nonhyaline lesions are depleted of actin, alpha-actinin, myosin, and, less consistently, of titin and nebulin. Thus, each major component of the myofibrils is lost or decreased. These lesions also react strongly for both NCAM and desmin. By contrast, the hyaline structures are highly enriched in actin, are immunoreactive for fast and slow myosin, and show increased expression of titin, nebulin, and alpha-actinin. They fail to react for NCAM and react variably for desmin. Both types of lesion react, but with differing intensities, for gelsolin, dystrophin, beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP) epitopes amino-terminal to the alpha-secretase site, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, and ubiquitin, and both can be congophilic. The increased expressions of desmin, dystrophin and gelsolin in muscle are also confirmed by immunoblot studies. The results, in harmony with the ultrastructural findings described in the companion paper, suggest that myofibrillar myopathy is conditioned by abnormal activation of a degradative process that primarily affects the myofibrils. A structural abnormality of desmin alone may not be sufficient to disrupt the myofibrillar architecture, but abnormal activation of a phosphorylating process could account for dissolution of the myofibrils. The cause and significance of the ectopic overexpression of desmin, dystrophin, NCAM, and beta APP components, and the chemical basis of the congophilia remain unknown. PMID:8627347

  5. [Evaluation of effectiveness of short-term orthostatic positioning of head-down tilted primates on the liquid body sectors].

    PubMed

    Lobachik, V I; Gordeev, Iu V; Krotov, V P

    2008-01-01

    Head-down tilting (HDT) of primates is a well-recognized model for studying the hypokinetic syndrome effects on the body functions. Benefits for the body liquids distribution of periodic transition of primates (rhesus macaques) into the vertical position without support loading were evaluated in a 30-d HDT experiment. Brief (30 to 120 minutes long, 4-5 times a week) transition from tilting into the vertical position had no influence on primates' hydration homeostasis and its infrastructure. However, the orthostatic test at the end of the HDT experiment showed a less increase in blood content of the lower extremities as compared with tilted primates that had not been periodically turned up into the vertical position. PMID:18714731

  6. Inadequate sympathovagal balance in response to orthostatism in patients with unexplained syncope and a positive head up tilt test

    PubMed Central

    Kouakam, C; Lacroix, D; Zghal, N; Logier, R; Klug, D; Le Franc, P; Jarwe, M; Kacet, S

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To analyse the immediate response of heart rate variability (HRV) in response to orthostatic stress in unexplained syncope.
SUBJECTS—69 subjects, mean (SD) age 42 (18) years, undergoing 60° head up tilt to evaluate unexplained syncope.
METHODS—Based on 256 second ECG samples obtained during supine and upright phases, spectral analyses of low (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands were calculated, as well as the LF/HF power ratio, reflecting the sympathovagal balance. All variables were measured just before tilt during the last five minutes of the supine position, during the first five minutes of head up tilt, and just before the end of passive tilt.
RESULTS—Symptoms occurred in 42 subjects (vasovagal syncope in 37; psychogenic syncope in five). Resting haemodynamics and HRV indices were similar in subjects with and without syncope. Immediately after assuming the upright posture, adaptation to orthostatism differed between the two groups in that the LF/HF power ratio decreased by 11% from supine (from 2.7 (1.5) to 2.4 (1.2)) in the positive test group, while it increased by 11.5% (from 2.8 (1.5) to 3.1 (1.7)) in the negative test group (p = 0.02). This was because subjects with a positive test did not have the same increment in LF power with tilting as those with a negative test (11% v 28%, p = 0.04), while HF power did not alter. A decreased LF/HF power ratio persisted throughout head up tilt and was the only variable found to discriminate between subjects with positive and negative test results (p = 0.005, multivariate analysis). During the first five minutes of tilt, a decreased LF/HF power ratio occurred in 33 of 37 subjects in the positive group and three of 27 in the negative group. Thus a decreased LF/HF ratio had 89% sensitivity, 89% specificity, a 92% positive predictive value, and an 86% negative predictive value.
CONCLUSIONS—Through the LF/HF power ratio, spectral analysis of HRV was highly correlated with head up tilt

  7. Proteomic Study of HPV-Positive Head and Neck Cancers: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Wattiez, Ruddy; Saussez, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) was recently recognized as a new risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. For oropharyngeal cancers, an HPV+ status is associated with better prognosis in a subgroup of nonsmokers and nondrinkers. However, HPV infection is also involved in the biology of head and neck carcinoma (HNC) in patients with a history of tobacco use and/or alcohol consumption. Thus, the involvement of HPV infection in HN carcinogenesis remains unclear, and further studies are needed to identify and analyze HPV-specific pathways that are involved in this process. Using a quantitative proteomics-based approach, we compared the protein expression profiles of two HPV+ HNC cell lines and one HPV− HNC cell line. We identified 155 proteins that are differentially expressed (P < 0.01) in these three lines. Among the identified proteins, prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) was upregulated and eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (EEF1α) was downregulated in the HPV+ cell lines. Immunofluorescence and western blotting analyses confirmed these results. Moreover, PSCA and EEF1α were differentially expressed in two clinical series of 50 HPV+ and 50 HPV− oral cavity carcinomas. Thus, our study reveals for the first time that PSCA and EEF1α are associated with the HPV-status, suggesting that these proteins could be involved in HPV-associated carcinogenesis. PMID:24719866

  8. A transformation method for deriving from a photograph, position and heading of a vehicle in a plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleeper, R. K.; Smith, E. G.

    1976-01-01

    Equations have been derived that transform perspectively viewed planar surface coordinates, as seen in a photograph, into coordinates of the original plane surface. These transformation equations are developed in terms of nine geometric variables that define the photographic setup and are redefined in terms of eight parameters. The parameters are then treated as independent quantities that fully characterize the transformation and are expressed directly in terms of the four corner coordinates of a reference rectangle in the object plane and their coordinates as seen in a photograph. Vehicle position is determined by transforming the perspectively viewed coordinate position of a representative vehicle target into runway coordinates. Vehicle heading is determined from the runway coordinates of two vehicle target points. When the targets are elevated above the plane of the reference grid, the computation of the heading angle is unaffected; however, the computation of the target position may require adjustment of two parameters. Methods are given for adjusting the parameters for elevation and an example is included for both nonelevated and elevated target conditions.

  9. Four-position heading effect calibration algorithm for rotation inertial navigation system based on fiber optic gyro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Pengyu; Li, Kui; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Fiber optic gyros (FOGs) are sensitive to the environment fields where they are mounted, and their drifts are easily affected when surrounding temperature field or magnetic field changes. In FOG strapdown inertial navigation system (INS), gyro drifts caused by environmental fields are stable mostly, thus they could be calibrated and compensated beforehand and would not cause obvious alignment and navigation errors. However, in rotation INS (RINS), although navigation errors caused by the constant components of FOG drifts could be well attenuated, the gyro sensing axes are changing relative to the environmental fields in the RINS, which would lead to periodically changing gyro drift components when inertial measurement unit is pointing to different headings, thus producing serious alignment and navigation errors in FOG RINS. To solve this problem, a four-position heading effect calibration algorithm was proposed, and its effectiveness and validity were verified through a dual-axis FOG RINS by turntable experiments. The experimental results show that the azimuth alignment accuracy of the FOG RINS improves from 0.2 deg to about 0.04 deg, increasing five times approximately, which illustrates that the proposed heading effect calibration algorithm could further improve the navigation performance of FOG RINS significantly.

  10. ESO Vacancy - Applications are invited for the position of Head of Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-06-01

    ESO employs in total approximately 500 staff members, and the Administration Division comprises the Administration at the Headquarters in Garching near Munich and the Administration in Santiago in Chile. The successful candidate will be supported by some 50 qualified staff members. As a member of the ESO Management Board the Head of Administration contributes essentially to the development of the overall policy, strategic planning, relations to the members of personnel and maintains professional contacts at highest level outside the Organisation. The main task is to provide efficient administrative services and advice to the Director General, Division Leaders and to staff members in the scientific and technical areas in the fields of financial planning and accounting, personnel management, purchasing, legal and contractual matters, information systems and building and site maintenance.

  11. A biomechanical evaluation of proximal femoral nail antirotation with respect to helical blade position in femoral head: A cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jin-Ho; Garg, Anant Kumar; Oh, Jong-Keon; Oh, Chang-Wug; Lee, Sung-Jae; Myung-Rae, Cho; Kim, Min-Keun; Kim, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite new developments in the management of osteoporotic fractures, complications like screw cutout are still found in the fixation of proximal femur fractures even with biomechanically proven better implants like proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA). The purpose of this cadaveric study was to investigate the biomechanical stability of this device in relation to two common positions (center-center and inferior-center) of the helical blade in the femoral head in unstable trochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods: Eight pairs of human cadaveric femurs were used; in one group [center-center (C-C) group], the helical blade of PFNA was fixed randomly in central position both in anteroposterior and lateral view, whereas in the other group it was fixed in inferior one-third position in anteroposterior and in central position in lateral view [inferior-center (I-C) group]. Unstable intertrochanteric fracture was created and each specimen was loaded cyclically till load to failure Results: Angular and rotational displacements were significantly higher within the C-C group compared to the I-C group in both unloaded and loaded condition. Loading to failure was higher in the I-C group compared to the C-C group. No statistical significance was found for this parameter. Correlations between tip apex distance, cyclic loading which lead to femoral head displacement, and ultimate load to failure showed a significant positive relationship. Conclusion: The I-C group was superior to the C-C group and provided better biomechanical stability for angular and rotational displacement. This study would be a stimulus for further experimental studies with larger number specimens and complex loading protocols at multicentres. PMID:23325963

  12. Is ExacTrac x-ray system an alternative to CBCT for positioning patients with head and neck cancers?

    SciTech Connect

    Clemente, Stefania; Chiumento, Costanza; Fiorentino, Alba; Cozzolino, Mariella; Oliviero, Caterina; Califano, Giorgia; Caivano, Rocchina; Fusco, Vincenzo; Simeon, Vittorio

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of a six-degrees-of freedom (6D) correction using ExacTrac robotics system in patients with head-and-neck (HN) cancer receiving radiation therapy.Methods: Local setup accuracy was analyzed for 12 patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Patient position was imaged daily upon two different protocols, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and ExacTrac (ET) images correction. Setup data from either approach were compared in terms of both residual errors after correction and punctual displacement of selected regions of interest (Mandible, C2, and C6 vertebral bodies).Results: On average, both protocols achieved reasonably low residual errors after initial correction. The observed differences in shift vectors between the two protocols showed that CBCT tends to weight more C2 and C6 at the expense of the mandible, while ET tends to average more differences among the different ROIs.Conclusions: CBCT, even without 6D correction capabilities, seems preferable to ET for better consistent alignment and the capability to see soft tissues. Therefore, in our experience, CBCT represents a benchmark for positioning head and neck cancer patients.

  13. Passive Removal of Silicone Oil with Temporal Head Position through Two 23-Gauge Cannulas

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhong; Ke, Zhi Sheng; Zheng, Qian; Zhao, Zhen Quan; Song, Zong Ming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a new approach for removal of silicone oil. Methods. All surgeries were performed using 23-gauge vitrectomy system with two transconjunctival sutureless cannulas. At the beginning, most of the silicone oil was removed by traditional microinvasive vitrectomy system through inferior-temporal cannula. Then, the blood transfusion tube is removed from the inferior-temporal cannula, and the fluid-air exchange is performed. A passive fluid-air exchange was performed to aspirate the residual silicone oil after gradually turning the patient's head temporally by approximately 90° gradually. Results. After the surgery, all patients had a clear anterior chamber and vitreous cavity on slit lamp and B scan examination, respectively. The mean time taken for silicone oil removal and total surgery was 8.0 ± 1.4 minutes and 12.4 ± 2.5 minutes, respectively. The mean intraocular pressure 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery was 9.0 ± 5.8 mmHg, 11.3 ± 7.6 mmHg, 16.1 ± 6.9 mmHg, 17.7 ± 4.8 mmHg, and 17.1 ± 3.5 mmHg, respectively. Conclusion. This new approach may provide a safe and fast method to remove the silicone oil. PMID:27418976

  14. Review of the clinical and biologic aspects of human papillomavirus-positive squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Blitzer, Grace C; Smith, Molly A; Harris, Stephen L; Kimple, Randall J

    2014-03-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), a known etiology of a subset of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNCs), causes numerous alterations in normal cellular functions. This article reviews the biology, detection, and treatment of HPV-positive HNC. The role of HPV oncoproteins in tumor development, the natural history of HPV infection, and risk factors for and prevention of transmission of oral HPV are considered. Commonly used methods for detecting HPV infection, including limitations of these methods, are discussed to aid the practicing clinician in using these tests in their clinical practice. Clinical characteristics of HPV-positive HNC, including potential explanations for the improved outcomes seen in patients with HPV-positive HNC, are assessed. Ongoing clinical trials specific for patients with HPV-positive HNC are described, and areas in need of additional research are summarized. Until the results of ongoing trials are known, treatment of HPV-positive HNC should not differ in clinical practice from treatment of similar non-HPV related cancers. PMID:24606845

  15. Review of the Clinical and Biologic Aspects of Human Papillomavirus-Positive Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Blitzer, Grace C.; Smith, Molly A.; Harris, Stephen L.; Kimple, Randall J.

    2014-03-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), a known etiology of a subset of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNCs), causes numerous alterations in normal cellular functions. This article reviews the biology, detection, and treatment of HPV-positive HNC. The role of HPV oncoproteins in tumor development, the natural history of HPV infection, and risk factors for and prevention of transmission of oral HPV are considered. Commonly used methods for detecting HPV infection, including limitations of these methods, are discussed to aid the practicing clinician in using these tests in their clinical practice. Clinical characteristics of HPV-positive HNC, including potential explanations for the improved outcomes seen in patients with HPV-positive HNC, are assessed. Ongoing clinical trials specific for patients with HPV-positive HNC are described, and areas in need of additional research are summarized. Until the results of ongoing trials are known, treatment of HPV-positive HNC should not differ in clinical practice from treatment of similar non-HPV related cancers.

  16. Head Start Teachers' Perceptions of Implementing Classroom Positive Behavior Support: Insights for Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novetsky, Jason S.

    2009-01-01

    Younger children are demonstrating increasingly more serious problem behaviors (Walker, 1998). The present study concerned further investigation of early implementation of a promising behavior management model known as Positive Behavior Support (PBS). PBS has been shown to be successful in elementary and secondary schools (Metzler, Biglan, &…

  17. Classification Accuracy of Serum Apo A-I and S100B for the Diagnosis of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Prediction of Abnormal Initial Head Computed Tomography Scan

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, Brian J.; He, Hua; Mookerjee, Sohug; Jones, Courtney; Kiechle, Karin; Moynihan, Ryan; Wojcik, Susan M.; Grant, William D.; Secreti, LaLainia M.; Triner, Wayne; Moscati, Ronald; Leinhart, August; Ellis, George L.; Khan, Jawwad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the current study was to determine the classification accuracy of serum S100B and apolipoprotein (apoA-I) for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and abnormal initial head computed tomography (CT) scan, and to identify ethnic, racial, age, and sex variation in classification accuracy. We performed a prospective, multi-centered study of 787 patients with mTBI who presented to the emergency department within 6 h of injury and 467 controls who presented to the outpatient laboratory for routine blood work. Serum was analyzed for S100B and apoA-I. The outcomes were disease status (mTBI or control) and initial head CT scan. At cutoff values defined by 90% of controls, the specificity for mTBI using S100B (0.899 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78–0.92]) was similar to that using apoA-I (0.902 [0.87–0.93]), and the sensitivity using S100B (0.252 [0.22–0.28]) was similar to that using apoA-I (0.249 [0.22–0.28]). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the combination of S100B and apoA-I (0.738, 95% CI: 0.71, 0.77), however, was significantly higher than the AUC for S100B alone (0.709, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.74, p=0.001) and higher than the AUC for apoA-I alone (0.645, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.68, p<0.0001). The AUC for prediction of abnormal initial head CT scan using S100B was 0.694 (95%CI: 0.62, 0.77) and not significant for apoA-I. At a S100B cutoff of <0.060 μg/L, the sensitivity for abnormal head CT was 98%, and 22.9% of CT scans could have been avoided. There was significant age and race-related variation in the accuracy of S100B for the diagnosis of mTBI. The combined use of serum S100B and apoA-I maximizes classification accuracy for mTBI, but only S100B is needed to classify abnormal head CT scan. Because of significant subgroup variation in classification accuracy, age and race need to be considered when using S100B to classify subjects for mTBI. PMID:23758329

  18. Less may be more: nodal treatment in neck positive head neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Studer, Gabriela; Huber, Gerhard F; Holz, Edna; Glanzmann, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Ongoing debates about the need and extent of planned neck dissection (PND), and required nodal radiation doses volumes lead to this evaluation. Aim was to assess nodal control after definitive intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT ± systemic therapy) followed by PND in our head neck cancer cohort with advanced nodal disease. Between 01/2005 and 12/2013, 99 squamous cell cancer HNC patients with pre-therapeutic nodal metastasis ≥3 cm were treated with definitive IMRT followed by PND. In addition, outcome in 103 patients with nodal relapse after IMRT and observation only (no-PND cohort) were analyzed. Prior to PND, PET-CT, fine needle aspirations, ultrasound and palpation were assessed regarding its predictive value. Patterns of nodal relapse were assessed in patients with isolated neck failure after definitive IMRT alone. 70/99 (70 %) PND specimens showed histopathological complete response (hCR), which translated into statistically significantly superior survival compared with partial response (hPR) with 4-year overall survival, disease specific survival and nodal control rates of 90/83/96 vs 67/60/78 % (p = 0.002/0.001/0.003). 1/99 patient developed isolated subsequent nodal disease. 64/2147 removed nodes contained viable tumor (3 %). Predictive information of the performed diagnostic investigations was not reliable. 17/70 hCR patients showed true negative findings in available three to four investigations (0/29 hPR). 27/103 no-PND patients developed isolated neck disease (26 %) with successful salvage in 21/24 [88 %, or 21/27 (78 %)]. Nearly all failures occurred in the prior nodal gross tumor volume area. A more restrictive approach regarding PND and/or nodal IMRT dose-volumes may be justified. PMID:25920604

  19. Enhanced radiation sensitivity in HPV-positive head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Kimple, Randall J; Smith, Molly A; Blitzer, Grace C; Torres, Alexandra D; Martin, Joshua A; Yang, Robert Z; Peet, Chimera R; Lorenz, Laurel D; Nickel, Kwangok P; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J; Lambert, Paul F; Harari, Paul M

    2013-08-01

    Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV+)-associated head and neck cancer (HNC) show significantly improved survival outcome compared with those with HPV-negative (HPV-) tumors. Published data examining this difference offers conflicting results to date. We systematically investigated the radiation sensitivity of all available validated HPV+ HNC cell lines and a series of HPV- HNC cell lines using in vitro and in vivo techniques. HPV+ HNCs exhibited greater intrinsic radiation sensitivity (average SF2 HPV-: 0.59 vs. HPV+: 0.22; P < 0.0001), corresponding with a prolonged G2-M cell-cycle arrest and increased apoptosis following radiation exposure (percent change 0% vs. 85%; P = 0.002). A genome-wide microarray was used to compare gene expression 24 hours following radiation between HPV+ and HPV- cell lines. Multiple genes in TP53 pathway were upregulated in HPV+ cells (Z score 4.90), including a 4.6-fold increase in TP53 (P < 0.0001). Using immortalized human tonsillar epithelial (HTE) cells, increased radiation sensitivity was seen in cell expressing HPV-16 E6 despite the effect of E6 to degrade p53. This suggested that low levels of normally functioning p53 in HPV+ HNC cells could be activated by radiation, leading to cell death. Consistent with this, more complete knockdown of TP53 by siRNA resulted in radiation resistance. These results provide clear evidence, and a supporting mechanism, for increased radiation sensitivity in HPV+ HNC relative to HPV- HNC. This issue is under active investigation in a series of clinical trials attempting to de-escalate radiation (and chemotherapy) in selected patients with HPV+ HNC in light of their favorable overall survival outcome. PMID:23749640

  20. Enhanced radiation sensitivity in HPV-positive head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kimple, Randall J.; Smith, Molly A.; Blitzer, Grace C.; Torres, Alexandra D.; Martin, Joshua A.; Yang, Robert Z.; Peet, Chimera R.; Lorenz, Laurel D.; Nickel, Kwangok P.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.; Lambert, Paul F; Harari, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with human papillomavirus associated (HPV+) head and neck cancer (HNC) demonstrate significantly improved survival outcome compared to those with HPV− negative (HPV−) tumors. Published data examining this difference offers conflicting results to date. We systematically investigated the radiation sensitivity of all available validated HPV+ HNC cell lines and a series of HPV− HNC cell lines using in vitro and in vivo techniques. HPV+ HNCs exhibited greater intrinsic radiation sensitivity (average SF2 HPV− 0.59 vs. HPV+ 0.22, p<0.0001), corresponding with a prolonged G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis following radiation exposure (percent change 0% vs. 85%, p=0.002). A genome-wide microarray was used to compare gene-expression 24 hours following radiation between HPV+ and HPV− cell lines. Multiple genes in TP53 pathway were upregulated in HPV+ cells (Z score 4.90), including a 4.6 fold increase in TP53 (p<0.0001). Using immortalized human tonsillar epithelial cells, increased radiation sensitivity was seen in cell expressing HPV-16 E6 despite the effect of E6 to degrade p53. This suggested that low levels of normally functioning p53 in HPV+ HNC cells could be activated by radiation, leading to cell death. Consistent with this, more complete knockdown of TP53 by siRNA resulted in radiation resistance. These results provide clear evidence, and a supporting mechanism, for increased radiation sensitivity in HPV+ HNC relative to HPV− HNC. This issue is under active investigation in a series of clinical trials attempting to de-escalate radiation (and chemotherapy) in selected patients with HPV+ HNC in light of their favorable overall survival outcome. PMID:23749640

  1. Neck control after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck control outcomes after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of fifty patients with node-positive head and neck cancer who received definitive radiochemotherapy. Twelve patients subsequently underwent neck dissection for suspicious recurrent or persistent disease. A median dose of 70 Gy (range 60-70.6) was delivered to involved nodes. Response evaluation was performed at a median of 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Results Neck failure was observed in 11 patients and the 3-year regional control (RC) rate was 77.1%. Neck dissection was performed in 10 of the 11 patients; seven of these cases were successfully salvaged, and the ultimate rate of neck control was 92%. The remaining two patients who received neck dissection had negative pathologic results. On univariate analysis, initial nodal size > 2 cm, a less-than-complete response at the primary site, post-radiotherapy nodal size > 1.5 cm, and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were associated with RC. On multivariate analysis, less-than-complete primary site response and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were identified as independent prognostic factors for RC. Conclusions The neck failure rate after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection was 22%. Two-thirds of these were successfully salvaged with neck dissection and the ultimate neck control rate was 92%. Our results suggest that planned neck dissection might not be necessary in patients with complete response of primary site, no evidence of residual lesion > 1.5 cm, or no necrotic lymph nodes at the 1-2 months follow-up evaluation after radiotherapy. PMID:22313843

  2. Effect of different head-neck positions on physical and psychological stress parameters in the ridden horse.

    PubMed

    Zebisch, A; May, A; Reese, S; Gehlen, H

    2014-10-01

    Different head-neck positions (HNPs) are used in equestrian sports and are regarded as desirable for training and competition by riders, judges and trainers. Even though some studies have been indicative of hyperflexion having negative effects on horses, this unnatural position is frequently used. In the present study, the influence of different HNPs on physical and psychological stress parameters in the ridden horse was investigated. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV) and blood cortisol levels were measured in 18 horses. Low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) are power components in the frequency domain measurement of HRV which show the activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Values were recorded at rest, while riding with a working HNP and while riding with hyperflexion of the horse's head, neck and poll. In addition, rideability and behaviour during the different investigation stages were evaluated by the rider and by an observer. Neither the HR nor the HRV showed a significant difference between working HNP (HR = 105 ± 22/min; LF/HF = 3.89 ± 5.68; LF = 37.28 ± 10.77%) and hyperflexion (HR = 110 ± 18; LF/HF = 1.94 ± 2.21; LF = 38.39 ± 13.01%). Blood cortisol levels revealed a significant increase comparing working HNP (158 ± 60 nm) and hyperflexion (176 ± 64 nm, p = 0.01). The evaluation of rider and observer resulted in clear changes of rideability and behavioural changes for the worse in all parameters collected between a working HNP and hyperflexion. In conclusion, changes of the cortisol blood level as a physical parameter led to the assumption that hyperflexion of head, neck and poll effects a stress reaction in the horse, and observation of the behaviour illustrates adverse effects on the well-being of horses during hyperflexion. PMID:24329719

  3. SU-E-J-12: An Image-Guided Soft Robotic Patient Positioning System for Maskless Head-And-Neck Cancer Radiotherapy: A Proof-Of-Concept Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ogunmolu, O; Gans, N; Jiang, S; Gu, X

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We propose a surface-image-guided soft robotic patient positioning system for maskless head-and-neck radiotherapy. The ultimate goal of this project is to utilize a soft robot to realize non-rigid patient positioning and real-time motion compensation. In this proof-of-concept study, we design a position-based visual servoing control system for an air-bladder-based soft robot and investigate its performance in controlling the flexion/extension cranial motion on a mannequin head phantom. Methods: The current system consists of Microsoft Kinect depth camera, an inflatable air bladder (IAB), pressured air source, pneumatic valve actuators, custom-built current regulators, and a National Instruments myRIO microcontroller. The performance of the designed system was evaluated on a mannequin head, with a ball joint fixed below its neck to simulate torso-induced head motion along flexion/extension direction. The IAB is placed beneath the mannequin head. The Kinect camera captures images of the mannequin head, extracts the face, and measures the position of the head relative to the camera. This distance is sent to the myRIO, which runs control algorithms and sends actuation commands to the valves, inflating and deflating the IAB to induce head motion. Results: For a step input, i.e. regulation of the head to a constant displacement, the maximum error was a 6% overshoot, which the system then reduces to 0% steady-state error. In this initial investigation, the settling time to reach the regulated position was approximately 8 seconds, with 2 seconds of delay between the command start of motion due to capacitance of the pneumatics, for a total of 10 seconds to regulate the error. Conclusion: The surface image-guided soft robotic patient positioning system can achieve accurate mannequin head flexion/extension motion. Given this promising initial Result, the extension of the current one-dimensional soft robot control to multiple IABs for non-rigid positioning control

  4. Factors predicting the persistence of genital human papillomavirus infections and PAP smear abnormality in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women during prospective follow-up.

    PubMed

    Branca, M; Garbuglia, A R; Benedetto, A; Cappiello, T; Leoncini, L; Migliore, G; Agarossi, A; Syrjänen, K

    2003-06-01

    As part of an extensive multi-institutional DIANAIDS study focused on assessing the risk factors, natural history, diagnosis and follow-up of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in HIV-infected women, the present communication reports a sub-cohort of 142 women (89 HIV+ and 48 HIV-), followed-up for a mean of 14.07 (+/-10.84) months to analyse the factors predicting the persistence and clearance of HPV infections (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] and sequencing) and cervical Papanicolaou (PAP) smear abnormalities, using both univariate (Kaplan-Meier) and multivariate (Cox) survival analysis. The appearance of new HPV infections during the follow-up was significantly more frequent in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative women, odds ratio (OR) 8.800 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.199-64.611), and also the clearance rate was significantly less frequent in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative women, 69.2% vs 22.8%, respectively (OR 0.330; 95% CI: 0.163-0.670). These two groups were also markedly different with respect to the clinical course of the cervical lesions, in the frequency of progressive disease (determined by PAP smear) was higher in HIV-positive group (12/89) than in HIV-negative women (2/52) (OR 3.506; 95% CI 0.816-15.055) (P = 0.055), in whom the disease regressed more frequently than in HIV-positive women (13.5% vs 7.9%) (OR 0.584; 95% CI 0.217-1.573). Using (1) HPV-positivity, (2) oncogenic HPV-type and (3) significant PAP smear abnormality at the end of follow-up as outcome measures, (1) was significantly (P < 0.001) predicted by the following variables in univariate analysis: age, mode of contraception, CD4 count, and HIV-positivity. The significant predictors of (2) were age and mode of contraception. The outcome measure (3) was significantly predicted by CD4 count, PAP smear abnormality and PCR status at entry. In the multivariate analysis, the significant independent predictive factors for HPV-positivity proved to be only the HIV status (P < 0

  5. Integrative and comparative genomic analysis of HPV-positive and HPV-negative head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Seiwert, Tanguy Y; Zuo, Zhixiang; Keck, Michaela K; Khattri, Arun; Pedamallu, Chandra S.; Stricker, Thomas; Brown, Christopher; Pugh, Trevor J.; Stojanov, Petar; Cho, Juok; Lawrence, Michael S.; Getz, Gad; Brägelmann, Johannes; DeBoer, Rebecca; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Langerman, Alexander; Portugal, Louis; Blair, Elizabeth; Stenson, Kerstin; Lingen, Mark W.; Cohen, Ezra EW; Vokes, Everett E.; White, Kevin P.; Hammerman, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The genetic differences between Human papilloma Virus (HPV)-positive and negative head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) remain largely unknown. In order to identify differential biology and novel therapeutic targets for both entities we determined mutations and copy number aberrations in a large cohort of locoregionally-advanced HNSCC. Experimental Design We performed massively parallel sequencing of 617 cancer-associated genes in 120 matched tumor/normal samples (42.5% HPV-positive). Mutations and copy number aberrations were determined and results validated with a secondary method. Results The overall mutational burden in HPV-negative and HPV-positive HNSCC was similar with an average of 15.2 versus 14.4 somatic exonic mutations in the targeted cancer-associated genes. HPV-negative tumors showed a mutational spectrum concordant with published lung squamous cell carcinoma analyses with enrichment for mutations in TP53, CDKN2A, MLL2, CUL3, NSD1, PIK3CA and NOTCH genes. HPV-positive tumors showed unique mutations in DDX3X, FGFR2/3 and aberrations in PIK3CA, KRAS, MLL2/3 and NOTCH1 were enriched in HPV-positive tumors. Currently targetable genomic alterations were identified in FGFR1, DDR2, EGFR, FGFR2/3, EPHA2 and PIK3CA. EGFR, CCND1, and FGFR1 amplifications occurred in HPV-negative tumors, while 17.6% of HPV-positive tumors harbored mutations in Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor genes (FGFR2/3) including six recurrent FGFR3 S249C mutations. HPV-positive tumors showed a 5.8% incidence of KRAS mutations, and DNA repair gene aberrations including 7.8% BRCA1/2 mutations were identified. Conclusions The mutational makeup of HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC differs significantly, including targetable genes. HNSCC harbors multiple therapeutically important genetic aberrations, including frequent aberrations in the FGFR and PI3K pathway genes. PMID:25056374

  6. Association of high viral load and abnormal liver function with high aflatoxin B1–albumin adduct levels in HIV-positive Ghanaians: preliminary observations

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, P.E.; Shuaib, F.M.; Jiang, Y.; Preko, P.; Baidoo, J.; Stiles, J.K.; Wang, J.-S.; Phillips, T.D.; Williams, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association between certain clinical factors and aflatoxin B1–albumin adduct (AF-ALB) levels in HIV-positive people. Plasma samples collected from 314 (155 HIV-positive and 159 HIV-negative) people were tested for AF-ALB levels, viral load, CD4+ T-cell count, liver function profile, malaria parasitaemia, and hepatitis B and C virus infections. HIV-positive participants were divided into high and low groups based on their median AF-ALB of 0.93 pmol mg−1 albumin and multivariable logistic and linear regression methods used to assess relationships between clinical conditions and AF-ALB levels. Multivariable logistic regression showed statistically significant increased odds of having higher HIV viral loads (OR=2.84; 95% CI=1.17–7.78) and higher direct bilirubin levels (OR=5.47; 95% CI=1.03–22.85) among HIV-positive participants in the high AF-ALB group. There were also higher levels of total bilirubin and lower levels of albumin in association with high AF-ALB. Thus, aflatoxin exposure may contribute to high viral loads and abnormal liver function in HIV-positive people and so promote disease progression. PMID:21749228

  7. Interpersonal relationships in isolation and confinement: Long-term bed rest in head-down tilt position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karine, Weiss; Gabriel, Moser

    The long-term bed-rest was organized by ESA and CNES, in order to simulate the physiological effects of weightlessness: eight volunteers had to stay 42 days in bed, in a head down tilt position (-6 °). There were two subjects in a room, they could not be alone and it was difficult for them to have their own personal space and intimacy. In these circumstances, as in outer space, interpersonal relationships were of prime importance. This situation enabled us, through systematic observation, to analyze the evolution of the relational behavior in dyads, and to quote some social indicators of adaptation. Results show significant withdrawal, and the time spent alone was marked by the emergence, during the experiment, of specific preferential activities. Behavioral contagion was observed in each dyad (people engaged in the same activities at the same time), except in the one case of abandon. Moreover, the highest rates of inactivity and withdrawal were noted in this case. Verbal indicators were useful to comment these results and showed that, for all the dyads, one of the two subjects always played a regulating role by expressing a very positive perception of the situation. These results emphasize the importance of psycho-sociological factors in isolation and confinement. Thus, it appears that different modalities of interpersonal relationships, and not only verbal interactions, play a significant role in adaptation to stress situations.

