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Sample records for abnormal head posture

  1. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  2. Case report of malocclusion with abnormal head posture and TMJ symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kondo, E; Aoba, T J

    1999-11-01

    Abnormal cervical muscle function can cause abnormal head posture, adversely affecting the development and morphology of the cervical spine and maxillofacial skeleton, which in turn leads to facial asymmetry and occlusal abnormality. There can be morphologic abnormalities of the mandibular fossa, condyle, ramus, and disk accompanying the imbalance of the cervical and masticatory muscles activities. Two normally growing Japanese female patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion presented with TMJ symptoms and poor head posture as a result of abnormal sternocleidomastoid and trapezius cervical muscle activities. One patient underwent tenotomy of the two heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the other patient did not. In addition to orthodontics, the 2 patients received physiotherapy of the cervical muscles during treatment. Both were treated with a functional appliance as a first step, followed by full multi-bracketed treatment to establish a stable form of occlusion and to improve facial esthetics with no head gear. This interdisciplinary treatment approach resulted in normalization of stomatognathic function, elimination of TMJ symptoms, and improvement of facial esthetics. In the growing patients, the significant response of the fossa, condyle, and ramus on the affected side during and after occlusal correction contributed to the improvement of cervical muscle activity. Based on the result, early occlusal improvement, combined with orthopedic surgery of the neck muscles or physiotherapy to achieve muscular balance of the neck and masticatory muscles, was found to be effective. Two patients illustrate the potential for promoting symmetric formation of the TMJ structures and normal jaw function, with favorable effects on posttreatment growth of the entire maxillofacial skeleton.

  3. Binocular vision and abnormal head posture in children when watching television

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Di; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Dai, Shu-Zhen; Peng, Hai-Ying; Wang, Li-Ya

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the association between the binocular vision and an abnormal head posture (AHP) when watching television (TV) in children 7-14y of age. METHODS Fifty normal children in the normal group and 52 children with an AHP when watching TV in the AHP group were tested for spherical equivalents, far and near fusional convergence (FC) and fusional divergence (FD) amplitudes, near point of convergence, far and near heterophoria, accommodative convergence/ accommodation ratio and stereoacuity. The values of these tests were compared between the two groups. The independent t test was applied at a confidence level of 95%. RESULTS The far and near FC amplitudes and far FD amplitudes were lower in the AHP group (the far FC amplitudes: break point 13.6±5.4Δ, recovery point 8.7±5.4Δ. The near FC amplitudes: break point 14.5±7.3Δ, recovery point 10.3±5.1Δ. The far FD amplitudes: break point 3.9±2.7Δ, recovery point 2.6±2.3Δ) compared with those in the normal group (the far FC amplitudes: break point 19.1±6.2Δ, recovery point 12.4±4.5Δ. The near FC amplitudes: break point 22.3±8.0Δ, recovery point 16.1±5.7Δ. The far FD amplitudes: break point 7.0±2.1Δ, recovery point 4.6±1.9Δ). Other tests presented no statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION An association between the reduced FC and FD amplitudes and the AHP in children when watching TV is proposed in the study. This kind of AHP is considered to be an anomalous manifestation which appears in a part of puerile patients of fusional vergence dysfunction. PMID:27275434

  4. The effects of cervical joint manipulation, based on passive motion analysis, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture, and cervical ROM in university students with abnormal posture of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wontae

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cervical posture manipulation, based on passive motion analysis (MBPMA) and general mobilization, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture (FHP), and cervical ROM in university students with problems in cervical posture and range of motion (ROM). [Subjects] The Subjects were 40 university students in their 20s who displayed problems in cervical posture and ROM; they were divided into an MBPMA group (n=20) and a mobilization group (n=20). [Methods] Each group underwent MBPMA or mobilization three times a week for four weeks. The effects of MBPMA and mobilization on cervical lordosis, FHP, and cervical ROM were analyzed by radiography. [Results] MBPMA was effective in increasing the cervical lordosis, cervical extension ROM (CER), and ranges of flexion and extension motion (RFEM) and in decreasing FHP. Mobilization was effective in increasing CER and decreasing FHP. [Conclusion] MBPMA can be utilized as an effective method for decreasing FHP and improving cervical lordosis and cervical ROM.

  5. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p < 0.05). If pelvic side tilting angle increases by 1 degree, right side neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p = 0.026). However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP. PMID:26583125

  6. Hemifacial spasm and postural abnormalities; clinical and posturographical analyses.

    PubMed

    Degirmenci, Eylem; Oguzhanoglu, Attila; Atalay, Nilgun; Sahin, Fusun

    2015-09-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is defined as an involuntary, irregular clonic, or tonic movement of muscles innervated by the ipsilateral seventh cranial nerve. It is reported that the coexistence of non-motor- and motor-related symptoms can be seen in patients with HFS. Postural disturbances were investigated in some movement disorders; however, postural abnormalities due to HFS had not been reported before. In this study, we aimed to investigate the postural abnormalities in patients with HFS. In this cross-sectional, controlled study, Tinetti Balance and Gait Test (TBGT) scores and static posturography were performed on fifteen patients with HFS and fifteen healthy age- and sex-matched controls. The total TBGT score and TBGT-balance score were found to be significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group (p values were, respectively, 0.046 and 0.011). The ratio of the patients with high risk of falling was 40 %, and the difference was found to be significantly higher in the patient group (p value = 0.008). In Fourier analyses, a significant difference was found in the medium to high frequencies (F5-6) when the posturographic evaluation was performed on a solid ground with closed eyes, head rotated to right, and head rotated to the left positions (p values were, respectively, 0.045 and 0.007). The stability index of the HFS group was significantly higher than the control group when tested on the neutral, head right, and head left positions (p values were, respectively, 0.004, 0.049, and 0.003). In conclusion, our study showed that the patients with HFS have more balance and falling problems than the controls, which can be both clinically and posturographically determined.

  7. Head posture in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Solow, B; Ovesen, J; Nielsen, P W; Wildschiødtz, G; Tallgren, A

    1993-04-01

    In growing subjects, obstruction of the upper airway may lead to excessive vertical facial development. According to the soft-tissue stretching hypothesis (Solow and Kreiborg, 1977) this could be due to an increased cranio-cervical angulation triggered by the airway obstruction. The present study aimed to examine the effect of airway obstruction on cranio-cervical posture in a sample of adult patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Lateral cephalometric radiographs taken in the natural head position (mirror position) were obtained from 50 male patients aged 28-70 with polysomnographic diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea. The Apnoea Index ranged from 21 to 98 episodes per hour with a mean of 54.6. Control samples were available from previous cephalometric studies of head posture in five samples of healthy subjects and one sample of congenitally blind subjects. The average cranio-cervical angle, NSL/OPT, was found to be extremely large (mean 104.1, SD 9.1) exceeding the average values in the control samples by 1-2 standard deviations (P < 0.001). It is suggested that the large cranio-cervical angle in OSA patients is a physiological adaptation aiming to maintain airway adequacy while the head, and thus the visual axis, is kept in its natural relationship to the true vertical. The findings thus provide evidence for the hypothesis that upper airway obstruction may trigger an increase in the cranio-cervical angulation.

  8. Correlation between rounded shoulder posture, neck disability indices, and degree of forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jin Seop

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to examine the correlation between rounded shoulder posture, neck disability indices and the degree of forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects aged 19–24 years were selected for this study, and the craniovertebral angle was used to measure the degree of forward head posture in the standing and seated positions. Vernier calipers were used to measure rounded shoulder posture in the supine position, and neck pain and functional disability were assessed using neck disability indices. [Results] Angle and neck disability indices in both standing and sitting posture positions exhibited a significant inverse relationship. However, no significant correlation was detected between the craniovertebral angle and rounded shoulder posture for the standing and sitting posture positions. [Conclusion] In conclusion, it was demonstrated in the present study that, depending on the degree of forward head posture, changes were detected in the neck disability indices. However, even an increase in the forward head tilt angle did not lead to rounded shoulder posture. Therefore, maintaining proper posture may prevent postural pain syndrome, functional disability, and postural deformity. PMID:27821964

  9. A new posture-correcting system using a vector angle model for preventing forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Hojun; Lim, Juhun; Yoo, Sung Hak; Lee, Woocheol

    2014-01-01

    In modern society many people are afflicted with muscle pain in the neck and shoulders mainly caused by incorrect posture. The number of patients having neck pain is increasing as usage of digital devices becomes more frequent. If patients could be notified how inappropriate their postures are in real time, the number of patients could be lower. Unfortunately, there is no digitized standard way of diagnosis for forward head posture. This study applies a concept based on a vector related to two angles which are acquired from the neck and the head, so that a device can diagnose the posture by measuring and analysing the angles. To obtain the vector, integral calculations of displacement of the head are needed. As a result, with this device, patients’ faulty posture can be easily detected. PMID:26019611

  10. Airway adequacy, head posture, and craniofacial morphology.

    PubMed

    Solow, B; Siersbaek-Nielsen, S; Greve, E

    1984-09-01

    Previous studies of different samples have demonstrated associations between craniocervical angulation and craniofacial morphology, between airway obstruction by adenoids and craniofacial morphology, and between airway obstruction and craniocervical angulation. A hypothesis to account for the different sets of associations was suggested by Solow and Kreiborg in 1977. In the present study, the three sets of associations were examined in a single group of nonpathologic subjects with no history of airway obstruction. Cephalometric radiographs taken in the natural head position and rhinomanometric recordings were obtained from twenty-four children 7 to 9 years of age. Correlations were calculated between twenty-seven morphologic, eight postural, and two airway variables. A large craniocervical angle was, on the average, seen in connection with small mandibular dimensions, mandibular retrognathism, and a large mandibular inclination. Obstructed nasopharyngeal airways (defined as a small pm-ad 2 radiographic distance and a large nasal respiratory resistance, NRR, determined rhinomanometrically) were, on the average, seen in connection with a large craniocervical angle and with small mandibular dimensions, mandibular retrognathism, a large mandibular inclination, and retroclination of the upper incisors. The observed correlations were in agreement with the predicted pattern of associations between craniofacial morphology, craniocervical angulation, and airway resistance, thus suggesting the simultaneous presence of such associations in the sample of nonpathologic subjects with no history of airway obstruction.

  11. No acute changes in postural control after soccer heading

    PubMed Central

    Broglio, S; Guskiewicz, K; Sell, T; Lephart, S

    2004-01-01

    Background: Soccer heading has been proposed as a potential cause of cerebral dysfunction. Objective: To examine the acute effects of two types of soccer heading on postural control. Methods: Collegiate soccer players were randomly assigned to one of four groups: control, linear heading, simulated rotational heading, or rotational heading. Each subject completed a baseline postural stability assessment on day 1. On day 2 the same assessment was completed for the control subjects. The simulated rotational heading group completed a simulated heading drill before postural stability testing. The linear and rotational heading groups performed a heading drill with 20 balls at 88.71 km/h (55 mph), before postural stability testing. Separate one between (group), three within (surface, eyes, and day), mixed model, repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted on values for total sway and mean centre of pressure. Results: The mixed model analysis of variance of results showed no significant differences (p>0.05) for the interactions of interest for either variable. Results suggest no acute changes in measures of postural control in soccer players completing either a linear or rotational soccer heading drill of 20 balls at a fixed speed. Conclusion: Non-significant interactions between surface, eyes, day, and group indicate that sensory interaction of the balance mechanism components are not be compromised by the heading drill. This research supports previous studies suggesting that there are no acute risks associated with routine soccer heading. A direct comparison between these findings and those suggesting long term chronic deficits, however, cannot be made. Other studies that report chronic cerebral deficits in soccer players may have resulted from factors other than soccer heading and warrant further examination. PMID:15388539

  12. Acute changes in postural control after soccer heading.

    PubMed

    Haran, F J; Tierney, R; Wright, W G; Keshner, E; Silter, M

    2013-04-01

    This study intended to determine if an acute bout of soccer heading alters postural control and pronounced self-reported symptoms of cerebral concussion. Collegiate soccer players were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Each participant completed a baseline postural control assessment prior to heading. Participants either simulated (control group; CG) or performed (experimental group; EG) 10 headers at 11.2 m/s in 10 min. The postural assessment was repeated post heading at hrs 1, 24, and 48. The postural control parameter assessed was the root mean square (RMS) of the center of mass (COM). COM RMS were calculated for the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) time series. Compared to the CG, for the AP and ML time series COM RMS values were significantly higher in the EG at hr 24 (p <0.05). An acute bout of heading results in quantifiable alterations in postural control that are detectable 24 h post heading and dissipate within an additional 24 h. The significant findings may be due to the dynamic postural control assessment that incorporated robust discordant environmental conditions.

