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Sample records for abnormal head position

  1. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome, Brown’s syndrome, orbital wall fractures, and restricted eye movement associated with thyroid eye disease. 2) Nystagmus: Some patients with nystagmus (jerky eye movements) will acquire a head turn or tilt if ...

  2. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  3. Modified Anderson procedure for correcting abnormal mixed head position in nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Yllanes, M E; Fonte-Vázquez, A; Pérez-Pérez, J F

    2002-01-01

    Background/aim: Treatment of nystagmus is controversial mainly in cases where it is combined with abnormal head position. This study was carried out to demonstrate that patients with abnormal head position in all three axes associated with nystagmus show improvement in the torsional and vertical components if only horizontal factors are addressed by surgical weakening of the horizontal muscles. Methods: 21 patients with horizontal nystagmus and abnormal head position were studied. All had an abnormal head position in all three axes with a predominant head turn. In all cases a modified Anderson procedure was performed—that is, 2 mm retroequatorial recessions of the horizontal yoke rectus muscles responsible for the blockage position, plus corrective surgery for strabismus when needed. Results: The three components of the abnormal head position were improved with surgery of horizontal yoke rectus muscles only (p=0.001). Conclusion: Large recessions of the horizontal yoke rectus muscles in nystagmus with blockage position, when the head turn predominates over the vertical and torsional components, are effective in diminishing the abnormal head position on all three axes. PMID:11864878

  4. Surgical management for abnormal head position in nystagmus: the augmented modified Kestenbaum procedure.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, L. B.; Ervin-Mulvey, L. D.; Calhoun, J. H.; Harley, R. D.; Keisler, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with nystagmus and an eccentric null point in lateral gaze may assume an abnormal head position to maximise visual acuity. Surgical procedures for this condition can result in significant undercorrection of the head turn. A follow-up of 15 patients for an average of 33 months revealed a sustained improvement in head position with the use of the augmented modified Kestenbaum procedure. Images PMID:6498134

  5. Head Position and Internally Headed Relative Clauses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basilico, David

    1996-01-01

    Examines "Head Movement" in internally headed relative clauses (IHRCs). The article shows that in some cases, head movement to an external position need not take place and demonstrates that this movement of the head to a sentence-internal position results from the quantificational nature of IHRCs and Diesing's mapping hypothesis (1990, 1992). (56…

  6. Eye-Head Coordination Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Simon; Würmle, Othmar; Razavi, Nadja; Müri, René M.; Altorfer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Eye-movement abnormalities in schizophrenia are a well-established phenomenon that has been observed in many studies. In such studies, visual targets are usually presented in the center of the visual field, and the subject's head remains fixed. However, in every-day life, targets may also appear in the periphery. This study is among the first to investigate eye and head movements in schizophrenia by presenting targets in the periphery of the visual field. Methodology/Principal Findings Two different visual recognition tasks, color recognition and Landolt orientation tasks, were presented at the periphery (at a visual angle of 55° from the center of the field of view). Each subject viewed 96 trials, and all eye and head movements were simultaneously recorded using video-based oculography and magnetic motion tracking of the head. Data from 14 patients with schizophrenia and 14 controls were considered. The patients had similar saccadic latencies in both tasks, whereas controls had shorter saccadic latencies in the Landolt task. Patients performed more head movements, and had increased eye-head offsets during combined eye-head shifts than controls. Conclusions/Significance Patients with schizophrenia may not be able to adapt to the two different tasks to the same extent as controls, as seen by the former's task-specific saccadic latency pattern. This can be interpreted as a specific oculomotoric attentional dysfunction and may support the hypothesis that schizophrenia patients have difficulties determining the relevance of stimuli. Patients may also show an uneconomic over-performance of head-movements, which is possibly caused by alterations in frontal executive function that impair the inhibition of head shifts. In addition, a model was created explaining 93% of the variance of the response times as a function of eye and head amplitude, which was only observed in the controls, indicating abnormal eye-head coordination in patients with schizophrenia. PMID

  7. Positional Plagiocephaly (Flattened Head)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Simple practices like changing a baby's sleep position, holding your baby, and providing lots of "tummy time" ... devices to keep your baby in one position. Alternate positions in the crib. Consider how you lay ...

  8. Bistable Head Positioning Arm Latch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, Ken; Endo, Juro; Mita, Masahiro; Abelein, Nathan

    A simple, low cost, yet effective device has been developed for immobilizing the head-arm assembly in a disk drive or similar mechanism during power-off conditions. The latching scheme also provides a consistent means of releasing the head-arm assembly from the immobilized position upon power up of the disk drive. The latch uses no electrical power in either immobilized or released state. This design is immune to extreme torque and linear shock forces applied to the disk drive case. The latch system can use the energy stored in the spinning disks to drive the head-arm assembly toward a safe position while simultaneously arming the latch mechanism to secure the head-arm assembly in the safe position upon arrival. A low energy five msec pulse of current drives the latch from one state to the other. Solenoids as presently used in latch mechanisms are bulky, expensive, have variable force characteristics, and often generate contaminants. The latch described in this paper is expected to replace such solenoids. It may also replace small magnet latches, which have limited latch force and apply unwanted torque to a proximate head positioning arm.

  9. Natural head position: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Meiyappan, N.; Tamizharasi, S.; Senthilkumar, K. P.; Janardhanan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Cephalometrics has given us a different perspective of interpreting various skeletal problems in the dentofacial complex. Natural head position (NHP) is a reproducible, physiologically determined aspect of function. To determine NHP, a horizontal or vertical reference line outside the crania was used, but preference was given generally to the horizontal. Various intra and extracranial cephalometric horizontal reference planes have been used to formulate diagnosis and plan individualized treatment for an integrated correction of the malocclusion cephalometrics is constantly undergoing refinements in its techniques and analyses to improve the clinical applications. Even though various methods for establishing NHP have been proposed, still it remains a challenge to the clinicians to implement the concept of NHP thoroughly in all the stages of treatment because of practical difficulties in the clinical scenario. PMID:26538891

  10. Natural head position: An overview.

    PubMed

    Meiyappan, N; Tamizharasi, S; Senthilkumar, K P; Janardhanan, K

    2015-08-01

    Cephalometrics has given us a different perspective of interpreting various skeletal problems in the dentofacial complex. Natural head position (NHP) is a reproducible, physiologically determined aspect of function. To determine NHP, a horizontal or vertical reference line outside the crania was used, but preference was given generally to the horizontal. Various intra and extracranial cephalometric horizontal reference planes have been used to formulate diagnosis and plan individualized treatment for an integrated correction of the malocclusion cephalometrics is constantly undergoing refinements in its techniques and analyses to improve the clinical applications. Even though various methods for establishing NHP have been proposed, still it remains a challenge to the clinicians to implement the concept of NHP thoroughly in all the stages of treatment because of practical difficulties in the clinical scenario.

  11. Abnormal head movement in a patient with tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Singh, Maneesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The bobble-head doll syndrome is characterised by abnormal head movements. These head movements are usually 'yes-yes' (up and down) type; rarely, head movements are 'no-no' (side-to-side) type. Commonly described causes of the bobble-head doll syndrome include third ventricular tumours, suprasellar arachnoid cysts, aqueductal stenosis and other lesions in the region of the third ventricle of the brain. We report a case of tuberculous meningitis with hydrocephalus; in this patient bobble-head doll syndrome developed following external ventricular drainage. In our patient, placement of intraventricular drain led to massive dilatation of the frontal horn of the left lateral ventricle because of blocked foramina of Monro on the left side. The bobble-head doll syndrome, presumably, developed because of the pressure effect of the dilated third ventricle on the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus, red nucleus and dentatorubrothalamic pathways. We think that distortion of the third ventricle was responsible for the impairment of the functions of all these structures. PMID:23035162

  12. Association between temporomandibular disorders and abnormal head postures.

    PubMed

    Faulin, Evandro Francisco; Guedes, Carlos Gramani; Feltrin, Pedro Paulo; Joffiley, Cláudia Maria Mithie Suda Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the possible correlation between the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and different head postures in the frontal and sagittal planes using photographs of undergraduate students in the School of Dentistry at the Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brazil. In this nonrandomized, cross-sectional study, the diagnoses of TMD were made with the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC)/TMD axis I. The craniovertebral angle was used to evaluate forward head posture in the sagittal plane, and the interpupillary line was used to measure head tilt in the frontal plane. The measurements to evaluate head posture were made using the Software for the Assessment of Posture (SAPO). Students were divided into two study groups, based on the presence or absence of TMD. The study group comprised 46 students and the control group comprised 80 students. Data about head posture and TMD were analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 13. Most cases of TMD were classified as degenerative processes (group III), followed by disk displacement (group II) and muscle disorders (group I). There was no sex predominance for the type of disorder. No association was found between prevalence rates for head postures in the frontal plane and the occurrence of TMD. The same result was found for the association of TMD diagnosis with craniovertebral angle among men and women, and the group that contained both men and women. Abnormal head postures were common among individuals both with and without TMD. No association was found between head posture evaluated in the frontal and sagittal planes and TMD diagnosis with the use of RDC/TMD.

  13. Head position modulates optokinetic nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Ferraresi, A.; Botti, F. M.; Panichi, R.; Barmack, N. H.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation and movement relies on both visual and vestibular information mapped in separate coordinate systems. Here, we examine how coordinate systems interact to guide eye movements of rabbits. We exposed rabbits to continuous horizontal optokinetic stimulation (HOKS) at 5°/s to evoke horizontal eye movements, while they were statically or dynamically roll-tilted about the longitudinal axis. During monocular or binocular HOKS, when the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the posterior → anterior (P → A) direction, slow phase eye velocity (SPEV) increased by 3.5–5°/s. When the rabbit was roll-tilted 30° onto the side of the eye stimulated in the A → P direction, SPEV decreased to ~2.5°/s. We also tested the effect of roll-tilt after prolonged optokinetic stimulation had induced a negative optokinetic afternystagmus (OKAN II). In this condition, the SPEV occurred in the dark, “open loop.” Modulation of SPEV of OKAN II depended on the direction of the nystagmus and was consistent with that observed during “closed loop” HOKS. Dynamic roll-tilt influenced SPEV evoked by HOKS in a similar way. The amplitude and the phase of SPEV depended on the frequency of vestibular oscillation and on HOKS velocity. We conclude that the change in the linear acceleration of the gravity vector with respect to the head during roll-tilt modulates the gain of SPEV depending on its direction. This modulation improves gaze stability at different image retinal slip velocities caused by head roll-tilt during centric or eccentric head movement. PMID:21735244

  14. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and head position during sleep.

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Kohichiro; Ogita, Hideaki; Funabiki, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether any particular head positions during sleep are associated with BPPV, head position during sleep was monitored for 3 days in 50 BPPV patients after the disappearance of positional nystagmus and in 25 normal control subjects. A gravity sensor was attached to the center of the subject's forehead at home. The positional angle of the head was measured at 5-second intervals during sleep. In BPPV, the posterior semicircular canal was involved in 40 patients and the lateral semicircular canal in 10 patients. Recurrence was found in 22 of 50 BPPV patients. BPPV patients with recurrence were significantly more likely to sleep in the affected-ear-down 45-degree head position than were patients with no history of recurrence (P< 0.02). When the head is in the affected-ear-down 45-degree head position, the non-ampullated half of the posterior semicircular canal and the non-ampullated half of the lateral semicircular canal are nearly in the earth-vertical position, making it easier for detached otoconia to fall into the posterior or lateral semicircular canal and to agglomerate and attain a certain size in the lowest portion of each semicircular canal. Our findings showed that the affected-ear-down 45-degree head position during sleep could be an etiological factor of BPPV, more particularly in patients with recurrent BPPV. PMID:23142834

  15. Misshapen Heads in Babies: Position or Pathology?

    PubMed Central

    Bronfin, Daniel R.

    2001-01-01

    A newborn's skull is highly malleable and rapidly expanding. As a result, any restrictive or constrictive forces applied to a baby's head can result in dramatic distortions. These changes can be mild, reversible deformations or severe, irreversible malformations that can result in brain injury. This paper reviews the anatomy and physiology of normal and abnormal brain and skull growth, the etiology of cranial deformation, the types of craniosynostosis most commonly seen in infants, and the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:21765737

  16. Abnormal Head Impulse Test in a Unilateral Cerebellar Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seol-Hee; Jung, Jin-Man; Kwon, Do-Young; Park, Moon Ho; Choi, June; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background The findings of head impulse tests (HIT) are usually normal in cerebellar lesions. Case Report A 46-year-old male presented with progressive dizziness and imbalance of 3 weeks duration. The patient exhibited catch-up saccades during bedside horizontal HIT to either side, which was more evident during the rightward HIT. However, results of bithermal caloric tests and rotatory chair test were normal. MRI revealed a lesion in the inferior cerebellum near the flocculus. Conclusions This case provides additional evidence that damage to the flocculus or its connections may impair the vestibulo-ocular reflex only during high-speed stimuli, especially when the stimuli are applied to the contralesional side. By observing accompanying cerebellar signs, the abnormal HIT findings caused by a cerebellar disorder can be distinguished from those produced by peripheral vestibular disorders. PMID:25749819

  17. A Device to Record Infant Head Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia, Clement; Bullinger, Andre

    1976-01-01

    The device described is a system to indicate left-to-right head position. It is limited to indicating relative left-right movements without vertical or up-down discrimination. Although developed for newborns, the system can be applied to older subjects by using a holding device for the infant. (JH)

  18. The natural head position. Different techniques of head positioning in the study of craniocervical posture.

    PubMed

    Cuccia, A M; Caradonna, C

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the most important definitions of head posture and the most important methodology to get an natural head posture. After a careful analysis of the literature with no limitations of language or time period, 31 papers were selected. Relevant information was also derived from reference lists of the publications retrieved. The key words used in the search were head posture, cranio-cervical posture, cephalometric analysis, natural head position, lateral cephalometric radiographs, cephalostat, self balance position, mirror position. The definitions of natural head position are various. An accurate head posture registration is time consuming and not particularly feasible on a clinical field. Nevertheless it is possible to apply a craniostat to the patient before the execution of the radiograph without modifying the NHP. The execution of radiographs of the craniocervical zone is connected to the correct position of the head. The NHP is a reproducible positions, and can be useful for making comparisons at any time in the case of the same patient or in comparing different patients cephalometrically. PMID:20027131

  19. Demonstration of sperm head shape abnormality and clastogenic potential of cypermethrin.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Gautam, A K; Agarwal, K R; Shah, B A; Saiyad, H N

    2004-04-01

    Adult male Swiss albino mice were administered ip. suspension solution of cypermethrin in 0.15% DMSO at the doses of 30 mg, 60 mg and 90 mg/kg b. wt. daily for 5 days. Another group of animals was injected cyclophosphamide ip. (60 mg/kg b. wt.) in similar manner which served as positive control. Effect of cypermethrin on body and testes weight and sperm head morphology was studied. Clastogenic potential of cypermethrin was studied by using modified Allium test. The cytological changes were studied in the root tip cells of Allium cepa after 3 days treatment with three different concentration of cypermethrin (0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 microg/ml). The results revealed that body weight gain was considerably reduced in higher dose groups, but the testicular weight did not change significantly in any of the cypermethrin treated groups. However, a significant elevation in the number of abnormal shape of sperm head was noticed in higher dose groups as compared to control. It was observed that the abnormality in the shape of sperm head was dose-dependent. The cytological changes in the root tip cells of Allium cepa indicated that cypermethrin is having toxic effects on the root tip cells in the form of stickiness of chromosomes and also affect the mitotic activity. This study suggest that cypermethrin may have the potential to induce adverse effects on sperm head shape morphology of mouse as well as clastogenic effects on root tip cells of Allium cepa. PMID:15529877

  20. Effect of The Swimmer's Head Position on Passive Drag.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Matteo; Gatta, Giorgio

    2015-12-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the head position on passive drag with a towing-line experiment in a swimming pool. The tests were performed on ten male swimmers with regional level swimming skills and at least 10 years of competitive swimming experience. They were towed underwater (at a depth of 60 cm) at three speeds (1.5, 1.7 and 1.9 m/s) and in two body positions (arms above the swimmer's head and arms alongside the body). These two body positions were repeated while the swimmer's head was positioned in three different ways: head-up, head-middle and head-down in relation to the body's horizontal alignment. The results showed a reduction of 4-5.2% in the average passive drag at all speeds when the head was down or aligned to the swimmer's arms alongside the body, in comparison to the head-up position. A major significant decrease of 10.4-10.9% (p < 0.05) was shown when the head was down or aligned at the swimmer's arms above the swimmer's head. The passive drag tended to decrease significantly by a mean of 17.6% (p < 0.001) for all speeds examined with the arms alongside the body position rather than with the arms above the head position. The swimmer's head location may play an important role in reducing hydrodynamic resistance during passive underwater gliding.

  1. Causes of abnormal right diaphragmatic position diagnosed by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Pery, M; Kaftori, J K; Rosenberger, A

    1983-01-01

    Fifty patients with an abnormal right diaphragmatic position on posterior-anterior and lateral chest films and five patients following right thoracotomy were examined by ultrasound. The transabdominal and intercostal approach with the liver as an acoustic window was used. In all patients the cause for the change in the diaphragmatic position and the nature of an opacified right hemithorax after thoracotomy and pulmonectomy were identified.

  2. Effect of small head tilt on ocular fundus image: Consideration of proper head positioning for ocular fundus scanning.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin Hae; Kang, Nam Yeo; Kim, Jihyun; Baek, Jiwon; Hong, Seung Woo

    2016-08-01

    Head tilt and resultant ocular cyclotorsion can influence the results of ophthalmologic examinations. Thus, proper head positioning during fundus scanning has been emphasized. However, there is no perfect method to control the head tilt and little is known about the effect of small head tilts. In this study, we investigated the effect of minimal head tilt on the ocular cyclotorsion which we cannot easily detect.Forty-seven participants without ophthalmologic or vestibular abnormalities were recruited as normal subjects. Their faces were positioned at the desired head tilt using a customized adjustable head tilter and facial and fundus photographs of both the left and right eyes were taken in the upright neutral position; as well as at rightward and leftward head tilts of 2°, 4°, and 6°. The actual head tilt was determined using the facial photographs by measuring the slope of a line that intersected the corneal reflexes of both eyes. Rotational changes in the fundus images were recorded and the correlation of these changes with the degree of head tilt was determined.The degree of head tilt was significantly correlated with rotational changes in the fundus images from both the right and left eyes (P < 0.001; right eye: R = 0.897, left eye: R = 0.899). The mean relative compensations for head tilt, mediated by the ocular counterrolling reflex, were 0.376 ± 0.255 in the right eye (range: -0.02 to 1.0), and 0.350 ± 0.263 in the left eye (range: -0.03 to 1.0), and exhibited a significant negative correlation with head tilt (P < 0.05). The mean relative compensation of the right eye did not differ significantly from that of the left eye (P = 0.380), but the value did vary widely among individuals and within individuals.Even very small head tilt was partially and variably compensated for, and caused significant rotation in the fundus image. We concluded that proper head positioning does not guarantee the minimal ocular cyclotorsion change

  3. Effect of small head tilt on ocular fundus image: Consideration of proper head positioning for ocular fundus scanning

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shin Hae; Kang, Nam Yeo; Kim, Jihyun; Baek, Jiwon; Hong, Seung Woo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Head tilt and resultant ocular cyclotorsion can influence the results of ophthalmologic examinations. Thus, proper head positioning during fundus scanning has been emphasized. However, there is no perfect method to control the head tilt and little is known about the effect of small head tilts. In this study, we investigated the effect of minimal head tilt on the ocular cyclotorsion which we cannot easily detect. Forty-seven participants without ophthalmologic or vestibular abnormalities were recruited as normal subjects. Their faces were positioned at the desired head tilt using a customized adjustable head tilter and facial and fundus photographs of both the left and right eyes were taken in the upright neutral position; as well as at rightward and leftward head tilts of 2°, 4°, and 6°. The actual head tilt was determined using the facial photographs by measuring the slope of a line that intersected the corneal reflexes of both eyes. Rotational changes in the fundus images were recorded and the correlation of these changes with the degree of head tilt was determined. The degree of head tilt was significantly correlated with rotational changes in the fundus images from both the right and left eyes (P < 0.001; right eye: R2 = 0.897, left eye: R2 = 0.899). The mean relative compensations for head tilt, mediated by the ocular counterrolling reflex, were 0.376 ± 0.255 in the right eye (range: −0.02 to 1.0), and 0.350 ± 0.263 in the left eye (range: −0.03 to 1.0), and exhibited a significant negative correlation with head tilt (P < 0.05). The mean relative compensation of the right eye did not differ significantly from that of the left eye (P = 0.380), but the value did vary widely among individuals and within individuals. Even very small head tilt was partially and variably compensated for, and caused significant rotation in the fundus image. We concluded that proper head positioning does not guarantee the minimal ocular

  4. Head Position Preference in the Human Newborn: A New Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnqvist, Louise; Hopkins, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Studied head position preference in 20 newborns differing by Cesarean or vaginal delivery and sex. Found that neither factor accounted for differences. The head turned right more often and was maintained longer in this position during quiet wakefulness, regardless of scoring method. When using global scoring, duration of midline position was…

  5. National Head Start Association Position Paper: A Vision for Head Start and State Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joel; Allen, Ben

    Based on the view that coordinated efforts among Head Start programs, child care programs and other prekindergarten programs, and states can be enhanced without devolving Head Start and its high quality standards to the states, this position paper draws on a Bush Administration report and the Head Start Program Performance Standards to demonstrate…

  6. Target position relative to the head is essential for predicting head movement during head-free gaze pursuit.

    PubMed

    C Pallus, Adam; G Freedman, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Gaze pursuit is the coordinated movement of the eyes and head that allows humans and other foveate animals to track moving objects. The control of smooth pursuit eye movements when the head is restrained is relatively well understood, but how the eyes coordinate with concurrent head movements when the head is free remains unresolved. In this study, we describe behavioral tasks that dissociate head and gaze velocity during head-free pursuit in monkeys. Existing models of gaze pursuit propose that both eye and head movements are driven only by the perceived velocity of the visual target and are therefore unable to account for these data. We show that in addition to target velocity, the positions of the eyes in the orbits and the retinal position of the target are important factors for predicting head movement during pursuit. When the eyes are already near their limits, further pursuit in that direction will be accompanied by more head movement than when the eyes are centered in the orbits, even when target velocity is the same. The step-ramp paradigm, often used in pursuit tasks, produces larger or smaller head movements, depending on the direction of the position step, while gaze pursuit velocity is insensitive to this manipulation. Using these tasks, we can reliably evoke head movements with peak velocities much faster than the target's velocity. Under these circumstances, the compensatory eye movements, which are often called counterproductive since they rotate the eyes in the opposite direction, are essential to maintaining accurate gaze velocity.

  7. Upper airway collapse during drug induced sleep endoscopy: head rotation in supine position compared with lateral head and trunk position.

    PubMed

    Safiruddin, Faiza; Koutsourelakis, Ioannis; de Vries, Nico

    2015-02-01

    Drug induced sedated sleep endoscopy (DISE) is often employed to determine the site, severity and pattern of obstruction in patients with sleep apnea. DISE is usually performed in supine position. We recently showed that the obstruction pattern is different when DISE is performed in lateral position. In this study, we compared the outcomes of DISE performed in supine position with head rotated, with the outcomes of DISE performed with head and trunk in lateral position. The Prospective study design was used in the present study. Sixty patients with OSA (44 male; mean apnea hypopnea index (AHI) 20.8 ± 17.5 events/h) underwent DISE under propofol sedation. Patients were placed in lateral position, and the upper airway collapse was evaluated. The patients were then placed in supine position with the head rotated to the right side. DISE outcomes were scored using the VOTE classification system. In lateral position, nine patients (15.0%) had a complete antero-posterior (A-P) collapse at the level of the velum, nine had a partial A-P collapse. During head rotation and trunk in supine position, at the level of the velum, four patients (6.7%) had a complete A-P collapse, while two patients (3.3%) had a partial A-P collapse. For all other sites, the patterns of collapse were not significantly different between head rotation and lateral position. During DISE, rotation of the head in supine position, and lateral head and trunk position present similar sites, severity and patterns of upper airway collapse, with the exception of collapse at the level of the velum. Here the severity of A-P collapse is less severe during head rotation than in lateral head and trunk position. PMID:25142078

  8. Upper airway collapse during drug induced sleep endoscopy: head rotation in supine position compared with lateral head and trunk position.

    PubMed

    Safiruddin, Faiza; Koutsourelakis, Ioannis; de Vries, Nico

    2015-02-01

    Drug induced sedated sleep endoscopy (DISE) is often employed to determine the site, severity and pattern of obstruction in patients with sleep apnea. DISE is usually performed in supine position. We recently showed that the obstruction pattern is different when DISE is performed in lateral position. In this study, we compared the outcomes of DISE performed in supine position with head rotated, with the outcomes of DISE performed with head and trunk in lateral position. The Prospective study design was used in the present study. Sixty patients with OSA (44 male; mean apnea hypopnea index (AHI) 20.8 ± 17.5 events/h) underwent DISE under propofol sedation. Patients were placed in lateral position, and the upper airway collapse was evaluated. The patients were then placed in supine position with the head rotated to the right side. DISE outcomes were scored using the VOTE classification system. In lateral position, nine patients (15.0%) had a complete antero-posterior (A-P) collapse at the level of the velum, nine had a partial A-P collapse. During head rotation and trunk in supine position, at the level of the velum, four patients (6.7%) had a complete A-P collapse, while two patients (3.3%) had a partial A-P collapse. For all other sites, the patterns of collapse were not significantly different between head rotation and lateral position. During DISE, rotation of the head in supine position, and lateral head and trunk position present similar sites, severity and patterns of upper airway collapse, with the exception of collapse at the level of the velum. Here the severity of A-P collapse is less severe during head rotation than in lateral head and trunk position.

  9. Fuzzy control for head positioning of disk drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Han-Wen; Chen, Fu-Rong

    1992-10-01

    This paper investigates the validity of fuzzy algorithms applied to the control of head- positioning of hard disk drives, which require faster response and higher accuracy compared with other industrial products.

  10. Predictors of Positive Head CT Scan and Neurosurgical Procedures After Minor Head Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kisat, Mehreen; Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Latif, Asad; Villegas, Cassandra V.; Efron, David T.; Stevens, Kent A.; Haut, Elliott R; Schneider, Eric B.; Zafar, Hasnain; Haider, Adil H.

    2012-01-01

    Background There continues to be an ongoing debate regarding the utility of Head CT scans in patients with a normal Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) after minor head injury. The objective of this study is to determine patient and injury characteristics that predict a positive head CT scan or need for a Neurosurgical Procedure (NSP) among patients with blunt head injury and a normal GCS. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of adult patients in the National Trauma Data Bank who presented to the ED with a history of blunt head injury and a normal GCS of 15. The primary outcomes were a positive head CT scan or a NSP. Multivariate logistic regression controlling for patient and injury characteristics was used to determine predictors of each outcome. Results Out of a total of 83,566 patients, 24,414 (29.2%) had a positive head CT scan and 3,476 (4.2%) underwent a NSP. Older patients and patients with a history of fall (as compared to a motor vehicle crash) were more likely to have a positive finding on a head CT scan. Male patients, African-Americans (as compared to Caucasians) and those who presented with a fall were more likely to have a NSP. Conclusions Older age, male gender, ethnicity and mechanism of injury are significant predictors of a positive finding on head CT scans and the need for neurosurgical procedures. This study highlights patient and injury specific characteristics that may help in identifying patients with supposedly minor head injury who will benefit from a head CT scan. PMID:21872271

  11. Spontaneous eye and head position in patients with spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Fruhmann-Berger, Monika; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2005-10-01

    The most prominent deficit in patients with spatial neglect is a bias of their active behaviour, i. e. a deviation of exploratory movements towards the right. When searching for targets, copying, or reading, the patients direct their eye and hand movements towards the ipsilesional side, leading to neglect of the contralesional side. The present study investigated whether spatial neglect is predominantly linked with such active behaviour or if it is obvious also without any explicit requirements, namely in the patients' spontaneous eye and head position. To address this issue we investigated the patients' spontaneous resting position while "doing nothing", i. e. just sitting and waiting for an experiment to start. Using magnetic search coil technique, we recorded spontaneous eye-in-head and head-on-trunk orientation in that waiting period in 24 patients with and without spatial neglect. In contrast to controls, neglect patients showed a marked deviation of spontaneous eye and head orientation of about 30 degrees (= gaze position) towards the right. The findings strengthen the view that one component of the behaviour in neglect patients is due to a very elementary disturbance of spatial information processing. The deviation of eye and head may be understood as a pathological adjustment of the subject's normal resting position to a more rightward position. While the position in healthy subjects is in line with trunk orientation, this "default position" is shifted to a new origin in patients with spatial neglect.

  12. Chromosome aberrations, micronucleus and sperm head abnormalities in mice treated with natamycin, [corrected] a food preservative.

    PubMed

    Rasgele, Pinar Goc; Kaymak, Fisun

    2010-03-01

    Natamycin [corrected] is used as preservative in foods. The genotoxic effects of the food preservative natamycin [corrected] were evaluated using chromosome aberrations and micronucleus test in bone marrow cells and sperm head abnormality assays in mice. Blood samples were taken from mice and levels of total testosterone in serum were also determined. Natamycin [corrected] was intraperitoneally (ip) injected at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Natamycin [corrected] did not induce chromosome aberrations but significantly increased the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow and sperm head abnormalities at all concentrations and treatment periods. It also decreased MI at all concentrations for 6, 12 and 24h treatment periods. Natamycin [corrected] decreased PCE/NCE ratio at all concentrations for 48h in female mice, for 24 and 48h treatment periods in male mice. At the 800 mg/kg concentration, natamycin [corrected] decreased PCE/NCE ratio for 24 and 72h in female mice. A dose dependent increase was observed in the percentage of sperm head abnormalities. The levels of serum testosterone decreased dose-dependently. The obtained results indicate that natamycin [corrected] is not clastogenic, but it is aneugenic in mice bone marrow and it is a potential germ cell mutagen in sperm cells.

  13. Tracking with head position using an electrooptical monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chouet, B. A.; Young, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    An electrooptical head-position monitoring system was designed and built and is used in single-axis and three-axis 'hands-off' control tasks. The monitor consists of a transparent plexiglass body-fixed helmet provided with a set of eight silicon photodetectors sensing pitch, roll, and yaw motions of the head. Two light-emitting diodes, attached to the pilot's helmet liner, provide the ac modulated near infrared radiation. Head control is compared with conventional manual control for single-axis and three-axis tracking tasks. Both performance curves and describing functions are presented.

  14. Laser optical disk position encoder with active heads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Eric P.

    1991-01-01

    An angular position encoder that minimizes the effects of eccentricity and other misalignments between the disk and the read stations by employing heads with beam steering optics that actively track the disk in directions along the disk radius and normal to its surface is discussed. The device adapts features prevalent in optical disk technology to the application of angular position sensing.

  15. Laser optical disk position encoder with active heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Eric P.

    An angular position encoder that minimizes the effects of eccentricity and other misalignments between the disk and the read stations by employing heads with beam steering optics that actively track the disk in directions along the disk radius and normal to its surface is discussed. The device adapts features prevalent in optical disk technology to the application of angular position sensing.

  16. Treatment with a position feedback-controlled head stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Harris, F A

    1979-08-01

    A position feedback-controlled head stabilizer has been developed to provide cerebral palsied individuals with resistive exercise to strengthen the neck musculature. This apparatus detects "involuntary" head motion and stabilizes the head by applying opposing forces; it also can be used to facilitate muscular contraction by resisting the subject's voluntary movements. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether voluntary head control in cerebral palsied individuals can be improved through systematic exercise using the stabilizer to strengthen the muscles of the neck and improve their balance of action. The findings support the author's contention that this is possible. The apparatus consists of a helmet and shoulder pads, interconnected so that the head is supported in the helmet by a manipulator arm. At its lower end, the manipulator arm is attached to the shoulder pad mounting frame via a gimbal assembly which allows head movement in two planes of tilt (pitch, or forward-and back, and roll, or side-to-side). Feedback control circuitry is so arranged that any deviation of the head from the desired position leads to actuation of pneumatic cylinders, which apply torques to the manipulator gimbal axes so as to oppose or conteract the incipient head movement. It is particularly significant that none of these patients participating in these experiments were at all apprehensive about or resisted being placed in the apparatus. (Even the youngest subject to use the apparatus--five year old-- did not mind being restrained by the shoulder pads or having his head gripped by helment.) While JG utilized the safety release valve quite often during the first few head control training sessions, he soon became confident enough in the action of the stabilizer that he did not even bother to grip the handle of the release valve. While DA had the action of safety valve explained and demonstrated for her, she never bothered to use it even from the outset of her experience

  17. Laser optical disk position encoder with active heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Eric P.

    1992-04-01

    An angular position encoder is provided that minimizes the effects of eccentricity and other misalignments between the disk and the read stations by employing heads which incorporate beam steering optics with the ability to actively track the disk in directions along the disk radius and normal to its surface. The device adapts features prevalent in optical disk technology toward the application of angular position sensing. A reflective disk and the principles of interferometry are employed. The servo-controlled steering optics move so as to acquire a track on the disk lying at a predetermined radius and distance below the head, and then adjust position and orientation in order to maintain the view of the disk track as required. Thus, the device is actively self-aligning.

  18. Laser optical disk position encoder with active heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Eric P.

    1990-03-01

    An angular position encoder is provided that minimizes the effects of eccentricity and other misalignments between the disk and the read stations by employing heads which incorporate beam steering optics with the ability to actively track the disk in directions along the disk radius and normal to its surface. The device adapts features prevalent in optical disk technology toward the application of angular position sensing. A reflective disk and the principles of interferometry are employed. The servo-controlled steering optics move so as to acquire a track on the disk lying at a predetermined radius and distance below the head, and then adjust position and orientation in order to maintain the view of the disk track as required. Thus, the device is actively self-aligning.

  19. National Head Start Association Position Paper: Why Conservatives Should Support Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ben; Greene, Sarah; McGrady, Michael; Boel, Bridget; Ryan, Joel; Whitehead, Diane; Smith, Angela; Kane, Elizabeth; Qualls, Brocklin; Wahid, Kahree

    Head Start is a comprehensive federal preschool program, serving children prenatal through age 5 and their families with the overall goal of increasing the school readiness of young children in low-income families. Noting that the program has typically garnered strong support from political liberals and moderates, this position paper of the…

  20. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities by Actively Keeping the Head in an Upright Position with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller through the Control of an Environmental Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Chia-Ju; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2011-01-01

    The latest researches have adopted software technology by applying the Nintendo Wii Remote Controller to the correction of hyperactive limb behavior. This study extended Wii Remote Controller functionality for improper head position (posture) correction (i.e. actively adjusting abnormal head posture) to assess whether two people with multiple…

  1. Effect of low pull headgear on head position

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Pentapati, Kalyana Chakravarthy

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate changes in head position following the use of low pull headgear (LHG) and compare these changes with an untreated control group. Subjects and methods The test group comprised pre-treatment and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of 30 males, aged 11 ± 1.5 years, who were receiving LHG therapy for correction of Class II malocclusion. Pre-observation and post-observation lateral cephalograms of 25 untreated male subjects, aged 11 ± 1.6 years, served as controls. The average treatment time for the treatment group was 12 ± 2.02 months and the average observation period for the control group was 11 ± 1.03 months. Four postural variables (NSL/CVT, NSL/OPT, CVT/HOR, OPT/HOR) were measured to evaluate the head position in all subjects pre- and post-observations. Results There was no significant difference in all the measurements concerning the head position within each group (p > 0.05). The mean differences of pre- and post-observations of 4 postural variables in the LHG group were 1.43, 0.9, −1.13, and −1.08, while those of the control group were 1.56, −0.32, −0.24, and 0.04, respectively. There was no significant difference between the headgear and control groups for any of the postural variables measured (p = 0.924, 0.338, 0.448, and 0.398, respectively). Conclusions Although postural variables showed considerable variability in both groups, head position exhibited no significant changes over a period of 11–12 months either in the control or headgear group. PMID:23960551

  2. Comparison of Natural Head Position in Different Anteroposterior Malocclusions

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, Zohreh; Paknahad, Maryam; Zorriasatine, Farbod

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The facial esthetics after orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery may be affected by the patient’s natural head position. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the natural head position for the three skeletal classes of malocclusion. Materials and Methods: Our sample consisted of 102 lateral cephalometric radiographs of patients aged 15 to 18 years; class I (n=32), class II (n=40) and class III (n=30). Nine landmarks of the craniofacial skeleton and three landmarks of the cervical vertebrae were determined. Variables consisted of two angles for cervical posture (OPT/Hor and CVT/Hor), three angles for craniofacial posture (SN/Ver, PNS-ANS/Ver, and ML/Ver ) and five for craniofacial angulation (SN/OPT, SN/CVT, PNS-ANS/OPT, PNS-ANS/CVT, ML/CVT). The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and post hoc tests. Results: PNS-ANS/Ver and SN/Ver differed significantly (p<0.05) among the three groups. There were no significant differences between class I and class II malocclusions for the indicator angles of cranial posture except for ML/Ver. The SN/CVT was significantly different for class I compared to class III patients. A head posture camouflaging the underlying skeletal class III was observed in our population. Conclusion: A more forward head posture was observed in skeletal class III participants compared to skeletal class I and II and that class III patients tended to incline their head more ventral compared to class I participants. These findings may have implications for the amount of jaw movements during surgery particularly in patients with a class III malocclusion. PMID:25512747

  3. Optimized x/y scanning head for laser beam positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muth, Michael

    1996-08-01

    As a fast two-axis deflection unit for laser beam positioning, an X/Y scanning head based on two galvanometric scanners with vertical crossed axes is a central component of different applications in industry, medicine and communications. Some of these are laser markers, stereolithography devices, scanning laser vibrometers, laser trimmers, laser cutting machines, infrared scanners, lead bonders, Q-switches, laser ophthalmoscope, robotic vision systems, range finders, image digitizers, and laser graphic projectors for entertainment. Velocity and accuracy of the X/Y scanning heads are very important for the performance of the devices in which they are used. Therefore the dynamic properties of the X/Y scanning head must be optimized. One important criterion is the mass moment of inertia of the second scanning mirror. It can be reduced by inclining the axis of the first galvanometric scanner. To solve these problems both computer tools for the optical and mechanical optimization, and measuring devices to minimize the wobble and jitter of galvanometric scanners were developed. The development of scanning heads for different apertures (laser beam diameters), scan angles and F-(Theta) -objectives was done for SCANLAB GmbH (Puchheim/Munchen, Germany), one of the three leading manufacturers for galvanometric scanners.

  4. [Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in children after head trauma].

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, Maria Schøler; Rokkjær, Malene Sine; Berg, Jette; Lüscher, Michael

    2015-06-15

    We present an eight-year-old boy with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) after a head trauma, successfully treated with Epley's manoeuvre. BPPV is a common cause of vestibular vertigo in adults, but it is rarely seen in children. Diagnostic work-up is challenging as children often lack the ability to describe their symptoms accurately and to cooperate in clinical examination. The diagnosis should be suspected in children with a relevant medical history and verified by positional testing. BPPV of childhood is treated with otolith repositioning manoeuvres, and the prognosis is good.

  5. Birth Position, Neonatal Head Position Preference, and Hand Preference in 19-Week-Old-Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Rhoda S.

    This study investigated the hypotheses that 1) infants delivered from a left occiput anterior or transverse position (LOA/LOT) would exhibit a right supine head orientation in the neonatal examination and a right hand preference at 19 weeks of age; and 2) infants delivered from a right occiput anterior or transverse position (ROA/ROT) would…

  6. Head Strap Double Fluid Level Device: An Innovative and User Friendly Design to Record Natural Head Position (NHP)

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Nidhin Philip; Shetty, Siddarth

    2015-01-01

    Head positions can be oriented in a standardized position when the patient stands upright and focusses his/her eyes into a point in infinity. This is the natural head position. This position offers the maximum reproducibility and correlates well with the clinical picture offered to the diagnostician. This article describes an innovative and user friendly method to record natural head position using the head strap double fluid level device, a design modified from the popular fluid level device by Showfety, Vig and Matteson. PMID:25738103

  7. Head Strap Double Fluid Level Device: An Innovative and User Friendly Design to Record Natural Head Position (NHP).

    PubMed

    John, Lijo; Jose, Nidhin Philip; Shetty, Siddarth

    2015-01-01

    Head positions can be oriented in a standardized position when the patient stands upright and focusses his/her eyes into a point in infinity. This is the natural head position. This position offers the maximum reproducibility and correlates well with the clinical picture offered to the diagnostician. This article describes an innovative and user friendly method to record natural head position using the head strap double fluid level device, a design modified from the popular fluid level device by Showfety, Vig and Matteson.

  8. [Abnormal positions of the heart. An analysis on 1039 cases].

    PubMed

    Mătăsaru, Silvia; Crupa, Maria; Felea, Doina; Cosmescu, Adriana; Barbacariu, Liliana; Petroaie, Antoneta

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to study the impact of the cardiac malpositions into the group of the 1039 congenital heart diseases registered in the Pediatric Outpatient Department of "Sf. Spiridon" hospital. All patients were investigated noninvasively using clinical examination, electrocardiogram, routine Roentgenogram, two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography, abdominal echography and, only in two cases, cardiac catheterisation. 23 (2.21%) from 1039 congenital heart diseases registered were cardiac malpositions: dextroposition--3 cases (13.04%), dextrocardia--7 cases (30.43%) and situs inversus--13 cases (56.52%). Most of the children were boys (65.21%), 70% from all cases coming from urban area. Only 3 children had structural cardiac anomalies: two cases with dextrocardia (one with atrial septal defect and one with atrioventricular canal) and one with situs inversus and tetralogy of Fallot, two of them suffering surgical correction. Psychological impact was the main problem of these children, especially during the adolescence, except the two cases with structural cardiac abnormalities who needed following and surgical treatment.

  9. Head Orientation Position during Birth and in Infant Neonatal Period, and Hand Preference at Nineteen Weeks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Rhoda S.; Michel, George F.

    1981-01-01

    Found that infants who were delivered with their head turned right exhibited a neonatal right supine head orientation and a right-hand preference in visually guided reaching tasks at 19 weeks of age. Contrary to prediction, infants delivered with their head turned left did not exhibit a left-sided preference in either neonatal head position or…

  10. Gas cushion control of OVJP print head position

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2014-10-07

    An OVJP apparatus and method for applying organic vapor or other flowable material to a substrate using a printing head mechanism in which the print head spacing from the substrate is controllable using a cushion of air or other gas applied between the print head and substrate. The print head is mounted for translational movement towards and away from the substrate and is biased toward the substrate by springs or other means. A gas cushion feed assembly supplies a gas under pressure between the print head and substrate which opposes the biasing of the print head toward the substrate so as to form a space between the print head and substrate. By controlling the pressure of gas supplied, the print head separation from the substrate can be precisely controlled.

  11. Electromyographic Study of Neck Muscle Activity According to Head Position in Rugby Tackles

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Koji; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Fukuhara, Takashi; Kato, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined differences in neck muscle activity in two different head positions during tackles with the aim of contributing to the prevention of sports injuries. [Subjects] The subjects were 28 male high-school rugby players. [Methods] Two tackle positions were considered: a head-up position and a head-down position. Muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscles and the upper, middle, and lower parts of the trapezius muscles were measured. [Results] Muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscles and the right upper trapezius muscle were significantly increased in the head-up position, and the activity of the lower trapezius was significantly increased in the head-down position. [Conclusion] Tackling with the head-up position increases neck muscle activity and stability of the head and the neck. PMID:24259802

  12. Natural head position: key position for radiographic and photographic analysis and research of craniofacial complex

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Gautam, Sanjay N; Prabhat, KC; Kumar, Shailendra

    2012-01-01

    The Frankfort horizontal is a useful compromise for studying skulls but not for orienting the natural head position (NHP) in the living because it is normally distributed around a true extracranial horizontal. Nonetheless, orthodontists dealing with living subjects, rather than inert crania, have used this Frankfort horizontal faithfully in cephalometry. Because the cant or inclination of all intracranial reference lines is subjected to biologic variation, they are unsuitable for meaningful cephalometric analysis. Registration of head posture in its natural position has the advantage that an extracranial vertical or a horizontal perpendicular to that vertical can be used as reference line for cephalometric analysis. Purpose of this paper is to provide an updated review of various methods to reproduce and record the NHP. PMID:25756032

  13. The Modified Concorde Position with an Intraoperative Skew Head Rotation: Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    TAKASUNA, Hiroshi; TANAKA, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    The Concorde position was developed to approach pineal and cerebellar lesions with a midline suboccipital craniotomy. The neutral head position is needed to divide the occipital muscles symmetrically. The patient’s head is tilted to the right and the face is turned to the right for the microscopic procedure to keep the midline of the patient’s head axis straight in the surgical field for comfortable and accurate surgical manipulation. However, intraoperative repositioning of the patient’s head is somewhat difficult to release the holding arm of the Sugita head holder in the original method. We found that a skew head rotation by fixing the head asymmetrically in the Sugita head holder is very quick and convenient to obtain the optimal head position both for a craniotomy and a microscopic procedure. PMID:26226983

  14. The Modified Concorde Position with an Intraoperative Skew Head Rotation: Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Takasuna, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yuichiro

    2015-01-01

    The Concorde position was developed to approach pineal and cerebellar lesions with a midline suboccipital craniotomy. The neutral head position is needed to divide the occipital muscles symmetrically. The patient's head is tilted to the right and the face is turned to the right for the microscopic procedure to keep the midline of the patient's head axis straight in the surgical field for comfortable and accurate surgical manipulation. However, intraoperative repositioning of the patient's head is somewhat difficult to release the holding arm of the Sugita head holder in the original method. We found that a skew head rotation by fixing the head asymmetrically in the Sugita head holder is very quick and convenient to obtain the optimal head position both for a craniotomy and a microscopic procedure.

  15. Binocular vision and abnormal head posture in children when watching television

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Di; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Dai, Shu-Zhen; Peng, Hai-Ying; Wang, Li-Ya

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the association between the binocular vision and an abnormal head posture (AHP) when watching television (TV) in children 7-14y of age. METHODS Fifty normal children in the normal group and 52 children with an AHP when watching TV in the AHP group were tested for spherical equivalents, far and near fusional convergence (FC) and fusional divergence (FD) amplitudes, near point of convergence, far and near heterophoria, accommodative convergence/ accommodation ratio and stereoacuity. The values of these tests were compared between the two groups. The independent t test was applied at a confidence level of 95%. RESULTS The far and near FC amplitudes and far FD amplitudes were lower in the AHP group (the far FC amplitudes: break point 13.6±5.4Δ, recovery point 8.7±5.4Δ. The near FC amplitudes: break point 14.5±7.3Δ, recovery point 10.3±5.1Δ. The far FD amplitudes: break point 3.9±2.7Δ, recovery point 2.6±2.3Δ) compared with those in the normal group (the far FC amplitudes: break point 19.1±6.2Δ, recovery point 12.4±4.5Δ. The near FC amplitudes: break point 22.3±8.0Δ, recovery point 16.1±5.7Δ. The far FD amplitudes: break point 7.0±2.1Δ, recovery point 4.6±1.9Δ). Other tests presented no statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION An association between the reduced FC and FD amplitudes and the AHP in children when watching TV is proposed in the study. This kind of AHP is considered to be an anomalous manifestation which appears in a part of puerile patients of fusional vergence dysfunction. PMID:27275434

  16. Positional Asphyxia: Death Due to Unusual Head-Down Position in a Narrow Space.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Vinod Ashok; Ghodake, Dattatray G; Kharat, Rajesh D

    2016-06-01

    Death due to a head-down position with hyperflexion of the neck is a rare event. A person accidentally falling into a narrow space and remaining in an upside-down position with no timely recovery may experience positional or postural asphyxia. It is a critical condition arising out of particular body positions, leading to mechanical obstruction of respiration. The precipitating factors are intoxication due to alcohol, drugs, obesity, psychiatric illnesses, and injuries. A 30-year-old unmarried woman, weighing 82 kg and with a body mass index of 31.24, was found in a narrow space between the bed and the wall in a naked state and in a head-down position with hyperflexion of the neck. The distribution of lividity was consistent with the position of the body at the scene. Blood was oozing from the mouth and nostrils, and signs of asphyxia were present. The toxicological analyses of viscera, blood, and urine were negative for alcohol, drugs, and poisons. Glucose levels in the blood (86 mg/dL) as well as urine and vitreous humor levels (68 mg/dL) were within normal limits. On microscopic examination, there were no findings of coronary atherosclerosis, whereas the brain and lung were edematous. After meticulous examination, we ruled out sexual assault, autoerotic asphyxia, epilepsy, psychiatric illness, diabetes, toxicity, and coronary artery disease. Death was attributed to the accidental fall of the obese individual being stuck in a narrow space, resulting in positional asphyxia. It is imperative to recognize the precipitating or risk factors before labeling positional asphyxia as a cause of death.

  17. Heading in the right direction? An innovative approach toward proper patient head positioning

    SciTech Connect

    Grush, William H.; Steffen, Gary A

    2002-12-31

    An in-house-manufactured modification of the standard A-F foam rubber head-neck supports (aka. Timo Supports) was designed to eliminate clinical setup problems with head immobilization and instability during treatment, thus providing for a more comfortable head rest for the patient. The custom design of this head holder seeks to eliminate superior-to-inferior shift, and minimize the lateral right-to-left rotational movement of the head when coupled with an AquaPlast casting system. By focusing attention to the seating of the occipital portion of the head and contour of the patient's neck, the aforementioned problems of movement were addressed, while adhering to the interests of patient comfort in this modified head support system.

  18. The role of head position and prior contraction in manual aiming.

    PubMed

    Sidaway, Ben; Bonenfant, Derek; Jandreau, Jesse; Longley, Andrew; Osborne, Kayla; Anderson, David

    2015-01-01

    We sought to determine if the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex influences the accuracy of self-selected arm positioning without vision and to ascertain if such accuracy is influenced by a pre-contraction of the prime movers. Participants reproduced an arm position using their abductors with the head in midline, rotated towards and away from the arm. Arm movements were made with and without a pre-contraction of the abductors. Twenty participants performed eight trials in each of the six different conditions. Compared to the midline position, participants undershot the reference position with the head turned away and overshot the position with the head rotated towards the arm. A pre-contraction caused undershooting regardless of head position. Results suggest that head position and pre-contraction may have significant and independent effects on arm positioning.

  19. Changes in upper-extremity muscle activities due to head position in subjects with a forward head posture and rounded shoulders

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jung Won; Son, Sung Min; Lee, Na Kyung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated upper-extremity muscle activities in natural, ideal, and corrected head positions. [Subjects and Methods] Forty subjects with a forward head posture and rounded shoulder were recruited and randomly assigned to the natural head position group (n = 13), ideal head position group (n = 14), or corrected head position group (n = 13). Muscle activities were measured using a four-channel surface electromyography system at the sternocleidomastoideus, upper and lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles on the right side during an overhead reaching task. [Results] The muscle activities of the upper trapezius and serratus anterior differed significantly among head positions. Post hoc tests revealed significant differences between natural and ideal head positions, and natural and ideal head positions for both the upper trapezius and serratus anterior. [Conclusion] Recovery of normal upper trapezius and serratus anterior muscle functions plays an important role in correcting forward head posture and rounded shoulders. PMID:26180310

  20. Changes in upper-extremity muscle activities due to head position in subjects with a forward head posture and rounded shoulders.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jung Won; Son, Sung Min; Lee, Na Kyung

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated upper-extremity muscle activities in natural, ideal, and corrected head positions. [Subjects and Methods] Forty subjects with a forward head posture and rounded shoulder were recruited and randomly assigned to the natural head position group (n = 13), ideal head position group (n = 14), or corrected head position group (n = 13). Muscle activities were measured using a four-channel surface electromyography system at the sternocleidomastoideus, upper and lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles on the right side during an overhead reaching task. [Results] The muscle activities of the upper trapezius and serratus anterior differed significantly among head positions. Post hoc tests revealed significant differences between natural and ideal head positions, and natural and ideal head positions for both the upper trapezius and serratus anterior. [Conclusion] Recovery of normal upper trapezius and serratus anterior muscle functions plays an important role in correcting forward head posture and rounded shoulders.

  1. CD19-positive acute myeloblastic leukemia with trisomy 21 as a sole acquired karyotypic abnormality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-feng; Cheng, Yi-zhi; Wang, Huan-ping; Chen, Zhi-mei; Lou, Ji-yu; Jin, Jie

    2009-11-01

    We report that a 63-year-old Chinese female had acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) in which trisomy 21 (+21) was found as the sole acquired karyotypic abnormality. The blasts were positive for myeloperoxidase, and the immunophenotype was positive for cluster of differentiation 19 (CD19), CD33, CD34, and human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-DR. The chromosomal analysis of bone marrow showed 47,XX,+21[2]/46,XX[18]. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that three copies of AML1 were situated in separate chromosomes, and that t(8;21) was negative. The patient did not have any features of Down syndrome. A diagnosis of CD19-positive AML-M5 was established with trisomy 21 as a sole acquired karyotypic abnormality. The patient did not respond well to chemotherapy and died three months after the diagnosis. This is the first reported case of CD19-positive AML with trisomy 21 as the sole cytogenetic abnormality. The possible prognostic significance of the finding in AML with +21 as the sole acquired karyotypic abnormality was discussed. PMID:19882758

  2. Verification of the Mechanism of the Head-Positioning Error Caused by Disk Flutter and Slider Supporting Structure for Reducing Head-Positioning Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Satomitsu

    In magnetic disk drives, the disk flutter due to high-rotational speed causes the increase of the head-positioning error. It is important to clear the mechanism of the head-positioning error caused by the disk flutter. This paper conducts the experiments to verify the mechanism proposed in the former report. The experiment was conducted by comparing the head-positioning error predicted by the proposed mechanism with the measured head-positioning error signal. It is confirmed that the proposed mechanism can predict the head-positioning error within the 10% error. The former reports also said that the flutter transfer ratio defined in the report could decrease the head-positioning error without reducing the amplitude of the disk flutter. This paper also verifies it experimentally. In the experiment, the thickness of the slider was changed to make the flutter transfer ratio small. This paper also proposes the method of making the beam angle of the gimbal slant to make the flutter transfer ratio small. The effectiveness was confirmed by the simulation.

  3. Intrapartum Ultrasound Assessment of Fetal Head Position, Tip The Scale: Natural or Instrumental Delivery?

    PubMed Central

    ADAM, G.; SIRBU, O.; VOICU, C.; DOMINIC, D.; TUDORACHE, STEFANIA; CERNEA, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to observe the behavior of the fetal head position during labor, when starting from occiput anterior or posterior position and also to determine their importance in labor management (if the starting fetal head position can be a strong argument in favour of vaginal or cesarean delivery). Methods:187 patients in labor were included in this study, with gestational age over 37 weeks and estimated fetal weight over 2500 g, singleton pregnancy, cephalic presentation, empty urinary bladder. For these patients the ultrasound assessed parameters were: fetal head position at the beginning of labour and fetal head rotation during labour. Results: 89,18 percent of the patients starting from OTP (occiput transverse or posterior position) had a vaginal birth after an anterior rotation of the fetal head, and only 10,82 % presented persitent occiput posterior requiring cesarean section for delivery. Furthermore, considering only initial occiput posterior position, we observed an increased rate for cesarean section delivery (22,72%) by persistence of this position during labour. None of the patients starting with an anterior fetal head position rotated posteriorly. Conclusions: vaginal delivery in occiput anterior position was the most common result in both OTP and OP fetal head initial position. The main reason for cesarean delivery was persistent OP position. Patients with occiput posterior position were subsequent only to an initial posterior/transverse position. PMID:24791200

  4. Hypotension in the Right Lateral Position Secondary to Inferior Vena Cava Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Meredith J H; Swamy, Ganesh; Shinkaruk, Kelly; Duttchen, Kaylene

    2015-09-15

    Surgical positioning is accompanied by numerous anesthetic considerations, particularly its potential effects on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and nervous systems. Clinical studies have shown that lateral positioning does not affect hemodynamics; however, with the addition of trunk flexion, there is a decrease in cardiac output, which may be secondary to caval compression. In this report, we describe a unique case of hypotension that arose in a patient positioned only in the right lateral decubitus position with flexion and that was exacerbated by an abnormally narrow inferior vena cava. PMID:26361387

  5. Control of ignition timing upon occurrence of abnormality in a reference crank angle position sensing system

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, S.; Ono, T.; Narisawa, N.