  8. Effective seat-to-head transmissibility in whole-body vibration: Effects of posture and arm position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmatalla, Salam; DeShaw, Jonathan

    2011-12-01

    Seat-to-head transmissibility is a biomechanical measure that has been widely used for many decades to evaluate seat dynamics and human response to vibration. Traditionally, transmissibility has been used to correlate single-input or multiple-input with single-output motion; it has not been effectively used for multiple-input and multiple-output scenarios due to the complexity of dealing with the coupled motions caused by the cross-axis effect. This work presents a novel approach to use transmissibility effectively for single- and multiple-input and multiple-output whole-body vibrations. In this regard, the full transmissibility matrix is transformed into a single graph, such as those for single-input and single-output motions. Singular value decomposition and maximum distortion energy theory were used to achieve the latter goal. Seat-to-head transmissibility matrices for single-input/multiple-output in the fore-aft direction, single-input/multiple-output in the vertical direction, and multiple-input/multiple-output directions are investigated in this work. A total of ten subjects participated in this study. Discrete frequencies of 0.5-16 Hz were used for the fore-aft direction using supported and unsupported back postures. Random ride files from a dozer machine were used for the vertical and multiple-axis scenarios considering two arm postures: using the armrests or grasping the steering wheel. For single-input/multiple-output, the results showed that the proposed method was very effective in showing the frequencies where the transmissibility is mostly sensitive for the two sitting postures and two arm positions. For multiple-input/multiple-output, the results showed that the proposed effective transmissibility indicated higher values for the armrest-supported posture than for the steering-wheel-supported posture.

  9. Development and characterization of HPV-positive and HPV-negative head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumorgrafts

    PubMed Central

    Kimple, Randall J.; Harari, Paul M.; Torres, Alexandra D.; Yang, Robert Z.; Soriano, Benjamin J.; Yu, Menggang; Armstrong, Eric A.; Blitzer, Grace C.; Smith, Molly A.; Lorenz, Laurel D.; Lee, Denis; Yang, David; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Hartig, Gregory K.; Lambert, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To develop a clinically relevant model system to study head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), we have established and characterized a direct-from-patient, tumorgraft model of Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative cancers. Experimental Design Patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent HNSCC were consented for donation of tumor specimens. Surgically obtained tissue was implanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice. During subsequent passages, both formalin-fixed/paraffin embedded as well as flash frozen tissues were harvested. Tumors were analyzed for a variety of relevant tumor markers. Tumor growth rates and response to radiation, cisplatin, or cetuximab were assessed and early passage cell strains were developed for rapid testing of drug sensitivity. Results Tumorgrafts have been established in 22 of 26 patients to date. Significant diversity in tumorgraft tumor differentiation was observed with good agreement in degree of differentiation between patient tumor and tumorgraft (Kappa 0.72). Six tumorgrafts were HPV-positive on the basis of p16 staining. A strong inverse correlation between tumorgraft p16 and p53 or Rb was identified (Spearman correlations p=0.085 and p=0.002, respectively). Significant growth inhibition of representative tumorgrafts was demonstrated with cisplatin, cetuximab or radiation treatment delivered over a two-week period. Early passage cell strains showed high consistency in response to cancer therapy between tumorgraft and cell strain. Conclusions We have established a robust human tumorgraft model system for investigating HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC. These tumorgrafts show strong correlation with the original tumor specimens and provide a powerful resource for investigating mechanisms of therapeutic response as well as preclinical testing. PMID:23251001

  10. Abnormal positive bias stress instability of In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors with low-temperature Al2O3 gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Hong; Yu, Ming-Jiue; Lin, Ruei-Ping; Hsu, Chih-Pin; Hou, Tuo-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to deposit Al2O3 as a gate dielectric in amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors fabricated at temperatures below 120 °C. The devices exhibited a negligible threshold voltage shift (ΔVT) during negative bias stress, but a more pronounced ΔVT under positive bias stress with a characteristic turnaround behavior from a positive ΔVT to a negative ΔVT. This abnormal positive bias instability is explained using a two-process model, including both electron trapping and hydrogen release and migration. Electron trapping induces the initial positive ΔVT, which can be fitted using the stretched exponential function. The breakage of residual AlO-H bonds in low-temperature ALD Al2O3 is triggered by the energetic channel electrons. The hydrogen atoms then diffuse toward the In-Ga-Zn-O channel and induce the negative ΔVT through electron doping with power-law time dependence. A rapid partial recovery of the negative ΔVT after stress is also observed during relaxation.

  11. Abnormal movement of tropomyosin and response of myosin heads and actin during the ATPase cycle caused by the Arg167His, Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu mutations in TPM1 gene.

    PubMed

    Borovikov, Yurii S; Rysev, Nikita A; Chernev, Aleksey A; Avrova, Stanislava V; Karpicheva, Olga E; Borys, Danuta; Śliwińska, Małgorzata; Moraczewska, Joanna

    2016-09-15

    Amino acid substitutions: Arg167His, Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu, located in a consensus actin-binding site of the striated muscle tropomyosin Tpm1.1 (TM), were used to investigate mechanisms of the thin filament regulation. The azimuthal movement of TM strands on the actin filament and the responses of the myosin heads and actin subunits during the ATPase cycle were studied using fluorescence polarization of muscle fibres. The recombinant wild-type and mutant TMs labelled with 5-IAF, 1,5-IAEDANS-labelled S1and FITC-phalloidin F-actin were incorporated into the ghost muscle fibres to acquire information on the orientation of the probes relative to the fibre axis. The substitutions Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu shifted TM strands into the actin filament centre, whereas Arg167His moved TM towards the periphery of the filament. In the presence of Arg167Gly-TM and Lys168Glu-TM the fraction of actin monomers that were switched on and the number of the myosin heads strongly bound to F-actin were abnormally high even under conditions close to relaxation. In contrast, Arg167His-TM decreased the fraction of switched on actin and reduced the formation of strongly bound myosin heads throughout the ATPase cycle. We concluded that the altered TM-actin contacts destabilized the thin filament and affected the actin-myosin interactions. PMID:27480605

  12. Position-addressable digital laser scanning point fluorescence microscopy with a Blu-ray disk pickup head

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Chen, Jung-Po; Lee, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Ting; Chiang, Hung-Chih; Cheng, Chih-Ming; Lo, Feng-Hsiang; Chang, Sheng-Li; Weng, Kuo-Yao; Chung, Lung-Pin; Chen, Jyh-Chern; Tiao, Golden

    2014-01-01

    A compact and position-addressable blue ray scanning microscope (BSM) based on a commercially available Blu-ray disk pickup head (PUH) is developed for cell imaging with high resolution and low cost. The BSM comprises two objective lenses with numerical apertures (NAs) of 0.85 and 0.6 for focusing blue and red laser beams, respectively, on the sample slide. The blue and red laser beams are co-located adjacent to each other and move synchronously. A specially designed sample slide is used with a sample area and an address-patterned area for sample holding and address recognition, respectively. The blue laser beam is focused on the sample area and is used for fluorescent excitation and image capturing, whereas the red laser beam is focused on the address-patterned area and is used for address recognition and dynamic focusing. The address-patterned area is divided into 310 sectors. The cell image of each sector of the sampling area has a corresponding address pattern. Fluorescence images of monkey-derived kidney epithelial cells and fibroblast cells in which the F-actin is stained with fluorophore phalloidin CF 405 are measured by the BSM, with results comparable to those measured by a Leica TCS CP2 confocal microscope. The cell image of an area of interest can be easily tracked based on the coded address, and a large-area sample image can be accurately reconstructed from the sector images. PMID:24575338

  13. Distinct Factors Associated with Head Start Mothers' Self-Report of Perceived Low Positive and High Negative Maternal Expressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Nicole Megan

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: There is growing acknowledgment of the need for parenting interventions to address early-onset behavior and emotional concerns. Favorable child outcomes have been linked to parents' responsiveness and positive expressiveness. Given the theoretical and empirical link between perceptions and actual behavior, Head Start…

  14. Improved Clearance during Treatment of HPV-Positive Head and Neck Cancer through mTOR Inhibition12

    PubMed Central

    Coppock, Joseph D; Wieking, Bryant G; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Gutkind, J Silvio; Miskimins, W Keith; Lee, John H

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) incidence is increasing at a near epidemic rate. We investigated whether the mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, rapamycin, can be used as a concurrent agent to standard-of-care cisplatin/radiation therapy (CRT) to attenuate tumor lactate production, thus enhancing CRT-induced immune-mediated clearance of this antigenic tumor type. A C57Bl/6-derived mouse oropharyngeal epithelial cell line retrovirally transduced with HPV type 16 E6/E7 and human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were evaluated for their response to rapamycin in vitro with proliferation assays, Western blots, and lactate assays. Clonogenic assays and a preclinical mouse model were used to assess rapamycin as a concurrent agent to CRT. The potential of rapamycin to enhance immune response through lactate attenuation was assessed using quantitative tumor lactate bioluminescence and assessment of cell-mediated immunity using E6/E7-vaccinated mouse splenocytes. Rapamycin alone inhibited mTOR signaling of all cancer cell lines tested in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, rapamycin administered alone significantly prolonged survival in vivo but did not result in any long-term cures. Given concurrently, CRT/rapamycin significantly enhanced direct cell killing in clonogenic assays and prolonged survival in immunocompromised mice. However, in immunocompetent mice, concurrent CRT/rapamycin increased long-term cures by 21%. Preliminary findings suggest that improved survival involves increased cell killing and enhanced immune-mediated clearance in part due to decreased lactate production. The results may provide rationale for the clinical evaluation of mTOR inhibitors concurrent with standard-of-care CRT for treatment of HPV-positive HNSCC. PMID:23730210

  15. Development of a frameless stereotactic radiosurgery system based on real-time 6D position monitoring and adaptive head motion compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, Rodney D.; Wen, Zhifei; Sadinski, Meredith; Farrey, Karl; Yenice, Kamil M.

    2010-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery delivers radiation with great spatial accuracy. To achieve sub-millimeter accuracy for intracranial SRS, a head ring is rigidly fixated to the skull to create a fixed reference. For some patients, the invasiveness of the ring can be highly uncomfortable and not well tolerated. In addition, placing and removing the ring requires special expertise from a neurosurgeon, and patient setup time for SRS can often be long. To reduce the invasiveness, hardware limitations and setup time, we are developing a system for performing accurate head positioning without the use of a head ring. The proposed method uses real-time 6D optical position feedback for turning on and off the treatment beam (gating) and guiding a motor-controlled 3D head motion compensation stage. The setup consists of a central control computer, an optical patient motion tracking system and a 3D motion compensation stage attached to the front of the LINAC couch. A styrofoam head cast was custom-built for patient support and was mounted on the compensation stage. The motion feedback of the markers was processed by the control computer, and the resulting motion of the target was calculated using a rigid body model. If the target deviated beyond a preset position of 0.2 mm, an automatic position correction was performed with stepper motors to adjust the head position via the couch mount motion platform. In the event the target deviated more than 1 mm, a safety relay switch was activated and the treatment beam was turned off. The feasibility of the concept was tested using five healthy volunteers. Head motion data were acquired with and without the use of motion compensation over treatment times of 15 min. On average, test subjects exceeded the 0.5 mm tolerance 86% of the time and the 1.0 mm tolerance 45% of the time without motion correction. With correction, this percentage was reduced to 5% and 2% for the 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm tolerances, respectively.

  16. Negligible Egg Positive Rate of Enterobius vermicularis and No Detection of Head Lice among Orphanage Children in Busan and Ulsan, Korea (2014)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Son, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Sang Hwa; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Sang Kyun; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jung Ha; Yu, Hak-Sun

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether pinworm infections and head lice infestations spread among children in orphanages, 117 children from 4 orphanages in Busan-si and Ulsan-si, Korea, were examined for enterobiasis and head lice infestation between January and February 2014. The overall rate of Enterobius vermicularis egg positivity was 0.85%, whereas none of the children had head lice infestations. The rate of pinworm infection was much lower among the orphanage children compared to the rates observed in previous studies among kindergarten and primary school students. Moreover, the risk factors for enterobiasis were less frequent among these subjects than previously reported. The personal hygiene and health of the orphanage children were supervised by a regular, employed nurse through a health education program. In conclusion, pinworm infection was efficiently controlled among the children in orphanages, and this might be related to good personal hygiene practices in Korea. PMID:26323851

  17. Negligible Egg Positive Rate of Enterobius vermicularis and No Detection of Head Lice among Orphanage Children in Busan and Ulsan, Korea (2014).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Son, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Sang Hwa; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Sang Kyun; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jung Ha; Yu, Hak-Sun

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether pinworm infections and head lice infestations spread among children in orphanages, 117 children from 4 orphanages in Busan-si and Ulsan-si, Korea, were examined for enterobiasis and head lice infestation between January and February 2014. The overall rate of Enterobius vermicularis egg positivity was 0.85%, whereas none of the children had head lice infestations. The rate of pinworm infection was much lower among the orphanage children compared to the rates observed in previous studies among kindergarten and primary school students. Moreover, the risk factors for enterobiasis were less frequent among these subjects than previously reported. The personal hygiene and health of the orphanage children were supervised by a regular, employed nurse through a health education program. In conclusion, pinworm infection was efficiently controlled among the children in orphanages, and this might be related to good personal hygiene practices in Korea. PMID:26323851

  18. The effect of three different head-neck positions on the average EMG activity of three important neck muscles in the horse.

    PubMed

    Kienapfel, K

    2015-02-01

    The Knowledge of muscle activity in common head-neck positions (HNPs) is a necessary precondition for making judgements on HNPs. The aim of the study was to record the surface electromyography activities of important muscles of the horse's neck in various HNPs. The electrical activities of the m. splenius, brachiocephalicus and trapezius were recorded on both sides. Five horses, both with and without a rider, were examined in all three gaits on both hands in three different HNPs: a 'free' position, a 'gathered' (head higher, neck more flexed) position with the noseline in front of the vertical and a 'hyperflexed' position. Averages of ten consecutive gait cycles in each HNP were evaluated and compared by standard statistical methods. No difference between ridden and unridden horses could be detected. The m. brachiocephalicus was in the hyperflexed position in all gaits significantly (p < 0.01) more active than in the gathered and free position, which were not significantly different. By contrast, the m. splenius was in the hyperflexed position less active than in the free position (p < 0.02), in which it always showed the highest activity. In walking, the muscle activities in the free and gathered positions deviated significantly (p < 0.01). The m. trapezius was in the hyperflexed posture during walking significantly less active than in the free (p < 0.01) and gathered (p < 0.01) positions with the strongest activities in the free position. Again, the free and gathered positions differed significantly (p < 0.01). In trot, the same pattern occured, although the gathered and hyperflexed positions did not differ significantly. In the canter, the activities of the m. trapezius showed no differences between HNPs. In HNPs with the noseline in front of the vertical, the muscles of the topline (m. splenius, m. trapezius) are activated and trained. In the hyperflexed position, however, a major muscle of the lower topline (m. brachiocephalicus) is activated and trained. PMID

  19. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  20. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  2. On-Board Patient Positioning for Head-and-Neck IMRT: Comparing Digital Tomosynthesis to Kilovoltage Radiography and Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Q. Jackie Godfrey, Devon J.; Wang Zhiheng; Zhang Junan; Zhou Sumin; Yoo Sua; Brizel, David M.; Yin Fangfang

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: High-precision intensity-modulated radiotherapy demands high patient positioning accuracy. On-board digital tomosynthesis (DTS) provides three-dimensional (3D) image guidance for daily positioning with a lower imaging dose, faster acquisition, and more geometric flexibility than 3D cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). This clinical study evaluated DTS as a daily imaging technique for patient positioning and compared the results with 3D CBCT and two-dimensional (2D) radiography. Methods and Materials: Head and neck cancer patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiotherapy were studied. For each session, the patient was positioned using laser marks. On-board imaging data sets, including 2D kilovoltage radiographs, DTS, and CBCT, were obtained to measure the daily patient positioning variations. The mean and standard deviations of the positioning variations in the translational and rotational directions were calculated. The positioning differences among 2D radiography, DTS, and CBCT were analyzed. Results: Image data sets were collected from 65 treatment fractions for 10 patients. The systematic patient positioning variation was <0.10 cm and 1.0 deg. one dimensionally. The random variations were 0.27-0.34 cm in the translational and 0.93{sup o}-1.99{sup o} in the rotational direction. The mean vector isocenter variation was 0.48 cm. DTS with 40 deg. and 20 deg. scan angles in the coronal or sagittal directions yielded the same results for patient positioning. DTS performance was comparable to that of CBCT, with positioning differences of <0.1 cm and 0.5{sup o}. The positioning difference between 2D radiography and DTS was {approx}0.1 cm and 0.2 cm in the vertical/longitudinal and lateral directions. Conclusion: Our results have demonstrated that DTS is a comparable 3D imaging technique to CBCT for daily patient positioning of head-and-neck patients as determined by manual registration of bony anatomy.

  3. Dizziness following head injury: a neuro-otological study.

    PubMed

    Davies, R A; Luxon, L M

    1995-03-01

    Dizziness is a frequent and debilitating complications of head injury and accounts for increasing numbers of medico-legal claims. A detailed neuro-otological study was carried out from the records of 100 patients with post-traumatic dizziness to explore the neuro-otological basis of their symptoms: 50 patients presenting for medico-legal purposes (group I) and 50 presenting for management of their vestibular symptoms (group II). The two groups showed a similar sex distribution, a similar range of causes of head injury and similar severity of head injury (72 minor, 24 moderate and 4 severe). Of the 100, 88 showed at least one audio-vestibular abnormality on testing. Vertigo of the benign positional paroxysmal type was the commonest vestibular diagnosis in both groups (61/100), and only 8 patients showed central vestibular abnormalities. Fifty-three patients had audiometric abnormalities attributable to the head injury, the commonest of which was a high-tone sensorineural hearing loss. There was no significant difference in the incidence of any of the abnormalities in the medico-legal group (group I) when compared with the symptom management group (group II). The results provide strong evidence for an organic basis to recurring dizziness after head injury, whether or not a claim for compensation is pending, and emphasize the need for specialist neuro-otological investigation if abnormalities are to be identified and managed correctly. PMID:7798121

  4. Bortezomib sensitises TRAIL-resistant HPV-positive head and neck cancer cells to TRAIL through a caspase-dependent, E6-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bullenkamp, J; Raulf, N; Ayaz, B; Walczak, H; Kulms, D; Odell, E; Thavaraj, S; Tavassoli, M

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causative for a new and increasing form of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Although localised HPV-positive cancers have a favourable response to radio-chemotherapy (RT/CT), the impact of HPV in advanced or metastatic HNSCC remains to be defined and targeted therapeutics need to be tested for cancers resistant to RT/CT. To this end, we investigated the sensitivity of HPV-positive and -negative HNSCC cell lines to TRAIL (tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), which induces tumour cell-specific apoptosis in various cancer types. A clear correlation was observed between HPV positivity and resistance to TRAIL compared with HPV-negative head and neck cancer cell lines. All TRAIL-resistant HPV-positive cell lines tested were sensitised to TRAIL-induced cell death by treatment with bortezomib, a clinically approved proteasome inhibitor. Bortezomib-mediated sensitisation to TRAIL was associated with enhanced activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, elevated membrane expression levels of TRAIL-R2, cytochrome c release and G2/M arrest. Knockdown of caspase-8 significantly blocked cell death induced by the combination therapy, whereas the BH3-only protein Bid was not required for induction of apoptosis. XIAP depletion increased the sensitivity of both HPV-positive and -negative cells to TRAIL alone or in combination with bortezomib. In contrast, restoration of p53 following E6 knockdown in HPV-positive cells had no effect on their sensitivity to either single or combination therapy, suggesting a p53-independent pathway for the observed response. In summary, bortezomib-mediated proteasome inhibition sensitises previously resistant HPV-positive HNSCC cells to TRAIL-induced cell death through a mechanism involving both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. The cooperative effect of these two targeted anticancer agents therefore represents a promising treatment strategy for RT/CT-resistant HPV

  5. Cytogenetic Abnormality in Exfoliated Cells of Buccal Mucosa in Head and Neck Cancer Patients in the Tunisian Population: Impact of Different Exposure Sources

    PubMed Central

    Khlifi, Rim; Trabelsi-Ksibi, Fatma; Chakroun, Amine; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome/DNA instability could be one of the primary causes of malignant cell transformation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the spontaneous genetic damages in exfoliated cells of buccal mucosa of head and neck cancer (HNC) by counting micronucleus (MN) and binucleated (BN) cells frequencies. MN and BN frequencies were significantly increased in HNC patients compared with controls (5.53 ± 3.09/1000 cells, 5.63 ± 2.99/1000 cells versus 2.36 ± 2.11/1000 cells, 3.09 ± 1.82/1000 cells, P < 0.001). Regarding the gender and the age, the frequencies of the MN and BN were significantly higher than those of controls (P < 0.01). The evaluation of the MN and BN frequencies revealed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the cases in relation to the control group after controlling the risk factors (tobacco smoking and chewing and occupational exposure) of HNC. Moreover, MN and BN frequencies were significantly increased in smokers and chewers compared with nonsmokers and nonchewers among patients (P < 0.05). MN frequency was significantly (P = 0.014) different between patients occupationally exposed (6.99 ± 3.40/1000 cells) and nonexposed (4.70 ± 2.48/1000 cells) among HNC group. The logistic regression model illustrated that HNC was significantly associated with frequencies of MN (OR = 8.63, P < 0.0001) and BN (OR = 5.62, P = 0.001). Our results suggest that increased chromosome/DNA instabilities may be associated with HNC. PMID:23957010

  6. Tamm-Horsfall protein in recurrent calcium kidney stone formers with positive family history: abnormalities in urinary excretion, molecular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Markus; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Zipperle, Ljerka; Hess, Bernhard

    2007-04-01

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) powerfully inhibits calcium oxalate crystal aggregation, but structurally abnormal THPs from recurrent calcium stone formers may promote crystal aggregation. Therefore, increased urinary excretion of abnormal THP might be of relevance in nephrolithiasis. We studied 44 recurrent idiopathic calcium stone formers with a positive family history of stone disease (RCSF(fam)) and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (C). Twenty-four-hour urinary THP excretion was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Structural properties of individually purified THPs were obtained from analysis of elution patterns from a Sepharose 4B column. Sialic acid (SA) contents of native whole 24-h urines, crude salt precipitates of native urines and individually purified THPs were measured. THP function was studied by measuring inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation in vitro (pH 5.7, 200 mM sodium chloride). Twenty-four-hour urine excretion of THP was higher in RCSF(fam) (44.0 +/- 4.0 mg/day) than in C (30.9 +/- 2.2 mg/day, P = 0.015). Upon salt precipitation and lyophilization, elution from a Sepharose 4B column revealed one major peak (peak A, cross-reacting with polyclonal anti-THP antibody) and a second minor peak (peak B, not cross-reacting). THPs from RCSF(fam) eluted later than those from C (P = 0.021), and maximum width of THP peaks was higher in RCSF(fam )than in C (P = 0.024). SA content was higher in specimens from RCSF(fam) than from C, in native 24-h urines (207.5 +/- 20.4 mg vs. 135.2 +/- 16.1 mg, P = 0.013) as well as in crude salt precipitates of 24-h urines (10.4 +/- 0.5 mg vs. 7.4 +/- 0.9 mg, P = 0.002) and in purified THPs (75.3 +/- 9.3 microg/mg vs. 48.8 +/- 9.8 microg/mg THP, P = 0.043). Finally, inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal aggregation by 40 mg/L of THP was lower in RCSF(fam) (6.1 +/- 5.5%, range -62.0 to +84.2%) than in C (24.9 +/- 6.0%, range -39.8 to +82.7%), P = 0.022, and only 25 out of 44 (57%) THPs from RCSF

  7. Rate dependent direct inverse hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric micro-actuator used in dual-stage hard disk drive head positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Arifur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Yao, Kui

    2015-08-01

    The head positioning servo system in hard disk drive is implemented nowadays using a dual-stage actuator—the primary stage consisting of a voice coil motor actuator providing long range motion and the secondary stage controlling the position of the read/write head with fine resolution. Piezoelectric micro-actuator made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been a popular choice for the secondary stage. However, PZT micro-actuator exhibits hysteresis—an inherent nonlinear characteristic of piezoelectric material. The advantage expected from using the secondary micro-actuator is somewhat lost by the hysteresis of the micro-actuator that contributes to tracking error. Hysteresis nonlinearity adversely affects the performance and, if not compensated, may cause inaccuracy and oscillation in the response. Compensation of hysteresis is therefore an important aspect for designing head-positioning servo system. This paper presents a new rate dependent model of hysteresis along with rigorous analysis and identification of the model. Parameters of the model are found using particle swarm optimization. Direct inverse of the proposed rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is used as the hysteresis compensator. Effectiveness of the overall solution is underscored through experimental results.

  8. Influences of local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics on fish assemblages within impoundments of low-head dams in the tributaries of the Qingyi River, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Xian; LI, Yu-Ru; CHU, Ling; ZHU, Ren; WANG, Li-Zhu; YAN, Yun-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Low-head dam impoundments modify local habitat and alter fish assemblages; however, to our knowledge, the pattern of how fish assemblages in the impoundments relate to local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics is still unclear. We used data collected in 62 impoundments created by low-head dams in headwater streams of the Qingyi River, China, to examine relationships between fish assemblages and local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics. We also assessed the relative importance of the three groups of factors in determining fish species richness and composition. Linear regression models showed that fish species richness was related to substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, and dam number upstream. Redundancy analysis showed that fish species compositions were influenced by substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, dam height, dam numbers upstream and downstream. Overall, dam characteristics were more important in affecting fish species richness but less important in determining fish species composition than local habitat (i.e., substrate heterogeneity) and tributary position. Our results suggest that low-head dam may affect fish species richness in impoundments by modifying local habitat and constraining fish movement, and the relative abundances of those fish species may depend more on species habitat presences and stream size than on impoundment size and number. PMID:27029863

  9. Rate dependent direct inverse hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric micro-actuator used in dual-stage hard disk drive head positioning system.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Arifur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Yao, Kui

    2015-08-01

    The head positioning servo system in hard disk drive is implemented nowadays using a dual-stage actuator—the primary stage consisting of a voice coil motor actuator providing long range motion and the secondary stage controlling the position of the read/write head with fine resolution. Piezoelectric micro-actuator made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been a popular choice for the secondary stage. However, PZT micro-actuator exhibits hysteresis—an inherent nonlinear characteristic of piezoelectric material. The advantage expected from using the secondary micro-actuator is somewhat lost by the hysteresis of the micro-actuator that contributes to tracking error. Hysteresis nonlinearity adversely affects the performance and, if not compensated, may cause inaccuracy and oscillation in the response. Compensation of hysteresis is therefore an important aspect for designing head-positioning servo system. This paper presents a new rate dependent model of hysteresis along with rigorous analysis and identification of the model. Parameters of the model are found using particle swarm optimization. Direct inverse of the proposed rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is used as the hysteresis compensator. Effectiveness of the overall solution is underscored through experimental results. PMID:26329224

  10. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal in number, ... blood flow to the fetus impair fetal growth. Alcohol consumption and certain drugs during pregnancy significantly increase ...

  11. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  12. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  13. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  14. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... or head trauma Brain tumor Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) Cerebral palsy Cervical spondylosis with myelopathy (a problem with the ... 22. Read More Arthritis Bunions Central nervous system Cerebral palsy Dizziness Ingrown toenail Multiple sclerosis Muscular dystrophy Myositis ...

  15. Computational insight into the catalytic implication of head/tail-first orientation of arachidonic acid in human 5-lipoxygenase: consequences for the positional specificity of oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Saura, Patricia; Maréchal, Jean-Didier; Masgrau, Laura; Lluch, José M; González-Lafont, Àngels

    2016-08-17

    In the present work we have combined homology modeling, protein-ligand dockings, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations and molecular dynamics simulations to generate human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX):arachidonic acid (AA) complexes consistent with the 5-lipoxygenating activity (which implies hydrogen abstraction at the C7 position). Our results suggest that both the holo and the apo forms of human Stable 5-LOX could accommodate AA in a productive form for 5-lipoxygenation. The former, in a tail-first orientation, with the AA carboxylate end interacting with Lys409, gives the desired structures with C7 close to the Fe-OH(-) cofactor and suitable barrier heights for H7 abstraction. Only when using the apo form structure, a head-first orientation with the AA carboxylate close to His600 (a residue recently proposed as essential for AA positioning) is obtained in the docking calculations. However, the calculated barrier heights for this head-first orientation are in principle consistent with 5-LOX specificity, but also with 12/8 regioselectivity. Finally, long MD simulations give support to the recent hypothesis that the Phe177 + Tyr181 pair needs to close the active site access during the chemical reaction, and suggest that in the case of a head-first orientation Phe177 may be the residue interacting with the AA carboxylate. PMID:27489112

  16. Influence of the front part of the vehicle and cyclist's sitting position on the severity of head injury in side collision.

    PubMed

    Fanta, Ondřej; Bouček, Jan; Hadraba, Dan; Jelen, Karel

    2013-01-01

    An injury of cyclists during a collision with a car is currently a neglected topic. Most research projects evaluate in detail the injury of pedestrians, but with an increasing number of cyclists it will be necessary to devote more attention to their safety. This study is focused on the most common type of collision and offers insights into the biomechanics of cyclist's head injury without the use of bicycle helmet. Initial mechanical and kinematic conditions that affect Head Injury Criterion (HIC) after a car hits a cyclist were determined using simulation software MADYMO. In relation to HIC, three different shapes of the front part of the car and three basic cyclist's positions were compared. PMID:23957302

  17. Optimization of the mechanical performance of a two-duct semicircular duct system--part 3: the positioning of the ducts in the head.

    PubMed

    Muller, M; Verhagen, J H G

    2002-06-21

    In the majority of vertebrates, the horizontal duct of the vestibular system lies approximately in the yawing plane of the head. The positioning of the vertical ducts, however, is not in the pitch- and roll planes but the vertical ducts generally lie under an angle of about 30-45 degrees relative to the medial plane. Using the equations for a hydrodynamically interconnected two-duct system, optimal positions of the vertical and horizontal ducts in different vertebrate groups can be derived. It was stated that the mean response of the vertical ducts should be optimized. This leads to a symmetrical positioning of the vertical ducts with respect to the medial plane. In all observed vertebrate groups, a solution of mu =(pi-alpha)/2 is found (mu is the angle of the vertical ducts relative to the medial plane, alpha is the angle between the vertical duct planes). For alpha=90 degrees, this provides an equal sensitivity for pitch- and roll- movements. For alpha>90 degrees, a larger sensitivity for pitch movements is obtained, at the expense of a lower sensitivity for roll movements. It is argued that the angle alpha between the vertical ducts may vary from 90 to 120 degrees. In most vertebrates, the centre of mass is stabilized by e.g. fins, tri- or quadrupedal stability, a crawling body or upside-down resting positions (e.g. bats). Birds are generally biped, so in walking they are also rather sensitive to roll. These features are related to labyrinth positioning in the head. PMID:12151260

  18. Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Welch, Robert D; Ayaz, Syed I; Lewis, Lawrence M; Unden, Johan; Chen, James Y; Mika, Valerie H; Saville, Ben; Tyndall, Joseph A; Nash, Marshall; Buki, Andras; Barzo, Pal; Hack, Dallas; Tortella, Frank C; Schmid, Kara; Hayes, Ronald L; Vossough, Arastoo; Sweriduk, Stephen T; Bazarian, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-15

    Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70-0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65-0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice. PMID:26467555

  19. Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Syed I.; Lewis, Lawrence M.; Unden, Johan; Chen, James Y.; Mika, Valerie H.; Saville, Ben; Tyndall, Joseph A.; Nash, Marshall; Buki, Andras; Barzo, Pal; Hack, Dallas; Tortella, Frank C.; Schmid, Kara; Hayes, Ronald L.; Vossough, Arastoo; Sweriduk, Stephen T.; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70–0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71–0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65–0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice. PMID:26467555

  20. Decreased entropy of symbolic heart rate dynamics during daily activity as a predictor of positive head-up tilt test in patients with alleged neurocardiogenic syncope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, June-Soo; Park, Jeong-Euy; Seo, Jung-Don; Lee, Won-Ro; Kim, Hee-Soo; Noh, Jung-Il; Kim, Nam-Su; Yum, Myung-Kul

    2000-11-01

    Entropy measures of RR interval variability during daily activity over a 24 h period were compared in 30 patients with a positive head-up tilt (HUT) test and 30 patients with a negative HUT test who had a history of alleged neurocardiogenic syncope. Two different entropies, approximate entropy (ApEn) and entropy of symbolic dynamics (SymEn), were employed. In patients showing a positive HUT test, the entropies were significantly decreased when compared with the patients with a negative HUT test. In addition, SymEn in the patients with a negative HUT test was significantly lower than in the normal controls. Discriminant analysis using SymEn could correctly identify 89.3% (520/582) of the 1 h RR interval data of the patients with a positive HUT test regardless of the time of day. Baseline entropies of heart rate dynamics during daily activity were found to be significantly lower in patients with alleged neurocardiogenic syncope and a positive HUT test than in those with the same history but with a negative HUT test. The decreased entropy of symbolic heart rate dynamics may be of predictive value of a positive HUT test in patients with alleged neurocardiogenic syncope.

  1. Wild-type p53 reactivation by small-molecule Minnelide™ in human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Caicedo-Granados, Emiro; Lin, Rui; Clements-Green, Caitlin; Yueh, Bevan; Sangwan, Veena; Saluja, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The incidence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) continues to increase, particularly oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) cases. The inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene promotes a chain of molecular events, including cell cycle progression and apoptosis resistance. Reactivation of wild-type p53 function is an intriguing therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a novel compound derived from diterpene triepoxide (Minnelide™) can reactivate wild-type p53 function in HPV-positive HNSCC. Materials and Methods For all of our in vitro experiments, we used 2 HPV-positive HNSCC cell lines, University of Michigan squamous cell carcinoma (UM-SCC) 47 and 93-VU-147, and 2 HPV-positive human cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and CaSki. Cells were treated with different concentrations of triptolide and analyzed for p53 activation. Mice bearing UM-SCC 47 subcutaneous xenografts and HPV-positive patient-derived tumor xenografts were treated with Minnelide and evaluated for tumor growth and p53 activation. Results In HPV-positive HNSCC, Minnelide reactivated p53 by suppressing E6 oncoprotein. Activation of apoptosis followed, both in vitro and in vivo. In 2 preclinical HNSCC animal models (a subcutaneous xenograft model and a patient-derived tumor xenograft model), Minnelide reactivated p53 function and significantly decreased tumor progression and tumor volume. Conclusion Triptolide and Minnelide caused cell death in vitro and in vivo in HPV-positive HNSCC by reactivating wild-type p53 and thus inducing apoptosis. In addition, in 2 HPV-positive HNSCC animal models, Minnelide decreased tumor progression and induced apoptosis. PMID:25311433

  2. Heads Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... Juvenil HEADS UP to School Sports Online Concussion Training Coaches Parents Athletes Sports Officials HEADS UP to Schools School Nurses Teachers, Counselors, and School Professionals Parents HEADS UP ...