  13. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  14. Dental occlusion, body posture and temporomandibular disorders: where we are now and where we are heading for.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, D; Castroflorio, T; Perinetti, G; Guarda-Nardini, L

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to perform a review of the literature dealing with the issue of relationships between dental occlusion, body posture and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A search of the available literature was performed to determine what the current evidence is regarding: (i) The physiology of the dental occlusion-body posture relationship, (ii) The relationship of these two topics with TMD and (iii) The validity of the available clinical and instrumental devices (surface electromyography, kinesiography and postural platforms) to measure the dental occlusion-body posture-TMD relationship. The available posturographic techniques and devices have not consistently found any association between body posture and dental occlusion. This outcome is most likely due to the many compensation mechanisms occurring within the neuromuscular system regulating body balance. Furthermore, the literature shows that TMD are not often related to specific occlusal conditions, and they also do not have any detectable relationships with head and body posture. The use of clinical and instrumental approaches for assessing body posture is not supported by the wide majority of the literature, mainly because of wide variations in the measurable variables of posture. In conclusion, there is no evidence for the existence of a predictable relationship between occlusal and postural features, and it is clear that the presence of TMD pain is not related with the existence of measurable occluso-postural abnormalities. Therefore, the use instruments and techniques aiming to measure purported occlusal, electromyographic, kinesiographic or posturographic abnormalities cannot be justified in the evidence-based TMD practice.

  15. Neck posture and head movement in four rescue stretchers.

    PubMed

    Bridger, Robert; Bilzon, Emma; Green, Andrew; Chamberlain, Richard; Pickering, John

    2004-11-01

    Neck posture and head movements were measured in four rescue stretchers: the Neil Robertson stretcher, which has been in service in the Royal Navy for almost 100 years, and three potential replacements. A repeated measures laboratory study was carried out to quantify neck posture and head movements while subjects reclined in the stretchers. Stretchers were compared on the basis of this critical aspect of their performance to complement the findings of ship-based usability trials. When the subjects were secured in each of the stretchers, wearing cervical collars and any restraints integral to that stretcher, the resting posture of the neck and the range of voluntary movement in flexion/extension, lateral flexion, and rotation were measured. In all of the stretchers, the neck was in an extended posture. The collars restricted head movements but they did not immobilize the neck. Stretcher 3, which had all of the functionality of the Neal Robertson stretcher, but with integral backboard and head blocks, limited head movements the most.

  16. Vestibulocollic reflexes in the absence of head postural control

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Patrick A.; Siegmund, Gunter P.; Happee, Riender; Schouten, Alfred C.

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous electrical vestibular stimulation evokes reflexive responses in appendicular muscles that are suppressed during tasks in which the muscles are not contributing to balance control. In neck muscles, which stabilize the head on the torso and in space, it is unclear whether similar postural task dependence shapes vestibular reflexes. We investigated whether vestibulocollic reflexes are modulated during tasks in which vestibular information is not directly relevant to maintaining the head balanced on the torso. We hypothesized that vestibulocollic reflexes would be 1) evoked when neck muscles are not involved in balancing the head on the torso and 2) invariant across synergistic neck muscle contraction tasks. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally in sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles during head-free and head-fixed conditions while subjects were exposed to stochastic electrical vestibular stimulation (±5 mA, 0–75 Hz). Significant vestibular reflex responses (P < 0.05) were observed during head-free and head-fixed trials. Response magnitude and timing were similar between head-free and head-fixed trials for sternocleidomastoid, but splenius capitis magnitudes decreased with the head fixed by ∼25% (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, this indicates that vestibulocollic responses are evoked independent of the requirement to maintain postural control of the head on the torso. Response magnitude and timing were similar across focal muscle contractions (i.e., axial rotation/flexion/extension) provided the muscle was active. In contrast, when subjects cocontracted neck muscles, vestibular-evoked responses decreased in sternocleidomastoid by ∼30–45% (P < 0.05) compared with focal muscle contractions but remained unchanged in splenius capitis. These results indicate robust vestibulocollic reflex coupling, which we suggest functions through its closed-loop influence on head posture to ensure cervical spine stabilization. PMID:25008409

  17. Vestibulocollic reflexes in the absence of head postural control.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Patrick A; Siegmund, Gunter P; Happee, Riender; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    Percutaneous electrical vestibular stimulation evokes reflexive responses in appendicular muscles that are suppressed during tasks in which the muscles are not contributing to balance control. In neck muscles, which stabilize the head on the torso and in space, it is unclear whether similar postural task dependence shapes vestibular reflexes. We investigated whether vestibulocollic reflexes are modulated during tasks in which vestibular information is not directly relevant to maintaining the head balanced on the torso. We hypothesized that vestibulocollic reflexes would be 1) evoked when neck muscles are not involved in balancing the head on the torso and 2) invariant across synergistic neck muscle contraction tasks. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally in sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles during head-free and head-fixed conditions while subjects were exposed to stochastic electrical vestibular stimulation (± 5 mA, 0-75 Hz). Significant vestibular reflex responses (P < 0.05) were observed during head-free and head-fixed trials. Response magnitude and timing were similar between head-free and head-fixed trials for sternocleidomastoid, but splenius capitis magnitudes decreased with the head fixed by ∼ 25% (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, this indicates that vestibulocollic responses are evoked independent of the requirement to maintain postural control of the head on the torso. Response magnitude and timing were similar across focal muscle contractions (i.e., axial rotation/flexion/extension) provided the muscle was active. In contrast, when subjects cocontracted neck muscles, vestibular-evoked responses decreased in sternocleidomastoid by ∼ 30-45% (P < 0.05) compared with focal muscle contractions but remained unchanged in splenius capitis. These results indicate robust vestibulocollic reflex coupling, which we suggest functions through its closed-loop influence on head posture to ensure cervical spine stabilization.

  18. Effects of elastic band exercise on subjects with rounded shoulder posture and forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woon; An, Da-In; Lee, Hye-Yun; Jeong, Ho-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study performed to investigate the effect of elastic band exercise program on the posture of subjects with rounded shoulder and forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] The body length, forward shoulder angle, craniovertebral angle, and cranial rotation angle of participants (n=12) were measured before and after the exercise program. Furthermore, the thicknesses of the pectoralis major, rhomboid major, and upper trapezius were measured using an ultrasonographic imaging device. The exercises program was conducted with elastic bands, with 15 repetitions per set and 3 sets in total. [Results] The length of the pectoralis major, forward shoulder angle, and craniovertebral angle showed significant changes between before and after the exercise program, whereas the changes in the other measurements were not significant. The thickness of the upper trapezius showed a significant increase between before and after the elastic band exercise. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that the elastic band exercise program used in the study is effective for lengthening the pectoralis major and correcting rounded shoulder and forward head posture. PMID:27390405

  19. Postural abnormalities to multidirectional stance perturbations in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, M; Allum, J; Honegger, F; Adkin, A; Bloem, B

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We investigated trunk control, protective arm movements, and electromyographic responses to multidirectional support-surface rotations in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), aiming to better understand the pathophysiology underlying postural instability in PD, on and off antiparkinson medication. Methods: Ten patients with PD were compared with 11 age matched healthy controls. Seven patients were also tested without (OFF) antiparkinson medication. All subjects received rotational perturbations (7.5 deg amplitude) that were randomly delivered in six different directions. Results: The PD patients had decreased trunk rotation and ankle torque changes, consistent with a stiffening response. Stiffness appeared to be caused by the combined action of three factors: co-contraction that interfered in particular with the normal response asymmetry in trunk muscles; increased response amplitudes in agonist and antagonist muscles at both medium (∼80 ms) and balance correcting (∼120 ms) response latencies; and increased background activity in lower leg, hip, and trunk muscles. Although the patients had significantly earlier onset of deltoid muscle responses, this gave no functional protection because the arm movements were abnormally directed. Most instability in PD occurred for backward falls, with or without a roll component. Medication provided partial improvement in arm responses and trunk roll instability. Conclusions: Our results confirm previous findings in ankle muscles, and provide new information on balance impairments in hip, trunk, and arm responses in PD. PMID:15314109

  20. Cervical hyperlordosis, forward head posture, and lumbar kyphosis correction: A novel treatment for mid-thoracic pain

    PubMed Central

    Morningstar, Mark W.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe a novel approach to correcting cervical hyperlordosis and forward head posture in the treatment of mid-thoracic pain using specific rehabilitative equipment Clinical Features A 27-yr-old male patient had a chief complaint of intense, episodic mid-thoracic pain. A posture examination revealed several abnormalities, including apparent thoracic humping or buckling, along with significantly rounded shoulders. Radiological study resulted in a finding of a 52° cervical lordosis and forward head posture (FHP) validated by 2 separate measurements. Intervention and Outcome Treatment included 10 visits in 24 days, consisting of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) combined with a 4-lb headweight device and a figure-8 clavicle brace, followed by positional traction on an intersegmental traction table. Specific instructions for home care were provided to the patient. Post-trial radiographs showed a reduced cervical lordosis of 40° and a reduction in FHP of 12mm, according to 1 of the 2 FHP measurements. An incidental improvement was also recorded for the lumbar lordosis. Patient symptoms were alleviated by the end of the trial period. Conclusion This comprehensive approach appeared to correct specific posture abnormalities seen on x-ray, and had an apparent positive effect on the patient's chief complaint. Each procedure in this treatment method needs to be tested separately to determine which procedures had the greatest effect. PMID:19674605

  1. Correlation between head posture and proprioceptive function in the cervical region

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Min-Sik; Lee, Hae-Yong; Lee, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate correlation between head posture and proprioceptive function in the cervical region. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-two subjects (35 males and 37 females) participated in this study. For measurement of head posture, the craniovertebral angle was calculated based on the angle between a horizontal line passing through C7 and a line extending from the tragus of the ear to C7. The joint position sense was evaluated using a dual digital inclinometer (Acumar, Lafayette Instrument, Lafayette, IN, USA), which was used to measure the joint position error for cervical flexion and extension. [Results] A significant negative correlation was observed between the craniovertebral angle and position sense error for flexion and extension. [Conclusion] Forward head posture is correlated with greater repositioning error than a more upright posture, and further research is needed to determine whether correction of forward head posture has any impact on repositioning error. PMID:27134372

  2. Time course analysis of influence of food hardness on head posture and pitching of head during masticatory movement.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Akimasa; Sato, Toru; Hisanaga, Ryuichi; Miho, Otoaki; Nomoto, Syuntaro

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between mastication and head posture using foods with different degrees of hardness. A total of 12 healthy, dentulous volunteers participated in the study. Each participant was required to chew two types of gummy candy with two levels of hardness while sitting upright. Measurements were conducted using an optoelectric jaw-tracking system with 6 degrees of freedom (Gnatho-Hexagraph II JM-2000®). The horizontal plane perpendicular to the direction of gravitational force served as the reference plane. Analysis of the gradient of the Frankfurt plane (head posture) and pitching of the head during masticatory movement was conducted. The influence of the type of test food on these parameters was evaluated during mastication. During stable mastication, the gradient of the Frankfurt plane was 4.66 degrees on average, close to the horizontal plane. The time course of the Frankfurt plane gradient revealed a tendency toward dorsal flexion during the first to middle phases of mastication, and a tendency toward ventral flexion during the middle to last phases, regardless of the hardness of the test food. The participants were divided into two groups based on change in head posture during chewing. The results showed while there was no change in head posture in the group with marked pitching of the head, head posture did change in the group with little pitching.