    1987-09-01

    A method is described of controlling ignition timing of an internal combustion engine when an abnormality develops in a system for sensing a reference crank angle position of a crankshaft of the engine, in which the timing at which an ignition coil starts and stops conducting is controlled on the basis of a first pulse signal generated once per at least two revolutions of the crankshaft at a predetermined crank angle position associated with a particular cylinder of the engine, a second pulse signal indicative of a predetermined reference crank angle position of the crankshaft for each cylinder, and a third pulse signal indicative of predetermined angular positions of the crankshaft.

  6. Quantitative Effects of Trunk and Head Position on the Apnea Hypopnea Index in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    van Kesteren, Ellen R.; van Maanen, J. Peter; Hilgevoord, Anthony A.J.; Laman, D. Martin; de Vries, Nico

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To test the hypothesis that head position, separately from trunk position, is an additionally important factor for the occurrence of apnea in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: St. Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Patients and Participants: Three hundred patients referred to our department because of clinically suspected OSA. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Patients underwent overnight polysomnography with 2 position sensors: one on the trunk, and one in the mid-forehead. Of the 300 subjects, 241 were diagnosed with OSA, based on an AHI > 5. Of these patients, 199 could be analyzed for position-dependent OSA based on head and trunk position sensors (AHI in supine position twice as high as AHI in non-supine positions): 41.2% of the cases were not position dependent, 52.3% were supine position dependent based on the trunk sensor, 6.5% were supine position dependent based on the head sensor alone. In 46.2% of the trunk supine position-dependent group, head position was of considerable influence on the AHI (AHI was > 5 higher when the head was also in supine position compared to when the head was turned to the side). Conclusions: The results of this study confirm our hypothesis that the occurrence of OSA may also be dependent on the position of the head. Therefore in patients with a suspicion of position-dependent OSA, sleep recording with dual position sensors placed on both trunk and head should be considered. Citation: van Kesteren ER; van Maanen JP; Hilgevoord AAJ; Laman DM; de Vries N. Quantitative effects of trunk and head position on the apnea hypopnea index in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2011;34(8):1075-1081. PMID:21804669

  7. Fetal Head Position during the First Stage of Labor: Comparison between Vaginal Examination and Transabdominal Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Jyothi; Aahir, Vinod; Adiga, Prashanth; Kamath, Asha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Recent evidence indicates that clinical examination, for determination of fetal head position, is subjective and inaccurate. Present study was aimed to compare transabdominal ultrasound for fetal head position with vaginal examination during first stage of labor. Material and Methods. This prospective study was performed at a tertiary center during a two-year period. Before or after clinically indicated vaginal examinations, transverse suprapubic transabdominal real-time ultrasound fetal head position assessment was done. Frequencies of various ultrasound depicted fetal head positions were compared with position determined at vaginal examination. Results. In only 31.5% of patients, fetal head position determinations by vaginal examinations were consistent with those obtained by ultrasound. Cohen's Kappa test of concordance indicated a poor concordance of 0.15. Accuracy of vaginal examination increased to 66% when fetal head position at vaginal examination was recorded correct if reported within +45° of the ultrasound assessment. Rate of agreement between the two assessment methods for consultants versus residents was 36% and 26%, respectively (P = 0.17). Conclusion. We found that vaginal examination was associated with a high error rate in fetal head position determination. Data supports the idea that intrapartum transabdominal ultrasound enhances correct determination of fetal head position during first stage of labor. PMID:25006479

  8. Effect of The Swimmer’s Head Position on Passive Drag

    PubMed Central

    Cortesi, Matteo; Gatta, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the head position on passive drag with a towing-line experiment in a swimming pool. The tests were performed on ten male swimmers with regional level swimming skills and at least 10 years of competitive swimming experience. They were towed underwater (at a depth of 60 cm) at three speeds (1.5, 1.7 and 1.9 m/s) and in two body positions (arms above the swimmer’s head and arms alongside the body). These two body positions were repeated while the swimmer’s head was positioned in three different ways: head-up, head-middle and head-down in relation to the body’s horizontal alignment. The results showed a reduction of 4–5.2% in the average passive drag at all speeds when the head was down or aligned to the swimmer’s arms alongside the body, in comparison to the head-up position. A major significant decrease of 10.4–10.9% (p < 0.05) was shown when the head was down or aligned at the swimmer’s arms above the swimmer’s head. The passive drag tended to decrease significantly by a mean of 17.6% (p < 0.001) for all speeds examined with the arms alongside the body position rather than with the arms above the head position. The swimmer’s head location may play an important role in reducing hydrodynamic resistance during passive underwater gliding. PMID:26839604

  9. Changes in endotracheal tube cuff pressure during laparoscopic surgery in head-up or head-down position

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The abdominal insufflation and surgical positioning in the laparoscopic surgery have been reported to result in an increase of airway pressure. However, associated effects on changes of endotracheal tube cuff pressure are not well established. Methods 70 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic colorectal tumor resection (head-down position, n = 38) and laparoscopic cholecystecomy (head-up position, n = 32) were enrolled and were compared to 15 patients undergoing elective open abdominal surgery. Changes of cuff and airway pressures before and after abdominal insufflation in supine position and after head-down or head-up positioning were analysed and compared. Results There was no significant cuff and airway pressure changes during the first fifteen minutes in open abdominal surgery. After insufflation, the cuff pressure increased from 26 ± 3 to 32 ± 6 and 27 ± 3 to 33 ± 5 cmH2O in patients receiving laparoscopic cholecystecomy and laparoscopic colorectal tumor resection respectively (both p < 0.001). The head-down tilt further increased cuff pressure from 33 ± 5 to 35 ± 5 cmH2O (p < 0.001). There six patients undergoing colorectal tumor resection (18.8%) and eight patients undergoing cholecystecomy (21.1%) had a total increase of cuff pressure more than 10 cm H2O (18.8%). There was no significant correlation between increase of cuff pressure and either the patient's body mass index or the common range of intra-abdominal pressure (10-15 mmHg) used in laparoscopic surgery. Conclusions An increase of endotracheal tube cuff pressure may occur during laparoscopic surgery especially in the head-down position. PMID:25210501

  10. New configuration of photoconductive-type diamond detector head for X-ray beam position monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyagi, Hideki; Kudo, Togo; Tanida, Hajime; Kitamura, Hideo

    2004-05-01

    We designed and fabricated new diamond detector head for an X-ray beam position monitor (XBPM). This monitor operates in photoconductive mode, and is shaped into a blade in order to reduce heat load. A pair of aluminum electrodes is formed on both sides of the diamond blade. The profile of the detection efficiency inside the diamond detector head was measured. The signal current is generated only between the pair of electrodes. The bias voltage dependence of signal current along a section of the detector head is also measured. The results show that the detector head operates in photoconductive mode. We demonstrated that this detector head is feasible for the XBPM.

  11. Abnormal Development of the Femoral Head Epiphysis in an Infant with no Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Apparent on Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Atalar, Hakan; Gunay, Cuneyd; Aytekin, Mahmut Nedim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the investigation of hip development in newborns and infants, ultrasonography and radiography are widely used, but their optimal roles in this setting remain controversial. Case Report: Here we describe an 8.5-month-old infant who had undergone hip radiography at a primary care facility and was referred to our hospital to be evaluated for developmental dysplasia of the hip. Ultrasonography showed no developmental dysplasia of the hip according to standard criteria, but developmental retardation of the femoral head was apparent on the radiograph. Conclusion: This patient's findings demonstrate that abnormalities in femoral head epiphysis development can go undetected during routine ultrasonographic evaluations for developmental dysplasia of the hip. PMID:27298982

  12. Integration System of Head, Eye, and Retinal Position Signals for Perceptual Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masashi; Kaneko, Hirohiko

    2007-11-01

    This study investigates the integration system of head (-to-trunk), eye (-to-head), and retinal position signals for hand pointing. In experiment 1, subjects changed their head and eye positions and pointed at a fixated visual stimulus by using an unseen pointer. In experiment 2, subjects fixated a visual stimulus and pointed at another visual stimulus. The results show that the head and eye position signals contributed linearly to perceptual direction (experiments 1 and 2), and that the coefficients of these signals decrease with peripheral vision and are smaller than the coefficient of the retinal position signal (experiment 2). These results collectively suggest that the integration algorithm of the position signals might be described by the linear summation equation and that the retinal position signal serves a more important role than the other position signals in the visual system.

  13. On vision in birds: coordination of head-bobbing and gait stabilises vertical head position in quail

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Head-bobbing in birds is a conspicuous behaviour related to vision comprising a hold phase and a thrust phase. The timing of these phases has been shown in many birds, including quail, to be coordinated with footfall during locomotion. We were interested in the biomechanics behind this phenomenon. During terrestrial locomotion in birds, the trunk is subjected to gait-specific vertical oscillations. Without compensation, these vertical oscillations conflict with the demands of vision (i.e., a vertically stable head position). We tested the hypothesis that the coordination between head-bobbing and trunk movement is a means of reconciling the conflicting demands of vision and locomotion which should thus vary according to gait. Results Significant differences in the timing of head-bobbing were found between gaits. The thrust phase was initiated just prior to the double support phase in walking (vaulting) trials, whereas in running (bouncing) trials, thrust started around midstance. Altering the timing of head-trunk-coordination in simulations showed that the timing naturally favoured by birds minimizes the vertical displacement of the head. When using a bouncing gait the timing of head bobbing had a compensatory effect on the fluctuation of the potential energy of the bird’s centre of mass. Conclusion The results are consistent with expectations based on the vertical trunk fluctuations observed in biomechanical models of vaulting and bouncing locomotion. The timing of the head-bobbing behaviour naturally favoured by quail benefits vision during vaulting and bouncing gaits and potentially helps reducing the mechanical cost associated with head bobbing when using a bouncing gait. PMID:24666790

  14. Transinguinal sonographic determination of the position of the femoral head after reposition and follow-up in a spica cast

    PubMed Central

    Nievelstein, Rutger-Jan; Pruijs, Hans E.; de Jong, Pim A.; Sakkers, Ralph J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Transinguinal sonography can be used to demonstrate the position of the femoral head after reduction of a dislocated hip. Objective To determine whether transinguinal sonography can replace radiography and CT in the follow-up after reduction of a hip dislocation? Materials and methods Thirty-three children with 39 dislocated hips were followed up with sonography after reduction and immobilization in a spica cast. In cases of an abnormal position a CT scan was advised. A pelvic radiograph at the end of treatment served as an indicator that no dislocations were missed during the previous sonographic examinations. Results The repositioned hips were examined on 138 occasions. Twenty-four examinations were abnormal and CT scanning was performed on 11 occasions. In four children additional CT was done because a recurrent dislocation was suspected or because sonography was difficult to perform. No dislocations were demonstrated. In five children a recurrent dislocation was suspected, on one or more occasions. In all but one child a CT scan was performed that confirmed the dislocation. Conclusion Transinguinal sonography is well-suited to demonstrate a normal position of the femoral head in a spica cast. Transinguinal sonography decreases the number of radiographs and CT scans and reduces the exposure to ionizing radiation. PMID:20552186

  15. Effect of positive acceleration (+gz) on electrocardiogram of subjects with vasoregulatory abnormality.

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, P K; Balasubramanian, K V; Dham, S K; Rai, K; Hoon, R S

    1977-01-01

    ST-T wave changes in the electrocardiogram detected during routine examination and aggravated by erect posture, hyperventilation, and exercise in apparently healthy young individuals have been termed vasoregulatory abnormalities. No evidence of ischaemic heart disease has been found in such subjects. Ten young healthy air crew with vasoregulatory abnormalities were subjected to maximal exercise on treadmill and procedure repeated after 120 mg propranolol daily for 3 days. After one week, they were subjected to a stress of positive acceleration (+gz) in a human centrifuge at 2-5 g and 3-5 g for 15 seconds each at a constant rate of rise of 0-1 g/s and the electrocardiogram was monitored during and in the post-acceleration phase. The procedure was repeated after propranolol 120 mg daily for 3 days. The stress of positive acceleration resulted in pronounced prominence of P waves and inversion of T waves (as has been reported in normal subjects) with minimal ST depression in the electrocardiogram. ST segment depression during exercise, at heart rates corresponding to those achieved during peak centrifuge runs, was significantly more pronounced. The ST, P, and T wave changes were returned to normal after propranolol. It is concluded that minimal ST segment depression after stress of positive acceleration as compared with conspicuous ST segment depression during exercise at corresponding heart rates, and their normalisation after propranolol, rules out ischaemia as an aetiological factor in subjects with vasoregulatory abnormalities. Images PMID:849393

  16. Anosmia associated with hearing loss and benign positional vertigo after head trauma.

    PubMed

    Ottaviano, G; Marioni, G; Marchese-Ragona, R; Trevisan, C P; De Filippis, C; Staffieri, A

    2009-10-01

    It is well known that head trauma may cause hearing loss, which can be either conductive or sensorineural. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and olfactory dysfunction due to head trauma are also well known. The association between sensorineural hearing loss and anosmia, following head trauma, is extremely rare. Two rare cases of post-traumatic occurrence of hearing loss, olfactory dysfunction and benign positional vertigo are reported and the pathophysiology of the association between sensorineural hearing loss, anosmia and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, after head injury, are briefly discussed. ENT specialists should, in the authors' opinion, be aware of the possible association between anosmia, sensorineural hearing loss and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo after head injury, even in the absence of skull fracture.

  17. Head tracking at large angles from the straight ahead position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, D. L.; Porterfield, J. L.; Hornseth, J. P.; Mcmurry, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    One of the big advantages of a helmet sight in a high performance aircraft is its off-boresight capability in aiming a fire control system. However, tracking data using a target that is moving rapidly and randomly for an extended period of time is missing. This study is intended to provide data in this area that will be of value to engineers in designing head control systems.

  18. The neural signal of angular head position in primary afferent vestibular nerve axons

    PubMed Central

    Loe, P. R.; Tomko, David L.; Werner, G.

    1973-01-01

    1. The relation between discharge frequency and angular head position was determined for a population of regularly discharging single first-order vestibular neurones in the eighth nerve of the barbiturate anaesthetized cat. 2. Each axon had a characteristic head position which was maximally excitatory to it, and a diametrically opposed head position which was minimally excitatory. 3. After correction for phase shifts introduced by the orientation of preferred excitability, discharge rate in statoreceptor afferents varied as a power function of the sine of angular head position with exponents ranging from 0·9 to 1·6. 4. Experimentally determined discharge rates were compared with the predictions of a computer simulation model incorporating the idea that shearing force acting on morphologically polarized receptors is the adequate stimulus for macular receptor cells. 5. This approach permitted the identification of a population of first-order vestibular afferents whose discharge frequency varied with head position as did the magnitude of shear force computed for individual receptors, each most excited in a particular head position. 6. The majority of the spatial orientations of maximal sensitivity defined a surface which is tilted by approximately 30° with reference to the Horsley—Clarke horizontal plane, implying that most statoreceptor afferents are maximally sensitive to position changes when the cat's head is at or near its normal position. ImagesPlate 1Plate 2Plate 3 PMID:4702433

  19. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kate C; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valerie A M; Martinez, Marni

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals.

  20. Positive Reinforcement Training Moderates Only High Levels of Abnormal Behavior in Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kate C.; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Martinez, Marni

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals. PMID:20183477

  1. Resting position of the head and malocclusion in a group of patients with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Mihi, Victoria; Orellana, Lorena M.; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy are found as a result of these disorders, along with associated neuromuscular functional alterations that affect the resting position of the head. In this context, the resting position of the head could be responsible for several skeletal and dental occlusal disorders among patients with cerebral palsy. Objective: To assess the presence of malocclusions in patients with cerebral palsy, define the most frequent types of malocclusions, and evaluate how the resting position of the head may be implicated in the development of such malocclusions. Study design: Forty-four patients aged between 12-55 years (18 males and 26 females) were studied. Occlusal conditions, the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), changes in the resting position of the head, and breathing and swallowing functions were assessed. Results: Orthodontic treatment was required by 70.8% of the patients, the most frequent malocclusions being molar class II, open bite and high overjet. These individuals showed altered breathing and swallowing functions, as well as habit and postural disorders. The resting position of the head, especially the hyperextended presentation, was significantly correlated to high DAI scores. Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that patients with cerebral palsy are more susceptible to present malocclusions, particularly molar class II malocclusion, increased open bite, and high overjet. Such alterations in turn are more common in patients with a hyperextended position of the head. Key words:Cerebral palsy, malocclusion, head position, disabled patients. PMID:24596627

  2. An Investigation of Horizontal Combined Eye-Head Tracking in Patients with Abnormal Vestibular and Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, William P.; Leigh, R. John; Seidman, Scott H.; Billian, Carl

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of smooth ocular pursuit (SP) and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during horizontal, combined eye-head tracking (CEHT) in patients with abnormalities of either the VOR or SP movements. Our strategy was to apply transient stimuli that capitalized on the different latencies to onset of SP and the VOR. During CEHT of a target moving at 15 deg/sec, normal subjects and patients with VOR deficits all tracked the target with a gain close to 1.O. When the heads of normal subjects were suddenly and unexpectedly braked to a halt during CEHT, the eye promptly began to move in the orbit to track the target, but eye-in-orbit velocity transiently fell to about 60-70% of target velocity. In patients with deficient labyrinthine function, following the onset of the head brake, eye movements to track the target were absent, and SP movements were not generated until about 100 msec later. In patients with deficient SP, CEHT was superior to SP tracking with the head stationary; after the onset of the head brake, tracking eye movements were initiated promptly, but eye velocity was less than 50% of target velocity and increased only slightly thereafter. These results indicate that at least two mechanisms operate to overcome the VOR and allow gaze to track the target during CEHT: (1) the SP system provides a signal to cancel a normally-operating VOR (this cancellation signal is not needed by labyrinthine-deficient patients who have no VOR to cancel), and (2) a reduction of the gain of the VOR is achieved, an ability that is preserved even in patients with cerebral lesions that impair SP.

  3. Effect of head and jaw position on respiratory-related motion of the genioglossus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mingshu; Brown, Elizabeth C; Hatt, Alice; Cheng, Shaokoon; Bilston, Lynne E

    2016-04-01

    Head and jaw position influence upper airway patency and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the main upper airway dilator muscle, the genioglossus. However, it is not known whether changes in genioglossus EMG activity translate into altered muscle movement during respiration. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of head and jaw position on dilatory motion of the genioglossus in healthy adult men during quiet breathing by measuring the displacement of the posterior tongue in six positions--neutral, head extension, head rotation, head flexion, mouth opening, and mandibular advancement. Respiratory-related motion of the genioglossus was imaged with spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM) in 12 awake male participants. Tissue displacement was quantified with harmonic phase (HARP) analysis. The genioglossus moved anteriorly beginning immediately before or during inspiration, and there was greater movement in the oropharynx than in the velopharynx in all positions. Anterior displacements of the oropharyngeal tongue varied between neutral head position (0.81 ± 0.41 mm), head flexion (0.62 ± 0.45 mm), extension (0.39 ± 0.19 mm), axial rotation (0.39 ± 0.2 mm), mouth open (1.24 ± 0.72 mm), and mandibular advancement (1.08 ± 0.65 mm). Anteroposterior displacement increased in the mouth-open position and decreased in the rotated position relative to cross-sectional area (CSA) (P = 0.002 and 0.02, respectively), but CSA did not independently predict anteroposterior movement overall (P = 0.057). The findings of this study suggest that head position influences airway dilation during inspiration and may contribute to variation in airway patency in different head positions. PMID:26796752

  4. Effect of head and jaw position on respiratory-related motion of the genioglossus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mingshu; Brown, Elizabeth C; Hatt, Alice; Cheng, Shaokoon; Bilston, Lynne E

    2016-04-01

    Head and jaw position influence upper airway patency and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the main upper airway dilator muscle, the genioglossus. However, it is not known whether changes in genioglossus EMG activity translate into altered muscle movement during respiration. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of head and jaw position on dilatory motion of the genioglossus in healthy adult men during quiet breathing by measuring the displacement of the posterior tongue in six positions--neutral, head extension, head rotation, head flexion, mouth opening, and mandibular advancement. Respiratory-related motion of the genioglossus was imaged with spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM) in 12 awake male participants. Tissue displacement was quantified with harmonic phase (HARP) analysis. The genioglossus moved anteriorly beginning immediately before or during inspiration, and there was greater movement in the oropharynx than in the velopharynx in all positions. Anterior displacements of the oropharyngeal tongue varied between neutral head position (0.81 ± 0.41 mm), head flexion (0.62 ± 0.45 mm), extension (0.39 ± 0.19 mm), axial rotation (0.39 ± 0.2 mm), mouth open (1.24 ± 0.72 mm), and mandibular advancement (1.08 ± 0.65 mm). Anteroposterior displacement increased in the mouth-open position and decreased in the rotated position relative to cross-sectional area (CSA) (P = 0.002 and 0.02, respectively), but CSA did not independently predict anteroposterior movement overall (P = 0.057). The findings of this study suggest that head position influences airway dilation during inspiration and may contribute to variation in airway patency in different head positions.

  5. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection & cervical abnormalities in HIV-positive women in eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Jaya; Chourasia, Ankita; Thakur, Minaxi; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Agrawal, Nisha Rani

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Methods: We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Results: Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85%) were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9%) were of high-risk (HR) HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%); non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR), 2.56 (1.26-5.19)], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46)], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56)] and CD4 ≤350/μl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83)] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33%) patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM) cytology, three (1.60%) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 32 (17.11%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 10 (5.35%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and three (1.60%) had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49)] and CD4 ≤350/μl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20)] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Interpretation &conclusions: Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women. PMID:26997018

  6. Assessment of a head support system to prevent pediatric out-of-position: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Forman, Jason L.; Ash, Joseph H.; Kent, Richard; Alba, Juan J.; Segui-Gomez, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Head injuries are the most common severe injuries sustained by pediatric occupants in road traffic crashes. Preventing children from adopting positions that can result in an increased injury risk due to unfavorable interactions with the restraints is fundamental. The objective of this paper was to assess the effect of a head support system (SS) on the lateral position of the head, the vertical position of the sternum and the shoulder belt fit. Thirty pediatric rear-seat passengers were exposed to two 75-minute trials. Volunteers were restrained by a three-point belt and, if needed, used the appropriate child restraint system for their anthropometry (high-back booster, low-back booster, no booster). A case crossover study was designed in which the volunteers used the head support system (SS) during one of the trials, acting as their own controls (No SS) in the other. Compared to the control group, the head support reduced significantly the 90th percentile value of the absolute value of the relative lateral motion of the head, regardless of the restraint used. The system also reduced the maximum downward position of the sternal notch within the low-back booster group. As for the belt fit, the use of the head support improved significantly the position of the shoulder belt on the occupant in the low-back booster and in the no booster groups. PMID:24406966

  7. Head Position Comparison between Students with Normal Hearing and Students with Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Renato de Souza; Amorim da Silva, Polyanna Waleska; Souza, Robson Arruda; Raposo, Maria Cristina Falcão; Ferraz, Karla Mônica

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Head sense position is coordinated by sensory activity of the vestibular system, located in the inner ear. Children with sensorineural hearing loss may show changes in the vestibular system as a result of injury to the inner ear, which can alter the sense of head position in this population. Aim Analyze the head alignment in students with normal hearing and students with sensorineural hearing loss and compare the data between groups. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study examined the head alignment of 96 students, 48 with normal hearing and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss, aged between 7 and 18 years. The analysis of head alignment occurred through postural assessment performed according to the criteria proposed by Kendall et al. For data analysis we used the chi-square test or Fisher exact test. Results The students with hearing loss had a higher occurrence of changes in the alignment of the head than normally hearing students (p < 0.001). Forward head posture was the type of postural change observed most, occurring in greater proportion in children with hearing loss (p < 0.001), followed by the side slope head posture (p < 0.001). Conclusion Children with sensorineural hearing loss showed more changes in the head posture compared with children with normal hearing. PMID:25992037

  8. Carrying Position Independent User Heading Estimation for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation with Smartphones.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhi-An; Wang, Guofeng; Hu, Ying; Cui, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel heading estimation approach for indoor pedestrian navigation using the built-in inertial sensors on a smartphone. Unlike previous approaches constraining the carrying position of a smartphone on the user's body, our approach gives the user a larger freedom by implementing automatic recognition of the device carrying position and subsequent selection of an optimal strategy for heading estimation. We firstly predetermine the motion state by a decision tree using an accelerometer and a barometer. Then, to enable accurate and computational lightweight carrying position recognition, we combine a position classifier with a novel position transition detection algorithm, which may also be used to avoid the confusion between position transition and user turn during pedestrian walking. For a device placed in the trouser pockets or held in a swinging hand, the heading estimation is achieved by deploying a principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach. For a device held in the hand or against the ear during a phone call, user heading is directly estimated by adding the yaw angle of the device to the related heading offset. Experimental results show that our approach can automatically detect carrying positions with high accuracy, and outperforms previous heading estimation approaches in terms of accuracy and applicability. PMID:27187391

  9. Carrying Position Independent User Heading Estimation for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation with Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhi-An; Wang, Guofeng; Hu, Ying; Cui, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel heading estimation approach for indoor pedestrian navigation using the built-in inertial sensors on a smartphone. Unlike previous approaches constraining the carrying position of a smartphone on the user’s body, our approach gives the user a larger freedom by implementing automatic recognition of the device carrying position and subsequent selection of an optimal strategy for heading estimation. We firstly predetermine the motion state by a decision tree using an accelerometer and a barometer. Then, to enable accurate and computational lightweight carrying position recognition, we combine a position classifier with a novel position transition detection algorithm, which may also be used to avoid the confusion between position transition and user turn during pedestrian walking. For a device placed in the trouser pockets or held in a swinging hand, the heading estimation is achieved by deploying a principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach. For a device held in the hand or against the ear during a phone call, user heading is directly estimated by adding the yaw angle of the device to the related heading offset. Experimental results show that our approach can automatically detect carrying positions with high accuracy, and outperforms previous heading estimation approaches in terms of accuracy and applicability. PMID:27187391

  10. Analysis of the effect of swimmer's head position on swimming performance using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zaïdi, H; Taïar, R; Fohanno, S; Polidori, G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this numerical work is to analyze the effect of the position of the swimmer's head on the hydrodynamic performances in swimming. In this initial study, the problem was modeled as 2D and in steady hydrodynamic state. The geometry is generated by the CAD software CATIA and the numerical simulation is carried out by the use of the CFD Fluent code. The standard k-epsilon turbulence model is used with a specific wall law. Three positions of the head were studied, for a range of Reynolds numbers about 10(6). The obtained numerical results revealed that the position of the head had a noticeable effect on the hydrodynamic performances, strongly modifying the wake around the swimmer. The analysis of these results made it possible to propose an optimal position of the head of a swimmer in underwater swimming.

  11. Effect of Head Rotation on Cerebral Blood Velocity in the Prone Position

    PubMed Central

    Højlund, Jakob; Sandmand, Marie; Sonne, Morten; Mantoni, Teit; Jørgensen, Henrik L.; Belhage, Bo; van Lieshout, Johannes J.; Pott, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The prone position is applied to facilitate surgery of the back and to improve oxygenation in the respirator-treated patient. In particular, with positive pressure ventilation the prone position reduces venous return to the heart and in turn cardiac output (CO) with consequences for cerebral blood flow. We tested in healthy subjects the hypothesis that rotating the head in the prone position reduces cerebral blood flow. Methods. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), stroke volume (SV), and CO were determined, together with the middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean) and jugular vein diameters bilaterally in 22 healthy subjects in the prone position with the head centered, respectively, rotated sideways, with and without positive pressure breathing (10 cmH2O). Results. The prone position reduced SV (by 5.4 ± 1.5%; P < 0.05) and CO (by 2.3 ± 1.9 %), and slightly increased MAP (from 78 ± 3 to 80 ± 2 mmHg) as well as bilateral jugular vein diameters, leaving MCA Vmean unchanged. Positive pressure breathing in the prone position increased MAP (by 3.6 ± 0.8 mmHg) but further reduced SV and CO (by 9.3 ± 1.3 % and 7.2 ± 2.4 % below baseline) while MCA Vmean was maintained. The head-rotated prone position with positive pressure breathing augmented MAP further (87 ± 2 mmHg) but not CO, narrowed both jugular vein diameters, and reduced MCA Vmean (by 8.6 ± 3.2 %). Conclusion. During positive pressure breathing the prone position with sideways rotated head reduces MCA Vmean ~10% in spite of an elevated MAP. Prone positioning with rotated head affects both CBF and cerebrovenous drainage indicating that optimal brain perfusion requires head centering. PMID:22988456

  12. Appropriate Head Position for Nasotracheal Intubation by Using Lightwand Device (Trachlight)

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Yozo; Iwamoto, Shigeru; Seto, Mika; Sugiyama, Kazuna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the head position and the subsequent ease of nasotracheal intubation by using the lightwand device Trachlight (TL). Patients requiring nasotracheal intubation were subdivided into 3 groups according to the intubated head position (group S: sniffing position; group E: extension position; and group N: neutral position). The number of attempts, the total intubation time, and the failures of the TL intubation were recorded. Intubation difficulty by means of TL was assessed by the ordinal 6-point scale. Of the 300 patients enrolled in the study, TL intubation was successful in 91.3% of them. There was no significant difference in the success rate of the first attempt between the groups. No correlation between the ordinal scale and the head position was observed. The total intubation time and the ratio of “unsuccessful” cases were not significantly different among the 3 groups. TL is an effective alternative for patients who require nasotracheal intubation. Our study did not determine the most favorable head position for nasotracheal intubation with the TL, so we recommend that nasotracheal intubation with TL be started with the head in the neutral position and then changed to a more appropriate position, if necessary, on an individual basis. PMID:24932977

  13. Converting apogeotropic into geotropic lateral canalolithiasis by head-pitching manoeuvre in the sitting position

    PubMed Central

    Califano, L; Melillo, MG; Mazzone, S; Vassallo, A

    2008-01-01

    Summary Liberatory treatment of lateral canalolithiasis is more effective for the geotropic, than for the apogeotropic forms and, therefore, it is worthwhile attempting to convert the apogeotropic forms into the geotropic forms. In 36 cases of apogeotropic lateral canalolithiasis, one to five Head-Pitch Manoeuvres were performed in the sitting position (Head-Pitch Test) in the attempt to transform apogeotropic into geotropic lateral canalolithiasis. The Head Pitch Test was performed by a quick 60° forward-flexion and a slow maximal backward-extension of the head. The Head-Pitch Test was effective in 36.1% of cases, less than the repeated Head-Rolling in the supine position, but it was always well tolerated by patients. The quick 60° forward-flexion of the head can evoke a horizontal nystagmus beating towards the healthy side in apogeotropic lateral canalolithiasis and towards the affected side in geotropic lateral canalolithiasis (Bow Nystagmus). Slow backward-extension of the head can evoke a horizontal nystagmus beating towards the affected side in apogeotropic lateral canalolithiasis and toward the healthy side in geotropic lateral canalolithiasis (Lean Nystagmus). Conversion from apogeotropic to geotropic lateral canalolithiasis by the Head-Pitch Test was effective when Bow and Lean Nystagmus changed directions or when the Head-Pitch Test evoked Bow Nystagmus toward the affected side and Lean Nystagmus toward the healthy side. Conversion occurred in 10 patients during the 60° forward-flexion of the head. In contrast, in 3 patients, it occurred during extension of the head, when a “Lean Nystagmus” toward the healthy side appeared. In addition, Pseudospontaneous Nystagmus and Positioning Nystagmus that arose when the patient moved from the sitting to the supine position changed direction or were evoked ex-novo, both directed toward the healthy side. In all cases, Pagnini-McClure diagnostic manoeuvre confirmed the transformation with a Positional Paroxysmal

  14. Model of Head-Positioning Error Due to Rotational Vibration of Hard Disk Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Saegusa, Shozo; Shimizu, Toshihiko; Hamaguchi, Tetsuya

    An analytical model of head-positioning error due to rotational vibration of a hard disk drive is proposed. The model takes into account the rotational vibration of the base plate caused by the reaction force of the head-positioning actuator, the relationship between the rotational vibration and head-track offset, and the sensitivity function of track-following feedback control. Error calculated by the model agrees well with measured error. It is thus concluded that this model can predict the data transfer performance of a disk drive in read mode.

  15. Reliability of natural head position in orthodontic diagnosis: A cephalometric study

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Naveen; Singla, Jeetinder; Gera, Gurmeet; Gupta, Monika; Kaur, Gurpreet

    2012-01-01

    Natural head position is a standardized and reproducible position, of the head in an upright posture, the eyes focused on a point in the distance at eye level, which implies that the visual axis is horizontal. While natural head position is a standardized position, natural head posture is a physiologic position of the head, when taking the first step forward from the standing to a moving or walking posture. “Orthoposition” is characteristic for a person and reproducible, but differs among persons. Cephalometrics is constantly undergoing refinements in its techniques and analyses to improve the clinical applications. NHP, a long-proposed modification, yet not fully into practice, can be an "ideal" reference for us to improve our cephalometric interpretation. This study was done to investigate sexual difference in the data obtained, from the study between male and female subjects and to compare the data given in 10-measurement cephalometric analysis based on natural head position, with the data obtained from the present study. PMID:22919219

  16. Human leader and robot follower team: correcting leader's position from follower's heading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borenstein, Johann; Thomas, David; Sights, Brandon; Ojeda, Lauro; Bankole, Peter; Fellars, Donald

    2010-04-01

    In multi-agent scenarios, there can be a disparity in the quality of position estimation amongst the various agents. Here, we consider the case of two agents - a leader and a follower - following the same path, in which the follower has a significantly better estimate of position and heading. This may be applicable to many situations, such as a robotic "mule" following a soldier. Another example is that of a convoy, in which only one vehicle (not necessarily the leading one) is instrumented with precision navigation instruments while all other vehicles use lower-precision instruments. We present an algorithm, called Follower-derived Heading Correction (FDHC), which substantially improves estimates of the leader's heading and, subsequently, position. Specifically, FHDC produces a very accurate estimate of heading errors caused by slow-changing errors (e.g., those caused by drift in gyros) of the leader's navigation system and corrects those errors.

  17. [Effect of elevated head position in bed in therapy of gastroesophageal reflux].

    PubMed

    Pollmann, H; Zillessen, E; Pohl, J; Rosemeyer, D; Abucar, A; Armbrecht, U; Bornhofen, B; Herz, R

    1996-06-01

    In a randomized multicentric trial the effect of sleeping with the bed-head raised was studied in inpatients with reflux symptoms. All patients underwent an endoscopic and pH-metric examination. As a result from the diagnostic procedures three groups were formed: group 1 - refluxlike dyspepsia (endoscopic and pH-metric examination normal), group 2 - reflux disease without esophagitis (endoscopy normal, pH-metric examination abnormal), group 3 - refluxesophagitis (endoscopy abnormal). All patients were randomly assigned to either sleeping with horizontal bed-head or having the bed-head raised (15 cm). Furthermore, the patients in group 3 were put on treatment with omeprazole (20 mg twice a day) those in group 2 were treated with a procinetic drug (cisapride 30 mg). The patients in group 1 had no drug therapy. However, antacids were allowed in all patients. For a two-week-period reflux symptoms and use of antacids were registered. No difference was seen in the symptom-score or use of antacids. Also sub-group analysis (sex, age, body-mass-index, severity of esophagitis and nocturnal reflux) did not reveal any impact of sleeping with the bed-head raised on reflux symptoms or use of antacids.

  18. Influences of the position of the head on posture while lifting.

    PubMed

    Ishida, H; Watanabe, S; Eguchi, A; Kobara, K

    2008-01-01

    In clinical training of some lower back pain patients, teaching them to control their lumbar lordosis during lifting may be difficult. Therefore, another effective method for lifting technique is required. In standing, head cannot move without some compensating postural adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of head position on lifting posture. Fourteen healthy male volunteers (22.6 +/- 4.4 years old) lifted a case while maintaining two different head positions; a downward position and an upright position. In the upright position, activities of the latissimus dorsi and vastus lateralis significantly increased, and these of the biceps femoris significantly decreased during the initial 100 msec phase of lifting. There were no differences in the activities of the upper trapezius, lumbar extensor muscles (L3, L5), and obliquus abdominis under the two conditions. There were also no differences in the lumbar angle when the case was lifted. The flexion angles of the hip, knee, and ankle significantly increased, and the lumbar spine moved closer to the case. Lifting posture was influenced by the head position. Advantages included being able to shift loads on the body from the lower back to the legs, to move the lumbar spine closer to the case, and to relatively increase the moment of lumbar extension. The weight of the head as it moved upward and back, and the weight of the rear part of the body as it moved downward and forward helped to maintain balance.

  19. Influences of the position of the head on posture while lifting.

    PubMed

    Ishida, H; Watanabe, S; Eguchi, A; Kobara, K

    2008-01-01

    In clinical training of some lower back pain patients, teaching them to control their lumbar lordosis during lifting may be difficult. Therefore, another effective method for lifting technique is required. In standing, head cannot move without some compensating postural adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of head position on lifting posture. Fourteen healthy male volunteers (22.6 +/- 4.4 years old) lifted a case while maintaining two different head positions; a downward position and an upright position. In the upright position, activities of the latissimus dorsi and vastus lateralis significantly increased, and these of the biceps femoris significantly decreased during the initial 100 msec phase of lifting. There were no differences in the activities of the upper trapezius, lumbar extensor muscles (L3, L5), and obliquus abdominis under the two conditions. There were also no differences in the lumbar angle when the case was lifted. The flexion angles of the hip, knee, and ankle significantly increased, and the lumbar spine moved closer to the case. Lifting posture was influenced by the head position. Advantages included being able to shift loads on the body from the lower back to the legs, to move the lumbar spine closer to the case, and to relatively increase the moment of lumbar extension. The weight of the head as it moved upward and back, and the weight of the rear part of the body as it moved downward and forward helped to maintain balance. PMID:18551836

  20. The Impact of Reverse Trendelenburg Versus Head-up Position on Intraoperative Bleeding of Elective Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Nooraei, Navid; Dabbagh, Ali; Niazi, Feizolah; Mohammadi, Siamak; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Radmand, Golnar; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: In spite of several efforts for decreasing blood loss, our experience sometimes shows that some patients bleed more profusely during rhinoplasty. Patient position could have deep impact on bleeding amount during surgical procedures. Objective: In this study, we aimed to compare reverse trendelenburg position and head-up position on intra-operative bleeding of elective rhinoplasty. This was to check the effects of reverse trendelenburg position and head up position on the intraoperative bleeding of elective rhinoplasty. Methods: In this study, 30 ASA I (American Society of Anesthesiology physical condition classification) patients between 18 and 40 years of age who were candidate to rhinoplasty operations for first time were included. Patients were randomly assigned to reverse trendelenburg or head-up position. Exclusion criteria was any history or lab indicating coagulation problems or using any drug. All gauzes used and the blood that accumulated in the aspirator throughout the operation were calculated. Results: Our results showed that the mean amount of blood loss in reverse trendelenburg was lower (77.00 ± 13.20 ml) than head-up position (83.33 ± 21.18 ml), although, there was no statistical difference between two groups. However, there was no significant differences among two groups in different aspects of hemodynamic determinants and bleeding amount during and after rhinoplasty. Conclusions: Our results showed that patient bleeding is not increased because of positioning per se. In conclusion, perhaps in the future reverse trendelenburg will be given more often during rhinoplasry. PMID:24498500

  1. Effect of head position on cephalometric evaluation of the soft-tissue facial profile

    PubMed Central

    Hoogeveen, RC; Sanderink, GCH; Berkhout, WER

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: During a cone beam CT scan, the patient is in an upright or supine position. This position depends on the brand and type of the scanner. The aims of this study are: (1) to investigate if the head position has an effect on cephalometric evaluation of the soft-tissue facial profile, comparing the recordings in natural head position (NHP) and supine head position (SHP) and (2) to investigate if age, gender and body mass index (BMI) are contributing factors to the effect of the head position. Methods: 90 subjects were photographed in profile both in NHP and in SHP. 12 soft-tissue angular and linear cephalometric values were calculated. Two-way random intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to determine observer reliability. Paired t-tests and linear regression analyses were performed to investigate the differences between the head positions and the influence of age, gender and BMI. Results: Intraobserver reliability was generally high. Paired t-tests showed significant changes as a result of head positioning (p < 0.0001) in 9 of the 12 measurements. These differences were small and clinically not relevant, except for the “lower face—throat angle”. Regression analysis revealed no relevant influence of age, gender and BMI. Conclusions: Cephalometric soft-tissue evaluation from a recording in SHP is generally reliable, except for the throat–chin area where a clinically relevant difference was found. The contour of the submandibular tissues in SHP causes the chin to appear more prominently. This can cause incorrect orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:23412462

  2. Metabolic abnormalities associated with weight loss during chemoirradiation of head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Alexander; Jabbari, Siavash; Worden, Francis P.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Nyquist, Gurston G.; Tsien, Christina; Schipper, Matthew J.; Urba, Susan . E-mail: eisbruch@umich.edu

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: Weight loss caused by acute mucositis and dysphagia is common during concurrent chemoirradiation (chemo-RT) of head-and-neck (HN) cancer. The metabolic consequences of weight loss during chemo-RT were investigated. Patients and Methods: Ninety-six patients with locally advanced HN cancer were treated from 1995 to 2001 on protocols that consisted of 1 to 2 cycles of induction cisplatin/5-fluorouracil followed by irradiation (70 Gy over 7 weeks) concurrent with cisplatin (100 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 weeks). Body weights and metabolic evaluations were obtained before and during induction chemotherapy and chemo-RT. Greatest percent changes in weight and in the laboratory values were calculated for each phase of therapy. Results: During induction chemotherapy, significant changes were found in BUN, BUN:creatinine ratio, HCO{sub 3}, Mg, and albumin, but not in creatinine, Na, K, or weight. During chemo-RT, significant additional changes were observed in all parameters measured, including increases in BUN, creatinine, BUN: creatinine ratio, and HCO{sub 3} and decreases in Mg, albumin, Na, K, and weight. The magnitude of most of these changes was significantly greater during chemo-RT than during induction chemotherapy. During chemo-RT, 35% of the patients had more than 10% body weight loss and 6 patients had an increase in creatinine of more than 100%, including 5 patients with Grade 2 nephrotoxicity, all of whom had weight loss 10% or more. Significant correlations were found between weight loss and creatinine (p < 0.0001) or BUN (p = 0.0002) rises, but not with BUN:creatinine ratio or other metabolic changes. Age, gender, tobacco history, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of nephrotoxicity. Conclusions: Weight loss during cisplatin-containing chemo-RT was found to be associated with reduced kidney function. These findings do not establish cause-effect relationships; however, they highlight the importance of intensive supportive

  3. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  4. Head Position in the MEG Helmet Affects the Sensitivity to Anterior Sources

    PubMed Central

    Marinkovic, K; Cox, B; Reid, K; Halgren, E

    2013-01-01

    Current MEG instruments derive the whole-head coverage by utilizing a helmet-shaped opening at the bottom of the dewar. These helmets, however, are quite a bit larger than most people’s heads so subjects commonly lean against the back wall of the helmet in order to maintain a steady position. In such cases the anterior brain sources may be too distant to be picked up by the sensors reliably. Potential “invisibility” of the frontal and anterior temporal sources may be particularly troublesome for the studies of cognition and language, as they are subserved significantly by these areas. We examined the sensitivity of the distributed anatomically-constrained MEG (aMEG) approach to the head position (“front” vs. “back”) secured within a helmet with custom-tailored bite-bars during a lexical decision task. The anterior head position indeed resulted in much greater sensitivity to language-related activity in frontal and anterior temporal locations. These results emphasize the need to adjust the head position in the helmet in order to maximize the “visibility” of the sources in the anterior brain regions in cognitive and language tasks. PMID:16012659

  5. Abnormal White Matter Integrity Related to Head Impact Exposure in a Season of High School Varsity Football

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Elizabeth M.; Urban, Jillian E.; Espeland, Mark A.; Jung, Youngkyoo; Rosenbaum, Daryl A.; Gioia, Gerard A.; Powers, Alexander K.; Stitzel, Joel D.; Maldjian, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether the cumulative effects of head impacts from a season of high school football produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measureable changes in the brain in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussion. Players from a local high school football team were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS™) during all practices and games. All players received pre- and postseason MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was also conducted. Total impacts and risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWE), including linear (RWELinear), rotational (RWERotational), and combined components (RWECP), were computed from the sensor data. Fractional, linear, planar, and spherical anisotropies (FA, CL, CP, and CS, respectively), as well as mean diffusivity (MD), were used to determine total number of abnormal white matter voxels defined as 2 standard deviations above or below the group mean. Delta (post-preseason) ImPACT scores for each individual were computed and compared to the DTI measures using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. None of the players analyzed experienced clinical concussion (N=24). Regression analysis revealed a statistically significant linear relationship between RWECP and FA. Secondary analyses demonstrated additional statistically significant linear associations between RWE (RWECP and RWELinear) and all DTI measures. There was also a strong correlation between DTI measures and change in Verbal Memory subscore of the ImPACT. We demonstrate that a single season of football can produce brain MRI changes in the absence of clinical concussion. Similar brain MRI changes have been previously associated with mild traumatic brain injury. PMID:24786802

  6. Abnormal white matter integrity related to head impact exposure in a season of high school varsity football.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Elizabeth M; Whitlow, Christopher T; Urban, Jillian E; Espeland, Mark A; Jung, Youngkyoo; Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Gioia, Gerard A; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D; Maldjian, Joseph A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the cumulative effects of head impacts from a season of high school football produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measureable changes in the brain in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussion. Players from a local high school football team were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS™) during all practices and games. All players received pre- and postseason MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was also conducted. Total impacts and risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWE), including linear (RWELinear), rotational (RWERotational), and combined components (RWECP), were computed from the sensor data. Fractional, linear, planar, and spherical anisotropies (FA, CL, CP, and CS, respectively), as well as mean diffusivity (MD), were used to determine total number of abnormal white matter voxels defined as 2 standard deviations above or below the group mean. Delta (post-preseason) ImPACT scores for each individual were computed and compared to the DTI measures using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. None of the players analyzed experienced clinical concussion (N=24). Regression analysis revealed a statistically significant linear relationship between RWECP and FA. Secondary analyses demonstrated additional statistically significant linear associations between RWE (RWECP and RWELinear) and all DTI measures. There was also a strong correlation between DTI measures and change in Verbal Memory subscore of the ImPACT. We demonstrate that a single season of football can produce brain MRI changes in the absence of clinical concussion. Similar brain MRI changes have been previously associated with mild traumatic brain injury.

  7. Head position control on quasi-static read/write tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumi, Takayuki; Yamakawa, Kiyoshi; Ouchi, Kazuhiro

    2005-02-01

    To develop high-density magnetic recording systems, a simple feedback system without servo writing was applied to a quasi-static read/write tester in which a medium reciprocates against a stand-still head. The head position signal in cross-track direction during the scanning is fed back to the high-precision piezoelectric actuator of the media stage. The stage is controlled so as to make the head/medium alignment error zero. A contact head slider assembled on a parallel-link suspension was used to evaluate the feedback system. The tester shows an accuracy of 1.5 nm in cross-track direction which is preferable for the read/write tests at future high recording densities.

  8. Combined horizontal and posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in three patients with head trauma.

    PubMed

    Bertholon, Pierre; Chelikh, Larbi; Tringali, Stéphane; Timoshenko, Andrei; Martin, Christian

    2005-02-01

    We report 3 patients who complained of positional vertigo shortly after head trauma. Positional maneuvers performed in the plane of the posterior canal (PC; Dix-Hallpike maneuver) and the horizontal canal (HC; patients were rolled to either side in a supine position with the head raised 30 degrees) revealed a complex positional nystagmus that could only be interpreted as the result of combined PC and HC benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Two patients had a right PC BPPV and an ageotropic HC BPPV, and 1 patient had a bilateral PC BPPV and a left geotropic HC BPPV. All 3 patients were rapidly free of vertigo after the PC BPPV was cured by the Epley maneuver and the geotropic HC BPPV was cured by the Vannucchi method. The ageotropic HC BPPV resolved spontaneously. Neuroimaging (brain computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging scans) findings were normal in all 3 patients. From a physiopathological viewpoint, it is easy to conceive that head trauma could throw otoconial debris into different canals of each labyrinth and be responsible for these combined forms of BPPV. Consequently, in trauma patients with vertigo, it is mandatory to perform the Dix-Hallpike maneuver, as well as supine lateral head turns, in order to diagnose PC BPPV, HC BPPV, or the association of both. Early diagnosis and treatment of BPPV may help to reduce the postconcussion syndrome.

  9. Effect of Head Position on Facial Soft Tissue Depth Measurements Obtained Using Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Caple, Jodi M; Stephan, Carl N; Gregory, Laura S; MacGregor, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Facial soft tissue depth (FSTD) studies employing clinical computed tomography (CT) data frequently rely on depth measurements from raw 2D orthoslices. However, the position of each patient's head was not standardized in this method, potentially decreasing measurement reliability and accuracy. This study measured FSTDs along the original orthoslice plane and compared these measurements to those standardized by the Frankfurt horizontal (FH). Subadult cranial CT scans (n = 115) were used to measure FSTDs at 18 landmarks. Significant differences were observed between the methods at eight of these landmarks (p < 0.05), demonstrating that high-quality data are not generated simply by employing modern imaging modalities such as CT. Proper technique is crucial to useful results, and maintaining control over head position during FSTD data collection is important. This is easily and most readily achieved in CT techniques by rotating the head to the FH plane after constructing a 3D rendering of the data.

  10. Mutations in Radial Spoke Head Protein Genes RSPH9 and RSPH4A Cause Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia with Central-Microtubular-Pair Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Castleman, Victoria H.; Romio, Leila; Chodhari, Rahul; Hirst, Robert A.; de Castro, Sandra C.P.; Parker, Keith A.; Ybot-Gonzalez, Patricia; Emes, Richard D.; Wilson, Stephen W.; Wallis, Colin; Johnson, Colin A.; Herrera, Rene J.; Rutman, Andrew; Dixon, Mellisa; Shoemark, Amelia; Bush, Andrew; Hogg, Claire; Gardiner, R. Mark; Reish, Orit; Greene, Nicholas D.E.; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Purton, Saul; Chung, Eddie M.K.; Mitchison, Hannah M.

    2009-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous inherited disorder arising from dysmotility of motile cilia and sperm. This is associated with a variety of ultrastructural defects of the cilia and sperm axoneme that affect movement, leading to clinical consequences on respiratory-tract mucociliary clearance and lung function, fertility, and left-right body-axis determination. We performed whole-genome SNP-based linkage analysis in seven consanguineous families with PCD and central-microtubular-pair abnormalities. This identified two loci, in two families with intermittent absence of the central-pair structure (chromosome 6p21.1, Zmax 6.7) and in five families with complete absence of the central pair (chromosome 6q22.1, Zmax 7.0). Mutations were subsequently identified in two positional candidate genes, RSPH9 on chromosome 6p21.1 and RSPH4A on chromosome 6q22.1. Haplotype analysis identified a common ancestral founder effect RSPH4A mutation present in UK-Pakistani pedigrees. Both RSPH9 and RSPH4A encode protein components of the axonemal radial spoke head. In situ hybridization of murine Rsph9 shows gene expression restricted to regions containing motile cilia. Investigation of the effect of knockdown or mutations of RSPH9 orthologs in zebrafish and Chlamydomonas indicate that radial spoke head proteins are important in maintaining normal movement in motile, “9+2”-structure cilia and flagella. This effect is rescued by reintroduction of gene expression for restoration of a normal beat pattern in zebrafish. Disturbance in function of these genes was not associated with defects in left-right axis determination in humans or zebrafish. PMID:19200523

  11. Mutations in radial spoke head protein genes RSPH9 and RSPH4A cause primary ciliary dyskinesia with central-microtubular-pair abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Castleman, Victoria H; Romio, Leila; Chodhari, Rahul; Hirst, Robert A; de Castro, Sandra C P; Parker, Keith A; Ybot-Gonzalez, Patricia; Emes, Richard D; Wilson, Stephen W; Wallis, Colin; Johnson, Colin A; Herrera, Rene J; Rutman, Andrew; Dixon, Mellisa; Shoemark, Amelia; Bush, Andrew; Hogg, Claire; Gardiner, R Mark; Reish, Orit; Greene, Nicholas D E; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Purton, Saul; Chung, Eddie M K; Mitchison, Hannah M

    2009-02-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous inherited disorder arising from dysmotility of motile cilia and sperm. This is associated with a variety of ultrastructural defects of the cilia and sperm axoneme that affect movement, leading to clinical consequences on respiratory-tract mucociliary clearance and lung function, fertility, and left-right body-axis determination. We performed whole-genome SNP-based linkage analysis in seven consanguineous families with PCD and central-microtubular-pair abnormalities. This identified two loci, in two families with intermittent absence of the central-pair structure (chromosome 6p21.1, Zmax 6.7) and in five families with complete absence of the central pair (chromosome 6q22.1, Zmax 7.0). Mutations were subsequently identified in two positional candidate genes, RSPH9 on chromosome 6p21.1 and RSPH4A on chromosome 6q22.1. Haplotype analysis identified a common ancestral founder effect RSPH4A mutation present in UK-Pakistani pedigrees. Both RSPH9 and RSPH4A encode protein components of the axonemal radial spoke head. In situ hybridization of murine Rsph9 shows gene expression restricted to regions containing motile cilia. Investigation of the effect of knockdown or mutations of RSPH9 orthologs in zebrafish and Chlamydomonas indicate that radial spoke head proteins are important in maintaining normal movement in motile, "9+2"-structure cilia and flagella. This effect is rescued by reintroduction of gene expression for restoration of a normal beat pattern in zebrafish. Disturbance in function of these genes was not associated with defects in left-right axis determination in humans or zebrafish.

  12. Compliant head probe for positioning electroencephalography electrodes and near-infrared spectroscopy optodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2013-02-01

    A noninvasive head probe that combines near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electroencephalography (EEG) for simultaneous measurement of neural dynamics and hemodynamics in the brain is presented. It is composed of a compliant expandable mechanism that accommodates a wide range of head size variation and an elastomeric web that maintains uniform sensor contact pressure on the scalp as the mechanism expands and contracts. The design is intended to help maximize optical and electrical coupling and to maintain stability during head movement. Positioning electrodes at the inion, nasion, central, and preauricular fiducial locations mechanically shapes the probe to place 64 NIRS optodes and 65 EEG electrodes following the 10-5 scalp coordinates. The placement accuracy, precision, and scalp pressure uniformity of the sensors are evaluated. A root-mean-squared (RMS) positional precision of 0.89±0.23 mm, percent arc subdivision RMS accuracy of 0.19±0.15%, and mean normal force on the scalp of 2.28±0.88 N at 5 mm displacement were found. Geometric measurements indicate that the probe will accommodate the full range of adult head sizes. The placement accuracy, precision, and uniformity of sensor contact pressure of the proposed head probe are important determinants of data quality in noninvasive brain monitoring with simultaneous NIRS-EEG.