  3. Vacuoles in sperm head are not associated with head morphology, DNA damage and reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Adriana; Boni, Raffaele; Leo, Rita; Nacchia, Giuseppina; Liguori, Francesca; Casale, Sofia; Bonassisa, Paolo; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2016-02-01

    In this retrospective study of 873 men enrolled for assisted reproduction techniques, relationships between sperm quality parameters, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME), DNA damage and live birth rate were evaluated. The presence of vacuoles in the sperm heads was detected by MSOME. Either chromatin decondensation or DNA fragmentation was used to study DNA damage. Results show that age significantly affected some of the examined parameters. In particular, sperm concentration was positively correlated (R = 0.088; P = 0.01) and chromatin decondensation was negatively correlated (R = -0.102; P = 0.003) with age. Furthermore, live birth rate was significantly lower in men aged 40 years or older (P < 0.02) compared with the younger age groups. The presence of sperm head vacuoles was not associated with head morphology, main sperm quality parameters, DNA fragmentation and live birth rate. Considering sperm heads in relation to the shape (normal/abnormal) and vacuoles (presence/absence), no significant variations in the occurrence of vacuoles in either normal or abnormal heads were found. These data suggest that vacuoles are physiological features that do not alter sperm functionality, and it seems that MSOME is not necessary for increasing the success of assisted reproduction techniques. PMID:26655650

  4. Short-term retention effect of rehabilitation using head position-based electrotactile feedback to the tongue: influence of vestibular loss and old-age.

    PubMed

    Ghulyan-Bedikian, Vénéra; Paolino, Michel; Paolino, Fabien

    2013-09-01

    Our objective was to evaluate whether the severity of vestibular loss and old-age (>65) affect a patient's ability to benefit from training using head-position based, tongue-placed electrotactile feedback. Seventy-one chronic dizzy patients, who had reached a plateau with their conventional rehabilitation, followed six 1-h training sessions during 4 consecutive days (once on days 1 and 4, twice on days 2 and 3). They presented bilateral vestibular areflexia (BVA), bilateral vestibular losses (BVL), unilateral vestibular areflexia or unilateral vestibular losses and were divided into two age-subgroups (≤65 and >65). Posturographic assessments were performed without the device, 4h before and after the training. Patients were tested with eyes opened and eyes closed (EC) on static and dynamic (passively tilting) platforms. The studied posturographic scores improved significantly, especially under test conditions restricting either visual or somatosensory input. This 4-h retention effect was greater in older compared to younger patients and was proportional to the degree of vestibular loss, patients with increased vestibular losses showing greater improvements. In bilateral patients, who constantly fell under dynamic-EC condition at the baseline, the therapy effect was expressed by disappearance of falls in BVL and significant prolongation in time-to-fall in BVA subgroups. Globally, our data showed that short training with head-position based, tongue-placed electrotactile biofeedback improves balance in chronic vestibulopathic patients some 16.74% beyond that achieved with standard balance physiotherapy. Further studies with longer use of this biofeedback are needed to investigate whether this approach could have long-lasting retention effect on balance and quality of life. PMID:23623605

  5. Integrative Genomics and Transcriptomics Analysis Reveals Potential Mechanisms for Favorable Prognosis of Patients with HPV-Positive Head and Neck Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wensheng; Edwards, Andrea; Fang, Zhide; Flemington, Erik K.; Zhang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Patients with HPV-positive head neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) usually have a better prognosis than the HPV-negative cases while the underlying mechanism remains far from being well understood. We investigated this issue by an integrative analysis of clinically-annotated multi-omics HNSCC data released by the Cancer Genome Atlas. As confirmatory results, we found: (1) Co-occurrence of mutant TP53 and HPV infection was rare; (2) Regardless of HPV status, HNSCCs of wild-type TP53 implied a good survival chance for patients and had fewer genome-wide somatic mutations than those with a mutation burden on the gene. Our analysis further led to some novel observations. They included: (1) The genes involved in “DNA mismatch repair” pathway were up-regulated in HPV-positive tumors compared to normal tissue samples and HPV-negative cases, and thus constituted a strong predictive signature for the identification of HPV infection; (2) HPV infection could disrupt some regulatory miRNA-mRNA correlations operational in the HPV-negative tumors. In light of these results, we proposed a hypothesis for the favorable clinical outcomes of HPV-positive HNSCC patients. That is, the replication of HPV genome and/or its invasion into the genomes of cancer cells may enhance DNA repair mechanisms, which in turn limit the accumulation of lethal somatic mutations. PMID:27108969

  6. Integrative Genomics and Transcriptomics Analysis Reveals Potential Mechanisms for Favorable Prognosis of Patients with HPV-Positive Head and Neck Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wensheng; Edwards, Andrea; Fang, Zhide; Flemington, Erik K; Zhang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Patients with HPV-positive head neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) usually have a better prognosis than the HPV-negative cases while the underlying mechanism remains far from being well understood. We investigated this issue by an integrative analysis of clinically-annotated multi-omics HNSCC data released by the Cancer Genome Atlas. As confirmatory results, we found: (1) Co-occurrence of mutant TP53 and HPV infection was rare; (2) Regardless of HPV status, HNSCCs of wild-type TP53 implied a good survival chance for patients and had fewer genome-wide somatic mutations than those with a mutation burden on the gene. Our analysis further led to some novel observations. They included: (1) The genes involved in "DNA mismatch repair" pathway were up-regulated in HPV-positive tumors compared to normal tissue samples and HPV-negative cases, and thus constituted a strong predictive signature for the identification of HPV infection; (2) HPV infection could disrupt some regulatory miRNA-mRNA correlations operational in the HPV-negative tumors. In light of these results, we proposed a hypothesis for the favorable clinical outcomes of HPV-positive HNSCC patients. That is, the replication of HPV genome and/or its invasion into the genomes of cancer cells may enhance DNA repair mechanisms, which in turn limit the accumulation of lethal somatic mutations. PMID:27108969

  7. De-escalation of radiation dose for human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A case report and preclinical and clinical literature review

    PubMed Central

    WU, CHENG-CHIA; HOROWITZ, DAVID P.; DEUTSCH, ISRAEL; RAHMATI, RAHMATULLAH; SCHECTER, JORDAN M.; SAQI, ANJALI; WANG, TONY J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has been considered to be a relatively homogeneous disease. However, recent data have demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative disease are two different clinical entities associated with different outcomes. Preclinical and clinical studies have reported a divergence in treatment strategies as well as prognostic outcomes for HNSCCs that are HPV-positive versus HPV-negative. The present study describes the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with stage IVB cT2N3M0 right tonsillar HPV-positive squamous cell carcinoma. Induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF), followed by chemoradiation therapy with carboplatin and 70 Gray (Gy) radiation in daily fractions was recommended. The patient completed the TPF and carboplatin treatment; however, he was unable to tolerate the radiation course, receiving a final dose of 46 Gy. A 60-day follow-up right neck salvage dissection was subsequently performed. Despite having received a partial radiation treatment of 46 Gy, the patient had no pathological evidence of disease at 60 days post radiation treatment. Repeat positron emission tomography-computed tomography at 32 months after the right neck dissection revealed no evidence of disease. The present study also discusses the current preclinical in vitro and in vivo targets for HPV-positive HNSCC and the obstacles presented in advancing clinical treatment modalities. Previous preclinical models investigating radiation sensitivity have yielded mixed results. Thus, it is important to understand and establish representative preclinical models for studying HPV and HNSCC to improve clinical research and therapeutic development. This review may guide future understanding of the role of HPV in HNSCC. PMID:26870181

  8. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Meyrelles, Angela RI; Siqueira, Juliana D; dos Santos, Pâmela P; Hofer, Cristina B; Luiz, Ronir R; Seuánez, Héctor N; Almeida, Gutemberg; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A; Machado, Elizabeth S

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample), re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples), and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples). An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30%) or re-infection (20%). A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR) was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79). Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific) HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting. PMID:26872340

  9. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Meyrelles, Angela Ri; Siqueira, Juliana D; Santos, Pâmela P Dos; Hofer, Cristina B; Luiz, Ronir R; Seuánez, Héctor N; Almeida, Gutemberg; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A; Machado, Elizabeth S

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample), re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples), and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples). An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30%) or re-infection (20%). A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR) was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79). Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific) HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting. PMID:26872340

  10. Knowledge and Screening of Head and Neck Cancer Among American Indians in South Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Deschler, Daniel; Sargent, Michele; Emerick, Kevin; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; Petereit, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We established the level of awareness of risk factors and early symptoms of head and neck cancer among American Indians in South Dakota and determined whether head and neck cancer screening detected clinical findings in this population. Methods. We used the European About Face survey. We added questions about human papillomavirus, a risk factor for head and neck cancer, and demographics. Surveys were administered at 2 public events in 2011. Participants could partake in a head and neck cancer screening at the time of survey administration. Results. Of the 205 American Indians who completed the survey, 114 participated in the screening. Mean head and neck cancer knowledge scores were 26 out of 44. Level of education was the only factor that predicted higher head and neck cancer knowledge (b = 0.90; P = .01). Nine (8%) people had positive head and neck cancer screening examination results. All abnormal clinical findings were in current or past smokers (P = .06). Conclusions. There are gaps in American Indian knowledge of head and neck cancer risk factors and symptoms. Community-based head and neck cancer screening in this population is feasible and may be a way to identify early abnormal clinical findings in smokers. PMID:25320895

  11. Relation of the Norberg angle and position of the femoral head centre to the dorsal acetabular edge in evaluation of canine hip dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Skurková, L; Hluchý, M; Lacková, M; Mihalová, M; Ledecký, V

    2010-01-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a locomotive-system disease in dogs, which in many countries is the target of screening programs aimed at reducing the prevalence of CHD among descendants of predisposed dog breeds. Despite the efforts to apply genetic testing or ultrasound diagnostics in diagnosing CHD (as is common in human medicine), the main diagnostic process in veterinary medicine is by radiographic examination. The main two parameters which are used in diagnosing HD are the Norberg angle (NA) and the position of femoral head centre to the dorsal acetabular edge (FHC/DAE). We examined the relationship between these two parameters in the process of the determination of CHD degree by evaluating 225 randomly selected radiographs which were made during the period from 1993 to 2008. The aim of our study was to examine the validity of these two parameters in CHD classification as used in three different classification programs. Using Pearson's correlation coefficient, the value of which was 0.85 (p <0.05), we observed a positive correlation. Comparing the three scoring systems for CHD evaluation, we found that the final degree of CHD was similar for 78% to 85% of cases using Flückiger's scoring system versus a modified scoring system of 5 parameters without FHC/DAE. Results were significant. PMID:20830451

  12. Carboxyl-Terminal Modulator Protein Positively Acts as an Oncogenic Driver in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma via Regulating Akt phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jae Won; Jung, Seung-Nam; Kim, Ju-Hee; Shim, Geun-Ae; Park, Hee Sung; Liu, Lihua; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Jongsun; Koo, Bon Seok

    2016-01-01

    The exact regulatory mechanisms of carboxyl-terminal modulator protein (CTMP) and its downstream pathways in cancer have been controversial and are not completely understood. Here, we report a new mechanism of regulation of Akt serine/threonine kinase, one of the most important dysregulated signals in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by the CTMP pathway and its clinical implications. We find that HNSCC tumor tissues and cell lines had relatively high levels of CTMP expression. Clinical data indicate that CTMP expression was significantly associated with positive lymph node metastasis (OR = 3.8, P = 0.033) and correlated with poor prognosis in patients with HNSCC. CTMP was also positively correlated with Akt/GSK-3β phosphorylation, Snail up-regulation and E-cadherin down-regulation, which lead to increased proliferation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, suggesting that CTMP expression results in enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic properties of HNSCC cells. Moreover, CTMP suppression restores sensitivity to cisplatin chemotherapy. Intriguingly, all the molecular responses to CTMP regulation are identical regardless of p53 status in HNSCC cells. We conclude that CTMP promotes Akt phosphorylation and functions as an oncogenic driver and prognostic marker in HNSCC irrespective of p53. PMID:27328758

  13. Carboxyl-Terminal Modulator Protein Positively Acts as an Oncogenic Driver in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma via Regulating Akt phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae Won; Jung, Seung-Nam; Kim, Ju-Hee; Shim, Geun-Ae; Park, Hee Sung; Liu, Lihua; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Jongsun; Koo, Bon Seok

    2016-01-01

    The exact regulatory mechanisms of carboxyl-terminal modulator protein (CTMP) and its downstream pathways in cancer have been controversial and are not completely understood. Here, we report a new mechanism of regulation of Akt serine/threonine kinase, one of the most important dysregulated signals in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by the CTMP pathway and its clinical implications. We find that HNSCC tumor tissues and cell lines had relatively high levels of CTMP expression. Clinical data indicate that CTMP expression was significantly associated with positive lymph node metastasis (OR = 3.8, P = 0.033) and correlated with poor prognosis in patients with HNSCC. CTMP was also positively correlated with Akt/GSK-3β phosphorylation, Snail up-regulation and E-cadherin down-regulation, which lead to increased proliferation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, suggesting that CTMP expression results in enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic properties of HNSCC cells. Moreover, CTMP suppression restores sensitivity to cisplatin chemotherapy. Intriguingly, all the molecular responses to CTMP regulation are identical regardless of p53 status in HNSCC cells. We conclude that CTMP promotes Akt phosphorylation and functions as an oncogenic driver and prognostic marker in HNSCC irrespective of p53. PMID:27328758

  14. Effects of Methylation Status of CpG Sites within the HPV16 Long Control Region on HPV16-Positive Head and Neck Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoli; Uehara, Takayuki; Suzuki, Mikio; Xie, Minqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To map comprehensively the methylation status of the CpG sites within the HPV16 long control region (LCR) in HPV-positive cancer cells, and to explore further the effects of methylation status of HPV16 LCR on cell bioactivity and E6 and E7 expression. In addition, to analyze the methylation status of the LCR in HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) patients. Methods and Materials Methylation patterns of HPV16 LCR in UM-SCC47, CaSki, and SiHa cells and HPV16-positiive OPSCC specimens were detected by bisulfite-sequencing PCR and TA cloning. For cells treated with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and E6 and E7 knockdown, MTS and trypan blue staining, annexin-V and 7-AAD staining, and prodidium iodide were used to evaluate cell growth and cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest, respectively. E6 and E7 mRNA and protein expression were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Results Hypermethylation status of the LCR in UM-SCC47 (79.8%) and CaSki cells (90.0%) and unmethylation status of the LCR in SiHa cells (0%) were observed. Upon demethylation, the cells with different methylation levels responded differently during growth, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest, as well as in terms of their E6 and E7 expression. In HPV16-positive OPSCC patients, the methylation rates were 9.5% in the entire LCR region, 13.9% in the 5′-LCR, 6.0% in the E6 enhancer, and 9.5% in the p97 promoter, and hypermethylation of p97 promoter was found in a subset of cases (20.0%, 2/10). Conclusions Our study revealed two different methylation levels of the LCR in HPV16-positive cancer cells and OPSCC patients, which may represent different carcinogenesis mechanisms of HPV-positive cancers cells. Demethylating the meCpGs in HPV16 LCR might be a potential target for a subgroup of HPV16-positive patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26509736

  15. Accuracy of surface registration compared to conventional volumetric registration in patient positioning for head-and-neck radiotherapy: A simulation study using patient data

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngjun; Li, Ruijiang; Na, Yong Hum; Xing, Lei; Lee, Rena

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: 3D optical surface imaging has been applied to patient positioning in radiation therapy (RT). The optical patient positioning system is advantageous over conventional method using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in that it is radiation free, frameless, and is capable of real-time monitoring. While the conventional radiographic method uses volumetric registration, the optical system uses surface matching for patient alignment. The relative accuracy of these two methods has not yet been sufficiently investigated. This study aims to investigate the theoretical accuracy of the surface registration based on a simulation study using patient data. Methods: This study compares the relative accuracy of surface and volumetric registration in head-and-neck RT. The authors examined 26 patient data sets, each consisting of planning CT data acquired before treatment and patient setup CBCT data acquired at the time of treatment. As input data of surface registration, patient’s skin surfaces were created by contouring patient skin from planning CT and treatment CBCT. Surface registration was performed using the iterative closest points algorithm by point–plane closest, which minimizes the normal distance between source points and target surfaces. Six degrees of freedom (three translations and three rotations) were used in both surface and volumetric registrations and the results were compared. The accuracy of each method was estimated by digital phantom tests. Results: Based on the results of 26 patients, the authors found that the average and maximum root-mean-square translation deviation between the surface and volumetric registrations were 2.7 and 5.2 mm, respectively. The residual error of the surface registration was calculated to have an average of 0.9 mm and a maximum of 1.7 mm. Conclusions: Surface registration may lead to results different from those of the conventional volumetric registration. Only limited accuracy can be achieved for patient

  16. Improved setup and positioning accuracy using a three-point customized cushion/mask/bite-block immobilization system for stereotactic reirradiation of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Wang, Congjun; Tung, Samuel; Dimmitt, Andrew Wilson; Wong, Pei Fong; Edson, Mark A; Garden, Adam S; Rosenthal, David I; Fuller, Clifton D; Gunn, Gary B; Takiar, Vinita; Wang, Xin A; Luo, Dershan; Yang, James N; Wong, Jennifer; Phan, Jack

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the setup and positioning uncertainty of a custom cushion/mask/bite-block (CMB) immobilization system and determine PTV margin for image-guided head and neck stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (HN-SABR). We analyzed 105 treatment sessions among 21 patients treated with HN-SABR for recurrent head and neck cancers using a custom CMB immobilization system. Initial patient setup was performed using the ExacTrac infrared (IR) tracking system and initial setup errors were based on comparison of ExacTrac IR tracking system to corrected online ExacTrac X-rays images registered to treatment plans. Residual setup errors were determined using repeat verification X-ray. The online ExacTrac corrections were compared to cone-beam CT (CBCT) before treatment to assess agreement. Intrafractional positioning errors were determined using prebeam X-rays. The systematic and random errors were analyzed. The initial translational setup errors were -0.8 ± 1.3 mm, -0.8 ± 1.6 mm, and 0.3 ± 1.9 mm in AP, CC, and LR directions, respectively, with a three-dimensional (3D) vector of 2.7 ± 1.4 mm. The initial rotational errors were up to 2.4° if 6D couch is not available. CBCT agreed with ExacTrac X-ray images to within 2 mm and 2.5°. The intrafractional uncertainties were 0.1 ± 0.6 mm, 0.1 ± 0.6 mm, and 0.2 ± 0.5 mm in AP, CC, and LR directions, respectively, and 0.0° ± 0.5°, 0.0° ± 0.6°, and -0.1° ± 0.4° in yaw, roll, and pitch direction, respectively. The translational vector was 0.9 ± 0.6 mm. The calculated PTV margins mPTV(90,95) were within 1.6 mm when using image guidance for online setup correction. The use of image guidance for online setup correction, in combination with our customized CMB device, highly restricted target motion during treatments and provided robust immobilization to ensure minimum dose of 95% to target volume with 2.0 mm PTV margin for HN-SABR. PMID:27167275

  17. Adjuvant Radiotherapy and Survival for Patients With Node-Positive Head and Neck Cancer: An Analysis by Primary Site and Nodal Stage

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Johnny Lavaf, Amir; Teng, Marita S.; Huang, Delphine; Genden, Eric M.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) is frequently recommended for node-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with primary surgery. The impact of RT on survival for various subgroups of node-positive HNSCC has not been clearly demonstrated. Methods and Materials: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Database, we identified 5297 patients with node-positive (N1 to N3) HNSCC treated with definitive surgery with or without adjuvant RT between 1988 and 2001. The median follow-up was 4.4 years. Results: Adjuvant RT significantly improved 5-year overall survival (46.3%: 95% confidence interval [CI], 44.7-48.0% for surgery + RT, vs. 35.2%: 95% CI, 32.0-38.5% for surgery alone, p < 0.001) and cancer-specific survival (54.8%: 95% CI, 53.2-56.4% for surgery + RT, vs. 46.2% for surgery alone 95% CI, 42.4-50.0%, p < 0.05). Use of adjuvant RT remained a significant predictor of survival on multivariable analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.68-0.83; p < 0.001). Subset analyses demonstrated that adjuvant RT was associated with significantly improved survival for N1 (HR, 0.78; 95% CI; 0.67-0.90; p = 0.001), N2a (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67-0.99, p = 0.048) and N2b to N3 nodal disease (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.51-0.75; p < 0.001). Adjuvant RT increased overall survival for node-positive patients with oropharynx (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57-0.90; p 0.004), hypopharynx (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.88; p = 0.004), larynx (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.52-0.84; p = 0.001), and oral cavity (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.98; p = 0.025) primary tumors. Conclusions: In a large population-based analysis, adjuvant RT significantly improves overall survival for patients with node-positive HNSCC. All nodal stages, including N1, appear to benefit from the addition of RT to definitive surgery.

  18. A comprehensive evaluation of human papillomavirus positive status and p16INK4a overexpression as a prognostic biomarker in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zeyi; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Aoki, Kazuo; Matayoshi, Sen; Kiyuna, Asanori; Yamashita, Yukashi; Uehara, Takayuki; Agena, Shinya; Maeda, Hiroyuki; Xie, Minqiang; Suzuki, Mikio

    2014-07-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have better prognosis than those without HPV infection. Although p16(INK4a) expression is used as a surrogate marker for HPV infection, there is controversy as to whether p16(INK4a) reliably indicates HPV infection. Here, to evaluate the accuracy of p16(INK4a) expression for determining HPV infection and the prognostic value of HPV infection and p16(INK4a) expression for HNSCC survival, especially oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) survival, 150 fresh-frozen HNSCC samples were analyzed for HPV DNA, E6/E7 mRNA and p16(INK4a) expression by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. p16(INK4a) expression was scored from 0 to 4 according to the percentage of p16(INK4a)-positive cells, with overexpression defined as >40% positive cells. Of the 150 tumor samples tested, 10 tumors were nasopharyngeal, 53 oropharyngeal, 39 hypopharyngeal, 24 laryngeal and 24 were located in the oral cavity. HPV DNA was detected in 47 (31.3%) samples, but only 21 also exhibited HPV mRNA expression. Inter-rater agreement was low between p16(INK4a) expression and HPV DNA presence and between p16(INK4a) expression and HPV mRNA expression, but was good between the combination of HPV DNA status and p16(INK4a) overexpression and HPV mRNA expression. Three-year recurrence-free survival was significantly higher for OPSCC patients who were HPV DNA-positive than for OPSCC patients who were HPV DNA-negative (P=0.008) and for OPSCC patients overexpressing p16(INK4a) than for without overexpressing p16(INK4a) (P=0.034). Multivariate analysis revealed that T1-3 stage and the combination of HPV DNA positivity and p16(INK4a) overexpression predicted significantly better recurrence-free survival. This combination is a more accurate marker for active HPV infection in HNSCC than HPV DNA status or general p16(INK4a)-positive status alone and offers a useful and reliable method for detecting and

  19. Head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... a child's head circumference Normal ranges for a child's sex and age (weeks, months), based on values that experts have obtained for normal growth rates of infants' and children's heads Measurement of the head circumference is an ...

  20. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    Head lice are parasitic wingless insects. They live on people's heads and feed on their blood. An adult louse ... Children ages 3-11 and their families get head lice most often. Personal hygiene has nothing to ...

  1. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... of head injuries include bicycle or motorcycle wrecks, sports injuries, falls from windows (especially among children who live ... to watch for? When can I start playing sports again after a head injury? How can brain damage from a head injury ...

  2. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    Head lice are parasitic wingless insects. They live on people's heads and feed on their blood. An adult ... Children ages 3-11 and their families get head lice most often. Personal hygiene has nothing to do ...

  3. DNA double strand break repair defect and sensitivity to poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibition in human papillomavirus 16-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Alice N.; Cooper, Tiffiny S.; Rodriguez, Marcela; Trummell, Hoa Q.; Bonner, James A.; Rosenthal, Eben L.; Yang, Eddy S.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with human papillomavirus-positive (HPV+) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) have increased response to radio- and chemotherapy and improved overall survival, possibly due to an impaired DNA damage response. Here, we investigated the correlation between HPV status and repair of DNA damage in HNSCC cell lines. We also assessed in vitro and in vivo sensitivity to the PARP inhibitor veliparib (ABT-888) in HNSCC cell lines and an HPV+ patient xenograft. Repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) was significantly delayed in HPV+ compared to HPV− HNSCCs, resulting in persistence of γH2AX foci. Although DNA repair activators 53BP1 and BRCA1 were functional in all HNSCCs, HPV+ cells showed downstream defects in both non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination repair. Specifically, HPV+ cells were deficient in protein recruitment and protein expression of DNA-Pk and BRCA2, key factors for non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination respectively. Importantly, the apparent DNA repair defect in HPV+ HNSCCs was associated with increased sensitivity to the PARP inhibitor veliparib, resulting in decreased cell survival in vitro and a 10–14 day tumor growth delay in vivo. These results support the testing of PARP inhibition in combination with DNA damaging agents as a novel therapeutic strategy for HPV+ HNSCC. PMID:26336991

  4. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor BcbHLHpol functions as a positive regulator of pollen development in non-heading Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongkun; Li, Ying; Zhang, Changwei; Duan, Weike; Huang, Feiyi; Hou, Xilin

    2014-12-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a common trait in higher plants, and several transcription factors regulate pollen development. Previously, we obtained a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, BcbHLHpol, via suppression subtractive hybridization in non-heading Chinese cabbage. However, the regulatory function of BcbHLHpol during anther and pollen development remains unclear. In this study, BcbHLHpol was cloned, and its tissue-specific expression profile was analyzed. The results of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that BcbHLHpol was highly expressed in maintainer buds and that the transcripts of BcbHLHpol significantly decreased in the buds of pol CMS. A virus-induced gene silencing vector that targets BcbHLHpol was constructed and transformed into Brassica campestris plants to further explore the function of BcbHLHpol. Male sterility and short stature were observed in BcbHLHpol-silenced plants. The degradation of tapetal cells was inhibited in BcbHLHpol-silenced plants, and nutrients were insufficiently supplied to the microspore. These phenomena resulted in pollen abortion. This result indicates that BcbHLHpol functions as a positive regulator in pollen development. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed that BcbHLHpol interacted with BcSKP1 in the nucleus. This finding suggests that BcbHLHpol and BcSKP1 are positive coordinating regulators of pollen development. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that BcbHLHpol and BcSKP1 can be induced at low temperatures. Thus, we propose that BcbHLHpol is necessary for meiosis. This study provides insights into the regulatory functions of the BcbHLHpol network during anther development. PMID:25147023

  5. Comparison of 2D Radiographic Images and 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Positioning Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Li Heng; Zhu, X. Ronald Zhang Lifei; Dong Lei; Tung, Sam; Ahamad, Anesa M.D.; Chao, K. S. Clifford; Morrison, William H.; Rosenthal, David I.; Schwartz, David L.; Mohan, Radhe; Garden, Adam S.

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the positioning accuracy using two-dimensional kilovoltage (2DkV) imaging and three-dimensional cone beam CT (CBCT) in patients with head and neck (H and N) cancer receiving radiation therapy. To assess the benefit of patient-specific headrest. Materials and Methods: All 21 patients studied were immobilized using thermoplastic masks with either a patient-specific vacuum bag (11 of 21, IMA) or standard clear plastic (10 of 21, IMB) headrests. Each patient was imaged with a pair of orthogonal 2DkV images in treatment position using onboard imaging before the CBCT procedure. The 2DkV and CBCT images were acquired weekly during the same session. The 2DkV images were reviewed by oncologists and also analyzed by a software tool based on mutual information (MI). Results: Ninety-eight pairs of assessable 2DkV-CBCT alignment sets were obtained. Systematic and random errors were <1.6 mm for both 2DkV and CBCT alignments. When we compared shifts determined by CBCT and 2DkV for the same patient setup, statistically significant correlations were observed in all three major directions. Among all CBCT couch shifts, 4.1% {>=} 0.5 cm and 18.7% {>=} 0.3 cm, whereas among all 2DkV (MI) shifts, 1.7% {>=} 0.5 cm and 11.2% {>=} 0.3 cm. Statistically significant difference was found on anteroposterior direction between IMA and IMB with the CBCT alignment only. Conclusions: The differences between 2D and 3D alignments were mainly caused by the relative flexibility of certain H and N structures and possibly by rotation. Better immobilization of the flexible neck is required to further reduce the setup errors for H and N patients receiving radiotherapy.

  6. Assessment of Antero-Posterior Skeletal and Soft Tissue Relationships of Adult Indian Subjects in Natural Head Position and Centric Relation

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Vishnu Ben; Keshavaraj; Rai, Rohan; Hegde, Gautham; Shajahan, Shabna

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to verify the intra-individual reproducibility of natural head position (NHP) in centric relation (CR) position, to prove the inter-individual differences in the Frankfort horizontal plane and sella-nasion line compared with the true horizontal line, and to establish linear norms from A-point, B-point, Pog as well as soft tissue A-point, soft tissue B-point, and soft tissue Pog to nasion true vertical line (NTVL) in adult Indian subjects. Methods: Lateral cephalograms (T1) of Angle’s Class I subjects were taken in NHP and with bite in CR. A second lateral cephalogram (T2) of these subjects with ANB angle in the range 1-4° were taken after 1 week using the same wax bite and both the radiographs were analyzed based on six angular parameters using cephalometric software (Do-it, Dental studio NX version 4.1) to assess the reproducibility of NHP. Linear values of six landmarks were taken in relation to NTVL, and the mean values were calculated. A total of 116 subjects were included in this study. Results: When the cephalometric values of T1 and T2 were analyzed, it was found that, the parameters showed a P < 0.001, indicating the reproducibility of NHP in CR. Mean values for point A, point B, Pog and their soft tissue counterparts were also obtained. Conclusion: The study proved that NHP is a reproducible and accurate when recorded with the mandible in CR. Linear norms for skeletal Class I subjects in relation to NTVL were established. PMID:26124598

  7. Automatic Prompting and Positive Attention to Reduce Tongue Protrusion and Head Tilting by Two Adults with Severe to Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Pichierri, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed a simple behavioral strategy for reducing stereotypic tongue protrusion and forward head tilting displayed by a woman and a man with severe to profound intellectual disabilities. The strategy involved (a) auditory prompting (i.e., verbal encouragements to keep the tongue in the mouth or the head upright) delivered automatically…

  8. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Reutzel, E.W.

    1998-08-18

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure. 8 figs.

  9. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W. Thor; Reutzel, Edward W.

    1998-01-01

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure.