  3. Clinical effectiveness of a Pilates treatment for forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Myung; Lee, Chang-Hyung; O’Sullivan, David; Jung, Joo-Ha; Park, Jung-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of pilates and an exercise program on the craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion, pain, and muscle fatigue in subjects with a forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 sedentary females (age 20 to 39 years) with FHP were randomly assigned to pilates (n=14) and combined (n=14) exercise groups. The study was a randomized, controlled, double-blind study with the two groups performing exercise 50 min/day, 3 days/week, with an intensity of 11–15 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for ten weeks. The main outcome measures were craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion (ROM), pain levels assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), and neck disability index (NDI). Surface electromyography was also used to measure muscle fatigue. [Results] There were significant increases in craniovertebral angle and cervical ROM in the pilates group, but none in the control group. The only significant differences in muscle activity were recorded in the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the pilates group. Both exercise programs had positive effects on pain measures, as VAS and NDI were significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pilates could be recommended as an appropriate exercise for treatment of FHP in sedentary individuals. PMID:27512253

  4. Clinical effectiveness of a Pilates treatment for forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Myung; Lee, Chang-Hyung; O'Sullivan, David; Jung, Joo-Ha; Park, Jung-Jun

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of pilates and an exercise program on the craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion, pain, and muscle fatigue in subjects with a forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 sedentary females (age 20 to 39 years) with FHP were randomly assigned to pilates (n=14) and combined (n=14) exercise groups. The study was a randomized, controlled, double-blind study with the two groups performing exercise 50 min/day, 3 days/week, with an intensity of 11-15 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for ten weeks. The main outcome measures were craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion (ROM), pain levels assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), and neck disability index (NDI). Surface electromyography was also used to measure muscle fatigue. [Results] There were significant increases in craniovertebral angle and cervical ROM in the pilates group, but none in the control group. The only significant differences in muscle activity were recorded in the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the pilates group. Both exercise programs had positive effects on pain measures, as VAS and NDI were significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pilates could be recommended as an appropriate exercise for treatment of FHP in sedentary individuals.

  5. Effect of awareness through movement on the head posture of bruxist children.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Y; Restrepo, C C; Tamayo, V; Tamayo, M; Vélez, A L; Gallego, G; Peláez-Vargas, A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of physiotherapy to improve the head posture and reduce the signs of bruxism in a group of bruxist children. A single-blind randomized clinical trial was performed. All the subjects were 3- to 6-year old, had complete primary dentition, dental and skeletal class I occlusion and were classified as bruxist according to the minimal criteria of the ICSD for bruxism. For each child, a clinical, photographic and radiographic evaluation of the head and cervical posture were realized with standardized techniques. The children were randomized in an experimental (n = 13) and a control (n = 13) group. A physiotherapeutic intervention was applied to the children of the experimental group once a week, until 10 sessions were completed. Afterwards, the cephalogram and the clinical and photographic evaluation of the head posture were measured again. The data were analysed with the t-test and Mann-Whitney test. The subjects of the experimental group showed statistically significant improvement in the natural head posture. The physiotherapeutic intervention showed to be efficient to improve the head posture at the moment of measurement in the studied children. The relationship between bruxism and head posture, if exists, seems to be worthwhile to examine.

  6. The effects of horse-riding simulator exercise and Kendall exercise on the forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Seong-Gil; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of horse-riding simulator exercise and Kendall exercise on forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty elderly college students with a forward head posture were randomly divided into two groups for 15 persons each, a horse-riding simulator group and Kendall exercise group, and performed exercise for eight weeks. [Results] The horse-riding simulator group and Kendall exercise group showed significant differences after the intervention in New York state posture rating, craniovertebral angle, and cranial rotation angle. The horse-riding simulator group showed a significantly smaller value than the Kendall exercise group for New York state posture rating evaluation after the intervention. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that horse-riding simulator exercise is more effective on forward head posture than Kendall exercise. Therefore, horse-riding simulator exercise can be used as a new simple treatment method for the ever-growing forward head posture. PMID:25995571

  7. Effects of forward head posture on static and dynamic balance control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine the effects of forward head posture on static and dynamic balance control. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 30 participants who were included into a forward head posture group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 16) according to their craniovertebral angles. Static balance control was assessed according to center of gravity sway velocity and total sway distance using an automatic balance calibration system. Dynamic balance control was assessed using the diagnosis mode of a body-tilt training and measurement system. [Results] Sway velocities on a hard surface with eyes open and closed and those on an unstable sponge surface with eyes closed were significantly higher in the forward head posture group than in the control group. Furthermore, on both the hard and sponge surfaces in the eyes open and closed conditions, total sway distances were significantly higher in the forward head posture group than in the control group. Results of dynamic balance control were not significantly different between groups. [Conclusion] Forward head posture has a greater effect on static balance control than on dynamic balance control.

  8. Effects of forward head posture on static and dynamic balance control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine the effects of forward head posture on static and dynamic balance control. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 30 participants who were included into a forward head posture group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 16) according to their craniovertebral angles. Static balance control was assessed according to center of gravity sway velocity and total sway distance using an automatic balance calibration system. Dynamic balance control was assessed using the diagnosis mode of a body-tilt training and measurement system. [Results] Sway velocities on a hard surface with eyes open and closed and those on an unstable sponge surface with eyes closed were significantly higher in the forward head posture group than in the control group. Furthermore, on both the hard and sponge surfaces in the eyes open and closed conditions, total sway distances were significantly higher in the forward head posture group than in the control group. Results of dynamic balance control were not significantly different between groups. [Conclusion] Forward head posture has a greater effect on static balance control than on dynamic balance control. PMID:26957773

  9. Influence of an eccentric load added at the back of the head on head-neck posture.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Esteban E; Frigo, Carlo A; Pedotti, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    A biomechanical study of the head-neck complex in seated subjects was conducted to verify whether a slight load, applied at the back of the head, could beneficially affect the head-neck posture, one of the factors of postural neck pain. An eccentric load of 0.5 kg was applied to the subjects' head by means of a special cap. A group of asymptomatic subjects (n=10, 28.9±12.1 yrs), and a group of subjects that had experienced mild, occasional neck pain (n=10, 39.6±18.4 yrs) were compared. They were analyzed while maintaining a still posture that was periodically perturbed to avoid habituation. A 3D motion analyzer and reflective markers placed over the head, the neck and the trunk, were used to compute head inclination and translation and head/neck flexion angle in different conditions: before, during and after having had the load applied for 15 min. Although the moment induced by the load was extensor, a forward-oriented movement of the head was observed in both groups. However, the forward displacement, in relation to the initial position, was smaller in the mild neck pain group than in the asymptomatic group (5.7±4.7 mm vs. 8.9±5.5 mm, P<0.05 and 2.6±5.9 mm vs. 11.0±9.0 mm after 15 min, P<0.05). After removing the load, the mild neck pain subjects assumed a retracted position (-3.8±2.7 mm) while the asymptomatic subjects stayed protracted (+3.5±5.1 mm, P<0.01). These unexpected findings suggest that a slight load added to the head can influence the postural control mechanisms and, in symptomatic subjects, lead to a new strategy aimed at a reduction of the neck extensor muscle contraction.

  10. Assisting people with multiple disabilities actively correct abnormal standing posture with a Nintendo Wii balance board through controlling environmental stimulation.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chu, Chiung-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The latest researches adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance change of standing posture (CSP) detector, and assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture). This study extends Wii Balance Board functionality for standing posture correction (i.e., actively adjust abnormal standing posture) to assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to actively correct their standing posture by controlling their favorite stimulation on/off using a Wii Balance Board with a newly developed standing posture correcting program (SPCP). The study was performed according to an ABAB design, in which A represented baseline and B represented intervention phases. Data showed that both participants significantly increased time duration of maintaining correct standing posture (TDMCSP) to activate the control system to produce environmental stimulation during the intervention phases. Practical and developmental implications of the findings were discussed.

  11. Clinical predictors of abnormal head computed tomography scan in patients who are conscious after head injury

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rakesh Kumar; Munivenkatappa, Ashok; Prathyusha, Vasuki; Shukla, Dhaval P.; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira

    2017-01-01

    Background: Indication of a head computed tomography (CT) scan in a patient who remains conscious after head injury is controversial. We aimed to determine the clinical features that are most likely to be associated with abnormal CT scan in patients with a history of head injury, and who are conscious at the time of presentation to casualty. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observation study of patients presented to casualty with history of head injury, and who were conscious, i.e., Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 15 at the time of evaluation. All patients underwent head CT scan. The CT scan was reported as abnormal if it showed any pathology ascribed to trauma. The following variables were used: age, gender, mode of injury (road traffic accident, fall, assault, and others), duration since injury, and history of transient loss of consciousness, headache, vomiting, ear/nose bleeding, and seizures. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the clinical features that predicted an abnormal CT scan. Results: During the observation period, a total of 1629 patients with head injury were evaluated, out of which 453 were in GCS 15. Abnormal CT scan was present in 195 (43%) patients. Among all the variables, the following were found significantly associated with abnormal CT scan: duration since injury (>12 h) P < 0.001; vomiting odds, ratio (OR) 1.89 (1.23, 2.80), P < 0.001; and presence of any symptom, OR 2.36 (1.52, 3.71), P < 0.001. Conclusion: A patient with GCS 15 presenting after 12 hours of injury with vomiting or combination of symptoms has a significant risk of abnormal head CT scan. PMID:28149084

  12. Contribution of Head Position, Standing Surface, and Vision to Postural Control in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pociask, Fredrick D; DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Goldberg, Allon; Adamo, Diane E

    2016-01-01

    Postural control requires the integration of sensorimotor information to maintain balance and to properly position and orient the body in response to external stimuli. Age-related declines in peripheral and central sensory and motor function contribute to postural instability and falls. This study investigated the contribution of head position, standing surface, and vision on postural sway in 26 community-dwelling older adults. Participants were asked to maintain a stable posture under conditions that varied standing surface, head position, and the availability of visual information. Significant main and interaction effects were found for all three factors. Findings from this study suggest that postural sway responses require the integration of available sources of sensory information. These results have important implications for fall risks in older adults and suggest that when standing with the head extended and eyes closed, older adults may place themselves at risk for postural disequilibrium and loss of balance.