  13. The Study of Gonadal Hormonal Abnormalities and Sexual Dysfunction in HIV Positive Females: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Kallikadavil, Abithraj; Shivaswamy, Rajendraprasad; Menon, Vineetha Bharathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Every endocrine gland has been reported to be affected at varying rates in HIV. HIV is a highly stigmatized chronic disease with a substantial co-occurrence of mental and sexual health problems; however the sexual health problems in women have not been extensively studied. Aim To study the gonadal hormonal abnormalities and sexual dysfunction in HIV positive female patients and its possible association. Materials and Methods This descriptive/exploratory study was conducted in the Department of General Medicine at a tertiary care hospital from September 2013 to August 2015. The study group included 50 diagnosed HIV-positive patients. They were also subjected to specific questions regarding sexual dysfunction by female counselors using female sexual function index. Visits of the subjects were scheduled independent of the menstrual cycle. Hormonal levels (free testosterone, FSH, LH) were measured. Results Out of 50 patients, 26 patients in our study had sexual dysfunction (52%). Patients with age group between 30-39 years had the maximum sexual dysfunction compared to the other groups (<0.001). Patients with a CD4 count between 200 and 499 had the maximum sexual dysfunction (<0.02). Mean duration of HIV in the study was 30 months in sexual dysfunction group which was significant (p<0.005). Hormonal levels were found to be in normal range. All the study patients reported desire, arousal and lubrication problems whereas orgasm and satisfaction problems were noted in 60% patients with pain reported in 52%. Conclusion We identified that although the hormonal levels were in the normal range, they were comparatively in the lower range in the dysfunction group than the non-dysfunctional group. Both free testosterone and FSH levels were low indicating involvement of the pituitary rather than the gonads. We also conclude that duration of HIV and also level of CD4 count is related to sexual dysfunction. PMID:27190860

  14. National Head Start Association Position Paper: A Look at Head Start's Health Services and Their Value to Our Nation's Poorest Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Angela; Greene, Sarah; Allen, Ben; Ryan, Joel; Kane, Elizabeth; Shillady, Amy; Hansen, Jacquelyn

    Since its inception, Head Start has used a varied and comprehensive approach to meet the needs of children in poverty. This position paper of the National Head Start Association asserts that the programs current federal-to-local guidance and funding structure under the Department of Health and Human Services is effective and argues that valuable…

  15. Positional cloning of Kreisler, a mutation that causes deafness and segmentation abnormalities in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Cordes, S.P.; Barsh, G.S.

    1994-09-01

    The identification and analysis of mouse deafness mutations is of great interest to human geneticists, not only because deafness is a common problem in clinical genetics, but also because the molecular mechanisms leading to deafness can underly fundamental aspects of mammalian development. Approximately 10 to 20 genes when mutated can lead to deafness in mice or in humans, but none have yet been identified at the molecular level. In mice homozygous for the kreisler (kr) mutation, abnormal development of the hindbrain and otic vesicle leads to neurosensory deafness and loss of vestibular function. Using the techniques of positional cloning combined with ENU mutagenesis, we have now cloned the kr gene and find that it predicts a transcription factor whose absence leads to defects in Hox gene expression and hindbrain segmentation. We used a backcross between different strains of laboratory mice to sublocalize kr on the meiotic map close to the Src gene on mouse chromosome 2. A probe from the Src gene detected high molecular weight restriction fragments of altered size in kr/kr DNA, suggesting that kr was due to a chromosomal rearrangement. Based on the meiotic map location of kr{sup ENU}, a new kr allele that we generated by ENU mutagenesis, cDNAs were selected from 8.5 day mouse embryos using genomic clones that spanned the distal inversion breakpoint. One cDNA that predicted a basic domain leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor was found to be expressed in the caudal hindbrain, and was confirmed to encode the kr gene by analysis of the kr{sup ENU} allele, in which a Ser was substituted for an Asn residue conserved in the DNA binding domain of all known bZip family members. kr is not expressed in the otic vesicle, suggesting that abnormal otic development is a consequence of defects in hindbrain segmentation. kr is the first mammalian deafness gene to be isolated, and should provide insights into embryologic mechanisms that underly hindbrain and otic development.

  16. Does head posture have a significant effect on the hyoid bone position and sternocleidomastoid electromyographic activity in young adults?

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Saúl; Miralles, Rodolfo; Ravera, María José; Zúñiga, Claudia; Santander, Hugo; Ferrer, Marcelo; Nakouzi, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between head posture (head extension, normal head posture, and head flexion) and anteroposterior head position, hyoid bone position, and the sternocleidomastoid integrated electromyographic (IEMG) activity in a sample of young adults. The study included 50 individuals with natural dentition and bilateral molar support. A lateral craniocervical radiograph was taken for each subject and a cephalometric analysis was performed. Head posture was measured by means of the craniovertebral angle formed by the MacGregor plane and the odontoid plane. According to the value of this angle, the sample was divided into the following three groups: head extension (less than 95 degrees); normal head posture (between 95 degrees and 106 degrees); and head flexion (more than 106 degrees). The following cephalometric measurements were taken to compare the three groups: anteroposterior head position (true vertical plane/pterygoid distance), anteroposterior hyoid bone position (true vertical plane-Ha distance), vertical hyoid bone position (H-H' distance in the hyoid triangle), and CO-C2 distance. In the three groups, IEMG recordings at rest and during swallowing of saliva and maximal voluntary clenching were performed by placing bipolar surface electrodes on the right and left sternocleidomastoid muscles. In addition, the condition with/without craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD) in each group was also assessed. Head posture showed no significant association with anteroposterior head position, anteroposterior hyoid bone position, vertical hyoid bone position, or sternocleidomastoid IEMG activity. There was no association to head posture with/without the condition of CMD. Clinical relevance of the results is discussed.

  17. False-positive pH aspirates after nasogastric tube insertion in head and neck tumour.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Claudia Kate

    2012-08-27

    Nasogastric (NG) feeding tubes are commonly inserted to supplement enteral nutrition in certain patient groups, including those with head and neck cancers where swallowing may be compromised. An NHS National Patient Safety Alert was released in 2011 detailing ongoing cases of significant morbidity and mortality attached to the incorrect placement of NG feeding tubes in hospital inpatients. Since 2005, there were 21 deaths and 79 cases of harm nationally due to feeding into the lung through misplaced tubes. pH testing remains the first-line method of placement confirmation, with chest x-ray used when no aspirate is gained or where pH testing fails to confirm suitable acidity. We present a case report describing false-positive NG tube placement confirmation tests in a patient with head and neck cancer, who was administered feed into lung parenchyma with significant morbidity. We discuss the case for specific NG tube placement protocols in head and neck cancer patients.

  18. Frequency of head-impact-related outcomes by position in NCAA division I collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Christine M; Kiernan, Patrick T; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Montenigro, Philip H; McKee, Ann C; Stern, Robert A

    2015-03-01

    Concussions and subconcussive impacts sustained in American football have been associated with short- and long-term neurological impairment, but differences in head impact outcomes across playing positions are not well understood. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine has identified playing position as a key risk factor for concussion in football and one for which additional research is needed. This study examined variation in head impact outcomes across primary football playing positions in a group of 730 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes, using a self-report questionnaire. Although there were no significant differences between position groups in the number of diagnosed concussions during the 2012 football season, there were significant differences between groups in undiagnosed concussions (p=0.008) and "dings" (p<0.001); offensive linemen reported significantly higher numbers than most other positions. Significant differences were found between position groups in the frequencies of several postimpact symptoms, including dizziness (p<0.001), headache (p<0.001), and seeing stars (p<0.001) during the 2012 football season, with offensive linemen reporting significantly more symptoms compared to most other groups. There were also positional differences in frequency of returning to play while symptomatic (p<0.001) and frequency of participating in full-contact practice (p<0.001). Offensive linemen reported having returned to play while experiencing symptoms more frequently and participating in more full-contact practices than other groups. These findings suggest that offensive linemen, a position group that experiences frequent, but low-magnitude, head impacts, develop more postimpact symptoms than other playing positions, but do not report these symptoms as a concussion.

  19. Frequency of Head-Impact–Related Outcomes by Position in NCAA Division I Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Kiernan, Patrick T.; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Montenigro, Philip H.; McKee, Ann C.; Stern, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Concussions and subconcussive impacts sustained in American football have been associated with short- and long-term neurological impairment, but differences in head impact outcomes across playing positions are not well understood. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine has identified playing position as a key risk factor for concussion in football and one for which additional research is needed. This study examined variation in head impact outcomes across primary football playing positions in a group of 730 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes, using a self-report questionnaire. Although there were no significant differences between position groups in the number of diagnosed concussions during the 2012 football season, there were significant differences between groups in undiagnosed concussions (p=0.008) and “dings” (p<0.001); offensive linemen reported significantly higher numbers than most other positions. Significant differences were found between position groups in the frequencies of several postimpact symptoms, including dizziness (p<0.001), headache (p<0.001), and seeing stars (p<0.001) during the 2012 football season, with offensive linemen reporting significantly more symptoms compared to most other groups. There were also positional differences in frequency of returning to play while symptomatic (p<0.001) and frequency of participating in full-contact practice (p<0.001). Offensive linemen reported having returned to play while experiencing symptoms more frequently and participating in more full-contact practices than other groups. These findings suggest that offensive linemen, a position group that experiences frequent, but low-magnitude, head impacts, develop more postimpact symptoms than other playing positions, but do not report these symptoms as a concussion. PMID:25155288

  20. Transformation of whole-head MEG recordings between different sensor positions.

    PubMed

    Knösche, Th R

    2002-03-01

    In this work, a method is presented for the transformation of MEG recordings to a standard sensor position. For the case of an 148 channel magnetometer array, the algorithm was evaluated using simulations as well as phantom head recordings. It turned out that the method is very robust and yields accurate results regardless of the position of the field generator, even with large differences between original and standard (target) sensor positions and high noise. The method can be applied as a prerequisite for comparing or averaging recordings of different subjects or sessions.

  1. Calculation of focal positions in an optical head using a four-beam laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Masahisa; Kime, Kenjiro

    1998-10-01

    Calculation method for focal positions in a multi-beam optical head using a multi-beam laser diode is introduced. In this calculation model, focal positions were so calculated that a light source of each laser beam with a specific source height and an astigmatic difference was imaged by optical lenses and a beam shaping prism. Calculated results show that four focal positions are located each other with defocus along the optical axis due to the curvature of field of lenses. Astigmatic differences in focal spots caused by the laser diode characteristics can be decreased by almost zero with a displacement of a collimator lens along the optical axis.

  2. Autotuning of a servowriter head positioning system with minimum positioning error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. H.; Weerasooriya, S.; Low, T. S.

    1996-04-01

    This paper proposes a servopositioning system of a servowriter with autotuning capability. The position feedback is obtained through an interferometry-based laser positioning system. The retroreflector is mounted directly on the disk drive arm for hard coupling. The dynamics of the actuator are now included in the servopositioning loop. Since drive dynamics vary from drive to drive, a fixed controller may not provide optimal settling performance for a series of drives. In the proposed control method, the actuator dynamics are identified by injecting a pseudorandom binary sequence into a coarsely tuned feedback servoloop. The resulting frequency domain identification results are used to fine tune the compensator to enable faster settling and better following. Using this information in the servodesign, settling times of 9 ms and a following accuracy of 1 μin. seem achievable using existing hardware.

  3. Enhancement of shipboard ADCP data with DGPS position and GPS heading measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, B. A.; Alderson, S. G.; Cromwell, D.

    1996-06-01

    Navigation errors contribute substantially to errors in shipboard ADCP data. Position measurement errors require long averaging intervals to reduce their effect, and heading errors produce systematic bias in underway data. With Differential GPS (DGPS) position fixing and GPS attitude measurement, each of these errors can be reduced to 1 cm/s for 10-min ACDP data. DGPS pseudorange corrections produced almost continuous coverage with 4-m rms errors at a range of 2000 km from a reference station; even at 4500 km from a reference station the data were worthwhile. GPS heading measurements were used to reveal the deficiencies in a gyrocompass over a 24-h period. Although coverage was not quite continuous, linear interpolation of gyrocompass error was sufficient to fill the gaps.

  4. An accurate head-positioning signal for perpendicular recording using a dc-free servo pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaguchi, Takehiko; Ichihara, Takayuki; Takano, Hisashi

    2002-05-01

    We devised a dc-free servo pattern for perpendicular recording to prevent distortion of the readback wave form from the servo area. This servo pattern remarkably improves the servo sector error rate, and shows the same linearity of position error signals as does that from a conventional pattern. An experimental 2.5 in hard disk drive (HDD) with a trapezoidal-shaped single pole type (SPT) head shows good following performance within a wide range of yaw angle.

  5. Human Preferences for Conformation Attributes and Head-And-Neck Positions in Horses.

    PubMed

    Caspar, Georgina L; Dhand, Navneet K; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Human preferences for certain morphological attributes among domestic animals may be entirely individual or, more generally, may reflect evolutionary pressures that favor certain conformation. Artificial selection for attributes, such as short heads and crested necks of horses, may have functional and welfare implications because there is evidence from other species that skull shape co-varies with behaviour. Crested necks can be accentuated by flexion of the neck, a quality that is often manipulated in photographs vendors use when selling horses. Equine head-and-neck positions acquired through rein tension can compromise welfare. Our investigation was designed to identify conformations and postures that people are attracted to when choosing their 'ideal' horse. Participants of an internet survey were asked to rate their preference for horse silhouettes that illustrated three gradations of five variables: facial shape, crest height, ear length, ear position and head-and-neck carriage. There were 1,234 usable responses. The results show that overall preferences are for the intermediate, rather than extreme, morphological choices (p=<0.001). They also indicate that males are 2.5 times less likely to prefer thicker necks rather than the intermediate shape, and 4 times more likely to prefer the thinner neck shape. When compared to the novice participants, experienced participants were 1.9 times more likely to prefer a thicker neck shape than the intermediate neck shape and 2.8 times less likely to prefer a thinner neck shape than the intermediate neck shape. There was overall preference of 93% (n=939) for the category of head carriage 'In front of the vertical'. However, novice participants were 1.8 times more likely to choose 'behind the vertical' than 'in front of the vertical'. Our results suggest that people prefer a natural head carriage, concave facial profile (dished face), larger ears and thicker necks. From these survey data, it seems that some innate

  6. Horizontal Eye Position Affects Measured Vertical VOR Gain on the Video Head Impulse Test

    PubMed Central

    McGarvie, Leigh A.; Martinez-Lopez, Marta; Burgess, Ann M.; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Curthoys, Ian S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/hypothesis: With the video head impulse test (vHIT), the vertical VOR gain is defined as (vertical eye velocity/vertical head velocity), but compensatory eye movements to vertical canal stimulation usually have a torsional component. To minimize the contribution of torsion to the eye movement measurement, the horizontal gaze direction should be directed 40° from straight ahead so it is in the plane of the stimulated canal plane pair. Hypothesis: as gaze is systematically moved horizontally away from canal plane alignment, the measured vertical VOR gain should decrease. Study design: Ten healthy subjects, with vHIT measuring vertical eye movement to head impulses in the plane of the left anterior-right posterior (LARP) canal plane, with gaze at one of five horizontal gaze positions [40°(aligned with the LARP plane), 20°, 0°, −20°, −40°]. Methods: Every head impulse was in the LARP plane. The compensatory eye movement was measured by the vHIT prototype system. The one operator delivered every impulse. Results: The canal stimulus remained identical across trials, but the measured vertical VOR gain decreased as horizontal gaze angle was shifted away from alignment with the LARP canal plane. Conclusion: In measuring vertical VOR gain with vHIT the horizontal gaze angle should be aligned with the canal plane under test. PMID:25852637

  7. Biological basis for increased sensitivity to radiation therapy in HPV-positive head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Bol, V; Grégoire, V

    2014-01-01

    Although development of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) is commonly linked to the consumption of tobacco and alcohol, a link between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and a subgroup of head and neck cancers has been established. These HPV-positive tumors represent a distinct biological entity with overexpression of viral oncoproteins E6 and E7. It has been shown in several clinical studies that HPV-positive HNSCCs have a more favorable outcome and greater response to radiotherapy. The reason for improved prognosis of HPV-related HNSCC remains speculative, but it could be owned to multiple factors. One hypothesis is that HPV-positive cells are intrinsically more sensitive to standard therapies and thus respond better to treatment. Another possibility is that HPV-positive tumors uniquely express viral proteins that induce an immune response during therapy that helps clear tumors and prevents recurrence. Here, we will review current evidence for the biological basis of increased radiosensitivity in HPV-positive HNSCC.

  8. Characteristics of Cervical Position Sense in Subjects with Forward Head Posture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Lee, Hae-Yong; Yong, Min-Sik

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of forward head posture (FHP) on proprioception by determining the cervical position-reposition error. [Subjects and Methods] A sample population was divided into two groups in accordance with the craniovertebral angle: the FHP group and the control group. We measured the craniovertebral angle, which is defined as the angle between a horizontal line passing through C7 and a line extending from the tragus of the ear to C7. The error value of the cervical position sense after cervical flexion, extension, and rotation was evaluated using the head repositioning accuracy test. [Results] There were significant differences in the error value of the joint position sense (cervical flexion, extension, and rotation) between the FHP and control groups. In addition, there was an inverse correlation between the craniovertebral angle and error value of the joint position sense. [Conclusion] FHP is associated with reduced proprioception. This result implies that the change in the muscle length caused by FHP decreases the joint position sense. Also, proprioception becomes worse as FHP becomes more severe. PMID:25435690

  9. Volume loading of the heart by "leg up" position and head down tilting (-6°) (HDT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirschedl, P.; Gregull, A.; Löllgen, H.

    Head down tilting is widely used to increase preload and to induce intrathoracic blood pooling similar to microgravity. During daily routine, this venous pooling is performed by rising the legs up. In this study, both these approaches have been compared by invasive measurement using a right heart catheter. In patients with moderate coronary artery disease, diagnostic right heart catheterization was performed by the Swan-Ganz-techniques. All measurements were performed with head down tilting (-6°) and with "leg up" position. Patients then received Nitrogycerin to countermeasure the preload changes. Pressures in the pulmonary artery as well as in the wedge position increased significantly during leg up and HDT. However, changes were significantly more pronouced in the "leg up" position than during HDT. No changes were observed for arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume and resistances. Nitroglycerin during HDT lowered blood pressure and pressures in the pulmonary artery and in PCW-position and reduced cardiac output significantly. Both approaches of volume loading of the heart induced significant changes and increases of preload. However, changes were more pronounced during the "leg up" position than during HDT. It is questioned whether HDT with -6° is appropriate to truly reflect hemodynamic alterations during simulated weightlessness.

  10. Biomechanical optimization of subject-specific implant positioning for femoral head resurfacing to reduce fracture risk.

    PubMed

    Miles, Brad; Kolos, Elizabeth; Appleyard, Richard; Theodore, Willy; Zheng, Keke; Li, Qing; Ruys, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Peri-prosthetic femoral neck fracture after femoral head resurfacing can be either patient-related or surgical technique-related. The study aimed to develop a patient-specific finite element modelling technique that can reliably predict an optimal implant position and give minimal strain in the peri-prosthetic bone tissue, thereby reducing the risk of peri-prosthetic femoral neck fracture. The subject-specific finite element modelling was integrated with optimization techniques including design of experiments to best possibly position the implant for achieving minimal strain for femoral head resurfacing. Sample space was defined by varying the floating point to find the extremes at which the cylindrical reaming operation actually cuts into the femoral neck causing a notch during hip resurfacing surgery. The study showed that the location of the maximum strain, for all non-notching positions, was on the superior femoral neck, in the peri-prosthetic bone tissue. It demonstrated that varus positioning resulted in a higher strain, while valgus positioning reduced the strain, and further that neutral version had a lower strain. PMID:27098752

  11. Toxicity of Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Nicholas J.; Mitchell, James; Grew, David; DeLacure, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To examine the acute morbidity of high dose head and neck RT and CRT in patients with infected with HIV. Methods and Materials: All HIV-positive patients who underwent radiation therapy for head and neck cancer in our department between 2004 and 2008 were reviewed. Treatment related data were examined. All treatments were delivered with megavoltage photon beams or electron beams. Patients were evaluated by an attending radiation oncologist for toxicity and response on a weekly basis during therapy and monthly after treatment in a multidisciplinary clinic. Acute toxicities were recorded using the Radiation Therapy and Oncology Group (RTOG) common toxicity criteria. Response to treatment was based on both physical exam as well as post-treatment imaging as indicated. Results: Thirteen patients who underwent RT with a diagnosis of HIV were identified. Median age was 53 years and median follow-up was 22 months. Twelve had squamous cell carcinoma and one had lymphoproliferative parotiditis. Median radiation dose was 66.4 Gy and median duration of treatment was 51 days. The median number of scheduled radiotherapy days missed was zero (range 0 to 7). One patient (8%) developed Grade 4 confluent moist desquamation. Eight patients (61%) developed Grade 3 toxicity. Conclusion: Based on our results, HIV-positive individuals appear to tolerate treatment for head and neck cancer, with toxicity similar to that in HIV-negative individuals.

  12. Can scapular and humeral head position predict shoulder pain in adolescent swimmers and non-swimmers?

    PubMed

    McKenna, Leanda; Straker, Leon; Smith, Anne

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether scapular and humeral head position can predict the development of shoulder pain in swimmers, whether those predictors were applicable to non-swimmers and the annual rate of shoulder pain in adolescent swimmers and non-swimmers. Forty-six adolescent swimmers and 43 adolescent non-swimmers were examined prospectively with a questionnaire and anthropometric measures. The questionnaire examined demographic and training variables. Anthropometric measures examined the distances between the T7 spinous process and the inferior scapula (Inferior Kibler) and T3 spinous process and the medial spine of the scapula (Superior Kibler), humeral head position in relation to the acromion using palpation, BMI and chest width. Shoulder pain was re-assessed 12 months later by questionnaire. Shoulder pain in swimmers was best predicted by a larger BMI (OR = 1.48, P = 0.049), a smaller Inferior Kibler distance in abduction (e.g. OR = 0.90, P = 0.009) and a smaller horizontal distance between the anterior humeral head and the anterior acromion (OR = 0.76, P = 0.035). These variables were not significantly predictive of shoulder pain in non-swimmers. Annual prevalence of shoulder pain was 23.9% in swimmers and 30.8% in non-swimmers (χ(2) = 0.50, P = 0.478).

  13. Comparison of the head and neck position of elite dressage horses during top-level competitions in 1992 versus 2008.

    PubMed

    Lashley, Morgan J J O; Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Vernooij, J C M; Back, W; Clayton, Hilary M

    2014-12-01

    Among veterinary surgeons, interest has recently increased in the role of the horse's neck as a causative factor in complex locomotor disturbances. Specifically, controversy surrounds the trend for the head to be carried behind the vertical (BHV) in contravention of Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) rules. The aim of this study was to determine whether the head angulation of elite dressage horses has changed over the last 25 years, and whether head angulation correlates with the competition score awarded. Head angle was measured from videos recorded during the Grand Prix test at the 1992 Olympic Games and the 2008 World Cup Final, during collected canter (CC), collected trot (CT), passage (Pa), and piaffe (Pi). Head angulations were BHV in CC and CT in both 1992 and 2008. The likelihood of being BHV during Pa or Pi was significantly greater in 2008 than in 1992 (P <0.05). Higher scores correlated significantly with head positions that were further BHV during Pi in 2008 (P <0.05). Head angulations were orientated BHV in all paces in 2008, whereas in 1992 this was only the case for CT and CC. These findings support the hypothesis that, in recent years, FEI dressage judges have not penalised horses for a head position BHV. The findings also support the need for further studies of the effects of head and neck position on the health of horses. PMID:25296851

  14. Comparison of the head and neck position of elite dressage horses during top-level competitions in 1992 versus 2008.

    PubMed

    Lashley, Morgan J J O; Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Vernooij, J C M; Back, W; Clayton, Hilary M

    2014-12-01

    Among veterinary surgeons, interest has recently increased in the role of the horse's neck as a causative factor in complex locomotor disturbances. Specifically, controversy surrounds the trend for the head to be carried behind the vertical (BHV) in contravention of Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) rules. The aim of this study was to determine whether the head angulation of elite dressage horses has changed over the last 25 years, and whether head angulation correlates with the competition score awarded. Head angle was measured from videos recorded during the Grand Prix test at the 1992 Olympic Games and the 2008 World Cup Final, during collected canter (CC), collected trot (CT), passage (Pa), and piaffe (Pi). Head angulations were BHV in CC and CT in both 1992 and 2008. The likelihood of being BHV during Pa or Pi was significantly greater in 2008 than in 1992 (P <0.05). Higher scores correlated significantly with head positions that were further BHV during Pi in 2008 (P <0.05). Head angulations were orientated BHV in all paces in 2008, whereas in 1992 this was only the case for CT and CC. These findings support the hypothesis that, in recent years, FEI dressage judges have not penalised horses for a head position BHV. The findings also support the need for further studies of the effects of head and neck position on the health of horses.

  15. Natural position of the head: review of two-dimensional and three-dimensional methods of recording.

    PubMed

    Cassi, D; De Biase, C; Tonni, I; Gandolfini, M; Di Blasio, A; Piancino, M G

    2016-04-01

    Both the correct position of the patient's head and a standard system for the acquisition of images are essential for objective evaluation of the facial profile and the skull, and for longitudinal superimposition. The natural position of the head was introduced into orthodontics in the late 1950s, and is used as a postural basis for craniocervical and craniofacial morphological analysis. It can also have a role in the planning of the surgical correction of craniomaxillofacial deformities. The relatively recent transition in orthodontics from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional imaging, and from analogue to digital technology, has renewed attention in finding a versatile method for the establishment of an accurate and reliable head position during the acquisition of serial records. In this review we discuss definition, clinical applications, and procedures to establish the natural head position and their reproducibility. We also consider methods to reproduce and record the position in two and three planes.

  16. Conservation, Innovation, and Bias: Embryonic Segment Boundaries Position Posterior, but Not Anterior, Head Horns in Adult Beetles.

    PubMed

    Busey, Hannah A; Zattara, Eduardo E; Moczek, Armin P

    2016-07-01

    The integration of form and function of novel traits is a fundamental process during the developmental evolution of complex organisms, yet how novel traits and trait functions integrate into preexisting contexts remains poorly understood. Here, we explore the mechanisms by which the adult insect head has been able to integrate novel traits and features during its ontogeny, focusing on the cephalic horns of Onthophagus beetles. Specifically, using a microablation approach we investigate how different regions of the dorsal head of adult horned beetles relate to their larval and embryonic counterparts and test whether deeply conserved regional boundaries that establish the embryonic head might also facilitate or bias the positioning of cephalic horns along the dorsal adult head. We find that paired posterior horns-the most widespread horn type within the genus-are positioned along a border homologous to the embryonic clypeolabral (CL)-ocular boundary, and that this placement constitutes the ancestral form of horn positioning. In contrast, we observed that the phylogenetically much rarer anterior horns are positioned by larval head regions contained firmly within the CL segment and away from any major preexisting larval head landmarks or boundaries. Lastly, we describe the unexpected finding that ablations at medial head regions can result in ectopic outgrowths bearing terminal structures resembling the more anterior clypeal ridge. We discuss our results in the light of the developmental genetic mechanisms of head formation in holometabolous insects and the role of co-option in innovation and bias in developmental evolution.

  17. Sensorimotor aspects of high-speed artificial gravity: II. The effect of head position on illusory self motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mast, F. W.; Newby, N. J.; Young, L. R.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of cross-coupled stimuli on the semicircular canals are shown to be influenced by the position of the subject's head with respect to gravity and the axis of rotation, but not by the subject's head position relative to the trunk. Seventeen healthy subjects made head yaw movements out of the horizontal plane while lying on a horizontal platform (MIT short radius centrifuge) rotating at 23 rpm about an earth-vertical axis. The subjects reported the magnitude and duration of the illusory pitch or roll sensations elicited by the cross-coupled rotational stimuli acting on the semicircular canals. The results suggest an influence of head position relative to gravity. The magnitude estimation is higher and the sensation decays more slowly when the head's final position is toward nose-up (gravity in the subject's head x-z-plane) compared to when the head is turned toward the side (gravity in the subject's head y-z-plane). The results are discussed with respect to artificial gravity in space and the possible role of pre-adaptation to cross-coupled angular accelerations on earth.

  18. The impact of reorienting cone-beam computed tomographic images in varied head positions on the coordinates of anatomical landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hun; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the coordinates of anatomical landmarks on cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images in varied head positions before and after reorientation using image analysis software. Materials and Methods CBCT images were taken in a normal position and four varied head positions using a dry skull marked with 3 points where gutta percha was fixed. In each of the five radiographic images, reference points were set, 20 anatomical landmarks were identified, and each set of coordinates was calculated. Coordinates in the images from the normally positioned head were compared with those in the images obtained from varied head positions using statistical methods. Post-reorientation coordinates calculated using a three-dimensional image analysis program were also compared to the reference coordinates. Results In the original images, statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. However, post-reorientation, no statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. Conclusion The changes in head position impacted the coordinates of the anatomical landmarks in three-dimensional images. However, reorientation using image analysis software allowed accurate superimposition onto the reference positions. PMID:27358821

  19. [The effect of treatment with prisms on head position in persons with nystagmus--preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Baranowska-George, T

    1996-03-01

    The aim of the work is to inspect the influence of the treatment by using hyper-correcting prisms on the vertical deviations of the eyes and on the head's position in persons with nystagmus. We observed 4 persons with nystagmus without strabismus and 3 persons with convergent squint. In persons without strabismus the prismatic correction placed with an edge in the direction of the "calm's zone" (quiet's zone) to obtain the straight position of the head when looking forwards was applied. Twice a day during 10 minutes the patients were making the movement's exercises in the vertical and horizontal direction looking by the prism separately by each eye. This prism (often 35 D prism) was placed with the edge in the direction of greater deviation of the oblique inferior muscles and the left rectus inferior muscle. Patients with convergent strabismus were treated according to the principles of localization method with consideration of the localize exercises by using hyper-correcting prisms in the vertical and horizontal directions. Two patients had a surgery in order to eliminate not aesthetic and strong prisms which were applied because of large horizontal squint. One patient with convergent alternate squint with hyperactivity of both inferior oblique muscles and inferior rectus muscle of the left eye was treated without surgery, only by the conservative treatment with prisms. In all patients we obtained a straight position of the head despite of the nystagmus still existing during the eyes movements in some directions. The treatment by using hyper-correcting prisms can completely replace the surgical treatment or is able to supplement it and prevent relapses.

  20. Neofunctionalization of embryonic head patterning genes facilitates the positioning of novel traits on the dorsal head of adult beetles.

    PubMed

    Zattara, Eduardo E; Busey, Hannah A; Linz, David M; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Moczek, Armin P

    2016-07-13

    The origin and integration of novel traits are fundamental processes during the developmental evolution of complex organisms. Yet how novel traits integrate into pre-existing contexts remains poorly understood. Beetle horns represent a spectacular evolutionary novelty integrated within the context of the adult dorsal head, a highly conserved trait complex present since the origin of insects. We investigated whether otd1/2 and six3, members of a highly conserved gene network that instructs the formation of the anterior end of most bilaterians, also play roles in patterning more recently evolved traits. Using ablation-based fate-mapping, comparative larval RNA interference (RNAi) and transcript sequencing, we found that otd1/2, but not six3, play a fundamental role in the post-embryonic formation of the adult dorsal head and head horns of Onthophagus beetles. By contrast, neither gene appears to pattern the adult head of Tribolium flour beetles even though all are expressed in the dorsal head epidermis of both Onthophagus and Tribolium We propose that, at least in beetles, the roles of otd genes during post-embryonic development are decoupled from their embryonic functions, and that potentially non-functional post-embryonic expression in the dorsal head facilitated their co-option into a novel horn-patterning network during Onthophagus evolution. PMID:27412276

  1. Head-Positioning Control Using Virtual Resonant Modes in a Hard Disk Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atsumi, Takenori

    In conventional control systems in hard disk drives, it is difficult to compensate for disturbances above the primary mechanical resonance. In this paper, a design method that uses a virtual resonant mode in head-positioning systems of hard disk drives was developed. The virtual resonant mode is a digital filter that works like a mechanical resonant mode. Using the proposed method, stable resonant modes in a control system can be designed with a high degree of accuracy to compensate for disturbances whose frequencies are higher than that of the primary mechanical resonance. Application of this method to a hard disk drive showed that it significantly suppresses disturbances beyond the primary mechanical resonance.

  2. True Pathologic Abnormality versus Artifact Foot Position and Magic Angle Artifact in the Peroneal Tendons with 3T Imaging.

    PubMed

    Horn, Deena B; Meyers, Steven; Astor, William

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a commonly ordered examination by many foot and ankle surgeons for ankle pain and suspected peroneal tendon pathologic abnormalities. Magic angle artifact is one of the complexities associated with this imaging modality. Magic angle refers to the increased signal on magnetic resonance images associated with the highly organized collagen fibers in tendons and ligaments when they are orientated at a 55° angle to the main magnetic field. We present several examples from a clinical practice setting using 3T imaging illustrating a substantial reduction in magic angle artifact of the peroneal tendon in the prone plantarflexed position compared with the standard neutral (right angle) position.

  3. Method of detecting abnormality in a reference crank angle position detection system of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.

    1987-05-12

    A method is described of detecting abnormality in a reference crank angle position detection system of a control system for controlling an internal combustion engine. The method comprises a crankshaft, the control system using at least reference pulses generated, respectively, at predetermined crank angles of the crankshaft and detected by the reference crank angle position detection system. Crank angle pulses are generated, respectively, at other predetermined angles of the crankshaft and with a pulse repetition period shorter than that of the reference pulses, for controlling the engine.

  4. Human Preferences for Conformation Attributes and Head-And-Neck Positions in Horses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human preferences for certain morphological attributes among domestic animals may be entirely individual or, more generally, may reflect evolutionary pressures that favor certain conformation. Artificial selection for attributes, such as short heads and crested necks of horses, may have functional and welfare implications because there is evidence from other species that skull shape co-varies with behaviour. Crested necks can be accentuated by flexion of the neck, a quality that is often manipulated in photographs vendors use when selling horses. Equine head-and-neck positions acquired through rein tension can compromise welfare. Our investigation was designed to identify conformations and postures that people are attracted to when choosing their ‘ideal’ horse. Participants of an internet survey were asked to rate their preference for horse silhouettes that illustrated three gradations of five variables: facial shape, crest height, ear length, ear position and head-and-neck carriage. There were 1,234 usable responses. The results show that overall preferences are for the intermediate, rather than extreme, morphological choices (p=<0.001). They also indicate that males are 2.5 times less likely to prefer thicker necks rather than the intermediate shape, and 4 times more likely to prefer the thinner neck shape. When compared to the novice participants, experienced participants were 1.9 times more likely to prefer a thicker neck shape than the intermediate neck shape and 2.8 times less likely to prefer a thinner neck shape than the intermediate neck shape. There was overall preference of 93% (n=939) for the category of head carriage ‘In front of the vertical’. However, novice participants were 1.8 times more likely to choose ‘behind the vertical’ than ‘in front of the vertical’. Our results suggest that people prefer a natural head carriage, concave facial profile (dished face), larger ears and thicker necks. From these survey data, it seems that some

  5. Effect of Head Position on Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure in Cats: Comparison with Artificial Model

    PubMed Central

    Klarica, Marijan; Radoš, Milan; Draganić, Pero; Erceg, Gorislav; Orešković, Darko; Maraković, Jurica; Bulat, Marin

    2006-01-01

    Aim To demonstrate that changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure in the cranial cavity and spinal canal after head elevation from the horizontal level occur primarily due to the biophysical characteristics of the CSF system, ie, distensibility of the spinal dura. Methods Experiments in vivo were performed on cats and a new artificial model of the CSF system with dimensions similar to the CSF system in cats, consisting of non-distensible cranial and distensible spinal part. Measurements of the CSF pressure in the cranial and spinal spaces were performed in chloralose-anesthetized cats (n = 10) in the horizontal position on the base of a stereotaxic apparatus (reference zero point) and in the position in which the head was elevated to 5 cm and 10 cm above that horizontal position. Changes in the CSF pressure in the cranial and spinal part of the model were measured in the cranial part positioned in the same way as the head in cats (n = 5). Results When the cat was in the horizontal position, the values of the CSF pressure in the cranial (11.9 ± 1.1 cm H2O) and spinal (11.8 ± 0.6 cm H2O) space were not significantly different. When the head was elevated 5 cm or 10 cm above the reference zero point, the CSF pressure in the cranium significantly decreased to 7.7 ± 0.6 cm H2O and 4.7 ± 0.7 cm H2O, respectively, while the CSF pressure in the spinal space significantly increased to 13.8 ± 0.7 cm H2O and 18.5 ± 1.6 cm H2O, respectively (P<0.001 for both). When the artificial CSF model was positioned in the horizontal level and its cranial part elevated by 5 cm and 10 cm, the changes in the pressure were the same as those in the cats when in the same hydrostatic position. Conclusions The new model of the CSF system used in our study faithfully mimicked the changes in the CSF pressure in cats during head elevation in relation to the body. Changes in the pressure in the model were not accompanied by the changes in fluid volume in

  6. Activity of cells in the lateral vestibular nucleus as a function of head position

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Y.; Rosenberg, Jay; Segundo, J. P.

    1968-01-01

    1. The spike activity of cells in the lateral vestibular nucleus was recorded in cats anaesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. Natural labyrinthine stimulation was applied by fixing the animal at different positions reached through roations about a longitudinal or transverse axis. 2. The majority of cells responded to rotations only about the longitudinal axis. Two types of response were found. The first was characterized by a transient change in activity which occurred only during the movement. The second type had an initial transient component and a subsequent steady component that persisted as long as the head remained fixed. 3. The interspike interval means, standard deviations, histograms and autocorrelograms of the steady response components of cells sensitive to lateral tilt were calculated. In every cell the relation between the head position with respect to gravity and the mean interspike interval of the steady discharge showed two main features. (a) `Directional sensitivity': the mean interval increased following rotation in one sense, and decreased following rotation in the other. In twenty-two out of thirty-three cells, the mean increased when the recording side was raised. The remaining cells showed the opposite relation. (b) `Multivaluedness': each particular position is associated with several different values of mean interval and these values had a relatively wide scatter. The curve that resulted from joining points in the order in which they occurred during the experiment was either closed, open, or combined closed and open portions. 4. The standard deviations, histograms and autocorrelograms also showed directional sensitivity and multivaluedness with respect to position. Several types of interspike interval histograms and autocorrelograms characterized lateral vestibular activity. The forms of the histogram and the autocorrelogram of the discharge from each cell usually remained unchanged during stimulation. 5. The extensive spread of the

  7. Patterned Contractile Forces Promote Epidermal Spreading and Regulate Segment Positioning during Drosophila Head Involution.

    PubMed

    Czerniak, Natalia Dorota; Dierkes, Kai; D'Angelo, Arturo; Colombelli, Julien; Solon, Jérôme

    2016-07-25

    Epithelial spreading is a fundamental mode of tissue rearrangement occurring during animal development and wound closure. It has been associated either with the collective migration of cells [1, 2] or with actomyosin-generated forces acting at the leading edge (LE) and pulling the epithelial tissue [3, 4]. During the process of Drosophila head involution (HI), the epidermis spreads anteriorly to envelope the head tissues and fully cover the embryo [5]. This results in epidermal segments of equal width that will give rise to the different organs of the fly [6]. Here we perform a quantitative analysis of tissue spreading during HI. Combining high-resolution live microscopy with laser microsurgery and genetic perturbations, we show that epidermal movement is in part, but not solely, driven by a contractile actomyosin cable at the LE. Additional driving forces are generated within each segment by a gradient of actomyosin-based circumferential tension. Interfering with Hedgehog (Hh) signaling can modulate this gradient, thus suggesting the involvement of polarity genes in the regulation of HI. In particular, we show that disruption of these contractile forces alters segment widths and leads to a mispositioning of segments. Within the framework of a physical description, we confirm that given the geometry of the embryo, a patterned profile of active circumferential tensions can indeed generate propelling forces and control final segment position. Our study thus unravels a mechanism by which patterned tensile forces can regulate spreading and positioning of epithelial tissues. PMID:27397891

  8. HPV Positive Head and Neck Cancers: Molecular Pathogenesis and Evolving Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Dok, Rüveyda; Nuyts, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a highly heterogeneous disease that is the result of tobacco and/or alcohol abuse or infection with high-risk Human papillomaviruses. Despite the fact that HPV positive HNSCC cancers form a distinct clinical entity with better treatment outcome, all HNSCC are currently treated uniformly with the same treatment modality. At present, biologic basis of these different outcomes and their therapeutic influence are areas of intense investigation. In this review, we will summarize the molecular basis for this different outcome, novel treatment opportunities and possible biomarkers for HPV positive HNSCC. In particular, the focus will be on several molecular targeted strategies that can improve the chemoradiation response by influencing DNA repair mechanisms. PMID:27043631

  9. Recording of natural head position using stereophotogrammetry: a new technique and reliability study.

    PubMed

    Hsung, Tai-Chiu; Lo, John; Li, Tik-Shun; Cheung, Lim-Kwong

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to record physical references and orient digital mesh models to a natural head position using stereophotogrammetry (SP). The first step was to record the digital mesh model of a hanging reference board placed at the capturing position of the SP machine. The board was aligned to true vertical using a plumb bob. It also was aligned with a laser plane parallel to a hanging mirror, which was located at the center of the machine. The parameter derived from the digital mesh model of the board was used to adjust the roll, pitch, and yaw of the subsequent captures of patients' facial images. This information was valid until the next machine calibration. The board placement was repeatable, with standard deviations less than 0.1° for pitch and yaw angles and 0.15° for roll angles.

  10. HPV Positive Head and Neck Cancers: Molecular Pathogenesis and Evolving Treatment Strategies.

    PubMed

    Dok, Rüveyda; Nuyts, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a highly heterogeneous disease that is the result of tobacco and/or alcohol abuse or infection with high-risk Human papillomaviruses. Despite the fact that HPV positive HNSCC cancers form a distinct clinical entity with better treatment outcome, all HNSCC are currently treated uniformly with the same treatment modality. At present, biologic basis of these different outcomes and their therapeutic influence are areas of intense investigation. In this review, we will summarize the molecular basis for this different outcome, novel treatment opportunities and possible biomarkers for HPV positive HNSCC. In particular, the focus will be on several molecular targeted strategies that can improve the chemoradiation response by influencing DNA repair mechanisms. PMID:27043631

  11. Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

  12. New Phenomenon of Abnormal Auditory Perception Associated with Emotional and Head Trauma: Pathological Confirmation by SPECT Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephane, Massoud; Hill, Thomas; Matthew, Elizabeth; Folstein, Marshal

    2004-01-01

    We report the case of an immigrant who suffered from death threats and head trauma while a prisoner of war in Kuwait. Two months later, he began to hear conversations that had taken place previously. These perceptions occurred spontaneously or were induced by the patient's effortful concentration. The single photon emission computerized tomography…

  13. Inter- and Intrafractional Positional Uncertainties in Pediatric Radiotherapy Patients With Brain and Head and Neck Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Beltran, Chris; Krasin, Matthew J.; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To estimate radiation therapy planning margins based on inter- and intrafractional uncertainty for pediatric brain and head and neck tumor patients at different imaging frequencies. Methods: Pediatric patients with brain (n = 83) and head and neck (n = 17) tumors (median age = 7.2 years) were enrolled on an internal review board-approved localization protocol and stratified according to treatment position and use of anesthesia. Megavoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) was performed before each treatment and after every other treatment. The pretreatment offsets were used to calculate the interfractional setup uncertainty (SU), and posttreatment offsets were used to calculate the intrafractional residual uncertainty (RU). The SU and RU are the patient-related components of the setup margin (SM), which is part of the planning target volume (PTV). SU data was used to simulate four intervention strategies using different imaging frequencies and thresholds. Results: The SM based on all patients treated on this study was 2.1 mm (SU = 0.9 mm, RU = 1.9 mm) and varied according to treatment position (supine = 1.8 mm, prone = 2.6 mm) and use of anesthesia (with = 1.7 mm, without = 2.5 mm) because of differences in the RU. The average SU for a 2-mm threshold based on no imaging, once per week imaging, initial five images, and daily imaging was 3.6, 2.1, 2.2, and 0.9 mm, respectively. Conclusion: On the basis of this study, the SM component of the PTV may be reduced to 2 mm for daily CBCT compared with 3.5 mm for weekly CBCT. Considering patients who undergo daily pretreatment CBCT, the SM is larger for those treated in the prone position or smaller for those treated under anesthesia because of differences in the RU.

  14. VALIDATION OF AN INDEXED RADIOTHERAPY HEAD POSITIONING DEVICE FOR USE IN DOGS AND CATS.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Katherine S; Théon, Alain P; Dieterich, Sonja; Kent, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Setup variability affects the appropriate delivery of radiation and informs the setup margin required to treat radiation patients. Twenty-four veterinary patients with head and neck cancers were enrolled in this prospective, cross-sectional study to determine the accuracy of an indexed board immobilization device for positioning. Couch position values were defined at the first treatment based on setup films. At subsequent treatments, patients were moved to the previously defined couch location, orthogonal films were acquired, table position was modified, and displacement was recorded. The mean systematic displacement, random displacement, overall displacement, and mean displacement values of the three-dimensional (3D) vector were calculated. Three hundred thirty-two pairs of orthogonal setup films were analyzed for displacement in cranial-caudal, lateral, and dorsal-ventral directions. The mean systematic displacements were 0.5, 0.8, and 0.5 mm, respectively. The mean random displacements were 1.0, 1.1, and 0.7 mm, respectively. The overall displacements were 1.1, 1.4, and 0.9 mm, respectively. The mean 3D vector value was 1.6 mm with a standard deviation of 1.2 mm. Ninety-five percent of the vectors were <3.6 mm. These values were compared to data obtained with a previously used immobilization device. A t-test was used to compare the two devices. The 3D vector, random displacement in all directions, and overall displacement in the cranial-caudal and dorsal-ventral directions were significantly smaller than displacements with the previous device. The precision and accuracy of the indexed board device was superior to the historical head and neck device. PMID:25832454

  15. JAK2V617F-positive endothelial cells contribute to clotting abnormalities in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Etheridge, S. Leah; Roh, Michelle E.; Cosgrove, Megan E.; Sangkhae, Veena; Fox, Norma E.; Chen, Junmei; López, José A.; Kaushansky, Kenneth; Hitchcock, Ian S.

    2014-01-01

    The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) V617F mutation is the primary pathogenic mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Although thrombohemorrhagic incidents are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with MPNs, the events causing these clotting abnormalities remain unclear. To identify the cells responsible for the dysfunctional hemostasis, we used transgenic mice expressing JAK2V617F in specific lineages involved in thrombosis and hemostasis. When JAK2V617F was expressed in both hematopoietic and endothelial cells (ECs), the mice developed a significant MPN, characterized by thrombocytosis, neutrophilia, and splenomegaly. However, despite having significantly higher platelet counts than controls, these mice showed severely attenuated thrombosis following injury. Interestingly, platelet activation and aggregation in response to agonists was unaltered by JAK2V617F expression. Subsequent bone marrow transplants revealed the contribution of both endothelial and hematopoietic compartments to the attenuated thrombosis. Furthermore, we identified a potential mechanism for this phenotype through JAK2V617F-regulated inhibition of von Willebrand factor (VWF) function and/or secretion. JAK2V617F+ mice display a condition similar to acquired von Willebrand syndrome, exhibiting significantly less high molecular weight VWF and reduced agglutination to ristocetin. These findings greatly advance our understanding of thrombohemorrhagic events in MPNs and highlight the critical role of ECs in the pathology of hematopoietic malignancies. PMID:24469804

  16. Fast access control of the head positioning using a digital signal processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Susumu; Mizoshita, Yoshifumi; Ueno, Takahisa; Takaishi, Kazuhiko

    1990-08-01

    We have developed a new digital servo controller for a 5"hard disk drive which has average access time of 10 ms for a 25 mm stroke. To obtain this fast access speed, we used a state estimator with a new acceleration irajectory model. The estimator and trajectory generator are implemented using a digital signal processor. There are two problems for fast access control: motor coil inductance and the mechanical resonance of the actuator and disk enclosure. To solve these problems and to achieve precise head positioning, we developed the following control method. To solve the voice coil motor inductance and actuator resonance problems, we used a new acceleration trajectory model which is not affected by the coil inductance when the head moves quickly. This design is based on an optinial control theory which minimizes the square of differentiated acceleration. By using this new trajectory model, the high harmonics of actuator drive are damped and the residual vibration ofactuator immediately after access is decreased.

  17. See-through head-worn display of patient monitoring data to enhance anesthesiologists' response to abnormal clinical events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormerod, David F.; Ross, Brian K.; Naluai-Cecchini, A.

    2003-05-01

    One obstacle to safety in the operating room is anesthesiologist distraction -- having to shift attention back and forth from the patient to vital sign monitor while performing either routine or emergency procedures. The purpose of this study was to measure the decrease in anesthesiologist distraction made possible by using a head-mounted, see-through personal display (HMD) using retinal scanning technology. With the head-up display, they were able to focus their attention exclusively on the patient and the task at hand. The Nomad reduced the number of times the anesthesiologist had to shift their attention by a more than a third (17 times versus 58 times). This allowed them to spend more time focused on the patient.

  18. A Higher Bandwidth Servo Design for Magnetic Disk Drives: A Head-positioning Control System with Strain Feedback Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    In magnetic disk drives, mechanical resonance modes prevent a higher bandwidth servo being used for head positioning control. To overcome this limitation and realize more precise head positioning, a strain feedback controller which is added to a conventional head-position feedback loop was developed. The controller of a strain-feedback control system was designed so that the gain and the phase delay of the sensitivity function of the strain-feedback control system were both reduced below the frequency of a primary mechanical resonance. The controller achieves gain suppression by about 10dB at a primary mechanical resonance and phase delay of about zero degrees. It was found that the head-position control system (i.e., the strain feedback plus the conventional head-position feedback loop) increases the servo bandwidth by 17% and improves the positioning accuracy by 18%. It was also confirmed that unlike conventional servo system, the new servo design does not suffer degradation of servo characteristics at high temperature.

  19. Inline-actuated suspension for the fine head positioning of HDD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Gih Keong; Du, Hejun

    2006-07-01

    A new design of inline-actuated suspension is developed for application in the dual-stage head positioning of hard disk drives (HDD). This design exploits a parallel mechanism to convert longitudinal piezoelectric actuation into a lateral stroke. It is embodied in an elongated portion of a slender load beam. Besides serving the intended function of adequate stroke, the new design significantly improves shock resistance and dynamics. Its sway frequency improves by 19%, as compared to a push-pull design. In addition, the piezoelectric plate for inline actuation is subjected to 66% less shock-induced stress than the pair for push-pull actuation. The new actuator only requires standard manufacturing and assembly processes for realization and no costly miniaturization.

  20. An Electrostatic Microactuator for Positioning a Hard-Disk Drive Magnetic Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Tomonori; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi; Mita, Makoto; Kobayashi, Dai; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    We have newly developed a prototype model of silicon microfabricated piggyback actuator for positioning a read/write head of magnetic hard-disk drive, which is usually referred to as a dual servo system because the piggyback actuator for fine control is used in collaboration with the voice-coil motor for coarse control. The actuator is made of a 50-micron-thick SOI (silicon on insulator) wafer processed by deep RIE (reactive ion etching) of high-aspect ratio. Actuation mechanism is based upon electrostatic force generated by multiple parallel plates. Maximum displacement of 0.2μ with a dc driving voltage of 20V has been achieved with a 1mm × 0.3mm actuator of its resonance at 25kHz. An analytical model for predicting electromechanical performance has also been developed.

  1. Comparison of susceptibility to motion sickness during rotation at 30 rpm in the earth-horizontal, 10 degrees head-up, and 10 degrees head-down positions.

    PubMed

    Graybiel, A; Lackner, J R

    1977-01-01

    Normal persons rotated about an Earth-horizontal axis vary in their susceptibility to motion sickness. The purpose of this experiment was to measure, intraindividual differences in susceptibility in 12 subjects when rotated 10 degrees head up and 10 degrees head down as well as in the horizontal position. Subjects assumed the test-position 60 min prior to rotation, thus providing an opportunity for translocation of body fluids. Physiological and psychophysical measurements were conducted throughout the experiment. There were no intraindividual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness in the three positions tested, although there were significant differences in vital capacity, demonstrating the expected fluid shifts. It was concluded that, in the sample of subjects tested, short-term effects of fluid shifts greater than those that would be manifested in zero gravity had no definite effect on motion sickness susceptibility.

  2. Comparison of susceptibility to motion sickness during rotation at 30 rpm in the earth-horizontal, 10 deg head-up, and 10 deg head-down positions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Lackner, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Normal persons rotated about an earth-horizontal axis vary in their susceptibility to motion sickness. An experimental study was conducted to measure intraindividual differences in susceptibility in 12 subjects when rotated 10 deg head up and 10 deg head down as well as in the horizontal position. Subjects assumed the test-position 60 min prior to rotation, thus providing an opportunity for translocation of body fluids. Physiological and psychological measurements were conducted throughout the experiment. There were no intraindividual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness in the three positions tested, although there were significant differences in vital capacity, demonstrating the expected fluid shifts. It was concluded that, in the sample of subjects tested, short-term effects of fluid shifts greater than those that would be manifested in zero gravity had no definite effect on motion sickness susceptibility.

  3. Head Position and Football Equipment Influence Cervical Spinal-Cord Space During Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Ryan T.; Mattacola, Carl G.; Sitler, Michael R.; Maldjian, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of head position and football equipment (ie, helmet and shoulder pads) on cervical spinal cord space in individuals lying supine on a spine board. Design and Setting: The independent variables were head position (0-cm, 2-cm, and 4-cm occiput elevation with no helmet and shoulder pads and with helmet and shoulder pads) and cervical spine level (C3, C4, C5, C6, and C7). The 3 dependent variables were sagittal space available for the cord (SAC) (mm), sagittal spinal-cord diameter (mm), and cervical-thoracic angle (°), determined via magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects: Twelve men (age = 24.3 ± 2.1 years; height = 181.1 ± 5.7 cm; weight = 93.9 ± 3.6 kg). Measurements: Sagittal space available for the cord was determined by subtracting the sagittal spinal-cord diameter from the corresponding sagittal spinal-canal diameter. The spinal-canal diameter was measured as the shortest distance from the vertebral body to the spinolaminar line at each of the spinal levels. Each measurement was taken 3 times, and the 3 measurements were averaged. Results: Sagittal space available for the cord was significantly greater (P < .01) for 0-cm (mean = 5.50 mm) than for 2-cm (mean = 4.86 mm) and 4-cm (mean = 5.07 mm) occiput elevation. SAC was also significantly greater (P < .01) for the equipment condition (mean = 5.34 mm) than for the 2-cm and 4-cm elevation levels. No significant difference (P = .093) in SAC existed between 0-cm elevation and the equipment condition. Conclusions: The helmet and shoulder pads should be left on during spine-board immobilization of the injured football player. Similarly, during spine-board immobilization of an individual without football helmet and shoulder pads, the head should be maintained at 0 cm of occiput elevation. Sagittal spinal-cord space is optimized in both of these conditions. PMID:12937433

  4. Seating arrangements for children with insufficient head control: lessons from trials using the i2i head & neck positioning & support system

    PubMed Central

    Uyama, Sachie; Hanaki, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] An insufficient head control is the most troublesome condition for children with impaired mobility who require optimal seating. [Subjects and Methods] We report on the clinical trial of the newly developed i2i head & neck positioning & support system called i2i for locomotively disabled children with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). [Results] Two major advantages of the i2i were observed in the trial. The first was its favorable effect on the alignment of the spine to prevent scoliosis and to provide stable breathing and optimal seating, which resulted in improvement of the children’s activities of daily living (ADL). The second was its direct application of force to the head rather than indirectly to the pelvis in a conventional seat arrangement. The conventional way of head support is based on stabilization of the trunk which is based on stabilization of the pelvis by some seating arrangement. [Conclusion] The trial of the i2i device demonstrated its usefulness in helping PVL children with insufficient head control develop their abilities while preventing secondary disability. PMID:25931766

  5. Seating arrangements for children with insufficient head control: lessons from trials using the i2i head & neck positioning & support system.