  10. Prevalence of Different Head-Neck Positions in Horses Shown at Dressage Competitions and Their Relation to Conflict Behaviour and Performance Marks

    PubMed Central

    Kienapfel, Kathrin; Link, Yvonne; König v. Borstel, Uta

    2014-01-01

    Much controversy exists among riders, and in particular among those practicing dressage, regarding what can be considered an “appropriate” Head-Neck-Position (HNP). The objective was to assess the prevalence of different HNPs in the field, the behavioural reactions of horses during warm-up and competition rides in relation to HNP and the relation between HNP and marks achieved in the competition. Horses (n = 171) were selected during dressage competitions according to their HNP (3 categories based on the degree of flexion), and their behaviour was recorded during 3 minutes each of riding in the warm-up area and in the competition. Scans were carried out on an additional 355 horses every 15 minutes to determine the proportion of each HNP in the warm-up area. Sixty-nine percent of the 355 horses were ridden with their nasal planes behind the vertical in the warm-up area, 19% were ridden at or behind the vertical and only 12% were ridden with their nasal plane in front of the vertical. Horses carrying their nasal plane behind the vertical exhibited significantly (P<0.0001) more conflict behaviours than horses with their nose held in front of the vertical. Horses were commonly presented with a less flexed HNP during competition compared to warm-up (P<0.05). A HNP behind the vertical was penalised with lower marks in the lower (P = 0.0434) but not in the higher (P = 0.9629) competition levels. Horses in higher classes showed more (P = 0.0015) conflict behaviour than those in lower classes. In conclusion, dressage horses are commonly ridden during warm-up for competitions with their nasal plane behind the vertical, and this posture seems to cause significantly more conflict behaviour than HNPs in front of the vertical. PMID:25090242

  11. Fundamental Differences in Cell Cycle Deregulation in Human Papillomavirus–Positive and Human Papillomavirus–Negative Head/Neck and Cervical Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Pyeon, Dohun; Newton, Michael A.; Lambert, Paul F.; den Boon, Johan A.; Sengupta, Srikumar; Marsit, Carmen J.; Woodworth, Craig D.; Connor, Joseph P.; Haugen, Thomas H.; Smith, Elaine M.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Turek, Lubomir P.; Ahlquist, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with nearly all cervical cancers, 20% to 30% of head and neck cancers (HNC), and other cancers. Because HNCs also arise in HPV-negative patients, this type of cancer provides unique opportunities to define similarities and differences of HPV-positive versus HPV-negative cancers arising in the same tissue. Here, we describe genome-wide expression profiling of 84 HNCs, cervical cancers, and site-matched normal epithelial samples in which we used laser capture microdissection to enrich samples for tumor-derived versus normal epithelial cells. This analysis revealed that HPV+ HNCs and cervical cancers differed in their patterns of gene expression yet shared many changes compared with HPV− HNCs. Some of these shared changes were predicted, but many others were not. Notably, HPV+ HNCs and cervical cancers were found to be up-regulated in their expression of a distinct and larger subset of cell cycle genes than that observed in HPV− HNC. Moreover, HPV+ cancers overexpressed testis-specific genes that are normally expressed only in meiotic cells. Many, although not all, of the hallmark differences between HPV+ HNC and HPV− HNC were a direct consequence of HPV and in particular the viral E6 and E7 oncogenes. This included a novel association of HPV oncogenes with testis-specific gene expression. These findings in primary human tumors provide novel biomarkers for early detection of HPV+ and HPV− cancers, and emphasize the potential value of targeting E6 and E7 function, alone or combined with radiation and/or traditional chemotherapy, in the treatment of HPV+ cancers. PMID:17510386

  12. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  13. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

  14. Estimation of adequate setup margins and threshold for position errors requiring immediate attention in head and neck cancer radiotherapy based on 2D image guidance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We estimated sufficient setup margins for head-and-neck cancer (HNC) radiotherapy (RT) when 2D kV images are utilized for routine patient setup verification. As another goal we estimated a threshold for the displacements of the most important bony landmarks related to the target volumes requiring immediate attention. Methods We analyzed 1491 orthogonal x-ray images utilized in RT treatment guidance for 80 HNC patients. We estimated overall setup errors and errors for four subregions to account for patient rotation and deformation: the vertebrae C1-2, C5-7, the occiput bone and the mandible. Setup margins were estimated for two 2D image guidance protocols: i) imaging at first three fractions and weekly thereafter and ii) daily imaging. Two 2D image matching principles were investigated: i) to the vertebrae in the middle of planning target volume (PTV) (MID_PTV) and ii) minimizing maximal position error for the four subregions (MIN_MAX). The threshold for the position errors was calculated with two previously unpublished methods based on the van Herk’s formula and clinical data by retaining a margin of 5 mm sufficient for each subregion. Results Sufficient setup margins to compensate the displacements of the subregions were approximately two times larger than were needed to compensate setup errors for rigid target. Adequate margins varied from 2.7 mm to 9.6 mm depending on the subregions related to the target, applied image guidance protocol and early correction of clinically important systematic 3D displacements of the subregions exceeding 4 mm. The MIN_MAX match resulted in smaller margins but caused an overall shift of 2.5 mm for the target center. Margins ≤ 5mm were sufficient with the MID_PTV match only through application of daily 2D imaging and the threshold of 4 mm to correct systematic displacement of a subregion. Conclusions Adequate setup margins depend remarkably on the subregions related to the target volume. When the systematic 3D

  15. Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Interactions Pill Identifier Commonly searched drugs Aspirin Metformin Warfarin Tramadol Lactulose Ranitidine News & Commentary Recent News FDA: ... Slowly Multiple Births Nuchal Cord Placenta Accreta Postterm Pregnancy and Postmaturity Premature Rupture of the Membranes (PROM) ...

  16. Monitoring of head injury by myotatic reflex evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cozens, J; Miller, S.; Chambers, I.; Mendelow, A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—(1) To establish the feasibility of myotatic reflex measurement in patients with head injury. (2) To test the hypothesis that cerebral dysfunction after head injury causes myotatic reflex abnormalities through disordered descending control. These objectives arise from a proposal to use reflex measurements in monitoring patients with head injury.
METHODS—The phasic stretch reflex of biceps brachii was elicited by a servo-positioned tendon hammer. Antagonist inhibition was evoked by vibration to the triceps. Using surface EMG, the amplitude of the unconditioned biceps reflex and percentage antagonist inhibition were measured. After standardisation in 16 normal adult subjects, the technique was applied to 36 patients with head injury across the range of severity. Objective (1) was addressed by attempting a measurement on each patient without therapeutic paralysis; three patients were also measured under partial paralysis. Objective (2) was addressed by preceding each of the 36 unparalysed measurements with an assessment of cerebral function using the Glasgow coma scale (GCS); rank correlation was employed to test a null hypothesis that GCS and reflex indices are unrelated.
RESULTS—In normal subjects, unconditioned reflex amplitude exhibited a positive skew requiring logarithmic transformation. Antagonist inhibition had a prolonged time course suggesting presynaptic mechanisms; subsequent measurements were standardised at 80 ms conditioning test interval (index termed "TI80").
 Measurements were obtained on all patients, even under therapeutic paralysis (objective (1)). The unconditioned reflex was absent in most patients with GCS less than 5; otherwise it varied little across the patient group. TI80 fell progressively with lower GCS, although patients' individual GCS could not be inferred from single measurements. Both reflex indices correlated with GCS (p<0.01), thereby dismissing the null hypothesis (objective (2)).

  17. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... injuries internal head injuries, which may involve the skull, the blood vessels within the skull, or the brain Fortunately, most childhood falls or ... knock the brain into the side of the skull or tear blood vessels. Some internal head injuries ...

  18. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... or prescription products. Over-the-counter shampoos and lotions containing pyrethrin (one brand name: Rid) or permethrin ( ... commonly used to treat head lice. Shampoos and lotions that kill head lice contain pesticides and other ...

  19. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... tell your health care provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips Certain types of artificial heart valves ...

  20. Head lice.

    PubMed

    Devore, Cynthia D; Schutze, Gordon E

    2015-05-01

    Head lice infestation is associated with limited morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. Since the 2010 clinical report on head lice was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, newer medications have been approved for the treatment of head lice. This revised clinical report clarifies current diagnosis and treatment protocols and provides guidance for the management of children with head lice in the school setting. PMID:25917986

  1. Ultrasound, normal fetus - head measurements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many health care providers like to have fetal measurements to verify the size of the fetus and ... any abnormalities. This ultrasound is of a head measurement, indicated by the cross hairs and dotted lines.

  2. Benign positional vertigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical practice guideline: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2008;139(5 Suppl 4):S47-S81. ... BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015: ...

  3. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. Causes Abnormal urine color may ... red blood cells, or mucus in the urine. Dark brown but clear urine is a sign of ...

  4. Comparison of Head Center Position and Screw Fixation Options Between a Jumbo Cup and an Offset Center of Rotation Cup in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Computer Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Faizan, Ahmad; Black, Brandon J; Fay, Brian D; Heffernan, Christopher D; Ries, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Jumbo acetabular cups are commonly used in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). A straightforward reaming technique is used which is similar to primary THA. However, jumbo cups may also be associated with hip center elevation, limited screw fixation options, and anterior soft tissue impingement. A partially truncated hemispherical shell was designed with an offset center of rotation, thick superior rim, and beveled anterior and superior rims as an alternative to a conventional jumbo cup. A three dimensional computer simulation was used to assess head center position and safe screw trajectories. Results of this in vitro study indicate that a modified hemispherical implant geometry can reduce head center elevation while permitting favorable screw fixation trajectories into the pelvis in comparison to a conventional jumbo cup. PMID:26253481

  5. Head lice.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Barbara L; Bocchini, Joseph A

    2010-08-01

    Head lice infestation is associated with limited morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. Since the 2002 clinical report on head lice was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, patterns of resistance to products available over-the-counter and by prescription have changed, and additional mechanical means of removing head lice have been explored. This revised clinical report clarifies current diagnosis and treatment protocols and provides guidance for the management of children with head lice in the school setting. PMID:20660553

  6. Eradication of CD44-variant positive population in head and neck tumors through controlled intracellular navigation of cisplatin-loaded nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Miura, Yutaka; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Miyano, Kazuki; Nagano, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Momoko; Tanabe, Ami; Makino, Jun; Mochida, Yuki; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Saya, Hideyuki; Cabral, Horacio; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2016-05-28

    Eventual relapse of tumor growth is commonly observed in head and neck cancer patients, following treatment with platinum-based chemotherapies. This occurrence is believed to be related to the failure to eradicate drug resistant, cancer stem cell (CSC) niches, thereby enriching their population in tumors after treatment. In this study, we show that in contrast to free cisplatin (CDDP), the polymer micelle-based nanomedicine incorporating cisplatin (CDDP/m), can eradicate both the undifferentiated cell and the differentiated cancer cell populations within a head and neck tumor model. Immunohistochemistry of treated tumors showed that opposing to CDDP treatment, CDDP/m could reduce tumor growth without concentrating the CSC-like population. We further showed that CDDP/m, but not CDDP, can localize into hypoxic regions, possibly CSC-rich areas, in the tumors, and can overcome their detoxification mechanism based-on high cellular expression of glutathione to successfully deliver Pt to nuclear DNA. Our data suggests CDDP/m to be a replacement for current platinum therapies, for its ability to eradicate both bulk and CSC-like populations, and in turn to prevent recurrence of tumor growth. PMID:27040816

  7. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  8. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... from many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence ...

  9. The perception of heading during eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royden, Constance S.; Banks, Martin S.; Crowell, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Warren and Hannon (1988, 1990), while studying the perception of heading during eye movements, concluded that people do not require extraretinal information to judge heading with eye/head movements present. Here, heading judgments are examined at higher, more typical eye movement velocities than the extremely slow tracking eye movements used by Warren and Hannon. It is found that people require extraretinal information about eye position to perceive heading accurately under many viewing conditions.

  10. A Novel Reading Scheme for Assessing the Extent of Radiographic Abnormalities and Its Association with Disease Severity in Sputum Smear-Positive Tuberculosis: An Observational Study in Hyderabad/India

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Surabhi; Hussain, Abid; Klassert, Tilman E.; Driesch, Dominik; Tokaryeva, Viktoriya; Löschmann, Yvonne Yi-Na; Sumanlatha, Gadamm; Ahmed, Niyaz; Valluri, Vijayalakshmi; Schumann, Ralf R.; Lala, Birgit; Slevogt, Hortense

    2015-01-01

    Background Existing reading schemes for chest X-ray (CXR) used to grade the extent of disease severity at diagnosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are often based on numerical scores that summate specific radiographic features. However, since PTB is known to exhibit a wide heterogeneity in pathology, certain features might be differentially associated with clinical parameters of disease severity. Objective We aimed to grade disease severity in PTB patients at diagnosis and after completion of DOTS treatment by developing a reading scheme based on five different radiographic manifestations and analyze their association with the clinical parameters of systemic involvement and infectivity. Methods 141 HIV-negative adults with newly diagnosed sputum smear-positive PTB were enrolled in a prospective observational study in Hyderabad, India. The presence and extent on CXRs of five radiographic manifestations, i.e., lung involvement, alveolar infiltration, cavitation, lymphadenopathy and pleural effusion, were classified using the new reading scheme by using a four-quadrant approach. We evaluated the inter-reader reliability of each manifestation, and its association with BMI and sputum smear positivity at diagnosis. The presence and extent of these radiographic manifestations were further compared with CXRs on completion of DOTS treatment. Results At diagnosis, an average lung area of 51.7% +/- 23.3% was affected by radiographic abnormalities. 94% of the patients had alveolar infiltrates, with 89.4% located in the upper quadrants, suggesting post primary PTB and in 34.8% of patients cavities were found. We further showed that the extent of affected lung area was a negative predictor of BMI (β value -0.035, p 0.019). No significant association of BMI with any of the other CXR features was found. The extent of alveolar infiltrates, along with the presence of cavitation, were strongly associated with sputum smear positivity. The microbiological cure rate in

  11. Head injury.

    PubMed

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  12. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  13. An Experimental Device to Record Infant Head Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouen, Francois

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes methods used to record infant head position and the limits of these methods. An experimental device is proposed which records infant head turning and head righting when the vestibular system is stimulated. (Author/DB)

  14. Cortisol release, heart rate and heart rate variability, and superficial body temperature, in horses lunged either with hyperflexion of the neck or with an extended head and neck position.

    PubMed

    Becker-Birck, M; Schmidt, A; Wulf, M; Aurich, J; von der Wense, A; Möstl, E; Berz, R; Aurich, C

    2013-04-01

    Bringing the head and neck of ridden horses into a position of hyperflexion is widely used in equestrian sports. In our study, the hypothesis was tested that hyperflexion is an acute stressor for horses. Salivary cortisol concentrations, heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and superficial body temperature were determined in horses (n = 16) lunged on two subsequent days. The head and neck of the horse was fixed with side reins in a position allowing forward extension on day A and fixed in hyperflexion on day B. The order of treatments alternated between horses. In response to lunging, cortisol concentration increased (day A from 0.73 ± 0.06 to 1.41 ± 0.13 ng/ml, p < 0.001; day B from 0.68 ± 0.07 to 1.38 ± 0.13 ng/ml, p < 0.001) but did not differ between days A and B. Beat-to-beat (RR) interval decreased in response to lunging on both days. HRV variables standard deviation of RR interval (SDRR) and RMSSD (root mean square of successive RR differences) decreased (p < 0.001) but did not differ between days. In the cranial region of the neck, the difference between maximum and minimum temperature was increased in hyperflexion (p < 0.01). In conclusion, physiological parameters do not indicate an acute stress response to hyperflexion of the head alone in horses lunged at moderate speed and not touched with the whip. However, if hyperflexion is combined with active intervention of a rider, a stressful experience for the horse cannot be excluded. PMID:22320155

  15. The Divergence of Wear Propagation and Stress at Steep Acetabular Cup Positions Using Ceramic Heads and Sequentially Cross-Linked Polyethylene Liners.

    PubMed

    Zietz, Carmen; Fabry, Christian; Baum, Felix; Bader, Rainer; Kluess, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present wear simulator study was to assess the effect of steep acetabular cup positions on the wear propagation of highly cross-linked-PE (HX-PE) liners. Furthermore, a finite element analysis (FEA) was performed in order to calculate the stress within the HX-PE material in case of steep cup positions under physiological loadings. The higher stress in the HX-PE at a steep acetabular cup position did not result in increased wear in the present wear simulator study. The gravimetrical wear rates at normal (45°) and steep cup inclinations (75°) showed wear amounts of 3.15±0.27mg and 2.18±0.31mg per million cycles (p=0.028), respectively. However, FEA revealed clear increase in stress at the HX-PE liners with respect to steep cup positions. PMID:25770865

  16. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  17. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Usually, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  18. Head Noises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Explains how a toy called "Sound Bites" can be modified to demonstrate the transmission of sound waves. Students can hear music from the toy when they press it against any bone in their heads or shoulders. (WRM)

  19. SU-E-J-231: Comparison of Delineation Variability of Soft Tissue Volume and Position in Head-And-Neck Between Two T1-Weighted Pulse Sequences Using An MR-Simulator with Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, O; Lo, G; Yuan, J; Law, M; Ding, A; Cheng, K; Chan, K; Cheung, K; Yu, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: There is growing interests in applying MR-simulator(MR-sim) in radiotherapy but MR images subject to hardware, patient and pulse sequence dependent geometric distortion that may potentially influence target definition. This study aimed to evaluate the influence on head-and-neck tissue delineation, in terms of positional and volumetric variability, of two T1-weighted(T1w) MR sequences on a 1.5T MR-sim Methods: Four healthy volunteers were scanned (4 scans for each on different days) using both spin-echo (3DCUBE, TR/TE=500/14ms, TA=183s) and gradient-echo sequences (3DFSPGR, TE/TR=7/4ms, TA=173s) with identical coverage, voxel-size(0.8×0.8×1.0mm3), receiver-bandwidth(62.5kHz/pix) and geometric correction on a 1.5T MR-sim immobilized with personalized thermoplastic cast and head-rest. Under this setting, similar T1w contrast and signal-to-noise ratio were obtained, and factors other than sequence that might bias image distortion and tissue delineation were minimized. VOIs of parotid gland(PGR, PGL), pituitary gland(PIT) and eyeballs(EyeL, EyeR) were carefully drawn, and inter-scan coefficient-of-variation(CV) of VOI centroid position and volume were calculated for each subject. Mean and standard deviation(SD) of the CVs for four subjects were compared between sequences using Wilcoxon ranksum test. Results: The mean positional(<4%) and volumetric(<7%) CVs varied between tissues, majorly dependent on tissue inherent properties like volume, location, mobility and deformability. Smaller mean volumetric CV was found in 3DCUBE, probably due to its less proneness to tissue susceptibility, but only PGL showed significant difference(P<0.05). Positional CVs had no significant differences for all VOIs(P>0.05) between sequences, suggesting volumetric variation might be more sensitive to sequence-dependent delineation difference. Conclusion: Although 3DCUBE is considered less prone to tissue susceptibility-induced artifact and distortion, our preliminary data showed

  20. Perverted head shaking nystagmus in focal pontine infarction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Lee, Hyung; Sohn, Sung-Il; Kim, Ji Soo; Baloh, Robert W

    2011-02-15

    Although several papers have been published on perverted head shaking nystagmus (PHSN) associated with focal brainstem or cerebellar lesion, there are no reports of a focal pontine infarct that causes PHSN. We report a patient with focal pontine infarction who presented with sustained dizziness, limb dysmetria on the left extremity, decreased sensations to position and vibration of the left extremity, and gait imbalance. Only vestibular abnormality was downbeat nystagmus after vigorous head shakings. The maximum slow phase velocity of PHSN was 26°/s, and its duration was about 20s. This is the first report of PHSN associated with focal pontine infarction. Crossed ventral tegmental tract and velocity storage mechanism of vestibulocerebellum might be related on PHSN in this case. PMID:21146834

  1. Epiblepharon-induced head tilt masquerading as torticollis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Benjamin P; Lee, Wendy W

    2015-01-01

    A 10-month-old girl presented for ocular evaluation carrying a provisional diagnosis of torticollis. Her family reported that for the past 5 months, she consistently tilted her head to the left while twisting her chin toward the right shoulder. Her adnexal examination was notable for epiblepharon, with greater ciliary-corneal contact in the OS. It was therefore hypothesized that this posture was adopted to minimize ocular irritation. Her symptoms resolved immediately following a Hotz-Celsus procedure. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of asymmetric ciliary-corneal contact from epiblepharon, resulting in preference for a head position mimicking a musculoskeletal abnormality such as torticollis. PMID:25569166

  2. Can we abolish skull x rays for head injury?

    PubMed Central

    Reed, M; Browning, J; Wilkinson, A; Beattie, T

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a change in skull x ray policy on the rate of admission, use of computed tomography (CT), radiation dose per head injury, and detection of intracranial injuries; and to compare the characteristics of patients with normal and abnormal head CT. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: UK paediatric teaching hospital emergency department. Patients: 1535 patients aged between 1 and 14 years with a head injury presenting to the emergency department between 1 August 1998 and 31 July 1999 (control period), and 1867 presenting between 1 August 2002 and 31 July 2003 (first year of new skull x ray policy). Intervention: Hospital notes and computer systems were analysed and data were collected on all patients presenting with a head injury. Results: The abolition of skull x rays in children aged over 1 year prevented about 400 normal skull x rays being undertaken in period 2. The percentage of children undergoing CT rose from 1.0% to 2.1% with no change in the positive CT pick up rate (25.6% v 25.0%). There was no significant change in admission rate (10.9% v 10.1%), and a slight decrease in the radiation dose per head injury (0.042 mSv compared to 0.045 mSv). Conclusions: Skull x rays can be abandoned in children aged 1 to 14 without a significant increase in admission rate, radiation dose per head injury, or missed intracranial injury. The mechanism and history of the injury and a reduced Glasgow coma scale are probably the most important indicators of significant head injury in children. PMID:15851418

  3. The Acquisition of [Head] Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pye, Clifton

    An analysis of one theory of the acquisition of head movement by children is presented, using longitudinal data from the Mayan language, K'iche'. This theory assumes that children would just require positive evidence of head movement in the input language to instantiate the constructions of their own grammar. The Incorporation Theory addresses the…

  4. Interview with Joe F. Head

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Kim

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Joe F. Head, Dean of University Admissions and Enrollment Services at Kennesaw State University (KSU) in Georgia, who has more than 35 years of experience in admissions and enrollment services. After completing an M.Ed. in higher education at Georgia Southern University, Head immediately landed a position as…

  5. Head CT scan in Iranian minor head injury patients: evaluating current decision rules.

    PubMed

    Sadegh, Robab; Karimialavijeh, Ehsan; Shirani, Farzaneh; Payandemehr, Pooya; Bahramimotlagh, Hooman; Ramezani, Mahtab

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to select one of the seven available clinical decision rules for minor head injury, for managing Iranian patients. This was a prospective cohort study evaluating medium- or high-risk minor head injury patients presenting to the Emergency Department. Patients with minor head trauma who were eligible for brain imaging based on seven available clinical decision rules (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS)-II, Neurotraumatology Committee of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (NCWFNS), New Orleans, American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Guideline, Scandinavian, and Canadian computed tomography (CT) head rule) were selected. Subjects were underwent a non-contrast axial spiral head CT scan. The outcome was defined as abnormal and normal head CT scan. Univariate analysis and stepwise linear regression were applied to show the best combination of risk factors for detecting CT scan abnormalities. Five hundred patients with minor head trauma were underwent brain CT scan. The following criteria were derived by stepwise linear regression: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) less than 15, confusion, signs of basal skull fracture, drug history of warfarin, vomiting more than once, loss of consciousness, focal neurologic deficit, and age over 65 years. This model has 86.15 % (75.33-93.45 %) sensitivity and 46.44 % (46.67-51.25 %) specificity in detecting minor head injury patients with CT scan abnormalities (95 % confidence interval). Of seven decision rules, only the Canadian CT Head Rule possesses seven of the eight high-risk factors associated with abnormal head CT results which were identified by this study. This study underlines the Canadian CT Head Rule's utility in Iranian minor head injury patients. Our study encourages researchers to evaluate available guidelines in different communities. PMID:26407978

  6. The Vestibulo-ocular Reflex During Active Head Motion in Chiari II Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Michael S.; Sharpe, James A.; Lillakas, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Steinbach, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Chiari type II malformation (CII) is a developmental anomaly of the cerebellum and brainstem, which are important structures for processing the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). We investigated the effects of the deformity of CII on the angular VOR during active head motion. Methods Eye and head movements were recorded using an infrared eye tracker and magnetic head tracker in 20 participants with CII [11 males, age range 8-19 years, mean (SD) 14.4 (3.2) years]. Thirty-eight age-matched healthy children and adolescents (21 males) constituted the control group. Participants were instructed to ‘look’ in darkness at the position of their thumb, placed 25 cm away, while they made horizontal and vertical sinusoidal head rotations at frequencies of about 0.5 Hz and 2 Hz. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to compare the two groups. Results The VOR gains, the ratio of eye to head velocities, were abnormally low in two participants with CII and abnormally high in one participant with CII. Conclusion The majority of participants with CII had normal VOR performance in this investigation. However, the deformity of CII can impair the active angular VOR in some patients with CII. Low gain is attributed to brainstem damage and high gain to cerebellar dysfunction. PMID:18973069

  7. [Bobble-head doll syndrome].

    PubMed

    Roubergue, A; Beauvais, P; Richardet, J M

    1985-05-01

    A new case of Bobble-head doll syndrome with aqueductal stenosis is presented in a 14 year-old boy. Ventriculocisternostomy performed 8 years after the onset of the abnormal movement resulted in moderate reduction of the head bobbling. Twenty-two cases were found in a review of the literature. In all cases there was a chronic slowly progressive hydrocephalus with usually a cyst of the third ventricle; aqueductal stenosis was less frequent. When recorded, psychomotor development was impaired. Treatment is neurosurgical. Pathogenesis remains unknown. PMID:4074089

  8. Using Data to Inform Systems: Assessing Teacher Implementation of Key Features of Program-Wide Positive Behavioral Support in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormont, Melissa; Covington, Sandra; Lewis, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    To date, data-based research has not been conducted specifically on the use of systems of schoolwide positive behavioral support (SW-PBS) in early childhood settings; however, several articles have described how the process can be implemented to support children in early childhood settings. Research has also documented early childhood teachers'…

  9. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  10. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  11. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  12. Positional plagiocephaly

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Cranial asymmetry occurring as a result of forces that deform skull shape in the supine position is known as deformational plagiocephaly. The risk of plagiocephaly may be modified by positioning the baby on alternate days with the head to the right or the left side, and by increasing time spent in the prone position during awake periods. When deformational plagiocephaly is already present, physiotherapy (including positioning equivalent to the preventive positioning, and exercises as needed for torticollis and positional preference) has been shown to be superior to counselling about preventive positioning only. Helmet therapy (moulding therapy) to reduce skull asymmetry has some drawbacks: it is expensive, significantly inconvenient due to the long hours of use per day and associated with skin complications. There is evidence that helmet therapy may increase the initial rate of improvement of asymmetry, but there is no evidence that it improves the final outcome for patients with moderate or severe plagiocephaly. PMID:23024590

  13. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients. PMID:10813803

  14. [Bilateral caudate head infarcts].

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, N; Yamamoto, Y; Akiguchi, I; Oiwa, K; Nakajima, K

    1997-11-01

    We reported a 67-year-old woman with bilateral caudate head infarcts. She developed sudden mutism followed by abulia. She was admitted to our hospital 2 months after ictus for further examination. She showed prominent abulia and was inactive, slow and apathetic. Spontaneous activity and speech, immediate response to queries, spontaneous word recall and attention and persistence to complex programs were disturbed. Apparent motor disturbance, gait disturbance, motor aphasia, apraxia and remote memory disturbance were not identified. She seemed to be depressed but not sad. Brain CT and MRI revealed bilateral caudate head hemorrhagic infarcts including bilateral anterior internal capsules, in which the left lesion was more extensive than right one and involved the part of the left putamen. These infarct locations were thought to be supplied by the area around the medial striate artery including Heubner's arteries and the A1 perforator. Digital subtraction angiography showed asymptomatic right internal carotid artery occlusion. She bad had hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation and also had a left atrium with a large diameter. The infarcts were thought to be caused by cardioembolic occlusion to the distal portion of the left internal carotid artery. Although some variations of vasculature at the anterior communicating artery might contribute to bilateral medial striate artery infarcts, we could not demonstrate such abnormalities by angiography. Bilateral caudate head infarcts involving the anterior internal capsule may cause prominent abulia. The patient did not improve by drug and rehabilitation therapy and died suddenly a year after discharge. PMID:9503974

  15. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions. PMID:26351122

  16. Combustor with non-circular head end

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Won -Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston

    2015-09-29

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a head end with a non-circular configuration, a number of fuel nozzles positioned about the head end, and a transition piece extending downstream of the head end.

  17. Cone Heads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The author, a middle school art teacher, describes a sculpture project lesson involving Cone Heads (sculptures made from cardboard cones). Discussion of caricatures with exaggerated facial features and interesting profiles helped students understand that the more expressive the face, the better. This project took approximately four to five…

  18. Firing Properties of Rat Lateral Mammillary Single Units: Head Direction, Head Pitch, and Angular Head Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Stackman, Robert W.; Taube, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Many neurons in the rat anterodorsal thalamus (ADN) and postsubiculum (PoS) fire selectively when the rat points its head in a specific direction in the horizontal plane, independent of the animal’s location and ongoing behavior. The lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) are interconnected with both the ADN and PoS and, therefore, are in a pivotal position to influence ADN/PoS neurophysiology. To further understand how the head direction (HD) cell signal is generated, we recorded single neurons from the LMN of freely moving rats. The majority of cells discharged as a function of one of three types of spatial correlates: (1) directional heading, (2) head pitch, or (3) angular head velocity (AHV). LMN HD cells exhibited higher peak firing rates and greater range of directional firing than that of ADN and PoS HD cells. LMN HD cells were modulated by angular head velocity, turning direction, and anticipated the rat’s future HD by a greater amount of time (~95 msec) than that previously reported for ADN HD cells (~25 msec). Most head pitch cells discharged when the rostrocaudal axis of the rat’s head was orthogonal to the horizontal plane. Head pitch cell firing was independent of the rat’s location, directional heading, and its body orientation (i.e., the cell discharged whenever the rat pointed its head up, whether standing on all four limbs or rearing). AHV cells were categorized as fast or slow AHV cells depending on whether their firing rate increased or decreased in proportion to angular head velocity. These data demonstrate that LMN neurons code direction and angular motion of the head in both horizontal and vertical planes and support the hypothesis that the LMN play an important role in processing both egocentric and allocentric spatial information. PMID:9787007

  19. Method comparison of automated matching software-assisted cone-beam CT and stereoscopic kilovoltage x-ray positional verification image-guided radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: a prospective analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Clifton D.; Scarbrough, Todd J.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Rasch, Coen R. N.; Choi, Mehee; Ting, Joe Y.; Wang, Samuel J.; Papanikolaou, Niko; Rosenthal, David I.

    2009-12-01

    We sought to characterize interchangeability and agreement between cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital stereoscopic kV x-ray (KVX) acquisition, two methods of isocenter positional verification currently used for IGRT of head and neck cancers (HNC). A cohort of 33 patients were near-simultaneously imaged by in-room KVX and CBCT. KVX and CBCT shifts were suggested using manufacturer software for the lateral (X), vertical (Y) and longitudinal (Z) dimensions. Intra-method repeatability, systematic and random error components were calculated for each imaging modality, as were recipe-based PTV expansion margins. Inter-method agreement in each axis was compared using limits of agreement (LOA) methodology, concordance analysis and orthogonal regression. 100 daily positional assessments were performed before daily therapy in 33 patients with head and neck cancer. Systematic error was greater for CBCT in all axes, with larger random error components in the Y- and Z-axis. Repeatability ranged from 9 to 14 mm for all axes, with CBCT showing greater repeatability in 2/3 axes. LOA showed paired shifts to agree 95% of the time within ±11.3 mm in the X-axis, ±9.4 mm in the Y-axis and ±5.5 mm in the Z-axis. Concordance ranged from 'mediocre' to 'satisfactory'. Proportional bias was noted between paired X- and Z-axis measures, with a constant bias component in the Z-axis. Our data suggest non-negligible differences in software-derived CBCT and KVX image-guided directional shifts using formal method comparison statistics. A correction was made to the first line of page 7404 of this article on 26 November 2009. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.

  20. Spontaneous occurrence of chromosome abnormality in cats.

    PubMed

    THULINE, H C; NORBY, D W

    1961-08-25

    A syndrome in male cats analogous to chromatin-positive Klinefelter's syndrome in human males has been demonstrated. The physical characteristics which suggested an abnormality of chromosome number in cats were "calico" or "tortoise-shell" coat colors in a male. Buccal mucosal smears were found to have "female-type" patterns in two out of 12 such male cats screened, and these two were found to have a diploid chromosome number of 39 rather than the normal 38. Testicular biopsy performed on one revealed an abnormal pattern; no gonadal tissue was found in the other cat with an abnormal chromosome number. These findings indicate that the cat, in addition to the mouse, is available for experimental study of chromosome number abnormalities. PMID:13776765

  1. Intra-pulp temperature increase of equine cheek teeth during treatment with motorized grinding systems: influence of grinding head position and rotational speed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In equine practice, teeth corrections by means of motorized grinding systems are standard procedure. The heat resulting from that treatment may cause irreparable damage to the dental pulp. It has been shown that a 5.5°C temperature rise may cause severe destruction in pulp cells. Hence, the capability to continuously form secondary dentine is lost, and may lead, due to equine-typical occlusal tooth abrasion, to an opening of the pulp cavity. To obtain reliable data on the intra-pulp increase in temperature during corrective treatments, equine cheek teeth (CT) were modified in a way (occlusal surface smoothed, apical parts detached, pulp horns standardized) that had been qualified in own former published studies. All parameters influencing the grinding process were standardized (force applied, initial temperatures, dimensions of pulp horns, positioning of grinding disk, rotational speed). During grinding experiments, imitating real dental treatments, the time span for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was determined. Results The minimum time recorded for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was 38 s in mandibular CT (buccal grinding, 12,000 rpm) and 70 s in maxillary CT (flat occlusal grinding, 12,000 rpm). The data obtained showed that doubling the rotational speed of the disk results in halving the time span after which the critical intra-pulp temperature increase in maxillary CT is reached. For mandibular CT, the time span even drops by two thirds. Conclusion The use of standardized hypsodont CT enabled comparative studies of intra-pulp heating during the grinding of occlusal tooth surfaces using different tools and techniques. The anatomical structure of the natural vital hypsodont tooth must be kept in mind, so that the findings of this study do not create a deceptive sense of security with regard to the time-dependent heating of the native pulp. PMID:24559121

  2. RADIOGRAPHIC ABNORMALITIES OF THE TALUS IN PATIENTS WITH CLUBFOOT AFTER SURGICAL RELEASE USING THE MCKAY TECHNIQUE

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, José Antonio; Hernandes, Andréa Canizares; Buchaim, Thais Paula; Blumetti, Francesco Camara; Chertman, Carla; Yamane, Patrícia Corey; da Rocha Corrêa Fernandes, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze morphological abnormalities of the talus in patients with clubfoot after surgical treatment using the McKay technique. Method: Lateral standing-position radiographs of the feet of 14 patients with unilateral clubfoot who underwent treatment by means of the doubleincision McKay technique were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients were operated by the same surgeon, with an average of 6.53 years between surgery and the radiograph. We compared the radiographic characteristics of the talus between the operated and the contralateral foot. We assessed the presence of deformity of the talar dome and head (sphericity evaluation); the talar length and height; the percentage and degree of navicular subluxation; abnormalities of the Gissane angle; and the trabecular bone pattern. Results: Abnormalities of the talar head occurred in 92.8% of the patients; of the talar dome in 92.8%; and of the trabecular pattern in 100%. The talar length ratio between the operated and the contralateral foot ranged from 0.61 to 0.88 (mean 0.79; SD = 0.09), while the height ratio ranged from 0.57 to 0.98 (mean 0.82; SD = 0.12). The Gissane angle was greater in all of the operated feet, and all of them also showed navicular subluxation, at a rate ranging from 6.43 to 59.75% (mean 26.34%; SD = 16.66%). Conclusion: Talar abnormalities occurred in 100% of the feet treated using the McKay technique. It was shown that establishing radiographic parameters to describe and quantify these deformities was feasible, through simple and easy-to-perform techniques. PMID:27047821

  3. Image data rate converter having a drum with a fixed head and a rotatable head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingsley, F. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A data-rate converter is disclosed comprising a rotatable data-storing drum with at least one fixed read/record head and a rotatable read/record head. The latter is rotatable in a circular path about the drum axis of rotation. The drum is positionable in any one of a plurality of axial positions with respect to the heads, so that at least one drum track is aligned with the fixed head in one drum position and with the rotatable head in another drum position. When a track is aligned with the fixed head, data may be recorded therin or read out therefrom at a rate which is a function of drum rotation, while when aligned with the rotatable head, data may be recorded or read out at a rate which is a function of the rates and directions of rotation of both the drum and the head.