  13. Structural and Functional Small Fiber Abnormalities in the Neuropathic Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Christopher H.; Bonyhay, Istvan; Benson, Adam; Wang, Ningshan; Freeman, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To define the neuropathology, clinical phenotype, autonomic physiology and differentiating features in individuals with neuropathic and non-neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). Methods Twenty-four subjects with POTS and 10 healthy control subjects had skin biopsy analysis of intra-epidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD), quantitative sensory testing (QST) and autonomic testing. Subjects completed quality of life, fatigue and disability questionnaires. Subjects were divided into neuropathic and non-neuropathic POTS, defined by abnormal IENFD and abnormal small fiber and sudomotor function. Results Nine of 24 subjects had neuropathic POTS and had significantly lower resting and tilted heart rates; reduced parasympathetic function; and lower phase 4 valsalva maneuver overshoot compared with those with non-neuropathic POTS (P<0.05). Neuropathic POTS subjects also had less anxiety and depression and greater overall self-perceived health-related quality of life scores than non-neuropathic POTS subjects. A sub-group of POTS patients (cholinergic POTS) had abnormal proximal sudomotor function and symptoms that suggest gastrointestinal and genitourinary parasympathetic nervous system dysfunction. Conclusions and Relevance POTS subtypes may be distinguished using small fiber and autonomic structural and functional criteria. Patients with non-neuropathic POTS have greater anxiety, greater depression and lower health-related quality of life scores compared to those with neuropathic POTS. These findings suggest different pathophysiological processes underlie the postural tachycardia in neuropathic and non-neuropathic POTS patients. The findings have implications for the therapeutic interventions to treat this disorder. PMID:24386408

  14. A Clinical Study to Examine the Effect of Complete Denture on Head Posture/Craniovertical Angle

    PubMed Central

    Nandeeshwar, D.B.; Sangur, Rajashekar; Makkar, Sumit; Khare, Pooja; Chitumalla, Rajkiran; Prasad, Renuka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Edentulous patients show some significant changes in ridge relationship caused by resorption of alveolar ridge. The changes are characterized by an upward rotation of mandible, increase in mandibular prognathism that ultimately results in change of natural head posture. Aim This clinical study was planned to know the effect of complete denture on head posture in different age groups of Indian completely edentulous population, after placement of complete denture at various time intervals. Materials and Methods The sample consisted of completely edentulous patients without previous experience of the dentures. They were divided into 2 age groups: Group A (45-60) and Group B (61-75). During placement of complete denture craniovertical angle was measured with the help of custom made ruler protector device. Readings were taken before denture placement, immediately after denture placement, 30 minutes, 24 hours and 30 days after dentures placement. Results The results of this study indicated that in most of the patients (90%) despite their age, change in head posture (extension) occurred immediately after the denture placement. Thereafter reading remains same for measurement at 30 minutes and 24 hours of denture placement. However after 30 days, observation revealed that all the patients showed reduced craniovertical angle (flexion). Even though the values of craniovertical angle remain higher than its baseline in both groups, significant changes were noticed only in Group A. Conclusion Findings revealed that head posture was significantly altered by the placement of dentures in completely edentulous patients. Within the time interval of 30 minutes and 24 hours extension of head posture remained constant with slight variation. Although after 30 days, changes remained significant for group ‘A’, but no significant changes were observed in the subjects of group ‘B’. PMID:27190938

  15. Vestibular ablation and a semicircular canal prosthesis affect postural stability during head turns.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lara A; Haburcakova, Csilla; Lewis, Richard F

    2016-11-01

    In our study, we examined postural stability during head turns for two rhesus monkeys: one animal study contrasted normal and mild bilateral vestibular ablation and a second animal study contrasted severe bilateral vestibular ablation with and without prosthetic stimulation. The monkeys freely stood, unrestrained on a balance platform and made voluntary head turns between visual targets. To quantify each animals' posture, motions of the head and trunk, as well as torque about the body's center of mass, were measured. In the mildly ablated animal, we observed less foretrunk sway in comparison with the normal state. When the canal prosthesis provided electric stimulation to the severely ablated animal, it showed a decrease in trunk sway during head turns. Because the rhesus monkey with severe bilateral vestibular loss exhibited a decrease in trunk sway when receiving vestibular prosthetic stimulation, we propose that the prosthetic electrical stimulation partially restored head velocity information. Our results provide an indication that a semicircular canal prosthesis may be an effective way to improve postural stability in patients with severe peripheral vestibular dysfunction.

  16. Vestibular ablation and a semicircular canal prosthesis affect postural stability during head turns

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Lara A.; Haburcakova, Csilla; Lewis, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    In our study, we examined postural stability during head turns for two rhesus monkeys: one, single animal study contrasted normal and mild bilateral vestibular ablation and a second animal study contrasted severe bilateral vestibular ablation with and without prosthetic stimulation. The monkeys freely stood, unrestrained on a balance platform and made voluntary head turns between visual targets. To quantify each animals’ posture, motions of the head and trunk, as well as torque about the body’s center-of-mass, were measured. In the mildly ablated animal, we observed less foretrunk sway in comparison to the normal state. When the canal prosthesis provided electric stimulation to the severely ablated animal, it showed a decrease in trunk sway during head turns. Because the rhesus monkey with severe bilateral vestibular loss exhibited a decrease in trunk sway when receiving vestibular prosthetic stimulation, we propose that the prosthetic electrical stimulation partially restored head velocity information. Our results provide an indication that a semicircular canal prosthesis may be an effective way to improve postural stability in patients with severe peripheral vestibular dysfunction. PMID:27405997

  17. Conservative methods for reducing lateral translation postures of the head: a nonrandomized clinical control trial.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Deed E; Cailliet, Rene; Betz, Joseph; Haas, Jason W; Harrison, Donald D; Janik, Tadeusz J; Holland, Burt

    2004-07-01

    Fifty-one retrospective, consecutive patients were compared to twenty-six prospective volunteer controls in a nonrandomized clinical control trial. Both groups had chronic neck pain and lateral head translation posture. For treatment subjects, beginning and follow-up pain scales and anteroposterior (AP) cervical radiographs were obtained after 12.8 weeks of care (average of 37 visits), while the duration was a mean of 12 months for control subjects. Digitized radiographs were analyzed for Risser-Ferguson angles and a horizontal translation distance of C2 from a vertical line through T3. For treatment, patients received the Harrison mirror-image postural methods, which include mechanically assisted manipulation, opposite head posture exercise, and opposite head translation posture traction. While no significant differences were found in the control group subjects' pain scores and AP radiographic measurements, statistically significant improvements were observed in the treatment group subjects' pain scores and lateral translation displacements of C2 compared to T3 (pretrial score: 13.7 mm, posttrial score: 6.8 mm) and in angle measurements.

  18. The Cambridge Face Tracker: Accurate, Low Cost Measurement of Head Posture Using Computer Vision and Face Recognition Software

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Peter B. M.; Baltrušaitis, Tadas; Robinson, Peter; Vivian, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We validate a video-based method of head posture measurement. Methods The Cambridge Face Tracker uses neural networks (constrained local neural fields) to recognize facial features in video. The relative position of these facial features is used to calculate head posture. First, we assess the accuracy of this approach against videos in three research databases where each frame is tagged with a precisely measured head posture. Second, we compare our method to a commercially available mechanical device, the Cervical Range of Motion device: four subjects each adopted 43 distinct head postures that were measured using both methods. Results The Cambridge Face Tracker achieved confident facial recognition in 92% of the approximately 38,000 frames of video from the three databases. The respective mean error in absolute head posture was 3.34°, 3.86°, and 2.81°, with a median error of 1.97°, 2.16°, and 1.96°. The accuracy decreased with more extreme head posture. Comparing The Cambridge Face Tracker to the Cervical Range of Motion Device gave correlation coefficients of 0.99 (P < 0.0001), 0.96 (P < 0.0001), and 0.99 (P < 0.0001) for yaw, pitch, and roll, respectively. Conclusions The Cambridge Face Tracker performs well under real-world conditions and within the range of normally-encountered head posture. It allows useful quantification of head posture in real time or from precaptured video. Its performance is similar to that of a clinically validated mechanical device. It has significant advantages over other approaches in that subjects do not need to wear any apparatus, and it requires only low cost, easy-to-setup consumer electronics. Translational Relevance Noncontact assessment of head posture allows more complete clinical assessment of patients, and could benefit surgical planning in future. PMID:27730008

  19. A link-segment model of upright human posture for analysis of head-trunk coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholas, S. C.; Doxey-Gasway, D. D.; Paloski, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Sensory-motor control of upright human posture may be organized in a top-down fashion such that certain head-trunk coordination strategies are employed to optimize visual and/or vestibular sensory inputs. Previous quantitative models of the biomechanics of human posture control have examined the simple case of ankle sway strategy, in which an inverted pendulum model is used, and the somewhat more complicated case of hip sway strategy, in which multisegment, articulated models are used. While these models can be used to quantify the gross dynamics of posture control, they are not sufficiently detailed to analyze head-trunk coordination strategies that may be crucial to understanding its underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we present a biomechanical model of upright human posture that extends an existing four mass, sagittal plane, link-segment model to a five mass model including an independent head link. The new model was developed to analyze segmental body movements during dynamic posturography experiments in order to study head-trunk coordination strategies and their influence on sensory inputs to balance control. It was designed specifically to analyze data collected on the EquiTest (NeuroCom International, Clackamas, OR) computerized dynamic posturography system, where the task of maintaining postural equilibrium may be challenged under conditions in which the visual surround, support surface, or both are in motion. The performance of the model was tested by comparing its estimated ground reaction forces to those measured directly by support surface force transducers. We conclude that this model will be a valuable analytical tool in the search for mechanisms of balance control.

  20. Head and cervical spine posture in behaving rats: implications for modeling human conditions involving the head and cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Griffin, C; Choong, W Y; Teh, W; Buxton, A J; Bolton, P S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to define the temporal and spatial (postural) characteristics of the head and cervical vertebral column (spine) of behaving rats in order to better understand their suitability as a model to study human conditions involving the head and neck. Time spent in each of four behavioral postures was determined from video tape recordings of rats (n = 10) in the absence and presence of an intruder rat. Plain film radiographic examination of a subset of these rats (n = 5) in each of these postures allowed measurement of head and cervical vertebral column positions adopted by the rats. When single they were quadruped or crouched most (∼80%) of the time and bipedal either supported or free standing for only ∼10% of the time. The introduction of an intruder significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced the proportion of time rats spent quadruped (median, from 71% to 47%) and bipedal free standing (median, from 2.9% to 0.4%). The cervical spine was orientated (median, 25-75 percentile) near vertical (18.8°, 4.2°-30.9°) when quadruped, crouched (15.4°, 7.6°-69.3°) and bipedal supported (10.5°, 4.8°-22.6°) but tended to be less vertical oriented when bipedal free standing (25.9°, 7.7°-39.3°). The range of head positions relative to the cervical spine was largest when crouched (73.4°) and smallest when erect free standing (17.7°). This study indicates that, like humans, rats have near vertical orientated cervical vertebral columns but, in contrast to humans, they displace their head in space by movements at both the cervico-thoracic junction and the cranio-cervical regions.

  1. The role of motion platform on postural instability and head vibration exposure at driving simulators.

    PubMed

    Aykent, B; Merienne, F; Paillot, D; Kemeny, A

    2014-02-01

    This paper explains the effect of a motion platform for driving simulators on postural instability and head vibration exposure. The sensed head level-vehicle (visual cues) level longitudinal and lateral accelerations (ax,sensed=ax_head and ay,sensed=ay_head, ayv=ay_veh and ayv=ay_veh) were saved by using a motion tracking sensor and a simulation software respectively. Then, associated vibration dose values (VDVs) were computed at head level during the driving sessions. Furthermore, the postural instabilities of the participants were measured as longitudinal and lateral subject body centre of pressure (XCP and YCP, respectively) displacements just after each driving session via a balance platform. The results revealed that the optic-head inertial level longitudinal accelerations indicated a negative non-significant correlation (r=-.203, p=.154>.05) for the static case, whereas the optic-head inertial longitudinal accelerations depicted a so small negative non-significant correlation (r=-.066, p=.643>.05) that can be negligible for the dynamic condition. The XCP for the dynamic case indicated a significant higher value than the static situation (t(47), p<.0001). The VDVx for the dynamic case yielded a significant higher value than the static situation (U(47), p<.0001). The optic-head inertial lateral accelerations resulted a negative significant correlation (r=-.376, p=.007<.05) for the static platform, whereas the optic-head inertial lateral accelerations showed a positive significant correlation (r=.418, p=.002<.05) at dynamic platform condition. The VDVy for the static case indicated a significant higher value rather than the dynamic situation (U(47), p<.0001). The YCP for the static case yielded significantly higher than the dynamic situation (t(47), p=.001<0.05).