    PubMed

    Uyama, Sachie; Hanaki, Keiichi

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] An insufficient head control is the most troublesome condition for children with impaired mobility who require optimal seating. [Subjects and Methods] We report on the clinical trial of the newly developed i2i head & neck positioning & support system called i2i for locomotively disabled children with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). [Results] Two major advantages of the i2i were observed in the trial. The first was its favorable effect on the alignment of the spine to prevent scoliosis and to provide stable breathing and optimal seating, which resulted in improvement of the children's activities of daily living (ADL). The second was its direct application of force to the head rather than indirectly to the pelvis in a conventional seat arrangement. The conventional way of head support is based on stabilization of the trunk which is based on stabilization of the pelvis by some seating arrangement. [Conclusion] The trial of the i2i device demonstrated its usefulness in helping PVL children with insufficient head control develop their abilities while preventing secondary disability. PMID:25931766

  6. Influence of long-term head-down body position on innervation density in extremity blood vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorant, M.; Raffai, G.; Nadasy, G.; Feher, E.; Monos, E.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to quantitate and compare the density of nerve terminals (NTD), as well as of their synaptic vesicle population (SyVD) in saphenous and brachial vein and artery, obtained from rats maintained in the horizontal or head-down tilted (HDT) position for two weeks. The same technique was applied as that for the head-up tilt study.

  7. A Feasibility Study of a Tilted Head Position in Helical Tomotherapy for Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy of Intracranial Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yoonsun; Yoon, Hong In; Ha, Jin Sook; Kim, Seijoon; Lee, Ik Jae

    2015-08-01

    Herein, we evaluated the feasibility of placing patients in a tilted head position as part of routine clinical practice for fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) of intracranial tumors using helical tomotherapy (HT), by assessing its dosimetric benefit and setup accuracy. We reviewed treatment plans of four cases that were to receive FSRT for brain lesions in normal and head-tilted positions. These patients underwent two computed tomography (CT) scans: first in the normal supine position and then in the supine position with the head tilted at a 458 angle. Two separate HT plans for each position were generated in these four patients, using the same planning parameters. Plans were compared for target conformity and dose homogeneity. Maximum and average doses to critical organs, including normal brain, brain stem, optic chiasm, optic nerves, and the eyes, were considered. To evaluate setup accuracy, patient movement during treatment was assessed by post-treatment megavoltage CT scans. Both HT plans achieved similar conformal and homogeneous dose coverage to the target. Head-tilted HT delivered lower average and maximum doses to critical organs in the cases where the tumor was located on the same plane with critical organs, particularly when they were not directly attached. Placement in the head-tilted position without a mouthpiece allowed for increased patient movement during treatment, while use of a mouthpiece reduced patient movement to even less than that observed for normal setup in the supine position. This pilot study showed that placement in a tilted head position for FSRT of intracranial tumors using HT may be of clinical use, but depends on the tumor location.

  8. Comparison of craniofacial morphology, head posture and hyoid bone position with different breathing patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Ekizer, Abdullah; Uysal, Tancan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in craniofacial morphology, head posture and hyoid bone position between mouth breathing (MB) and nasal breathing (NB) patients. Methods Mouth breathing patients comprised 34 skeletal Class I subjects with a mean age of 12.8 ± 1.5 years (range: 12.0–15.2 years). Thirty-two subjects with skeletal Class I relationship were included in the NB group (mean 13.5 ± 1.3 years; range: 12.2–14.8 years). Twenty-seven measurements (15 angular and 12 linear) were used for the craniofacial analysis. Additionally, 12 measurements were evaluated for head posture (eight measurements) and hyoid bone position (four measurements). Student’s t-test was used for the statistical analysis. Probability values <0.05 were accepted as significant. Results Statistical comparisons showed that sagittal measurements including SNA (p < 0.01), ANB (p < 0.01), A to N perp (p < 0.05), convexity (p < 0.05), IMPA (p < 0.05) and overbite (p < 0.05) measurements were found to be lower in MB patients compared to NB. Vertical measurements including SN-MP (p < 0.01) and PP-GoGn (p < 0.01), S-N (p <0.05) and anterior facial height (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in MB patients, while the odontoid proses and palatal plane angle (OPT-PP) was greater and true vertical line and palatal plane angle (Vert-PP) was smaller in MB patients compared to NB group (p < 0.05 for both). No statistically significant differences were found regarding the hyoid bone position between both groups. Conclusions The maxilla was more retrognathic in MB patients. Additionally, the palatal plane had a posterior rotation in MB patients. However, no significant differences were found in the hyoid bone position between MB and NB patients. PMID:23960542

  9. Defining Optimal Head-Tilt Position of Resuscitation in Neonates and Young Infants Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data.

    PubMed

    Bhalala, Utpal S; Hemani, Malvi; Shah, Meehir; Kim, Barbara; Gu, Brian; Cruz, Angelo; Arunachalam, Priya; Tian, Elli; Yu, Christine; Punnoose, Joshua; Chen, Steven; Petrillo, Christopher; Brown, Alisa; Munoz, Karina; Kitchen, Grant; Lam, Taylor; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Allen, Robert H; Acharya, Soumyadipta

    2016-01-01

    Head-tilt maneuver assists with achieving airway patency during resuscitation. However, the relationship between angle of head-tilt and airway patency has not been defined. Our objective was to define an optimal head-tilt position for airway patency in neonates (age: 0-28 days) and young infants (age: 29 days-4 months). We performed a retrospective study of head and neck magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of neonates and infants to define the angle of head-tilt for airway patency. We excluded those with an artificial airway or an airway malformation. We defined head-tilt angle a priori as the angle between occipito-ophisthion line and ophisthion-C7 spinous process line on the sagittal MR images. We evaluated medical records for Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) and exposure to sedation during MRI. We analyzed MRI of head and neck regions of 63 children (53 neonates and 10 young infants). Of these 63 children, 17 had evidence of airway obstruction and 46 had a patent airway on MRI. Also, 16/63 had underlying HIE and 47/63 newborn infants had exposure to sedative medications during MRI. In spontaneously breathing and neurologically depressed newborn infants, the head-tilt angle (median ± SD) associated with patent airway (125.3° ± 11.9°) was significantly different from that of blocked airway (108.2° ± 17.1°) (Mann Whitney U-test, p = 0.0045). The logistic regression analysis showed that the proportion of patent airways progressively increased with an increasing head-tilt angle, with > 95% probability of a patent airway at head-tilt angle 144-150°. PMID:27003759

  10. Defining Optimal Head-Tilt Position of Resuscitation in Neonates and Young Infants Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data.

    PubMed

    Bhalala, Utpal S; Hemani, Malvi; Shah, Meehir; Kim, Barbara; Gu, Brian; Cruz, Angelo; Arunachalam, Priya; Tian, Elli; Yu, Christine; Punnoose, Joshua; Chen, Steven; Petrillo, Christopher; Brown, Alisa; Munoz, Karina; Kitchen, Grant; Lam, Taylor; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Allen, Robert H; Acharya, Soumyadipta

    2016-01-01

    Head-tilt maneuver assists with achieving airway patency during resuscitation. However, the relationship between angle of head-tilt and airway patency has not been defined. Our objective was to define an optimal head-tilt position for airway patency in neonates (age: 0-28 days) and young infants (age: 29 days-4 months). We performed a retrospective study of head and neck magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of neonates and infants to define the angle of head-tilt for airway patency. We excluded those with an artificial airway or an airway malformation. We defined head-tilt angle a priori as the angle between occipito-ophisthion line and ophisthion-C7 spinous process line on the sagittal MR images. We evaluated medical records for Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) and exposure to sedation during MRI. We analyzed MRI of head and neck regions of 63 children (53 neonates and 10 young infants). Of these 63 children, 17 had evidence of airway obstruction and 46 had a patent airway on MRI. Also, 16/63 had underlying HIE and 47/63 newborn infants had exposure to sedative medications during MRI. In spontaneously breathing and neurologically depressed newborn infants, the head-tilt angle (median ± SD) associated with patent airway (125.3° ± 11.9°) was significantly different from that of blocked airway (108.2° ± 17.1°) (Mann Whitney U-test, p = 0.0045). The logistic regression analysis showed that the proportion of patent airways progressively increased with an increasing head-tilt angle, with > 95% probability of a patent airway at head-tilt angle 144-150°.

  11. Defining Optimal Head-Tilt Position of Resuscitation in Neonates and Young Infants Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Bhalala, Utpal S.; Hemani, Malvi; Shah, Meehir; Kim, Barbara; Gu, Brian; Cruz, Angelo; Arunachalam, Priya; Tian, Elli; Yu, Christine; Punnoose, Joshua; Chen, Steven; Petrillo, Christopher; Brown, Alisa; Munoz, Karina; Kitchen, Grant; Lam, Taylor; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.; Allen, Robert H.; Acharya, Soumyadipta

    2016-01-01

    Head-tilt maneuver assists with achieving airway patency during resuscitation. However, the relationship between angle of head-tilt and airway patency has not been defined. Our objective was to define an optimal head-tilt position for airway patency in neonates (age: 0–28 days) and young infants (age: 29 days–4 months). We performed a retrospective study of head and neck magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of neonates and infants to define the angle of head-tilt for airway patency. We excluded those with an artificial airway or an airway malformation. We defined head-tilt angle a priori as the angle between occipito-ophisthion line and ophisthion-C7 spinous process line on the sagittal MR images. We evaluated medical records for Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) and exposure to sedation during MRI. We analyzed MRI of head and neck regions of 63 children (53 neonates and 10 young infants). Of these 63 children, 17 had evidence of airway obstruction and 46 had a patent airway on MRI. Also, 16/63 had underlying HIE and 47/63 newborn infants had exposure to sedative medications during MRI. In spontaneously breathing and neurologically depressed newborn infants, the head-tilt angle (median ± SD) associated with patent airway (125.3° ± 11.9°) was significantly different from that of blocked airway (108.2° ± 17.1°) (Mann Whitney U-test, p = 0.0045). The logistic regression analysis showed that the proportion of patent airways progressively increased with an increasing head-tilt angle, with > 95% probability of a patent airway at head-tilt angle 144–150°. PMID:27003759

  12. DEK promotes HPV positive and negative head and neck cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Allie K.; Hallenbeck, Grace E.; Casper, Keith A.; Patil, Yash J.; Wilson, Keith M.; Kimple, Randall J.; Lambert, Paul F.; Witte, David P.; Xiao, Weihong; Gillison, Maura L.; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; Wise-Draper, Trisha M.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, and patient outcomes using current treatments remains poor. Tumor development is etiologically associated with tobacco or alcohol use and/or HPV infection. HPV positive HNSCCs, which frequently harbor wild-type p53, carry a more favorable prognosis and are a biologically distinct subgroup when compared to their HPV negative counterparts. HPV E7 induces expression of the human DEK gene, both in vitro and in vivo. In keratinocytes, DEK overexpression is sufficient for causing oncogenic phenotypes in the absence of E7. Conversely, DEK loss results in cell death in HPV positive cervical cancer cells at least in part through p53 activation, and Dek knockout mice are relatively resistant to the development of chemically induced skin papillomas. Despite the established oncogenic role of DEK in HPV associated cervical cancer cell lines and keratinocytes, a functional role of DEK has not yet been explored in HNSCC. Using an established transgenic mouse model of HPV16 E7 induced HNSCC, we demonstrate that Dek is required for optimal proliferation of E7-transgenic epidermal cells and for the growth of HNSCC tumors. Importantly, these studies also demonstrate that DEK protein is universally up-regulated in both HPV positive and negative human HNSCC tumors relative to adjacent normal tissue. Furthermore, DEK knockdown inhibited the proliferation of HPV positive and negative HNSCC cells, establishing a functional role for DEK in human disease. Mechanistic studies reveal that attenuated HNSCC cell growth in response to DEK loss was associated with reduced expression of the oncogenic p53 family member, ΔNp63. Exogenous ΔNp63 expression rescued the proliferative defect in the absence of DEK, thereby establishing a functional DEK-ΔNp63 oncogenic pathway that promotes HNSCC. Taken together, our data demonstrate that DEK stimulates HNSCC cellular growth and identify ΔNp63 as a novel DEK

  13. Ocular Reflex Phase During Off-Vertical Axis Rotation In Humans Is Modified By Head-On-Trunk Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Scott; Clement, Gilles; Denise, Pierre; Reschke, Millard

    2005-01-01

    Constant velocity Off-Vertical Axis Rotation (OVAR) imposes a continuously varying orientation of the head and body relative to gravity. The ensuing ocular reflexes include modulation of both horizontal and torsional eye velocity as a function of the varying linear acceleration along the lateral plane. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the modulation of these ocular reflexes would be modified by different head-on-trunk positions. Ten human subjects were rotated in darkness about their longitudinal axis 20 deg off-vertical at constant rates of 45 and 180 deg/s, corresponding to 0.125 and 0.5 Hz. Binocular responses were obtained with video-oculography with the head and trunk aligned, and then with the head turned relative to the trunk 40 deg to the right or left of center. Sinusoidal curve fits were used to derive amplitude, phase and bias velocity of the eye movements across multiple cycles for each head-on-trunk position. Consistent with previous studies, the modulation of torsional eye movements was greater at 0.125 Hz while the modulation of horizontal eye movements was greater at 0.5 Hz. Neither amplitude nor bias velocities were significantly altered by head-on-trunk position. The phases of both torsional and horizontal ocular reflexes, on the other hand, shifted towards alignment with the head. These results are consistent with the modulation of torsional and horizontal ocular reflexes during OVAR being primarily mediated by the otoliths in response to the sinusoidally varying linear acceleration along the interaural head axis.

  14. Does the Time of Day Affect Natural Head Position or It is Reproducibility?

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, HR.; Torkan, S.; Pakshir, HR.; Darabi, L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of natural head position (NHP) at different times of the day and to compare the reproducibility of the initial photographs with 6-month repeat photographs. Materials and Methods: The participants in this prospective study were seventy 14 to 50-year-old individuals. Each participant was photographed with a digital camera twice, at three different times of the day (in the morning, at noon and in the evening) and after a 6-month interval. The reproducibility of head posture was assessed by comparing the angle between the true horizontal and the ala-tragus plane. Student’s paired t-test and repeated measure analysis were used to analyze the results. To evaluate the differences between the first and second sets of photographs, Dahlberg’s coefficient (method error) was also used. Results: Repeated measure analysis did not reveal any statistically significant differences in NHP orientation at different times of the day in the initial measurements (p=0.15) or after a 6-month period (p=0.56). Dahlberg’s coefficient for all the participants during the 6-month period was 3.14°. Paired t test showed significant differences in NHP orientation only in the morning. Conclusion: The time of the day during which the photograph is taken does not affect the reproducibility of NHP. However, this orientation was more stable in the evening and at noon than in the morning. No differences were found between genders. In conclusion, measurements of NHP with the ala-tragus plane were more stable than measurements based on intracranial reference planes. PMID:23323187

  15. Contribution of Head Position, Standing Surface, and Vision to Postural Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pociask, Fredrick D; DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Goldberg, Allon; Adamo, Diane E

    2016-01-01

    Postural control requires the integration of sensorimotor information to maintain balance and to properly position and orient the body in response to external stimuli. Age-related declines in peripheral and central sensory and motor function contribute to postural instability and falls. This study investigated the contribution of head position, standing surface, and vision on postural sway in 26 community-dwelling older adults. Participants were asked to maintain a stable posture under conditions that varied standing surface, head position, and the availability of visual information. Significant main and interaction effects were found for all three factors. Findings from this study suggest that postural sway responses require the integration of available sources of sensory information. These results have important implications for fall risks in older adults and suggest that when standing with the head extended and eyes closed, older adults may place themselves at risk for postural disequilibrium and loss of balance. PMID:26709429

  16. Contribution of Head Position, Standing Surface, and Vision to Postural Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pociask, Fredrick D; DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Goldberg, Allon; Adamo, Diane E

    2016-01-01

    Postural control requires the integration of sensorimotor information to maintain balance and to properly position and orient the body in response to external stimuli. Age-related declines in peripheral and central sensory and motor function contribute to postural instability and falls. This study investigated the contribution of head position, standing surface, and vision on postural sway in 26 community-dwelling older adults. Participants were asked to maintain a stable posture under conditions that varied standing surface, head position, and the availability of visual information. Significant main and interaction effects were found for all three factors. Findings from this study suggest that postural sway responses require the integration of available sources of sensory information. These results have important implications for fall risks in older adults and suggest that when standing with the head extended and eyes closed, older adults may place themselves at risk for postural disequilibrium and loss of balance.

  17. Fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing to assess swallowing outcomes as a function of head position in a normal population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Head position practice has been shown to influence pill-swallowing ability, but the impact of head position on measures of swallowing outcomes has not yet been studied with fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether head position impacts penetration-aspiration scale scores and/or post-swallow pharyngeal residue as assessed by FEES. Documenting the incidence of pharyngeal residue and laryngeal penetration and aspiration in a normal population was a secondary goal. Methods Adults without swallowing difficulties (N = 84) were taught a pill swallowing technique based on learning five head positions and were asked to practice with small, hard candies (e.g., TicTacs) for two weeks. Then they demonstrated swallowing in each of the head positions for two conditions, liquid and purée, while undergoing FEES. Results Out of 840 examined swallows, one event of aspiration and 5 events of penetration occurred. During practice >50% participants found positions they preferred over the center position for swallowing but head position was not associated with penetration-aspiration scores assessed by FEES. Significant associations and non-significant trends were found between pharyngeal residue and three variables: age, most preferred head position, and least preferred head position. Conclusion Head position during swallowing (head up) and age greater than 40 years may result in increased pharyngeal residue but not laryngeal penetration or aspiration. PMID:24755159

  18. Physical and Psychological Effects of Head Treatment in the Supine Position Using Specialized Ayurveda-Based Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Iwawaki, Yoko; Uebaba, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Yoko; Takishita, Yukie; Harada, Kiyomi; Shibata, Akemi; Narumoto, Jin; Fukui, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To clarify the physical and psychological effects of head massage performed in the supine position using Ayurveda-based techniques (head treatment). Design: Twenty-four healthy female students were included in the study. Using a crossover study design, the same participants were enrolled in both the head treatment intervention group and control group. There was an interval of 1 week or more between measurements. Outcome measures: The physiologic indices measured included blood pressure and heart rate fluctuations (high frequency and low frequency/high frequency). The psychological markers measured included liveliness, depression, and boredom using the visual analogue scale method. State anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory method. Results: The parasympathetic nerve activity increased immediately after head treatment. Upon completion of head treatment, the parasympathetic nerve predominance tended to gradually ease. Head treatment boosted freshness and relieved anxiety. Conclusions: The results suggest that head treatment has a relaxing and refreshing effect and may be used to provide comfort. PMID:27163344

  19. [Correlations between the presence of a mesiodens and position abnormalities, diastemas, and eruption disturbances of maxillary frontal teeth].

    PubMed

    Baart, J A; Groenewegen, B T; Verloop, M A

    2009-08-01

    A mesiodens is often diagnosed coincidentally during a radiological examination. However, a mesiodens may also be diagnosed in relation to a clinically identified central diastema and an eruption disturbance, or a rotation of a central incisor. In this study of a group of 162 children and adolescents varying in age from 4 to 18 years, with a mesiodens, the frequency of position abnormalities, diastemas, and eruption disturbances of the maxillary frontal teeth was registered retrospectively. One or more of these complications was diagnosed in 72% of the patients. Usually, removal of the mesiodens in children and adolescents results in spontaneous recovery of the complications. Early diagnosis and early treatment are therefore important. PMID:19739401

  20. Head and trunk mass and center of mass position estimations in able-bodied and scoliotic girls.

    PubMed

    Damavandi, Mohsen; Dalleau, Georges; Stylianides, Georgios; Rivard, Charles-Hilaire; Allard, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Anthropometric tables are not applicable to calculate the scoliotic trunk mass and center of mass (COM). The purposes of this study were: (1) to estimate the head and trunk mass and COM in able-bodied and scoliotic girls using a force plate method, (2) to estimate head and trunk COM offset compared to those of the body, and (3) the use of mean ratios to estimate the head and trunk COM calculated in this study and that calculated according to a conventional three-dimensional (3D) method compared to the measured values. Twenty-one scoliotic and twenty able-bodied girls participated. The subjects stood upright with arms beside the trunk on a force plate that collected data at 60 Hz for a period of 5s. The anteroposterior and mediolateral positions of the body COM were obtained from the mean center of pressure values. The height of the body COM was estimated by the reaction board method. Afterwards a body segment was displaced and changes in force plate readings were recorded and applied to estimate the head and trunk mass and COM. Trunk offset was defined as the difference between the COM of the body and head and trunk. The measured head and trunk COM was compared to values obtained by the mean ratios calculated from this study and given by the conventional 3D method. The relative head and trunk mass and the anteroposterior trunk offset were larger in scoliotic girls. The force plate method gave similar results to measured COM values for both groups underlying its capability to provide a more accurate estimation of COM related values. Thus, the use of mean ratios of 0.5538 and 0.6438 obtained in this study to estimate the head and trunk mass and COM position in scoliotic girls can overcome the main drawbacks of current anthropometric methods, if direct measurements cannot be taken. PMID:23777637

  1. Hyomental distance in the different head positions and hyomental distance ratio in predicting difficult intubation

    PubMed Central

    Kalezić, Nevena; Lakićević, Mirko; Miličić, Biljana; Stojanović, Marina; Sabljak, Vera; Marković, Dejan

    2016-01-01

    The hyomental distance ratio (HMDR) is the ratio between the hyomental distance (HMD) (the distance between the hyoid bone and the tip of the chin) at the extreme of head extension (HMDe) and the one in the neutral position (HMDn). The objective of the study was to examine the predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of HMDe, HMDn, and HMDR in predicting difficult endotracheal intubation (DI). A prospective study included 262 patients that underwent elective surgical operations. The following parameters were observed as possible predictors of DI: HMDR, HMDe, HMDn, Mallampati score, and body mass index (BMI). The cut-off points for the DI predictors were HMDe <5.3 cm, HMDn ≤5.5 cm, and HMDR ≤1.2. The assessment that DI existed was made by the anesthesiologist while performing laryngoscopy by applying the Cormack-Lehane classification. DI was present in 13 patients (5%). No significant difference was observed in the frequency of DI with regard to the sex, age, and BMI of the patients. Our research indicated HMDR as the best predictor of DI with a sensitivity of 95.6% and specificity of 69.2%. HMDR can be used in the everyday work of anesthesiologists because HMDR values ≤1.2 may reliably predict DI.

  2. Effect of mouthpiece, noseclips, and head position on airway area measured by acoustic reflections.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, I; McClean, P A; Boucher, R; Zamel, N; Fredberg, J J; Hoffstein, V

    1987-10-01

    To investigate whether it is possible to simplify the methodology of measuring airway area by acoustic reflections, we measured upper airway area in 10 healthy subjects during tidal breathing according to seven different protocols. Three protocols employed custom-made bulky mouthpiece with or without nose-clips, two protocols used a scuba-diving mouthpiece and cotton balls placed in the nostrils instead of noseclips, and two protocols employed neck flexion and extension. We found no significant difference in average pharyngeal, glottic, and tracheal areas for any of the protocols except for neck flexion, which was associated with a significantly lower mean pharyngeal area. Intraindividual variabilities were comparable for all protocols, except for protocol employing the customary bulky mouthpiece and no noseclips, which consistently resulted in the most variable measurements of area for all three airway segments: pharynx, glottis, and trachea. Furthermore, we found that the protocol employing the scuba-diving mouthpiece with or without cotton balls in the nostrils resulted in the lowest number of unacceptable measurements. We conclude that measurements of airway area by acoustic reflections may be further simplified by using a scuba-diving mouthpiece without noseclips; furthermore, control of head position during measurements is not critical provided there is no obvious neck flexion.

  3. Automatic Detection and Reproduction of Natural Head Position in Stereo-Photogrammetry

    PubMed Central

    Hsung, Tai-Chiu; Lo, John; Li, Tik-Shun; Cheung, Lim-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an automatic orientation calibration and reproduction method for recording the natural head position (NHP) in stereo-photogrammetry (SP). A board was used as the physical reference carrier for true verticals and NHP alignment mirror orientation. Orientation axes were detected and saved from the digital mesh model of the board. They were used for correcting the pitch, roll and yaw angles of the subsequent captures of patients’ facial surfaces, which were obtained without any markings or sensors attached onto the patient. We tested the proposed method on two commercial active (3dMD) and passive (DI3D) SP devices. The reliability of the pitch, roll and yaw for the board placement were within ±0.039904°, ±0.081623°, and ±0.062320°; where standard deviations were 0.020234°, 0.045645° and 0.027211° respectively. Conclusion: Orientation-calibrated stereo-photogrammetry is the most accurate method (angulation deviation within ±0.1°) reported for complete NHP recording with insignificant clinical error. PMID:26125616

  4. Cardiovascular Responses during Head-Down Crooked Kneeling Position Assumed in Muslim Prayers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad Rufa’i, Adamu; Hamu Aliyu, Hadeezah; Yunoos Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje; Lukman Oyeyemi, Adewale

    2013-01-01

    Background: Movement dysfunction may be expressed in terms of symptoms experienced in non-physiological postures, and head-down crooked kneeling (HDCK) is a posture frequently assumed by Muslims during prayer activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular responses in the HDCK posture. Methods: Seventy healthy volunteers, comprising 35 males and 35 females, participated in the study. Cardiovascular parameters of blood pressure and pulse rate of the participants were measured in rested sitting position and then at one and three minutes into the HDCK posture. Two-way ANOVA was used to determine the differences between cardiovascular responses at rest and in the HDCK posture, and the Student t test was utilized to determine gender difference in cardiovascular responses at rest and at one and three minutes into the HDCK posture. Results: The study showed a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressures at one minute into the HDCK posture and an increase in pulse rate at one and three minutes into the HDCK posture, as compared to the resting values. Rate pressure product also rose at one minute into the HDCK posture, whereas pulse pressure increased at one and three minutes into the HDCK posture, as compared with the resting values. However, no significant change was observed in the mean arterial pressure values. Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest that no adverse cardiovascular event can be expected to occur for the normal duration of this posture during Muslim prayer activities. PMID:24031108

  5. Implement of a friction compensator for positioning control of a pickup head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Kazuto; Usui, Takashi; Tanaka, Masahiko; Ohsawa, Hideaki

    2004-09-01

    Nonlinear friction on a pickup head mechanism causes an objective lens shift. Detrack that causes the objective lens shift makes deteriorates read signal quality. To reduce the objective lens shift, we implement a nonlinear friction compensator in the pickup head. Experimental results confirm this compensator reduces the objective lens shift a quarter of not used.

  6. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Head-Down Contact and Spearing in Tackle Football

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Jonathan F.; Clarke, Kenneth S.; Peterson, Thomas R.; Torg, Joseph S.; Weis, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations that decrease the risk of cervical spine fractures and dislocations in football players. Background: Axial loading of the cervical spine resulting from head-down contact is the primary cause of spinal cord injuries. Keeping the head up and initiating contact with the shoulder or chest decreases the risk of these injuries. The 1976 rule changes resulted in a dramatic decrease in catastrophic cervical spine injuries. However, the helmet-contact rules are rarely enforced and head-down contact still occurs frequently. Our recommendations are directed toward decreasing the incidence of head-down contact. Recommendations: Educate players, coaches, and officials that unintentional and intentional head-down contact can result in catastrophic injuries. Increase the time tacklers, ball carriers, and blockers spend practicing correct contact techniques. Improve the enforcement and understanding of the existing helmet-contact penalties. PMID:15085218

  7. A Demonstration of Individualized Positive Behavior Support Interventions by Head Start Staff to Address Children's Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Mary D.; Walker, Virginia L.; Snell, Martha E.; Smith, Carol G.

    2013-01-01

    Following the implementation of Tier 1 and Tier 2 Positive Behavior Support (PBS) strategies in six Head Start (HS) classrooms, three children in two classrooms were identified who had significant behavioral challenges and met the criteria for the use of individualized PBS. The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate whether the effects of…

  8. Effects of hip and head position on ankle range of motion, ankle passive torque, and passive gastrocnemius tension.

    PubMed

    Andrade, R J; Lacourpaille, L; Freitas, S R; McNair, P J; Nordez, A

    2016-01-01

    Ankle joint range of motion (ROM) is notably influenced by the position of the hip joint. However, this result remains unexplained. Thus, the aim of this study was to test if the ankle passive torque and gastrocnemius muscle tension are affected by the hip and the head positions. The torque and the muscle shear elastic modulus (measured by elastography to estimate muscle tension) were collected in nine participants during passive ankle dorsiflexions performed in four conditions (by combining hip flexion at 90 or 150°, and head flexed or neutral). Ankle maximum dorsiflexion angle significantly decreased by flexing the hip from 150 to 90° (P < 0.001; mean difference 17.7 ± 2.5°), but no effect of the head position was observed (P > 0.05). Maximal passive torque and shear elastic modulus were higher with the hip flexed at 90° (P < 0.001). During submaximal ROM, no effects of the head and hip positioning (P > 0.05) were found for both torque and shear elastic modulus at a given common ankle angle among conditions. Shifts in maximal ankle angle due to hip angle manipulation are not related neither to changes in passive torque nor tension of the gastrocnemius. Further studies should be addressed to better understand the functional role of peripheral nerves and fasciae in the ankle ROM limits.

  9. Proprioceptive encoding of head position in the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Paulk, Angelique; Gilbert, Cole

    2006-10-01

    Because the eyes of insects cannot be moved independently of the head, information about head posture is essential for stabilizing the visual world or providing information about the direction of gaze. We examined the external anatomy and physiological capabilities of a head posture proprioceptor, the prosternal organ (PO), located at the base of the neck in the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Family: Stratiomyidae). The PO is sexually isomorphic and is composed of two fused plates of about 130 mechanosensory hairs set in asymmetrical sockets whose orientation varies across the organ. A multi-joint mechanical coupling between the head, neck membrane, and contact sclerites deflects the hairs more or less to increase or decrease their level of excitation. The PO sensory afferents project to the central nervous system (CNS) via a pair of bilateral prosternal nerves (PN) to the fused thoracic ganglia. Simultaneous recording of spiking activity in the PN and videotaping of wind-induced and voluntary head movements around all three axes of head rotation reveal that a few PN afferents are active at rest, but activity increases tonically in response to head deflections. Activity is significantly modulated by change in head angles around the pitch (+/-40 degrees ), yaw (+/-30 degrees ) and roll (more than +/-90 degrees ) axes, although the dynamic range of spiking activity differs for each axis of rotation. Prosternal nerve afferents are bilaterally excited (inhibited) by pitch down (up); excited (inhibited) by head yaw toward the ipsilateral (contralateral) side; excited by roll down toward the ipsilateral side, but little inhibited by roll toward the opposite side. Although bilateral comparison of activity in PN afferents reliably encodes head posture around a given rotational axis, from the point of view of the CNS, the problem of encoding head posture is ill-posed with three axes of rotation and only two streams of afferent information. Furthermore, when the

  10. The Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework: Promoting Positive Outcomes in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children 3-5 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Head Start, US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a revision of the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework (2000), renamed The Head Start Child Development and Learning Framework: Promoting Positive Outcomes in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children 3-5 Years Old. The Framework outlines the essential areas of development and learning that are to be used by Head Start programs…

  11. A comparison of head and manual control for a position-control pursuit tracking task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.; Zacharias, G. L.; Porterfield, J. L.; Monk, D.; Arbak, C.

    1981-01-01

    Head control was compared with manual control in a pursuit tracking task involving proportional controlled-element dynamics. An integrated control/display system was used to explore tracking effectiveness in horizontal and vertical axes tracked singly and concurrently. Compared with manual tracking, head tracking resulted in a 50 percent greater rms error score, lower pilot gain, greater high-frequency phase lag and greater low-frequency remnant. These differences were statistically significant, but differences between horizontal- and vertical-axis tracking and between 1- and 2-axis tracking were generally small and not highly significant. Manual tracking results were matched with the optimal control model using pilot-related parameters typical of those found in previous manual control studies. Head tracking performance was predicted with good accuracy using the manual tracking model plus a model for head/neck response dynamics obtained from the literature.

  12. Random Positional Variation Among the Skull, Mandible, and Cervical Spine With Treatment Progression During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Peter H. Ahn, Andrew I.; Lee, C. Joe; Shen Jin; Miller, Ekeni; Lukaj, Alex; Milan, Elissa; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur K.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: With 54{sup o} of freedom from the skull to mandible to C7, ensuring adequate immobilization for head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT) is complex. We quantify variations in skull, mandible, and cervical spine movement between RT sessions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three sequential head-and-neck RT patients underwent serial computed tomography. Patients underwent planned rescanning at 11, 22, and 33 fractions for a total of 93 scans. Coordinates of multiple bony elements of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine were used to calculate rotational and translational changes of bony anatomy compared with the original planning scan. Results: Mean translational and rotational variations on rescanning were negligible, but showed a wide range. Changes in scoliosis and lordosis of the cervical spine between fractions showed similar variability. There was no correlation between positional variation and fraction number and no strong correlation with weight loss or skin separation. Semi-independent rotational and translation movement of the skull in relation to the lower cervical spine was shown. Positioning variability measured by means of vector displacement was largest in the mandible and lower cervical spine. Conclusions: Although only small overall variations in position between head-and-neck RT sessions exist on average, there is significant random variation in patient positioning of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine elements. Such variation is accentuated in the mandible and lower cervical spine. These random semirigid variations in positioning of the skull and spine point to a need for improved immobilization and/or confirmation of patient positioning in RT of the head and neck.

  13. Chemical composition of human femoral and head cartilage: influence of topographical position and fibrillation.

    PubMed Central

    Venn, M F

    1979-01-01

    Topographical variations in the composition of cartilage have been described in post-mortem femoral head cartilage. Weight bearing cartilage of the superior region was considerably thicker and had a higher glycosaminoglycan content and lower water and collagen content than cartilage at the periphery and below the fovea. These topographical variations in composition may result both from variations in thickness of the cartilage and from regional areas of degeneration. The composition of cartilage at different depths and with different surface characteristics from different areas of the femoral head was measured. Fibrillated cartilage both from the inferior and superior perifoveal areas had a reduced glycosaminoglycan content and higher water content than intact post-mortem specimens. Cartilage adjacent to fibrillated areas from the superior region did not differ in composition from intact areas of cartilage from the zenith of the femoral head. PMID:434948

  14. Cortisol Reactivity is Positively Related to Executive Function in Preschool Children Attending Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas; Razza, Rachel Peters

    2005-01-01

    This study examined relations among cortisol reactivity and measures of cognitive function and social behavior in 4- to 5-year-old children (N=169) attending Head Start. Saliva samples for the assay of cortisol were collected at the beginning, middle, and end of an approximately 45-min testing session. Moderate increase in cortisol followed by…

  15. Resilience against All Odds: A Positive Psychology Perspective of Adolescent-Headed Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lethale, Praline S.; Pillay, Jace

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the AIDS pandemic, adolescent-headed families are becoming a common trend in South Africa. However, little is known about the experiences of the adolescent, especially within the school context. Hence the purpose of this article was to explore the experiences of adolescents within the school context. During our initial review of…

  16. ESO Vacancy - Applications are invited for the position of - Head of the Office for Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    Assignment: A strong research-oriented scientific staff with diverse expertise is essential to fulfil ESO's mandate of providing and maintaining international competitive observatories for its community of users. In this context the Head of the Office for Science will be responsible to the Director General for the science policies, and the main tasks will be:

  17. [Muscle efficiency in total shoulder prosthesis implantation: dependence on position of the humeral head and rotator cuff function].

    PubMed

    Klages, A; Hurschler, C; Wülker, N; Windhagen, H

    2001-09-01

    Modern shoulder prostheses permit an anatomic reconstruction of the joint, although the biomechanical advantages are not proven. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between position of the humeral head and function of the shoulder prosthesis (muscle efficiency). Shoulder elevation-motion and rotator cuff defects were simulated in vitro in a robot-assisted shoulder simulator. The EPOCA Custom Offset shoulder prosthesis (Argomedical AG, Cham, CH) was implanted in seven normal shoulders (77 +/- 20 kg, 55 +/- 14 years). Active elevation was simulated by hydraulic cylinders, and scapulothoratic motion by a specially programmed industrial robot. Muscle efficiency (elevation-angle/muscle-force of the deltoid muscle) was measured in anatomic (ANA), medialised (MED) and lateralised (LAT) positions of the humeral head, with or without rotator cuff muscle deficiency. Medialisation increased efficiency by 0.03 +/- 0.04 deg/N (p = 0.022), lateralisation decreased it by 0.04 +/- 0.06 deg/N (p = 0.009). Supraspinatus muscle deficiency increased the deltoid force required to elevate the arm, and thus decreased efficiency (ANA p = 0.091, MED p = 0.018, LAT p = 0.028). The data confirm that the position of the humeral head affects the mechanics of total shoulder arthroplasty. Medialisation increases efficiency of the deltoid muscle and may prove useful in compensating isolated supraspinatus muscle deficiency. Lateralisation, in contrast, leads to an unfavorable situation.

  18. Prevalence of normal head CT and positive CT findings in a large cohort of patients with chronic headaches

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, N; Prabhakar, Anuj; Satish Kumar, A; Ahuja, Chirag K; Singh, Paramjeet

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to ascertain the frequency of normal head computed tomography (CT) scans and positive CT scan findings in patients having chronic headache as chief complaint. Head CT scans done over a period of two years were retrospectively evaluated. On the basis of CT reports, the patients were divided into two groups: Group A, having headache as the only complaint, and Group B, having headache and additional neurological signs or symptoms. A total of 2498 patient reports were evaluated. There were 1772 patients in Group A and 726 patients in Group B. In Group A, 82% (n = 1453) patients had normal head CT, whereas in Group B 74.5% (n = 541) patients had a normal CT scan. There were 13.22% head CT scans showing significant findings in Group B, as compared to 6.2% in Group A. Both these differences were found to be statistically significant. CT findings such as infections, neoplasm, hydrocephalus, and extra-axial collections were higher in Group B when compared to Group A. CT examination in patients with isolated chronic headache is normal in high percentage of patients. The frequency and distribution of various CT findings over different age groups in a large cohort of patients presenting with chronic headache are discussed. PMID:26342061

  19. Effect of cervical headgear wear on dynamic measurement of head position.

    PubMed

    Usumez, Serdar; Orhan, Metin; Uysal, Tancan

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effect of cervical headgear (CHG) wear on dynamic measurement of head posture during walking. Six male and 10 female patients (mean age, 11.9 +/- 1.9 years) who were receiving CHG therapy for correction of a Class II molar relationship as part of their orthodontic treatment were included in this study. Dynamic head posture measurements were recorded using an inclinometer and data logger apparatus during a walking session of 5 minutes. This procedure was repeated before (T1) and after (T2) insertion of CHG. The T1 and T2 measurements were repeated twice at 30-minute intervals. The mean dynamic head posture was calculated for each subject using the collected data. The means of these measurements were statistically compared using a paired t-test. Of the 16 subjects, 14 showed a cranial flexion with CHG wear in relation to T1 (1.4 to 8.9 degrees). The other two subjects showed a cranial extension of -1.6 and -3.8 degrees. The mean values at T1, T2 and T1-T2 were 1.4, -1.8, and 3.1 degrees, respectively, which indicated a mean cranial flexion at T2 in relation to T1. According to the paired sample t-test, there were statistically significant differences between the two measurements of dynamic head posture recorded before and after CHG insertion (P < 0.001). CHG wear causes a significant cranial flexion which may be responsible for its effects on the mandible.

  20. Positional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for People With Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome or Suspected Craniovertebral or Cervical Spine Abnormalities: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an inherited disorder affecting the connective tissue. EDS can manifest with symptoms attributable to the spine or craniovertebral junction (CVJ). In addition to EDS, numerous congenital, developmental, or acquired disorders can increase ligamentous laxity in the CVJ and cervical spine. Resulting abnormalities can lead to morbidity and serious neurologic complications. Appropriate imaging and diagnosis is needed to determine patient management and need for complex surgery. Some spinal abnormalities cause symptoms or are more pronounced while patients sit, stand, or perform specific movements. Positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) allows imaging of the spine or CVJ with patients in upright, weight-bearing positions and can be combined with dynamic maneuvers, such as flexion, extension, or rotation. Imaging in these positions could allow diagnosticians to better detect spinal or CVJ abnormalities than recumbent MRI or even a combination of other available imaging modalities might allow. Objectives To determine the diagnostic impact and clinical utility of pMRI for the assessment of (a) craniovertebral or spinal abnormalities among people with EDS and (b) major craniovertebral or cervical spine abnormalities among symptomatic people. Data Sources A literature search was performed using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, and EBM Reviews, for studies published from January 1, 1998, to September 28, 2014. Review Methods Studies comparing pMRI to recumbent MRI or other available imaging modalities for diagnosis and management of spinal or CVJ abnormalities were reviewed. All studies of spinal or CVJ imaging in people with EDS were included as well as studies among people with suspected major CVJ or cervical spine abnormalities (cervical or craniovertebral spine instability, basilar invagination, cranial settling, cervical stenosis, spinal cord compression, Chiari

  1. SU-E-T-589: Optimization of Patient Head Angle Position to Spare Hippocampus During the Brain Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, G; Kang, Y; Kang, S; Kim, T; Kim, D; Suh, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Hippocampus is one of the important organs which controls emotions, behaviors, movements the memorizing and learning ability. In the conventional head & neck therapy position, it is difficult to perform the hippocampal-sparing brain radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to investigate optimal head angle which can save the hippocampal-sparing and organ at risk (OAR) in conformal radiation therapy (CRT), Intensity modulation radiation therapy (IMRT) and helical tomotherapy (HT). Methods: Three types of radiation treatment plans, CRT, IMRT and Tomotherapy plans, were performed for 10 brain tumor patients. The image fusion between CT and MRI data were used in the contour due to the limited delineation of the target and OAR in the CT scan. The optimal condition plan was determined by comparing the dosimetric performance of the each plan with the use of various parameters which include three different techniques (CRT, IMRT, HT) and 4 angle (0, 15, 30, 40 degree). The each treatment plans of three different techniques were compared with the following parameters: conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), target coverage, dose in the OARs, monitor units (MU), beam on time and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: HI, CI and target coverage was most excellent in head angle 30 degree among all angle. When compared by modality, target coverage and CI showed good results in IMRT and TOMO than compared to the CRT. HI at the head angle 0 degrees is 1.137±0.17 (CRT), 1.085±0.09 (IMRT) and 1.077±0.06 (HT). HI at the head angle 30 degrees is 1.056±0.08 (CRT), 1.020±0.05 (IMRT) and 1.022±0.07 (HT). Conclusion: The results of our study show that when head angle tilted at 30 degree, target coverage, HI, CI were improved, and the dose delivered to OAR was reduced compared with conventional supine position in brain radiation therapy. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R&D program (No. 2013M2A2A7043498) and the Mid

  2. Comparison of the ease of laryngeal mask airway ProSeal insertion and the fiberoptic scoring according to the head position and the presence of a difficult airway

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Joo Hyun; Kim, Jong Hak; Kim, Youn Jin; Chang, Ri-Na

    2011-01-01

    Background The sniffing position is recommended for conventional laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion. However, there has been a high success rate of LMA insertion with the head in the neutral position. The effect of a difficult airway on the ease of LMA insertion is not clear. In this study, we compared the ease of LMA ProSeal™ (PLMA) insertion and the fiberoptic scoring according to the head position and the presence of a difficult airway. Methods After obtaining informed consent from the subjects, we enrolled 144 adult patients (age range: 18-65) with an ASA physical status 1 or 2. After evaluation of the airway, all the patients were grouped into the EA (easy airway) group (n = 68) and the DA (difficult airway) group (n = 76). According to the head position, each group was divided into the EA-SE (extension) group (n = 35), the EA-SN (sniffing) group (n = 33), the DA-SE group (n = 39) and the DA-SN group (n = 37). The success rate and insertion time at the first attempt were evaluated. The position of the PLMA was fiberoptically scored from the mask aperture of the airway tube in the original head position. After the head position was changed to the sniffing and neutral positions in the SE and SN group, respectively, the position of PLMA was re-evaluated fiberoptically. Results The success rate and insertion time at the first attempt and the fiberoptic score showed no significant difference among the groups. After head position was changed, there were no significant changes in the fiberopitc scores. Conclusions A difficult airway and the head position had no influence on the ease of PLMA insertion and the fiberopic score. Therefore, the head position can be selected according to the individual patient's situation. PMID:21602973

  3. Four-position heading effect calibration algorithm for rotation inertial navigation system based on fiber optic gyro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Pengyu; Li, Kui; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Fiber optic gyros (FOGs) are sensitive to the environment fields where they are mounted, and their drifts are easily affected when surrounding temperature field or magnetic field changes. In FOG strapdown inertial navigation system (INS), gyro drifts caused by environmental fields are stable mostly, thus they could be calibrated and compensated beforehand and would not cause obvious alignment and navigation errors. However, in rotation INS (RINS), although navigation errors caused by the constant components of FOG drifts could be well attenuated, the gyro sensing axes are changing relative to the environmental fields in the RINS, which would lead to periodically changing gyro drift components when inertial measurement unit is pointing to different headings, thus producing serious alignment and navigation errors in FOG RINS. To solve this problem, a four-position heading effect calibration algorithm was proposed, and its effectiveness and validity were verified through a dual-axis FOG RINS by turntable experiments. The experimental results show that the azimuth alignment accuracy of the FOG RINS improves from 0.2 deg to about 0.04 deg, increasing five times approximately, which illustrates that the proposed heading effect calibration algorithm could further improve the navigation performance of FOG RINS significantly.

  4. Four-position heading effect calibration algorithm for rotation inertial navigation system based on fiber optic gyro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Pengyu; Li, Kui; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Fiber optic gyros (FOGs) are sensitive to the environment fields where they are mounted, and their drifts are easily affected when surrounding temperature field or magnetic field changes. In FOG strapdown inertial navigation system (INS), gyro drifts caused by environmental fields are stable mostly, thus they could be calibrated and compensated beforehand and would not cause obvious alignment and navigation errors. However, in rotation INS (RINS), although navigation errors caused by the constant components of FOG drifts could be well attenuated, the gyro sensing axes are changing relative to the environmental fields in the RINS, which would lead to periodically changing gyro drift components when inertial measurement unit is pointing to different headings, thus producing serious alignment and navigation errors in FOG RINS. To solve this problem, a four-position heading effect calibration algorithm was proposed, and its effectiveness and validity were verified through a dual-axis FOG RINS by turntable experiments. The experimental results show that the azimuth alignment accuracy of the FOG RINS improves from 0.2 deg to about 0.04 deg, increasing five times approximately, which illustrates that the proposed heading effect calibration algorithm could further improve the navigation performance of FOG RINS significantly.

  5. Wide-screen autostereoscopic display system employing head-position tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetsutani, Nobuji; Omura, Katsuyuki; Kishino, Fumio

    1994-11-01

    We propose a head-tracking autostereoscopic display system based on magnetic-sensor tracking of the viewer's side-to-side location, and optical slewing of a stereoscopic image-pair array projected onto a lenticular screen so as to keep the images received by the viewer's eyes distinct. Viewer distance changes are accommodated by slight magnification changes of the projected image array. A high-definition-TV LCD projector is used with a 178-cm (70-in.) lenticular sheet (diagonal measurement) to provide impressive computer-generated 3D images over a particularly wide viewing zone. The system finds application in a virtual-space teleconferencing system that requires a large-scale stereoscopic display without the use of special viewing glasses.

  6. ESO Vacancy - Applications are invited for the position of Head of Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-06-01

    ESO employs in total approximately 500 staff members, and the Administration Division comprises the Administration at the Headquarters in Garching near Munich and the Administration in Santiago in Chile. The successful candidate will be supported by some 50 qualified staff members. As a member of the ESO Management Board the Head of Administration contributes essentially to the development of the overall policy, strategic planning, relations to the members of personnel and maintains professional contacts at highest level outside the Organisation. The main task is to provide efficient administrative services and advice to the Director General, Division Leaders and to staff members in the scientific and technical areas in the fields of financial planning and accounting, personnel management, purchasing, legal and contractual matters, information systems and building and site maintenance.

  7. Factors that increase external pressure to the fibular head region, but not medial region, during use of a knee-crutch/leg-holder system in the lithotomy position

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Ju; Takahashi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Background Paralysis of the common peroneal nerve is one of the relatively common nerve injuries related to the lithotomy position with the use of a knee-crutch/leg-holder system. Several risk factors have been implicated in lithotomy position-related common peroneal nerve paralysis during operation. Materials and methods In the present study, 21 young healthy volunteers participated in the investigation of the causes of the paralysis of the common peroneal nerve in the lithotomy position using a knee-crutch/leg-holder; Knee Crutch. We assessed the external pressure applied to the fibular head and medial regions using the Big-Mat pressure-distribution measurement system. Relationships between the peak contact pressure and physical characteristics, such as sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and fibular head circumference, were analyzed. Results The peak contact pressure to the fibular head region was greater for males than for females. For all subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between the peak contact pressure to the fibular head region and weight, BMI, or fibular head circumference. However, there was no significant difference between the peak contact pressure to the fibular head region and height for any subjects. Moreover, there was no sex-related difference in the peak contact pressure to the fibular medial region, and no significant differences between the peak contact pressure to the fibular medial region and height, weight, BMI, or fibular head circumference. Conclusion External pressure to the fibular head region is greater for males than for females using a knee-crutch/leg-holder system in the lithotomy position. In addition, the external pressure to the fibular head region, but not the fibular medial region, increases with increasing weight, BMI, and fibular head circumference. Therefore, these patient-related characteristics may contribute to the risk of developing lower-extremity neuropathy, leading to injury or ischemia

  8. A biomechanical evaluation of proximal femoral nail antirotation with respect to helical blade position in femoral head: A cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jin-Ho; Garg, Anant Kumar; Oh, Jong-Keon; Oh, Chang-Wug; Lee, Sung-Jae; Myung-Rae, Cho; Kim, Min-Keun; Kim, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite new developments in the management of osteoporotic fractures, complications like screw cutout are still found in the fixation of proximal femur fractures even with biomechanically proven better implants like proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA). The purpose of this cadaveric study was to investigate the biomechanical stability of this device in relation to two common positions (center-center and inferior-center) of the helical blade in the femoral head in unstable trochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods: Eight pairs of human cadaveric femurs were used; in one group [center-center (C-C) group], the helical blade of PFNA was fixed randomly in central position both in anteroposterior and lateral view, whereas in the other group it was fixed in inferior one-third position in anteroposterior and in central position in lateral view [inferior-center (I-C) group]. Unstable intertrochanteric fracture was created and each specimen was loaded cyclically till load to failure Results: Angular and rotational displacements were significantly higher within the C-C group compared to the I-C group in both unloaded and loaded condition. Loading to failure was higher in the I-C group compared to the C-C group. No statistical significance was found for this parameter. Correlations between tip apex distance, cyclic loading which lead to femoral head displacement, and ultimate load to failure showed a significant positive relationship. Conclusion: The I-C group was superior to the C-C group and provided better biomechanical stability for angular and rotational displacement. This study would be a stimulus for further experimental studies with larger number specimens and complex loading protocols at multicentres. PMID:23325963

  9. Self-motion perception and vestibulo-ocular reflex during whole body yaw rotation in standing subjects: the role of head position and neck proprioception.

    PubMed

    Panichi, Roberto; Botti, Fabio Massimo; Ferraresi, Aldo; Faralli, Mario; Kyriakareli, Artemis; Schieppati, Marco; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2011-04-01

    Self-motion perception and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) were studied during whole body yaw rotation in the dark at different static head positions. Rotations consisted of four cycles of symmetric sinusoidal and asymmetric oscillations. Self-motion perception was evaluated by measuring the ability of subjects to manually track a static remembered target. VOR was recorded separately and the slow phase eye position (SPEP) was computed. Three different head static yaw deviations (active and passive) relative to the trunk (0°, 45° to right and 45° to left) were examined. Active head deviations had a significant effect during asymmetric oscillation: the movement perception was enhanced when the head was kept turned toward the side of body rotation and decreased in the opposite direction. Conversely, passive head deviations had no effect on movement perception. Further, vibration (100 Hz) of the neck muscles splenius capitis and sternocleidomastoideus remarkably influenced perceived rotation during asymmetric oscillation. On the other hand, SPEP of VOR was modulated by active head deviation, but was not influenced by neck muscle vibration. Through its effects on motion perception and reflex gain, head position improved gaze stability and enhanced self-motion perception in the direction of the head deviation.

  10. Dosimetric comparison of the specific anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) to 14 anatomical head models using a novel definition for the mobile phone positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kainz, Wolfgang; Christ, Andreas; Kellom, Tocher; Seidman, Seth; Nikoloski, Neviana; Beard, Brian; Kuster, Niels

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents new definitions for obtaining reproducible results in numerical phone dosimetry. Numerous numerical dosimetric studies have been published about the exposure of mobile phone users which concluded with conflicting results. However, many of these studies lack reproducibility due to shortcomings in the description of the phone positioning. The new approach was tested by two groups applying two different numerical program packages to compare the specific anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) to 14 anatomically correct head models. A novel definition for the positioning of mobile phones next to anatomically correct head models is given along with other essential parameters to be reported. The definition is solely based on anatomical characteristics of the head. A simple up-to-date phone model was used to determine the peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) of mobile phones in SAM and in the anatomically correct head models. The results were validated by measurements. The study clearly shows that SAM gives a conservative estimate of the exposure in anatomically correct head models for head only tissue. Depending on frequency, phone position and head size the numerically calculated 10 g averaged SAR in the pinna can be up to 2.1 times greater than the peak spatial SAR in SAM. Measurements in small structures, such as the pinna, will significantly increase the uncertainty; therefore SAM was designed for SAR assessment in the head only. Whether SAM will provide a conservative value for the pinna depends on the pinna SAR limit of the safety standard considered.

  11. Novel planar laser encoder system for two-dimensional positioning with ultrahigh head-to-scale alignment tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chyan-Chyi; Chang, Calvin C.; Kao, Ching-Fen; Peng, Gwo-Sheng

    2003-11-01

    Laser encoders overcome the fundamental resolution limit of geometrical optical encoders by cleverly converting the diffraction limit to phase coded information so as to facilitate nanometer displacement measurement. As positioning information is coded within the optical wavefront of laser encoders, interferometry principles must be adopted in the design of the laser encoders. This effect has posed a very strong alignment tolerance among various components of the whole laser encoder, which in turn imposes a serious user adaptation bottleneck. Out of all alignment tolerances, the head-to-scale alignment tolerance represents the most important hindrance for wider ap-plications. This paper presents a novel laser planar encoder, which serves as a two-dimensional position detection apparatus for precision machine applications and can provide a measuring resolution less than 1 nm. Improving the IBM laser optical encoder design by taking into consideration manufacturing tolerance of various optical components, an innovative two-dimensional laser encoder with ultra high head-to-scale tolerance is presented. It was identified that this newly proposed laser encoder design could avoid the effect of differences in polarization diffraction efficiencies for the 2-D grating scale used. Optimizing the system performance by cleverly designing the profile of the 2-D grating scale was also detailed. The effect of non-uniform temperature field within the head-to-scale range that can yield a nonzero initial phase so as to decrease the system measurement accuracy was analyzed. In addition, misalignment of the polarizers located in front the photodiodes were identified to be the main cause for imperfect Lissajous circles, which may lower the measuring resolution when traditional arctangent algorithm was adopted for circular polarization interferometers. The resolution of the newly developed laser planar encoder was verified by experiments and was found to agree well with the theoretical

  12. Effect of mandibular advancement on the natural position of the head: a preliminary study of 3-dimensional cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaozhen; Liu, Yanpu; Edwards, Sean P

    2013-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the potential effect of advancement by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) on the natural position of the head by using 3-dimensional cephalomentric analysis. Seven consecutive patients who had had only BSSO advancement, and had had preoperative and 6-week postoperative cone beam computed tomography (CT) scans, were recruited to this retrospective study. Two variables, SNB and SNC2, were used to indicate the craniomandibular alignment and craniocervical inclination, respectively, in the midsagittal plane. Using 3-dimensional cephalometric analysis software, the SNB and the SNC2 were recorded in volume and measured in the midsagittal plane at 3 independent time-points. The reliability was measured and a paired t test used to assess the significance of differences between the means of SNB and SNC2 before and after operation. The 3-dimensional cephalometric measurement showed good reliability. The SNB was increased as planned in all the mandibles that were advanced, the cervical vertebrae were brought forward after BSSO, and the SNC2 was significantly increased in 6 of the 7 patients. Three-dimensional cephalometric analysis may provide an alternative way of assessing cephalometrics. After BSSO advancement, the natural position of the head changed by increasing the craniocervical inclination in an anteroposterior direction.