  4. Effects of vestibular loss on head stabilization in response to head and body perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Control of head position during postural responses is important to facilitate both the interpretation of vestibular signals and the stabilization of gaze. In these experiments, we compared head stabilization for two different postural tasks: 1) in response to perturbations at the head, and 2) in response to perturbations induced at the support surface, which perturb both body and head position. To determine whether normal vestibular function is necessary for head stabilization in these two tasks, responses to forward and backward mechanical perturbations of the head and body were compared for 13 normal subjects and 4 patients with profound bilateral vestibular loss (two with vestibular loss in adulthood and two in infancy). Normal subjects showed little neck muscle activity for body perturbations, but large, early activations in both neck extensors and flexors for head perturbations. In contrast, vestibular patients showed excessive neck muscle activation for body perturbations and reduced or absent neck muscle activity for head perturbations. Patients with vestibular loss in adulthood also showed increased head acceleration in response to both head and body perturbations, but patients with vestibular loss in infancy showed more normal head accelerations. For body perturbations, the differences in head acceleration between patients and normals were greater for later head acceleration peaks, indicating poor head control during the execution of the postural response. Trunk angle changes were also higher in the patients for forward body perturbations, indicating that poorer control of trunk position could have contributed to their poorer head stabilization. These results indicate that the vestibular system plays an important role in head and trunk stabilization for both head and body perturbations. However, the more normal head accelerations of the patients with infant vestibular loss also indicate that other mechanisms, possibly involving neck reflexes, can at least

  5. SU-E-J-220: Assessment of MRI Geometric Distortion in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Scanned in Immobilized Radiation Treatment Position

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C; Mohamed, A; Weygand, J; Ding, Y; Fuller, C; Frank, S; Wang, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Uncertainties about geometric distortion have somewhat hindered MRI simulation in radiation therapy. Most of the geometric distortion studies were performed with phantom measurements but another major aspect of MR distortion is patient related. We studied the geometric distortion in patient images by comparing their MRI scans with the corresponding CT, using CT as the non-distorted gold standard. Methods: Ten H&N cancer patients were imaged with MRI as part of a prospective IRB approved study. All patients had their treatment planning CT done on the same day or within one week of the MRI. MR Images were acquired with a T2 SE sequence (1×1×2.5mm voxel size) in the same immobilization position as in the CT scans. MRI to CT rigid registration was then done and geometric distortion comparison was done by measuring the corresponding anatomical landmarks on both the MRI and the CT images by two observers. Several skin to skin (9 landmarks), bone to bone (8 landmarks), and soft tissue (3 landmarks) were measured at specific levels in horizontal and vertical planes of both scans. Results: The mean distortion for all landmark measurements in all scans was 1.8±1.9mm. For each patient 11 measurements were done in the horizontal plane while 9 were done in the vertical plane. The measured geometric distortion were significantly lower in the horizontal axis compared to the vertical axis (1.3±0.16 mm vs 2.2±0.19 mm, respectively, P=0.003*). The magnitude of distortion was lower in the bone to bone landmarks compared to the combined soft tissue and skin to skin landmarks (1.2±0.19 mm vs 2.3±0.17 mm, P=0.0006*). The mean distortion measured by observer one was not significantly different compared toobserver 2 (2.3 vs 2.4 mm, P=0.4). Conclusion: MRI geometric distortions were quantified in H&N patients with mean error of less than 2 mm. JW received a corporate sponsored research grant from Elekta.

  6. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. PMID:25691415

  7. MULTIPLE SHAFT TOOL HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Colbert, H.P.

    1962-10-23

    An improved tool head arrangement is designed for the automatic expanding of a plurality of ferruled tubes simultaneously. A plurality of output shafts of a multiple spindle drill head are driven in unison by a hydraulic motor. A plurality of tube expanders are respectively coupled to the shafts through individual power train arrangements. The axial or thrust force required for the rolling operation is provided by a double acting hydraulic cylinder having a hollow through shaft with the shaft cooperating with an internally rotatable splined shaft slidably coupled to a coupling rigidly attached to the respectlve output shaft of the drill head, thereby transmitting rotary motion and axial thrust simultaneously to the tube expander. A hydraulic power unit supplies power to each of the double acting cylinders through respective two-position, four-way valves, under control of respective solenoids for each of the cylinders. The solenoids are in turn selectively controlled by a tool selection control unit which in turn is controlled by signals received from a programmed, coded tape from a tape reader. The number of expanders that are extended in a rolling operation, which may be up to 42 expanders, is determined by a predetermined program of operations depending upon the arrangement of the ferruled tubes to be expanded in the tube bundle. The tape reader also supplies dimensional information to a machine tool servo control unit for imparting selected, horizontal and/or vertical movement to the tool head assembly. (AEC)

  8. Newborns' Head Orientation toward Sounds Within Hemifields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Kimberley; And Others

    This experiment examined the accuracy with which newborn infants orient their heads toward a sound positioned off midline within hemifields. The study also evaluated newborns' ability to update the angle of their head turn to match a change in localization of an ongoing sound. Alert newborns were held in a supine position and presented a sound at…

  9. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  10. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  11. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder. (a) Identification. A radiographic head holder is a device intended to position the patient's head during...

  12. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  13. Abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet → singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)3(3+) … TPrA(•)] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  14. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet → singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature. PMID:25772580

  15. Abnormality on Liver Function Test

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

  16. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  17. The pathogenesis of congenital radial head dislocation/subluxation.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Abou Al-Shaar, Hussam; Alkattan, Wael M

    2016-07-15

    The pathogenesis of congenital radial head dislocation/subluxation is unknown and has not been previously investigated. In this review, we explore the pathogenesis and define five different primary insults: collagen abnormalities, abnormal endochondral ossification of the developing growth plate, abnormalities of forearm ossification outside the growth plate, disproportionate growth of the radius and ulna, and altered HOX D expression/activity. Finally, the clinical relevance of our review is discussed. PMID:27050104

  18. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  19. Further observations on the "bobble-headed doll syndrome".

    PubMed

    Dell, S

    1981-11-01

    Two patients are presented with a head-bobblng "tic" classically associated with a suprasellar cyst. The first of these showed hypothalamic, neuroendocrinological and limbic abnormalities not previously described, although with a classic arachnoidal suprasellar cyst. The second of these patients showed head-bobbling behaviour during the first years of life as a manifestation of one out of many episodes of ventricular shunt obstruction. This case is therefore the first reported whose head bobbling was observed with an acute lesion. PMID:7334392

  20. Chemical impurity produces extra compound eyes and heads in crickets

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, B.T.

    1981-04-03

    A chemical impurity isolated from commercially purchased acridine causes cricket embryos to develop extra compound eyes, branched antennae, extra antennae, and extra heads. Purified acridine does not produce similar duplications of cricket heads or head structures nor do the substituted acridines proflavine, acriflavine, or acridine orange. A dose-response relation exists such that the number and severity of abnormalities increase with increasing concentration of the teratogen.

  1. miR-512-5p Suppresses Tumor Growth by Targeting hTERT in Telomerase Positive Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yong; Tao, Ze-zhang

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase activation has very important implications for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), but the regulatory mechanisms of telomerase in HNSCC remain unclear. In our present study, we found that miR-512-5P was markedly downregulated in telomerase-positive HNSCC cell lines. Both in vitro and in vivo assays revealed that miR-512-5P mimic attenuated HNSCC cell proliferation, and tumor growth in nude mice, which exerts its tumor suppressor function through elevated apoptosis, inhibition of the telomerase activity, decrease of telomere-binding proteins and shortening of telomere length by human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) downregulation. Furthermore, the dual-luciferase reporter gene assay results demonstrated that hTERT was a direct target of miR-512-5P. We conclude that the frequently miR-512-5P overexpression can regulate hTERT and function as a tumor suppressor in HNSCC. Therefore, miR-512-5P may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for miR-based HNSCC therapy. PMID:26258591

  2. Position paper of the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery and the German Society of Phoniatrics and Pediatric Audiology – Current state of clinical and endoscopic diagnostics, evaluation, and therapy of swallowing disorders in children

    PubMed Central

    Arens, Christoph; Herrmann, Ingo F.; Rohrbach, Saskia; Schwemmle, Cornelia; Nawka, Tadeus

    2015-01-01

    Swallowing disorders are frequent. The main concern is mortality due to aspiration-induced pneumonia and malnutrition. In addition, quality of life is severely affected. The demographic trend indicates an increase of dysphagia in the future. Neurodegenerative diseases, tumors of the digestive tract, and sequelae of tumor treatment in the head and neck region are the main pathologic entities. Predominantly ENT physicians and phoniatricians are asked for diagnostics and therapy, and will coordinate the interdisciplinary treatment according to the endoscopic findings. A differentiated approach in history, diagnostics, and symptom-oriented treatment is necessary for these mostly complex disorders. Integration of non-medical staff such as speech therapists, physiotherapists, and occupational therapists in planning and executing an effective therapy expands and completes the patient-oriented care. Conservative treatment by these therapists is an important pillar in the treatment. Parts of the specific diagnostics can be taken over in close cooperation. In particular, an interdisciplinary cooperation with the staff of intensive care medicine is essential. The diagnostic procedures of specific endoscopy as described in this position paper are part of the primary and fundamental tasks of ENT specialists and phoniatrists. Endoscopy is a medical service that is basically not delegable. Consequently, substitution of the physician is excluded. PMID:26770277

  3. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  5. Keeping Your Head On Target

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Aaron L.; Zee, David S.; Jinnah, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the human brain controls eye movements are reasonably well understood, but those for the head less so. Here, we show that the mechanisms for keeping the head aimed at a stationary target follow strategies similar to those for holding the eyes steady on stationary targets. Specifically, we applied the neural integrator hypothesis that originally was developed for holding the eyes still in eccentric gaze positions to describe how the head is held still when turned toward an eccentric target. We found that normal humans make head movements consistent with the neural integrator hypothesis, except that additional sensory feedback is needed, from proprioceptors in the neck, to keep the head on target. We also show that the complicated patterns of head movements in patients with cervical dystonia can be predicted by deficits in a neural integrator for head motor control. These results support ideas originally developed from animal studies that suggest fundamental similarities between oculomotor and cephalomotor control, as well as a conceptual framework for cervical dystonia that departs considerably from current clinical views. PMID:23825431

  6. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  7. Head and neck injuries from the Boston Marathon bombing at four hospitals.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay K; Buch, Karen; Sung, Edward; Abujudeh, Hani; Sakai, Osamu; Aaron, Sodickson; Lev, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging findings of head and neck injuries in patients from the Boston Marathon bombing. A total of 115 patients from the Boston Marathon bombing presenting to four hospitals who underwent imaging to evaluate for head and neck injuries were included in the study. Twelve patients with positive findings on radiography or cross-sectional imaging were included in the final analysis. The radiographic, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of these patients were evaluated for the presence of shrapnel and morphological abnormality. Head and neck injuries were seen in 12 out of 115 patients presenting to the four hospitals. There were secondary blast injuries to the head and neck in eight patients, indicated by the presence of shrapnel on imaging. In the four patients without shrapnel, there were two with subgaleal hematomas, one with facial contusion and one with mastoid injury. There were two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, one with brain contusion, one with cerebral laceration, and one with globe rupture. There was frontal bone, nasal bone, and orbital wall fracture in one patient each. Imaging identified 26 shrapnel fragments, 21 of which were ball bearings. Injuries to the head and neck region identified on imaging from the Boston Marathon bombing were not common. The injuries seen were predominantly secondary blast injuries from shrapnel, and did not result in calvarial penetration of the shrapnel fragments. PMID:25962489

  8. Investigation of abnormal negative threshold voltage shift under positive bias stress in input/output n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with TiN/HfO{sub 2} structure using fast I-V measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Szu-Han; Chen, Ching-En; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Chang, Ting-Chang Lu, Ying-Hsin; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Lu, Ching-Sen

    2014-03-17

    This letter investigates abnormal negative threshold voltage shifts under positive bias stress in input/output (I/O) TiN/HfO{sub 2} n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors using fast I-V measurement. This phenomenon is attributed to a reversible charge/discharge effect in pre-existing bulk traps. Moreover, in standard performance devices, threshold-voltage (V{sub t}) shifts positively during fast I-V double sweep measurement. However, in I/O devices, V{sub t} shifts negatively since electrons escape from bulk traps to metal gate rather than channel electrons injecting to bulk traps. Consequently, decreasing pre-existing bulk traps in I/O devices, which can be achieved by adopting Hf{sub x}Zr{sub 1−x}O{sub 2} as gate oxide, can reduce the charge/discharge effect.

  9. Suprasellar arachnoid cyst presenting with bobble-head doll movements: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Desai, K I; Nadkarni, T D; Muzumdar, D; Goel, A

    2003-09-01

    We report a series of three patients with suprasellar arachnoid cysts who presented with a rare 'bobble-head doll' syndrome. The abnormal head movements improved after surgical evacuation of the cysts in all the three cases. Various pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the bobble-head doll syndrome are discussed. The literature on suprasellar arachnoid cysts is briefly reviewed. PMID:14652456

  10. Head and face reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    Head and face reconstruction is surgery to repair or reshape deformities of the head and face (craniofacial). ... How surgery for head and face deformities (craniofacial reconstruction) ... and the person's condition. Surgical repairs involve the ...

  11. Head circumference (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Head circumference is a measurement of the circumference of the child's head at its largest area (above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head). During routine check-ups, the distance is measured ...

  12. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    Head Injury Prevention Tips American Association of Neurological Surgeons 5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008-3852 ... defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the ...

  13. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem. PMID:22377853

  14. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  15. Increased sensitivity of HPV-positive head and neck cancer cell lines to x-irradiation ± Cisplatin due to decreased expression of E6 and E7 oncoproteins and enhanced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Frank; Arenz, Andrea; Preising, Stefanie; Wittekindt, Claus; Klussmann, Jens P; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Wittig, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region (HNSCC), which is related to an infection with human papilloma virus (HPV), responds better to simultaneous radio-chemotherapy with Cisplatin based regimens than HPV-negative tumors. The underlying molecular mechanisms for this clinical observation are not fully understood. Therefore, the response of four HPV-positive (HPV+) (UM-SCC-47, UM-SCC-104, 93-VU-147T, UPCI:SCC152) and four HPV-negative (HPV-) (UD-SCC-1, UM-SCC-6, UM-SCC-11b, UT-SCC-33) HNSCC cell lines to x-irradiation ± Cisplatin incubation in terms of clonogenic survival, cell cycle progression, protein expression (cyclin A2, cyclin E2, E6, E7, p53) and induction of apoptosis, was investigated. HPV+ cells were more radio- and chemosensitive and were more effectively sensitized to x-irradiation by simultaneous Cisplatin incubation than HPV- cell lines. HPV+ cell lines revealed an increased and prolonged G2/M arrest after irradiation, whereas Cisplatin induced a blockage of cells in S phase. In comparison to irradiation only, addition of Cisplatin significantly enhanced apoptosis especially in HPV+ cell lines. While irradiation alone increased the amount of HPV E6 and E7 proteins, both were down-regulated by Cisplatin incubation either alone or in combination with x-rays, which however did not increase the expression of endogenous p53. Our results demonstrate that cell cycle deregulation together with downregulation of HPV E6 and E7 proteins facilitating apoptosis after Cisplatin incubation promote the enhanced sensitivity of HPV+ HNSCC cells to simultaneous radio-chemotherapy. Combined effects of irradiation and Cisplatin appear to be relevant in mediating the enhanced therapeutic response of HPV-related HNSCC and are indicative of the benefit of combined modality approaches in future treatment optimization strategies. PMID:26045983

  16. Video Taping and Abnormal Psychology: Dramatized Clinical Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Michael J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)

  17. The normal response to prolonged passive head up tilt testing

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, M; Williams, T; Gordon, C; Chamberlain-Webbe..., R; Sutton, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To define the responses to head up tilt in a large group of normal adult subjects using the most widely employed protocol for tilt testing.
METHODS—127 normal subjects aged 19-88 years (mean (SD), 49 (20) years) without a previous history of syncope underwent tilt testing at 60° for 45 minutes or until syncope intervened. Blood pressure monitoring was performed with digital photoplethysmography, providing continuous, non-invasive, beat to beat heart rate and pressure measurements.
RESULTS—13% of subjects developed vasovagal syncope after a mean (SD) tilt time of 31.7 (12.4) minutes (range 8.5-44.9 minutes). Severe cardioinhibition during syncope was observed less often than is reported in patients investigated for syncope. There were no differences in the age or sex distributions of subjects with positive or negative outcomes, or in the proportions with cardioinhibitory and vasodepressor vasovagal syncope compared with previously reported patient populations. Subjects with negative outcomes showed age related differences in heart rate and blood pressure behaviour throughout tilt.
CONCLUSIONS—False positive results with tilting appear to be common. This has important implications for the use of diagnostic tilt testing. The magnitude of the heart rate and blood pressure changes observed during negative tilts largely invalidates previously suggested criteria for abnormal non-syncopal outcomes.


Keywords: syncope; head up tilt; postural hypotension PMID:11040011

  18. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    PubMed

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  19. Head Start. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Head Start" is a national, federally funded program that provides services to promote school readiness for children from birth to age 5 from predominantly low-income families. Based on a review of the research, the WWC found "Head Start" to have potentially positive effects on general reading achievement and no discernible…

  20. Heading in football. Part 1: Development of biomechanical methods to investigate head response

    PubMed Central

    Shewchenko, N; Withnall, C; Keown, M; Gittens, R; Dvorak, J

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: There has been growing controversy regarding long term effects of repeated low severity head impacts such as when heading a football. However, there are few scientific data substantiating these concerns in terms of the biomechanical head response to impact. The present study aimed to develop a research methodology to investigate the biomechanical response of human subjects during intentional heading and identify strategies for reducing head impact severity. Methods: A controlled laboratory study was carried out with seven active football players, aged 20–23 and of average stature and weight. The subjects were fitted with photographic targets for kinematic analysis and instrumented to measure head linear/angular accelerations and neck muscle activity. Balls were delivered at two speeds (6 m/s and 8 m/s) as the subjects executed several specific forward heading manoeuvres in the standing position. Heading speeds up to 11 m/s were seen when the head closing speed was considered. One subject demonstrating averaged flexion–extension muscle activity phased with head acceleration data and upper torso kinematics was used to validate a biofidelic 50th percentile human model with a detailed head and neck. The model was exercised under ball incoming speeds of 6–7 m/s with parameter variations including torso/head alignment, neck muscle tensing, and follow through. The model output was subsequently compared with additional laboratory tests with football players (n = 3). Additional heading scenarios were investigated including follow through, non-active ball impact, and non-contact events. Subject and model head responses were evaluated with peak linear and rotational accelerations and maximum incremental head impact power. Results: Modelling of neck muscle tensing predicted lower head accelerations and higher neck loads whereas volunteer head acceleration reductions were not consistent. Modelling of head–torso alignment predicted a modest reduction in

  1. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  2. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  3. The Fate and Distribution of Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Intra-Arterial Infusion in Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hongting; Xu, Taotao; Chen, Qiqing; Wu, Chengliang; Wang, Pinger; Mao, Qiang; Zhang, Shanxing; Shen, Jiayi; Tong, Peijian

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate if autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could treat osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) and what the fate and distribution of the cells are in dogs. Twelve Beagle dogs were randomly divided into two groups: MSCs group and SHAM operated group. After three weeks, dogs in MSCs group and SHAM operated group were intra-arterially injected with autologous MSCs and 0.9% normal saline, respectively. Eight weeks after treatment, the necrotic volume of the femoral heads was significantly reduced in MSCs group. Moreover, the trabecular bone volume was increased and the empty lacunae rate was decreased in MSCs group. In addition, the BrdU-positive MSCs were unevenly distributed in femoral heads and various vital organs. But no obvious abnormalities were observed. Furthermore, most of BrdU-positive MSCs in necrotic region expressed osteocalcin in MSCs group and a few expressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Taken together, these data indicated that intra-arterially infused MSCs could migrate into the necrotic field of femoral heads and differentiate into osteoblasts, thus improving the necrosis of femoral heads. It suggests that intra-arterial infusion of autologous MSCs might be a feasible and relatively safe method for the treatment of femoral head necrosis. PMID:26779265

  4. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  5. Pancreatic abnormalities and AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    Teare, J P; Daly, C A; Rodgers, C; Padley, S P; Coker, R J; Main, J; Harris, J R; Scullion, D; Bray, G P; Summerfield, J A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Biliary tract abnormalities are well recognised in AIDS, most frequently related to opportunistic infection with Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, and cytomegalovirus. We noted a high frequency of pancreatic abnormalities associated with biliary tract disease. To define these further we reviewed the clinical and radiological features in these patients. METHODS: Notes and radiographs were available from two centres for 83 HIV positive patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the investigation of cholestatic liver function tests or abdominal pain. RESULTS: 56 patients had AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis (ARSC); 86% of these patients had epigastric or right upper quadrant pain and 52% had hepatomegaly. Of the patients with ARSC, 10 had papillary stenosis alone, 11 had intra- and extrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis alone, and 35 had a combination of the two. Ampullary biopsies performed in 24 patients confirmed an opportunistic infection in 16. In 15 patients, intraluminal polyps were noted on the cholangiogram. Pancreatograms were available in 34 of the 45 patients with papillary stenosis, in which 29 (81%) had associated pancreatic duct dilatation, often with associated features of chronic pancreatitis. In the remaining 27 patients, final diagnoses included drug induced liver disease, acalculous cholecystitis, gall bladder empyema, chronic B virus hepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic abnormalities are commonly seen with ARSC and may be responsible for some of the pain not relieved by biliary sphincterotomy. The most frequent radiographic biliary abnormality is papillary stenosis combined with ductal sclerosis. Images PMID:9389948

  6. Effect of H bond removal and changes in the position of the iron-sulphur head domain on the spin-lattice relaxation properties of the [2Fe-2S](2+) Rieske cluster in cytochrome bc(1).

    PubMed

    Sarewicz, Marcin; Dutka, Małgorzata; Pietras, Rafał; Borek, Arkadiusz; Osyczka, Artur

    2015-10-14

    Here, comparative electron spin-lattice relaxation studies of the 2Fe-2S iron-sulphur (Fe-S) cluster embedded in a large membrane protein complex - cytochrome bc1 - are reported. Structural modifications of the local environment alone (mutations S158A and Y160W removing specific H bonds between Fe-S and amino acid side chains) or in combination with changes in global protein conformation (mutations/inhibitors changing the position of the Fe-S binding domain within the protein complex) resulted in different redox potentials as well as g-, g-strain and the relaxation rates (T1(-1)) for the Fe-S cluster. The relaxation rates for T < 25 K were measured directly by inversion recovery, while for T > 60 K they were deduced from simulation of continuous wave EPR spectra of the cluster using a model that included anisotropy of Lorentzian broadening. In all cases, the relaxation rate involved contributions from direct, second-order Raman and Orbach processes, each dominating over different temperature ranges. The analysis of T1(-1) (T) over the range 5-120 K yielded the values of the Orbach energy (EOrb), Debye temperature θD and Raman process efficiency CRam for each variant of the protein. As the Orbach energy was generally higher for mutants S158A and Y160W, compared to wild-type protein (WT), it is suggested that H bond removal influences the geometry leading to increased strength of antiferromagnetic coupling between two Fe ions of the cluster. While θD was similar for all variants (∼107 K), the efficiency of the Raman process generally depends on the spin-orbit coupling that is lower for S158A and Y160W mutants, when compared to the WT. However, in several cases CRam did not only correlate with spin-orbit coupling but was also influenced by other factors - possibly the modification of protein rigidity and therefore the vibrational modes around the Fe-S cluster that change upon the movement of the iron-sulphur head domain. PMID:26355649

  7. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner. PMID:22419949

  8. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  9. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  10. Position detectors, methods of detecting position, and methods of providing positional detectors

    DOEpatents

    Weinberg, David M.; Harding, L. Dean; Larsen, Eric D.

    2002-01-01

    Position detectors, welding system position detectors, methods of detecting various positions, and methods of providing position detectors are described. In one embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a base that is configured to engage and be moved along a curved surface of a welding work piece. At least one position detection apparatus is provided and is connected with the base and configured to measure angular position of the detector relative to a reference vector. In another embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a weld head and at least one inclinometer mounted on the weld head. The one inclinometer is configured to develop positional data relative to a reference vector and the position of the weld head on a non-planar weldable work piece.

  11. Natural convection around the human head.

    PubMed

    Clark, R P; Toy, N

    1975-01-01

    1. Factors determining the convective flow patterns around the human head in 'still' conditions are discussed in relation to body posture. 2. The flow patterns have been visualized using a schlieren optical system which reveals that the head has a thicker 'insulating' layer of convecting air in the erect posture than in the supine position. 3. Local convective and radiative heat transfer measurements from the head have been using surface calorimeters. These results are seen to be closely related to the thickness of the convective boundary layer flows. 4. The total convective and radiative heat loss from the head of a subject in the erect and supine position has been evaluated from the local measurements. For the head of the supine subject the heat loss was found to be 30% more than when the subject was standing. PMID:1142118

  12. Head movement during walking in the cat.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Humza N; Beloozerova, Irina N; Sun, Hai; Marlinski, Vladimir

    2016-09-22

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20-90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40-90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ∼1.5cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ∼3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ∼1cm and 1.5-3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10-30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5-1m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ∼0.05 and ∼0.1m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ∼0.05m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20-50°/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3-0.5cm taller and held their head 0.5-2cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25-100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ∼20°/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  13. 21 CFR 882.4460 - Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp). 882.4460... holder (skull clamp). (a) Identification. A neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp) is a device used to clamp the patient's skull to hold head and neck in a particular position during surgical procedures....

  14. 21 CFR 882.4460 - Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp). 882.4460... holder (skull clamp). (a) Identification. A neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp) is a device used to clamp the patient's skull to hold head and neck in a particular position during surgical procedures....

  15. 21 CFR 882.4460 - Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp). 882.4460... holder (skull clamp). (a) Identification. A neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp) is a device used to clamp the patient's skull to hold head and neck in a particular position during surgical procedures....

  16. 21 CFR 882.4460 - Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp). 882.4460... holder (skull clamp). (a) Identification. A neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp) is a device used to clamp the patient's skull to hold head and neck in a particular position during surgical procedures....

  17. 21 CFR 868.5560 - Gas mask head strap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas mask head strap. 868.5560 Section 868.5560...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5560 Gas mask head strap. (a) Identification. A gas mask head strap is a device used to hold an anesthetic gas mask in position on a...

  18. 21 CFR 882.4460 - Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp). 882.4460... holder (skull clamp). (a) Identification. A neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp) is a device used to clamp the patient's skull to hold head and neck in a particular position during surgical procedures....

  19. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  20. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  2. Directional abnormalities of vestibular and optokinetic responses in cerebellar disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, M. F.; Zee, D. S.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Directional abnormalities of vestibular and optokinetic responses in patients with cerebellar degeneration are reported. Three-axis magnetic search-coil recordings of the eye and head were performed in eight cerebellar patients. Among these patients, examples of directional cross-coupling were found during (1) high-frequency, high-acceleration head thrusts; (2) constant-velocity chair rotations with the head fixed; (3) constant-velocity optokinetic stimulation; and (4) following repetitive head shaking. Cross-coupling during horizontal head thrusts consisted of an inappropriate upward eye-velocity component. In some patients, sustained constant-velocity yaw-axis chair rotations produced a mixed horizontal-torsional nystagmus and/or an increase in the baseline vertical slow-phase velocity. Following horizontal head shaking, some patients showed an increase in the slow-phase velocity of their downbeat nystagmus. These various forms of cross-coupling did not necessarily occur to the same degree in a given patient; this suggests that different mechanisms may be responsible. It is suggested that cross-coupling during head thrusts may reflect a loss of calibration of brainstem connections involved in the direct vestibular pathways, perhaps due to dysfunction of the flocculus. Cross-coupling during constant-velocity rotations and following head shaking may result from a misorientation of the angular eye-velocity vector in the velocity-storage system. Finally, responses to horizontal optokinetic stimulation included an inappropriate torsional component in some patients. This suggests that the underlying organization of horizontal optokinetic tracking is in labyrinthine coordinates. The findings are also consistent with prior animal-lesion studies that have shown a role for the vestibulocerebellum in the control of the direction of the VOR.

  3. Head of Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Purpose and scope of the position: The main task is to provide efficient administrative services and advice to the Director General, Division Leaders and to staff members in the scientific and technical areas in the fields of financial planning and accounting, personnel management, purchasing, legal and contractual matters, information systems and building and site maintenance. As a member of the ESO Management the Head of Administration contributes essentially to the development of the overall policy, strategic planning, relations to the members of the personnel and maintains professional contacts at highest level outside the Organisation. ESO employs in total approximately 650 staff members and the Administration Division comprises the Administration at the Headquarters in Garching near Munich and the Administration in Santiago (Chile). The successful candidate will be supported by some 50 qualified staff members.

  4. Cell cycle regulators and their abnormalities in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, P L; Jares, P; Rey, M J; Campo, E; Cardesa, A

    1998-01-01

    One of the main properties of cancer cells is their increased and deregulated proliferative activity. It is now well known that abnormalities in many positive and negative modulators of the cell cycle are frequent in many cancer types, including breast carcinomas. Abnormalities such as defective function of the retinoblastoma gene and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (for example, p16, p21, and p27), as well as upregulation of cyclins, are often seen in breast tumours. These abnormalities are sometimes coincidental, and newly described interplays between them suggest the existence of a complex regulatory web in the cell cycle. PMID:10193510

  5. Head injury. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiographic Evaluation; Epidemiology of Head Injury; Emergency Care and Initial Evaluation; Skull Fracture and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas; Mild Head Injury; and Injuries of the Cranial Nerves.

  6. Radial head fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Elbow fracture - radial head - aftercare ... the radius bone, just below your elbow. A fracture is a break in your bone. The most common cause of a radial head fracture is falling with an outstretched arm.

  7. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  8. Increased head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003305.htm Increased head circumference To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the ...

  9. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... increases your risk. In fact, 85 percent of head and neck cancers are linked to tobacco use, including smoking ...

  10. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is shaken, is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. Scalp wounds. Skull fractures. Head injuries may cause ... of people who suffer head injuries are children. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) accounts for over 1 in 6 injury- ...

  11. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... swallowing A change or hoarseness in the voice Head and neck cancers are twice as common in men. Using ...

  12. Sperm ultrastructure, morphometry, and abnormal morphology in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Brito, L F C; Sertich, P L; Stull, G B; Rives, W; Knobbe, M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe sperm ultrastructure, morphometry, and abnormal morphology in American black bears. Electroejaculation was successful in 53.8% (7/13) of the attempts, but urine contamination was common. Epididymal sperm samples were also obtained from five bears. Sperm had a paddle-like head shape and the ultrastructure was similar to that of most other mammals. The most striking particularity of black bear sperm ultrastructure was a tightening of the nucleus in the equatorial region. Although the differences were not significant in all bears, the overall decrease in sperm nucleus dimensions during transport from the caput epididymis to the cauda suggested increasing compaction of the nucleus during maturation. For ejaculated sperm, nucleus length, width, and base width were 4.9, 3.7, and 1.8 μm, respectively, whereas sperm head length, width, and base width were 6.6, 4.8, and 2.3 μm, and midpiece, tail (including midpiece), and total sperm lengths were 9.8, 68.8, and 75.3 μm. Evaluation of sperm cytoplasmic droplets in the epididymis revealed that proximal droplets start migrating toward a distal position in the caput epididymis and that the process was mostly completed by the time sperm reached the cauda epididymis. The proportion of morphologically normal sperm in the ejaculate was 35.6%; the most prevalent sperm defects were distal cytoplasmic droplets and bent/coiled tails. The morphology of abnormal sperm and the underlying ultrastructural defects were similar to that in other large domestic animals thus suggesting similar underlying pathogenesis of specific sperm defects and similar effects on fertility. PMID:20708230

  13. Head-Up Tilt.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinyi; Yang, Lihong; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Shuaibing; Qiao, Zihao; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Guihua; Wang, Qingyi; Liu, Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction has been associated with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). The head-up tilt test (HUTT) is an important diagnostic tool for autonomic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to examine atrial fibrillation recurrence after RFCA by performing HUTT. A total of 488 consecutive patients with PAF who underwent RFCA were prospectively enrolled. HUTT was positive in 154 (31.6%) patients after a mean follow-up of 22.7 ± 3.5 months, and 163 (33.4%) had a recurrence. HUTT positive was significantly higher in PAF patients with recurrence compared to those without (68 (41.7%) versus 86 (26.5%), P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that HUTT positive (HR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.49-2.48, P < 0.001), left atrial diameter (HR: 1.77; 95%CI: 1.15-2.11, P = 0.004), AF duration (HR: 1.27; 95%CI: 0.98-1.83, P = 0.014), and sleep apnea (HR: 1.02; 95%CI: 0.81-1.53, P = 0.032) were independent predictors of clinical recurrence after RFCA. The success rate of ablation was 70.4% in patients in the HUTT negative group compared with 58.4% in patients in the HUTT positive group (log-rank P = 0.006). Patients with a positive headup tilt test were at an increased risk of AF recurrence after catheter ablation. Our results suggest that HUTT was a significant predictor for AF recurrence after catheter ablation for PAF. PMID:26370369

  14. Head Start Facilities Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Assessment Management, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    A quality Head Start facility should provide a physical environment responsive both to the needs of the children and families served and to the needs of staff, volunteers, and community agencies that share space with Head Start. This manual is a tool for Head Start grantees and delegate agencies for assessing existing facilities, making…

  15. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  16. Pediatric head trauma

    PubMed Central

    Alexiou, George A; Sfakianos, George; Prodromou, Neofytos

    2011-01-01

    Head injury in children accounts for a large number of emergency department visits and hospital admissions. Falls are the most common type of injury, followed by motor-vehicle-related accidents. In the present study, we discuss the evaluation, neuroimaging and management of children with head trauma. Furthermore, we present the specific characteristics of each type of pediatric head injury. PMID:21887034

  17. Sealed head access area enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Govi, Aldo R.

    1978-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder power reactor is provided with a sealed head access area enclosure disposed above the reactor vessel head consisting of a plurality of prefabricated structural panels including a center panel removably sealed into position with inflatable seals, and outer panels sealed into position with semipermanent sealant joints. The sealant joints are located in the joint between the edge of the panels and the reactor containment structure and include from bottom to top an inverted U-shaped strip, a lower layer of a room temperature vulcanizing material, a separator strip defining a test space therewithin, and an upper layer of a room temperature vulcanizing material. The test space is tapped by a normally plugged passage extending to the top of the enclosure for testing the seal or introducing a buffer gas thereinto.