  2. The effect of modified cervical exercise on smartphone users with forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yong- Soo; Kim, Yu- Mi; Shim, Je-myung

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of modified cervical exercise and determine whether such exercise improves the range of motion of the cervical movement in smartphone users with forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] Some 32 subjects with forward head posture participated in this study. They were randomly allocated to three groups, and the modified cervical exercises were performed either once, twice, or three times per day. The exercise program was followed for four weeks and then the joint range of motion of the participants was measured. [Results] A significantly increased range of motion was seen in all three groups that performed the modified cervical exercises. The analysis of the effects among the three groups indicated that the greatest effect was seen in Group C, members of which performed the modified exercises three times per day. In addition, a significant difference was found between Group A and Group C in terms of the inter-group results. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, although the modified cervical exercises were performed for only a relatively short duration (four weeks), the exercises brought about an improvement in the forward head posture that was induced by using a smartphone. PMID:28265167

  3. Postural responses of head and foot cutaneous microvascular flow and their sensitivity to bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aratow, Michael; Hargens, Alan R.; Meyer, J.-UWE; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1991-01-01

    To explore the mechanism for facial puffiness, headache, and nasal congestion associated with microgravity and cephalad fluid shifts, the postural responses of the cutaneous microcirculation (CMC) in the forehead and dorsum of the foot of eight healthy men were studied by changing body position on a tilt table and measuring blood flows with a laser Doppler flowmeter. Increasing arterial pressure in the feet by moving from a -6-deg head-down tilt to a 60-deg head-up posture decreased foot CMC by 46.5 + or - 12.0 percent. Raising arterial pressure in the head increased forehead CMC by 25.5 + or - 0.7 percent (p less than 0.05). To investigate the possibility that these opposite responses could be modified by simulated microgravity, tilt test were repeated after 7 d of -6-deg head-down-tilt bed rest. The responses were not significantly different from those recorded before bed rest. Therefore, CMC in the feet is well regulated to prevent edema when shifting to an upright position, whereas there is less regulation in the head CMC.

  4. Neurological Gait Abnormalities Moderate the Functional Brain Signature of the Posture First Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Verghese, Joe; Allali, Gilles; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Wang, Cuiling; Mahoney, Jeannette R.

    2015-01-01

    The posture first hypothesis suggests that under dual-task walking conditions older adults prioritize gait over cognitive task performance. Functional neural confirmation of this hypothesis, however, is lacking. Herein, we determined the functional neural correlates of the posture first hypothesis and hypothesized that the presence of neurological gait abnormalities (NGA) would moderate associations between brain activations, gait and cognitive performance. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy we assessed changes in oxygenated hemoglobin levels in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) during normal walk and walk while talk (WWT) conditions in a large cohort of non-demented older adults (n = 236; age = 75.5 ± 6.49 years; female = 51.7 %). NGA were defined as central (due to brain diseases) or peripheral (neuropathic gait) following a standardized neurological examination protocol. Double dissociations between brain activations and behavior emerged as a function of NGA. Higher oxygenation levels during WWT were related to better cognitive performance (estimate = 0.145; p < 0.001) but slower gait velocity (estimate = −6.336, p <0.05) among normals. In contrast, higher oxygenation levels during WWT among individuals with peripheral NGA were associated with worse cognitive performance (estimate = −0.355; p <0.001) but faster gait velocity (estimate = 14.855; p <0.05). Increased activation in the PFC during locomotion may have a compensatory function that is designed to support gait among individuals with peripheral NGA. PMID:26613725

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DYSFUNCTION AND HEAD AND CERVICAL POSTURE

    PubMed Central

    Matheus, Ricardo Alves; Ramos-Perez, Flávia Maria de Moraes; Menezes, Alynne Vieira; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Haiter, Francisco; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto; de Almeida, Solange Maria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of any correlation between disc displacement and parameters used for evaluation of skull positioning in relation to the cervical spine: craniocervical angle, suboccipital space between C0-C1, cervical curvature and position of the hyoid bone in individuals with and without symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction. Material and Methods: The patients were evaluated following the guidelines set forth by RDC/TMD. Evaluation was performed by magnetic resonance imaging for establishment of disc positioning in the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 30 volunteer patients without temporomandibular dysfunction symptoms and 30 patients with symptoms. Evaluation of skull positioning in relation to the cervical spine was performed on lateral cephalograms achieved with the individual in natural head position. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by Fisher's exact test at 5% significance level. To measure the degree of reproducibility/agreements between surveys, the kappa (K) statistics was used. Results: Significant differences were observed between C0-C1 measurement for both symptomatic (p=0.04) and asymptomatic (p=0.02). No statistical differences were observed regarding craniocervical angle, C1-C2 and hyoid bone position in relation to the TMJs with and without disc displacement. Although statistically significant difference was found in the C0-C1 space, no association between these and internal temporomandibular joint disorder can be considered. Conclusion: Based on the results observed in this study, no direct relationship could be determined between the presence of disc displacement and the variables assessed. PMID:19466252

  6. Effects of neurofeedback training on the cervical movement of adults with forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Song, Gui-Bin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of neurofeedback training on postural changes in the cervical spine and changes in the range of motion of the neck and in the Neck Disability Index in adults with forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 40 college students with forward head posture, randomly divided into a neurofeedback training group (NFTG, n=20) and a control group (CG, n=20). The neurofeedback training group received six sessions of pottery and archery games, each for two minutes, three times per week for four weeks, using the neurofeedback system. [Results] There were no significant effects within and between groups in terms of the absolute rotation angle, anterior weight bearing, and range of extension and flexion by x-ray imaging. There were significant effects in the neurofeedback training group pre- intervention and post-intervention in Neck Disability Index. There were significant effects between groups in Neck Disability Index. [Conclusion] It is thought that neurofeedback training, a training approach to self-regulate brain waves, enhances concentration and is therefore an effective intervention method to improve neck pain and daily activities. PMID:27821957

  7. Effects of neurofeedback training on the cervical movement of adults with forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Song, Gui-Bin

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of neurofeedback training on postural changes in the cervical spine and changes in the range of motion of the neck and in the Neck Disability Index in adults with forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 40 college students with forward head posture, randomly divided into a neurofeedback training group (NFTG, n=20) and a control group (CG, n=20). The neurofeedback training group received six sessions of pottery and archery games, each for two minutes, three times per week for four weeks, using the neurofeedback system. [Results] There were no significant effects within and between groups in terms of the absolute rotation angle, anterior weight bearing, and range of extension and flexion by x-ray imaging. There were significant effects in the neurofeedback training group pre- intervention and post-intervention in Neck Disability Index. There were significant effects between groups in Neck Disability Index. [Conclusion] It is thought that neurofeedback training, a training approach to self-regulate brain waves, enhances concentration and is therefore an effective intervention method to improve neck pain and daily activities.

  8. Orientation of the lateral semicircular canal in Xenarthra and its links with head posture and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Coutier, Florence; Hautier, Lionel; Cornette, Raphaël; Amson, Eli; Billet, Guillaume

    2017-02-10

    The orientation of the semicircular canals of the inner ear in the skull of vertebrates is one of the determinants of the capacity of this system to detect a given rotational movement of the head. Past functional studies on the spatial orientation of the semicircular canals essentially focused on the lateral semicircular canal (LSC), which is supposedly held close to horizontal during rest and/or alert behaviors. However, they generally investigated this feature in only a few and distantly related taxa. Based on 3D-models reconstructed from µCT-scans of skulls, we examined the diversity of orientations of the LSC within one of the four major clades of placental mammals, that is, the superorder Xenarthra, with a data set that includes almost all extant genera and two extinct taxa. We observed a wide diversity of LSC orientations relative to the basicranium at both intraspecific and interspecific scales. The estimated phylogenetic imprint on the orientation of the LSC was significant but rather low within the superorder, though some phylogenetic conservatism was detected for armadillos that were characterized by a strongly tilted LSC. A convergence between extant suspensory sloths was also detected, both genera showing a weakly tilted LSC. Our preliminary analysis of usual head posture in extant xenarthrans based on photographs of living animals further revealed that the LSC orientation in armadillos is congruent with a strongly nose-down head posture. It also portrayed a more complex situation for sloths and anteaters. Finally, we also demonstrate that the conformation of the cranial vault and nuchal crests as well as the orientation of the posterior part of the petrosal may covary with the LSC orientation in Xenarthra. Possible inferences for the head postures of extinct xenarthrans such as giant ground sloths are discussed in the light of these results.

  9. Arterial Pressure Gradients during Upright Posture and 30 deg Head Down Tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, E. R; William, J. M.; Ueno, T.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Gravity alters local blood pressure within the body so that arterial pressures in the head and foot are lower and higher, respectively, than that at heart level. Furthermore, vascular responses to local alterations of arterial pressure are probably important to maintain orthostatic tolerance upon return to the Earth after space flight. However, it has been difficult to evaluate the body's arterial pressure gradient due to the lack of noninvasive technology. This study was therefore designed to investigate whether finger arterial pressure (FAP), measured noninvasively, follows a normal hydrostatic pressure gradient above and below heart level during upright posture and 30 deg head down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy subjects gave informed consent and were 19 to 52 years old with a height range of 158 to 181 cm. A Finapres device measured arterial pressure at different levels of the body by moving the hand from 36 cm below heart level (BH) to 72 cm above heart level (AH) in upright posture and from 36 cm BH to 48 cm AH during HDT in increments of 12 cm. Mean FAP creased by 85 mmHg transitioning from BH to AH in upright posture, and the pressure gradient calculated from hydrostatic pressure difference (rho(gh)) was 84 mmHg. In HDT, mean FAP decreased by 65 mmHg from BH to AH, and the calculated pressure gradient was also 65 mmHg. There was no significant difference between the measured FAP gradient and the calculated pressure gradient, although a significant (p = 0.023) offset was seen for absolute arterial pressure in upright posture. These results indicate that arterial pressure at various levels can be obtained from the blood pressure at heart level by calculating rho(gh) + an offset. The offset equals the difference between heart level and the site of measurement. In summary, we conclude that local blood pressure gradients can be measured by noninvasive studies of FAP.

  10. Furniture dimensions and postural overload for schoolchildren's head, upper back and upper limbs.

    PubMed

    Batistão, Mariana Vieira; Sentanin, Anna Cláudia; Moriguchi, Cristiane Shinohara; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Coury, Helenice Jane Cote Gil; de Oliveira Sato, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how the fixed furniture dimensions match with students' anthropometry and to describe head, upper back and upper limbs postures and movements. Evaluation was performed in 48 students from a Brazilian state school. Furniture dimensions were measured with metric tape, movements and postures by inclinometers (Logger Tecknologi, Åkarp, Sweden). Seat height was high for 21% and low for 36% of the students; seat length was short for 45% and long for 9% and table height was high for 53% and low for 28%. Regression analysis showed that seat/popliteal height quotient is explained by 90th percentile of upper back inclination (β=0.410) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (β=-0.293). For seat/thigh length quotient the significant variables were 90th percentile of upper back velocity (β=-0.282) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (β=0.410). This study showed a relationship between furniture mismatch and postural overload. When the seat height is low students increase upper back left inclination and right upper arm elevation; when the seat is short students decrease the upper back flexion velocity and increase right upper arm elevation.

  11. Postural hypotension and abnormalities of salt and water metabolism in myelopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Frisbie, J H; Steele, D J

    1997-05-01

    To describe the clinical manifestations of postural hypotension (PH) in myelopathy patients a standardized interview and chart review were carried out. Of 232 myelopathy patients with more than 2 years of paralysis seen during a 2 year period, 30 had been treated for PH. All PH patients were paralysed at levels higher than thoracic 7. The highest risk patients were tetraplegic, motor complete, 24 of 73 (33%). The common symptoms of PH were those of reduced consciousness (100%), strength (75%), vision (56%) and breath (53%). Precipitating factors were hot weather (77%) bowel care (33%) and meals (30%). Symptoms worsened with the duration of paralysis in 12 patients. Chronic hyponatremia was found in 54% of the PH patients and 16% of those without, P < 0.001. Of five PH-hyponatremic patients with urine sodium and osmolality determinations, five continued to retain water (> 150 mOsm/kg) while four failed to conserve salt (> 19 mmol Na/L). PH is common among myelopathy patients with higher levels of paralysis, symptoms are variable, and abnormal salt and water metabolism often coexist.