  13. Is ExacTrac x-ray system an alternative to CBCT for positioning patients with head and neck cancers?

    SciTech Connect

    Clemente, Stefania; Chiumento, Costanza; Fiorentino, Alba; Cozzolino, Mariella; Oliviero, Caterina; Califano, Giorgia; Caivano, Rocchina; Fusco, Vincenzo; Simeon, Vittorio

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of a six-degrees-of freedom (6D) correction using ExacTrac robotics system in patients with head-and-neck (HN) cancer receiving radiation therapy.Methods: Local setup accuracy was analyzed for 12 patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Patient position was imaged daily upon two different protocols, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and ExacTrac (ET) images correction. Setup data from either approach were compared in terms of both residual errors after correction and punctual displacement of selected regions of interest (Mandible, C2, and C6 vertebral bodies).Results: On average, both protocols achieved reasonably low residual errors after initial correction. The observed differences in shift vectors between the two protocols showed that CBCT tends to weight more C2 and C6 at the expense of the mandible, while ET tends to average more differences among the different ROIs.Conclusions: CBCT, even without 6D correction capabilities, seems preferable to ET for better consistent alignment and the capability to see soft tissues. Therefore, in our experience, CBCT represents a benchmark for positioning head and neck cancer patients.

  14. Passive Removal of Silicone Oil with Temporal Head Position through Two 23-Gauge Cannulas.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhong; Ke, Zhi Sheng; Zheng, Qian; Zhao, Zhen Quan; Song, Zong Ming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a new approach for removal of silicone oil. Methods. All surgeries were performed using 23-gauge vitrectomy system with two transconjunctival sutureless cannulas. At the beginning, most of the silicone oil was removed by traditional microinvasive vitrectomy system through inferior-temporal cannula. Then, the blood transfusion tube is removed from the inferior-temporal cannula, and the fluid-air exchange is performed. A passive fluid-air exchange was performed to aspirate the residual silicone oil after gradually turning the patient's head temporally by approximately 90° gradually. Results. After the surgery, all patients had a clear anterior chamber and vitreous cavity on slit lamp and B scan examination, respectively. The mean time taken for silicone oil removal and total surgery was 8.0 ± 1.4 minutes and 12.4 ± 2.5 minutes, respectively. The mean intraocular pressure 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery was 9.0 ± 5.8 mmHg, 11.3 ± 7.6 mmHg, 16.1 ± 6.9 mmHg, 17.7 ± 4.8 mmHg, and 17.1 ± 3.5 mmHg, respectively. Conclusion. This new approach may provide a safe and fast method to remove the silicone oil.

  15. Passive Removal of Silicone Oil with Temporal Head Position through Two 23-Gauge Cannulas

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhong; Ke, Zhi Sheng; Zheng, Qian; Zhao, Zhen Quan; Song, Zong Ming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a new approach for removal of silicone oil. Methods. All surgeries were performed using 23-gauge vitrectomy system with two transconjunctival sutureless cannulas. At the beginning, most of the silicone oil was removed by traditional microinvasive vitrectomy system through inferior-temporal cannula. Then, the blood transfusion tube is removed from the inferior-temporal cannula, and the fluid-air exchange is performed. A passive fluid-air exchange was performed to aspirate the residual silicone oil after gradually turning the patient's head temporally by approximately 90° gradually. Results. After the surgery, all patients had a clear anterior chamber and vitreous cavity on slit lamp and B scan examination, respectively. The mean time taken for silicone oil removal and total surgery was 8.0 ± 1.4 minutes and 12.4 ± 2.5 minutes, respectively. The mean intraocular pressure 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery was 9.0 ± 5.8 mmHg, 11.3 ± 7.6 mmHg, 16.1 ± 6.9 mmHg, 17.7 ± 4.8 mmHg, and 17.1 ± 3.5 mmHg, respectively. Conclusion. This new approach may provide a safe and fast method to remove the silicone oil. PMID:27418976

  16. Review of the Clinical and Biologic Aspects of Human Papillomavirus-Positive Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Blitzer, Grace C.; Smith, Molly A.; Harris, Stephen L.; Kimple, Randall J.

    2014-03-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), a known etiology of a subset of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNCs), causes numerous alterations in normal cellular functions. This article reviews the biology, detection, and treatment of HPV-positive HNC. The role of HPV oncoproteins in tumor development, the natural history of HPV infection, and risk factors for and prevention of transmission of oral HPV are considered. Commonly used methods for detecting HPV infection, including limitations of these methods, are discussed to aid the practicing clinician in using these tests in their clinical practice. Clinical characteristics of HPV-positive HNC, including potential explanations for the improved outcomes seen in patients with HPV-positive HNC, are assessed. Ongoing clinical trials specific for patients with HPV-positive HNC are described, and areas in need of additional research are summarized. Until the results of ongoing trials are known, treatment of HPV-positive HNC should not differ in clinical practice from treatment of similar non-HPV related cancers.

  17. Classification Accuracy of Serum Apo A-I and S100B for the Diagnosis of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Prediction of Abnormal Initial Head Computed Tomography Scan

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, Brian J.; He, Hua; Mookerjee, Sohug; Jones, Courtney; Kiechle, Karin; Moynihan, Ryan; Wojcik, Susan M.; Grant, William D.; Secreti, LaLainia M.; Triner, Wayne; Moscati, Ronald; Leinhart, August; Ellis, George L.; Khan, Jawwad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the current study was to determine the classification accuracy of serum S100B and apolipoprotein (apoA-I) for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and abnormal initial head computed tomography (CT) scan, and to identify ethnic, racial, age, and sex variation in classification accuracy. We performed a prospective, multi-centered study of 787 patients with mTBI who presented to the emergency department within 6 h of injury and 467 controls who presented to the outpatient laboratory for routine blood work. Serum was analyzed for S100B and apoA-I. The outcomes were disease status (mTBI or control) and initial head CT scan. At cutoff values defined by 90% of controls, the specificity for mTBI using S100B (0.899 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78–0.92]) was similar to that using apoA-I (0.902 [0.87–0.93]), and the sensitivity using S100B (0.252 [0.22–0.28]) was similar to that using apoA-I (0.249 [0.22–0.28]). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the combination of S100B and apoA-I (0.738, 95% CI: 0.71, 0.77), however, was significantly higher than the AUC for S100B alone (0.709, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.74, p=0.001) and higher than the AUC for apoA-I alone (0.645, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.68, p<0.0001). The AUC for prediction of abnormal initial head CT scan using S100B was 0.694 (95%CI: 0.62, 0.77) and not significant for apoA-I. At a S100B cutoff of <0.060 μg/L, the sensitivity for abnormal head CT was 98%, and 22.9% of CT scans could have been avoided. There was significant age and race-related variation in the accuracy of S100B for the diagnosis of mTBI. The combined use of serum S100B and apoA-I maximizes classification accuracy for mTBI, but only S100B is needed to classify abnormal head CT scan. Because of significant subgroup variation in classification accuracy, age and race need to be considered when using S100B to classify subjects for mTBI. PMID:23758329

  18. Head Start Teachers' Perceptions of Implementing Classroom Positive Behavior Support: Insights for Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novetsky, Jason S.

    2009-01-01

    Younger children are demonstrating increasingly more serious problem behaviors (Walker, 1998). The present study concerned further investigation of early implementation of a promising behavior management model known as Positive Behavior Support (PBS). PBS has been shown to be successful in elementary and secondary schools (Metzler, Biglan, &…

  19. Positive Reinforcement Used to Control Head-Turning in a Retarded Adult

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Bob F.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    An institutionalized, retarded, adult male's response to verbal commands was increased through the use of positive control of a discriminative stimulus. Operant conditioning was noted as a possible means of enabling retarded individuals to acquire behaviors fundamental to a self-help repetoire. (Editor)

  20. Assessment of shoulder position variation and its impact on IMRT and VMAT doses for head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For radiotherapy of the head and neck, 5-point mask immobilization is used to stabilize the shoulders. Still, the daily position of the shoulders during treatment may be different from the position in the treatment plan despite correct isocenter setup. The purpose of this study was to determine the interfractional displacement of the shoulders relative to isocenter over the course of treatment and the associated dosimetric effect of this displacement. Methods The extent of shoulder displacements relative to isocenter was assessed for 10 patients in 5-point thermoplastic masks using image registration and daily CT-on-rails scans. Dosimetric effects on IMRT and VMAT plans were evaluated in Pinnacle based on simulation CTs modified to represent shoulder shifts between 3 and 15 mm in the superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and right-left directions. The impact of clinically observed shoulder shifts on the low-neck dose distributions was examined. Results Shoulder motion was 2-5 mm in each direction on average but reached 20 mm. Superior shifts resulted in coverage loss, whereas inferior shifts increased the dose to the brachial plexus. These findings were generally consistent for both IMRT and VMAT plans. Over a course of observed shifts, the dose to 99% of the CTV decreased by up to 101 cGy, and the brachial plexus dose increased by up to 72 cGy. Conclusions he position of the shoulder affects target coverage and critical structure dose, and may therefore be a concern during the setup of head and neck patients, particularly those with low neck primary disease. PMID:22316381

  1. Effect of eye position on the projected stimulus distance in a binocular head-mounted display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCandless, Jeffrey W.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    2000-05-01

    During vergence eye movements, the effective separation between the two eyes varies because the nodal point of each eye is offset from the center of rotation. As a result, the projected distance of a binocularly presented virtual object changes as the observer converges and diverges. A model of eye and stimulus position illustrates that if an observer converges toward a binocular virtual stimulus that is fixed on the display, the projected stimulus will shift outward away from the observer. Conversely, if the observer diverges toward a binocular virtual stimulus that is fixed on the display, the projected stimulus will shift inward. For example, if an observer diverges from 25 cm to 300 cm, a binocular virtual stimulus projected at 300 cm will shift inward to 241 cm. Accurate depiction of a fixed stimulus distance in a binocular display requires that the stimulus position on the display surface should be adjusted in real- time to compensate for the observer's eye movements.

  2. [Strategies for simultaneous control of the equilibrium and of the head position during the raising movement of a leg].

    PubMed

    Mouchnino, L; Aurenty, R; Massion, J; Pedotti, A

    1991-01-01

    The coordination between equilibrium control and the ability to maintain the position of given segments (head, trunk) was studied in standing subjects, instructed to raise one leg laterally at an angle of 45 degrees in response to a light. Two sources of light placed at eye level indicated the side on which the movement was to be performed. Two populations were compared: naive subjects and dancers. Two control strategies were identified. An "inclination" strategy was used by the naive subjects. This consisted of an external rotation of the body around the antero-posterior ankle joint axis; a counter-rotation of the head with respect to the trunk was observed, which ensured some stabilization in the horizontal plane of the interorbital line. A "translation" strategy was used by the dancers. Here the external rotation of the leg around the ankle joint was associated with a feed-forward counter-rotation of the trunk around the coxofemoral joint so that the horizontality of the interorbital line and the verticality of the trunk axis were maintained. This new coordination results from a long-term training and indicates that a new motor program has been elaborated. PMID:1904298

  3. CT guidance is needed to achieve reproducible positioning of the mouse head for repeat precision cranial irradiation.

    PubMed

    Armour, M; Ford, E; Iordachita, I; Wong, J

    2010-01-01

    To study the effects of cranial irradiation, we have constructed an all-plastic mouse bed equipped with an immobilizing head holder. The bed integrates with our in-house Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) for precision focal irradiation experiments and cone-beam CT. We assessed the reproducibility of our head holder to determine the need for CT-based targeting in cranial irradiation studies. To measure the holder's reproducibility, a C57BL/6 mouse was positioned and CT-scanned nine times. Image sets were loaded into the Pinnacle(3) radiation treatment planning system and were registered to one another by one investigator using rigid body alignment of the cranial regions. Rotational and translational offsets were measured. The average vector shift between scans was 0.80 +/- 0.49 mm. Such a shift is too large to selectively treat subregions of the mouse brain. In response, we use onboard imaging to guide cranial irradiation applications that require sub-millimeter precision.

  4. Stereoscopic display employing head-position tracking using large format lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Tomohiko

    1993-09-01

    Two stereoscopic systems are described which permits the observation of a high resolution image by several persons simultaneously and suited to mass production. One is a time- parallel method and another is a time-interlaced method. In the time-parallel stereoscopic display system, by mechanically driving several video projectors according to the observers' eye position, the images projected on a large format convex lenses are varied, the left image rays continuously entering the observers' left eyes and vice versa. In the time-interlaced stereoscopic display system, the image output screen is formed by a transparent type color liquid crystal plate with a large format lens. The lens is arranged so that an image of viewers is projected to the plane of a black-and-white CRT which is positioned behind as a back light of the system. To view the stereo image on the color liquid crystal plate, the alternating left- and right-eye perspectives must be synchronized with an infrared lightening system and the imaging of the viewers on the CRT that the back light distributes the light to the left eyes when the left-eye view is displayed on the color liquid crystal plate and vice versa.

  5. Neck control after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck control outcomes after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of fifty patients with node-positive head and neck cancer who received definitive radiochemotherapy. Twelve patients subsequently underwent neck dissection for suspicious recurrent or persistent disease. A median dose of 70 Gy (range 60-70.6) was delivered to involved nodes. Response evaluation was performed at a median of 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Results Neck failure was observed in 11 patients and the 3-year regional control (RC) rate was 77.1%. Neck dissection was performed in 10 of the 11 patients; seven of these cases were successfully salvaged, and the ultimate rate of neck control was 92%. The remaining two patients who received neck dissection had negative pathologic results. On univariate analysis, initial nodal size > 2 cm, a less-than-complete response at the primary site, post-radiotherapy nodal size > 1.5 cm, and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were associated with RC. On multivariate analysis, less-than-complete primary site response and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were identified as independent prognostic factors for RC. Conclusions The neck failure rate after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection was 22%. Two-thirds of these were successfully salvaged with neck dissection and the ultimate neck control rate was 92%. Our results suggest that planned neck dissection might not be necessary in patients with complete response of primary site, no evidence of residual lesion > 1.5 cm, or no necrotic lymph nodes at the 1-2 months follow-up evaluation after radiotherapy. PMID:22313843

  6. SU-E-J-12: An Image-Guided Soft Robotic Patient Positioning System for Maskless Head-And-Neck Cancer Radiotherapy: A Proof-Of-Concept Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ogunmolu, O; Gans, N; Jiang, S; Gu, X

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We propose a surface-image-guided soft robotic patient positioning system for maskless head-and-neck radiotherapy. The ultimate goal of this project is to utilize a soft robot to realize non-rigid patient positioning and real-time motion compensation. In this proof-of-concept study, we design a position-based visual servoing control system for an air-bladder-based soft robot and investigate its performance in controlling the flexion/extension cranial motion on a mannequin head phantom. Methods: The current system consists of Microsoft Kinect depth camera, an inflatable air bladder (IAB), pressured air source, pneumatic valve actuators, custom-built current regulators, and a National Instruments myRIO microcontroller. The performance of the designed system was evaluated on a mannequin head, with a ball joint fixed below its neck to simulate torso-induced head motion along flexion/extension direction. The IAB is placed beneath the mannequin head. The Kinect camera captures images of the mannequin head, extracts the face, and measures the position of the head relative to the camera. This distance is sent to the myRIO, which runs control algorithms and sends actuation commands to the valves, inflating and deflating the IAB to induce head motion. Results: For a step input, i.e. regulation of the head to a constant displacement, the maximum error was a 6% overshoot, which the system then reduces to 0% steady-state error. In this initial investigation, the settling time to reach the regulated position was approximately 8 seconds, with 2 seconds of delay between the command start of motion due to capacitance of the pneumatics, for a total of 10 seconds to regulate the error. Conclusion: The surface image-guided soft robotic patient positioning system can achieve accurate mannequin head flexion/extension motion. Given this promising initial Result, the extension of the current one-dimensional soft robot control to multiple IABs for non-rigid positioning control

  7. Effect of position resolution on LoR discrimination for a dual-head Compton camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillam, John E.; Beveridge, Toby E.; Boston, Andrew J.; Boston, Helen C.; Cooper, Reynold J.; Hall, Chris J.; Mather, Andrew R.; Nolan, Paul J.; Lewis, Rob A.

    2007-04-01

    With the current increase in effective germanium semiconductor detection technology, a positron emission tomography system comprising two opposing HPGe detectors is under development. This type of detection offers not only improvement to some aspects of PET, but also the ability to record single-photon information in the detection process. This information can be used in stand-alone imaging, and also as an additional information source in the PET process. Discrimination based on this single-photon information was proposed; however, the effectiveness of this discrimination is dependent on the resolution of the single-photon information. Simulations of the detection system, in which the positional resolution of the interaction information is variable, was conducted. The single-photon information has then been used in the PET imaging process and its effect on image improvement shown. Much like mechanical collimation, electronic collimation may be used to remove false LoRs from an image, at the expense of efficiency. Moreover, unlike mechanical collimation, this trade off may be dynamically adjusted post data acquisition.

  8. HPV Infection and Cervical Abnormalities in HIV Positive Women in Different Regions of Brazil, a Middle-Income Country.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Beatriz C; Suehiro, Tamy T; Consolaro, Marcia El; Silva, Vania Rs

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is a virus that is distributed worldwide, and persistent infection with high-risk genotypes (HR-HPV) is considered the most important factor for the development of squamous cell cervical carcinoma (SCC). However, by itself, it is not sufficient, and other factors may contribute to the onset and progression of lesions. For example, infection with other sexually transmitted diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be a factor. Previous studies have shown the relationship between HPV infection and SCC development among HIV-infected women in many regions of the world, with great emphasis on low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). Brazil is considered a LMIC and has great disparities across different regions. The purpose of this review was to highlight the current knowledge about HPV infection and cervical abnormalities in HIV+ women in Brazil because this country is an ideal setting to evaluate HIV impact on SCC development and serves as model of LMICs and low-resource settings.

  9. Head position change is not associated with acute changes in bilateral cerebral oxygenation in stable preterm infants during the first three days of life

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Steve Ming-Che; Rao, Rakesh; Mathur, Amit M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several recent intraventricular hemorrhage prevention bundles include midline head positioning to prevent potential disturbances in cerebral hemodynamics. We aimed to study the impact of head position change on regional cerebral saturations (SctO2) in preterm infants (< 30 weeks GA) during the first three days of life. Study Design Bilateral SctO2 was measured by near infrared spectroscopy. The infant's head was turned sequentially to each side from midline (baseline) in thirty-minute intervals while keeping the body supine. Bilateral SctO2 before and after each position change were compared using paired t-test. Results In relatively stable preterm infants (gestational age 26.5±1.7 weeks, birth weight 930±220g; n=20), bilateral SctO2 remained within normal range (71.1% - 75.3%) when the head was turned from midline position to either side. Conclusion Stable preterm infants tolerated brief changes in head position from midline without significant alternation in bilateral SctO2; the impact on critically ill infants needs further evaluation. PMID:25282608

  10. Integrative and comparative genomic analysis of HPV-positive and HPV-negative head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Seiwert, Tanguy Y; Zuo, Zhixiang; Keck, Michaela K; Khattri, Arun; Pedamallu, Chandra S.; Stricker, Thomas; Brown, Christopher; Pugh, Trevor J.; Stojanov, Petar; Cho, Juok; Lawrence, Michael S.; Getz, Gad; Brägelmann, Johannes; DeBoer, Rebecca; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Langerman, Alexander; Portugal, Louis; Blair, Elizabeth; Stenson, Kerstin; Lingen, Mark W.; Cohen, Ezra EW; Vokes, Everett E.; White, Kevin P.; Hammerman, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The genetic differences between Human papilloma Virus (HPV)-positive and negative head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) remain largely unknown. In order to identify differential biology and novel therapeutic targets for both entities we determined mutations and copy number aberrations in a large cohort of locoregionally-advanced HNSCC. Experimental Design We performed massively parallel sequencing of 617 cancer-associated genes in 120 matched tumor/normal samples (42.5% HPV-positive). Mutations and copy number aberrations were determined and results validated with a secondary method. Results The overall mutational burden in HPV-negative and HPV-positive HNSCC was similar with an average of 15.2 versus 14.4 somatic exonic mutations in the targeted cancer-associated genes. HPV-negative tumors showed a mutational spectrum concordant with published lung squamous cell carcinoma analyses with enrichment for mutations in TP53, CDKN2A, MLL2, CUL3, NSD1, PIK3CA and NOTCH genes. HPV-positive tumors showed unique mutations in DDX3X, FGFR2/3 and aberrations in PIK3CA, KRAS, MLL2/3 and NOTCH1 were enriched in HPV-positive tumors. Currently targetable genomic alterations were identified in FGFR1, DDR2, EGFR, FGFR2/3, EPHA2 and PIK3CA. EGFR, CCND1, and FGFR1 amplifications occurred in HPV-negative tumors, while 17.6% of HPV-positive tumors harbored mutations in Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor genes (FGFR2/3) including six recurrent FGFR3 S249C mutations. HPV-positive tumors showed a 5.8% incidence of KRAS mutations, and DNA repair gene aberrations including 7.8% BRCA1/2 mutations were identified. Conclusions The mutational makeup of HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC differs significantly, including targetable genes. HNSCC harbors multiple therapeutically important genetic aberrations, including frequent aberrations in the FGFR and PI3K pathway genes. PMID:25056374

  11. Effective seat-to-head transmissibility in whole-body vibration: Effects of posture and arm position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmatalla, Salam; DeShaw, Jonathan

    2011-12-01

    Seat-to-head transmissibility is a biomechanical measure that has been widely used for many decades to evaluate seat dynamics and human response to vibration. Traditionally, transmissibility has been used to correlate single-input or multiple-input with single-output motion; it has not been effectively used for multiple-input and multiple-output scenarios due to the complexity of dealing with the coupled motions caused by the cross-axis effect. This work presents a novel approach to use transmissibility effectively for single- and multiple-input and multiple-output whole-body vibrations. In this regard, the full transmissibility matrix is transformed into a single graph, such as those for single-input and single-output motions. Singular value decomposition and maximum distortion energy theory were used to achieve the latter goal. Seat-to-head transmissibility matrices for single-input/multiple-output in the fore-aft direction, single-input/multiple-output in the vertical direction, and multiple-input/multiple-output directions are investigated in this work. A total of ten subjects participated in this study. Discrete frequencies of 0.5-16 Hz were used for the fore-aft direction using supported and unsupported back postures. Random ride files from a dozer machine were used for the vertical and multiple-axis scenarios considering two arm postures: using the armrests or grasping the steering wheel. For single-input/multiple-output, the results showed that the proposed method was very effective in showing the frequencies where the transmissibility is mostly sensitive for the two sitting postures and two arm positions. For multiple-input/multiple-output, the results showed that the proposed effective transmissibility indicated higher values for the armrest-supported posture than for the steering-wheel-supported posture.

  12. Interpersonal relationships in isolation and confinement: Long-term bed rest in head-down tilt position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karine, Weiss; Gabriel, Moser

    The long-term bed-rest was organized by ESA and CNES, in order to simulate the physiological effects of weightlessness: eight volunteers had to stay 42 days in bed, in a head down tilt position (-6 °). There were two subjects in a room, they could not be alone and it was difficult for them to have their own personal space and intimacy. In these circumstances, as in outer space, interpersonal relationships were of prime importance. This situation enabled us, through systematic observation, to analyze the evolution of the relational behavior in dyads, and to quote some social indicators of adaptation. Results show significant withdrawal, and the time spent alone was marked by the emergence, during the experiment, of specific preferential activities. Behavioral contagion was observed in each dyad (people engaged in the same activities at the same time), except in the one case of abandon. Moreover, the highest rates of inactivity and withdrawal were noted in this case. Verbal indicators were useful to comment these results and showed that, for all the dyads, one of the two subjects always played a regulating role by expressing a very positive perception of the situation. These results emphasize the importance of psycho-sociological factors in isolation and confinement. Thus, it appears that different modalities of interpersonal relationships, and not only verbal interactions, play a significant role in adaptation to stress situations.

  13. Cellular mechanism of the conduction abnormalities induced by serum from anti-Ro/SSA-positive patients in rabbit hearts.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, S; Nascimento, J H; Bonfa, E; Levy, R; Oliveira, S F; Tavares, A V; de Carvalho, A C

    1994-01-01

    In this study, IgG fractions from sera of SLE patients with anti-Ro/SSA or anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB activity were tested in Langendorff preparations of adult rabbit hearts, aiming to reproduce the cardiac manifestations observed in neonatal lupus in an experimental model. The hearts were perfused with normal Tyrode's solution for 30 min, followed by perfusion with Tyrode's containing 0.3 mg/ml of anti-Ro/SSA- (or anti-Ro/La-) positive IgG (nine sera), anti-ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-positive IgG (five sera), or IgG fractions from normal donors (five sera). In one third of the experiments done with anti-Ro/La-positive IgG, heart block was observed. With the remaining fractions, a decrease in heart rate of 17.1% was observed, but normal sinus rhythm was maintained. The IgG fractions with anti-RNP activity (five experiments) and from normal sera (six experiments) reduced heart rates by 12.9 and 3.3%, respectively, but heart block was not observed. To further characterize the cellular mechanisms involved in the conduction disturbances observed in the whole rabbit hearts, we conducted experiments with ventricular myocytes isolated from young rabbit hearts, studied by whole cell patch-clamp technique. In these experiments, the slow inward currents were analyzed during the superfusion of the cell with normal Tyrode's solution and 5 min after superfusion with Tyrode's solution containing 0.3 mg/ml of anti-Ro/SSA- (or anti-Ro/La-) positive IgG (five sera), anti-RNP-positive IgG (three sera), or IgG from normal donors (four sera). Resting and action potential amplitudes were not affected by any of the sera used. The anti-Ro/SSA IgG fraction induced a mean reduction in the peak slow inward current of 31.6%. IgG fractions with anti-RNP activity reduced slow inward current by 4.4%, whereas IgG fractions from normal donors increased this current by 3.3%. IgG-free fractions from sera of patients with anti-Ro/SSA activity did not alter the peak slow inward current. These results

  14. Tilt from a head-inverted position produces displacement of visual subjective vertical in the opposite direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, D. E.; Poston, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Observers who lie supine with their heads inverted report large (up to 60 deg) tilt of a light line in an otherwise dark room when their heads and/or bodies are tilted. Most observers report that visual subjective vertical is tilted in the direction opposite to the head/body tilt. The results can be interpreted by employing a model developed by Mittelstaedt (1983), which suggests that visual subjective vertical is derived from a gravity vector transduced by vestibular and somesthetic receptors combined with 'idiotropic vectors' that represent the orientation of the observer's own head and body axes.

  15. Abnormal movement of tropomyosin and response of myosin heads and actin during the ATPase cycle caused by the Arg167His, Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu mutations in TPM1 gene.

    PubMed

    Borovikov, Yurii S; Rysev, Nikita A; Chernev, Aleksey A; Avrova, Stanislava V; Karpicheva, Olga E; Borys, Danuta; Śliwińska, Małgorzata; Moraczewska, Joanna

    2016-09-15

    Amino acid substitutions: Arg167His, Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu, located in a consensus actin-binding site of the striated muscle tropomyosin Tpm1.1 (TM), were used to investigate mechanisms of the thin filament regulation. The azimuthal movement of TM strands on the actin filament and the responses of the myosin heads and actin subunits during the ATPase cycle were studied using fluorescence polarization of muscle fibres. The recombinant wild-type and mutant TMs labelled with 5-IAF, 1,5-IAEDANS-labelled S1and FITC-phalloidin F-actin were incorporated into the ghost muscle fibres to acquire information on the orientation of the probes relative to the fibre axis. The substitutions Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu shifted TM strands into the actin filament centre, whereas Arg167His moved TM towards the periphery of the filament. In the presence of Arg167Gly-TM and Lys168Glu-TM the fraction of actin monomers that were switched on and the number of the myosin heads strongly bound to F-actin were abnormally high even under conditions close to relaxation. In contrast, Arg167His-TM decreased the fraction of switched on actin and reduced the formation of strongly bound myosin heads throughout the ATPase cycle. We concluded that the altered TM-actin contacts destabilized the thin filament and affected the actin-myosin interactions.

  16. Abnormal movement of tropomyosin and response of myosin heads and actin during the ATPase cycle caused by the Arg167His, Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu mutations in TPM1 gene.

    PubMed

    Borovikov, Yurii S; Rysev, Nikita A; Chernev, Aleksey A; Avrova, Stanislava V; Karpicheva, Olga E; Borys, Danuta; Śliwińska, Małgorzata; Moraczewska, Joanna

    2016-09-15

    Amino acid substitutions: Arg167His, Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu, located in a consensus actin-binding site of the striated muscle tropomyosin Tpm1.1 (TM), were used to investigate mechanisms of the thin filament regulation. The azimuthal movement of TM strands on the actin filament and the responses of the myosin heads and actin subunits during the ATPase cycle were studied using fluorescence polarization of muscle fibres. The recombinant wild-type and mutant TMs labelled with 5-IAF, 1,5-IAEDANS-labelled S1and FITC-phalloidin F-actin were incorporated into the ghost muscle fibres to acquire information on the orientation of the probes relative to the fibre axis. The substitutions Arg167Gly and Lys168Glu shifted TM strands into the actin filament centre, whereas Arg167His moved TM towards the periphery of the filament. In the presence of Arg167Gly-TM and Lys168Glu-TM the fraction of actin monomers that were switched on and the number of the myosin heads strongly bound to F-actin were abnormally high even under conditions close to relaxation. In contrast, Arg167His-TM decreased the fraction of switched on actin and reduced the formation of strongly bound myosin heads throughout the ATPase cycle. We concluded that the altered TM-actin contacts destabilized the thin filament and affected the actin-myosin interactions. PMID:27480605

  17. Abnormal origins of the long head of the biceps tendon can lead to rotator cuff pathology: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Alan L; Gates, Cameron H; Link, Thomas M; Ma, C Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    Previous case reports have highlighted various anomalous origins of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) that do not originate from the superior glenoid labrum or supraglenoid tubercle. Yet, these cases were all reported as incidental findings and were not thought to cause any significant shoulder pathology. We present the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and clinical treatment of two cases where aberrant intra-articular origins of the long head of the biceps tendon from the anterior edge of the supraspinatus tendon may have contributed to symptomatic rotator cuff pathology. Arthroscopy confirmed MR findings of partial articular-sided supraspinatus lesions in close proximity to the anomalous origins and treatment with tenodesis of the LHBT successfully relieved symptoms. Although rare occurrences with subtle and potentially misleading imaging findings, it is important to be aware of aberrant origins of the LHBT that may contribute to concomitant rotator cuff pathology.

  18. SERIAL NECK ULTRASOUND IS MORE LIKELY TO IDENTIFY FALSE-POSITIVE ABNORMALITIES THAN CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT DISEASE IN LOW-RISK PAPILLARY THYROID CANCER PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Samantha Peiling; Bach, Ariadne M.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Fish, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective American Thyroid Association (ATA) low-risk papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients without structural evidence of disease on initial posttreatment evaluation have a low risk of recurrence. Despite this, most patients undergo frequent surveillance neck ultrasound (US). The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical utility of routine neck US in ATA low-risk PTC patients with no structural evidence of disease after their initial thyroid surgery. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 171 ATA low-risk PTC patients after total thyroidectomy, with or without radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation, who had a neck US without suspicious findings after therapy. The main outcome measure was a comparison of the frequency of finding false-positive US abnormalities and the frequency of identifying structural disease recurrence. Results Over a median follow-up of 8 years, 171 patients underwent a median of 5 neck US (range 2–17). Structural recurrence with low-volume disease (≤1 cm) was identified in 1.2% (2/171) of patients at a median of 2.8 years (range 1.6–4.1 years) after their initial diagnosis. Recurrence was associated with rising serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level in 1 of the 2 patients and was detected without signs of biochemical recurrence in the other patient. Conversely, false-positive US abnormalities were identified in 67% (114/171) of patients after therapy, leading to additional testing without identifying clinically significant disease. Conclusion In ATA low-risk patients without structural evidence of disease on initial surveillance evaluation, routine screening US is substantially more likely to identify false-positive results than clinically significant structural disease recurrence. PMID:26372300

  19. Whole-brain functional connectivity during emotional word classification in medication-free Major Depressive Disorder: Abnormal salience circuitry and relations to positive emotionality☆

    PubMed Central

    van Tol, Marie-José; Veer, Ilya M.; van der Wee, Nic J.A.; Aleman, André; van Buchem, Mark A.; Rombouts, Serge A.R.B.; Zitman, Frans G.; Veltman, Dick J.; Johnstone, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been associated with biased processing and abnormal regulation of negative and positive information, which may result from compromised coordinated activity of prefrontal and subcortical brain regions involved in evaluating emotional information. We tested whether patients with MDD show distributed changes in functional connectivity with a set of independently derived brain networks that have shown high correspondence with different task demands, including stimulus salience and emotional processing. We further explored if connectivity during emotional word processing related to the tendency to engage in positive or negative emotional states. In this study, 25 medication-free MDD patients without current or past comorbidity and matched controls (n = 25) performed an emotional word-evaluation task during functional MRI. Using a dual regression approach, individual spatial connectivity maps representing each subject's connectivity with each standard network were used to evaluate between-group differences and effects of positive and negative emotionality (extraversion and neuroticism, respectively, as measured with the NEO-FFI). Results showed decreased functional connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and ventral striatum with the fronto-opercular salience network in MDD patients compared to controls. In patients, abnormal connectivity was related to extraversion, but not neuroticism. These results confirm the hypothesis of a relative (para)limbic–cortical decoupling that may explain dysregulated affect in MDD. As connectivity of these regions with the salience network was related to extraversion, but not to general depression severity or negative emotionality, dysfunction of this network may be responsible for the failure to sustain engagement in rewarding behavior. PMID:24179829

  20. Position-addressable digital laser scanning point fluorescence microscopy with a Blu-ray disk pickup head

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Chen, Jung-Po; Lee, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Ting; Chiang, Hung-Chih; Cheng, Chih-Ming; Lo, Feng-Hsiang; Chang, Sheng-Li; Weng, Kuo-Yao; Chung, Lung-Pin; Chen, Jyh-Chern; Tiao, Golden

    2014-01-01

    A compact and position-addressable blue ray scanning microscope (BSM) based on a commercially available Blu-ray disk pickup head (PUH) is developed for cell imaging with high resolution and low cost. The BSM comprises two objective lenses with numerical apertures (NAs) of 0.85 and 0.6 for focusing blue and red laser beams, respectively, on the sample slide. The blue and red laser beams are co-located adjacent to each other and move synchronously. A specially designed sample slide is used with a sample area and an address-patterned area for sample holding and address recognition, respectively. The blue laser beam is focused on the sample area and is used for fluorescent excitation and image capturing, whereas the red laser beam is focused on the address-patterned area and is used for address recognition and dynamic focusing. The address-patterned area is divided into 310 sectors. The cell image of each sector of the sampling area has a corresponding address pattern. Fluorescence images of monkey-derived kidney epithelial cells and fibroblast cells in which the F-actin is stained with fluorophore phalloidin CF 405 are measured by the BSM, with results comparable to those measured by a Leica TCS CP2 confocal microscope. The cell image of an area of interest can be easily tracked based on the coded address, and a large-area sample image can be accurately reconstructed from the sector images. PMID:24575338

  1. Influence of Head and Neck Position on Oropharyngeal Leak Pressure and Cuff Position with the ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway and the I-Gel: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sandeep Kumar; Satyapraksh, M. V. S.; Bidkar, Prasanna Udupi; Hemavathy, Balachander

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study was designed to assess and compare the effect of head and neck position on the oropharyngeal leak pressures and cuff position (employing fibreoptic view of the glottis) and ventilation scores between ProSeal LMA and the I-gel. Material and Methods. After induction of anesthesia, the supraglottic device was inserted and ventilation confirmed. The position of the head was randomly changed from neutral to flexion, extension, and lateral rotation (left). The oropharyngeal leak pressures, fibreoptic view of glottis, ventilation scores, and delivered tidal volumes and end tidal CO2 were noted in all positions. Results. In both groups compared with neutral position, oropharyngeal leak pressures were significantly higher with flexion and lower with extension but similar with rotation of head and neck. However the oropharyngeal leak pressure was significantly higher for ProSeal LMA compared with the I-gel in all positions. Peak airway pressures were significantly higher with flexion in both groups (however this did not affect ventilation), lower with extension in ProSeal group, and comparable in I-gel group but did not change significantly with rotation of head and neck in both groups. Conclusion. Effective ventilation can be done with both ProSeal LMA and I-gel with head in all the above positions. ProSeal LMA has a better margin of safety than I-gel due to better sealing pressures except in flexion where the increase in airway pressure is more with the former. Extreme precaution should be taken in flexion position in ProSeal LMA. PMID:25648620

  2. Influence of Head and Neck Position on Oropharyngeal Leak Pressure and Cuff Position with the ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway and the I-Gel: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep Kumar; Nawaz, Mohammad; Satyapraksh, M V S; Parida, Satyen; Bidkar, Prasanna Udupi; Hemavathy, Balachander; Kundra, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study was designed to assess and compare the effect of head and neck position on the oropharyngeal leak pressures and cuff position (employing fibreoptic view of the glottis) and ventilation scores between ProSeal LMA and the I-gel. Material and Methods. After induction of anesthesia, the supraglottic device was inserted and ventilation confirmed. The position of the head was randomly changed from neutral to flexion, extension, and lateral rotation (left). The oropharyngeal leak pressures, fibreoptic view of glottis, ventilation scores, and delivered tidal volumes and end tidal CO2 were noted in all positions. Results. In both groups compared with neutral position, oropharyngeal leak pressures were significantly higher with flexion and lower with extension but similar with rotation of head and neck. However the oropharyngeal leak pressure was significantly higher for ProSeal LMA compared with the I-gel in all positions. Peak airway pressures were significantly higher with flexion in both groups (however this did not affect ventilation), lower with extension in ProSeal group, and comparable in I-gel group but did not change significantly with rotation of head and neck in both groups. Conclusion. Effective ventilation can be done with both ProSeal LMA and I-gel with head in all the above positions. ProSeal LMA has a better margin of safety than I-gel due to better sealing pressures except in flexion where the increase in airway pressure is more with the former. Extreme precaution should be taken in flexion position in ProSeal LMA.

  3. Distinct Factors Associated with Head Start Mothers' Self-Report of Perceived Low Positive and High Negative Maternal Expressiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Nicole Megan

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: There is growing acknowledgment of the need for parenting interventions to address early-onset behavior and emotional concerns. Favorable child outcomes have been linked to parents' responsiveness and positive expressiveness. Given the theoretical and empirical link between perceptions and actual behavior, Head Start…

  4. Comparison of Pressure Changes by Head and Neck Position between High-Volume Low-Pressure and Taper-Shaped Cuffs: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Mihara, Ryosuke; Imagawa, Kentaro; Hattori, Kazuo; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared changes in cuff pressure by head and neck position between high-volume low-pressure (HVLP) and taper-shaped (taper) cuffs in a prospective randomized clinical trial. Methods. Forty patients were intubated using tracheal tubes with either HVLP (n = 20; HVLP group) or taper-shaped (n = 20; Taper group) cuffs. Initial cuff pressure was adjusted to 15, 20, or 25 cmH2O in the neutral position. Cuff pressure was evaluated after changing the head and neck positions to flexion, extension, and rotation. Results. Cuff pressure significantly increased with flexion in both HVLP and Taper groups at all initial cuff pressures. It significantly increased with extension in the HVLP group, but not in the Taper group. Cuff pressure did not significantly differ with rotation in either group and was significantly smaller in the Taper group during flexion and extension than in the HVLP group, regardless of initial cuff pressure. Conclusion. Cuff pressure changes with head and neck flexion and extension were smaller in the Taper group than in the HVLP group. Our results highlight the potential for taper cuffs to prevent excessive cuff pressure increases with positional changes in the head and neck. This trial is registered with UMIN000016119. PMID:26509152

  5. Comparison of Pressure Changes by Head and Neck Position between High-Volume Low-Pressure and Taper-Shaped Cuffs: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Mihara, Ryosuke; Imagawa, Kentaro; Hattori, Kazuo; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared changes in cuff pressure by head and neck position between high-volume low-pressure (HVLP) and taper-shaped (taper) cuffs in a prospective randomized clinical trial. Methods. Forty patients were intubated using tracheal tubes with either HVLP (n = 20; HVLP group) or taper-shaped (n = 20; Taper group) cuffs. Initial cuff pressure was adjusted to 15, 20, or 25 cmH2O in the neutral position. Cuff pressure was evaluated after changing the head and neck positions to flexion, extension, and rotation. Results. Cuff pressure significantly increased with flexion in both HVLP and Taper groups at all initial cuff pressures. It significantly increased with extension in the HVLP group, but not in the Taper group. Cuff pressure did not significantly differ with rotation in either group and was significantly smaller in the Taper group during flexion and extension than in the HVLP group, regardless of initial cuff pressure. Conclusion. Cuff pressure changes with head and neck flexion and extension were smaller in the Taper group than in the HVLP group. Our results highlight the potential for taper cuffs to prevent excessive cuff pressure increases with positional changes in the head and neck. This trial is registered with UMIN000016119.

  6. Development of a frameless stereotactic radiosurgery system based on real-time 6D position monitoring and adaptive head motion compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersma, Rodney D.; Wen, Zhifei; Sadinski, Meredith; Farrey, Karl; Yenice, Kamil M.

    2010-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery delivers radiation with great spatial accuracy. To achieve sub-millimeter accuracy for intracranial SRS, a head ring is rigidly fixated to the skull to create a fixed reference. For some patients, the invasiveness of the ring can be highly uncomfortable and not well tolerated. In addition, placing and removing the ring requires special expertise from a neurosurgeon, and patient setup time for SRS can often be long. To reduce the invasiveness, hardware limitations and setup time, we are developing a system for performing accurate head positioning without the use of a head ring. The proposed method uses real-time 6D optical position feedback for turning on and off the treatment beam (gating) and guiding a motor-controlled 3D head motion compensation stage. The setup consists of a central control computer, an optical patient motion tracking system and a 3D motion compensation stage attached to the front of the LINAC couch. A styrofoam head cast was custom-built for patient support and was mounted on the compensation stage. The motion feedback of the markers was processed by the control computer, and the resulting motion of the target was calculated using a rigid body model. If the target deviated beyond a preset position of 0.2 mm, an automatic position correction was performed with stepper motors to adjust the head position via the couch mount motion platform. In the event the target deviated more than 1 mm, a safety relay switch was activated and the treatment beam was turned off. The feasibility of the concept was tested using five healthy volunteers. Head motion data were acquired with and without the use of motion compensation over treatment times of 15 min. On average, test subjects exceeded the 0.5 mm tolerance 86% of the time and the 1.0 mm tolerance 45% of the time without motion correction. With correction, this percentage was reduced to 5% and 2% for the 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm tolerances, respectively.

  7. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  8. Effect of changing patient position from supine to prone on the accuracy of a Cosman-Roberts-Wells (CRW) stereotactic head frame system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohlfing, Torsten; Maurer, Calvin R., Jr.; Dean, David; Maciunas, Robert J.

    2002-05-01

    Despite the growing popularity of frameless image-guided surgery systems, stereotactic head frame systems are widely accepted by neurosurgeons and are still commonly used to perform stereotactic biopsy, functional procedures, and stereotactic radiosurgery. In this study, we investigate the accuracy of the Cosman-Roberts-Wells (CRW) stereotactic frame system when the mechanical load on the frame changes between pre-operative imaging and the intervention due to different patient position - supine during imaging, prone during intervention. We analyze CT images acquired from 12 patients who underwent stereotactic biopsy or stereotactic radiosurgery. Two CT images were acquired for each patient, one with the patient in the supine position and one in the prone position. The prone images were registered to the respective supine images using an intensity-based registration algorithm, once using only the frame and once using only the head. The difference between the transformations produced by these two registrations describes the movement of the patient's head with respect to the frame due to mechanical distortion of the latter. The maximum frame-based registration error between supine and prone positions was 2.8 mm, greater than 2 mm in two patients, and greater than 1.5 mm in five patients. Anterior-posterior translation is the dominant component of the difference transformation for most of these patients. In general, the magnitude of the movement increased with brain volume, which is an index of head weight. We conclude that in order to minimize frame-based registration error due to a change in the mechanical load on the frame, frame-based stereotactic procedures should be performed with the patient in the identical position during imaging and intervention.

  9. A New Method to Orient Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Models to the Natural Head Position: A Clinical Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Xia, James J.; McGrory, J. Kevin; Gateno, Jaime; Teichgraeber, John F.; Dawson, Brian C.; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Lasky, Robert E.; English, Jeryl D.; Kau, Chung H.; McGrory, Kathleen R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of a new method to orient three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) models to the natural head position (NHP). This method utilizes a small and inexpensive digital orientation device to record NHP in 3D. This device consists of a digital orientation sensor attached to the patient via a facebow and an individualized bite jig. The study was designed to answer two questions: 1) whether the weight of the new device can negatively influence the NHP; and 2) wether the new method is as accurate as the gold standard. Materials and Methods Fifteen patients with craniomaxillofacial deformities were included in the study. Each patient’s NHP is recorded 3 times. The 1st NHP was recorded using a laser scanning method without the presence of the digital orientation device. The 2nd NHP was recorded using the digital orientation device. Simultaneously, the 3rd NHP wa also recorded using the laser scanning method. Each recorded NHP measurement was then transferred to the patient’s 3D CT facial model, resulting in 3 different orientations for each patient. They include: the orientation generated using the laser scanning method without the presence of the digital orientation sensor and facebow (Orientation 1); the orientation generated using the laser scanning method with the presence of the digital orientation sensor and facebow (Orientation 2); and the orientation generated using the digital orientation device (Orientation 3). The comparisons are then made between Orientations 1 and 2, and Orientations 2 and 3, respectively. Statistical analyses are performed. Results The results show that in each pair, the delta between the 2 measurements is not statistically significantly different from 0 degrees. In addition, in the 1st pair, Bland and Altman’s lower and upper limits of the delta between the 2 measurements are within 1.5° in pitch and sub-degree in roll and yaw. In the 2nd pair, the limits of

  10. Analysis of head position used by myopes and emmetropes when performing a near-vision reading task.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Andreas; Gowen, Emma; Charman, W Neil; Radhakrishnan, Hema

    2011-07-15

    The aim of the study was to compare head posture in young, adult emmetropes and corrected myopes during a reading task. Thirty-two (32) myopes (mean spherical equivalent: -3.46±2.35 D) and 22 emmetropes (mean spherical equivalent: -0.03±0.36 D) participated in the study. Of the myopes, 16 were progressing (rate of progression ⩾-0.5D over the previous 2 years), 12 were stable (changes of -0.25 D or less over 2 years) and four could not be classified. Seated subjects were asked to read a text binocularly in their habitual posture. To measure head posture, two simultaneous images were recorded from different directions. In a separate study with the same subjects and conditions, a motion monitor was used to track head posture for 1 min. The habitual reading distance was measured in both studies, together with the stereoscopic acuity and fixation disparity for each subject. The results of the photographic study showed no significant differences in head posture or reading distance between the myopic and emmetropic groups (p>0.05) but there was some evidence that downward pitch angles were greater in progressing myopes than in non-progressing myopes (p=0.03). No correlations were observed between the binocular parameters and head posture. Reading distances were systematically shorter with the helmet-mounted eye tracker and it was concluded that posture was affected by the weight of the equipment. With this reservation, it appeared that the rate of change of downward pitch angle over the 1-min recording session increased with the subject's rate of myopia progression (correlation between myopia progression and slope of pitch: r(2)=-0.69, p=0.001), implying a greater reliance on head movements when reading down a page. Overall, while no differences in mean head posture were found between myopes and emmetropes, there was some evidence that head posture and movement during reading may differ in progressing myopes.

  11. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Rotation at 30 RPM about the Z axis after 6 hours in the 10-deg head-down position - Effect on susceptibility to motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Lackner, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Intraindividual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness were measured in 14 subjects for two conditions of rotation at 30 rpm in the 10-deg head-down position. In one condition, subjects were in the 10-deg head-down position for 6 h prior to the onset of rotation; in the other condition, the delay was only 15 min. In both conditions, there were changes in vital capacity, indicating a redistribution of movable body fluids. Subjects tended to be less susceptible to motion sickness when they were recumbent for 6 h prior to rotation. These results are counterevidence for the hypothesis that shifts of body fluid are responsible in large part for the motion sickness elicited in orbital space flight.

  13. Bortezomib sensitises TRAIL-resistant HPV-positive head and neck cancer cells to TRAIL through a caspase-dependent, E6-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bullenkamp, J; Raulf, N; Ayaz, B; Walczak, H; Kulms, D; Odell, E; Thavaraj, S; Tavassoli, M

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causative for a new and increasing form of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Although localised HPV-positive cancers have a favourable response to radio-chemotherapy (RT/CT), the impact of HPV in advanced or metastatic HNSCC remains to be defined and targeted therapeutics need to be tested for cancers resistant to RT/CT. To this end, we investigated the sensitivity of HPV-positive and -negative HNSCC cell lines to TRAIL (tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), which induces tumour cell-specific apoptosis in various cancer types. A clear correlation was observed between HPV positivity and resistance to TRAIL compared with HPV-negative head and neck cancer cell lines. All TRAIL-resistant HPV-positive cell lines tested were sensitised to TRAIL-induced cell death by treatment with bortezomib, a clinically approved proteasome inhibitor. Bortezomib-mediated sensitisation to TRAIL was associated with enhanced activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, elevated membrane expression levels of TRAIL-R2, cytochrome c release and G2/M arrest. Knockdown of caspase-8 significantly blocked cell death induced by the combination therapy, whereas the BH3-only protein Bid was not required for induction of apoptosis. XIAP depletion increased the sensitivity of both HPV-positive and -negative cells to TRAIL alone or in combination with bortezomib. In contrast, restoration of p53 following E6 knockdown in HPV-positive cells had no effect on their sensitivity to either single or combination therapy, suggesting a p53-independent pathway for the observed response. In summary, bortezomib-mediated proteasome inhibition sensitises previously resistant HPV-positive HNSCC cells to TRAIL-induced cell death through a mechanism involving both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. The cooperative effect of these two targeted anticancer agents therefore represents a promising treatment strategy for RT/CT-resistant HPV

  14. Influences of local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics on fish assemblages within impoundments of low-head dams in the tributaries of the Qingyi River, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Xian; LI, Yu-Ru; CHU, Ling; ZHU, Ren; WANG, Li-Zhu; YAN, Yun-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Low-head dam impoundments modify local habitat and alter fish assemblages; however, to our knowledge, the pattern of how fish assemblages in the impoundments relate to local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics is still unclear. We used data collected in 62 impoundments created by low-head dams in headwater streams of the Qingyi River, China, to examine relationships between fish assemblages and local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics. We also assessed the relative importance of the three groups of factors in determining fish species richness and composition. Linear regression models showed that fish species richness was related to substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, and dam number upstream. Redundancy analysis showed that fish species compositions were influenced by substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, dam height, dam numbers upstream and downstream. Overall, dam characteristics were more important in affecting fish species richness but less important in determining fish species composition than local habitat (i.e., substrate heterogeneity) and tributary position. Our results suggest that low-head dam may affect fish species richness in impoundments by modifying local habitat and constraining fish movement, and the relative abundances of those fish species may depend more on species habitat presences and stream size than on impoundment size and number. PMID:27029863

  15. Rate dependent direct inverse hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric micro-actuator used in dual-stage hard disk drive head positioning system.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Arifur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Yao, Kui

    2015-08-01

    The head positioning servo system in hard disk drive is implemented nowadays using a dual-stage actuator—the primary stage consisting of a voice coil motor actuator providing long range motion and the secondary stage controlling the position of the read/write head with fine resolution. Piezoelectric micro-actuator made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been a popular choice for the secondary stage. However, PZT micro-actuator exhibits hysteresis—an inherent nonlinear characteristic of piezoelectric material. The advantage expected from using the secondary micro-actuator is somewhat lost by the hysteresis of the micro-actuator that contributes to tracking error. Hysteresis nonlinearity adversely affects the performance and, if not compensated, may cause inaccuracy and oscillation in the response. Compensation of hysteresis is therefore an important aspect for designing head-positioning servo system. This paper presents a new rate dependent model of hysteresis along with rigorous analysis and identification of the model. Parameters of the model are found using particle swarm optimization. Direct inverse of the proposed rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is used as the hysteresis compensator. Effectiveness of the overall solution is underscored through experimental results.

  16. Influences of local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics on fish assemblages within impoundments of low-head dams in the tributaries of the Qingyi River, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Li, Yu-Ru; Chu, Ling; Zhu, Ren; Wang, Li-Zhu; Yan, Yun-Zhi

    2016-03-18

    Low-head dam impoundments modify local habitat and alter fish assemblages; however, to our knowledge, the pattern of how fish assemblages in the impoundments relate to local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics is still unclear. We used data collected in 62 impoundments created by low-head dams in headwater streams of the Qingyi River, China, to examine relationships between fish assemblages and local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics. We also assessed the relative importance of the three groups of factors in determining fish species richness and composition. Linear regression models showed that fish species richness was related to substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, and dam number upstream. Redundancy analysis showed that fish species compositions were influenced by substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, dam height, dam numbers upstream and downstream. Overall, dam characteristics were more important in affecting fish species richness but less important in determining fish species composition than local habitat (i.e., substrate heterogeneity) and tributary position. Our results suggest that low-head dam may affect fish species richness in impoundments by modifying local habitat and constraining fish movement, and the relative abundances of those fish species may depend more on species habitat presences and stream size than on impoundment size and number. PMID:27029863

  17. Influences of local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics on fish assemblages within impoundments of low-head dams in the tributaries of the Qingyi River, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Li, Yu-Ru; Chu, Ling; Zhu, Ren; Wang, Li-Zhu; Yan, Yun-Zhi

    2016-03-18

    Low-head dam impoundments modify local habitat and alter fish assemblages; however, to our knowledge, the pattern of how fish assemblages in the impoundments relate to local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics is still unclear. We used data collected in 62 impoundments created by low-head dams in headwater streams of the Qingyi River, China, to examine relationships between fish assemblages and local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics. We also assessed the relative importance of the three groups of factors in determining fish species richness and composition. Linear regression models showed that fish species richness was related to substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, and dam number upstream. Redundancy analysis showed that fish species compositions were influenced by substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, dam height, dam numbers upstream and downstream. Overall, dam characteristics were more important in affecting fish species richness but less important in determining fish species composition than local habitat (i.e., substrate heterogeneity) and tributary position. Our results suggest that low-head dam may affect fish species richness in impoundments by modifying local habitat and constraining fish movement, and the relative abundances of those fish species may depend more on species habitat presences and stream size than on impoundment size and number.