  18. [Walking abnormalities in children].

    PubMed

    Segawa, Masaya

    2010-11-01

    Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional

  19. Effects of Soccer Heading on Brain Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player's unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6-12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety

  20. Effects of Soccer Heading on Brain Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6–12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety

  1. Further observations on the "bobble-headed doll syndrome".

    PubMed Central

    Dell, S

    1981-01-01

    Two patients are presented with a head-bobblng "tic" classically associated with a suprasellar cyst. The first of these showed hypothalamic, neuroendocrinological and limbic abnormalities not previously described, although with a classic arachnoidal suprasellar cyst. The second of these patients showed head-bobbling behaviour during the first years of life as a manifestation of one out of many episodes of ventricular shunt obstruction. This case is therefore the first reported whose head bobbling was observed with an acute lesion. Images PMID:7334392

  2. Nursing Research: Position Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, Laurel; And Others

    The role of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) in encouraging research through the programs and activities of the member schools is discussed. It is suggested that the dean or administrative head of a college of nursing is in a position to influence nursing research activities. The principal role of the academic dean in…

  3. Molecular abnormalities in Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Burchill, Susan Ann

    2008-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is one of the few solid tumors for which the underlying molecular genetic abnormality has been described: rearrangement of the EWS gene on chromosome 22q12 with an ETS gene family member. These translocations define the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) and provide a valuable tool for their accurate and unequivocal diagnosis. They also represent ideal targets for the development of tumor-specific therapeutics. Although secondary abnormalities occur in over 80% of primary ESFT the clinical utility of these is currently unclear. However, abnormalities in genes that regulate the G(1)/S checkpoint are frequently described and may be important in predicting outcome and response. Increased understanding of the molecular events that arise in ESFT and their role in the development and maintenance of the malignant phenotype will inform the improved stratification of patients for therapy and identify targets and pathways for the design of more effective cancer therapeutics. PMID:18925858

  4. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  5. Relative femoral head size in early hominids.

    PubMed

    Corruccini, R S; McHenry, H M

    1978-07-01

    Relative growth of the human femur head is studied by a logarithmic principal components method. Growth rates differ according to the population sampled and the other body dimensions being compared, and especially according to sex. The results do not support biomechanical assumptions of strongly positive allometry of the femur head, which have been used to argue that the australopithecine hip joint was not relatively small. PMID:98052

  6. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  7. Ultrasonographic assessment of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    England, G C

    1998-07-01

    Ultrasonographic imaging is widely used in small animal practice for the diagnosis of pregnancy and the determination of fetal number. Ultrasonography can also be used to monitor abnormal pregnancies, for example, conceptuses that are poorly developed for their gestational age (and therefore are likely to fail), and pregnancies in which there is embryonic resorption or fetal abortion. An ultrasound examination may reveal fetal abnormalities and therefore alter the management of the pregnant bitch or queen prior to parturition. There are, however, a number of ultrasonographic features of normal pregnancies that may mimic disease, and these must be recognized. PMID:9698618

  8. The effect of abnormal cell proportion on specimen classifier performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, K. R.; White, B. S.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the results obtained from a cell classifier which is confronted with an abnormal/normal cell ratio which is different from the ratio assumed in the calibration of the classifier. False negative and false positive error rates are determined in advance for classifier operation, along with the necessary sample size in order to validate the predicted distributions. Changes are demonstrated to happen only regarding the false negative rate, where reductions in the abnormal cell rate below the expected rates would cause totally unreliable data. Substantial overproduction of abnormal cells would be quickly noticeable, while production rates beyond, but close to, the expected rates would only require more extensive sampling. Classifier systems for 10% proportions of abnormal cells are concluded to be possible, but difficulties are present with much lower rates

  9. Extracellular Matrix Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Sabina

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to the involvement of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Abnormalities affecting several ECM components, including Reelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), have been described in subjects with this disease. Solid evidence supports the involvement of Reelin, an ECM glycoprotein involved in corticogenesis, synaptic functions and glutamate NMDA receptor regulation, expressed prevalently in distinct populations of GABAergic neurons, which secrete it into the ECM. Marked changes of Reelin expression in SZ have typically been reported in association with GABA-related abnormalities in subjects with SZ and bipolar disorder. Recent findings from our group point to substantial abnormalities affecting CSPGs, a main ECM component, in the amygdala and entorhinal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia, but not bipolar disorder. Striking increases of glial cells expressing CSPGs were accompanied by reductions of perineuronal nets, CSPG- and Reelin-enriched ECM aggregates enveloping distinct neuronal populations. CSPGs developmental and adult functions, including neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic and neurotransmission regulation are highly relevant to the pathophysiology of SZ. Together with reports of anomalies affecting several other ECM components, these findings point to the ECM as a key component of the pathology of SZ. We propose that ECM abnormalities may contribute to several aspects of the pathophysiology of this disease, including disrupted connectivity and neuronal migration, synaptic anomalies and altered GABAergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:21856318

  10. Treatment of head lice.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Stephanie A; Morrell, Dean S; Burkhart, Craig N

    2009-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis, or head lice, is a common infestation among children worldwide. Multiple therapies exist for the treatment of this condition, including topical pediculicides and oral medications. When used in combination with environmental decontamination, these drugs can be very effective in eradicating head lice infestation without significant adverse events. The present study discusses the use of available over-the-counter and prescription treatments, including pyrethroids and permethrin, lindane, malathion, ivermectin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, in the treatment of head lice. PMID:19580574

  11. Pure hemidystonia with basal ganglion abnormalities on positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, J.S.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-03-01

    We present a patient with hemidystonia and an abnormality of the contralateral basal ganglion seen only with positron emission tomography. A 50-year-old sinistral man suffered minor trauma to the right side of his head and neck. Within 20 minutes he developed paroxysmal intermittent dystonic posturing of his right face, forearm, hand, and foot, with weaker contractions of the left foot, lasting several seconds and recurring every few minutes. Neurological findings between spells were normal. The following were also normal: electrolyte, calcium, magnesium, and arterial blood gas levels, and findings of drug screen, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalography with nasopharyngeal leads, computed tomographic scanning (initially and four weeks later), and cerebral angiography. Positron emission tomographic scanning revealed abnormalities in the left basal ganglion region, including decreased oxygen metabolism, decreased oxygen extraction, increased blood volume, and increased blood flow.

  12. Deposition head for laser

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    A deposition head for use as a part of apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. The deposition head delivers the laser beam and powder to a deposition zone, which is formed at the tip of the deposition head. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of the deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which the deposition head moves along the tool path.

  13. Low cutter load raise head

    SciTech Connect

    Saxman, W.C.

    1981-03-31

    A raise head having a multiplicity of cutters for enlarging a pilot hole into a larger diameter hole by disintegrating the earth formations that surround the pilot hole is provided that will require lower cutter loads to penetrate the formations being bored by directing the rock fracture planes toward the pilot hole forcing the rock to yield with less input energy. The cutters are positioned on the raise head to provide an earth formation contact profile with a major portion of said earth formation contact profile extending outward and upward from said pilot hole. The included angle between the major portion of the earth formation contact profile and the axis of the pilot hole is less than 90/sup 0/.

  14. Can imaginary head tilt shorten postrotatory nystagmus?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gianna-Poulin, C. C.; Voelker, C. C.; Erickson, B.; Black, F. O.

    2001-01-01

    In healthy subjects, head tilt upon cessation of a constant-velocity yaw head rotation shortens the duration of postrotatory nystagmus. The presumed mechanism for this effect is that the velocity storage of horizontal semicircular canal inputs is being discharged by otolith organ inputs which signal a constant yaw head position when the head longitudinal axis is no longer earth-vertical. In the present study, normal subjects were rotated head upright in the dark on a vertical-axis rotational chair at 60 degrees/s for 75 s and were required to perform a specific task as soon as the chair stopped. Horizontal position of the right eye was recorded with an infra-red video camera. The average eye velocity (AEV) was measured over a 30-s interval following chair acceleration/deceleration. The ratios (postrotatory AEV/perrotatory AEV) were 1.1 (SD 0.112) when subjects (N=10) kept their head erect, 0.414 (SD 0.083) when subjects tilted their head forward, 1.003 (SD 0.108) when subjects imagined watching a TV show, 1.012 (SD 0.074) when subjects imagined looking at a painting on a wall, and 0.995 (SD 0.074) when subjects imagined floating in a prone position on a lake. Thus, while actual head tilt reduced postrotatory nystagmus, the imagination tasks did not have a statistically significant effect on postrotatory nystagmus. Therefore, velocity storage does not appear to be under the influence of cortical neural signals when subjects imagine that they are floating in a prone orientation.

  15. Heading Tuning in Macaque Area V6

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Reuben H.; Liu, Sheng; DeAngelis, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical areas, such as the dorsal subdivision of the medial superior temporal area (MSTd) and the ventral intraparietal area (VIP), have been shown to integrate visual and vestibular self-motion signals. Area V6 is interconnected with areas MSTd and VIP, allowing for the possibility that V6 also integrates visual and vestibular self-motion cues. An alternative hypothesis in the literature is that V6 does not use these sensory signals to compute heading but instead discounts self-motion signals to represent object motion. However, the responses of V6 neurons to visual and vestibular self-motion cues have never been studied, thus leaving the functional roles of V6 unclear. We used a virtual reality system to examine the 3D heading tuning of macaque V6 neurons in response to optic flow and inertial motion stimuli. We found that the majority of V6 neurons are selective for heading defined by optic flow. However, unlike areas MSTd and VIP, V6 neurons are almost universally unresponsive to inertial motion in the absence of optic flow. We also explored the spatial reference frames of heading signals in V6 by measuring heading tuning for different eye positions, and we found that the visual heading tuning of most V6 cells was eye-centered. Similar to areas MSTd and VIP, the population of V6 neurons was best able to discriminate small variations in heading around forward and backward headings. Our findings support the idea that V6 is involved primarily in processing visual motion signals and does not appear to play a role in visual–vestibular integration for self-motion perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To understand how we successfully navigate our world, it is important to understand which parts of the brain process cues used to perceive our direction of self-motion (i.e., heading). Cortical area V6 has been implicated in heading computations based on human neuroimaging data, but direct measurements of heading selectivity in individual V6 neurons have been lacking. We

  16. A Pilot Study of Abnormal Growth in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Peters, Cindy T. R.; Oosterling, Iris J.; Visser, Janne C.; Bons, Danielle; van Steijn, Daphne J.; Draaisma, Jos; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan. K.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine whether early growth abnormalities are (a) comparable in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other childhood psychiatric disorders, and (b) specific to the brain or generalized to the whole body. Head circumference, height, and weight were measured during the first 19 months of life in 129 children…

  17. Radiological evaluation of head trauma by computer tomography in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunseyinde, A O; Obajimi, M O; Ogundare, S M

    1999-01-01

    The computed tomography (CT) findings of 419 patients with head injury were reviewed. 254 (60.62%) showed abnormal CT findings while 165 (39.38%) had a normal CT examination. Pathological states, which were easily demonstrated by CT, include traumatic haemorrhages (i.e. intracerebral bleed 67 cases (26.3%), Subdural haematoma 73 cases (28.7%), cerebral oedema and other cerebral sequelae of trauma such as porencephalic cysts, cerebral infarction and leukodystrophy. Patients with focal neurological deficit showed more positive findings than those without. A total of 73 (17.42%) patients had fractures demonstrated on CT. 39 (23.2%) of the 168 patients with traumatic haemorrhages had associated fractures. Fractures were detected more in patients with intracerebral and epidural haemorrhages than subdural haemorrhages. Plain skull radiography alone is therefore not sufficiently valuable in investigating patients with head injury. Computed tomography, no doubt, offers an excellent method of investigating the patient with head injury in that it demonstrates intracranial or cerebral lesions that may or may not be associated with fractures; and which might be missed if CT is not done. CT examination should be obtained where it is available if clinical indication warrants it and when CT is to be done, plain films are irrelevant since CT with bone window settings and with 3D reformation would show fractures. PMID:10876730

  18. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities in asymptomatic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Hosenpud, J.D.; Montanaro, A.; Hart, M.V.; Haines, J.E.; Specht, H.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Kloster, F.E.

    1984-08-01

    Accelerated coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in young patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is well documented; however, the prevalence of coronary involvement is unknown. Accordingly, 26 patients with systemic lupus were selected irrespective of previous cardiac history to undergo exercise thallium-201 cardiac scintigraphy. Segmental perfusion abnormalities were present in 10 of the 26 studies (38.5 percent). Five patients had reversible defects suggesting ischemia, four patients had persistent defects consistent with scar, and one patient had both reversible and persistent defects in two areas. There was no correlation between positive thallium results and duration of disease, amount of corticosteroid treatment, major organ system involvement or age. Only a history of pericarditis appeared to be associated with positive thallium-201 results (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that segmental myocardial perfusion abnormalities are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Whether this reflects large-vessel coronary disease or small-vessel abnormalities remains to be determined.

  19. The possible role of cranio-cervical trauma and abnormal CSF hydrodynamics in the genesis of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Damadian, Raymond V; Chu, David

    2011-01-01

    UPRIGHT Multi-Position MR scanning has uncovered a key set of new observations regarding Multiple Sclerosis (MS), which observations are likely to provide a new understanding of the origin of MS. The new findings may also lead to new forms of treatment for MS. The UPRIGHT MRI has demonstrated pronounced anatomic pathology of the cervical spine in five of the MS patients studied and definitive cervical pathology in the other three. The pathology was the result of prior head and neck trauma. All eight MS patients entered the study on a first come first serve basis without priority, and all but one were found to have a history of serious prior cervical trauma which resulted in significant cervical pathology. The cervical pathology was visualized by UPRIGHT MRI. Upright cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cinematography and quantitative measurements of CSF velocity, CSF flow and CSF pressure gradients in the upright patient revealed that significant obstructions to CSF flow were present in all MS patients. The obstructions are believed to be responsible for CSF "leakages" of CSF from the ventricles into the surrounding brain parenchyma which "leakages" can be the source of the MS lesions in the brain that give rise to MS symptomatology. The CSF flow obstructions are believed to result in increases in intracranial pressure (ICP) that generate "leakages" of the CSF into the surrounding brain parenchyma. In all but one MS patient, anatomic pathologies were found to be more severe in the upright position than in the recumbent position. Similarly, CSF flow abnormalities were found to be more severe in the upright position than in the recumbent position in all but one MS patient. Images of the MS patient anatomic pathologies and CSF flow abnormalities are provided with comparison images from normal examinees in Figures 1-15. PMID:21970155

  20. Visual afference mediates head and trunk stability in vestibular hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shun-Hwa; Chen, Po-Yin; Chen, Hung-Ju; Kao, Chung-Lan; Schubert, Michael C

    2016-07-01

    Humans must maintain head and trunk stability while walking. The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics of healthy controls and patients with vestibular hypofunction (VH) when walking and making head rotations of different frequencies in both light and dark conditions. We recruited eight individuals with VH and nine healthy control subjects to perform four tasks at their preferred gait speed, being normal walk, walking and making yaw head rotations at 1.5Hz and 2Hz, and walking in the dark and making yaw head rotations at 1.5Hz. Linear kinematics as well as head, trunk, and pelvis angular velocities were captured using the Vicon motion analysis system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK). We found no difference in walking velocities for any of the four walking conditions across groups. The lateral displacement of the center of mass was increased in VH patients. In the dark, patients had more head instability in pitch (larger amplitudes and velocities) even though they were walking and making active yaw head rotations. Patients also had a smaller relative phase angle (mean 3.50±standard deviation 2.13°) than controls (mean 10.31±standard deviation 2.70°) (p<0.01). Our data suggest that patients with VH have difficulty walking with a straight trajectory when turning their head. Additionally, patients with VH have an abnormal excursion of spontaneous pitch head rotation while walking and making active yaw head turns, which is dependent on vision. Rehabilitation for these patients should consider applying unique head rotation frequencies when training gait with head turns as well as alternating their exposure to light. PMID:26976344

  1. Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Kumar, Priyanka; Ghasia, Fatema F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fixational saccades shift the foveal image to counteract visual fading related to neural adaptation. Drifts are slow eye movements between two adjacent fixational saccades. We quantified fixational saccades and asked whether their changes could be attributed to pathologic drifts seen in amblyopia, one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Methods Thirty-six pediatric subjects with varying severity of amblyopia and eleven healthy age-matched controls held their gaze on a visual target. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video-oculography during fellow eye-viewing and amblyopic eye-viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and drifts were analyzed in the amblyopic and fellow eye and compared with controls. Results We found an increase in the amplitude with decreased frequency of fixational saccades in children with amblyopia. These alterations in fixational eye movements correlated with the severity of their amblyopia. There was also an increase in eye position variance during drifts in amblyopes. There was no correlation between the eye position variance or the eye velocity during ocular drifts and the amplitude of subsequent fixational saccade. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in fixational saccades in amblyopia are independent of the ocular drift. Discussion This investigation of amblyopia in pediatric age group quantitatively characterizes the fixation instability. Impaired properties of fixational saccades could be the consequence of abnormal processing and reorganization of the visual system in amblyopia. Paucity in the visual feedback during amblyopic eye-viewing condition can attribute to the increased eye position variance and drift velocity. PMID:26930079

  2. Videometric head tracker for augmented reality applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janin, Adam L.; Zikan, Karel; Mizell, David; Banner, Mike; Sowizral, Henry A.

    1995-12-01

    For the past three years, we have been developing augmented reality technology for application to a variety of touch labor tasks in aircraft manufacturing and assembly. The system would be worn by factory workers to provide them with better-quality information for performing their tasks than was previously available. Using a see-through head-mounted display (HMD) whose optics are set at a focal length of about 18 in., the display and its associated head tracking system can be used to superimpose and stabilize graphics on the surface of a work piece. This technology would obviate many expensive marking systems now used in aerospace manufacturing. The most challenging technical issue with respect to factory applications of AR is head position and orientation tracking. It requires high accuracy, long- range tracking in a high-noise environment. The approach we have chosen uses a head- mounted miniature video camera. The user's wearable computer system utilizes the camera to find fiducial markings that have been placed on known coordinates on or near the work piece. The system then computes the user's position and orientation relative to the fiducial marks. It is referred to as a `videometric' head tracker. In this paper, we describe the steps we took and the results we obtained in the process of prototyping our videometric head tracker, beginning with analytical and simulation results, and continuing through the working prototypes.

  3. Head Injuries in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  4. American Head and Neck Society

    MedlinePlus

    American Head & Neck Society Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education American Head & Neck Society | AHNS Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education About AHNS ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  5. GLIAL ABNORMALITIES IN MOOD DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J.; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this chapter, we will review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders. We will discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. This is not carry out a comprehensive review; rather we selectively discuss existing evidence in building an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders. PMID:25377605

  6. Trunnion-Head Stresses in THA: Are Big Heads Trouble?

    PubMed

    Lavernia, Carlos J; Iacobelli, David A; Villa, Jesus M; Jones, Kinzy; Gonzalez, Jose L; Jones, William Kinzy

    2015-06-01

    The effects of large heads on stresses at the THA trunnion-head junction and their impact on tribocorrosion/metal ion release remain controversial. A 12/14 3D-model of a stem with different head sizes was investigated. Material properties of titanium were assigned to the trunnion and cobalt-chrome/alumina to the heads. A load simulating walking single-leg stand phase was applied to the head. A total contact head-trunnion interface was assumed. The area underneath the junction underwent significant elevations in stresses as head size increased from 28- to 40-mm. Maximum principal stress doubled between 28 and 40-mm heads, regardless of head material. Stress levels had a direct correlation to head diameter. Stress increases observed using increasingly larger heads will probably contribute to head-trunnion tribocorrosion and ion release. PMID:25724112

  7. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than... to the miner by MSHA in accordance with section 203 of the act (see 30 CFR part 90). Positive... files and the most recent examination was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis,...

  8. Are patient specific meshes required for EIT head imaging?

    PubMed

    Jehl, Markus; Aristovich, Kirill; Faulkner, Mayo; Holder, David

    2016-06-01

    Head imaging with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is usually done with time-differential measurements, to reduce time-invariant modelling errors. Previous research suggested that more accurate head models improved image quality, but no thorough analysis has been done on the required accuracy. We propose a novel pipeline for creation of precise head meshes from magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans, which was applied to four different heads. Voltages were simulated on all four heads for perturbations of different magnitude, haemorrhage and ischaemia, in five different positions and for three levels of instrumentation noise. Statistical analysis showed that reconstructions on the correct mesh were on average 25% better than on the other meshes. However, the stroke detection rates were not improved. We conclude that a generic head mesh is sufficient for monitoring patients for secondary strokes following head trauma. PMID:27206049

  9. Saccadic compensation for smooth eye and head movements during head-unrestrained two-dimensional tracking.

    PubMed

    Daye, P M; Blohm, G; Lefèvre, P

    2010-01-01

    Spatial updating is the ability to keep track of the position of world-fixed objects while we move. In the case of vision, this phenomenon is called spatial constancy and has been studied in head-restraint conditions. During head-restrained smooth pursuit, it has been shown that the saccadic system has access to extraretinal information from the pursuit system to update the objects' position in the surrounding environment. However, during head-unrestrained smooth pursuit, the saccadic system needs to keep track of three different motor commands: the ocular smooth pursuit command, the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR), and the head movement command. The question then arises whether saccades compensate for these movements. To address this question, we briefly presented a target during sinusoidal head-unrestrained smooth pursuit in darkness. Subjects were instructed to look at the flash as soon as they saw it. We observed that subjects were able to orient their gaze to the memorized (and spatially updated) position of the flashed target generally using one to three successive saccades. Similar to the behavior in the head-restrained condition, we found that the longer the gaze saccade latency, the better the compensation for intervening smooth gaze displacements; after about 400 ms, 62% of the smooth gaze displacement had been compensated for. This compensation depended on two independent parameters: the latency of the saccade and the eye contribution to the gaze displacement during this latency period. Separating gaze into eye and head contributions, we show that the larger the eye contribution to the gaze displacement, the better the overall compensation. Finally, we found that the compensation was a function of the head oscillation frequency and we suggest that this relationship is linked to the modulation of VOR gain. We conclude that the general mechanisms of compensation for smooth gaze displacements are similar to those observed in the head-restrained condition. PMID

  10. Head Circumference and Neurocognitive Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2015-07-01

    Investigators from Universities of Glasgow and Bristol, UK, determined the value of head circumference (HC) as a screening measure, the incidence of head centile shifting, and the relationship between extremes of head size and later neurodevelopmental problems. PMID:26933592

  11. Using a Head-Mounted Camera to Infer Attention Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitow, Clara; Stenberg, Gunilla; Billard, Aude; von Hofsten, Claes

    2013-01-01

    A head-mounted camera was used to measure head direction. The camera was mounted to the forehead of 20 6- and 20 12-month-old infants while they watched an object held at 11 horizontal (-80° to + 80°) and 9 vertical (-48° to + 50°) positions. The results showed that the head always moved less than required to be on target. Below 30° in the…

  12. Adding Insult to Injury: Nonconvulsive Seizures in Abusive Head Trauma.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Mary V; Greiner, Hansel M; Caré, Marguerite M; Owens, Deanna; Shapiro, Robert; Holland, Katherine

    2015-11-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of nonconvulsive seizures and nonconvulsive status epilepticus in patients with abusive head trauma who underwent electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring and to describe predictive factors for this population. Children with a diagnosis of abusive head trauma were studied retrospectively to determine the rate of EEG monitoring, the rate of nonconvulsive seizures and nonconvulsive status epilepticus, and the associated neuroimaging findings. Over 11 years, 73 of 199 (36.8%) children with abusive head trauma had electroencephalography monitoring performed. Of these, 20 (27.4%) had nonconvulsive seizures and 3 (4.1%) had nonconvulsive status epilepticus. The presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage and cortical T2 / fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal abnormalities were both significantly associated with the presence of nonconvulsive seizures / nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Nonconvulsive seizures are relatively common in abusive head trauma and may go unrecognized. Specific neuroimaging characteristics increase the likelihood of nonconvulsive seizures on EEG. PMID:25900138

  13. Head and neck injuries in soccer. Impact of minor trauma.

    PubMed

    Tysvaer, A T

    1992-09-01

    Head injuries have been shown to account for between 4 and 22% of soccer injuries. Clinical and neuropsychological investigations of patients with minor head trauma have revealed organic brain damage. 69 active football (soccer) players and 37 former players of the Norwegian national team were included in a neurological and electroencephalographic (EEG) study to investigate the incidence of head injuries mainly caused by heading the ball. 3% of the active and 30% of the former players complained of permanent problems such as headache, dizziness, irritability, impaired memory and neck pain. 35% of the active and 32% of former players had from slightly abnormal to abnormal EEG compared with 13 and 11% of matched controls, respectively. There were fewer definitely abnormal EEG changes among typical 'headers' (10%) than among 'nonheaders' (27%). The former players were also subjected to cerebral computed tomography (CT), a neuropsychological examination and a radiological examination of the cervical spine. One-third of the players were found to have central cerebral atrophy and 81% to have from mild to severe (mostly mild to moderate) neuropsychological impairment. The radiological examination of the cervical spine revealed a significantly higher incidence and degree of degenerative changes than in a matched control group. PMID:1439395

  14. Head and neck injuries in college football: an eight-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Albright, J P; McAuley, E; Martin, R K; Crowley, E T; Foster, D T

    1985-01-01

    The present study documented head and neck injuries in a study group of 342 college football players at a single institution for a period of 8 years. All freshmen players were screened for evidence of: (1) past history of head and neck injuries, and (2) abnormalities of the cervical spine on physical examination and x-ray film. By recording all head injuries and those neck injuries with time loss, incidence rates and patterns of injury incurred in college competition were determined. A total of 175 head and neck injuries were sustained by 100 players over the 8 year period. Those players with abnormal findings on screening examination were twice as likely to have a head or neck injury at some point in their college careers as those players with a normal screening examination. The greater the degree of abnormality on freshman screening examination, the more severe the neck injury in college was likely to be. Twenty-nine percent of all players in the study group sustained a head or neck injury during their college careers. The probability of a subsequent head or neck injury escalated sharply following a single incident. The overall incidence of injury was found to have been dramatically reduced over the 8 years. Influential factors such as legislative rule changes, medical status of recruits, and general coaching philosophies are discussed with regard to injury reduction and prevention of head and neck injuries in college football. PMID:4014528

  15. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  16. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... head and neck cancer. Poor oral and dental hygiene . Poor care of the mouth and teeth has ... sore throat Foul mouth odor not explained by hygiene Hoarseness or change in voice Nasal obstruction or ...

  17. Head Lice: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... it may be necessary to use a second bottle. Pay special attention to instructions on the label ... or printed on the label. Nit (head lice egg) combs, often found in lice medicine packages, should ...

  18. Overview of Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Baby Health Highlights: Sept. 13, 2016 Smokers' Perceptions May Play Role in Addiction Sugar Companies Shifted ... amount of oxygen given and the rate and depth of breaths given by the ventilator. The head ...

  19. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial ... or other growth (mass) Cerebral atrophy (loss of brain tissue) ... with the hearing nerve Stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)

  20. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  1. Head tilt during driving.

    PubMed

    Zikovitz, D C; Harris, L R

    1999-05-01

    In order to distinguish between the use of visual and gravito-inertial force reference frames, the head tilt of drivers and passengers were measured as they went around corners at various speeds. The visual curvature of the corners were thus dissociated from the magnitude of the centripetal forces (0.30-0.77 g). Drivers' head tilts were highly correlated with the visually-available estimate of the curvature of the road (r2=0.86) but not with the centripetal force (r2<0.1). Passengers' head tilts were inversely correlated with the lateral forces (r2=0.3-0.7) and seem to reflect a passive sway. The strong correlation of the tilt of drivers' heads with a visual aspect of the road ahead, supports the use of a predominantly visual reference frame for the driving task. PMID:10722313

  2. TCGA head Neck

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  3. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  4. Treating Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention. Head lice are most common among preschool children attending child care, elementary school children, and ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  5. Computed tomography of the trachea: normal and abnormal

    SciTech Connect

    Gamsu, G.; Webb, W.R.

    1982-08-01

    The trachea was investigated by means of computed tomography (CT) in 50 patients without tracheal or mediastinal abnormalities and in 39 patients with various diseases of the trachea. The variations in the normal CT appearance of the trachea and surrounding structures are described. CT did not provide additional information in the detection of characterization of tracheal stenosis beyond that obtained from more conventional studies, including tomography and positive-contrast tracheography. In patients with a saber-sheath trachea, CT demonstrated the abnormal configuration of the tracheal cartilages and abnormal collapse of the trachea on forced expiration. In patients with primary or secondary neoplasms involving the trachea, CT was most accurate in defining the intraluminal presence of tumor, the degree of airway compression, and the extratracheal extension of tumor. CT can be of value in determining the resectability of primary tracheal neoplasms and the planning of radiation therapy in metastatic lesions to the trachea and surrounding mediastinum.

  6. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  7. Subcortical biophysical abnormalities in patients with mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A; Yang, S; Ajilore, O; Wu, M; Charlton, R; Lamar, M

    2014-01-01

    Cortical–subcortical circuits have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Structural and biochemical abnormalities have been identified in patients diagnosed with mood disorders using magnetic resonance imaging-related approaches. In this study, we used magnetization transfer (MT), an innovative magnetic resonance approach, to study biophysical changes in both gray and white matter regions in cortical–subcortical circuits implicated in emotional regulation and behavior. Our study samples comprised 28 patients clinically diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 31 non-depressed subjects of comparable age and gender. MT ratio (MTR), representing the biophysical integrity of macromolecular proteins within key components of cortical–subcortical circuits—the caudate, thalamic, striatal, orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate and dorsolateral regions—was the primary outcome measure. In our study, the MTR in the head of the right caudate nucleus was significantly lower in the MDD group when compared with the comparison group. MTR values showed an inverse relationship with age in both groups, with more widespread relationships observed in the MDD group. These data indicate that focal biophysical abnormalities in the caudate nucleus may be central to the pathophysiology of depression and critical to the cortical–subcortical abnormalities that underlie mood disorders. Depression may also accentuate age-related changes in the biophysical properties of cortical and subcortical regions. These observations have broad implications for the neuronal circuitry underlying mood disorders across the lifespan. PMID:23877833

  8. Specific eye-head coordination enhances vision in progressive lens wearers.

    PubMed

    Rifai, Katharina; Wahl, Siegfried

    2016-09-01

    In uncorrected vision all combinations of eye and head positions are visually equivalent; thus, there is no need for a specific modification of eye-head coordination in young healthy observers. In contrast, the quality of visual input indeed strongly depends on eye position in the majority of healthy elderly drivers, namely in progressive additional lens (PALs) wearers. For a given distance, only specific combinations of eye and head position provide clear vision in a progressive lens wearer. However, although head movements are an integral part of gaze behavior, it is not known if eye-head coordination takes part in the enhancement of visual input in healthy individuals. In the current study we determined changes in eye-head coordination in progressive lens wearers in challenging tasks with high cognitive load, in the situation of driving. During a real-world drive on an urban round track in Stuttgart, gaze movements and head movements were measured in 17 PAL wearers and eye-head coordination was compared to 27 controls with unrestricted vision. Head movement behavior, specific to progressive lens wearers, was determined in head gain and temporal properties of head movements. Furthermore, vertical eye-head coordination was consistent only among PAL wearers. The observed differences in eye-head coordination clearly demonstrate a contribution of head movements in the enhancement of visual input in the healthy human visual system. PMID:27604068

  9. Measuring How the Head of Department Measures Up: Development of an Evaluation Framework for the Head of Department Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Chad

    2011-01-01

    The head of department position has been an integral role in the organisational structure of colleges and universities for over a hundred years. Recently, many institutions of higher education have called on department heads to provide advancing quality management and leadership to academic units in response to an increasingly complex and…

  10. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  11. Oscillatory Head Movements in Cervical Dystonia: Dystonia, Tremor, or Both?