  12. Effect of the Neck Retraction Taping (NRT) on Forward Head Posture and the Upper Trapezius Muscle during Computer Work

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck retraction taping on forward head posture and the upper trapezius muscle of computer workers during computer work. [Subjects] Twelve males aged 20–30 years were recruited. [Methods] We measured forward head angle and upper trapezius muscle activity during computer work before and after NRT. [Results] The FHP angle significantly decreased during computer work performed with NRT compared to without NRT. The UT muscle activity was also significantly decreased during computer work performed with NRT compared to without NRT. [Conclusion] We think that the taping tension provided by NRT may have provided a mechanical effect that prevented FHP. NRT may also encourage a proper head posture in patients unfamiliar with the neck retraction posture. PMID:24259806

  13. Effects of neurofeedback training on the brain wave of adults with forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Song, Gui-Bin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of neurofeedback training on electroencephalogram changes in the cervical spine in adults with forward head posture through x-ray. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 40 college students with forward head posture, randomly divided into a neurofeedback training group (NFTG, n=20) and a control group (CG, n=20). The neurofeedback training group performed six sessions of pottery and archery games, each for two minutes, three times per week for four weeks, while using the neurofeedback system. [Results] There were significant effects within and between groups in terms of the Delta wave, the Theta wave, the Alpha wave, the Beta wave, or the sensory motor rhythm. Especially, the Delta wave, Beta wave, and the sensory motor rhythm were showed significant effects between the groups. [Conclusion] It is thought that neurofeedback training, a training approach to self-regulate brain waves, enhances concentration and relaxation without stress, as well as an increase in attention, memory, and verbal cognitive performance. Therefore an effective intervention method to improve neck pain and daily activities. PMID:27821966

  14. Effects of neurofeedback training on the brain wave of adults with forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Song, Gui-Bin

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of neurofeedback training on electroencephalogram changes in the cervical spine in adults with forward head posture through x-ray. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 40 college students with forward head posture, randomly divided into a neurofeedback training group (NFTG, n=20) and a control group (CG, n=20). The neurofeedback training group performed six sessions of pottery and archery games, each for two minutes, three times per week for four weeks, while using the neurofeedback system. [Results] There were significant effects within and between groups in terms of the Delta wave, the Theta wave, the Alpha wave, the Beta wave, or the sensory motor rhythm. Especially, the Delta wave, Beta wave, and the sensory motor rhythm were showed significant effects between the groups. [Conclusion] It is thought that neurofeedback training, a training approach to self-regulate brain waves, enhances concentration and relaxation without stress, as well as an increase in attention, memory, and verbal cognitive performance. Therefore an effective intervention method to improve neck pain and daily activities.

  15. Neck kinematics and sternocleidomastoid muscle activation during neck rotation in subjects with forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Man-Sig

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated differences in the kinematics of the neck and activation of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle during neck rotation between subjects with and without forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight subjects participated in the study (14 with FHP, 14 without FHP). Subjects performed neck rotation in two directions, left and right. The kinematics of rotation-lateral flexion movement patterns were recorded using motion analysis. Activity in the bilateral SCM muscles was measured using surface electromyography. Differences in neck kinematics and activation of SCM between the groups were analyzed by independent t-tests. [Results] Maintaining FHP increased the rotation-lateral flexion ratio significantly in both directions. The FHP group had significantly faster onset time for lateral flexion movement in both directions during neck rotation. Regarding the electromyography of the SCM muscles during neck rotation in both directions, the activity values of subjects with FHP were greater than those of subjects without FHP for the contralateral SCM muscles. [Conclusion] FHP can induce changes in movement in the frontal plane and SCM muscle activation during neck rotation. Thus, clinicians should consider movement in the frontal plane as well as in the sagittal plane when assessing and treating patients with forward head posture.

  16. Neck kinematics and sternocleidomastoid muscle activation during neck rotation in subjects with forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Man-Sig

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated differences in the kinematics of the neck and activation of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle during neck rotation between subjects with and without forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight subjects participated in the study (14 with FHP, 14 without FHP). Subjects performed neck rotation in two directions, left and right. The kinematics of rotation-lateral flexion movement patterns were recorded using motion analysis. Activity in the bilateral SCM muscles was measured using surface electromyography. Differences in neck kinematics and activation of SCM between the groups were analyzed by independent t-tests. [Results] Maintaining FHP increased the rotation-lateral flexion ratio significantly in both directions. The FHP group had significantly faster onset time for lateral flexion movement in both directions during neck rotation. Regarding the electromyography of the SCM muscles during neck rotation in both directions, the activity values of subjects with FHP were greater than those of subjects without FHP for the contralateral SCM muscles. [Conclusion] FHP can induce changes in movement in the frontal plane and SCM muscle activation during neck rotation. Thus, clinicians should consider movement in the frontal plane as well as in the sagittal plane when assessing and treating patients with forward head posture. PMID:26696712

  17. The Evaluation of Head and Craniocervical Posture among Patients with and without Temporomandibular Joint Disorders- A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Saddu, Shweta Channavir; Dyasanoor, Sujatha; Ravi, Beena Varma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are the most common non-dental cause of orofacial pain with a multifactorial aetiology. Aim To evaluate the head and craniocervical posture between individuals with and without TMD and its sub types by photographic and radiographic method. Materials and Methods Thirty four TMD patients diagnosed according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD’s (RDC/TMD) and were divided into 2 groups: Group I (muscle disorder), Group II (disc displacement). Control group comprised of 34 age and sex matched subjects without TMD. Lateral view photographs were taken and the head posture angle was measured. Craniocervical posture was assessed on lateral skull radiograph with two angles (Craniocervical Angle, Cervical Curvature Angle) and two distances (Suboccipital Space, Atlas-Axis Distance). To compare the results, t-test was used with significance level of 0.05. Results Head posture showed no statistical significant difference (p > 0.05) between Group I, II and control group in both photographic and radiographic methods. The cervical curvature angle showed significant difference (p = 0.045) in Group I only. Atlas-Axis Distance was statistically significant in Group II (p = 0.001). Conclusion The present study confirmed that there is a negative association of head posture and TMD whereas, cervical lordosis was present in Group I only. PMID:26436048

  18. Spinal manipulation and anterior headweighting for the correction of forward head posture and cervical hypolordosis: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Morningstar, Mark W; Strauchman, Megan N.; Weeks, Darin A

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of Pettibon spinal manipulation and anterior headweighting for correct cervical hypolordosis and forward head posture, quantified by measurements taken from pre and post intervention lateral cervical radiographs. Methods A total of 15 subjects were selected for investigation at random. An initial seated lateral cervical radiograph was taken to evaluate forward head posture and the amount of cervical lordosis. A series of 3 manipulative procedures were performed, followed immediately by introduction of an anterior headweight device. This headweight device was worn for 5 minutes while walking on a treadmill. A post intervention seated lateral cervical radiograph was taken while each subject wore the headweight. Measurements of cervical lordosis and forward head posture were again quantified and compared to the initial radiographs. Results The average overall decrease in forward head posture among all subjects was 0.83 inches. The largest reduction in forward head posture was 1.25 inches. One subject failed to show any reduction. The largest and smallest improvements in the cervical lordosis were 23° and 4°, respectively. The average increase in cervical lordosis for all subjects was 9.9°. Conclusions This specific protocol was able to provide measurable improvement in cervical lordosis and reduction of forward head posture after only 1 session. However, it is not known which component, the spinal manipulation or the anterior headweighting, made the biggest impact. This study shows the immediate effects of spinal manipulation and headweighting combined. Future research should focus on the headweighting effects over a longer period of time. Additionally, anterior headweighting alone needs to be tested to evaluate its effectiveness as a sole treatment intervention. PMID:19674595

  19. Using Tri-Axial Accelerometers to Assess the Dynamic Control of Head Posture During Gait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, John H., III

    2003-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight is known to cause a variety of biomedical stressors to the astronaut. One of the more functionally destabilizing effects of spaceflight involves microgravity-induced changes in vestibular or balance control. Balance control requires the integration of the vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive systems. In the microgravity environment, the normal gravity vector present on Earth no longer serves as a reference for the balance control system. Therefore, adaptive changes occur to the vestibular system to affect control of body orientation with altered, or non-present, gravity and/or proprioceptive inputs. Upon return to a gravity environment, the vestibular system must re-incorporate the gravity vector and gravity-induced proprioceptive inputs into the balance control regime. The result is often a period of postural instability, which may also be associated with space motion sickness (oscillopsia, nausea, and vertigo). Previous studies by the JSC Neuroscience group have found that returning astronauts often employ alterations in gait mechanics to maintain postural control during gait. It is believed that these gait alterations are meant to decrease the transfer of heel strike shock energy to the head, thus limiting the contradictory head and eye movements that lead to gait instability and motion sickness symptoms. We analyzed pre- and post-spaceflight tri-axial accelerometer data from the NASA/MIR long duration spaceflight missions to assess the heel to head transfer of heel strike shock energy during locomotion. Up to seven gait sessions (three preflight, four postflight) of head and shank (lower leg) accelerometer data was previously collected from six astronauts who engaged in space flights of four to six months duration. In our analysis, the heel to head transmission of shock energy was compared using peak vertical acceleration (a), peak jerk (j) ratio, and relative kinetic energy (a). A host of generalized movement variables was produced

  20. [Characteristic asymmetric abnormal eye movement and dystonic posture as the first symptoms of alternating hemiplegia of childhood].

    PubMed

    Motoki, Takahiro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Ishii, Atsushi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    A 3-month-old girl exhibited asymmetric abnormal eye movement and unilateral dystonic posture intermittently after the first few days of life. Unilateral ocular deviation or nystagmus were the main signs of abnormal eye movements. She was suspected to have alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) despite the absence of apparent alternating hemiplegic episodes. Gene analysis revealed a de-novo missense mutation (Asp801Asn) of ATP1A3. AHC is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by recurrent transient attacks of hemiplegia affecting the unilateral or bilateral side of the body; in most cases, these attacks begin in the first 6 months of life. Initial symptoms of AHC are not alternating hemiplegic episodes, but rather asymmetric abnormal eye movement, dystonic posture, or seizures. It is difficult to diagnose AHC early because no specific findings are observed in the diagnostic laboratory or neuroradiological examinations. Early diagnosis is important because flunarizine may have a protective effect on the severe motor deterioration associated with AHC. Asymmetric abnormal eye movement could be an important clinical symptom for the diagnosis of AHC in early infancy.