  18. Rate dependent direct inverse hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric micro-actuator used in dual-stage hard disk drive head positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Arifur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Yao, Kui

    2015-08-01

    The head positioning servo system in hard disk drive is implemented nowadays using a dual-stage actuator—the primary stage consisting of a voice coil motor actuator providing long range motion and the secondary stage controlling the position of the read/write head with fine resolution. Piezoelectric micro-actuator made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been a popular choice for the secondary stage. However, PZT micro-actuator exhibits hysteresis—an inherent nonlinear characteristic of piezoelectric material. The advantage expected from using the secondary micro-actuator is somewhat lost by the hysteresis of the micro-actuator that contributes to tracking error. Hysteresis nonlinearity adversely affects the performance and, if not compensated, may cause inaccuracy and oscillation in the response. Compensation of hysteresis is therefore an important aspect for designing head-positioning servo system. This paper presents a new rate dependent model of hysteresis along with rigorous analysis and identification of the model. Parameters of the model are found using particle swarm optimization. Direct inverse of the proposed rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is used as the hysteresis compensator. Effectiveness of the overall solution is underscored through experimental results.

  19. Is Loss of Fixation Following Locked Plating of Proximal Humeral Fractures Related to the Number of Screws and Their Positions in the Humeral Head?

    PubMed Central

    Maddah, Mohammad; Prall, Wolf C.; Geyer, Lucas; Wirth, Stefan; Mutschler, Wolf; Ockert, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between the chosen position of screws and the complications observed in patients who underwent locked plating of proximal humeral fractures. We evaluated radiographs of 367 patients treated by locked-plating for proximal humeral fractures. Radiographs were taken at one day, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after surgery, and were analyzed for secondary fracture displacement, loss of fixation, cutting out of screws and necrosis of the humeral head. Secondary loss of fixation occurred in 58 cases (15.8%) and among those cutting out of screws was observed in 25 cases (6.8%). In cases of secondary loss of fixation a mean of 6.7 screws were used to fix the fracture (vs 6.6, P=0.425). There was neither significant correlation between position of screws and the occurrence of postoperative loss of fixation in Spearman correlation nor relationship from backward logistic regression analysis. Loss of fixation following locked plating of proximal humeral fractures does not relate to the number of screws and their positions in the humeral head. In consequence, anatomic fracture reduction and restoration of the humeral head-shaft angle are still important factors and should not be disregarded. PMID:25002940

  20. Rate dependent direct inverse hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric micro-actuator used in dual-stage hard disk drive head positioning system.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Arifur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Yao, Kui

    2015-08-01

    The head positioning servo system in hard disk drive is implemented nowadays using a dual-stage actuator—the primary stage consisting of a voice coil motor actuator providing long range motion and the secondary stage controlling the position of the read/write head with fine resolution. Piezoelectric micro-actuator made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been a popular choice for the secondary stage. However, PZT micro-actuator exhibits hysteresis—an inherent nonlinear characteristic of piezoelectric material. The advantage expected from using the secondary micro-actuator is somewhat lost by the hysteresis of the micro-actuator that contributes to tracking error. Hysteresis nonlinearity adversely affects the performance and, if not compensated, may cause inaccuracy and oscillation in the response. Compensation of hysteresis is therefore an important aspect for designing head-positioning servo system. This paper presents a new rate dependent model of hysteresis along with rigorous analysis and identification of the model. Parameters of the model are found using particle swarm optimization. Direct inverse of the proposed rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is used as the hysteresis compensator. Effectiveness of the overall solution is underscored through experimental results. PMID:26329224

  1. Design and Validation of a Method to Determine the Position of the Fovea by Using the Nerve-Head to Fovea Distance of the Fellow Eye

    PubMed Central

    van de Put, Mathijs A. J.; Nayebi, Fara; Croonen, Danna; Nolte, Ilja M.; Japing, Wouter J.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To measure the nerve-head to fovea distance (NFD) on fundus photographs in fellow eyes, and to compare the NFD between fellow eyes. Methods Diabetic patients without retinopathy, (n = 183) who were screened by fundus photography at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands from January 1st 2005 until January 1st 2006 were included. The NFD was measured in left and right eyes both from the center and from the rim of the nerve-head. To determine inter- and intra-observer agreement, repeated measurements by one observer (n = 3) were performed on all photographs and by two observers on 60 photographs (30 paired eyes). The effect of age, gender, and refractive error on NFD was analysed. Results The correlation of NFDs between the left and the right eye was 0.958 when measured from the center of the nerve head (mean difference 0.0078 mm. ±SD 0.079 (95% limits of agreement −0.147–0.163)) and 0.963 when measured from the rim (mean difference 0.0056±SD 0.073 (95% limits of agreement −0.137–0.149)). Using the NFD between fellow eyes interchangeably, resulted in a standard error of 0.153 mm. Intra- and inter-observer variability was small. We found a significant effect of age (center of the nerve-head (P = 0.006) and rim of the nerve head (P = 0.003)) and refractive error (center of nerve-head (P<0.001) and rim of nerve head (P<0.001)) on NFD. Conclusions The NFD in one eye provides a confident, reproducible, and valid method to address the position of the fovea in the fellow eye. We recommend using the NFD measured from the center of the nerve-head since the standard error by this method was smallest. Age and refractive error have an effect on NFD. PMID:23667483

  2. Tamm-Horsfall protein in recurrent calcium kidney stone formers with positive family history: abnormalities in urinary excretion, molecular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Markus; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Zipperle, Ljerka; Hess, Bernhard

    2007-04-01

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) powerfully inhibits calcium oxalate crystal aggregation, but structurally abnormal THPs from recurrent calcium stone formers may promote crystal aggregation. Therefore, increased urinary excretion of abnormal THP might be of relevance in nephrolithiasis. We studied 44 recurrent idiopathic calcium stone formers with a positive family history of stone disease (RCSF(fam)) and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (C). Twenty-four-hour urinary THP excretion was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Structural properties of individually purified THPs were obtained from analysis of elution patterns from a Sepharose 4B column. Sialic acid (SA) contents of native whole 24-h urines, crude salt precipitates of native urines and individually purified THPs were measured. THP function was studied by measuring inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation in vitro (pH 5.7, 200 mM sodium chloride). Twenty-four-hour urine excretion of THP was higher in RCSF(fam) (44.0 +/- 4.0 mg/day) than in C (30.9 +/- 2.2 mg/day, P = 0.015). Upon salt precipitation and lyophilization, elution from a Sepharose 4B column revealed one major peak (peak A, cross-reacting with polyclonal anti-THP antibody) and a second minor peak (peak B, not cross-reacting). THPs from RCSF(fam) eluted later than those from C (P = 0.021), and maximum width of THP peaks was higher in RCSF(fam )than in C (P = 0.024). SA content was higher in specimens from RCSF(fam) than from C, in native 24-h urines (207.5 +/- 20.4 mg vs. 135.2 +/- 16.1 mg, P = 0.013) as well as in crude salt precipitates of 24-h urines (10.4 +/- 0.5 mg vs. 7.4 +/- 0.9 mg, P = 0.002) and in purified THPs (75.3 +/- 9.3 microg/mg vs. 48.8 +/- 9.8 microg/mg THP, P = 0.043). Finally, inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal aggregation by 40 mg/L of THP was lower in RCSF(fam) (6.1 +/- 5.5%, range -62.0 to +84.2%) than in C (24.9 +/- 6.0%, range -39.8 to +82.7%), P = 0.022, and only 25 out of 44 (57%) THPs from RCSF

  3. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  4. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  5. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  6. Effect of wrist and ulna head position on gliding resistance of the extensor digitorum minimi and extensor digitorum communis III tendons: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshikazu; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E; An, Kai-Nan

    2006-04-01

    While attrition from sharp bony surfaces is the most common cause of extensor digiti minimi (EDM) tendon rupture, the etiology of other cases of spontaneous EDM tendon rupture is still unknown. Friction within the compartment may play a role, especially with ulna dislocation. The purpose of this study was to compare gliding resistance of the EDM tendon with that of a tendon which rarely ruptures spontaneously, the extensor digitorum communis of the middle finger (EDC III) tendon, under various wrist and ulna head positions. Eight fresh frozen cadavers were used. Gliding resistance between the tendon and its sheath in each compartment was measured in five different wrist positions and three different ulna head positions. Gliding resistance of the EDM tendon (0.13 +/- 0.03 N) was significantly greater than the EDC III tendon (0.09 +/- 0.03 N) (p < 0.05). For the EDM tendon, the gliding resistance in ulnar deviation or pronation was higher than the gliding resistance in neutral, radial deviation, or supination (p < 0.05), and the gliding resistance with ulnar lengthening (over 6 mm) or dorsal ulnar dislocation (over 9 mm) was higher than in neutral ulnar head positioning. For the EDC III tendon, the gliding resistance in ulnar deviation was significantly higher than the gliding resistance in neutral, radial deviation, or supination, or dorsal dislocation with ulnar lengthening (p < 0.05). Wrist ulnar deviation, ulnar dorsal dislocation (over 9 mm), and ulnar lengthening (over 6 mm) increased the gliding resistance of the EDM tendon. In patients at risk for EDM rupture, such as those with rheumatoid arthritis or distal radioulnar joint osteoarthritis, avoiding such positions may be advantageous.

  7. The changes of endotracheal tube cuff pressure by the position changes from supine to prone and the flexion and extension of head

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deokkyu; Jeon, Byeongdo; Son, Ji-Seon; Lee, Jun-Rae; Ko, Seonghoon

    2015-01-01

    Background The proper cuff pressure is important to prevent complications related to the endotracheal tube (ETT). We evaluated the change in ETT cuff pressure by changing the position from supine to prone without head movement. Methods Fifty-five patients were enrolled and scheduled for lumbar spine surgery. Neutral angle, which was the angle on the mandibular angle between the neck midline and mandibular inferior border, was measured. The initial neutral pressure of the ETT cuff was measured, and the cuff pressure was subsequently adjusted to 26 cmH2O. Flexed or extended angles and cuff pressure were measured in both supine and prone positions, when the patient's head was flexed or extended. Initial neutral pressure in prone was compared with adjusted neutral pressure (26 cmH2O) in supine. Flexed and extended pressure were compared with adjusted neutral pressure in supine or prone, respectively. Results There were no differences between supine and prone position for neutral, flexed, and extended angles. The initial neutral pressure increased after changing position from supine to prone (26.0 vs. 31.5 ± 5.9 cmH2O, P < 0.001). Flexed and extended pressure in supine were increased to 38.7 ± 6.7 (P < 0.001) and 26.7 ± 4.7 cmH2O (not statistically significant) than the adjusted neutral pressure. Flexed and extended pressure in prone were increased to 40.5 ± 8.8 (P < 0.001) and 29.9 ± 8.7 cmH2O (P = 0.002) than the adjusted neutral pressure. Conclusions The position change from supine to prone without head movement can cause a change in ETT cuff pressure. PMID:25664152

  8. Computational insight into the catalytic implication of head/tail-first orientation of arachidonic acid in human 5-lipoxygenase: consequences for the positional specificity of oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Saura, Patricia; Maréchal, Jean-Didier; Masgrau, Laura; Lluch, José M; González-Lafont, Àngels

    2016-08-17

    In the present work we have combined homology modeling, protein-ligand dockings, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations and molecular dynamics simulations to generate human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX):arachidonic acid (AA) complexes consistent with the 5-lipoxygenating activity (which implies hydrogen abstraction at the C7 position). Our results suggest that both the holo and the apo forms of human Stable 5-LOX could accommodate AA in a productive form for 5-lipoxygenation. The former, in a tail-first orientation, with the AA carboxylate end interacting with Lys409, gives the desired structures with C7 close to the Fe-OH(-) cofactor and suitable barrier heights for H7 abstraction. Only when using the apo form structure, a head-first orientation with the AA carboxylate close to His600 (a residue recently proposed as essential for AA positioning) is obtained in the docking calculations. However, the calculated barrier heights for this head-first orientation are in principle consistent with 5-LOX specificity, but also with 12/8 regioselectivity. Finally, long MD simulations give support to the recent hypothesis that the Phe177 + Tyr181 pair needs to close the active site access during the chemical reaction, and suggest that in the case of a head-first orientation Phe177 may be the residue interacting with the AA carboxylate. PMID:27489112

  9. Comparative Evaluation of the Sniffing Position with Simple Head Extension for Laryngoscopic View and Intubation Difficulty in Adults Undergoing Elective Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Smita; Rapsang, Amy G.; Mahajan, Saurabh; Bhattacharjee, Shameek; Singh, Rajvir; Gogia, Anoop R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of patient position on mask ventilation, laryngoscopic view, intubation difficulty, and the stance adopted by the anesthesiologist during laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation was investigated in 546 anesthetized adults in this prospective, randomized study. Patients were randomly assigned to either the sniffing position group or the simple extension group. The distribution of Cormack grades was comparable between the two groups (P = 0.144). The IDS score [median (IQR)] was 0 (0–2) in the sniffing group and 1 (0–2) in the simple extension group; P = 0.002. There were significant differences between groups with regard to intensity of lifting force, external laryngeal manipulation, alternate techniques used, number of attempts, and the stance adopted by anesthesiologist. We conclude that the sniffing position is superior to simple head extension with regard to ease of intubation as assessed by IDS. An upright stance is adopted by more anesthesiologists performing intubation with patients in the sniffing position. PMID:22110497

  10. Influence of the front part of the vehicle and cyclist's sitting position on the severity of head injury in side collision.

    PubMed

    Fanta, Ondřej; Bouček, Jan; Hadraba, Dan; Jelen, Karel

    2013-01-01

    An injury of cyclists during a collision with a car is currently a neglected topic. Most research projects evaluate in detail the injury of pedestrians, but with an increasing number of cyclists it will be necessary to devote more attention to their safety. This study is focused on the most common type of collision and offers insights into the biomechanics of cyclist's head injury without the use of bicycle helmet. Initial mechanical and kinematic conditions that affect Head Injury Criterion (HIC) after a car hits a cyclist were determined using simulation software MADYMO. In relation to HIC, three different shapes of the front part of the car and three basic cyclist's positions were compared. PMID:23957302

  11. Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Welch, Robert D; Ayaz, Syed I; Lewis, Lawrence M; Unden, Johan; Chen, James Y; Mika, Valerie H; Saville, Ben; Tyndall, Joseph A; Nash, Marshall; Buki, Andras; Barzo, Pal; Hack, Dallas; Tortella, Frank C; Schmid, Kara; Hayes, Ronald L; Vossough, Arastoo; Sweriduk, Stephen T; Bazarian, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-15

    Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70-0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65-0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice.

  12. The Royal College of Surgeons of England: a position paper on the acute management of patients with head injury (2005).

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, a succession of recommendations or guidelines on the acute management of patients with a head injury have been published. These documents reflect developments in imaging technology, the benefits of specialist neurosurgical care and the need for rehabilitation and follow-up. To a large extent, improvements to the shortcomings of current clinical management will be dependent on the provision of adequate resources, in particular at neuroscience centres. This paper states the present stance of The Royal College of Surgeons of England in respect of key issues addressed in the above publications and reviewed below. PMID:16176688

  13. TMEM16A/ANO1 is differentially expressed in HPV-negative versus HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma through promoter methylation

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Ronak; Kemp, Carolyn; Kulich, Scott; Seethala, Raja; Chiosea, Simion; Ling, Shizhang; Ha, Patrick K.; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a variety of causes. Recently, the human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated in the rising incidence of oropharyngeal cancer and has led to variety of studies exploring the differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC. The calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, including HNSCC, but whether or not it plays different roles in HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that TMEM16A is preferentially overexpressed in HPV-negative HNSCC and that this overexpression of TMEM16A is associated with decreased patient survival. We also show that TMEM16A expression is decreased in HPV-positive HNSCC at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels in patient samples as well as cell lines. We demonstrate that the lower levels of TMEM16A expression in HPV-positive tumors can be attributed to both a combination of copy number alteration and promoter methylation at the DNA level. Additionally, our cellular data show that HPV-negative cell lines are more dependent on TMEM16A for survival than HPV-positive cell lines. Therefore, we suspect that the down-regulation of TMEM16A in HPV-positive HNSCC makes TMEM16A a poor therapeutic target in HPV-positive HNSCC, but a potentially useful target in HPV-negative HNSCC. PMID:26563938

  14. TMEM16A/ANO1 is differentially expressed in HPV-negative versus HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma through promoter methylation.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Ronak; Kemp, Carolyn; Kulich, Scott; Seethala, Raja; Chiosea, Simion; Ling, Shizhang; Ha, Patrick K; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar

    2015-11-13

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a variety of causes. Recently, the human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated in the rising incidence of oropharyngeal cancer and has led to variety of studies exploring the differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC. The calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, including HNSCC, but whether or not it plays different roles in HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that TMEM16A is preferentially overexpressed in HPV-negative HNSCC and that this overexpression of TMEM16A is associated with decreased patient survival. We also show that TMEM16A expression is decreased in HPV-positive HNSCC at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels in patient samples as well as cell lines. We demonstrate that the lower levels of TMEM16A expression in HPV-positive tumors can be attributed to both a combination of copy number alteration and promoter methylation at the DNA level. Additionally, our cellular data show that HPV-negative cell lines are more dependent on TMEM16A for survival than HPV-positive cell lines. Therefore, we suspect that the down-regulation of TMEM16A in HPV-positive HNSCC makes TMEM16A a poor therapeutic target in HPV-positive HNSCC, but a potentially useful target in HPV-negative HNSCC.

  15. Why fluorination of the polar heads reverses the positive sign of the dipole potential of Langmuir monolayers: a vibrational sum frequency spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Karageorgiev, Peter; Petrov, Jordan G; Motschmann, Hubert; Moehwald, Helmuth

    2013-04-16

    Natural nonionic amphiphiles forming monolayers, bilayers, micelles, or biomembranes create a positive dipole potential at the boundary with water. In a series of papers we have reported on Langmuir monolayers with CF3 terminals of the polar heads, which show a negative surface dipole potential ΔV (Petrov , J. G.; Andreeva, T. D.; Kurt, D. K.; Möhwald, H. J. Phys. Chem. B 2005, 109, 14102). Here we use vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (SF) to study the origin of the opposite ΔV signs of Langmuir films of CH3(CH2)20COCH2CH3 (ethyl ether, EE) and CH3(CH2)20COCH2CF3 (fluorinated ethyl ether, FEE). The vibrational sum frequency spectra are recorded at the same film density of the S-phase of the EE and FEE monolayers and analyzed in the spectral regions of OH, COC, CH3, and CF3 stretching vibrations because these functional groups could be responsible for the different dipole potentials. We compare the rearrangement of the pure water surface by EE and FEE monolayers and the conformations of EE and FEE polar heads. The analysis is performed according to the three-capacitor model of the dipole potential of Langmuir monolayers (Demchak, R. T.; Fort, T., Jr. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1974, 46, 191). The results show that reversal of the ΔV sign caused by fluorination of the polar heads originates from the upward-oriented CF3 terminals of the FEE heads, whose negative normal dipole moment component determines the negative dipole potential of the FEE monolayer.

  16. Influence of Errors in Patient Positioning on Resulting Dose Distribution during IMRT Treatment for Head and Neck Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrátil, Matěj

    2010-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) irradiation technique uses steep dose gradients to protect organs at risk (OAR) during treatment course. Therefore even small mistakes in patient positioning during treatment course may lead to significant changes in dose distribution. The influence of small errors (order of millimeters) in patient's positioning on resulting dose absorbed in OARs and target volume (PTV, GTV) was simulated in this work.

  17. Optimization of the mechanical performance of a two-duct semicircular duct system--part 3: the positioning of the ducts in the head.

    PubMed

    Muller, M; Verhagen, J H G

    2002-06-21

    In the majority of vertebrates, the horizontal duct of the vestibular system lies approximately in the yawing plane of the head. The positioning of the vertical ducts, however, is not in the pitch- and roll planes but the vertical ducts generally lie under an angle of about 30-45 degrees relative to the medial plane. Using the equations for a hydrodynamically interconnected two-duct system, optimal positions of the vertical and horizontal ducts in different vertebrate groups can be derived. It was stated that the mean response of the vertical ducts should be optimized. This leads to a symmetrical positioning of the vertical ducts with respect to the medial plane. In all observed vertebrate groups, a solution of mu =(pi-alpha)/2 is found (mu is the angle of the vertical ducts relative to the medial plane, alpha is the angle between the vertical duct planes). For alpha=90 degrees, this provides an equal sensitivity for pitch- and roll- movements. For alpha>90 degrees, a larger sensitivity for pitch movements is obtained, at the expense of a lower sensitivity for roll movements. It is argued that the angle alpha between the vertical ducts may vary from 90 to 120 degrees. In most vertebrates, the centre of mass is stabilized by e.g. fins, tri- or quadrupedal stability, a crawling body or upside-down resting positions (e.g. bats). Birds are generally biped, so in walking they are also rather sensitive to roll. These features are related to labyrinth positioning in the head. PMID:12151260

  18. Evaluation of three-dimensional position change of the condylar head after orthognathic surgery using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-made condyle positioning jig.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Mo; Baek, Seung-Hak; Kim, Tae-Yun; Choi, Jin-Young

    2014-11-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAM/CAD)-made condyle positioning jig in orthognathic surgery. The sample consisted of 40 mandibular condyles of 20 patients with class III malocclusion who underwent bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy with semirigid fixation (6 men and 14 women; mean age, 25 y; mean amount of mandibular setback, 5.8 mm). Exclusion criteria were patients who needed surgical correction of the frontal ramal inclination and had signs and symptoms of the temporomandibular disorder before surgery. Three-dimensional computed tomograms were taken 1 month before the surgery (T1) and 1 day after the surgery (T2). The condylar position was evaluated at the T1 and T2 stages on the axial, frontal, and sagittal aspects in the three-dimensional coordinates. The linear change of the posterior border of the proximal segment of the ramus between T1 and T2 was also evaluated in 30 condyles (15 patients), with the exception of 10 condyles of 5 patients who received mandibular angle reduction surgery. There was no significant difference in the condylar position in the frontal and sagittal aspects (P > 0.05). Although there was a significant difference in the condylar position in the axial aspect (P < 0.01), the amount of difference was less than 1 mm and 1 degree; it can be considered clinically nonsignificant. In the linear change of the posterior border of the proximal segment of the ramus, the mean change was 1.4 mm and 60% of the samples showed a minimal change of less than 1 mm. The results of this study suggest that CAD/CAM-made condyle positioning jig is easy to install and reliable to use in orthognathic surgery.

  19. New treatment strategy for cupulolithiasis associated with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of the lateral canal: the head-tilt hopping exercise.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Sawai, Yachiyo; Murai, Takayuki; Okamoto, Hideyuki; Fujita, Nobuya; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    This study was performed to determine whether a novel treatment was effective against cupulolithiasis associated with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) of the lateral semicircular canal, which is characterized by apogeotropic direction-changing nystagmus. We herein describe our head-tilt hopping (HtH) exercise, which is designed to release otoconial debris strongly adhered to the cupula. The subjects were trained to hop while tilting their heads laterally. They completed 3 to 5 exercise sessions per day over a 4-week period. Each session ended with a 20-hop trial. The HtH exercises were performed by 27 patients with intractable lateral canal BPPV who exhibited positional vertigo and persistent nystagmus beating toward the uppermost ear for more than 4 weeks, despite performing therapeutic head shaking in the horizontal plane maneuver. All the patients were subjected to the supine roll test before and immediately after the first trial as well as after 1 and 4 weeks of the program to evaluate the effect of the treatment on their apogeotropic nystagmus. Nystagmus of 9 (33.3 %) patients disappeared immediately after the first training session. After 1 and 4 weeks of the training, the number of patients that had experienced either of these improvements had increased to 15 (55.6 %) and 19 (70.4 %) subjects, respectively. These results suggest that HtH exercises aimed at releasing otoconial debris from the cupula are feasible as a new therapy for cupulolithiasis associated with intractable lateral canal BPPV. However, further studies for comparison with control are required to confirm these preliminary results.

  20. Study Protocol. IDUS – Instrumental delivery & ultrasound. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of ultrasound assessment of the fetal head position versus standard care as an approach to prevent morbidity at instrumental delivery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Instrumental deliveries are commonly performed in the United Kingdom and Ireland, with rates of 12 – 17% in most centres. Knowing the exact position of the fetal head is a pre-requisite for safe instrumental delivery. Traditionally, diagnosis of the fetal head position is made on transvaginal digital examination by delineating the suture lines of the fetal skull and the fontanelles. However, the accuracy of transvaginal digital examination can be unreliable and varies between 20% and 75%. Failure to identify the correct fetal head position increases the likelihood of failed instrumental delivery with the additional morbidity of sequential use of instruments or second stage caesarean section. The use of ultrasound in determining the position of the fetal head has been explored but is not part of routine clinical practice. Methods/Design A multi-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. The study will take place in two large maternity units in Ireland with a combined annual birth rate of 13,500 deliveries. It will involve 450 nulliparous women undergoing instrumental delivery after 37 weeks gestation. The main outcome measure will be incorrect diagnosis of the fetal head position. A study involving 450 women will have 80% power to detect a 10% difference in the incidence of inaccurate diagnosis of the fetal head position with two-sided 5% alpha. Discussion It is both important and timely to evaluate the use of ultrasound to diagnose the fetal head position prior to instrumental delivery before routine use can be advocated. The overall aim is to reduce the incidence of incorrect diagnosis of the fetal head position prior to instrumental delivery and improve the safety of instrumental deliveries. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72230496 PMID:22970933

  1. Variation of tension in the long head of the biceps tendon as a function of limb position with simulated biceps contraction

    PubMed Central

    Gramstad, Gregory G.; Sears, Benjamin W.; Marra, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to quantify tensile forces within the intra-articular long head of the bicep tendon (LHBT) under conditions of passive limb positioning and physiologic load, which simulate contraction of the LHBT. Materials and Methods: A force probe was inserted into the intra-articular LHBT, just distal to its supra-glenoid origin, in six fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens. Initially, specimens were manually manipulated through 30 glenohumeral joint positions, combining humeral rotation and elbow/forearm position. In the second phase, a 55 N tensile load was applied through the LHBT in 18 limb positions. Intra-tendinous tension was recorded in all positions under both conditions. Results: External humeral rotation significantly increased tension with glenohumeral forward flexion (P<0.0001). Conversely, internal humeral rotation significantly increased tension with glenohumeral abduction and extension (P<0.0001). A position of glenohumeral extension and internal rotation, with the elbow extended and forearm pronated, produced the highest tension in the intra-articular LHBT (P<0.0001). Under applied load conditions, observed LHTB tension was not statistically different in any glenohumeral position (P=0.1468, power = 88%). The greater tuberosity was noted to impinge on the force probe in forward flexion and internal rotation in two specimens. Conclusions: Variable tensile forces are seen in the intra-articular LHBT as a function of both limb position and simulated biceps contraction. Our findings provide a thorough data set that may be used to help substantiate or refute current or future hypotheses regarding LHBT function, pathology, and clinical tests. Clinical Relevance: Identifying positions of glenohumeral motion, which affect LHBT tension will provide an anatomic basis for clinical tests proposed to be for diagnosing LHBT lesions, including superior labral anterior and posterior tears. PMID:20922087

  2. Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Welch, Robert D; Ayaz, Syed I; Lewis, Lawrence M; Unden, Johan; Chen, James Y; Mika, Valerie H; Saville, Ben; Tyndall, Joseph A; Nash, Marshall; Buki, Andras; Barzo, Pal; Hack, Dallas; Tortella, Frank C; Schmid, Kara; Hayes, Ronald L; Vossough, Arastoo; Sweriduk, Stephen T; Bazarian, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-15

    Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70-0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65-0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice. PMID:26467555

  3. Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Syed I.; Lewis, Lawrence M.; Unden, Johan; Chen, James Y.; Mika, Valerie H.; Saville, Ben; Tyndall, Joseph A.; Nash, Marshall; Buki, Andras; Barzo, Pal; Hack, Dallas; Tortella, Frank C.; Schmid, Kara; Hayes, Ronald L.; Vossough, Arastoo; Sweriduk, Stephen T.; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70–0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71–0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65–0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice. PMID:26467555

  4. The clinical feasibility of deep hyperthermia treatment in the head and neck: new challenges for positioning and temperature measurement.

    PubMed

    Paulides, M M; Bakker, J F; Linthorst, M; van der Zee, J; Rijnen, Z; Neufeld, E; Pattynama, P M T; Jansen, P P; Levendag, P C; van Rhoon, G C

    2010-05-01

    To apply high-quality hyperthermia treatment to tumours at deep locations in the head and neck (H&N), we have designed and built a site-specific phased-array applicator. Earlier, we demonstrated its features in parameter studies, validated those by phantom measurements and clinically introduced the system. In this paper we will critically review our first clinical experiences and demonstrate the pivotal role of hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP). Three representative patient cases (thyroid, oropharynx and nasal cavity) are selected and discussed. Treatment planning, the treatment, interstitially measured temperatures and their interrelation are analysed from a physics point of view. Treatments lasting 1 h were feasible and well tolerated and no acute treatment-related toxicity has been observed. Maximum temperatures measured are in the range of those obtained during deep hyperthermia treatments in the pelvic region but mean temperatures are still to be improved. Further, we found that simulated power absorption correlated well with measured temperatures illustrating the validity of our treatment approach of using energy profile optimizations to arrive at higher temperatures. This is the first data proving that focussed heating of tumours in the H&N is feasible. Further, HTP proved a valuable tool in treatment optimization. Items to improve are (1) the transfer of HTP settings into the clinic and (2) the registration of the thermal dose, i.e. dosimetry.

  5. The clinical feasibility of deep hyperthermia treatment in the head and neck: new challenges for positioning and temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulides, M. M.; Bakker, J. F.; Linthorst, M.; van der Zee, J.; Rijnen, Z.; Neufeld, E.; Pattynama, P. M. T.; Jansen, P. P.; Levendag, P. C.; van Rhoon, G. C.

    2010-05-01

    To apply high-quality hyperthermia treatment to tumours at deep locations in the head and neck (H&N), we have designed and built a site-specific phased-array applicator. Earlier, we demonstrated its features in parameter studies, validated those by phantom measurements and clinically introduced the system. In this paper we will critically review our first clinical experiences and demonstrate the pivotal role of hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP). Three representative patient cases (thyroid, oropharynx and nasal cavity) are selected and discussed. Treatment planning, the treatment, interstitially measured temperatures and their interrelation are analysed from a physics point of view. Treatments lasting 1 h were feasible and well tolerated and no acute treatment-related toxicity has been observed. Maximum temperatures measured are in the range of those obtained during deep hyperthermia treatments in the pelvic region but mean temperatures are still to be improved. Further, we found that simulated power absorption correlated well with measured temperatures illustrating the validity of our treatment approach of using energy profile optimizations to arrive at higher temperatures. This is the first data proving that focussed heating of tumours in the H&N is feasible. Further, HTP proved a valuable tool in treatment optimization. Items to improve are (1) the transfer of HTP settings into the clinic and (2) the registration of the thermal dose, i.e. dosimetry.

  6. Heads Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... Juvenil HEADS UP to School Sports Online Concussion Training Coaches Parents Athletes Sports Officials HEADS UP to Schools School Nurses Teachers, Counselors, and School Professionals Parents HEADS UP ...

  7. Targeting HPV16 E6-p300 interaction reactivates p53 and inhibits the tumorigenicity of HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiujie; Piao, Longzhu; Bullock, Brooke N.; Smith, Ashley; Su, Tizhi; Zhang, Manchao; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Arora, Paramjit S.; Pan, Quintin

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has rapidly increased over the past 30 years prompting the suggestion that an epidemic may be on the horizon. Therefore, there is a clinical need to develop alternate therapeutic strategies to manage the growing number of HPV-positive HNSCC patients. High-risk HPV E6 inactivates p53 through two distinct mechanisms; association with E6AP to degrade p53 and association with p300 to block p300-mediated p53 acetylation and activation. In this study, we determined if targeting the E6-p300 interaction is an effective approach to reactivate p53 in HPV-positive HNSCC. Ectopic expression of the CH1 domain of p300 in HPV-positive HNSCC blocks the association between E6 and p300, increases total and acetylated p53 levels, and enhances p53 transcriptional activity. Moreover, expression of p21, miR-34a, and miR-200c are increased demonstrating functional p53 reactivation. CH1 overexpression in HPV-positive HNSCC has a global anti-cancer effect resulting in a decrease in cell proliferation and clonogenic survival and an increase in apoptosis. The in vivo tumor initiating ability of HPV-positive HNSCC is severely compromised with CH1 overexpression, in part through a reduction in the cancer initiating cell population. A novel small molecule CH1 inhibitor, CH1iB, reactivates p53 and potentiates the anti-cancer activity of cis-platinum in HPV-positive HNSCC cells. Our work shows that CH1 domain inhibitors represent a novel class of p53 reactivation therapeutics for managing HPV-positive HNSCC patients. PMID:23474763

  8. Vacuoles in sperm head are not associated with head morphology, DNA damage and reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Adriana; Boni, Raffaele; Leo, Rita; Nacchia, Giuseppina; Liguori, Francesca; Casale, Sofia; Bonassisa, Paolo; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2016-02-01

    In this retrospective study of 873 men enrolled for assisted reproduction techniques, relationships between sperm quality parameters, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME), DNA damage and live birth rate were evaluated. The presence of vacuoles in the sperm heads was detected by MSOME. Either chromatin decondensation or DNA fragmentation was used to study DNA damage. Results show that age significantly affected some of the examined parameters. In particular, sperm concentration was positively correlated (R = 0.088; P = 0.01) and chromatin decondensation was negatively correlated (R = -0.102; P = 0.003) with age. Furthermore, live birth rate was significantly lower in men aged 40 years or older (P < 0.02) compared with the younger age groups. The presence of sperm head vacuoles was not associated with head morphology, main sperm quality parameters, DNA fragmentation and live birth rate. Considering sperm heads in relation to the shape (normal/abnormal) and vacuoles (presence/absence), no significant variations in the occurrence of vacuoles in either normal or abnormal heads were found. These data suggest that vacuoles are physiological features that do not alter sperm functionality, and it seems that MSOME is not necessary for increasing the success of assisted reproduction techniques.

  9. Definitive radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer with radiographically positive retropharyngeal nodes: Incomplete radiographic response does not necessarily indicate failure

    SciTech Connect

    Liauw, Stanley L.; Mancuso, Anthony A.; Morris, Christopher G. M.S.; Amdur, Robert J.; Mendenhall, William M. . E-mail: mendewil@shands.ufl.edu

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: Our aim was to report the control rate of radiographically positive retropharyngeal (RP) nodes with radiation therapy (RT) and to correlate posttreatment imaging with clinical outcome. Methods and Materials: Sixteen patients treated with definitive RT for head-and-neck cancer had radiographically positive RP nodes (size >1 cm in largest axial dimension, or presence of focal enhancement, lucency, or calcification), and both pre-RT and post-RT image sets available for review. An additional 21 patients with unconfirmed radiographically positive RP nodes had post-RT imaging, which consisted of computed tomography (CT) at a median of 4 weeks after completing RT. Patients with positive post-RT RP nodes underwent observation with serial imaging. Results: Of 16 patients with pre-RT and post-RT images available for review, 9 (56%) had a radiographic complete response, and of 21 patients with unconfirmed positive RP nodes with post-RT images available for review, 14 (67%) had a radiographic complete response. In all, 14 patients with incomplete response on post-RT imaging experienced control of their disease with no further therapy, and no RP node or neck failures were noted during a median follow-up of 2.8 years. Six patients with positive post-RT RP nodes had serial imaging available for review, and none demonstrated radiographic progression of disease. Conclusions: Radiographic response at 4 weeks may not accurately reflect long-term locoregional control, as RP nodes may continue to resolve over time. The highest index of suspicion should be reserved for patients with progressive changes in size, focal lucency, or focal enhancement on serial imaging after RT.

  10. Effects of lower body positive pressure on muscle sympathetic nerve activity response [correction of respopnse] to head-up tilt.

    PubMed

    Fu, Q; Iwase, S; Niimi, Y; Kamiya, A; Kawanokuchi, J; Cui, J; Mano, T

    2001-07-01

    The benefits of lower body positive pressure (LBPP) are generally accepted for clinical treatment in medical emergencies caused by massive bleeding to maintain the systemic blood pressure. They are also used by NASA post spaceflight for preventing orthostatic hypotension in the astronauts. However, controversy still exists concerning the mechanisms underlying LBPP benefits. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the baroreflex-mediated enhancement in sympathetic activity would be attenuated by LBPP during an orthostatic challenge in humans. Specifically, we studied 1) the sympathetic activity responses by the microneurographic technique, using direct intraneural measurement of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA); and 2) the contributions of preload and afterload to the chances in MSNA response during orthostasis on application of LBPP. To accomplish these issues, MSNA was recorded microneurographically along with noninvasive measurement of the cardiovascular variables in all the subjects during exposure to a 70 degrees HUT with 30-mm Hg LBPP.

  11. Integrative Genomics and Transcriptomics Analysis Reveals Potential Mechanisms for Favorable Prognosis of Patients with HPV-Positive Head and Neck Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wensheng; Edwards, Andrea; Fang, Zhide; Flemington, Erik K.; Zhang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Patients with HPV-positive head neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) usually have a better prognosis than the HPV-negative cases while the underlying mechanism remains far from being well understood. We investigated this issue by an integrative analysis of clinically-annotated multi-omics HNSCC data released by the Cancer Genome Atlas. As confirmatory results, we found: (1) Co-occurrence of mutant TP53 and HPV infection was rare; (2) Regardless of HPV status, HNSCCs of wild-type TP53 implied a good survival chance for patients and had fewer genome-wide somatic mutations than those with a mutation burden on the gene. Our analysis further led to some novel observations. They included: (1) The genes involved in “DNA mismatch repair” pathway were up-regulated in HPV-positive tumors compared to normal tissue samples and HPV-negative cases, and thus constituted a strong predictive signature for the identification of HPV infection; (2) HPV infection could disrupt some regulatory miRNA-mRNA correlations operational in the HPV-negative tumors. In light of these results, we proposed a hypothesis for the favorable clinical outcomes of HPV-positive HNSCC patients. That is, the replication of HPV genome and/or its invasion into the genomes of cancer cells may enhance DNA repair mechanisms, which in turn limit the accumulation of lethal somatic mutations. PMID:27108969

  12. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is characterized by brief recurrent episodes of vertigo triggered by changes in head position. BPPV is the most common etiology of recurrent vertigo and is caused by abnormal stimulation of the cupula by free-floating otoliths (canalolithiasis) or otoliths that have adhered to the cupula (cupulolithiasis) within any of the three semicircular canals. Typical symptoms and signs of BPPV are evoked when the head is positioned so that the plane of the affected semicircular canal is spatially vertical and thus aligned with gravity. Paroxysm of vertigo and nystagmus develops after a brief latency during the Dix-Hallpike maneuver in posterior-canal BPPV, and during the supine roll test in horizontal-canal BPPV. Positioning the head in the opposite direction usually reverses the direction of the nystagmus. The duration, frequency, and symptom intensity of BPPV vary depending on the involved canals and the location of otolithic debris. Spontaneous recovery may be expected even with conservative treatments. However, canalithrepositioning maneuvers usually provide an immediate resolution of symptoms by clearing the canaliths from the semicircular canal into the vestibule. PMID:20607044

  13. Knowledge and Screening of Head and Neck Cancer Among American Indians in South Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Deschler, Daniel; Sargent, Michele; Emerick, Kevin; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; Petereit, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We established the level of awareness of risk factors and early symptoms of head and neck cancer among American Indians in South Dakota and determined whether head and neck cancer screening detected clinical findings in this population. Methods. We used the European About Face survey. We added questions about human papillomavirus, a risk factor for head and neck cancer, and demographics. Surveys were administered at 2 public events in 2011. Participants could partake in a head and neck cancer screening at the time of survey administration. Results. Of the 205 American Indians who completed the survey, 114 participated in the screening. Mean head and neck cancer knowledge scores were 26 out of 44. Level of education was the only factor that predicted higher head and neck cancer knowledge (b = 0.90; P = .01). Nine (8%) people had positive head and neck cancer screening examination results. All abnormal clinical findings were in current or past smokers (P = .06). Conclusions. There are gaps in American Indian knowledge of head and neck cancer risk factors and symptoms. Community-based head and neck cancer screening in this population is feasible and may be a way to identify early abnormal clinical findings in smokers. PMID:25320895

  14. De-escalation of radiation dose for human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A case report and preclinical and clinical literature review

    PubMed Central

    WU, CHENG-CHIA; HOROWITZ, DAVID P.; DEUTSCH, ISRAEL; RAHMATI, RAHMATULLAH; SCHECTER, JORDAN M.; SAQI, ANJALI; WANG, TONY J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has been considered to be a relatively homogeneous disease. However, recent data have demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative disease are two different clinical entities associated with different outcomes. Preclinical and clinical studies have reported a divergence in treatment strategies as well as prognostic outcomes for HNSCCs that are HPV-positive versus HPV-negative. The present study describes the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with stage IVB cT2N3M0 right tonsillar HPV-positive squamous cell carcinoma. Induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF), followed by chemoradiation therapy with carboplatin and 70 Gray (Gy) radiation in daily fractions was recommended. The patient completed the TPF and carboplatin treatment; however, he was unable to tolerate the radiation course, receiving a final dose of 46 Gy. A 60-day follow-up right neck salvage dissection was subsequently performed. Despite having received a partial radiation treatment of 46 Gy, the patient had no pathological evidence of disease at 60 days post radiation treatment. Repeat positron emission tomography-computed tomography at 32 months after the right neck dissection revealed no evidence of disease. The present study also discusses the current preclinical in vitro and in vivo targets for HPV-positive HNSCC and the obstacles presented in advancing clinical treatment modalities. Previous preclinical models investigating radiation sensitivity have yielded mixed results. Thus, it is important to understand and establish representative preclinical models for studying HPV and HNSCC to improve clinical research and therapeutic development. This review may guide future understanding of the role of HPV in HNSCC. PMID:26870181

  15. 3D Histomorphometry of the Normal and Early Glaucomatous Monkey Optic Nerve Head: Lamina Cribrosa and Peripapillary Scleral Position and Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongli; Downs, J. Crawford; Girkin, Christopher; Sakata, Lisandro; Bellezza, Anthony; Thompson, Hilary; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To three-dimensionally delineate the anterior and posterior surface of the lamina cribrosa, scleral flange and peripapillary sclera so as to determine the position and thickness of these structures within digital three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the monkey optic nerve head (ONH). Methods The trephinated ONH and peripapillary sclera from both eyes of three early glaucoma (EG) monkeys (one eye Normal, one eye given laser-induced EG) were serial-sectioned at 3-μm thickness, with the embedded tissue block face stained and imaged after each cut. Images were aligned and stacked to create 3D reconstructions, within which Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) and the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lamina cribrosa and peripapillary sclera were delineated in 40 serial, radial (4.5° interval), digital, sagittal sections. For each eye, a BMO zero reference plane was fit to the 80 BMO points, which served as the reference from which all position measurements were made. Regional laminar, scleral flange, and peripapillary scleral position and thickness were compared between the Normal and EG eyes of each monkey and between treatment groups by analysis of variance. Results Laminar thickness varies substantially within the Normal eyes and is profoundly thicker within the three EG eyes. Laminar position is permanently posteriorly deformed in all three EG eyes, with substantial differences in the magnitude and extent of deformation among them. Scleral flange and peripapillary scleral thickness vary regionally within each Normal ONH with the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera thinnest nasally. Overall, the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera immediately surrounding the ONH are posteriorly displaced relative to the more peripheral sclera. Conclusion Profound fixed posterior deformation and thickening of the lamina is accompanied by mild posterior deformation and thinning of the scleral flange and peripapillary sclera at the onset of confocal scanning laser

  16. Carboxyl-Terminal Modulator Protein Positively Acts as an Oncogenic Driver in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma via Regulating Akt phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae Won; Jung, Seung-Nam; Kim, Ju-Hee; Shim, Geun-Ae; Park, Hee Sung; Liu, Lihua; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Jongsun; Koo, Bon Seok

    2016-01-01

    The exact regulatory mechanisms of carboxyl-terminal modulator protein (CTMP) and its downstream pathways in cancer have been controversial and are not completely understood. Here, we report a new mechanism of regulation of Akt serine/threonine kinase, one of the most important dysregulated signals in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by the CTMP pathway and its clinical implications. We find that HNSCC tumor tissues and cell lines had relatively high levels of CTMP expression. Clinical data indicate that CTMP expression was significantly associated with positive lymph node metastasis (OR = 3.8, P = 0.033) and correlated with poor prognosis in patients with HNSCC. CTMP was also positively correlated with Akt/GSK-3β phosphorylation, Snail up-regulation and E-cadherin down-regulation, which lead to increased proliferation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, suggesting that CTMP expression results in enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic properties of HNSCC cells. Moreover, CTMP suppression restores sensitivity to cisplatin chemotherapy. Intriguingly, all the molecular responses to CTMP regulation are identical regardless of p53 status in HNSCC cells. We conclude that CTMP promotes Akt phosphorylation and functions as an oncogenic driver and prognostic marker in HNSCC irrespective of p53. PMID:27328758

  17. Head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... a child's head circumference Normal ranges for a child's sex and age (weeks, months), based on values that experts have obtained for normal growth rates of infants' and children's heads Measurement of the head circumference is an ...

  18. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    Head lice are parasitic wingless insects. They live on people's heads and feed on their blood. An adult louse ... Children ages 3-11 and their families get head lice most often. Personal hygiene has nothing to ...

  19. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Meyrelles, Angela Ri; Siqueira, Juliana D; Santos, Pâmela P Dos; Hofer, Cristina B; Luiz, Ronir R; Seuánez, Héctor N; Almeida, Gutemberg; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A; Machado, Elizabeth S

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample), re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples), and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples). An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30%) or re-infection (20%). A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR) was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79). Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific) HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting. PMID:26872340

  20. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Meyrelles, Angela RI; Siqueira, Juliana D; dos Santos, Pâmela P; Hofer, Cristina B; Luiz, Ronir R; Seuánez, Héctor N; Almeida, Gutemberg; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A; Machado, Elizabeth S

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample), re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples), and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples). An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30%) or re-infection (20%). A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR) was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79). Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific) HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting. PMID:26872340

  1. Accuracy of surface registration compared to conventional volumetric registration in patient positioning for head-and-neck radiotherapy: A simulation study using patient data

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngjun; Li, Ruijiang; Na, Yong Hum; Xing, Lei; Lee, Rena

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: 3D optical surface imaging has been applied to patient positioning in radiation therapy (RT). The optical patient positioning system is advantageous over conventional method using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in that it is radiation free, frameless, and is capable of real-time monitoring. While the conventional radiographic method uses volumetric registration, the optical system uses surface matching for patient alignment. The relative accuracy of these two methods has not yet been sufficiently investigated. This study aims to investigate the theoretical accuracy of the surface registration based on a simulation study using patient data. Methods: This study compares the relative accuracy of surface and volumetric registration in head-and-neck RT. The authors examined 26 patient data sets, each consisting of planning CT data acquired before treatment and patient setup CBCT data acquired at the time of treatment. As input data of surface registration, patient’s skin surfaces were created by contouring patient skin from planning CT and treatment CBCT. Surface registration was performed using the iterative closest points algorithm by point–plane closest, which minimizes the normal distance between source points and target surfaces. Six degrees of freedom (three translations and three rotations) were used in both surface and volumetric registrations and the results were compared. The accuracy of each method was estimated by digital phantom tests. Results: Based on the results of 26 patients, the authors found that the average and maximum root-mean-square translation deviation between the surface and volumetric registrations were 2.7 and 5.2 mm, respectively. The residual error of the surface registration was calculated to have an average of 0.9 mm and a maximum of 1.7 mm. Conclusions: Surface registration may lead to results different from those of the conventional volumetric registration. Only limited accuracy can be achieved for patient

  2. A comprehensive evaluation of human papillomavirus positive status and p16INK4a overexpression as a prognostic biomarker in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zeyi; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Aoki, Kazuo; Matayoshi, Sen; Kiyuna, Asanori; Yamashita, Yukashi; Uehara, Takayuki; Agena, Shinya; Maeda, Hiroyuki; Xie, Minqiang; Suzuki, Mikio

    2014-07-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have better prognosis than those without HPV infection. Although p16(INK4a) expression is used as a surrogate marker for HPV infection, there is controversy as to whether p16(INK4a) reliably indicates HPV infection. Here, to evaluate the accuracy of p16(INK4a) expression for determining HPV infection and the prognostic value of HPV infection and p16(INK4a) expression for HNSCC survival, especially oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) survival, 150 fresh-frozen HNSCC samples were analyzed for HPV DNA, E6/E7 mRNA and p16(INK4a) expression by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. p16(INK4a) expression was scored from 0 to 4 according to the percentage of p16(INK4a)-positive cells, with overexpression defined as >40% positive cells. Of the 150 tumor samples tested, 10 tumors were nasopharyngeal, 53 oropharyngeal, 39 hypopharyngeal, 24 laryngeal and 24 were located in the oral cavity. HPV DNA was detected in 47 (31.3%) samples, but only 21 also exhibited HPV mRNA expression. Inter-rater agreement was low between p16(INK4a) expression and HPV DNA presence and between p16(INK4a) expression and HPV mRNA expression, but was good between the combination of HPV DNA status and p16(INK4a) overexpression and HPV mRNA expression. Three-year recurrence-free survival was significantly higher for OPSCC patients who were HPV DNA-positive than for OPSCC patients who were HPV DNA-negative (P=0.008) and for OPSCC patients overexpressing p16(INK4a) than for without overexpressing p16(INK4a) (P=0.034). Multivariate analysis revealed that T1-3 stage and the combination of HPV DNA positivity and p16(INK4a) overexpression predicted significantly better recurrence-free survival. This combination is a more accurate marker for active HPV infection in HNSCC than HPV DNA status or general p16(INK4a)-positive status alone and offers a useful and reliable method for detecting and

  3. Adjuvant Radiotherapy and Survival for Patients With Node-Positive Head and Neck Cancer: An Analysis by Primary Site and Nodal Stage

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Johnny Lavaf, Amir; Teng, Marita S.; Huang, Delphine; Genden, Eric M.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) is frequently recommended for node-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with primary surgery. The impact of RT on survival for various subgroups of node-positive HNSCC has not been clearly demonstrated. Methods and Materials: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Database, we identified 5297 patients with node-positive (N1 to N3) HNSCC treated with definitive surgery with or without adjuvant RT between 1988 and 2001. The median follow-up was 4.4 years. Results: Adjuvant RT significantly improved 5-year overall survival (46.3%: 95% confidence interval [CI], 44.7-48.0% for surgery + RT, vs. 35.2%: 95% CI, 32.0-38.5% for surgery alone, p < 0.001) and cancer-specific survival (54.8%: 95% CI, 53.2-56.4% for surgery + RT, vs. 46.2% for surgery alone 95% CI, 42.4-50.0%, p < 0.05). Use of adjuvant RT remained a significant predictor of survival on multivariable analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.68-0.83; p < 0.001). Subset analyses demonstrated that adjuvant RT was associated with significantly improved survival for N1 (HR, 0.78; 95% CI; 0.67-0.90; p = 0.001), N2a (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67-0.99, p = 0.048) and N2b to N3 nodal disease (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.51-0.75; p < 0.001). Adjuvant RT increased overall survival for node-positive patients with oropharynx (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57-0.90; p 0.004), hypopharynx (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.88; p = 0.004), larynx (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.52-0.84; p = 0.001), and oral cavity (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.98; p = 0.025) primary tumors. Conclusions: In a large population-based analysis, adjuvant RT significantly improves overall survival for patients with node-positive HNSCC. All nodal stages, including N1, appear to benefit from the addition of RT to definitive surgery.

  4. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W. Thor; Reutzel, Edward W.

    1998-01-01

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure.

  5. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Reutzel, E.W.

    1998-08-18

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure. 8 figs.