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Zee, David S.; Jinnah, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical dystonia is characterized by abnormal posturing of the head, often combined with tremor-like oscillatory head movements. The nature and source of these oscillatory head movements is controversial, so they were quantified to delineate their characteristics and develop a hypothetical model for their genesis. A magnetic search coil system was used to measure head movements in 14 subjects with cervical dystonia. Two distinct types of oscillatory head movements were detected for most subjects, even when they were not clinically evident. One type had a relatively large amplitude and jerky irregular pattern, and the other had smaller amplitude with a more regular and sinusoidal pattern. The kinematic properties of these two types of oscillatory head movements were distinct, although both were often combined in the same subject. Both had features suggestive of a defect in a central neural integrator. The combination of different types of oscillatory head movements in cervical dystonia helps to clarify some of the current debates regarding whether they should be considered as manifestations of dystonia or tremor and provides novel insights into their potential pathogenesis. PMID:25879911

  12. Oscillatory head movements in cervical dystonia: Dystonia, tremor, or both?

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Zee, David S; Jinnah, H A

    2015-05-01

    Cervical dystonia is characterized by abnormal posturing of the head, often combined with tremor-like oscillatory head movements. The nature and source of these oscillatory head movements is controversial, so they were quantified to delineate their characteristics and develop a hypothetical model for their genesis. A magnetic search coil system was used to measure head movements in 14 subjects with cervical dystonia. Two distinct types of oscillatory head movements were detected for most subjects, even when they were not clinically evident. One type had a relatively large amplitude and jerky irregular pattern, and the other had smaller amplitude with a more regular and sinusoidal pattern. The kinematic properties of these two types of oscillatory head movements were distinct, although both were often combined in the same subject. Both had features suggestive of a defect in a central neural integrator. The combination of different types of oscillatory head movements in cervical dystonia helps to clarify some of the current debates regarding whether they should be considered as manifestations of dystonia or tremor and provides novel insights into their potential pathogenesis. PMID:25879911

  13. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  14. [Molecular aspects of head and neck, and lung cancer oncogenesis].

    PubMed

    Loriot, Y; Mordant, P; Fouret, P; Deutsch, E; Soria, J-C

    2009-01-01

    Lung and head and neck cancers result from a multistep process involving activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes. These two processes share common features and molecular players, while their corresponding clinical entities are both triggered by the tobacco carcinogens. In many cases, the molecular abnormalities associated with these multi-step and multi-focal processes can be found in pre-malignant lesions and normal tissue. The growing knowledge of the molecular basis of lung and head and neck carcinogenesis allows to better selecting molecular alterations that can be modulated by molecular targeted agents either in a curative or in a chemopreventive approach. PMID:19433370

  15. Abnormalities of the Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane, including the hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes, are an important group of inherited hemolytic anemias. Classified by distinctive morphology on peripheral blood smear, these disorders are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Once considered routine, growing recognition of the longterm risks of splenectomy, including cardiovascular disease, thrombotic disorders, and pulmonary hypertension, as well as the emergence of penicillin-resistant pneumococci, a concern for infection in overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, have led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Current management guidelines acknowledge these important considerations when entertaining splenectomy and recommend detailed discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy. PMID:24237975

  16. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child. PMID:25403900

  17. Large diameter femoral heads: is bigger always better?

    PubMed

    Cooper, H J; Della Valle, C J

    2014-11-01

    Dislocation remains among the most common complications of, and reasons for, revision of both primary and revision total hip replacements (THR). Hence, there is great interest in maximising stability to prevent this complication. Head size has been recognised to have a strong influence on the risk of dislocation post-operatively. As femoral head size increases, stability is augmented, secondary to an increase in impingement-free range of movement. Larger head sizes also greatly increase the 'jump distance' required for the head to dislocate in an appropriately positioned cup. Level-one studies support the use of larger diameter heads as they decrease the risk of dislocation following primary and revision THR. Highly cross-linked polyethylene has allowed us to increase femoral head size, without a marked increase in wear. However, the thin polyethylene liners necessary to accommodate larger heads may increase the risk of liner fracture and larger heads have also been implicated in causing soft-tissue impingement resulting in groin pain. Larger diameter heads also impart larger forces on the femoral trunnion, which may contribute to corrosion, metal release, and adverse local tissue reactions. Alternative large bearings including large ceramic heads and dual mobility bearings may mitigate some of these risks, and several of these devices have been used with clinical success. PMID:25381403

  18. Carbaryl-induced behavioural and reproductive abnormalities in the earthworm Metaphire posthuma: a sensitive model.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shrawan K; Saxena, Prem N

    2003-12-01

    Carbaryl, an N-methyl carbamate insecticide, is used in India to control foliar insects, but, due to soil contamination, it also adversely affects non-target organisms such as earthworms. This paper deals with the toxic effects of carbaryl on the behavioural and reproductive profiles of the earthworm, Metaphire posthuma. Locomotion and geotaxis were significantly affected, even after a 20-minute exposure to 0.125ppm carbaryl. The hatching of cocoons was altered at 0.5ppm, whereas cocoon production was retarded even at 0.125ppm carbaryl. No cocoon production was observed at 2.0ppm carbaryl. Sperm head abnormalities were reported even at the lowest test concentration of 0.125ppm. Wavy head abnormalities were observed at 0.125ppm carbaryl, whereas at 0.25ppm and 0.5ppm, the sperm heads became amorphous and the head nucleus was turned into granules deposited within the wavy head. It is concluded that the earthworm could be used as an ecosystem model for the initial toxicity testing of environmental pollutants. PMID:15560748

  19. Breathing abnormalities in sleep in achondroplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, K A; Everett, F; Sillence, D; Fagan, E; Sullivan, C E

    1993-01-01

    Overnight sleep studies were performed in 20 subjects with achondroplasia to document further the respiratory abnormalities present in this group. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 19 of the subjects to screen for the presence of brainstem abnormalities, which are one of the potential aetiological mechanisms. Fifteen children aged 1 to 14 years, and five young adults, aged 20 to 31 years were included. All had upper airway obstruction and 15 (75%) had a pathological apnoea index (greater than five per hour). Other sleep associated respiratory abnormalities, including partial obstruction, central apnoea, and abnormal electromyographic activity of accessory muscles of respiration, also showed a high prevalence. SEPs were abnormal in eight (42%), but there was no correlation between abnormal SEPs and apnoea during sleep, either qualitatively or quantitatively. A high prevalence of both sleep related respiratory abnormalities and abnormal SEPs in young subjects with achondroplasia was demonstrated. However, the sleep related respiratory abnormalities do not always result in significant blood gas disturbances or correlate with abnormal SEPs in this group. PMID:8215519

  20. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Here again, a basic segmental plan for the head has been sought among chordates. We convened a symposium that brought together leading researchers dealing with this problem, in a number of different evolutionary and developmental contexts. Here we give an overview of the outcome and the status of the field in this modern era of Evo-Devo. We emphasize the fact that the head segmentation problem is not fully resolved, and we discuss new directions in the search for hints for a way out of this maze. PMID:20607135

  1. Lubricating the swordfish head.

    PubMed

    Videler, John J; Haydar, Deniz; Snoek, Roelant; Hoving, Henk-Jan T; Szabo, Ben G

    2016-07-01

    The swordfish is reputedly the fastest swimmer on Earth. The concave head and iconic sword are unique characteristics, but how they contribute to its speed is still unknown. Recent computed tomography scans revealed a poorly mineralised area near the base of the rostrum. Here we report, using magnetic resonance imaging and electron microscopy scanning, the discovery of a complex organ consisting of an oil-producing gland connected to capillaries that communicate with oil-excreting pores in the skin of the head. The capillary vessels transport oil to abundant tiny circular pores that are surrounded by denticles. The oil is distributed from the pores over the front part of the head. The oil inside the gland is identical to that found on the skin and is a mixture of methyl esters. We hypothesize that the oil layer, in combination with the denticles, creates a super-hydrophobic layer that reduces streamwise friction drag and increases swimming efficiency. PMID:27385753

  2. Experiences of patients with abnormal extubation of PICC tubes: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Luan, Xiao-Rong; Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Ming; Li, Kan; Li, Qiu-Huan; Zhang, Hong; Liu, De-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the experiences of patients with abnormal extubation of PICC tubes. Methods: Using phenomenological research methods, 15 cases of patients with abnormal extubation of PICC tubes were enrolled in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed by Nancy’s phenomenological procedure. Results: After abnormal extubation, patients exhibited conflicting complicated mood which combined negative experience and positive experience. Negative experience was mainly for complaint, helpless, worry and fear. Positive experience was mainly for relief and peace of mind. Conclusions: Patients with abnormal extubation often possessed negative experience. So nursing staff should be suggested to communicate with patients before extubation in order to reduce the dispute between nurses and patients. At the same time, we should summarize and analyze the reasons and factors for abnormal extubation, and take targeted intervention measures in clinical to ensure the safety and effectiveness of PICC extubation. PMID:26770567

  3. Positional hoarseness: an unusual symptom in jugular foramen mass.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Manish; Bhaskar, Mukesh Kumar; Mittal, Radhey Shyam; Ojha, Balkrishna

    2016-01-01

    We came across a case of jugular foramen mass causing positional hoarseness on turning the head left and disappearing on returning the head to a straight position. Hoarseness of voice due to vagus nerve involvement is seen in jugular foramen mass but positional hoarseness has never been seen before. We report this rarest presentation and discuss the pathophysiology behind it. PMID:27190124

  4. Computerized system for translating a torch head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, W. A., Jr.; Ives, R. E.; Bruce, M. M., Jr.; Pryor, P. P., Jr.; Gard, L. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The system provides a constant travel speed along a contoured workpiece. It has a driven skate characterized by an elongated bed, with a pair of independently pivoted trucks connected to the bed for support. The trucks are mounted on a contoured track of arbitrary configuration in a mutually spaced relation. An axially extensible torch head manipulator arm is mounted on the bed of the carriage and projects perpendicular from the midportion. The torch head is mounted at its distal end. A real-time computerized control drive subsystem is used to advance the skate along the track of a variable rate for maintaining a constant speed for the torch head tip, and to position the torch axis relative to a preset angle to the workpiece.

  5. Functional Neuroimaging Abnormalities in Psychosis Spectrum Youth

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Daniel H.; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Calkins, Monica E.; Ruparel, Kosha; Elliott, Mark A.; Hopson, Ryan D.; Jackson, Chad; Prabhakaran, Karthik; Bilker, Warren B.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The continuum view of the psychosis spectrum (PS) implies that in population-based samples, PS symptoms should be associated with neural abnormalities similar to those found in help-seeking clinical-risk individuals and in schizophrenia. Functional neuroimaging has not previously been applied in large population-based PS samples, and can help understand the neural architecture of psychosis more broadly, and identify brain phenotypes beyond symptomatology that are associated with the extended psychosis phenotype. Objective To examine the categorical and dimensional relationships of PS symptoms to prefrontal hypoactivation during working memory and to amygdala hyperactivation during threat emotion processing. Design The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC) is a genotyped prospectively accrued population-based sample of nearly 10,000 youths, who received a structured psychiatric evaluation and a computerized neurocognitive battery. A subsample of 1,445 subjects underwent neuroimaging including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks examined here. Setting The PNC is a collaboration between The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Participants Youths ages 11–22 years identified through structured interview as having psychosis-spectrum features (PS, n=260), and typically developing comparison subjects without significant psychopathology (TD, n=220). Main Outcomes and Measures Two fMRI paradigms were utilized, a fractal n-back working memory task probing executive system function, and an emotion identification task probing amygdala responses to threatening faces. Results In the n-back task, PS showed reduced activation in executive control circuitry, which correlated with cognitive deficits. During emotion identification, PS demonstrated elevated amygdala responses to threatening facial expressions, which correlated with positive symptom severity. Conclusions and Relevance The pattern of

  6. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion sizes served to children at Head Start

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Head Start caregivers are responsible for educating and feeding preschoolers enrolled in the Head Start program. Amongst pre-school aged children, portion size served is positively associated with intake of those foods. Researchers conducted eight focus groups with Hispanic and African American Head...

  7. Geometric Morphometrics of Rodent Sperm Head Shape

    PubMed Central

    Varea Sánchez, María; Bastir, Markus; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa, particularly those of rodent species, are extremely complex cells and differ greatly in form and dimensions. Thus, characterization of sperm size and, particularly, sperm shape represents a major challenge. No consensus exists on a method to objectively assess size and shape of spermatozoa. In this study we apply the principles of geometric morphometrics to analyze rodent sperm head morphology and compare them with two traditional morphometry methods, that is, measurements of linear dimensions and dimensions-derived parameters calculated using formulae employed in sperm morphometry assessments. Our results show that geometric morphometrics clearly identifies shape differences among rodent spermatozoa. It is also capable of discriminating between size and shape and to analyze these two variables separately. Thus, it provides an accurate method to assess sperm head shape. Furthermore, it can identify which sperm morphology traits differ between species, such as the protrusion or retraction of the base of the head, the orientation and relative position of the site of flagellum insertion, the degree of curvature of the hook, and other distinct anatomical features and appendices. We envisage that the use of geometric morphometrics may have a major impact on future studies focused on the characterization of sperm head formation, diversity of sperm head shape among species (and underlying evolutionary forces), the effects of reprotoxicants on changes in cell shape, and phenotyping of genetically-modified individuals. PMID:24312234

  8. Parental Book Reading and Social-Emotional Outcomes for Head Start Children in Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyunghee; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the associations between parental book reading and social-emotional outcomes for Head Start children in foster care. Despite no main Head Start impact on parental book reading, subgroup effects were found. Foster parents in Head Start provided more book reading for children with disabilities but less for children with low preacademic scores. Head Start enhanced social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care. The positive impacts of Head Start on children's social-emotional outcomes were greater when parents read books frequently. Head Start should include more foster families and provided parenting skills to enhance social-emotional outcomes for children in foster care. PMID:27167763

  9. Semen abnormalities with SSRI antidepressants.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of widespread use, the adverse effect profile of "selective" serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants has still not been fully elucidated. Studies in male animals have shown delayed sexual development and reduced fertility. Three prospective cohort studies conducted in over one hundred patients exposed to an SSRI for periods ranging from 5 weeks to 24 months found altered semen param-eters after as little as 3 months of exposure: reduced sperm concentration, reduced sperm motility, a higher percentage of abnormal spermatozoa, and increased levels of sperm DNA fragmentation. One clinical trial showed growth retardation in children considered depressed who were exposed to SSRls. SSRls may have endocrine disrupting properties. Dapoxetine is a short-acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is chemically related to fluoxetine and marketed in the European Union for men complaining of premature ejaculation. But the corresponding European summary of product characteristics does not mention any effects on fertility. In practice, based on the data available as of mid-2014, the effects of SSRI exposure on male fertility are unclear. However, it is a risk that should be taken into account and pointed out to male patients who would like to father a child or who are experiencing fertility problems. PMID:25729824

  10. Abnormal Mitochondrial Dynamics and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Su, Bo; Wang, Xinglong; Zheng, Ling; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A.; Zhu, Xiongwei

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of various neurodegenerative diseases. A deeper understanding of the remarkably dynamic nature of mitochondria, characterized by a delicate balance of fission and fusion, has helped to fertilize a recent wave of new studies demonstrating abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington disease and discusses how these abnormal mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to mitochondrial and neuronal dysfunction. We propose that abnormal mitochondrial dynamics represents a key common pathway that mediates or amplifies mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal dysfunction during the course of neurodegeneration. PMID:19799998

  11. Chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Hong, K E; Kim, J H; Moon, S Y; Oh, S K

    1999-08-01

    To determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in a child psychiatric population, and to evaluate possible associations between types of abnormalities and patient's clinical characteristics, cytogenetic examination was performed on 604 patients. Demographic data, reasons for karyotyping, clinical signs, and other patient characteristics were assessed and correlated with the results from karyotyping. Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 69 patients (11.3%); these were structural in 49 cases and numerical in 20. Inversion of chromosome nine was found in 15 subjects, trisomy of chromosome 21 in 11, and fragile X in five patients. When karyotyping was performed because of intellectual impairment or multiple developmental delay, significantly more abnormalities were found than average; when performed because autistic disorder was suspected, the number of abnormalities was significantly fewer. There were no differences in clinical variables between structural and numerical abnormalities, nor among nine types of chromosomal abnormalities, except that numerical abnormalities and polymorphism were found at a later age, and that walking was more delayed and IQ was lower in patients with Down syndrome. Clinicians should be aware of the possible presence of chromosomal abnormalities in child psychiatric populations; the close collaboration with geneticists and the use of more defined guidelines for cytogenetic investigation are important. PMID:10485616

  12. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  13. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOEpatents

    Sawabe, James K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

  14. [A guide to initial management of minor head injury].

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Naoto; Echigo, Tadashi

    2004-05-01

    We reviewed the records of 1,335 minor head injury patients with initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 15 treated by our neurosurgery service between January 1998 and December 2000. Skull X-ray was performed in 945 patients (71%), and Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 590 patients (44%). Skull fracture was shown radiographically in 24 patients (2.5%), and abnormalities on the initial CT were seen in 29 patients (4.9%). The most frequent intracranial lesion on CT was acute epidural hematoma with skull fracture. Significantly more intracranial lesions were found in those with a fracture than in those without by chi2 analysis. Post-traumatic vomiting was significantly associated with radiographical abnormalities, but headache and nausea did not increase the risk of skull fracture and intracranial lesions on the CT. Patients required neurosurgical intervention in 4 cases, and all of those were acute epidural hematoma with skull fracture. In this study, the first thing we should do for asymptomatic minor head injury patients with a GCS score of 15 is to investigate the presence of a skull fracture by skull X-ray. Head trauma patients with a skull fracture and post-traumatic vomiting should undergo CT to facilitate detection of intracranial lesions, even when there are no abnormal neurological signs. PMID:15287484

  15. Head Start Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clare Coe; And Others

    One of a series of guides for preschool teachers and aides, the book offers a Head Start curriculum guide to help achieve goals regarding social behavior, general attitudes, academic skills, health, and parent development. Information on curriculum is divided into areas of bloc time outline, classroom arrangement, building concepts (such as…

  16. Sculpting Ceramic Heads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapiro, Maurice

    1983-01-01

    Clay sculpture is difficult to produce because of the requirements of kiln firing. The problems can be overcome by modeling the original manikin head and making a plaster mold, pressing molding slabs of clay into the plaster mold to form the hollow clay armature, and sculpting on the armature. (IS)

  17. Imaging of head trauma.

    PubMed

    Rincon, Sandra; Gupta, Rajiv; Ptak, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is an indispensable part of the initial assessment and subsequent management of patients with head trauma. Initially, it is important for diagnosing the extent of injury and the prompt recognition of treatable injuries to reduce mortality. Subsequently, imaging is useful in following the sequelae of trauma. In this chapter, we review indications for neuroimaging and typical computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols used in the evaluation of a patient with head trauma. We review the role of CT), the imaging modality of choice in the acute setting, and the role of MRI in the evaluation of patients with head trauma. We describe an organized and consistent approach to the interpretation of imaging of these patients. Important topics in head trauma, including fundamental concepts related to skull fractures, intracranial hemorrhage, parenchymal injury, penetrating trauma, cerebrovascular injuries, and secondary effects of trauma, are reviewed. The chapter concludes with advanced neuroimaging techniques for the evaluation of traumatic brain injury, including use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI), and MR spectroscopy (MRS), techniques which are still under development. PMID:27432678

  18. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p < 0.05). If pelvic side tilting angle increases by 1 degree, right side neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p = 0.026). However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP. PMID:26583125

  19. Humeral head translation after a suprascapular nerve block.

    PubMed

    San Juan, Jun G; Kosek, Peter; Karduna, Andrew R

    2013-08-01

    Subacromial impingement syndrome is the most common shoulder disorder. Abnormal superior translation of the humeral head is believed to be a major cause of this pathology. The first purpose of the study was to examine the effects of suprascapular nerve block on superior translation of the humeral head and scapular upward rotation during dynamic shoulder elevation. The secondary purpose was to assess muscle activation patterns during these motions. Twenty healthy subjects participated in the study. Using fluoroscopy and electromyography, humeral head translation and muscle activation were measured before and after a suprascapular nerve block. The humeral head was superiorly located at 60 degrees of humeral elevation, and the scapula was more upwardly rotated from 30 to 90 degrees of humeral elevation after the block. The differences were observed during midrange of motion. In addition, the deltoid muscle group demonstrated increased muscle activation after the nerve block. The study's results showed a compensatory increase in humeral head translation, scapular upward rotation, and deltoid muscle activation due to the nerve block. These outcomes suggest that increasing muscular strength and endurance of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles could prevent any increased superior humeral head translation. This may be beneficial in reducing shoulder impingement or rotator cuff tears over time. PMID:22927503

  20. Cranial index of children with normal and abnormal brain development in Sokoto, Nigeria: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Muhammad Awwal; Zagga, Abdullahi Daudu; Danfulani, Mohammed; Tadros, Aziz Abdo; Ahmed, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abnormal brain development due to neurodevelopmental disorders in children has always been an important concern, but yet has to be considered as a significant public health problem, especially in the low- and middle-income countries including Nigeria. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine whether abnormal brain development in the form of neurodevelopmental disorders causes any deviation in the cranial index of affected children. Materials and Methods: This is a comparative study on the head length, head width, and cranial index of 112 children (72 males and 40 females) diagnosed with at least one abnormal problem in brain development, in the form of a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), in comparison with that of 218 normal growing children without any form of NDD (121 males and 97 females), aged 0-18 years old seen at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, over a period of six months, June to December, 2012. The head length and head width of the children was measured using standard anatomical landmarks and cranial index calculated. The data obtained was entered into the Microsoft excel worksheet and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: The mean Cephalic Index for normal growing children with normal brain development was 79.82 ± 3.35 and that of the children with abnormal brain development was 77.78 ± 2.95 and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: It can be deduced from this present study that the cranial index does not change in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24966551

  1. Bifocal Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormalities in a 5-Year Old Boy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Snoek, K G; Jacobsohn, M; van As, A B

    2012-01-01

    We present the extremely unusual case of a 5-year-old boy with a bifocal (cervical as well as lumbar) spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities (SCIWORAs). The MRI showed cord oedema at the level of C2 and T10. We propose that during the motor vehicle crash severe propulsion of the head with a flexed lumbar region resulted in a traction injury to the lower thoracic and lumbar spine and maximum flexion caused SCIWORA in C2. PMID:22649746

  2. Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Electrocardiogram Abnormalities in the Elderly: A Population Survey in India

    PubMed Central

    Sachin Khane, Rupali; Surdi, Anil D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The health transition in India reflects the growing burden of cardiovascular diseases. It is well-known that there are significant and meaningful differences in the measured electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters between females and males. Specific to ECG diagnosis and ischemia, reports have indicated a higher number of false positive results in female patients than in male patients. This study was aimed at examining gender difference in the prevalence of ECG abnormality in older people who were free of coronary heart disease (CHD) and its associated risk factors. Methods: This study was conducted in Solapur city using 400 apparently healthy asymptomatic subjects with an age range of 45 to 74 years. A resting 12-lead ECG was recorded in supine position in accordance with classical recommendations. The various ECG abnormalities were defined according to Minnesota code. The findings were analyzed using Chi Square test at P<0.05. Results: Out of 400 ECGs recorded, 152 showed abnormalities. The prevalence of ECG abnormalities was significantly (P<0.001) more in males than in females. Major prevalence of ECG abnormalities in males observed were LAD, LVH, sinus bradycardia, LBBB and Q/QS patterns. There was no significant gender difference in the prevalence of other ECG abnormalities. Conclusion: This study has outlined the overall prevalence of ECG abnormalities in males as well as in females in Solapur city. We found highly significant (P<0.001) increase in the prevalence of ECG abnormalities in males as compare to females. PMID:23115437

  3. A micro-SPM head array with exchangeable cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, S.; Wolff, H.; Herrmann, K.; Brand, U.; Hiller, K.; Hahn, S.; Sorger, A.; Mehner, J.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper a MEMS based micro-SPM head array is proposed to enhance the performance of the currently available nano-measuring machines and effectively reduce the measurement time for large specimen. It consists of 1 × N ( N = 7 in our case) micro-SPM heads/units, realized in one chip by MEMS technique. And it can be easily extended to a micro- SPM head matrix. The main part of the micro-SPM head is the MEMS-positioning stage, which is realized on the basis of an electrostatic lateral comb-drive actuator. In order to take the advantage of the high lateral resolution of conventional cantilevers, a flexible cantilever gripper was designed to be integrated into the MEMS-positioning stage within the SPM head. Conventional cantilevers can be mechanically mounted onto the MEMS-positioning stage or dismantled from the MEMS-positioning stage after the tip is worn out. In this way, the well-designed and calibrated MEMS-positioning stage can be repeatedly and efficiently utilized. The structure design and simulation of mechanical and electrical performances of the mico-SPM head will be detailed in this paper. First experimental results proved the feasibility of the cantilever gripper design.

  4. Abnormal Neuroimaging in a Case of Infant Botulism

    PubMed Central

    Good, Ryan J.; Messacar, Kevin; Stence, Nicholas V.; Press, Craig A.; Carpenter, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first case of abnormal neuroimaging in a case of infant botulism. The clinical findings of the patient with constipation, bulbar weakness, and descending, symmetric motor weakness are consistent with the classic findings of infant botulism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, revealed restricted diffusion in the brain and enhancement of the cervical nerve roots. Traditionally, normal neuroimaging was used to help differentiate infant botulism from other causes of weakness in infants. Abnormal neuroimaging is seen in other causes of weakness in an infant including metabolic disorders and hypoxic–ischemic injury, but these diagnoses did not fit the clinical findings in this case. The explanation for the MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots is unclear as botulinum toxin acts at presynaptic nerve terminals and does not cross the blood–brain barrier. Possible explanations for the findings include inflammation from the botulinum toxin at the synapse, alterations in sensory signaling and retrograde transport of the botulinum toxin. The patient was treated with human botulism immune globulin and had rapid recovery in weakness. A stool sample from the patient was positive for Type A Clostridium botulinum toxin eventually confirming the diagnosis of infant botulism. The findings in this case support use of human botulism immune globulin when the clinical findings are consistent with infant botulism despite the presence of MRI abnormalities in the brain and cervical nerve roots. PMID:26697417

  5. Note on Idiosyncrasies and Abnormalities in Human Beings.

    PubMed

    Weber, F P

    1928-05-01

    Idiosyncrasies are the expression of abnormal mental or physical reaction towards "agents." An attempt is made to indicate the position of idiosyncrasies in a classified scheme of all abnormalities; but bodily idiosyncrasies due to an "allergic" or hypersensitive response to agents are mainly considered in the present paper. Migraine and mucous colic ("colitis mucosa") are discussed in connexion with Freeman's view of food idiosyncrasies, hay fever, asthma, urticaria, angioneurotic oedema, &c., as manifestations of an "immunological abnormality or defect."The hypothesis that idiosyncratic hypersensitiveness towards physical agents, such as light, heat, cold and mechanical trauma, may in reality be the expression of reaction towards a histamine-like body, or protein of some kind (virtually a "foreign protein") liberated in the tissues by the physical agent in question, is referred to, according to the works of W. W. Duke and Sir Thomas Lewis and his co-workers, and the writings of Sir Humphry Rolleston on the subject. A somewhat analogous explanation is suggested for the following conditions: an abnormally hypersensitive (eczema-like) reaction towards formalin lotions; epidermolysis bullosa; constitutional factitious urticaria in otherwise healthy individuals not suffering from ordinary urticaria; excessive liability to chilblains; so-called "erythrocyanosis" of the lower parts of the legs in girls and young women, and some cases of Raynaud's disease.The significance of eosinophilia in cases of dermatitis herpetiformis and pemphigus is also alluded to. PMID:19986503

  6. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ... Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 42,000 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  7. Heads Up to High School Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... Juvenil HEADS UP to School Sports Online Concussion Training Coaches Parents Athletes Sports Officials HEADS UP to Schools School Nurses Teachers, Counselors, and School Professionals Parents HEADS UP ...

  8. Morphological abnormalities of rabbit spermatozoa studied by scanning electron microscope and quantified by light microscope.

    PubMed

    Kuzminsky, G; Fausto, A M; Morera, P

    1996-01-01

    Rabbit spermatozoa morphological abnormalities were examined to establish criteria for judging the quality of ejaculates. Ten New Zealand White bucks, aged 9 months and weighing 4.3 +/- 0.2 kg, were placed in a climatic chamber for 3 weeks at +20 degrees C and 70% RH. Sperm was collected three times a week using an artificial vagina. The use of a scanning electron microscope (from x 2000 to x 15,000) in this study produced an illustrated guide for the classification of abnormalities. Mean percentage quantitative values studied by light microscope (x 400) observation were: 18.2% total abnormalities, 2.9% head abnormalities, 13.6% tail abnormalities and 1.7% broken spermatozoa. Variability was very high (CV 35.7, 54.0, 45.3 and 32.5%, respectively); consequently, each ejaculate should be analysed before use for artificial insemination. Among the different tail abnormalities observed, the most frequent were coiled tails, 9.1%, cytoplasmic droplets, 2.4%, bent tails, 1.3% and swollen tails, 0.5%. PMID:8987108

  9. Automated stereotactic positioning system.

    PubMed

    Goerss, S J; Kelly, P J; Kall, B A

    1987-01-01

    An automated stereotactic machine has been interfaced to a surgical computer to complete a totally interactive surgical system capable of locating tumor volumes. Stepper motors, activated by the host computer, drive a three-dimensional slide to position the patient's head with respect to a fixed arc, locating the surgical target. Linear encoders on each axis create a closed-loop positioning system and a digital display for visual inspection of the slide's position. The 160-mm arc directs all instrumentation to its isocenter, regardless of the two angular settings, providing maximum freedom in selecting a safe trajectory to the target. Phantom test points compatible with computerized tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging were repeatedly scanned to determine the overall system accuracy, which approached 0.6 mm, depending on the spatial resolution of the image. This stereotactic device may be used to perform stereotactic laser craniotomies, biopsies, 192Ir implants for interstitial radiation, third ventriculostomies and functional procedures. PMID:3329830

  10. Associations between sperm abnormalities, breed, age, and scrotal circumference in beef bulls

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Ajitkumar G.; Barkema, Herman W.; Wilde, Randy; Kastelic, John P.; Thundathil, Jacob C.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the associations of breed, age, and scrotal circumference (SC), and their interaction, on the prevalence of sperm abnormalities in beef bulls in Alberta, Canada, and the percentage of satisfactory potential breeders identified during breeding soundness examination solely due to normal sperm morphology. Eosin-nigrosin stained semen smears and evaluation reports of 1642 bull breeding soundness evaluations were procured from 6 veterinary clinics in Alberta. Sperm morphology was determined for at least 100 sperm per bull. The most common defects were detached head [4.86% ± 5.71%; mean ± standard deviation (s)], distal midpiece reflex (6.19% ± 9.13%), and bent tail (1.01% ± 1.54%). Although breed, age, and SC did not significantly affect the prevalence of head or midpiece defects, morphologically normal or abnormal sperm, tail defects were more prevalent in Angus and Hereford bulls compared with other breeds. Overall, solely on the basis of sperm morphology, 1363 (83.0%) bulls were classified as satisfactory potential breeders and the remainder 279 (17.0%) as unsatisfactory (> 30% abnormal sperm, > 20% defective heads, or both). Although not significantly different, the breed with the highest percentage of satisfactory potential breeders was Limousin (90.6%) and the lowest was Hereford (78.8%). That 17% of bulls subjected to breeding soundness evaluation were designated as unsatisfactory solely on the basis of sperm morphology highlights its importance. PMID:22468020

  11. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  12. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  13. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  14. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  15. BETA-ENDORPHIN LEVELS IN LONGTAILED AND PIGTAILED MACAQUES VARY BY ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR RATING AND SEX

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Carolyn M.; Sackett, Gene P.; Sandman, Curt A.; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Bentson, Kathleen L.

    2007-01-01

    Frequent or severe abnormal behavior may be associated with the release of endorphins that positively reinforce the behavior with an opiate euphoria or analgesia. One line of research exploring this association involves the superhormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC). The products of POMC appear to be dysregulated in some human subjects who exhibit self-injurious behavior (SIB). Macaque monkeys have POMC very similar to humans, and some laboratory macaques display SIB or frequent stereotypies. We investigated associations between plasma levels of three immunoreactive POMC fragments with possible opioid action and abnormal behavior ratings in macaques. In 58 adult male and female macaques (24 Macaca fascicularis and 34 M. nemestrina), plasma levels of intact beta-endorphin (βE) and the N-terminal fragment (BEN) were significantly higher in animals with higher levels of abnormal behavior. The C-terminal fragment (BEC) was significantly higher in males but unrelated to ratings of abnormal behavior. Levels of ACTH, cortisol, and (βE-ACTH)/βE dysregulation index were unrelated to abnormal behavior. None of the POMC products differed significantly by subjects' species, age, or weight. The finding that intact beta-endorphin is positively related to abnormal behavior in two species of macaque is consistent with some previous research on human subjects and nonprimates. The positive relation of the N-terminal fragment of βE to abnormal behavior is a new finding. PMID:17719139

  16. [Abnormality in bone metabolism after burn].

    PubMed

    Gong, X; Xie, W G

    2016-08-20

    Burn causes bone metabolic abnormality in most cases, including the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone mass loss, and bone absorption, which results in decreased bone mineral density. These changes are sustainable for many years after burn and even cause growth retardation in burned children. The mechanisms of bone metabolic abnormality after burn include the increasing glucocorticoids due to stress response, a variety of cytokines and inflammatory medium due to inflammatory response, vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and bone loss due to long-term lying in bed. This article reviews the pathogenesis and regularity of bone metabolic abnormality after burn, the relationship between bone metabolic abnormality and burn area/depth, and the treatment of bone metabolic abnormality, etc. and discusses the research directions in the future. PMID:27562160

  17. Minnesota: Early Head Start Initiatiive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Minnesota provides supplemental state funding to existing federal Head Start and Early Head Start (EHS) grantees to increase their capacity to serve additional infants, toddlers, and pregnant women. The initiative was started in 1997 when the state legislature earmarked $1 million of the general state Head Start supplemental funds for children…

  18. Maryland Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 2000, Maryland has provided state supplemental funds to Head Start and Early Head Start (EHS) programs to improve access. Local EHS programs may use funds, through child care partnerships, to extend the EHS day or year. Maryland's approach to building on EHS includes: (1) Increase the capacity of existing Head Start and EHS programs to…

  19. The MEG topography and the source model of abnormal neural activities associated with brain lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, S.; Iramina, K.; Ozaki, H.; Harada, K.