  1. Investigation of the Differential Contributions of Superficial and Deep Muscles on Cervical Spinal Loads with Changing Head Postures

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Chien, Andy; Hsu, Wei-Li; Chen, Carl Pai-Chu; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal loads are predominately influenced by activities of cervical muscles. However, the coordination between deep and superficial muscles and their influence on the spinal loads is not well understood. This study aims to document the changes of cervical spinal loads and the differential contributions of superficial and deep muscles with varying head postures. Electromyography (EMG) of cervical muscles from seventeen healthy adults were measured during maximal isometric exertions for lateral flexion (at 10°, 20° and terminal position) as well as flexion/extension (at 10°, 20°, 30°, and terminal position) neck postures. An EMG-assisted optimization approach was used to estimate the muscle forces and subsequent spinal loads. The results showed that compressive and anterior-posterior shear loads increased significantly with neck flexion. In particular, deep muscle forces increased significantly with increasing flexion. It was also determined that in all different static head postures, the deep muscle forces were greater than those of the superficial muscle forces, however, such pattern was reversed during peak efforts where greater superficial muscle forces were identified with increasing angle of inclination. In summary, the identification of significantly increased spinal loads associated with increased deep muscle activation during flexion postures, implies higher risks in predisposing the neck to occupationally related disorders. The results also explicitly supported that deep muscles play a greater role in maintaining stable head postures where superficial muscles are responsible for peak exertions and reinforcing the spinal stability at terminal head postures. This study provided quantitative data of normal cervical spinal loads and revealed motor control strategies in coordinating the superficial and deep muscles during physical tasks. PMID:26938773

  2. Characteristics of Cervical Position Sense in Subjects with Forward Head Posture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Young; Lee, Hae-Yong; Yong, Min-Sik

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of forward head posture (FHP) on proprioception by determining the cervical position-reposition error. [Subjects and Methods] A sample population was divided into two groups in accordance with the craniovertebral angle: the FHP group and the control group. We measured the craniovertebral angle, which is defined as the angle between a horizontal line passing through C7 and a line extending from the tragus of the ear to C7. The error value of the cervical position sense after cervical flexion, extension, and rotation was evaluated using the head repositioning accuracy test. [Results] There were significant differences in the error value of the joint position sense (cervical flexion, extension, and rotation) between the FHP and control groups. In addition, there was an inverse correlation between the craniovertebral angle and error value of the joint position sense. [Conclusion] FHP is associated with reduced proprioception. This result implies that the change in the muscle length caused by FHP decreases the joint position sense. Also, proprioception becomes worse as FHP becomes more severe. PMID:25435690

  3. Inclination of standing posture due to the presentation of tilted view through an immersive head-mounted display

    PubMed Central

    Ohmura, Yuji; Yano, Shiro; Katsuhira, Junji; Migita, Masato; Yozu, Arito; Kondo, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study is to clarify whether tilted scenery presented through an immersive head-mounted display (HMD) causes the inclination of standing posture. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven healthy young adult males who provided informed consent participated in the experiment. An immersive HMD and a stereo camera were employed to develop a visual inclination system. The subjects maintained a standing posture twice for 5s each while wearing the visual inclination system. They performed this task under two conditions: normal view and 20° leftward tilted view. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to measure the subjects’ postures, and two force plates were used to measure the vertical component of the floor reaction force of each leg. [Results] In the 20° leftward tilted view, the head and trunk angles in the frontal plane were similarly inclined toward the left, and the vertical component of the floor reaction force increased in the left leg, whereas it decreased in the right leg. [Conclusion] When the view in the immersive HMD was tilted, the participants’ trunk side bent toward the same side as that of the view. This visual inclination system seems to be a simple intervention for changing standing posture. PMID:28265145

  4. Higher postural heart rate increments on head-up tilt correlate with younger age but not orthostatic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ives, Colleen T; Kimpinski, Kurt

    2013-08-15

    Reports have shown that younger individuals present with higher postural heart rate increments on head-up tilt (HUT). However, a correlation between the degree of heart rate increment and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance has not been determined. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher postural heart rate increments during HUT correlate with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance in healthy subjects. Postural heart rate increment on HUT did not differ between men and women (P = 0.48) but did show a significant decrease by age group (P < 0.0001). There was a significant negative correlation between heart rate increment on HUT and age [r = -0.63 (-0.73, -0.51), r(2) = 0.400; P < 0.0001]. There was a significant difference with respect to symptoms of orthostatic intolerance by sex (P = 0.03) but not age (P = 0.58). There was no significant correlation between either symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and age [r = -0.13 (-0.31, 0.06), r(2) = 0.017; P = 0.17] or heart rate increment on HUT and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance [r = 0.15 (-0.04, 0.33), r(2) = 0.022; P = 0.13]. The results demonstrate that higher postural heart rate increments in younger individuals do not result in an increase in orthostatic intolerance. This highlights the potential need for a reevaluation of the diagnostic criteria for postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in younger individuals.

  5. Abnormalities of the long head of the biceps tendon of the shoulder: MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, G A

    1994-11-01

    The normal anatomy of the long head of the biceps tendon of the shoulder has been described in detail [1]. Descriptions of different pathologic processes affecting this structure also have been published [1-3] but have been incomplete, showing only a limited variety of abnormalities. In this article, abnormalities of the long head of the biceps tendon seen on MR images are illustrated in greater variety and detail. Recognizing abnormalities of the biceps tendon is important because they are a common source of shoulder pain both alone and in combination with abnormalities of the rotator cuff, labrum, and other structures. Because incomplete diagnosis can lead to treatment failure, it is important to recognize less common imaging manifestations of common entities.

  6. Clinical measurement of craniovertebral angle by electronic head posture instrument: a test of reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Cheung Lau, Herman Mun; Wing Chiu, Thomas Tai; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2009-08-01

    The study was a cross-sectional reliability study with the objective of assessing the reliability and validity of the Electronic Head Posture Instrument (EHPI) in measuring the craniovertebral (CV) angle for subjects with or without neck pain. Twenty-six subjects (mean age=36.88, SD+/-9.95) with chronic neck pain and 27 subjects (mean age=31.85, SD+/-7.63) without neck pain were recruited. The CV angle was measured by the EHPI which consists of an electronic angle finder, a transparent plastic base and a camera stand. Two therapists were recruited to assess the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the EHPI in two separate sessions of measurement. The difference in CV angle between the two groups was determined. The CV angle of the patient group (mean 43.94, SD+/-3.61) was significantly smaller (p<0.001) than that of the normal group (mean 50.58, SD+/-2.09). Intra-rater (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.86 to 0.94) and inter-rater (ICC ranged from 0.85 to 0.91) reliability of the EHPI in measuring CV angle for both groups of subjects were high. In conclusion the EHPI was found to be reliable and valid in measuring the CV angle for subjects with or without neck pain.

  7. The effect of the shoulder stability exercise using resistant vibration stimulus on forward head posture and muscle activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kang, Jong Ho; Lee, Hyo Taek

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze shoulder stabilization using resistant vibration stimulus during bodyblade exercise followed by forward head posture improvement. [Subjects and Methods] Craniovertebral angle and cranial rotation angle were measured with 24 patients who were diagnosed with forward head posture. The experimental group conducted bodyblade exercise for 6 weeks and all patients received conventional physical therapy. The craniovertebral angle and cranial rotation angle were measured using a diagnostic imaging device to measure the change in forward head posture. Sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius and serratus anterior muscle activity were measured using surface electromyography, voluntary contraction was converting into a percentage and mean value was calculated. [Results] The experimental group showed a significant increase in the comparison of the results of both groups before and after the intervention. The comparing group showed no significant difference. The experimental group showed the significant difference in mean value after the intervention in the comparison between the groups. [Conclusion] Resistant vibration stimulus by bodyblade controlled shoulder muscle activity causing scapular stabilization followed by neck position stability improvement. Rehabilitation program that activates whole kinetic chain of proximal and distal muscles such as bodyblade will show more effective improvement when choosing rehabilitation program for neck and shoulder disease clinically. PMID:27942122

  8. Measurement of craniovertebral angle by the Modified Head Posture Spinal Curvature Instrument: A reliability and validity study.

    PubMed

    Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2016-01-01

    The Modified Head Posture Spinal Curvature Instrument (MHPSCI) is an extension of the Head Posture Spinal Curvature Instrument. Two specific modifications were made in the original design by adding a third arm projecting horizontally from the protractor to objectively fix the pivot exactly over the C7 vertebra and the addition of a spirit-level to properly align the instrument. In order to demonstrate reliability and validity, this study was conducted using patients with postural neck pain (N = 65) and healthy subjects (N = 20). All the subjects were working at a selected Information Technology Industry in India and had been recruited using a criterion-based sampling approach. The craniovertebral (CV) angle of each subject was evaluated by two raters consecutively. The measurements were taken by using both MHPSCI and the standard photographic method in a standardized sitting posture for the purpose of establishing criterion-validity of the instrument. The results of this study indicate a good inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.76; CI = 0.65-0.84) as well as intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.87; CI = 0.82-0.91) between three successive CV angle measurements (with 2 minutes interval between each measurement) through MHPSCI. While keeping the digital photographic measurement as a standard, this study established that the MHPSCI is a valid tool for measuring the CV angle as shown by non-significant difference (p > 0.01) and high correlation between the two methods (r = 0.79-0.84). This study demonstrates that the MHPSCI is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring CV angle in subjects with or without postural neck pain.

  9. Effective seat-to-head transmissibility in whole-body vibration: Effects of posture and arm position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmatalla, Salam; DeShaw, Jonathan

    2011-12-01

    Seat-to-head transmissibility is a biomechanical measure that has been widely used for many decades to evaluate seat dynamics and human response to vibration. Traditionally, transmissibility has been used to correlate single-input or multiple-input with single-output motion; it has not been effectively used for multiple-input and multiple-output scenarios due to the complexity of dealing with the coupled motions caused by the cross-axis effect. This work presents a novel approach to use transmissibility effectively for single- and multiple-input and multiple-output whole-body vibrations. In this regard, the full transmissibility matrix is transformed into a single graph, such as those for single-input and single-output motions. Singular value decomposition and maximum distortion energy theory were used to achieve the latter goal. Seat-to-head transmissibility matrices for single-input/multiple-output in the fore-aft direction, single-input/multiple-output in the vertical direction, and multiple-input/multiple-output directions are investigated in this work. A total of ten subjects participated in this study. Discrete frequencies of 0.5-16 Hz were used for the fore-aft direction using supported and unsupported back postures. Random ride files from a dozer machine were used for the vertical and multiple-axis scenarios considering two arm postures: using the armrests or grasping the steering wheel. For single-input/multiple-output, the results showed that the proposed method was very effective in showing the frequencies where the transmissibility is mostly sensitive for the two sitting postures and two arm positions. For multiple-input/multiple-output, the results showed that the proposed effective transmissibility indicated higher values for the armrest-supported posture than for the steering-wheel-supported posture.

  10. Postural orientation modifications in autism in response to ambient lenses.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, M; Carmody, D P; Gaydos, A

    1996-01-01

    Autistic children often display abnormal postures, head tilts, and other spatial management dysfunctions. Methods were introduced to measure spatial orientation in tasks in a group of fourteen autistic children in Montreal, Canada. Ambient lenses were found to improve posture, correct head tilts, and improve ball catching abilities. A model of spatial orientation is described and recommendations are made to incorporate ambient lenses in treatment programs.

  11. Postural modulation of soleus H-reflex under simulated hypogravity by head-out water immersion in humans.

    PubMed

    Egawa, K; Oida, Y; Kitabatake, Y; Maie, H; Mano, T; Iwase, S; Miwa, C

    2000-12-01

    To test our hypothesis that somatosensory inputs would influence postural modulation of soleus H-reflex, eleven subjects were investigated under the head-out water immersion (HOWI) conditions. Subjects were supine or standing on a tilting bed in each condition. They were instructed to maintain an upright posture with both legs. The water was filled to the subject's neck level in a test tank to reduce 95% of the gravitational effect by buoyancy. Surface electromyography of the soleus and tibialis anterior was measured. The soleus H-reflex was elicited at a stimulation intensity of 1.05 times the motor threshold. The recruitment profile of the motor response was unchanged between the conditions. The background activities of the soleus and tibialis anterior were not detected in any condition. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the H-reflex was significantly different between the conditions while the stimulation intensity (small M size) was not different. The soleus H-reflex during standing was significantly decreased compared with being supine in the control condition, whereas it did not in the HOWI condition. It was concluded that somatosensory inputs due to gravity exert an influence on postural modulation of the soleus H-reflex to maintain static posture in humans.