  6. DNA double strand break repair defect and sensitivity to poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibition in human papillomavirus 16-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Alice N.; Cooper, Tiffiny S.; Rodriguez, Marcela; Trummell, Hoa Q.; Bonner, James A.; Rosenthal, Eben L.; Yang, Eddy S.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with human papillomavirus-positive (HPV+) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) have increased response to radio- and chemotherapy and improved overall survival, possibly due to an impaired DNA damage response. Here, we investigated the correlation between HPV status and repair of DNA damage in HNSCC cell lines. We also assessed in vitro and in vivo sensitivity to the PARP inhibitor veliparib (ABT-888) in HNSCC cell lines and an HPV+ patient xenograft. Repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) was significantly delayed in HPV+ compared to HPV− HNSCCs, resulting in persistence of γH2AX foci. Although DNA repair activators 53BP1 and BRCA1 were functional in all HNSCCs, HPV+ cells showed downstream defects in both non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination repair. Specifically, HPV+ cells were deficient in protein recruitment and protein expression of DNA-Pk and BRCA2, key factors for non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination respectively. Importantly, the apparent DNA repair defect in HPV+ HNSCCs was associated with increased sensitivity to the PARP inhibitor veliparib, resulting in decreased cell survival in vitro and a 10–14 day tumor growth delay in vivo. These results support the testing of PARP inhibition in combination with DNA damaging agents as a novel therapeutic strategy for HPV+ HNSCC. PMID:26336991

  7. Automatic Prompting and Positive Attention to Reduce Tongue Protrusion and Head Tilting by Two Adults with Severe to Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Pichierri, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed a simple behavioral strategy for reducing stereotypic tongue protrusion and forward head tilting displayed by a woman and a man with severe to profound intellectual disabilities. The strategy involved (a) auditory prompting (i.e., verbal encouragements to keep the tongue in the mouth or the head upright) delivered automatically…

  8. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor BcbHLHpol functions as a positive regulator of pollen development in non-heading Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongkun; Li, Ying; Zhang, Changwei; Duan, Weike; Huang, Feiyi; Hou, Xilin

    2014-12-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a common trait in higher plants, and several transcription factors regulate pollen development. Previously, we obtained a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, BcbHLHpol, via suppression subtractive hybridization in non-heading Chinese cabbage. However, the regulatory function of BcbHLHpol during anther and pollen development remains unclear. In this study, BcbHLHpol was cloned, and its tissue-specific expression profile was analyzed. The results of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that BcbHLHpol was highly expressed in maintainer buds and that the transcripts of BcbHLHpol significantly decreased in the buds of pol CMS. A virus-induced gene silencing vector that targets BcbHLHpol was constructed and transformed into Brassica campestris plants to further explore the function of BcbHLHpol. Male sterility and short stature were observed in BcbHLHpol-silenced plants. The degradation of tapetal cells was inhibited in BcbHLHpol-silenced plants, and nutrients were insufficiently supplied to the microspore. These phenomena resulted in pollen abortion. This result indicates that BcbHLHpol functions as a positive regulator in pollen development. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed that BcbHLHpol interacted with BcSKP1 in the nucleus. This finding suggests that BcbHLHpol and BcSKP1 are positive coordinating regulators of pollen development. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that BcbHLHpol and BcSKP1 can be induced at low temperatures. Thus, we propose that BcbHLHpol is necessary for meiosis. This study provides insights into the regulatory functions of the BcbHLHpol network during anther development. PMID:25147023

  9. Assessment of Antero-Posterior Skeletal and Soft Tissue Relationships of Adult Indian Subjects in Natural Head Position and Centric Relation

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Vishnu Ben; Keshavaraj; Rai, Rohan; Hegde, Gautham; Shajahan, Shabna

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to verify the intra-individual reproducibility of natural head position (NHP) in centric relation (CR) position, to prove the inter-individual differences in the Frankfort horizontal plane and sella-nasion line compared with the true horizontal line, and to establish linear norms from A-point, B-point, Pog as well as soft tissue A-point, soft tissue B-point, and soft tissue Pog to nasion true vertical line (NTVL) in adult Indian subjects. Methods: Lateral cephalograms (T1) of Angle’s Class I subjects were taken in NHP and with bite in CR. A second lateral cephalogram (T2) of these subjects with ANB angle in the range 1-4° were taken after 1 week using the same wax bite and both the radiographs were analyzed based on six angular parameters using cephalometric software (Do-it, Dental studio NX version 4.1) to assess the reproducibility of NHP. Linear values of six landmarks were taken in relation to NTVL, and the mean values were calculated. A total of 116 subjects were included in this study. Results: When the cephalometric values of T1 and T2 were analyzed, it was found that, the parameters showed a P < 0.001, indicating the reproducibility of NHP in CR. Mean values for point A, point B, Pog and their soft tissue counterparts were also obtained. Conclusion: The study proved that NHP is a reproducible and accurate when recorded with the mandible in CR. Linear norms for skeletal Class I subjects in relation to NTVL were established. PMID:26124598

  10. Olfactory dysfunction in head injured workers.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T; Rutka, J

    1999-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction following trauma has been widely reported and is currently compensable according to existing American Medical Association guidelines when it occurs in the occupational setting. Its presence and the risk factors for its development, however, have not been clearly delineated in occupationally head injured workers. In order to assess this phenomenon, a series of 365 consecutive head injured workers from 1993-1997 was assessed in order to determine the incidence of post-traumatic olfactory dysfunction and its association with the severity of the head injury, the mechanism of injury and other neurotological abnormalities in the same cohort group. Olfactory dysfunction was identified in 13.7% (9.3% with anosmia, 4.4% with hyposmia/dysosmia). It was more likely where the loss of consciousness > 1 h (p < 0.002), in more severe head injuries (grades II-V) (p < 0.001) and when skull fracture (p < 0.001) occurred. The direction of the blow applied to the skull did not influence its presence, although radiologically confirmed skull fractures in the frontal, occipital, skull base and midface were twice as likely as temporal and parietal fractures to result in an olfactory change. From a neurotologic perspective, approximately 21.9% of head injured workers were determined to have recognizable evidence of cochleovestibular dysfunction. Olfactory dysfunction as a physical finding post-head injury compares favourably with the presence of post-traumatic benign positional paroxysmal vertigo (BPPV) and its atypical variants in 11.2% of head injured workers. PMID:10445080

  11. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

  12. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  13. Prevalence of Different Head-Neck Positions in Horses Shown at Dressage Competitions and Their Relation to Conflict Behaviour and Performance Marks

    PubMed Central

    Kienapfel, Kathrin; Link, Yvonne; König v. Borstel, Uta

    2014-01-01

    Much controversy exists among riders, and in particular among those practicing dressage, regarding what can be considered an “appropriate” Head-Neck-Position (HNP). The objective was to assess the prevalence of different HNPs in the field, the behavioural reactions of horses during warm-up and competition rides in relation to HNP and the relation between HNP and marks achieved in the competition. Horses (n = 171) were selected during dressage competitions according to their HNP (3 categories based on the degree of flexion), and their behaviour was recorded during 3 minutes each of riding in the warm-up area and in the competition. Scans were carried out on an additional 355 horses every 15 minutes to determine the proportion of each HNP in the warm-up area. Sixty-nine percent of the 355 horses were ridden with their nasal planes behind the vertical in the warm-up area, 19% were ridden at or behind the vertical and only 12% were ridden with their nasal plane in front of the vertical. Horses carrying their nasal plane behind the vertical exhibited significantly (P<0.0001) more conflict behaviours than horses with their nose held in front of the vertical. Horses were commonly presented with a less flexed HNP during competition compared to warm-up (P<0.05). A HNP behind the vertical was penalised with lower marks in the lower (P = 0.0434) but not in the higher (P = 0.9629) competition levels. Horses in higher classes showed more (P = 0.0015) conflict behaviour than those in lower classes. In conclusion, dressage horses are commonly ridden during warm-up for competitions with their nasal plane behind the vertical, and this posture seems to cause significantly more conflict behaviour than HNPs in front of the vertical. PMID:25090242

  14. Prevalence of different head-neck positions in horses shown at dressage competitions and their relation to conflict behaviour and performance marks.

    PubMed

    Kienapfel, Kathrin; Link, Yvonne; König V Borstel, Uta

    2014-01-01

    Much controversy exists among riders, and in particular among those practicing dressage, regarding what can be considered an "appropriate" Head-Neck-Position (HNP). The objective was to assess the prevalence of different HNPs in the field, the behavioural reactions of horses during warm-up and competition rides in relation to HNP and the relation between HNP and marks achieved in the competition. Horses (n = 171) were selected during dressage competitions according to their HNP (3 categories based on the degree of flexion), and their behaviour was recorded during 3 minutes each of riding in the warm-up area and in the competition. Scans were carried out on an additional 355 horses every 15 minutes to determine the proportion of each HNP in the warm-up area. Sixty-nine percent of the 355 horses were ridden with their nasal planes behind the vertical in the warm-up area, 19% were ridden at or behind the vertical and only 12% were ridden with their nasal plane in front of the vertical. Horses carrying their nasal plane behind the vertical exhibited significantly (P<0.0001) more conflict behaviours than horses with their nose held in front of the vertical. Horses were commonly presented with a less flexed HNP during competition compared to warm-up (P<0.05). A HNP behind the vertical was penalised with lower marks in the lower (P = 0.0434) but not in the higher (P = 0.9629) competition levels. Horses in higher classes showed more (P = 0.0015) conflict behaviour than those in lower classes. In conclusion, dressage horses are commonly ridden during warm-up for competitions with their nasal plane behind the vertical, and this posture seems to cause significantly more conflict behaviour than HNPs in front of the vertical.

  15. Effect of different head and neck positions on behaviour, heart rate variability and cortisol levels in lunged Royal Dutch Sport horses.

    PubMed

    Smiet, E; Van Dierendonck, M C; Sleutjens, J; Menheere, P P C A; van Breda, E; de Boer, D; Back, W; Wijnberg, I D; van der Kolk, J H

    2014-10-01

    Different head-and-neck positions (HNPs) are discussed in relation to potential welfare issues. To evaluate the effect on welfare, seven Royal Dutch Sport horses were studied in five predetermined HNPs: (1) unrestrained (HNP1); (2) neck raised, bridge of nose around the vertical (HNP2); (3) neck lowered and considerably flexed, bridge of nose pointing towards the chest (HNP4); (4) neck raised and extended, bridge of nose in front of the vertical (HNP5), and (5) neck lowered and flexed, bridge of nose pointing towards the carpus (HNP7). A standardised exercise test (SET) of 34 min consisted of trot, canter and walk. Behaviour was recorded with a pre-defined ethogram and R-R intervals measured using telemetry. Cortisol concentrations were taken at the start, 5 and 30 min after the SET. Behaviour around the SET was scored separately. Conflict behaviours increased significantly during HNP2 when compared with HNP1, HNP4 and HNP7 during the SET, and there was significant negative anticipation before HNP2 and HNP7. The heart rate variability (HRV) frequency domain for HNP2 showed a significantly increased low frequency peak (LFpeak) compared with other HNPs, and there was a decrease in very low frequency (VLF%) compared with HNP1. HNP4 showed a significant increase in LF% and decrease in VLF% compared with HNP1. Saliva cortisol concentrations were significantly increased in HNP2 at 5 and 30 min after exercise. Increased conflict behaviour was mostly observed in HNP2, but there was a raised HRV suggesting a sympathetic shift in HNP2 and HNP4, and increased cortisol concentrations during HNP2 indicated a stress response.

  16. Estimation of adequate setup margins and threshold for position errors requiring immediate attention in head and neck cancer radiotherapy based on 2D image guidance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We estimated sufficient setup margins for head-and-neck cancer (HNC) radiotherapy (RT) when 2D kV images are utilized for routine patient setup verification. As another goal we estimated a threshold for the displacements of the most important bony landmarks related to the target volumes requiring immediate attention. Methods We analyzed 1491 orthogonal x-ray images utilized in RT treatment guidance for 80 HNC patients. We estimated overall setup errors and errors for four subregions to account for patient rotation and deformation: the vertebrae C1-2, C5-7, the occiput bone and the mandible. Setup margins were estimated for two 2D image guidance protocols: i) imaging at first three fractions and weekly thereafter and ii) daily imaging. Two 2D image matching principles were investigated: i) to the vertebrae in the middle of planning target volume (PTV) (MID_PTV) and ii) minimizing maximal position error for the four subregions (MIN_MAX). The threshold for the position errors was calculated with two previously unpublished methods based on the van Herk’s formula and clinical data by retaining a margin of 5 mm sufficient for each subregion. Results Sufficient setup margins to compensate the displacements of the subregions were approximately two times larger than were needed to compensate setup errors for rigid target. Adequate margins varied from 2.7 mm to 9.6 mm depending on the subregions related to the target, applied image guidance protocol and early correction of clinically important systematic 3D displacements of the subregions exceeding 4 mm. The MIN_MAX match resulted in smaller margins but caused an overall shift of 2.5 mm for the target center. Margins ≤ 5mm were sufficient with the MID_PTV match only through application of daily 2D imaging and the threshold of 4 mm to correct systematic displacement of a subregion. Conclusions Adequate setup margins depend remarkably on the subregions related to the target volume. When the systematic 3D

  17. Normal and abnormal mechanics of the glenohumeral joint in the horizontal plane.

    PubMed

    Howell, S M; Galinat, B J; Renzi, A J; Marone, P J

    1988-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the relationship of the humeral head to the scapula in the horizontal plane of motion and to describe in detail a method of obtaining and interpreting modified axillary roentgenograms. Twenty normal subjects and twelve patients who had anterior instability of the shoulder were evaluated with this technique. In the control group, the humeral head was centered in the glenoid cavity throughout the horizontal plane of motion except when the arm was in maximum extension and external rotation. In this position, the cocked stage of the throwing motion, the center of the humeral head rested approximately four millimeters posterior to the center of the glenoid cavity. When the arm was flexed or rotated from this cocked position, the humeral head glided anteriorly, producing a shearing stress on the articular surface of the glenoid and labrum. In seven of the twelve patients who had anterior instability, abnormal mechanics were observed: anterior translation of the humeral head occurred. This indicates a significant disruption of the structures responsible for containing the humeral head within the glenoid fossa. PMID:3343267

  18. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... injuries internal head injuries, which may involve the skull, the blood vessels within the skull, or the brain Fortunately, most childhood falls or ... knock the brain into the side of the skull or tear blood vessels. Some internal head injuries ...

  19. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... or prescription products. Over-the-counter shampoos and lotions containing pyrethrin (one brand name: Rid) or permethrin ( ... commonly used to treat head lice. Shampoos and lotions that kill head lice contain pesticides and other ...

  20. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... the test, tell your provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips An artificial heart valves Heart defibrillator ...

  1. Effects on respiratory function of the head-down position and the complete covering of the face by drapes during insertion of the monitoring catheters in the cardiosurgical patient

    PubMed Central

    Bertolissi, Massimo; Bassi, Flavio; Silvestre, Adriana Di; Giordano, Francesco

    1999-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the effect on the respiratory gas exchange of the 30° head-down position and the complete covering of the face by sterile drapes. These are used to cannulate the internal jugular vein and position the pulmonary artery catheter in the cardiosurgical patient. During the two manoeuvres, 20 coronary patients and 10 patients with end-stage heart disease were supplied with oxygen (FiO2 =0.4) by a Venturi mask, while 20 coronary patients breathed room air. The arterial blood samples to measure oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2) tension and oxygen saturation (SaO2) were analysed by a blood gas system. Results: The contemporary application of the head-down position and the drapes over the face significantly increased PaO2 and SaO2 in all the patientssupplied with oxygen. Without the head-down position, leaving the drapes over the face, did not significantly change the two parameters in the coronary patients supplied with oxygen, but induced a significant increase in PaO2 and SaO2 in the patients with end-stage heart disease. In the coronary patients that were breathing room air, PaO2 and SaO2 were stable throughout the study. Conclusions: We conclude that the 30° head-down position and the complete covering of the face by drapes does not interfere with respiratory gas exchange and can be safely performed in coronary patients supplied with oxygen or breathing room air and in patients with end-stage heart disease supplied with oxygen (FiO2 of 0.4). PMID:11056729

  2. [The Difference of CT Value Related to Monitor Position in the Head CT-angiography Bolus Tracking Method for Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Mizui, Masato; Mizoguchi, Yuji; Tashiro, Takao

    2016-01-01

    The head computed tomography-angiography (head CT-A) examination is excellent for the detection and diagnosis of cerebral artery aneurysm. If we use bolus tracking method when implementing this examination, we must choose a monitoring point. We investigated the influence which the monitoring point (MCA or carotid-A) exerts on the CT value. As for the result, MCA monitoring point method was more excellent than the carotid artery monitoring point method. The CT value was higher about 50 HU in the MCA monitoring point than in the carotid artery monitoring point (average;carotid artery: 349.6±57.8 HU, MCA: 413.2±67.9 HU). So, we conclude that in the bolus tracking method of monitoring point of head CTA, MCA monitoring point should be used.

  3. Ultrasound, normal fetus - head measurements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many health care providers like to have fetal measurements to verify the size of the fetus and ... any abnormalities. This ultrasound is of a head measurement, indicated by the cross hairs and dotted lines.

  4. Benign positional vertigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical practice guideline: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2008;139(5 Suppl 4):S47-S81. ... BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015: ...

  5. Comparison of Head Center Position and Screw Fixation Options Between a Jumbo Cup and an Offset Center of Rotation Cup in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Computer Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Faizan, Ahmad; Black, Brandon J; Fay, Brian D; Heffernan, Christopher D; Ries, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Jumbo acetabular cups are commonly used in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). A straightforward reaming technique is used which is similar to primary THA. However, jumbo cups may also be associated with hip center elevation, limited screw fixation options, and anterior soft tissue impingement. A partially truncated hemispherical shell was designed with an offset center of rotation, thick superior rim, and beveled anterior and superior rims as an alternative to a conventional jumbo cup. A three dimensional computer simulation was used to assess head center position and safe screw trajectories. Results of this in vitro study indicate that a modified hemispherical implant geometry can reduce head center elevation while permitting favorable screw fixation trajectories into the pelvis in comparison to a conventional jumbo cup.

  6. Eradication of CD44-variant positive population in head and neck tumors through controlled intracellular navigation of cisplatin-loaded nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Miura, Yutaka; Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Miyano, Kazuki; Nagano, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Momoko; Tanabe, Ami; Makino, Jun; Mochida, Yuki; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Saya, Hideyuki; Cabral, Horacio; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2016-05-28

    Eventual relapse of tumor growth is commonly observed in head and neck cancer patients, following treatment with platinum-based chemotherapies. This occurrence is believed to be related to the failure to eradicate drug resistant, cancer stem cell (CSC) niches, thereby enriching their population in tumors after treatment. In this study, we show that in contrast to free cisplatin (CDDP), the polymer micelle-based nanomedicine incorporating cisplatin (CDDP/m), can eradicate both the undifferentiated cell and the differentiated cancer cell populations within a head and neck tumor model. Immunohistochemistry of treated tumors showed that opposing to CDDP treatment, CDDP/m could reduce tumor growth without concentrating the CSC-like population. We further showed that CDDP/m, but not CDDP, can localize into hypoxic regions, possibly CSC-rich areas, in the tumors, and can overcome their detoxification mechanism based-on high cellular expression of glutathione to successfully deliver Pt to nuclear DNA. Our data suggests CDDP/m to be a replacement for current platinum therapies, for its ability to eradicate both bulk and CSC-like populations, and in turn to prevent recurrence of tumor growth. PMID:27040816

  7. The perception of heading during eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royden, Constance S.; Banks, Martin S.; Crowell, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Warren and Hannon (1988, 1990), while studying the perception of heading during eye movements, concluded that people do not require extraretinal information to judge heading with eye/head movements present. Here, heading judgments are examined at higher, more typical eye movement velocities than the extremely slow tracking eye movements used by Warren and Hannon. It is found that people require extraretinal information about eye position to perceive heading accurately under many viewing conditions.

  8. Head injury.

    PubMed

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  9. Benign positional vertigo - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Vertigo - positional - aftercare; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo - aftercare; BPPV - aftercare; Dizziness - positional vertigo ... Your health care provider may have treated your vertigo with the Epley maneuver . These are head movements ...

  10. Influence of the discharge lamp's working position in the illuminator on the illuminance distribution on the head of the optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaremba, Krysztof

    2004-07-01

    the distribution of the luminous flux density in the focus of a discharge a lamp depends solely on its working position. The main goal of this work was to perform measurements of the distribution of the luminous flux density in the focus of the HQI-R 150W lamp, in various working positions. With all possible working positions for this lamp, the measured illuminance distributions are very uneven.

  11. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  12. Head Noises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Explains how a toy called "Sound Bites" can be modified to demonstrate the transmission of sound waves. Students can hear music from the toy when they press it against any bone in their heads or shoulders. (WRM)

  13. An Experimental Device to Record Infant Head Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouen, Francois

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes methods used to record infant head position and the limits of these methods. An experimental device is proposed which records infant head turning and head righting when the vestibular system is stimulated. (Author/DB)

  14. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  15. Interview with Joe F. Head

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Kim

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Joe F. Head, Dean of University Admissions and Enrollment Services at Kennesaw State University (KSU) in Georgia, who has more than 35 years of experience in admissions and enrollment services. After completing an M.Ed. in higher education at Georgia Southern University, Head immediately landed a position as…

  16. Can we abolish skull x rays for head injury?

    PubMed Central

    Reed, M; Browning, J; Wilkinson, A; Beattie, T

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a change in skull x ray policy on the rate of admission, use of computed tomography (CT), radiation dose per head injury, and detection of intracranial injuries; and to compare the characteristics of patients with normal and abnormal head CT. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: UK paediatric teaching hospital emergency department. Patients: 1535 patients aged between 1 and 14 years with a head injury presenting to the emergency department between 1 August 1998 and 31 July 1999 (control period), and 1867 presenting between 1 August 2002 and 31 July 2003 (first year of new skull x ray policy). Intervention: Hospital notes and computer systems were analysed and data were collected on all patients presenting with a head injury. Results: The abolition of skull x rays in children aged over 1 year prevented about 400 normal skull x rays being undertaken in period 2. The percentage of children undergoing CT rose from 1.0% to 2.1% with no change in the positive CT pick up rate (25.6% v 25.0%). There was no significant change in admission rate (10.9% v 10.1%), and a slight decrease in the radiation dose per head injury (0.042 mSv compared to 0.045 mSv). Conclusions: Skull x rays can be abandoned in children aged 1 to 14 without a significant increase in admission rate, radiation dose per head injury, or missed intracranial injury. The mechanism and history of the injury and a reduced Glasgow coma scale are probably the most important indicators of significant head injury in children. PMID:15851418

  17. Epiblepharon-induced head tilt masquerading as torticollis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Benjamin P; Lee, Wendy W

    2015-01-01

    A 10-month-old girl presented for ocular evaluation carrying a provisional diagnosis of torticollis. Her family reported that for the past 5 months, she consistently tilted her head to the left while twisting her chin toward the right shoulder. Her adnexal examination was notable for epiblepharon, with greater ciliary-corneal contact in the OS. It was therefore hypothesized that this posture was adopted to minimize ocular irritation. Her symptoms resolved immediately following a Hotz-Celsus procedure. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of asymmetric ciliary-corneal contact from epiblepharon, resulting in preference for a head position mimicking a musculoskeletal abnormality such as torticollis.

  18. The Divergence of Wear Propagation and Stress at Steep Acetabular Cup Positions Using Ceramic Heads and Sequentially Cross-Linked Polyethylene Liners.

    PubMed

    Zietz, Carmen; Fabry, Christian; Baum, Felix; Bader, Rainer; Kluess, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present wear simulator study was to assess the effect of steep acetabular cup positions on the wear propagation of highly cross-linked-PE (HX-PE) liners. Furthermore, a finite element analysis (FEA) was performed in order to calculate the stress within the HX-PE material in case of steep cup positions under physiological loadings. The higher stress in the HX-PE at a steep acetabular cup position did not result in increased wear in the present wear simulator study. The gravimetrical wear rates at normal (45°) and steep cup inclinations (75°) showed wear amounts of 3.15±0.27mg and 2.18±0.31mg per million cycles (p=0.028), respectively. However, FEA revealed clear increase in stress at the HX-PE liners with respect to steep cup positions.

  19. A Novel Reading Scheme for Assessing the Extent of Radiographic Abnormalities and Its Association with Disease Severity in Sputum Smear-Positive Tuberculosis: An Observational Study in Hyderabad/India

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Surabhi; Hussain, Abid; Klassert, Tilman E.; Driesch, Dominik; Tokaryeva, Viktoriya; Löschmann, Yvonne Yi-Na; Sumanlatha, Gadamm; Ahmed, Niyaz; Valluri, Vijayalakshmi; Schumann, Ralf R.; Lala, Birgit; Slevogt, Hortense

    2015-01-01

    Background Existing reading schemes for chest X-ray (CXR) used to grade the extent of disease severity at diagnosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are often based on numerical scores that summate specific radiographic features. However, since PTB is known to exhibit a wide heterogeneity in pathology, certain features might be differentially associated with clinical parameters of disease severity. Objective We aimed to grade disease severity in PTB patients at diagnosis and after completion of DOTS treatment by developing a reading scheme based on five different radiographic manifestations and analyze their association with the clinical parameters of systemic involvement and infectivity. Methods 141 HIV-negative adults with newly diagnosed sputum smear-positive PTB were enrolled in a prospective observational study in Hyderabad, India. The presence and extent on CXRs of five radiographic manifestations, i.e., lung involvement, alveolar infiltration, cavitation, lymphadenopathy and pleural effusion, were classified using the new reading scheme by using a four-quadrant approach. We evaluated the inter-reader reliability of each manifestation, and its association with BMI and sputum smear positivity at diagnosis. The presence and extent of these radiographic manifestations were further compared with CXRs on completion of DOTS treatment. Results At diagnosis, an average lung area of 51.7% +/- 23.3% was affected by radiographic abnormalities. 94% of the patients had alveolar infiltrates, with 89.4% located in the upper quadrants, suggesting post primary PTB and in 34.8% of patients cavities were found. We further showed that the extent of affected lung area was a negative predictor of BMI (β value -0.035, p 0.019). No significant association of BMI with any of the other CXR features was found. The extent of alveolar infiltrates, along with the presence of cavitation, were strongly associated with sputum smear positivity. The microbiological cure rate in

  20. SU-E-J-231: Comparison of Delineation Variability of Soft Tissue Volume and Position in Head-And-Neck Between Two T1-Weighted Pulse Sequences Using An MR-Simulator with Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, O; Lo, G; Yuan, J; Law, M; Ding, A; Cheng, K; Chan, K; Cheung, K; Yu, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: There is growing interests in applying MR-simulator(MR-sim) in radiotherapy but MR images subject to hardware, patient and pulse sequence dependent geometric distortion that may potentially influence target definition. This study aimed to evaluate the influence on head-and-neck tissue delineation, in terms of positional and volumetric variability, of two T1-weighted(T1w) MR sequences on a 1.5T MR-sim Methods: Four healthy volunteers were scanned (4 scans for each on different days) using both spin-echo (3DCUBE, TR/TE=500/14ms, TA=183s) and gradient-echo sequences (3DFSPGR, TE/TR=7/4ms, TA=173s) with identical coverage, voxel-size(0.8×0.8×1.0mm3), receiver-bandwidth(62.5kHz/pix) and geometric correction on a 1.5T MR-sim immobilized with personalized thermoplastic cast and head-rest. Under this setting, similar T1w contrast and signal-to-noise ratio were obtained, and factors other than sequence that might bias image distortion and tissue delineation were minimized. VOIs of parotid gland(PGR, PGL), pituitary gland(PIT) and eyeballs(EyeL, EyeR) were carefully drawn, and inter-scan coefficient-of-variation(CV) of VOI centroid position and volume were calculated for each subject. Mean and standard deviation(SD) of the CVs for four subjects were compared between sequences using Wilcoxon ranksum test. Results: The mean positional(<4%) and volumetric(<7%) CVs varied between tissues, majorly dependent on tissue inherent properties like volume, location, mobility and deformability. Smaller mean volumetric CV was found in 3DCUBE, probably due to its less proneness to tissue susceptibility, but only PGL showed significant difference(P<0.05). Positional CVs had no significant differences for all VOIs(P>0.05) between sequences, suggesting volumetric variation might be more sensitive to sequence-dependent delineation difference. Conclusion: Although 3DCUBE is considered less prone to tissue susceptibility-induced artifact and distortion, our preliminary data showed

  1. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  2. [Erythrocyte membrane abnormalities - hereditary elliptocytosis].

    PubMed

    Kvezereli-Kopadze, M; Kvezereli-Kopadze, A; Mtvarelidze, Z; Bubuteishvili, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the 4 year old boy with Hereditary Elliptocitosis (HE). The diagnosis of this rare hemolytic anemia was based on detailed family history (positive in the 4-th generation), physical examination and Para-clinical data analyses. The vast majority of patients with HE are asymptomatic, severe forms are rare. The most important is examination of blood films, which is helpful to detect the morphology abnormalities of red cells. In case of HE a different approach is required. Positive family history and series of investigations should be conducted to determine the HE.

  3. Arterial abnormalities of the shoulder in athletes.

    PubMed

    Nuber, G W; McCarthy, W J; Yao, J S; Schafer, M F; Suker, J R

    1990-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the shoulder may be misinterpreted as one of the more familiar shoulder abnormalities by a treating physician. We are reporting on 13 athletes who were found to have symptoms related to compression of the subclavian or axillary artery or their tributaries. Nine were amateur or professional baseball pitchers. Severe arm fatigue or finger ischemia, secondary to embolization, were presenting symptoms. Arm fatigue was noted in all pitchers. After complete history and physical examination, including auscultation for bruits in functional positions, all athletes were evaluated by noninvasive tests (Doppler and Duplex scanning). Arteriography was performed with positional testing, recreating overhead activity, and complete radiographic visualization of the dye to the digital arteries. Two patients were found to have subclavian artery aneurysm. The remaining athletes were found to have compression of the subclavian artery beneath the anterior scalene muscle (five patients), the axillary artery beneath the pectoralis minor (two patients), both arterial segments (two patients), and one was found to have arterial compromise at the level of the humeral head. Branch artery compression was also noted. One pitcher occluded the posterior circumflex humeral artery with embolization to the digit. The two patients with subclavian aneurysms underwent saphenous vein bypass with cervical rib resection. All of the other athletes except one underwent resection of a 2 to 3 cm segment of the anterior scalene muscle or pectoralis minor muscles. All returned to their previous level of activity except one patient who developed impingement type symptoms and required acromioplasty. He is currently undergoing rehabilitation. Proper recognition of vascular compromise in the upper extremity of athletes is essential to avoid the catastropic complications of arterial thrombosis.

  4. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  5. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings... shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal... in accordance with section 203 of the Act (see 30 CFR part 90). Positive findings with regard...

  6. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  7. The N-linked glycosylation site at position 158 on the head of hemagglutinin and the virulence of H5N1 avian influenza virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Suptawiwat, Ornpreya; Boonarkart, Chompunuch; Chakritbudsabong, Warunya; Uiprasertkul, Mongkol; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Auewarakul, Prasert

    2015-02-01

    N-linked glycosylation of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein plays crucial roles in HA structure and function, evasion of neutralizing antibodies, and susceptibility to innate soluble antiviral factors. The N-linked glycosylation site at position 158 of highly pathogenic H5N1 virus was previously shown to affect viral receptor-binding preference. H5N1 viruses show heterogeneity with respect to the presence of this glycosylation site. Clade 1 viruses that caused outbreaks in Southeast Asia in 2004 contained this glycosylation site, while the site is absent in the more recent clade 2 viruses. Here, we show that elimination of this glycosylation site increases viral virulence in mice. The mutant lacking the glycosylation site at position 158 showed unaltered growth kinetics in vitro and a comparable level of sensitivity to a major antiviral protein found in respiratory secretions, surfactant protein D (SP-D).

  8. Combustor with non-circular head end

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Won -Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston

    2015-09-29

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a head end with a non-circular configuration, a number of fuel nozzles positioned about the head end, and a transition piece extending downstream of the head end.

  9. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  10. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  11. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  12. Firing Properties of Rat Lateral Mammillary Single Units: Head Direction, Head Pitch, and Angular Head Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Stackman, Robert W.; Taube, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Many neurons in the rat anterodorsal thalamus (ADN) and postsubiculum (PoS) fire selectively when the rat points its head in a specific direction in the horizontal plane, independent of the animal’s location and ongoing behavior. The lateral mammillary nuclei (LMN) are interconnected with both the ADN and PoS and, therefore, are in a pivotal position to influence ADN/PoS neurophysiology. To further understand how the head direction (HD) cell signal is generated, we recorded single neurons from the LMN of freely moving rats. The majority of cells discharged as a function of one of three types of spatial correlates: (1) directional heading, (2) head pitch, or (3) angular head velocity (AHV). LMN HD cells exhibited higher peak firing rates and greater range of directional firing than that of ADN and PoS HD cells. LMN HD cells were modulated by angular head velocity, turning direction, and anticipated the rat’s future HD by a greater amount of time (~95 msec) than that previously reported for ADN HD cells (~25 msec). Most head pitch cells discharged when the rostrocaudal axis of the rat’s head was orthogonal to the horizontal plane. Head pitch cell firing was independent of the rat’s location, directional heading, and its body orientation (i.e., the cell discharged whenever the rat pointed its head up, whether standing on all four limbs or rearing). AHV cells were categorized as fast or slow AHV cells depending on whether their firing rate increased or decreased in proportion to angular head velocity. These data demonstrate that LMN neurons code direction and angular motion of the head in both horizontal and vertical planes and support the hypothesis that the LMN play an important role in processing both egocentric and allocentric spatial information. PMID:9787007

  13. Positional plagiocephaly

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Cranial asymmetry occurring as a result of forces that deform skull shape in the supine position is known as deformational plagiocephaly. The risk of plagiocephaly may be modified by positioning the baby on alternate days with the head to the right or the left side, and by increasing time spent in the prone position during awake periods. When deformational plagiocephaly is already present, physiotherapy (including positioning equivalent to the preventive positioning, and exercises as needed for torticollis and positional preference) has been shown to be superior to counselling about preventive positioning only. Helmet therapy (moulding therapy) to reduce skull asymmetry has some drawbacks: it is expensive, significantly inconvenient due to the long hours of use per day and associated with skin complications. There is evidence that helmet therapy may increase the initial rate of improvement of asymmetry, but there is no evidence that it improves the final outcome for patients with moderate or severe plagiocephaly. PMID:23024590

  14. Method comparison of automated matching software-assisted cone-beam CT and stereoscopic kilovoltage x-ray positional verification image-guided radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: a prospective analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Clifton D.; Scarbrough, Todd J.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Rasch, Coen R. N.; Choi, Mehee; Ting, Joe Y.; Wang, Samuel J.; Papanikolaou, Niko; Rosenthal, David I.

    2009-12-01

    We sought to characterize interchangeability and agreement between cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital stereoscopic kV x-ray (KVX) acquisition, two methods of isocenter positional verification currently used for IGRT of head and neck cancers (HNC). A cohort of 33 patients were near-simultaneously imaged by in-room KVX and CBCT. KVX and CBCT shifts were suggested using manufacturer software for the lateral (X), vertical (Y) and longitudinal (Z) dimensions. Intra-method repeatability, systematic and random error components were calculated for each imaging modality, as were recipe-based PTV expansion margins. Inter-method agreement in each axis was compared using limits of agreement (LOA) methodology, concordance analysis and orthogonal regression. 100 daily positional assessments were performed before daily therapy in 33 patients with head and neck cancer. Systematic error was greater for CBCT in all axes, with larger random error components in the Y- and Z-axis. Repeatability ranged from 9 to 14 mm for all axes, with CBCT showing greater repeatability in 2/3 axes. LOA showed paired shifts to agree 95% of the time within ±11.3 mm in the X-axis, ±9.4 mm in the Y-axis and ±5.5 mm in the Z-axis. Concordance ranged from 'mediocre' to 'satisfactory'. Proportional bias was noted between paired X- and Z-axis measures, with a constant bias component in the Z-axis. Our data suggest non-negligible differences in software-derived CBCT and KVX image-guided directional shifts using formal method comparison statistics. A correction was made to the first line of page 7404 of this article on 26 November 2009. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.

  15. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

  16. Image data rate converter having a drum with a fixed head and a rotatable head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingsley, F. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A data-rate converter is disclosed comprising a rotatable data-storing drum with at least one fixed read/record head and a rotatable read/record head. The latter is rotatable in a circular path about the drum axis of rotation. The drum is positionable in any one of a plurality of axial positions with respect to the heads, so that at least one drum track is aligned with the fixed head in one drum position and with the rotatable head in another drum position. When a track is aligned with the fixed head, data may be recorded therin or read out therefrom at a rate which is a function of drum rotation, while when aligned with the rotatable head, data may be recorded or read out at a rate which is a function of the rates and directions of rotation of both the drum and the head.

  17. Effects of vestibular loss on head stabilization in response to head and body perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Control of head position during postural responses is important to facilitate both the interpretation of vestibular signals and the stabilization of gaze. In these experiments, we compared head stabilization for two different postural tasks: 1) in response to perturbations at the head, and 2) in response to perturbations induced at the support surface, which perturb both body and head position. To determine whether normal vestibular function is necessary for head stabilization in these two tasks, responses to forward and backward mechanical perturbations of the head and body were compared for 13 normal subjects and 4 patients with profound bilateral vestibular loss (two with vestibular loss in adulthood and two in infancy). Normal subjects showed little neck muscle activity for body perturbations, but large, early activations in both neck extensors and flexors for head perturbations. In contrast, vestibular patients showed excessive neck muscle activation for body perturbations and reduced or absent neck muscle activity for head perturbations. Patients with vestibular loss in adulthood also showed increased head acceleration in response to both head and body perturbations, but patients with vestibular loss in infancy showed more normal head accelerations. For body perturbations, the differences in head acceleration between patients and normals were greater for later head acceleration peaks, indicating poor head control during the execution of the postural response. Trunk angle changes were also higher in the patients for forward body perturbations, indicating that poorer control of trunk position could have contributed to their poorer head stabilization. These results indicate that the vestibular system plays an important role in head and trunk stabilization for both head and body perturbations. However, the more normal head accelerations of the patients with infant vestibular loss also indicate that other mechanisms, possibly involving neck reflexes, can at least

  18. Intra-pulp temperature increase of equine cheek teeth during treatment with motorized grinding systems: influence of grinding head position and rotational speed

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In equine practice, teeth corrections by means of motorized grinding systems are standard procedure. The heat resulting from that treatment may cause irreparable damage to the dental pulp. It has been shown that a 5.5°C temperature rise may cause severe destruction in pulp cells. Hence, the capability to continuously form secondary dentine is lost, and may lead, due to equine-typical occlusal tooth abrasion, to an opening of the pulp cavity. To obtain reliable data on the intra-pulp increase in temperature during corrective treatments, equine cheek teeth (CT) were modified in a way (occlusal surface smoothed, apical parts detached, pulp horns standardized) that had been qualified in own former published studies. All parameters influencing the grinding process were standardized (force applied, initial temperatures, dimensions of pulp horns, positioning of grinding disk, rotational speed). During grinding experiments, imitating real dental treatments, the time span for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was determined. Results The minimum time recorded for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was 38 s in mandibular CT (buccal grinding, 12,000 rpm) and 70 s in maxillary CT (flat occlusal grinding, 12,000 rpm). The data obtained showed that doubling the rotational speed of the disk results in halving the time span after which the critical intra-pulp temperature increase in maxillary CT is reached. For mandibular CT, the time span even drops by two thirds. Conclusion The use of standardized hypsodont CT enabled comparative studies of intra-pulp heating during the grinding of occlusal tooth surfaces using different tools and techniques. The anatomical structure of the natural vital hypsodont tooth must be kept in mind, so that the findings of this study do not create a deceptive sense of security with regard to the time-dependent heating of the native pulp. PMID:24559121

  19. SU-E-J-220: Assessment of MRI Geometric Distortion in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Scanned in Immobilized Radiation Treatment Position

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C; Mohamed, A; Weygand, J; Ding, Y; Fuller, C; Frank, S; Wang, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Uncertainties about geometric distortion have somewhat hindered MRI simulation in radiation therapy. Most of the geometric distortion studies were performed with phantom measurements but another major aspect of MR distortion is patient related. We studied the geometric distortion in patient images by comparing their MRI scans with the corresponding CT, using CT as the non-distorted gold standard. Methods: Ten H&N cancer patients were imaged with MRI as part of a prospective IRB approved study. All patients had their treatment planning CT done on the same day or within one week of the MRI. MR Images were acquired with a T2 SE sequence (1×1×2.5mm voxel size) in the same immobilization position as in the CT scans. MRI to CT rigid registration was then done and geometric distortion comparison was done by measuring the corresponding anatomical landmarks on both the MRI and the CT images by two observers. Several skin to skin (9 landmarks), bone to bone (8 landmarks), and soft tissue (3 landmarks) were measured at specific levels in horizontal and vertical planes of both scans. Results: The mean distortion for all landmark measurements in all scans was 1.8±1.9mm. For each patient 11 measurements were done in the horizontal plane while 9 were done in the vertical plane. The measured geometric distortion were significantly lower in the horizontal axis compared to the vertical axis (1.3±0.16 mm vs 2.2±0.19 mm, respectively, P=0.003*). The magnitude of distortion was lower in the bone to bone landmarks compared to the combined soft tissue and skin to skin landmarks (1.2±0.19 mm vs 2.3±0.17 mm, P=0.0006*). The mean distortion measured by observer one was not significantly different compared toobserver 2 (2.3 vs 2.4 mm, P=0.4). Conclusion: MRI geometric distortions were quantified in H&N patients with mean error of less than 2 mm. JW received a corporate sponsored research grant from Elekta.

  20. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  1. MRI findings in throwing shoulders: abnormalities in professional handball players.

    PubMed

    Jost, Bernhard; Zumstein, Matthias; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Zanetti, Marco; Gerber, Christian

    2005-05-01

    Shoulders of throwing athletes are highly stressed joints and likely to have more structural abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans. Prevalence and type of structural abnormalities, especially abnormalities of the rotator cuff tendons and the superolateral humeral head, and correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings with symptoms and clinical tests, are not well known. Throwing and nonthrowing (symptomatic and asymptomatic) shoulders of 30 fully competitive professional handball players and 20 dominant shoulders of randomly selected volunteers were evaluated for comparison clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging. An average of seven abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings was observed in the throwing shoulders; more than in the nonthrowing and the control shoulders. Although 93% of the throwing shoulders had abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings, only 37% were symptomatic. Partial rotator cuff tears and mainly superolateral osteochondral defects of the humeral head were identified as typical throwing lesions. Symptoms correlated poorly with abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans and findings from clinical tests. This suggests that the evaluation of an athlete's throwing shoulder should be done very thoroughly and should not be based mainly on abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans.

  2. MULTIPLE SHAFT TOOL HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Colbert, H.P.

    1962-10-23

    An improved tool head arrangement is designed for the automatic expanding of a plurality of ferruled tubes simultaneously. A plurality of output shafts of a multiple spindle drill head are driven in unison by a hydraulic motor. A plurality of tube expanders are respectively coupled to the shafts through individual power train arrangements. The axial or thrust force required for the rolling operation is provided by a double acting hydraulic cylinder having a hollow through shaft with the shaft cooperating with an internally rotatable splined shaft slidably coupled to a coupling rigidly attached to the respectlve output shaft of the drill head, thereby transmitting rotary motion and axial thrust simultaneously to the tube expander. A hydraulic power unit supplies power to each of the double acting cylinders through respective two-position, four-way valves, under control of respective solenoids for each of the cylinders. The solenoids are in turn selectively controlled by a tool selection control unit which in turn is controlled by signals received from a programmed, coded tape from a tape reader. The number of expanders that are extended in a rolling operation, which may be up to 42 expanders, is determined by a predetermined program of operations depending upon the arrangement of the ferruled tubes to be expanded in the tube bundle. The tape reader also supplies dimensional information to a machine tool servo control unit for imparting selected, horizontal and/or vertical movement to the tool head assembly. (AEC)

  3. A New Variant of Posterior Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: A Nonampullary or Common Crus Canalolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Yetiser, Sertac

    2015-01-01

    Clockwise or counterclockwise, rotational, upbeating nystagmus is seen in patients with posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo during left or right head-hanging test, respectively. Rotating of nystagmus in opposite direction to the ear tested or even reversal of initial positioning rotational nystagmus is not usual and has never been reported before. We propose a new variant of posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo due to unusual behavior and location of the otoliths inside the membranous labyrinth. Unexpected rotational direction may lead to confusion about the site. The examiner should be aware of this abnormal or atypical variant of posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. PMID:26114003

  4. RADIOGRAPHIC ABNORMALITIES OF THE TALUS IN PATIENTS WITH CLUBFOOT AFTER SURGICAL RELEASE USING THE MCKAY TECHNIQUE

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, José Antonio; Hernandes, Andréa Canizares; Buchaim, Thais Paula; Blumetti, Francesco Camara; Chertman, Carla; Yamane, Patrícia Corey; da Rocha Corrêa Fernandes, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze morphological abnormalities of the talus in patients with clubfoot after surgical treatment using the McKay technique. Method: Lateral standing-position radiographs of the feet of 14 patients with unilateral clubfoot who underwent treatment by means of the doubleincision McKay technique were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients were operated by the same surgeon, with an average of 6.53 years between surgery and the radiograph. We compared the radiographic characteristics of the talus between the operated and the contralateral foot. We assessed the presence of deformity of the talar dome and head (sphericity evaluation); the talar length and height; the percentage and degree of navicular subluxation; abnormalities of the Gissane angle; and the trabecular bone pattern. Results: Abnormalities of the talar head occurred in 92.8% of the patients; of the talar dome in 92.8%; and of the trabecular pattern in 100%. The talar length ratio between the operated and the contralateral foot ranged from 0.61 to 0.88 (mean 0.79; SD = 0.09), while the height ratio ranged from 0.57 to 0.98 (mean 0.82; SD = 0.12). The Gissane angle was greater in all of the operated feet, and all of them also showed navicular subluxation, at a rate ranging from 6.43 to 59.75% (mean 26.34%; SD = 16.66%). Conclusion: Talar abnormalities occurred in 100% of the feet treated using the McKay technique. It was shown that establishing radiographic parameters to describe and quantify these deformities was feasible, through simple and easy-to-perform techniques. PMID:27047821

  5. Hangman's fracture in head injury.

    PubMed

    Umebese, P F; Orhewere, F A

    1989-09-01

    Five patients with fracture of pedicle of axis vertebra as a complication of head injury are reported. The ages of the patients ranged from 16-25 years and all of them were victims of road traffic accidents. The head injuries were moderately severe requiring admission. The average Glasgow Coma Scale sum on admission was 11. Simple non-operative management in a well padded stiff collar with sand bags supporting the head in a neutral position in bed resulted in full recovery without complication after an average of 4 weeks recumbency.

  6. Newborns' Head Orientation toward Sounds Within Hemifields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Kimberley; And Others

    This experiment examined the accuracy with which newborn infants orient their heads toward a sound positioned off midline within hemifields. The study also evaluated newborns' ability to update the angle of their head turn to match a change in localization of an ongoing sound. Alert newborns were held in a supine position and presented a sound at…

  7. Structural abnormalities of common carp Cyprinus carpio spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Psenicka, Martin; Rodina, Marek; Flajshans, Martin; Kaspar, Vojtech; Linhart, Otomar

    2009-11-01

    Spermatozoa of common carp Cyprinus carpio are typically consist of a primitive head without acrosome, a midpiece with several mitochondria, a centriolar complex (proximal and distal centriole), and one flagellum. During an evaluation of the motility of common carp spermatozoa, we found spermatozoa with more than one flagellum and/or "double head" in three different individuals. This may be related to abnormal spermatogenesis. Ultrastructure and physiological parameters of spermatozoa were examined using light microscopy (dark field with stroboscopic illumination), transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. The recorded pictures and videos were evaluated using Olympus MicroImage software. All spermatozoa with more than one flagellum had a larger head and shorter flagella. They occasionally demonstrated several cytoplasmic channels separating the flagella from the midpiece. Each flagellum was based upon its own centriolar complex, with the connection of the flagellum to the head always at a constant angle. The flagella always consisted of nine peripheral pairs and one central doublet of microtubules. Sperm exhibited a relative DNA content similar to that found in sperm from normal males, with higher coefficients of variation. Although similar abnormalities have been found in livestock, where they were described as a defect in spermiogenesis, no comparable results have been reported in fish. The frequency at which these abnormalities occurs, the fertilization ability of males with defects in spermiogenesis, the influence of these abnormalities on progeny in terms of ploidy level, and the occurrence of deformities warrant further investigation.

  8. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder. (a) Identification. A radiographic head holder is a device intended to position the patient's head during...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder. (a) Identification. A radiographic head holder is a device intended to position the patient's head during...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder. (a) Identification. A radiographic head holder is a device intended to position the patient's head during...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder. (a) Identification. A radiographic head holder is a device intended to position the patient's head during...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1920 - Radiographic head holder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic head holder. 892.1920 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1920 Radiographic head holder. (a) Identification. A radiographic head holder is a device intended to position the patient's head during...

  13. Otolith function in patients with head trauma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Dae; Park, Moo Kyun; Lee, Byung Don; Park, Ji Yun; Lee, Tae Kyung; Sung, Ki-Bum

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluates the otolith function of patients with head trauma, postulating that otolith dysfunction is a cause of nonspecific dizziness after head trauma. We prospectively enrolled 28 patients referred within 3 months after head trauma between March 2007 and December 2009. Pure tone audiometry, caloric testing and otolith function tests, including cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) and subjective visual vertical (SVV) tests, were performed on all patients. The relationship between otolith function and otologic symptoms was analyzed. Of the 28 patients with head trauma, 18 complained of dizziness and 12 experienced hearing loss, including 6 patients who complained of both. On defining otolith dysfunction as an abnormal cVEMP or abnormal SVV, a significant difference in otolith dysfunction existed between the groups with and without dizziness [72 (13/18) vs. 20% (2/10)]. In contrast, no significant difference in otolith dysfunction was detected between the abnormal and normal hearing groups. A significant number of the patients who complained of nonspecific dizziness after trauma had abnormal otolith function. After trauma, when patients complain of dizziness, vestibular function tests, including otolith function tests, should be considered.

  14. Improvement of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers Using Ultrasonic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobashi, Hiroki; Tajima, Takuya; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko

    This paper proposes a new method for improving an existing abnormality detection system for person who soaks in a bathtub. As the number of aged people increases year by year in Japan, bathing accident of the aged is growing at a rapid rate, especially in-bathtub drowning accident. Therefore, prompt detection of bather's abnormality such as dizziness and fainting is important to prevent in-bathtub drowning. In order to detect bather's abnormality promptly, an abnormality detection system using seven ultrasonic sensors has been proposed. The system uses the following two methods: posture detection and behavior detection, to detect bather's different state from normal before an accident occurs, and improves a delay of detection considered to be a serious problem heretofore. There was however plenty of room for improvement. In order to improve detection rate of the system, we propose a new detection method in this paper. The method uses two ultrasonic sensors to beam bather's head and neck, and detects the head height and swing speed of the head. Experimental results are superior to the accuracy of the existing system, which enables us to detect bather's abnormality more accurately.

  15. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  16. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  17. Keeping Your Head On Target

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Aaron L.; Zee, David S.; Jinnah, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the human brain controls eye movements are reasonably well understood, but those for the head less so. Here, we show that the mechanisms for keeping the head aimed at a stationary target follow strategies similar to those for holding the eyes steady on stationary targets. Specifically, we applied the neural integrator hypothesis that originally was developed for holding the eyes still in eccentric gaze positions to describe how the head is held still when turned toward an eccentric target. We found that normal humans make head movements consistent with the neural integrator hypothesis, except that additional sensory feedback is needed, from proprioceptors in the neck, to keep the head on target. We also show that the complicated patterns of head movements in patients with cervical dystonia can be predicted by deficits in a neural integrator for head motor control. These results support ideas originally developed from animal studies that suggest fundamental similarities between oculomotor and cephalomotor control, as well as a conceptual framework for cervical dystonia that departs considerably from current clinical views. PMID:23825431

  18. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  19. Assessment of dorsal instability of the ulnar head in the distal radioulnar joint: comparison between normal wrist joints and cases of ruptured extensor tendons.

    PubMed

    Naito, Kiyohito; Sugiyama, Yoichi; Aritomi, Kentaro; Nagahama, Yasushi; Tomita, Yoshimasa; Obayashi, Osamu; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the adaptability of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) was evaluated using conventional computed tomography (CT) evaluation methods. In addition, we investigated/compared a new method to evaluate dorsal displacement of the ulnar head. Our subjects consisted of 32 healthy volunteers (64 wrists) and 11 patients (13 wrists) with extensor tendon injuries related to dorsal displacement of the ulnar head. To diagnose instability in the DRUJ based on CT scans, the radioulnar line method and the modified radioulnar line method were measured. Instability was evaluated by the new method that the ulnar head was located on the dorsal side from a line involving the peak of Lister's tubercle in parallel to this baseline was regarded as showing abnormal dorsal displacement of the ulnar head. The diagnostic accuracy of each method was calculated. The sensitivities, specificities, false-positive rates, positive predictive values and the negative predictive value of new methods were better than other two methods. The new method that we recommend is simple. Based on the results of this study, an evaluation of normal/abnormal dorsal displacement of the ulnar head in the DRUJ using the new method may be useful for determining the timing of surgery.

  20. Position paper of the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery and the German Society of Phoniatrics and Pediatric Audiology – Current state of clinical and endoscopic diagnostics, evaluation, and therapy of swallowing disorders in children

    PubMed Central

    Arens, Christoph; Herrmann, Ingo F.; Rohrbach, Saskia; Schwemmle, Cornelia; Nawka, Tadeus

    2015-01-01

    Swallowing disorders are frequent. The main concern is mortality due to aspiration-induced pneumonia and malnutrition. In addition, quality of life is severely affected. The demographic trend indicates an increase of dysphagia in the future. Neurodegenerative diseases, tumors of the digestive tract, and sequelae of tumor treatment in the head and neck region are the main pathologic entities. Predominantly ENT physicians and phoniatricians are asked for diagnostics and therapy, and will coordinate the interdisciplinary treatment according to the endoscopic findings. A differentiated approach in history, diagnostics, and symptom-oriented treatment is necessary for these mostly complex disorders. Integration of non-medical staff such as speech therapists, physiotherapists, and occupational therapists in planning and executing an effective therapy expands and completes the patient-oriented care. Conservative treatment by these therapists is an important pillar in the treatment. Parts of the specific diagnostics can be taken over in close cooperation. In particular, an interdisciplinary cooperation with the staff of intensive care medicine is essential. The diagnostic procedures of specific endoscopy as described in this position paper are part of the primary and fundamental tasks of ENT specialists and phoniatrists. Endoscopy is a medical service that is basically not delegable. Consequently, substitution of the physician is excluded. PMID:26770277

  1. Position paper of the German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery and the German Society of Phoniatrics and Pediatric Audiology - Current state of clinical and endoscopic diagnostics, evaluation, and therapy of swallowing disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Arens, Christoph; Herrmann, Ingo F; Rohrbach, Saskia; Schwemmle, Cornelia; Nawka, Tadeus

    2015-01-01

    Swallowing disorders are frequent. The main concern is mortality due to aspiration-induced pneumonia and malnutrition. In addition, quality of life is severely affected. The demographic trend indicates an increase of dysphagia in the future. Neurodegenerative diseases, tumors of the digestive tract, and sequelae of tumor treatment in the head and neck region are the main pathologic entities. Predominantly ENT physicians and phoniatricians are asked for diagnostics and therapy, and will coordinate the interdisciplinary treatment according to the endoscopic findings. A differentiated approach in history, diagnostics, and symptom-oriented treatment is necessary for these mostly complex disorders. Integration of non-medical staff such as speech therapists, physiotherapists, and occupational therapists in planning and executing an effective therapy expands and completes the patient-oriented care. Conservative treatment by these therapists is an important pillar in the treatment. Parts of the specific diagnostics can be taken over in close cooperation. In particular, an interdisciplinary cooperation with the staff of intensive care medicine is essential. The diagnostic procedures of specific endoscopy as described in this position paper are part of the primary and fundamental tasks of ENT specialists and phoniatrists. Endoscopy is a medical service that is basically not delegable. Consequently, substitution of the physician is excluded.

  2. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  3. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  4. Phenotypic abnormalities: terminology and classification.

    PubMed

    Merks, Johannes H M; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Caron, Hubert N; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2003-12-15

    Clinical morphology has proved essential for the successful delineation of hundreds of syndromes and as a powerful instrument for detecting (candidate) genes (Gorlin et al. [2001]; Syndromes of the Head and Neck; Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1 p]. The major approach to reach this has been careful clinical evaluations of patients, focused on congenital anomalies. A similar careful physical examination performed in patients, who have been treated for childhood cancer, may allow detection of concurrent patterns of anomalies and provide clues for causative genes. In the past, several studies were performed describing the prevalence of anomalies in patients with cancer. However, in most studies, it was not possible to indicate the biologic relevance of the recorded anomalies, or to judge their relative importance. Are the detected anomalies common variants, and should they thus be regarded as normal, or are they minor anomalies or true abnormalities, indicating a possible developmental cause? Classification of items in the categories of common variants (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence >4%), minor anomalies (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence abnormal physical findings by a nomenclature for errors of morphogenesis detectable on surface examination, and secondly a uniform classification system. This should allow investigators to evaluate systematically the presence of patterns in phenotypic anomalies, in the general population, and in patients with various disorders, suspected to be a developmental anomaly. Also

  5. Head circumference (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Head circumference is a measurement of the circumference of the child's head at its largest area (above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head). During routine check-ups, the distance is measured ...

  6. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  8. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  9. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  10. Positional nystagmus showing neutral points.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Numata, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    We encountered patients who had their static direction-changing positional nystagmus canceled at about 20-30 degrees yaw head rotation from the supine position. This nystagmus was also canceled when the head was rotated 180 degrees from this position. We call these head positions neutral points. At the neutral points, the cupula of the horizontal semicircular canal of the affected ear is positioned vertical to the gravitational plane and no deflection of the cupula occurs. The positional nystagmus observed (except the neutral points) was thought to occur due to a "heavy cupula" or "light cupula", which may be determined by the specific gravity of its endolymph.

  11. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  12. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    PubMed

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  13. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than..., tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal findings, NIOSH will... section 203 of the Act (see 30 CFR part 90). Positive findings with regard to pneumoconiosis will...

  14. Chromosomal abnormalities in the newborn period.

    PubMed

    Seashore, M R

    1993-10-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities account for a significant percentage of congenital malformations in the neonate. While some of the syndromes can be suspected on clinical grounds, the clinician will need to have a high index of suspicion based on the presence of multiple abnormalities that cannot be accounted for by other causes. Chromosome analysis should be performed promptly in these cases. Cultured lymphocytes are the standard preparation at present. However, new non-isotopic hybridization techniques are becoming available that allow analysis of interphase cells, and these may become more widely used as clinical experience with them is gained. Prognosis can usually be better defined once the chromosome analysis is complete. The information acquired may also be used to provide risk estimates for chromosomal abnormalities in future pregnancies of the parents of the affected infant and for other relatives. Empathetic counseling of the parents and family must be provided once the diagnosis is known. It must take into account the knowledge the chromosome analysis provides, be respectful of the parent's need for support, and be accurate as to prognosis of the condition diagnosed. When Down syndrome and Turner syndrome have been diagnosed, care must be taken to emphasize the positive aspects of the prognosis. When a chromosomal abnormality with an extremely poor prognosis is identified, support for withdrawal of medical intervention must be sensitively provided. The diagnosis and care of an infant with a chromosomal abnormality will challenge all of the pediatrician's diagnostic, therapeutic, and communication skills.