    1986-09-01

    A source model is proposed to simulate spatial distributions of abnormal MEG and EEG activities generated by abnormal neural activities such as the delta activity associated with brain tumors. Brain tumor itself is electrically silent and the spherical shell around the tumor might generate abnormal neural activities. The sources of these neural activities are represented by combinations of multiple current dipoles. The head is assumed to be a spherical volume conductor. Electrical potentials and magnetic fields over the surface of the spheres are calculated. The computer simulation shows that the MEG topography and EEG topography vary variously with combinations of location and orientation of the dipoles. In a special case, however, that the dipoles orient in the same direction or orient radially, the spatial patterns of the MEGs and EEGs generated by numerous dipoles are analogous to those generated by single dipoles.

  20. MAGNETIC RECORDING HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, L.C.

    1958-06-17

    An electromagetic recording head is described for simultaneous recording of a plurality of signals within a small space on a magnetically semsitized medium. Basically the head structure comprises a non-magnetic centerpiece provided with only first and second groups of spaced cut-out slots respectively on opposite sides of the centerpiece. The two groups of slots are in parallel alignment and the slots of one group are staggered with respect to the slots of the other group so that one slot is not directly opposite another slot. Each slot has a magnet pole piece disposed therein and cooperating with a second pole and coil to provide a magnetic flux gap at the upper end of the slot. As a tape is drawn over the upper end of the centerpiece the individual magnetic circuits are disposed along its width to provide means for simultaneously recording information on separate portions, tracks. of the tape.

  1. Multilaser print head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Douglas S.; Roblee, Jeffrey W.; Plummer, William T.; Clark, Peter P.

    1998-12-01

    This paper discusses the optical and opto-mechanical design of a new laser head developed at Polaroid for printing Helios binary film for printing high quality medical hard copy images. The head is part of an external drum printer for 14' X 17' film. The pixel size is 84 X 84 micrometer, produced by four lasers, with the smallest printable spot 3 X 6 micrometer, to produce 4096 gray levels. Two pixels side-by-side are simultaneously printed. The head has eight independent 840 nm diode lasers manufactured by Polaroid. Each laser emits up to 1.1 W over an emission length of about 100 micrometer, with a particularly uniform nearfield irradiance. The lasers are microlensed to equalize the divergences in the two principal meridians. Each packaged laser is aligned in a field-replaceable illuminator whose output beam, focused at infinity, is bore-sighted in a mechanical cylinder. The illuminators are arranged roughly radially. Eight lenses image the laser nearfields on a multi-facet mirror produced by diamond machining. The mirror facets truncate the beams to give the desired pixel shapes and separations. A reducing afocal relay images the mirror onto the film. The final element is a molded aspheric lens, mounted in an actuator to maintain focus on the film. The focusing unit also comprises a triangulation-based focus sensor. The alignment procedures and fixtures were devised concurrently with the head for manufacturing simplicity. The main physical structure is a casting, into which reference surfaces are machined. All optical subassemblies are attached to this casting, with a mixture of optical alignment and self-location. Semi-kinematic cylinder-in-V methodology is utilized. The active alignment steps are done in a sequence that tends to reduce errors from previous steps.

  2. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Nichols, Sharon; Baker, Dewleen G; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Yurgil, Kate A; Drake, Angela; Levy, Michael; Song, Tao; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B; Ji, Zhengwei; Huang, Charles W; Chang, Douglas G; Harrington, Deborah L; Muzzatti, Laura; Canive, Jose M; Christopher Edgar, J; Chen, Yu-Han; Lee, Roland R

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI) can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1-4 Hz) that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1-4 Hz) from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes), our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes), blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI. PMID:25009772

  3. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Nichols, Sharon; Baker, Dewleen G.; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Yurgil, Kate A.; Drake, Angela; Levy, Michael; Song, Tao; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Ji, Zhengwei; Huang, Charles W.; Chang, Douglas G.; Harrington, Deborah L.; Muzzatti, Laura; Canive, Jose M.; Christopher Edgar, J.; Chen, Yu-Han; Lee, Roland R.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI) can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz) that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz) from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes), our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes), blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI. PMID:25009772

  4. Head-aimed vision system improves tele-operated mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Kent

    2004-12-01

    A head-aimed vision system greatly improves the situational awareness and decision speed for tele-operations of mobile robots. With head-aimed vision, the tele-operator wears a head-mounted display and a small three axis head-position measuring device. Wherever the operator looks, the remote sensing system "looks". When the system is properly designed, the operator's occipital lobes are "fooled" into believing that the operator is actually on the remote robot. The result is at least a doubling of: situational awareness, threat identification speed, and target tracking ability. Proper system design must take into account: precisely matching fields of view; optical gain; and latency below 100 milliseconds. When properly designed, a head-aimed system does not cause nausea, even with prolonged use.

  5. Abnormal functional connectivity during visuospatial processing is associated with disrupted organisation of white matter in autism

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Jane; Johnson, Katherine; O'Hanlon, Erik; Garavan, Hugh; Leemans, Alexander; Gallagher, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of structural and functional neural connectivity has been widely reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but there is a striking lack of research attempting to integrate analysis of functional and structural connectivity in the same study population, an approach that may provide key insights into the specific neurobiological underpinnings of altered functional connectivity in autism. The aims of this study were (1) to determine whether functional connectivity abnormalities were associated with structural abnormalities of white matter (WM) in ASD and (2) to examine the relationships between aberrant neural connectivity and behavior in ASD. Twenty-two individuals with ASD and 22 age, IQ-matched controls completed a high-angular-resolution diffusion MRI scan. Structural connectivity was analysed using constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) based tractography. Regions for tractography were generated from the results of a previous study, in which 10 pairs of brain regions showed abnormal functional connectivity during visuospatial processing in ASD. WM tracts directly connected 5 of the 10 region pairs that showed abnormal functional connectivity; linking a region in the left occipital lobe (left BA19) and five paired regions: left caudate head, left caudate body, left uncus, left thalamus, and left cuneus. Measures of WM microstructural organization were extracted from these tracts. Fractional anisotropy (FA) reductions in the ASD group relative to controls were significant for WM connecting left BA19 to left caudate head and left BA19 to left thalamus. Using a multimodal imaging approach, this study has revealed aberrant WM microstructure in tracts that directly connect brain regions that are abnormally functionally connected in ASD. These results provide novel evidence to suggest that structural brain pathology may contribute (1) to abnormal functional connectivity and (2) to atypical visuospatial processing in ASD. PMID:24133425

  6. Head trauma and in vivo measures of amyloid and neurodegeneration in a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Savica, Rodolfo; Wiste, Heather J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Knopman, David S.; Lowe, Val J.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Machulda, Mary M.; Geda, Yonas E.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Jack, Clifford R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We determined whether head trauma was associated with amyloid deposition and neurodegeneration among individuals who were cognitively normal (CN) or had mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Participants included 448 CN individuals and 141 individuals with MCI from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging who underwent Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET, fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, and MRI. Head trauma was defined as a self-reported brain injury with at least momentary loss of consciousness or memory. Regression models examined whether head trauma was associated with each neuroimaging variable (assessed as continuous and dichotomous measures) in both CN and MCI participants, controlling for age and sex. Results: Among 448 CN individuals, 74 (17%) self-reported a head trauma. There was no difference in any neuroimaging measure between CN subjects with and without head trauma. Of 141 participants with MCI, 25 (18%) self-reported a head trauma. MCI participants with a head trauma had higher amyloid levels (by an average 0.36 standardized uptake value ratio units, p = 0.002). Conclusions: Among individuals with MCI, but not CN individuals, self-reported head trauma with at least momentary loss of consciousness or memory was associated with greater amyloid deposition, suggesting that head trauma may be associated with Alzheimer disease–related neuropathology. Differences between CN individuals and individuals with MCI raise questions about the relevance of head injury–PET abnormality findings in those with MCI. PMID:24371306

  7. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Nursing Positions KidsHealth > For Parents > Nursing Positions Print A ... and actually needs to feed. Getting Comfortable With Breastfeeding Nursing can be one of the most challenging ...

  8. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  9. Optical sensor position indicator for neonatal MEG

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Erich

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an inexpensive PC camera-based system to measure sensor position and to track head motion during MEG recordings. The system employs mirrors to triangulate the position of markers using a single camera. Sensor position measurement and head tracking can be performed without the need to manually digitize markers or fiducial points. The system is capable of measuring relative 3D position within the required volume of interest with an accuracy of ~450μm, and can be constructed for approximately $150. PMID:22010142

  10. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Jonathan R.; Derdikman, Dori

    2012-01-01

    Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze) vs. an open-field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009), the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open-field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open-field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system. PMID:22479237

  11. Effects of normal and abnormal loading conditions on morphogenesis of the prenatal hip joint: application to hip dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Mario; Carriero, Alessandra; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Nowlan, Niamh C

    2015-09-18

    Joint morphogenesis is an important phase of prenatal joint development during which the opposing cartilaginous rudiments acquire their reciprocal and interlocking shapes. At an early stage of development, the prenatal hip joint is formed of a deep acetabular cavity that almost totally encloses the head. By the time of birth, the acetabulum has become shallower and the femoral head has lost substantial sphericity, reducing joint coverage and stability. In this study, we use a dynamic mechanobiological simulation to explore the effects of normal (symmetric), reduced and abnormal (asymmetric) prenatal movements on hip joint shape, to understand their importance for postnatal skeletal malformations such as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). We successfully predict the physiological trends of decreasing sphericity and acetabular coverage of the femoral head during fetal development. We show that a full range of symmetric movements helps to maintain some of the acetabular depth and femoral head sphericity, while reduced or absent movements can lead to decreased sphericity and acetabular coverage of the femoral head. When an abnormal movement pattern was applied, a deformed joint shape was predicted, with an opened asymmetric acetabulum and the onset of a malformed femoral head. This study provides evidence for the importance of fetal movements in the prevention and manifestation of congenital musculoskeletal disorders such as DDH. PMID:26163754

  12. Effects of normal and abnormal loading conditions on morphogenesis of the prenatal hip joint: application to hip dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Mario; Carriero, Alessandra; Shefelbine, Sandra J.; Nowlan, Niamh C.

    2015-01-01

    Joint morphogenesis is an important phase of prenatal joint development during which the opposing cartilaginous rudiments acquire their reciprocal and interlocking shapes. At an early stage of development, the prenatal hip joint is formed of a deep acetabular cavity that almost totally encloses the head. By the time of birth, the acetabulum has become shallower and the femoral head has lost substantial sphericity, reducing joint coverage and stability. In this study, we use a dynamic mechanobiological simulation to explore the effects of normal (symmetric), reduced and abnormal (asymmetric) prenatal movements on hip joint shape, to understand their importance for postnatal skeletal malformations such as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). We successfully predict the physiological trends of decreasing sphericity and acetabular coverage of the femoral head during fetal development. We show that a full range of symmetric movements helps to maintain some of the acetabular depth and femoral head sphericity, while reduced or absent movements can lead to decreased sphericity and acetabular coverage of the femoral head. When an abnormal movement pattern was applied, a deformed joint shape was predicted, with an opened asymmetric acetabulum and the onset of a malformed femoral head. This study provides evidence for the importance of fetal movements in the prevention and manifestation of congenital musculoskeletal disorders such as DDH. PMID:26163754

  13. Sleep physiology, abnormal States, and therapeutic interventions.

    PubMed

    Wickboldt, Alvah T; Bowen, Alex F; Kaye, Aaron J; Kaye, Adam M; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  14. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  15. Right Liver Lobe Hypoplasia and Related Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Alicioglu, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hypoplasia and agenesis of the liver lobe is a rare abnormality. It is associated with biliary system abnormalities, high location of the right kidney, and right colon interposition. These patients are prone to gallstones, portal hypertension and possible surgical complications because of anatomical disturbance. Case Report Magnetic resonance imaging features of a rare case of hypoplasia of the right lobe of the liver in a sigmoid cancer patient are presented. Conclusions Hypoplasia of the right liver should not be confused with liver atrophy; indeed, associations with other coexistent abnormalities are also possible. Awareness and familiarity with these anomalies are necessary to avoid fatal surgical and interventional complications. PMID:26634012

  16. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Coordinates of Human Visual and Inertial Heading Perception

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Benjamin Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Heading estimation involves both inertial and visual cues. Inertial motion is sensed by the labyrinth, somatic sensation by the body, and optic flow by the retina. Because the eye and head are mobile these stimuli are sensed relative to different reference frames and it remains unclear if a perception occurs in a common reference frame. Recent neurophysiologic evidence has suggested the reference frames remain separate even at higher levels of processing but has not addressed the resulting perception. Seven human subjects experienced a 2s, 16 cm/s translation and/or a visual stimulus corresponding with this translation. For each condition 72 stimuli (360° in 5° increments) were delivered in random order. After each stimulus the subject identified the perceived heading using a mechanical dial. Some trial blocks included interleaved conditions in which the influence of ±28° of gaze and/or head position were examined. The observations were fit using a two degree-of-freedom population vector decoder (PVD) model which considered the relative sensitivity to lateral motion and coordinate system offset. For visual stimuli gaze shifts caused shifts in perceived head estimates in the direction opposite the gaze shift in all subjects. These perceptual shifts averaged 13 ± 2° for eye only gaze shifts and 17 ± 2° for eye-head gaze shifts. This finding indicates visual headings are biased towards retina coordinates. Similar gaze and head direction shifts prior to inertial headings had no significant influence on heading direction. Thus inertial headings are perceived in body-centered coordinates. Combined visual and inertial stimuli yielded intermediate results. PMID:26267865

  18. Coordinates of Human Visual and Inertial Heading Perception.

    PubMed

    Crane, Benjamin Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Heading estimation involves both inertial and visual cues. Inertial motion is sensed by the labyrinth, somatic sensation by the body, and optic flow by the retina. Because the eye and head are mobile these stimuli are sensed relative to different reference frames and it remains unclear if a perception occurs in a common reference frame. Recent neurophysiologic evidence has suggested the reference frames remain separate even at higher levels of processing but has not addressed the resulting perception. Seven human subjects experienced a 2s, 16 cm/s translation and/or a visual stimulus corresponding with this translation. For each condition 72 stimuli (360° in 5° increments) were delivered in random order. After each stimulus the subject identified the perceived heading using a mechanical dial. Some trial blocks included interleaved conditions in which the influence of ±28° of gaze and/or head position were examined. The observations were fit using a two degree-of-freedom population vector decoder (PVD) model which considered the relative sensitivity to lateral motion and coordinate system offset. For visual stimuli gaze shifts caused shifts in perceived head estimates in the direction opposite the gaze shift in all subjects. These perceptual shifts averaged 13 ± 2° for eye only gaze shifts and 17 ± 2° for eye-head gaze shifts. This finding indicates visual headings are biased towards retina coordinates. Similar gaze and head direction shifts prior to inertial headings had no significant influence on heading direction. Thus inertial headings are perceived in body-centered coordinates. Combined visual and inertial stimuli yielded intermediate results. PMID:26267865

  19. Predictors of Abnormal Neuroimaging of the Brain in Children With Epilepsy Aged 1 Month to 2 Years: Useful Clues in a Resource-Limited Setting.

    PubMed

    Sanmaneechai, Oranee; Danchaivijitr, Nasuda; Likasitwattanakul, Surachai

    2015-10-01

    Neuroimaging should be performed on infants with seizure. However, there are economic limitations in performing neuroimaging in a resource-limited setting. The younger the age, the higher the risk of having abnormal neuroimaging. The aim was to determine frequency and predictors of abnormal neuroimaging in children with epilepsy aged 1 month to 2 years. History, physical examination, electroencephalogram (EEG), and neuroimaging were reviewed. Thirty-seven of 49 (76%) had neuroimaging studies; 19 computed tomography (CT), 14 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 4 had both. Abnormal neuroimaging was found in 19 (51%). Predictors of abnormal neuroimages are developmental delay, abnormal head circumference, and abnormal neurologic examination. Eight children (21%) had lesions on neuroimaging studies that altered or influenced management. Of 8 patients with normal examination and EEG, 1 had a brain tumor and another had arteriovenous malformation. Neuroimaging should be considered as an essential aid in the evaluation of infants with epilepsy, even in a resource-limited setting. PMID:25792429

  20. Vestibulospinal control of reflex and voluntary head movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Secondary canal-related vestibulospinal neurons respond to an externally applied movement of the head in the form of a firing rate modulation that encodes the angular velocity of the movement, and reflects in large part the input "head velocity in space" signal carried by the semicircular canal afferents. In addition to the head velocity signal, the vestibulospinal neurons can carry a more processed signal that includes eye position or eye velocity, or both (see Boyle on ref. list). To understand the control signals used by the central vestibular pathways in the generation of reflex head stabilization, such as the vestibulocollic reflex (VCR), and the maintenance of head posture, it is essential to record directly from identified vestibulospinal neurons projecting to the cervical spinal segments in the alert animal. The present report discusses two key features of the primate vestibulospinal system. First, the termination morphology of vestibulospinal axons in the cervical segments of the spinal cord is described to lay the structural basis of vestibulospinal control of head/neck posture and movement. And second, the head movement signal content carried by the same class of secondary vestibulospinal neurons during the actual execution of the VCR and during self-generated, or active, rapid head movements is presented.

  1. Eye and head movements shape gaze shifts in Indian peafowl.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Platt, Michael L; Land, Michael F

    2015-12-01

    Animals selectively direct their visual attention toward relevant aspects of their environments. They can shift their attention using a combination of eye, head and body movements. While we have a growing understanding of eye and head movements in mammals, we know little about these processes in birds. We therefore measured the eye and head movements of freely behaving Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) using a telemetric eye-tracker. Both eye and head movements contributed to gaze changes in peafowl. When gaze shifts were smaller, eye movements played a larger role than when gaze shifts were larger. The duration and velocity of eye and head movements were positively related to the size of the eye and head movements, respectively. In addition, the coordination of eye and head movements in peafowl differed from that in mammals; peafowl exhibited a near-absence of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which may partly result from the peafowl's ability to move their heads as quickly as their eyes. PMID:26486363

  2. A hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreatic head.

    PubMed

    Stamatova, D; Theilmann, L; Spiegelberg, C

    2016-12-01

    Hepatoid carcinoma (HC) is an extremely rare form of neoplasm. Its cellular structure resembles that of a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To date, only 26 cases of hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas have been reported in the literature. We report the diagnosis of a hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreatic head in a 78-year-old male patient. The tumor was detected incidentally during routine abdominal ultrasound scanning. Laboratory tests did not show any abnormalities except for a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. After CT, MRI, and laparoscopic biopsy that failed to obtain the diagnosis, the patient underwent a Whipple procedure. The final pathology report described a hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreatic head (pathological T3, N0 (0/10), L0, V0, R0, M0). After the patient recovered, no further therapy was recommended by the tumor board and he was discharged. Regular follow-up was suggested; however, the patient suddenly died of acute coronary artery disease 2 months after surgery. PMID:27488314

  3. Three-dimensional head anthropometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James

    2003-05-01

    Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).

  4. The interaction of wearing multifocal lenses with head posture and pain.

    PubMed

    Willford, C H; Kisner, C; Glenn, T M; Sachs, L

    1996-03-01

    Chronic placement of the head anterior to the body's center of gravity can be a component in the development of neurovascular and musculoskeletal dysfunction. In order to evaluate and treat dysfunction and pain, physical therapists need to be aware of variables that can affect head position. The objectives of this study were to investigate the interaction between wearing multifocal lenses and head posture; to determine the interaction of forward head posture and upper quarter pain; and to determine the intratester reliability of a head posture gauge. Head posture and self-reported pain were collected on 25 randomly chosen multifocal lens wearers between the ages of 40 and 50 and compared with a similar group of nonmultifocal lens wearers. The mean forward head posture in the two groups were significantly different (t = 2.06, one-tailed, p = 0.023). Subjects wearing multifocal lenses had a greater degree of forward head posture when compared with nonmultifocal lens wearers. A one-way analysis of variance was used to compare forward head posture with pain. In this sample, mean forward head posture levels did not differ significantly according to level of pain (p = 0.15). Intratester reliability of the head posture gauge was demonstrated to be high through the use of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.99). Wearing multifocal lenses may influence a person to hold his/her head in a position more forward than the ideal postural alignment. PMID:8919398

  5. Measuring head circumference

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide an evidence-based update emphasizing the importance of measuring head circumference (HC) in infants, with a focus on microcephaly. Quality of evidence PubMed and EMBASE (OvidSP) were searched. Search terms used were head circumference and infants and measurement; microcephaly and infants and measurement; idiopathic microcephaly and infants; and congenital microcephaly and infants. Most of the references for this review were published in 2000 or later. Most evidence is level II. Main message Serial measurement of HC should be incorporated into routine well-child care. Measure the distance around the back of the child’s head with a nonelastic tape measure held above the eyebrows and ears, and plot the measurement on an age- and sex-appropriate growth chart. Microcephaly is HC more than 2 SD below the mean. The most common disability associated with microcephaly is intellectual delay; other common concomitant conditions include epilepsy, cerebral palsy, language delay, strabismus, ophthalmologic disorders, and cardiac, renal, urinary tract, and skeletal anomalies. An interdisciplinary approach to microcephaly is warranted. Although there are no specific interventions to enhance brain growth, dietary or surgical interventions might be helpful in some cases. Infants with microcephaly who show developmental delays might benefit from early intervention programs or developmental physical and occupational therapy. Conclusion Early identification of HC concerns by family physicians can be a critical first step in identifying disorders such as microcephaly, leading to referral to pediatric specialists and, as needed, provision of family-centred early intervention services. PMID:26505062

  6. Head and neck MR imaging in the pediatric patient

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, R.B.; Lufkin, R.B.; Kangarloo, H.; Hanafee, W.N.; Wilson, G.H.

    1986-06-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of the head and neck (excluding the brain) were obtained in 49 children believed to have lesions of the head and neck. Seven children had normal images; in the remaining 42, lesions were divided into four categories: midline lesions, lesions of symmetric paired structures, facial lesions, and naso-pharyngeal and oropharyngeal lesions. All entities were well delineated by MR imaging. The imaging planes and sequences chosen depended on the suspected abnormality. Midline lesions were best imaged in the sagittal plane, lesions of paired structures and the face in the axial or coronal planes, and naso-pharyngeal and oropharyngeal lesions in the axial or sagittal planes. Intracranial extension of head and neck neoplasms was best evaluated in the coronal plane. Surface coils provided better resolution and were thus more useful in evaluating small superficial lesions; head or body coils were more useful in defining the extent of large lesions. T2-weighted images provided better differentiation between normal and tumor tissue in patients with head and neck neoplasms.

  7. Active head rotations and eye-head coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zangemeister, W. H.; Stark, L.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that head movements play an important role in gaze. The interaction between eye and head movements involves both their shared role in directing gaze and the compensatory vestibular ocular reflex. The dynamics of head trajectories are discussed, taking into account the use of parameterization to obtain the peak velocity, peak accelerations, the times of these extrema, and the duration of the movement. Attention is given to the main sequence, neck muscle EMG and details of the head-movement trajectory, types of head model accelerations, the latency of eye and head movement in coordinated gaze, gaze latency as a function of various factors, and coordinated gaze types. Clinical examples of gaze-plane analysis are considered along with the instantaneous change of compensatory eye movement (CEM) gain, and aspects of variability.

  8. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  9. Pinna abnormalities and low-set ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  10. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approach to abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-age women Differential diagnosis of genital tract bleeding in women Postmenopausal uterine bleeding The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  11. Reactor vessel head permanent shield

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, M.F.; Leduc, R.J.; Richard, J.W.; Malandra, L.J.

    1989-05-09

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising: a nuclear reactor pressure vessel closure head; control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) disposed within the closure head so as to project vertically above the closure head; cooling air baffle means surrounding the control rod drive mechanisms for defining cooling air paths relative to the control rod drive mechanisms; means defined within the periphery of the closure head for accommodating fastening means for securing the closure head to its associated pressure vessel; lifting lugs fixedly secured to the closure head for facilitating lifting and lowering movements of the closure head relative to the pressure vessel; lift rods respectively operatively associated with the plurality of lifting lugs for transmitting load forces, developed during the lifting and lowering movements of the closure head, to the lifting lugs; upstanding radiation shield means interposed between the cooling air baffle means and the periphery of the enclosure head of shielding maintenance personnel operatively working upon the closure head fastening means from the effects of radiation which may emanate from the control rod drive mechanisms and the cooling air baffle means; and connecting systems respectively associated with each one of the lifting lugs and each one of the lifting rods for connecting each one of the lifting rods to a respective one of each one of the lifting lugs, and for simultaneously connecting a lower end portion of the upstanding radiation shield means to each one of the respective lifting lugs.

  12. Abnormal brain scan with subacute extradural haematomas

    PubMed Central

    Morley, J. Barrie; Langford, Keith H.

    1970-01-01

    Four patients are described with proven subacute extradural haematomas, each with an abnormal cerebral scan of diagnostic assistance. A possible mechanism of production of the subacute extradural haematoma is discussed, and appears to be similar to the mechanism involved in the subacute subdural haematoma. The means by which the abnormal scan results in such cases is also examined, from which it appears that non-specific meningeal membrane inflammatory reaction surrounding the haematoma is significant. Images PMID:5478950

  13. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population. PMID:27215241

  14. Single-plane compensatory phase shift of head and eye oscillations in infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Evangelos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Anastasopoulos, Dimitri

    2011-09-15

    A 43-year-old man with infantile nystagmus syndrome complained of "head tremor" that would occur during attempted reading. Three-dimensional, combined eye and head recordings were performed with the magnetic search coil technique in two conditions: 1) looking straight-ahead under photopic conditions without a particular attentional focus and 2) reading a simple text held one meter away. A mainly vertical-horizontal spontaneous nystagmus was evident in both conditions, whereas head nodding emerged in the second condition. The head oscillated only in the vertical plane and concomitant analysis of eye and head displacement revealed a counterphase, compensatory pattern of the first harmonic of the INS waveform. This was verified by the significant negative peak of the crosscorrelogram at zero lag. Eye-in-space (gaze) displacement during nystagmic oscillations was thereby reduced suggesting a central adaptive behavior that may have evolved to partly compensate for the abnormal eye movements during reading. PMID:21665224

  15. Spontaneous and bilateral necrosis of the femoral head in a young experimental beagle dog

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Kurotaki, Tetsuro; Yamada, Naoaki; Kumabe, Shino; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the pathological characterizations of a rare case of necrosis of the femoral head that was spontaneous, bilateral, avascular and nontraumatic. A 14-month-old beagle dog was presented with pain in the hind limbs. At necropsy, the articular surface in the bilateral femoral head was markedly irregular. There were no gross abnormalities other than in the hip joints. Microscopically, a wide range of trabecular bone necrosis localized in the subchondral area was observed in both femoral heads. In the right femoral head, fibrosis and proliferative vessels were noted in the subchondral area. The articular cartilage was thickened irregularly, but there was no evidence of cartilage necrosis. The bone marrow adjacent to the affected area showed severe depression. In the metaphysis, atrophic bone marrow, but not bone necrosis, was observed. This was a rare case of spontaneous necrosis of the femoral head in an experimental beagle dog. PMID:26028821

  16. Integrated head package cable carrier for a nuclear power plant

    DOEpatents

    Meuschke, Robert E.; Trombola, Daniel M.

    1995-01-01

    A cabling arrangement is provided for a nuclear reactor located within a containment. Structure inside the containment is characterized by a wall having a near side surrounding the reactor vessel defining a cavity, an operating deck outside the cavity, a sub-space below the deck and on a far side of the wall spaced from the near side, and an operating area above the deck. The arrangement includes a movable frame supporting a plurality of cables extending through the frame, each connectable at a first end to a head package on the reactor vessel and each having a second end located in the sub-space. The frame is movable, with the cables, between a first position during normal operation of the reactor when the cables are connected to the head package, located outside the sub-space proximate the head package, and a second position during refueling when the cables are disconnected from the head package, located in the sub-space. In a preferred embodiment, the frame straddles the top of the wall in a substantially horizontal orientation in the first position, pivots about an end distal from the head package to a substantially vertically oriented intermediate position, and is guided, while remaining about vertically oriented, along a track in the sub-space to the second position.

  17. Does the hair influence heat extraction from the head during head cooling under heat stress?

    PubMed Central

    SHIN, Sora; PARK, Joonhee; LEE, Joo-Young

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of head hair on thermoregulatory responses when cooling the head under heat stress. Eight young males participated in six experimental conditions: normal hair (100–130 mm length) and cropped hair (5 mm length) with three water inlet temperatures of 10, 15, and 20°C. The head and neck of subjects were cooled by a liquid perfused hood while immersing legs at 42°C water for 60 min in a sitting position at the air temperature of 28°C with 30% RH. The results showed that heat removal from the normal hair condition was not significantly different from the cropped hair condition. Rectal and mean skin temperatures, and sweat rate showed no significant differences between the normal and cropped hair conditions. Heat extraction from the head was significantly greater in 10°C than in 15 or 20°C cooling (p<0.05) for both normal and cropped hair, whereas subjects preferred the 15°C more than the 10 or 20°C cooling regimen. These results indicate that the selection of effective cooling temperature is more crucial than the length of workers’ hair during head cooling under heat stress, and such selection should be under the consideration of subjective perceptions with physiological responses. PMID:26165361

  18. Abnormal ferrite in hyper-eutectoid steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chairuangsri, T.; Edmonds, D.V.

    2000-04-19

    The microstructural characteristics of ultra-high carbon hyper-eutectoid Fe-C and Fe-C-Cu experimental steels have been examined after isothermal transformation in a range just beneath the eutectoid temperature. Particular attention was paid to the formation of so-called abnormal ferrite, which refers to coarse ferrite grains which can form, in hyper-eutectoid compositions, on the pro-eutectoid cementite before the pearlite reaction occurs. Thus it is confirmed that the abnormal ferrite is not a result of pearlite coarsening, but of austenite decomposition before the conditions for coupled growth of pearlite are established. The abnormal ferrite formed on both allotriomorphic and Widmanstaetten forms of pro-eutectoid cementite, and significantly, it was observed that the pro-eutectoid cementite continued to grow, despite being enclosed by the abnormal ferrite. Under certain conditions this could lead to the eventual formation of substantially reduced amounts of pearlite. Thus, a model for carbon redistribution that allows the proeutectoid cementite to thicken concurrently with the abnormal ferrite is presented. The orientation relationships between the abnormal ferrite and pro-eutectoid cementite were also determined and found to be close to those which have been reported between pearlitic ferrite and pearlitic cementite.

  19. Mutation of rnf213a by TALEN causes abnormal angiogenesis and circulation defects in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jun; Sun, Xunsha; Chen, Huimin; Liu, Huijiao; Lai, Rong; Li, Jiaoxing; Wang, Yufang; Zhang, Jingjing; Sheng, Wenli

    2016-08-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is characterized by a stenosis at the terminal of the internal carotid artery and an abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain. RNF213 is a susceptibility gene for MMD in East Asians. The role of RNF213 in the etiology of MMD remains unknown. Here we generated rnf213a mutant zebrafish using transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technique and described the characteristics of a zebrafish embryonic model of MMD. rnf213a mutant zebrafish developed abnormal angiogenesis in intersegmental vessels and cranial secondary vessels. Endothelial cells exhibited the defects in morphogenesis and formation of vascular tubes despite normal cell to cell contacts under electron microscope. Circulatory disorder was induced by abnormal sprouts in the trunk and head. Reduced circulation in the abnormal vessels was revealed by microangiography. No blood flow permeated across the vessels wall despite the extremely abnormal structure. rnf213a mutant showed lower erythrocyte velocity in dorsal aorta than that in wild-type siblings. In this study, we provided a promising in vivo model for MMD, and this model would aid to understand the function of rnf213a in angiogenesis. PMID:27125596

  20. Scoliosis and vertebral anomalies: additional abnormal phenotypes associated with chromosome 16p11.2 rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Al-Kateb, Hussam; Khanna, Geetika; Filges, Isabel; Hauser, Natalie; Grange, Dorothy K; Shen, Joseph; Smyser, Christopher D; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Shinawi, Marwan

    2014-05-01

    The typical chromosome 16p11.2 rearrangements are estimated to occur at a frequency of approximately 0.6% of all samples tested clinically and have been identified as a major cause of autism spectrum disorders, developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities, and seizures. Careful examination of patients with these rearrangements revealed association with abnormal head size, obesity, dysmorphism, and congenital abnormalities. In this report, we extend this list of phenotypic abnormalities to include scoliosis and vertebral anomalies. We present detailed characterization of phenotypic and radiological data of 10 new patients, nine with the 16p11.2 deletion and one with the duplication within the coordinates chr16:29,366,195 and 30,306,956 (hg19) with a minimal size of 555 kb. We discuss the phenotypical and radiological findings in our patients and review 5 previously reported patients with 16p11.2 rearrangement and similar skeletal abnormalities. Our data suggest that patients with the recurrent 16p11.2 rearrangement have increased incidence of scoliosis and vertebral anomalies. However, additional studies are required to confirm this observation and to establish the incidence of these anomalies. We discuss the potential implications of our findings on the diagnosis, surveillance and genetic counseling of patients with 16p11.2 rearrangement. PMID:24458548