  15. Heading in football. Part 1: Development of biomechanical methods to investigate head response

    PubMed Central

    Shewchenko, N; Withnall, C; Keown, M; Gittens, R; Dvorak, J

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: There has been growing controversy regarding long term effects of repeated low severity head impacts such as when heading a football. However, there are few scientific data substantiating these concerns in terms of the biomechanical head response to impact. The present study aimed to develop a research methodology to investigate the biomechanical response of human subjects during intentional heading and identify strategies for reducing head impact severity. Methods: A controlled laboratory study was carried out with seven active football players, aged 20–23 and of average stature and weight. The subjects were fitted with photographic targets for kinematic analysis and instrumented to measure head linear/angular accelerations and neck muscle activity. Balls were delivered at two speeds (6 m/s and 8 m/s) as the subjects executed several specific forward heading manoeuvres in the standing position. Heading speeds up to 11 m/s were seen when the head closing speed was considered. One subject demonstrating averaged flexion–extension muscle activity phased with head acceleration data and upper torso kinematics was used to validate a biofidelic 50th percentile human model with a detailed head and neck. The model was exercised under ball incoming speeds of 6–7 m/s with parameter variations including torso/head alignment, neck muscle tensing, and follow through. The model output was subsequently compared with additional laboratory tests with football players (n = 3). Additional heading scenarios were investigated including follow through, non-active ball impact, and non-contact events. Subject and model head responses were evaluated with peak linear and rotational accelerations and maximum incremental head impact power. Results: Modelling of neck muscle tensing predicted lower head accelerations and higher neck loads whereas volunteer head acceleration reductions were not consistent. Modelling of head–torso alignment predicted a modest reduction in

  16. Head Start. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    "Head Start" is a national, federally funded program that provides services to promote school readiness for children from birth to age 5 from predominantly low-income families. Based on a review of the research, the WWC found "Head Start" to have potentially positive effects on general reading achievement and no discernible…

  17. Investigation of abnormal negative threshold voltage shift under positive bias stress in input/output n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with TiN/HfO{sub 2} structure using fast I-V measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Szu-Han; Chen, Ching-En; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Chang, Ting-Chang Lu, Ying-Hsin; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Lu, Ching-Sen

    2014-03-17

    This letter investigates abnormal negative threshold voltage shifts under positive bias stress in input/output (I/O) TiN/HfO{sub 2} n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors using fast I-V measurement. This phenomenon is attributed to a reversible charge/discharge effect in pre-existing bulk traps. Moreover, in standard performance devices, threshold-voltage (V{sub t}) shifts positively during fast I-V double sweep measurement. However, in I/O devices, V{sub t} shifts negatively since electrons escape from bulk traps to metal gate rather than channel electrons injecting to bulk traps. Consequently, decreasing pre-existing bulk traps in I/O devices, which can be achieved by adopting Hf{sub x}Zr{sub 1−x}O{sub 2} as gate oxide, can reduce the charge/discharge effect.

  18. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  19. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  20. Myers nominated to head USGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-05-01

    U.S. President George W. Bush will nominate Mark Myers to be director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the White House announced on 3 May. Myers most recently held the position of Alaska State Geologist and director of the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Survey. Prior to that position, Myers headed the State of Alaska Division of Oil and Gas, the agency that oversees leases of state lands for oil and gas exploration.

  1. Clinical correlates of MRI white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hoptman, J Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness that can be accompanied by positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive dysfunctions in most cognitive domains. Neuroimaging studies have focused on understanding the relationship between schizophrenia and brain abnormalities. Most of these have focused on the well-documented gray matter abnormalities. However, emphasis has recently been placed on white matter abnormalities associated with the disorder. A number of studies have found reduced white matter volumes in schizophrenia and abnormalities in genes associated with white matter. The clinical significance of these abnormalities is just beginning to be understood. The advent of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been particularly important in this regard, as it allows us to draw inferences regarding the organization of white matter in the brain. In this article, I will review recent work showing clinical correlates of neuroimaging-based white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  2. Abnormality degree detection method using negative potential field group detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongli; Liu, Shulin; Li, Dong; Shi, Kunju; Wang, Bo; Cui, Jiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Online monitoring methods have been widely used in many major devices, however the normal and abnormal states of equipment are estimated mainly based on the monitoring results whether monitored parameters exceed the setting thresholds. Using these monitoring methods may cause serious false positive or false negative results. In order to precisely monitor the state of equipment, the problem of abnormality degree detection without fault sample is studied with a new detection method called negative potential field group detectors(NPFG-detectors). This method achieves the quantitative expression of abnormality degree and provides the better detection results compared with other methods. In the process of Iris data set simulation, the new algorithm obtains the successful results in abnormal detection. The detection rates for 3 types of Iris data set respectively reach 100%, 91.6%, and 95.24% with 50% training samples. The problem of Bearing abnormality degree detection via an abnormality degree curve is successfully solved.

  3. Video Taping and Abnormal Psychology: Dramatized Clinical Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Michael J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)

  4. The Fate and Distribution of Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Intra-Arterial Infusion in Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hongting; Xu, Taotao; Chen, Qiqing; Wu, Chengliang; Wang, Pinger; Mao, Qiang; Zhang, Shanxing; Shen, Jiayi; Tong, Peijian

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate if autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could treat osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) and what the fate and distribution of the cells are in dogs. Twelve Beagle dogs were randomly divided into two groups: MSCs group and SHAM operated group. After three weeks, dogs in MSCs group and SHAM operated group were intra-arterially injected with autologous MSCs and 0.9% normal saline, respectively. Eight weeks after treatment, the necrotic volume of the femoral heads was significantly reduced in MSCs group. Moreover, the trabecular bone volume was increased and the empty lacunae rate was decreased in MSCs group. In addition, the BrdU-positive MSCs were unevenly distributed in femoral heads and various vital organs. But no obvious abnormalities were observed. Furthermore, most of BrdU-positive MSCs in necrotic region expressed osteocalcin in MSCs group and a few expressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Taken together, these data indicated that intra-arterially infused MSCs could migrate into the necrotic field of femoral heads and differentiate into osteoblasts, thus improving the necrosis of femoral heads. It suggests that intra-arterial infusion of autologous MSCs might be a feasible and relatively safe method for the treatment of femoral head necrosis. PMID:26779265

  5. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  6. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  7. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  8. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  9. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  10. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  11. Effect of H bond removal and changes in the position of the iron-sulphur head domain on the spin-lattice relaxation properties of the [2Fe-2S](2+) Rieske cluster in cytochrome bc(1).

    PubMed

    Sarewicz, Marcin; Dutka, Małgorzata; Pietras, Rafał; Borek, Arkadiusz; Osyczka, Artur

    2015-10-14

    Here, comparative electron spin-lattice relaxation studies of the 2Fe-2S iron-sulphur (Fe-S) cluster embedded in a large membrane protein complex - cytochrome bc1 - are reported. Structural modifications of the local environment alone (mutations S158A and Y160W removing specific H bonds between Fe-S and amino acid side chains) or in combination with changes in global protein conformation (mutations/inhibitors changing the position of the Fe-S binding domain within the protein complex) resulted in different redox potentials as well as g-, g-strain and the relaxation rates (T1(-1)) for the Fe-S cluster. The relaxation rates for T < 25 K were measured directly by inversion recovery, while for T > 60 K they were deduced from simulation of continuous wave EPR spectra of the cluster using a model that included anisotropy of Lorentzian broadening. In all cases, the relaxation rate involved contributions from direct, second-order Raman and Orbach processes, each dominating over different temperature ranges. The analysis of T1(-1) (T) over the range 5-120 K yielded the values of the Orbach energy (EOrb), Debye temperature θD and Raman process efficiency CRam for each variant of the protein. As the Orbach energy was generally higher for mutants S158A and Y160W, compared to wild-type protein (WT), it is suggested that H bond removal influences the geometry leading to increased strength of antiferromagnetic coupling between two Fe ions of the cluster. While θD was similar for all variants (∼107 K), the efficiency of the Raman process generally depends on the spin-orbit coupling that is lower for S158A and Y160W mutants, when compared to the WT. However, in several cases CRam did not only correlate with spin-orbit coupling but was also influenced by other factors - possibly the modification of protein rigidity and therefore the vibrational modes around the Fe-S cluster that change upon the movement of the iron-sulphur head domain.

  12. Head movement during walking in the cat.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Humza N; Beloozerova, Irina N; Sun, Hai; Marlinski, Vladimir

    2016-09-22

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20-90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40-90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ∼1.5cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ∼3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ∼1cm and 1.5-3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10-30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5-1m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ∼0.05 and ∼0.1m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ∼0.05m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20-50°/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3-0.5cm taller and held their head 0.5-2cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25-100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ∼20°/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  13. Head movement during walking in the cat.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Humza N; Beloozerova, Irina N; Sun, Hai; Marlinski, Vladimir

    2016-09-22

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20-90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40-90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ∼1.5cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ∼3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ∼1cm and 1.5-3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10-30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5-1m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ∼0.05 and ∼0.1m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ∼0.05m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20-50°/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3-0.5cm taller and held their head 0.5-2cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25-100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ∼20°/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role.

  14. Head stabilization in herons.

    PubMed

    Katzir, G; Schechtman, E; Carmi, N; Weihs, D

    2001-07-01

    We examined head stabilization in relation to body mass and length of legs in four heron species (little egrets, Egretta garzetta; night herons, Nycticorax nycticorax; squacco herons, Ardeola ralloides; and cattle egrets, Bubulcus ibis: Aves: Ardeidae). Head stabilization, under controlled, sinusoidal, perch perturbations was mostly elicited at frequencies lower than 1 Hz. Maximal perturbation amplitudes sustained were positively correlated with leg length and maximal perturbation frequencies sustained were negatively correlated with body mass and with leg length. The species differed significantly in average maximal perturbation amplitudes sustained. Combinations of amplitude and frequency for which stabilization was achieved were bounded by a decreasing concave "envelope" curve in the frequency-amplitude plane, with inter specific differences in "envelope". As physical constraints, we tested maximal vertical acceleration, which translates into a line defined by the product of frequency2 x amplitude, and maximal vertical velocity, which translates into a line defined by the product of frequency x amplitude. Both relations were in good agreement with the experimental results for all but squacco herons. The results support predictions based on mechanical considerations and may explain the predominance of motor patterns employed by herons while foraging.

  15. 21 CFR 882.4460 - Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp). 882.4460... holder (skull clamp). (a) Identification. A neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp) is a device used to clamp the patient's skull to hold head and neck in a particular position during surgical procedures....

  16. 21 CFR 882.4460 - Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp). 882.4460... holder (skull clamp). (a) Identification. A neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp) is a device used to clamp the patient's skull to hold head and neck in a particular position during surgical procedures....

  17. 21 CFR 882.4460 - Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp). 882.4460... holder (skull clamp). (a) Identification. A neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp) is a device used to clamp the patient's skull to hold head and neck in a particular position during surgical procedures....

  18. 21 CFR 882.4460 - Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp). 882.4460... holder (skull clamp). (a) Identification. A neurosurgical head holder (skull clamp) is a device used to clamp the patient's skull to hold head and neck in a particular position during surgical procedures....

  19. 21 CFR 868.5560 - Gas mask head strap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gas mask head strap. 868.5560 Section 868.5560...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5560 Gas mask head strap. (a) Identification. A gas mask head strap is a device used to hold an anesthetic gas mask in position on a...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5560 - Gas mask head strap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas mask head strap. 868.5560 Section 868.5560...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5560 Gas mask head strap. (a) Identification. A gas mask head strap is a device used to hold an anesthetic gas mask in position on a...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5560 - Gas mask head strap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gas mask head strap. 868.5560 Section 868.5560...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5560 Gas mask head strap. (a) Identification. A gas mask head strap is a device used to hold an anesthetic gas mask in position on a...

  2. 5 CFR 2638.202 - Responsibilities of agency head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibilities of agency head. 2638.202... § 2638.202 Responsibilities of agency head. (a) In general. The head of each agency is responsible for... program in a positive and effective manner. (b) Selection of a designated agency ethics official. The...

  3. 5 CFR 2638.202 - Responsibilities of agency head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibilities of agency head. 2638.202... § 2638.202 Responsibilities of agency head. (a) In general. The head of each agency is responsible for... program in a positive and effective manner. (b) Selection of a designated agency ethics official. The...

  4. Pancreatic abnormalities and AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    Teare, J P; Daly, C A; Rodgers, C; Padley, S P; Coker, R J; Main, J; Harris, J R; Scullion, D; Bray, G P; Summerfield, J A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Biliary tract abnormalities are well recognised in AIDS, most frequently related to opportunistic infection with Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, and cytomegalovirus. We noted a high frequency of pancreatic abnormalities associated with biliary tract disease. To define these further we reviewed the clinical and radiological features in these patients. METHODS: Notes and radiographs were available from two centres for 83 HIV positive patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the investigation of cholestatic liver function tests or abdominal pain. RESULTS: 56 patients had AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis (ARSC); 86% of these patients had epigastric or right upper quadrant pain and 52% had hepatomegaly. Of the patients with ARSC, 10 had papillary stenosis alone, 11 had intra- and extrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis alone, and 35 had a combination of the two. Ampullary biopsies performed in 24 patients confirmed an opportunistic infection in 16. In 15 patients, intraluminal polyps were noted on the cholangiogram. Pancreatograms were available in 34 of the 45 patients with papillary stenosis, in which 29 (81%) had associated pancreatic duct dilatation, often with associated features of chronic pancreatitis. In the remaining 27 patients, final diagnoses included drug induced liver disease, acalculous cholecystitis, gall bladder empyema, chronic B virus hepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic abnormalities are commonly seen with ARSC and may be responsible for some of the pain not relieved by biliary sphincterotomy. The most frequent radiographic biliary abnormality is papillary stenosis combined with ductal sclerosis. Images PMID:9389948

  5. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  6. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  7. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  8. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  9. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

  10. Fertilization potential of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology.

    PubMed

    Nikolettos, N; Küpker, W; Demirel, C; Schöpper, B; Blasig, C; Sturm, R; Felberbaum, R; Bauer, O; Diedrich, K; Al-Hasani, S

    1999-09-01

    One of the best discriminators for the fertilization potential of human spermatozoa is sperm morphology. The problem in the assessment of the sperm morphological characteristics is their pleiomorphism. Examination of spermatozoa with the light microscope can provide only limited information on their internal structure. More detailed examination of sperm structure using electron microscopy can reveal major, often unsuspected ultrastructural abnormalities. Results and cut-off values for sperm analysis depend on the criteria for normal morphology. World Health Organization recommendations provide a classification suitable for clinical practice. Clinically reliable cut-off limits for normal sperm morphology according to strict Tygerberg criteria were suggested to be 4% in in-vitro fertilization procedures. Patients with severe sperm head abnormalities have a lower chance of establishing successful pregnancies, even though fertilization may be achieved. The outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection is not related to any of the standard semen parameters or to sperm morphology. Sperm decondensation defects and DNA anomalies may be underlying factors for the unrecognized derangements of the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa, regardless of sperm morphology. Centrosome dysfunction may also represent a class of sperm defects that cannot be overcome simply by the insertion of a spermatozoon into the ooplasm. In this article an overview on the composition and ultrastructure of spermatozoa is presented, while emphasizing sperm ultrastructural and sperm DNA anomalies and their effects on fertilization.

  11. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  12. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... swallowing A change or hoarseness in the voice Head and neck cancers are twice as common in men. Using ...

  13. Head injury. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiographic Evaluation; Epidemiology of Head Injury; Emergency Care and Initial Evaluation; Skull Fracture and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas; Mild Head Injury; and Injuries of the Cranial Nerves.

  14. Position detectors, methods of detecting position, and methods of providing positional detectors

    DOEpatents

    Weinberg, David M.; Harding, L. Dean; Larsen, Eric D.

    2002-01-01

    Position detectors, welding system position detectors, methods of detecting various positions, and methods of providing position detectors are described. In one embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a base that is configured to engage and be moved along a curved surface of a welding work piece. At least one position detection apparatus is provided and is connected with the base and configured to measure angular position of the detector relative to a reference vector. In another embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a weld head and at least one inclinometer mounted on the weld head. The one inclinometer is configured to develop positional data relative to a reference vector and the position of the weld head on a non-planar weldable work piece.

  15. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  16. Head Start Facilities Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Assessment Management, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    A quality Head Start facility should provide a physical environment responsive both to the needs of the children and families served and to the needs of staff, volunteers, and community agencies that share space with Head Start. This manual is a tool for Head Start grantees and delegate agencies for assessing existing facilities, making…

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  18. Directional abnormalities of vestibular and optokinetic responses in cerebellar disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, M. F.; Zee, D. S.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Directional abnormalities of vestibular and optokinetic responses in patients with cerebellar degeneration are reported. Three-axis magnetic search-coil recordings of the eye and head were performed in eight cerebellar patients. Among these patients, examples of directional cross-coupling were found during (1) high-frequency, high-acceleration head thrusts; (2) constant-velocity chair rotations with the head fixed; (3) constant-velocity optokinetic stimulation; and (4) following repetitive head shaking. Cross-coupling during horizontal head thrusts consisted of an inappropriate upward eye-velocity component. In some patients, sustained constant-velocity yaw-axis chair rotations produced a mixed horizontal-torsional nystagmus and/or an increase in the baseline vertical slow-phase velocity. Following horizontal head shaking, some patients showed an increase in the slow-phase velocity of their downbeat nystagmus. These various forms of cross-coupling did not necessarily occur to the same degree in a given patient; this suggests that different mechanisms may be responsible. It is suggested that cross-coupling during head thrusts may reflect a loss of calibration of brainstem connections involved in the direct vestibular pathways, perhaps due to dysfunction of the flocculus. Cross-coupling during constant-velocity rotations and following head shaking may result from a misorientation of the angular eye-velocity vector in the velocity-storage system. Finally, responses to horizontal optokinetic stimulation included an inappropriate torsional component in some patients. This suggests that the underlying organization of horizontal optokinetic tracking is in labyrinthine coordinates. The findings are also consistent with prior animal-lesion studies that have shown a role for the vestibulocerebellum in the control of the direction of the VOR.

  19. Sealed head access area enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Govi, Aldo R.

    1978-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder power reactor is provided with a sealed head access area enclosure disposed above the reactor vessel head consisting of a plurality of prefabricated structural panels including a center panel removably sealed into position with inflatable seals, and outer panels sealed into position with semipermanent sealant joints. The sealant joints are located in the joint between the edge of the panels and the reactor containment structure and include from bottom to top an inverted U-shaped strip, a lower layer of a room temperature vulcanizing material, a separator strip defining a test space therewithin, and an upper layer of a room temperature vulcanizing material. The test space is tapped by a normally plugged passage extending to the top of the enclosure for testing the seal or introducing a buffer gas thereinto.

  20. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Effects of Soccer Heading on Brain Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player's unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6-12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety

  2. Effects of Soccer Heading on Brain Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6–12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety

  3. Sperm ultrastructure, morphometry, and abnormal morphology in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Brito, L F C; Sertich, P L; Stull, G B; Rives, W; Knobbe, M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe sperm ultrastructure, morphometry, and abnormal morphology in American black bears. Electroejaculation was successful in 53.8% (7/13) of the attempts, but urine contamination was common. Epididymal sperm samples were also obtained from five bears. Sperm had a paddle-like head shape and the ultrastructure was similar to that of most other mammals. The most striking particularity of black bear sperm ultrastructure was a tightening of the nucleus in the equatorial region. Although the differences were not significant in all bears, the overall decrease in sperm nucleus dimensions during transport from the caput epididymis to the cauda suggested increasing compaction of the nucleus during maturation. For ejaculated sperm, nucleus length, width, and base width were 4.9, 3.7, and 1.8 μm, respectively, whereas sperm head length, width, and base width were 6.6, 4.8, and 2.3 μm, and midpiece, tail (including midpiece), and total sperm lengths were 9.8, 68.8, and 75.3 μm. Evaluation of sperm cytoplasmic droplets in the epididymis revealed that proximal droplets start migrating toward a distal position in the caput epididymis and that the process was mostly completed by the time sperm reached the cauda epididymis. The proportion of morphologically normal sperm in the ejaculate was 35.6%; the most prevalent sperm defects were distal cytoplasmic droplets and bent/coiled tails. The morphology of abnormal sperm and the underlying ultrastructural defects were similar to that in other large domestic animals thus suggesting similar underlying pathogenesis of specific sperm defects and similar effects on fertility. PMID:20708230

  4. Remote vs. head-mounted eye-tracking: a comparison using radiologists reading mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Gur, David

    2007-03-01

    Eye position monitoring has been used for decades in Radiology in order to determine how radiologists interpret medical images. Using these devices several discoveries about the perception/decision making process have been made, such as the importance of comparisons of perceived abnormalities with selected areas of the background, the likelihood that a true lesion will attract visual attention early in the reading process, and the finding that most misses attract prolonged visual dwell, often comparable to dwell in the location of reported lesions. However, eye position tracking is a cumbersome process, which often requires the observer to wear a helmet gear which contains the eye tracker per se and a magnetic head tracker, which allows for the computation of head position. Observers tend to complain of fatigue after wearing the gear for a prolonged time. Recently, with the advances made to remote eye-tracking, the use of head-mounted systems seemed destined to become a thing of the past. In this study we evaluated a remote eye tracking system, and compared it to a head-mounted system, as radiologists read a case set of one-view mammograms on a high-resolution display. We compared visual search parameters between the two systems, such as time to hit the location of the lesion for the first time, amount of dwell time in the location of the lesion, total time analyzing the image, etc. We also evaluated the observers' impressions of both systems, and what their perceptions were of the restrictions of each system.

  5. Real-time head motion detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mase, Kenji; Watanabe, Yasuhiko; Suenaga, Yasuhito

    1990-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional head motion detection system called a realtime headreader. This headreader analyzes the head motion picture sequences taken by a TV-camera, and extracts the motion parameters in realtime, i.e. 3-d rotations and translations. We used a simple but very fast algorithm, which exploits the contrast of hair and face to recognize face orientation. The system extracts the head and face area, then estimates the head motion parameters from the change in position of each area's centroids. The head motion is computed at nearly 10 frames per second on a SUN4 workstation and the motion parameters are sent to an IRIS workstation at a 2.5 Kbps. The IRIS generates a head motion sequence that duplicates the original head motion. The entire motion detection program is written in C language. No special image processing hardware is used, except for a video digitizer. Our head motion detection system will enhance man-machine interactions by providing a new visual eue. An operator will be able to point to a target by just looking at it thus a mouse or 3-d tracking device is not needed. The eventual goal of this research is to build an intelligent video communication system that codes the information in terms of high level language rather than compressed video signals.

  6. Eye and head movements shape gaze shifts in Indian peafowl.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Platt, Michael L; Land, Michael F

    2015-12-01

    Animals selectively direct their visual attention toward relevant aspects of their environments. They can shift their attention using a combination of eye, head and body movements. While we have a growing understanding of eye and head movements in mammals, we know little about these processes in birds. We therefore measured the eye and head movements of freely behaving Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) using a telemetric eye-tracker. Both eye and head movements contributed to gaze changes in peafowl. When gaze shifts were smaller, eye movements played a larger role than when gaze shifts were larger. The duration and velocity of eye and head movements were positively related to the size of the eye and head movements, respectively. In addition, the coordination of eye and head movements in peafowl differed from that in mammals; peafowl exhibited a near-absence of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which may partly result from the peafowl's ability to move their heads as quickly as their eyes.

  7. Head Impact Exposure in Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Crisco, Joseph J.; Wilcox, Bethany J.; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Chu, Jeffrey J.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Rowson, Steve; Duma, Stefan M.; Maerlender, Arthur C.; McAllister, Thomas W.; Greenwald, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    In American football, impacts to the helmet and the resulting head accelerations are the primary cause of concussion injury and potentially chronic brain injury. The purpose of this study was to quantify exposures to impacts to the head (frequency, location and magnitude) for individual collegiate football players and to investigate differences in head impact exposure by player position. A total of 314 players were enrolled at three institutions and 286,636 head impacts were recorded over three seasons. The 95th percentile peak linear and rotational acceleration and HITsp (a composite severity measure) were 62.7g, 4378 rad/s2, and 32.6, respectively. These exposure measures as well as the frequency of impacts varied significantly by player position and by helmet impact location. Running backs (RB) and quarter backs (QB) received the greatest magnitude head impacts, while defensive line (DL), offensive line (OL) and line backers (LB) received the most frequent head impacts (more than twice as many than any other position). Impacts to the top of the helmet had the lowest peak rotational acceleration (2387 rad/s2), but the greatest peak linear acceleration (72.4 g), and were the least frequent of all locations (13.7%) among all positions. OL and QB had the highest (49.2%) and the lowest (23%.7%) frequency, respectively, of front impacts. QB received the greatest magnitude (70.8g and 5428 rad/s2) and the most frequent (44% and 38.9%) impacts to the back of the helmet. This study quantified head impact exposure in collegiate football, providing data that is critical to advancing the understanding of the biomechanics of concussive injuries and sub-concussive head impacts. PMID:21872862

  8. Head impact exposure in collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Crisco, Joseph J; Wilcox, Bethany J; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Chu, Jeffrey J; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Maerlender, Arthur C; McAllister, Thomas W; Greenwald, Richard M

    2011-10-13

    In American football, impacts to the helmet and the resulting head accelerations are the primary cause of concussion injury and potentially chronic brain injury. The purpose of this study was to quantify exposures to impacts to the head (frequency, location and magnitude) for individual collegiate football players and to investigate differences in head impact exposure by player position. A total of 314 players were enrolled at three institutions and 286,636 head impacts were recorded over three seasons. The 95th percentile peak linear and rotational acceleration and HITsp (a composite severity measure) were 62.7g, 4378rad/s(2) and 32.6, respectively. These exposure measures as well as the frequency of impacts varied significantly by player position and by helmet impact location. Running backs (RB) and quarter backs (QB) received the greatest magnitude head impacts, while defensive line (DL), offensive line (OL) and line backers (LB) received the most frequent head impacts (more than twice as many than any other position). Impacts to the top of the helmet had the lowest peak rotational acceleration (2387rad/s(2)), but the greatest peak linear acceleration (72.4g), and were the least frequent of all locations (13.7%) among all positions. OL and QB had the highest (49.2%) and the lowest (23.7%) frequency, respectively, of front impacts. QB received the greatest magnitude (70.8g and 5428rad/s(2)) and the most frequent (44% and 38.9%) impacts to the back of the helmet. This study quantified head impact exposure in collegiate football, providing data that is critical to advancing the understanding of the biomechanics of concussive injuries and sub-concussive head impacts.

  9. Relative femoral head size in early hominids.

    PubMed

    Corruccini, R S; McHenry, H M

    1978-07-01

    Relative growth of the human femur head is studied by a logarithmic principal components method. Growth rates differ according to the population sampled and the other body dimensions being compared, and especially according to sex. The results do not support biomechanical assumptions of strongly positive allometry of the femur head, which have been used to argue that the australopithecine hip joint was not relatively small. PMID:98052

  10. [Walking abnormalities in children].

    PubMed

    Segawa, Masaya

    2010-11-01

    Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional

  11. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Glass, J.P.; Geoffray, A.; Wallace, S.

    1984-11-01

    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise.

  12. Meteoric Head Echoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajduk, A.; Galád, A.

    1995-01-01

    Results of the analysis of 3261 radar meteor head echoes observed during the Orionid and Lyrid periods by the high-power radar of the Springhill Meteor Observatory are given. Dependence of the occurence of head echoes on the geometrical factors and physical properties of the meteoroids has been studied. Increas of the head echo rates with the elevation of the shower radiant and with the velocity of meteoroids has been observed.

  13. Correlation between physical anomaly and behavioral abnormalities in Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Ranjan; Sanyal, Debasish; Roy, Krishna; Bhattacharyya, Sumita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The minor physical anomaly (MPA) is believed to reflect abnormal development of the CNS. The aim is to find incidence of MPA and its behavioral correlates in Down syndrome and to compare these findings with the other causes of intellectual disability and normal population. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty intellectually disabled people attending a tertiary care set-up and from various NGOs are included in the study. The age-matched group from normal population was also studied for comparison. MPA are assessed by using Modified Waldrop scale and behavioral abnormality by Diagnostic assessment scale for severely handicapped (DASH II scale). Results: The Down syndrome group had significantly more MPA than other two groups and most of the MPA is situated in the global head region. There is strong correlation (P < 0.001) between the various grouped items of Modified Waldrop scale. Depression subscale is correlated with anomalies in the hands (P < 0.001), feet and Waldrop total items (P < 0.005). Mania item of DASH II scale is related with anomalies around the eyes (P < 0.001). Self-injurious behavior and total Waldrop score is negatively correlated with global head. Conclusion: Down syndrome group has significantly more MPA and a pattern of correlation between MPA and behavioral abnormalities exists which necessitates a large-scale study. PMID:21559153

  14. Deposition head for laser

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    A deposition head for use as a part of apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. The deposition head delivers the laser beam and powder to a deposition zone, which is formed at the tip of the deposition head. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of the deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which the deposition head moves along the tool path.

  15. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  16. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  17. Can imaginary head tilt shorten postrotatory nystagmus?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gianna-Poulin, C. C.; Voelker, C. C.; Erickson, B.; Black, F. O.

    2001-01-01

    In healthy subjects, head tilt upon cessation of a constant-velocity yaw head rotation shortens the duration of postrotatory nystagmus. The presumed mechanism for this effect is that the velocity storage of horizontal semicircular canal inputs is being discharged by otolith organ inputs which signal a constant yaw head position when the head longitudinal axis is no longer earth-vertical. In the present study, normal subjects were rotated head upright in the dark on a vertical-axis rotational chair at 60 degrees/s for 75 s and were required to perform a specific task as soon as the chair stopped. Horizontal position of the right eye was recorded with an infra-red video camera. The average eye velocity (AEV) was measured over a 30-s interval following chair acceleration/deceleration. The ratios (postrotatory AEV/perrotatory AEV) were 1.1 (SD 0.112) when subjects (N=10) kept their head erect, 0.414 (SD 0.083) when subjects tilted their head forward, 1.003 (SD 0.108) when subjects imagined watching a TV show, 1.012 (SD 0.074) when subjects imagined looking at a painting on a wall, and 0.995 (SD 0.074) when subjects imagined floating in a prone position on a lake. Thus, while actual head tilt reduced postrotatory nystagmus, the imagination tasks did not have a statistically significant effect on postrotatory nystagmus. Therefore, velocity storage does not appear to be under the influence of cortical neural signals when subjects imagine that they are floating in a prone orientation.

  18. Heading Tuning in Macaque Area V6

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Reuben H.; Liu, Sheng; DeAngelis, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical areas, such as the dorsal subdivision of the medial superior temporal area (MSTd) and the ventral intraparietal area (VIP), have been shown to integrate visual and vestibular self-motion signals. Area V6 is interconnected with areas MSTd and VIP, allowing for the possibility that V6 also integrates visual and vestibular self-motion cues. An alternative hypothesis in the literature is that V6 does not use these sensory signals to compute heading but instead discounts self-motion signals to represent object motion. However, the responses of V6 neurons to visual and vestibular self-motion cues have never been studied, thus leaving the functional roles of V6 unclear. We used a virtual reality system to examine the 3D heading tuning of macaque V6 neurons in response to optic flow and inertial motion stimuli. We found that the majority of V6 neurons are selective for heading defined by optic flow. However, unlike areas MSTd and VIP, V6 neurons are almost universally unresponsive to inertial motion in the absence of optic flow. We also explored the spatial reference frames of heading signals in V6 by measuring heading tuning for different eye positions, and we found that the visual heading tuning of most V6 cells was eye-centered. Similar to areas MSTd and VIP, the population of V6 neurons was best able to discriminate small variations in heading around forward and backward headings. Our findings support the idea that V6 is involved primarily in processing visual motion signals and does not appear to play a role in visual–vestibular integration for self-motion perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To understand how we successfully navigate our world, it is important to understand which parts of the brain process cues used to perceive our direction of self-motion (i.e., heading). Cortical area V6 has been implicated in heading computations based on human neuroimaging data, but direct measurements of heading selectivity in individual V6 neurons have been lacking. We

  19. Nursing Research: Position Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, Laurel; And Others

    The role of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) in encouraging research through the programs and activities of the member schools is discussed. It is suggested that the dean or administrative head of a college of nursing is in a position to influence nursing research activities. The principal role of the academic dean in…

  20. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  1. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed.

  2. The effect of abnormal cell proportion on specimen classifier performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, K. R.; White, B. S.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the results obtained from a cell classifier which is confronted with an abnormal/normal cell ratio which is different from the ratio assumed in the calibration of the classifier. False negative and false positive error rates are determined in advance for classifier operation, along with the necessary sample size in order to validate the predicted distributions. Changes are demonstrated to happen only regarding the false negative rate, where reductions in the abnormal cell rate below the expected rates would cause totally unreliable data. Substantial overproduction of abnormal cells would be quickly noticeable, while production rates beyond, but close to, the expected rates would only require more extensive sampling. Classifier systems for 10% proportions of abnormal cells are concluded to be possible, but difficulties are present with much lower rates

  3. Head Injuries in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  4. Focal electroencephalographic abnormalities and computerised tomography findings in children with seizures.

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, J; Appleton, R E; Carty, H; Beirne, M; Acomb, B A

    1993-01-01

    A persistent focal abnormality was observed in 157 (16%) electroencephalograms undertaken in 964 consecutive children with epileptic and non-epileptic seizures seen over one year. CT head scans were performed in 121 (77%) of the 157 children with a focus on the EEG; 26 (21%) showed an abnormality, and 21 (81%) of the abnormalities were localised. There was no difference in the proportion of abnormal scans associated with a delta or slow wave focus compared with a spike or sharp wave focus. An abnormal scan was uncommon after a single seizure. In only two patients (1.7% of all scans) did the findings on CT alter or greatly influence subsequent management. PMID:8482957

  5. Visual afference mediates head and trunk stability in vestibular hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shun-Hwa; Chen, Po-Yin; Chen, Hung-Ju; Kao, Chung-Lan; Schubert, Michael C

    2016-07-01

    Humans must maintain head and trunk stability while walking. The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics of healthy controls and patients with vestibular hypofunction (VH) when walking and making head rotations of different frequencies in both light and dark conditions. We recruited eight individuals with VH and nine healthy control subjects to perform four tasks at their preferred gait speed, being normal walk, walking and making yaw head rotations at 1.5Hz and 2Hz, and walking in the dark and making yaw head rotations at 1.5Hz. Linear kinematics as well as head, trunk, and pelvis angular velocities were captured using the Vicon motion analysis system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK). We found no difference in walking velocities for any of the four walking conditions across groups. The lateral displacement of the center of mass was increased in VH patients. In the dark, patients had more head instability in pitch (larger amplitudes and velocities) even though they were walking and making active yaw head rotations. Patients also had a smaller relative phase angle (mean 3.50±standard deviation 2.13°) than controls (mean 10.31±standard deviation 2.70°) (p<0.01). Our data suggest that patients with VH have difficulty walking with a straight trajectory when turning their head. Additionally, patients with VH have an abnormal excursion of spontaneous pitch head rotation while walking and making active yaw head turns, which is dependent on vision. Rehabilitation for these patients should consider applying unique head rotation frequencies when training gait with head turns as well as alternating their exposure to light.

  6. Visual afference mediates head and trunk stability in vestibular hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shun-Hwa; Chen, Po-Yin; Chen, Hung-Ju; Kao, Chung-Lan; Schubert, Michael C

    2016-07-01

    Humans must maintain head and trunk stability while walking. The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics of healthy controls and patients with vestibular hypofunction (VH) when walking and making head rotations of different frequencies in both light and dark conditions. We recruited eight individuals with VH and nine healthy control subjects to perform four tasks at their preferred gait speed, being normal walk, walking and making yaw head rotations at 1.5Hz and 2Hz, and walking in the dark and making yaw head rotations at 1.5Hz. Linear kinematics as well as head, trunk, and pelvis angular velocities were captured using the Vicon motion analysis system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK). We found no difference in walking velocities for any of the four walking conditions across groups. The lateral displacement of the center of mass was increased in VH patients. In the dark, patients had more head instability in pitch (larger amplitudes and velocities) even though they were walking and making active yaw head rotations. Patients also had a smaller relative phase angle (mean 3.50±standard deviation 2.13°) than controls (mean 10.31±standard deviation 2.70°) (p<0.01). Our data suggest that patients with VH have difficulty walking with a straight trajectory when turning their head. Additionally, patients with VH have an abnormal excursion of spontaneous pitch head rotation while walking and making active yaw head turns, which is dependent on vision. Rehabilitation for these patients should consider applying unique head rotation frequencies when training gait with head turns as well as alternating their exposure to light. PMID:26976344

  7. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24 hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30 ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH.

  8. Spin Transfer in Polymer Degradation of Abnormal Linkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tianrong; Tian, Chuanjin; Liu, Xizhe; Wang, Jia; Gao, Yang; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    The degradation of polymer materials plays an important role in production and life. In this work, the degradation mechanism of poly-α-methylstyrene (PAMS) tetramers with abnormal linkage was investigated by using density functional theory (DFT). Calculated results indicate that the head-to-head and the tail-to-tail reactions needed to overcome the energy barriers are about 0.15 eV and about 1.26 eV, respectively. The broken C-C bond at the unsaturated end of the chain leads to the dissociation of alpha-methylstyrene (AMS) monomers one by one. Furthermore, the analyses of bond characteristics are in good agreement with the results of energy barriers. In addition, the spin population analysis presents an interesting net spin transfer process in depolymerization reactions. We hope that the current theoretical results provide useful help to understand the degradation mechanism of polymers.

  9. A Pilot Study of Abnormal Growth in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Peters, Cindy T. R.; Oosterling, Iris J.; Visser, Janne C.; Bons, Danielle; van Steijn, Daphne J.; Draaisma, Jos; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan. K.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine whether early growth abnormalities are (a) comparable in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other childhood psychiatric disorders, and (b) specific to the brain or generalized to the whole body. Head circumference, height, and weight were measured during the first 19 months of life in 129 children…

  10. Head Circumference and Neurocognitive Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2015-07-01

    Investigators from Universities of Glasgow and Bristol, UK, determined the value of head circumference (HC) as a screening measure, the incidence of head centile shifting, and the relationship between extremes of head size and later neurodevelopmental problems. PMID:26933592

  11. American Head and Neck Society

    MedlinePlus

    American Head & Neck Society Mission Statement: Advance Education, Research, and Quality of Care for the head and neck oncology patient. American Head & Neck Society | AHNS The mission of the AHNS is ...

  12. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities in asymptomatic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Hosenpud, J.D.; Montanaro, A.; Hart, M.V.; Haines, J.E.; Specht, H.D.; Bennett, R.M.; Kloster, F.E.

    1984-08-01

    Accelerated coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in young patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is well documented; however, the prevalence of coronary involvement is unknown. Accordingly, 26 patients with systemic lupus were selected irrespective of previous cardiac history to undergo exercise thallium-201 cardiac scintigraphy. Segmental perfusion abnormalities were present in 10 of the 26 studies (38.5 percent). Five patients had reversible defects suggesting ischemia, four patients had persistent defects consistent with scar, and one patient had both reversible and persistent defects in two areas. There was no correlation between positive thallium results and duration of disease, amount of corticosteroid treatment, major organ system involvement or age. Only a history of pericarditis appeared to be associated with positive thallium-201 results (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that segmental myocardial perfusion abnormalities are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Whether this reflects large-vessel coronary disease or small-vessel abnormalities remains to be determined.

  13. Head tilt is pronounced after an ipsilateral head roll in patients with vestibular schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Jutila, Topi; Aalto, Heikki; Hirvonen, Timo P

    2014-06-01

    The study aimed to measure utricular function by directly quantifying head tilt in vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients using regular video-oculography (VOG) equipment with integrated head-position sensor, and to correlate the results with patients' symptoms and signs. We recorded head tilting after exclusion of visual cues (static head tilt), and after returning to the centre following lateral head rolls towards each side [subjective head vertical (SHV)]. Head tilt in 43 patients was measured preoperatively and approximately 4 months postoperatively, and compared to that of 20 healthy subjects. Symptoms were assessed with a structured questionnaire. Static head tilt in patients was significantly greater than in controls (1.0° ± 0.9°) preoperatively (1.6° ± 1.5°, p = 0.04) and postoperatively (1.7° ± 1.5°, p = 0.01). Mean SHV in patients was significantly greater than in controls (1.2° ± 1.0°) preoperatively (2.0° ± 1.9°, p = 0.03) and postoperatively (2.5° ± 1.8°, p = 0.001), increasing non-significantly after surgery (p = 0.3). Side-specific SHV after ipsilateral head rolls was significantly greater than after contralateral head rolls preoperatively (2.8° ± 3.3° vs. -0.5° ± 3.0°, p = 0.001) and postoperatively (3.3° ± 3.0° vs. 0.6° ± 3.2°, p < 0.001). The intensity of dizziness increased postoperatively (p = 0.04), but its effect on quality of life remained unchanged. In conclusion, commercial VOG equipment including a head-position sensor allows direct evaluation of head tilt in VS patients. The slight head tilt towards the ipsilateral side becomes most evident after returning from an ipsilateral head roll.

  14. Radial head arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, M T; Ilyas, A M; Jupiter, J B

    2010-02-01

    In conclusion, radial head fractures with 3 or more fragments have a high incidence of complications when treated with ORIF including hardware failure, malunion, nonunion, and the need for re-operation. Radial head arthroplasty has demonstrated good success in the treatment of complex, comminuted radial head fractures which are not amenable to non-opeative treatment or ORIF. Success can be optimized by diligent surgical dissection, avoiding inadvertent nerve injury, placement of an appropriately sized implant, repair of associated injuries, and early protected motion. PMID:20214854

  15. The possible role of cranio-cervical trauma and abnormal CSF hydrodynamics in the genesis of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Damadian, Raymond V; Chu, David

    2011-01-01

    UPRIGHT Multi-Position MR scanning has uncovered a key set of new observations regarding Multiple Sclerosis (MS), which observations are likely to provide a new understanding of the origin of MS. The new findings may also lead to new forms of treatment for MS. The UPRIGHT MRI has demonstrated pronounced anatomic pathology of the cervical spine in five of the MS patients studied and definitive cervical pathology in the other three. The pathology was the result of prior head and neck trauma. All eight MS patients entered the study on a first come first serve basis without priority, and all but one were found to have a history of serious prior cervical trauma which resulted in significant cervical pathology. The cervical pathology was visualized by UPRIGHT MRI. Upright cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cinematography and quantitative measurements of CSF velocity, CSF flow and CSF pressure gradients in the upright patient revealed that significant obstructions to CSF flow were present in all MS patients. The obstructions are believed to be responsible for CSF "leakages" of CSF from the ventricles into the surrounding brain parenchyma which "leakages" can be the source of the MS lesions in the brain that give rise to MS symptomatology. The CSF flow obstructions are believed to result in increases in intracranial pressure (ICP) that generate "leakages" of the CSF into the surrounding brain parenchyma. In all but one MS patient, anatomic pathologies were found to be more severe in the upright position than in the recumbent position. Similarly, CSF flow abnormalities were found to be more severe in the upright position than in the recumbent position in all but one MS patient. Images of the MS patient anatomic pathologies and CSF flow abnormalities are provided with comparison images from normal examinees in Figures 1-15. PMID:21970155

  16. Using a Head-Mounted Camera to Infer Attention Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitow, Clara; Stenberg, Gunilla; Billard, Aude; von Hofsten, Claes

    2013-01-01

    A head-mounted camera was used to measure head direction. The camera was mounted to the forehead of 20 6- and 20 12-month-old infants while they watched an object held at 11 horizontal (-80° to + 80°) and 9 vertical (-48° to + 50°) positions. The results showed that the head always moved less than required to be on target. Below 30° in the…

  17. [Transient abnormal Q-waves].

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Hoeck, H C; Sørensen, J A

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of transient abnormal Q-waves (TAQ) and a review of the literature. TAQ are defined as abnormal Q-waves, which disappear within ten days. They are most often seen in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) but are also seen in other conditions. Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia giving rise to reversible biochemical and ultrastructural myocardial changes, resulting in transient ECG changes, provide an accepted theory for the pathogenesis of TAO. Investigations have shown that the occurrence of exercise-induced TAQ may be a symptom of IHD. It is impossible to distinguish TAQ from Q-waves induced by myocardial infarction. Appearance of TAQ during exercise-testing frequently indicates IHD. PMID:2301045

  18. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  19. Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chitty, L S

    1995-12-01

    Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities is increasingly becoming part of routine antenatal care in Europe and the UK. However, there has been very little formal evaluation of this practice. In this article reports of routine ultrasound screening are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages discussed. The majority of routine anomaly scanning is done in the second trimester but there may be a case for screening at other times in pregnancy and alternative anomaly screening policies are discussed. PMID:8710765

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    MedlinePlus

    ... further information please consult the ACR Manual on Contrast Media and its references. The risk of serious allergic ... Angiography (CTA) Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, ...

  1. Head Lice: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... it may be necessary to use a second bottle. Pay special attention to instructions on the label ... or printed on the label. Nit (head lice egg) combs, often found in lice medicine packages, should ...

  2. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... head and neck cancer. Poor oral and dental hygiene . Poor care of the mouth and teeth has ... sore throat Foul mouth odor not explained by hygiene Hoarseness or change in voice Nasal obstruction or ...

  3. Overview of Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Baby Health Highlights: Sept. 13, 2016 Smokers' Perceptions May Play Role in Addiction Sugar Companies Shifted ... amount of oxygen given and the rate and depth of breaths given by the ventilator. The head ...

  4. Radial head fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Elbow fracture - radial head - aftercare ... to 2 weeks. If you have a small fracture and your bones did not move around much, ... to see a bone doctor (orthopedic surgeon). Some fractures require surgery to: Insert pins and plates to ...

  5. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  6. Head tilt during driving.

    PubMed

    Zikovitz, D C; Harris, L R

    1999-05-01

    In order to distinguish between the use of visual and gravito-inertial force reference frames, the head tilt of drivers and passengers were measured as they went around corners at various speeds. The visual curvature of the corners were thus dissociated from the magnitude of the centripetal forces (0.30-0.77 g). Drivers' head tilts were highly correlated with the visually-available estimate of the curvature of the road (r2=0.86) but not with the centripetal force (r2<0.1). Passengers' head tilts were inversely correlated with the lateral forces (r2=0.3-0.7) and seem to reflect a passive sway. The strong correlation of the tilt of drivers' heads with a visual aspect of the road ahead, supports the use of a predominantly visual reference frame for the driving task. PMID:10722313

  7. Treating Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention. Head lice are most common among preschool children attending child care, elementary school children, and ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  8. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and circulation. If necessary, begin rescue breathing and CPR . If the person's breathing and heart rate are normal but the person is unconscious, treat as if there is a spinal injury . Stabilize the head and neck by placing your ...

  9. TCGA head Neck

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  10. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  11. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Verges, B; Chavanet, P; Desgres, J; Kisterman, J P; Waldner, A; Vaillant, G; Portier, H; Brun, J M; Putelat, R

    The finding of endocrine gland lesions at pathological examination in AIDS and reports of several cases of endocrine disease in patients with this syndrome have prompted us to study endocrine functions in 63 patients (51 men, 12 women) with HIV-1 infection. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) classification system, 13 of these patients were stage CDC II, 27 stage CDC III and 23 stage CDC IV. We explored the adrenocortical function (ACTH, immediate tetracosactrin test) and the thyroid function (free T3 and T4 levels, TRH on TSH test) in all 63 patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (testosterone levels, LHRH test) and prolactin secretion (THR test) were explored in the 51 men. The results obtained showed early peripheral testicular insufficiency at stage CDC II and early pituitary gland abnormalities with hypersecretion of ACTH and prolactin also at stage CDC II. On the other hand, adrenocortical and pituitary abnormalities were not frequently found. The physiopathology of the endocrine abnormalities observed in HIV-1-infected patients remains unclear, but one may suspect that it involves interleukin-1 since this protein factor has recently been shown to stimulate the corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion and to act directly on the glycoprotein capsule of the virus (gp 120) whose structure is similar to that of some neurohormones.

  12. Saliency-based gaze prediction based on head direction.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Ryoichi; Fang, Yu; Hatori, Yasuhiro; Hiratani, Akinori; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Despite decades of attempts to create a model for predicting gaze locations by using saliency maps, a highly accurate gaze prediction model for general conditions has yet to be devised. In this study, we propose a gaze prediction method based on head direction that can improve the accuracy of any model. We used a probability distribution of eye position based on head direction (static eye-head coordination) and added this information to a model of saliency-based visual attention. Using empirical data on eye and head directions while observers were viewing natural scenes, we estimated a probability distribution of eye position. We then combined the relationship between eye position and head direction with visual saliency to predict gaze locations. The model showed that information on head direction improved the prediction accuracy. Further, there was no difference in the gaze prediction accuracy between the two models using information on head direction with and without eye-head coordination. Therefore, information on head direction is useful for predicting gaze location when it is available. Furthermore, this gaze prediction model can be applied relatively easily to many daily situations such as during walking.

  13. Head and neck injuries in soccer. Impact of minor trauma.

    PubMed

    Tysvaer, A T

    1992-09-01

    Head injuries have been shown to account for between 4 and 22% of soccer injuries. Clinical and neuropsychological investigations of patients with minor head trauma have revealed organic brain damage. 69 active football (soccer) players and 37 former players of the Norwegian national team were included in a neurological and electroencephalographic (EEG) study to investigate the incidence of head injuries mainly caused by heading the ball. 3% of the active and 30% of the former players complained of permanent problems such as headache, dizziness, irritability, impaired memory and neck pain. 35% of the active and 32% of former players had from slightly abnormal to abnormal EEG compared with 13 and 11% of matched controls, respectively. There were fewer definitely abnormal EEG changes among typical 'headers' (10%) than among 'nonheaders' (27%). The former players were also subjected to cerebral computed tomography (CT), a neuropsychological examination and a radiological examination of the cervical spine. One-third of the players were found to have central cerebral atrophy and 81% to have from mild to severe (mostly mild to moderate) neuropsychological impairment. The radiological examination of the cervical spine revealed a significantly higher incidence and degree of degenerative changes than in a matched control group. PMID:1439395

  14. Effect of head circumference on parameters of pattern reversal visual evoked potential in healthy adults of central India.

    PubMed

    Kothari, R; Singh, R; Singh, S; Bokariya, P

    2012-06-01

    Visual evoked response testing has been one of the most exciting clinical tools to be developed from neurophysiologic research in recent years and has provided us with an objective method of identifying abnormalities of the afferent visual pathways. Investigation were carried out to see whether the head circumference influence the pattern reversal visual evoked potential (PRVEP) parameters. The study comprised of pattern reversal visual evoked potential (PRVEP) recordings in 400 eyes of 200 normal subjects. Two hundred fourty eight eyes were males and 152 eyes were from 76 female subjects recruited from the Central Indian population in the age range of 40-79 years. Visual evoked potential (VEP) recordings were performed in accordance to the standardized methodology of International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology (IFCN) Committee Recommendations and International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) Guidelines and montages were kept as per 10-20 International System of EEG Electrode placements. The stimulus configuration in this study consisted of the transient pattern reversal method in which a black and white checker board was generated (full field) and displayed on a VEP Monitor by an electronic pattern regenerator inbuilt in an Evoked Potential Recorder (RMS EMG EP MARK II). VEP latencies, duration and amplitude were measured in all subjects and the data were analyzed. The correlation of all the electrophysiological parameters with head circumference was evaluated by Pearson's correlation co-efficient (r) and its statistical significance was evaluated. The prediction equations for all the VEP parameters with respect to head circumference were derived. We found a positive correlation of P 100 latency and N 155 latency with mean head circumference, while a highly significant negative correlation were noted of P 100 amplitude with head circumference. N 70 latency was significantly correlated with head circumference. P 100 duration showed

  15. Modulation of Head Movement Control During Walking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Verstraete, Mary C.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the coordination of the head relative to the trunk within a gait cycle during gaze fixation. Nine normal subjects walked on a motorized treadmill driven at 1.79 m/sec (20 s trials) while fixing their gaze on a centrally located earth-fixed target positioned at a distance of 2m from their eyes. The relative motion of the head and the net torque acting on it relative to the trunk during the gait cycle were used as measures of coordination. It was found that the net torque applied to the head counteracts the destabilizing forces acting on the upper body during locomotion. The average net torque impulse was significantly different (p less than 0.05) between the heel strike and swing phases and were found to be symmetrical between the right and left leg events of the gait cycle. However, the average net displacement of the head relative to the trunk was maintained uniform (p greater than 0.05) throughout the gait cycle. Thus, the coordination of the motion of the head relative to the trunk during walking is dynamically modulated depending on the behavioral events occurring in the gait cycle. This modulation may serve to aid stabilization of the head by counteracting the force variations acting on the upper body that may aid in the visual fixing of targets during walking.

  16. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  17. Measuring How the Head of Department Measures Up: Development of an Evaluation Framework for the Head of Department Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Chad

    2011-01-01

    The head of department position has been an integral role in the organisational structure of colleges and universities for over a hundred years. Recently, many institutions of higher education have called on department heads to provide advancing quality management and leadership to academic units in response to an increasingly complex and…

  18. Specific eye-head coordination enhances vision in progressive lens wearers.

    PubMed

    Rifai, Katharina; Wahl, Siegfried

    2016-09-01

    In uncorrected vision all combinations of eye and head positions are visually equivalent; thus, there is no need for a specific modification of eye-head coordination in young healthy observers. In contrast, the quality of visual input indeed strongly depends on eye position in the majority of healthy elderly drivers, namely in progressive additional lens (PALs) wearers. For a given distance, only specific combinations of eye and head position provide clear vision in a progressive lens wearer. However, although head movements are an integral part of gaze behavior, it is not known if eye-head coordination takes part in the enhancement of visual input in healthy individuals. In the current study we determined changes in eye-head coordination in progressive lens wearers in challenging tasks with high cognitive load, in the situation of driving. During a real-world drive on an urban round track in Stuttgart, gaze movements and head movements were measured in 17 PAL wearers and eye-head coordination was compared to 27 controls with unrestricted vision. Head movement behavior, specific to progressive lens wearers, was determined in head gain and temporal properties of head movements. Furthermore, vertical eye-head coordination was consistent only among PAL wearers. The observed differences in eye-head coordination clearly demonstrate a contribution of head movements in the enhancement of visual input in the healthy human visual system. PMID:27604068

  19. Specific eye-head coordination enhances vision in progressive lens wearers.

    PubMed

    Rifai, Katharina; Wahl, Siegfried

    2016-09-01

    In uncorrected vision all combinations of eye and head positions are visually equivalent; thus, there is no need for a specific modification of eye-head coordination in young healthy observers. In contrast, the quality of visual input indeed strongly depends on eye position in the majority of healthy elderly drivers, namely in progressive additional lens (PALs) wearers. For a given distance, only specific combinations of eye and head position provide clear vision in a progressive lens wearer. However, although head movements are an integral part of gaze behavior, it is not known if eye-head coordination takes part in the enhancement of visual input in healthy individuals. In the current study we determined changes in eye-head coordination in progressive lens wearers in challenging tasks with high cognitive load, in the situation of driving. During a real-world drive on an urban round track in Stuttgart, gaze movements and head movements were measured in 17 PAL wearers and eye-head coordination was compared to 27 controls with unrestricted vision. Head movement behavior, specific to progressive lens wearers, was determined in head gain and temporal properties of head movements. Furthermore, vertical eye-head coordination was consistent only among PAL wearers. The observed differences in eye-head coordination clearly demonstrate a contribution of head movements in the enhancement of visual input in the healthy human visual system.

  20. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per