  12. The Intra- and Inter-rater Reliabilities of the Forward Head Posture Assessment of Normal Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Seok Hyun; Son, Sung Min; Kwon, Jung Won; Lee, Na Kyung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] Assessment of posture is an important goal of physical therapy interventions for preventing the progression of forward head posture (FHP). The purpose of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-rater reliabilities of the assessment of FHP. [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 45 participants (20 male subjects, 25 female subjects) from a university student population. Two physical therapists assessed FHP using images of head extension. FHP is characterized by the measurement of angles and distances between anatomical landmarks. Forward shoulder angle of 54° or less was defined as FHP. Intra- and inter-rater reliabilities were estimated using Kendall’s Taub correlation coefficients. [Results] Intra-class correlation of intra-rater measurements indicated an excellent level of reliability (0.91), and intra-class correlation of inter-rater measurements showed a good level of reliability in the assessment of FHP (0.75). [Conclusion] Assessment of FHP is an important component of evaluation and affects the design of the treatment regimen. The assessment of FHP was reliably measured by two physical therapists. It could therefore become a useful method for assessing FHP in the clinical setting. Future studies will be needed to provide more detailed quantitative data for accurate assessment of posture. PMID:24259842

  13. The Intra- and Inter-rater Reliabilities of the Forward Head Posture Assessment of Normal Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seok Hyun; Son, Sung Min; Kwon, Jung Won; Lee, Na Kyung

    2013-06-01

    [Purpose] Assessment of posture is an important goal of physical therapy interventions for preventing the progression of forward head posture (FHP). The purpose of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-rater reliabilities of the assessment of FHP. [Subjects and Methods] We recruited 45 participants (20 male subjects, 25 female subjects) from a university student population. Two physical therapists assessed FHP using images of head extension. FHP is characterized by the measurement of angles and distances between anatomical landmarks. Forward shoulder angle of 54° or less was defined as FHP. Intra- and inter-rater reliabilities were estimated using Kendall's Taub correlation coefficients. [Results] Intra-class correlation of intra-rater measurements indicated an excellent level of reliability (0.91), and intra-class correlation of inter-rater measurements showed a good level of reliability in the assessment of FHP (0.75). [Conclusion] Assessment of FHP is an important component of evaluation and affects the design of the treatment regimen. The assessment of FHP was reliably measured by two physical therapists. It could therefore become a useful method for assessing FHP in the clinical setting. Future studies will be needed to provide more detailed quantitative data for accurate assessment of posture.

  14. Periodic upright posture negates the suppression of neuroendocrine response to head down bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Vernikos, J.; Evans, J.; Ohara, D.

    1992-01-01

    Head down bedrest (HDT) decreases plasma neurohormone levels, attaining a nadir within four hours. The present study evaluates the effect of periodic standing or exercises (+G(z)) on this acute suppression of plasma neurohormones. Methods: Nine male subjects (mean plus or minus SE age 37 plus or minus 2 yr; height 182 plus or minus 2 cm; weight 83 plus or minus 3 kg) were admitted to the Human Research Facility on three occasions separated by one month. Subjects were assigned to head down tilt (minus 6 degrees) or 15-minutes of standing or moderate exercise at the end of each hour. Initially during an ambulatory period, subjects were placed in a supine position for 45-min and a control blood sample obtained. The next day following 4 hours of HDT with or without standing or exercise a blood sample was taken 45-min (3 3/4 hours into HDT) after the preceding stand or exercise. Blood was withdrawn and all plasma samples frozen for determination of neurohormone levels within the same assay. Plasma aldosterone, Plasma Renin Activity (PRA) vasopressin (AVP) and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) levels were measured by electrochemical detection following HPLC. Values were compared by ANOVA, P less than 0.05. Results: Control levels following 45-min supine were not different between treatments. HDT suppressed plasma aldosterone (13.9 plus or minus 3.7 to 6.6 plus or minus 0.7 ng/dl) and NE levels (299 plus or minus 35 to 217 plus or minus 23 pg/dl), E (69 plus or minus 15 to 65 plus or minus 21 pg/ml), and PRA (0.64 plus or minus 0.13 to 0.58 plus or minus 0.17 ngAl/m/hr) were not significantly altered. Standing or exercise negated the decrease in aldosterone and NE levels due to HDT. Conclusions: Periodic upright posture (+G(z)) with or without exercise for 15-min out of each hour negates the acute suppression of aldosterone and NE associated with HDT.

  15. The Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain and Forward Head Posture among Heroin Users during their Withdrawal with Methadone

    PubMed Central

    Kamali-Sarvestani, Fahimeh; Motiallah, Tahereh; Ghaffarinejad, Farahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Background Heroin is an extremely addictive narcotic drug derived from morphine. Its continued use requires increased amounts of the drug to achieve the same effect, resulting in tolerance and addiction. This study was done in order to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and forward head posture among heroin users during their withdrawal. Methods This research was a cross-sectional study that was done on 90 heroin users (83 males, 7 females) aged between 20 to 40 years (32.5 ± 3.81) during their withdrawal in Shiraz, Iran. They were selected by simple randomized sampling. Data were collected by a form regarding age, sex, the duration of heroin use, and musculoskeletal pain. Pain was measured by VAS (visual analog scale) and forward head posture was evaluated by plumb line. Pearson correlation technique and chi-square were used for analyzing the data. Findings The results revealed that the majority of heroin users suffered from musculoskeletal pain during their withdrawal. At the end of withdrawal 53.4% had severe pain, 38.8% had moderate pain, and 7.8% of them had mild pain. Pain in the lower extremities and low back was more common than the upper extremities. The intensity of pain before withdrawal was mild, during withdrawal was moderate, and at the end was sever, but there was no significant correlation between them. The results also showed 43.3% of subjects had normal posture and 56.7% had forward posture. Conclusion According to the results, the intensity of pain increased during the withdrawal period; therefore, more attention must be paid to this complication in heroin users for better evaluation and a successful withdrawal. PMID:25140215

  16. Structural brain abnormalities in postural tachycardia syndrome: A VBM-DARTEL study.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi; Harrison, Neil A; Gray, Marcus A; Mathias, Christopher J; Critchley, Hugo D

    2015-01-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), a form of dysautonomia, is characterized by orthostatic intolerance, and is frequently accompanied by a range of symptoms including palpitations, lightheadedness, clouding of thought, blurred vision, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Although the estimated prevalence of PoTS is approximately 5-10 times as common as the better-known condition orthostatic hypotension, the neural substrates of the syndrome are poorly characterized. In the present study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) applying the diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL) procedure to examine variation in regional brain structure associated with PoTS. We recruited 11 patients with established PoTS and 23 age-matched normal controls. Group comparison of gray matter volume revealed diminished gray matter volume within the left anterior insula, right middle frontal gyrus and right cingulate gyrus in the PoTS group. We also observed lower white matter volume beneath the precentral gyrus and paracentral lobule, right pre- and post-central gyrus, paracentral lobule and superior frontal gyrus in PoTS patients. Subsequent ROI analyses revealed significant negative correlations between left insula volume and trait anxiety and depression scores. Together, these findings of structural differences, particularly within insular and cingulate components of the salience network, suggest a link between dysregulated physiological reactions arising from compromised central autonomic control (and interoceptive representation) and increased vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms in PoTS patients.

  17. Structural brain abnormalities in postural tachycardia syndrome: A VBM-DARTEL study

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, Satoshi; Harrison, Neil A.; Gray, Marcus A.; Mathias, Christopher J.; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2015-01-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), a form of dysautonomia, is characterized by orthostatic intolerance, and is frequently accompanied by a range of symptoms including palpitations, lightheadedness, clouding of thought, blurred vision, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Although the estimated prevalence of PoTS is approximately 5–10 times as common as the better-known condition orthostatic hypotension, the neural substrates of the syndrome are poorly characterized. In the present study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) applying the diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL) procedure to examine variation in regional brain structure associated with PoTS. We recruited 11 patients with established PoTS and 23 age-matched normal controls. Group comparison of gray matter volume revealed diminished gray matter volume within the left anterior insula, right middle frontal gyrus and right cingulate gyrus in the PoTS group. We also observed lower white matter volume beneath the precentral gyrus and paracentral lobule, right pre- and post-central gyrus, paracentral lobule and superior frontal gyrus in PoTS patients. Subsequent ROI analyses revealed significant negative correlations between left insula volume and trait anxiety and depression scores. Together, these findings of structural differences, particularly within insular and cingulate components of the salience network, suggest a link between dysregulated physiological reactions arising from compromised central autonomic control (and interoceptive representation) and increased vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms in PoTS patients. PMID:25852449

  18. Cervical curve restoration and forward head posture reduction for the treatment of mechanical thoracic pain using the pettibon corrective and rehabilitative procedures

    PubMed Central

    Morningstar, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Objective To demonstrate the benefits of reducing forward head posture and restoring the cervical lordosis as a novel approach to treating a patient with mechanical thoracic pain. Clinical Features The patient had thoracolumbar junction pain bilaterally that failed to respond to previous sessions of spinal manipulative therapy. Treatment included both manipulative and rehabilitative procedures designed to correct the forward head posture and cervical kyphosis. Treatment progress was quantified on pre and post lateral cervical radio-graphs. Intervention and Outcome The treatment plan was 30 sessions over an 8-week period that included spinal manipulative therapy, used in concert with a new headweight device applied immediately after the manipulation was performed at each session. The patient was also instructed on the performance of certain rehabilitative procedures to be performed in the home setting. The patient experienced significant symptomatic relief after the 3rd week of care. The cervical lordosis was restored by 144% and the forward head posture was decreased by 56% at the end of the trial period. Conclusion Restoration of the cervical curve and reduction of forward head posture appears to have beneficial effects beyond the cervical spine. The addition of active rehabilitative procedures seems to enhance the effectiveness of spinal manipulative therapy in the correction of forward head posture and cervical kyphosis. PMID:19674570

  19. Bilaterally Abnormal Head Impulse Tests Indicate a Large Cerebellopontine Angle Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Jung; Park, Seong-Ho; Koo, Ja Won; Kim, Chae-Yong; Kim, Young-Hoon; Han, Jung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Tumors involving the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) pose a diagnostic challenge due to their diverse manifestations. Head impulse tests (HITs) have been used to evaluate vestibular function, but few studies have explored the head impulse gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in patients with a vestibular schwannoma. This study tested whether the head impulse gain of the VOR is an indicator of the size of a unilateral CPA tumor. Methods Twenty-eight patients (21 women; age=64±12 years, mean±SD) with a unilateral CPA tumor underwent a recording of the HITs using a magnetic search coil technique. Patients were classified into non-compressing (T1-T3) and compressing (T4) groups according to the Hannover classification. Results Most (23/28, 82%) of the patients showed abnormal HITs for the semicircular canals on the lesion side. The bilateral abnormality in HITs was more common in the compressing group than the non-compressing group (80% vs. 8%, Pearson's chi-square test: p<0.001). The tumor size was inversely correlated with the head impulse gain of the VOR in either direction. Conclusions Bilaterally abnormal HITs indicate that a patient has a large unilateral CPA tumor. The abnormal HITs in the contralesional direction may be explained either by adaptation or by compression and resultant dysfunction of the cerebellar and brainstem structures. The serial evaluation of HITs may provide information on tumor growth, and thereby reduce the number of costly brain scans required when following up patients with CPA tumors. PMID:26754780

  20. Detecting abnormality in optic nerve head images using a feature extraction analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haogang; Poostchi, Ali; Vernon, Stephen A; Crabb, David P

    2014-07-01

    Imaging and evaluation of the optic nerve head (ONH) plays an essential part in the detection and clinical management of glaucoma. The morphological characteristics of ONHs vary greatly from person to person and this variability means it is difficult to quantify them in a standardized way. We developed and evaluated a feature extraction approach using shift-invariant wavelet packet and kernel principal component analysis to quantify the shape features in ONH images acquired by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph [HRT]). The methods were developed and tested on 1996 eyes from three different clinical centers. A shape abnormality score (SAS) was developed from extracted features using a Gaussian process to identify glaucomatous abnormality. SAS can be used as a diagnostic index to quantify the overall likelihood of ONH abnormality. Maps showing areas of likely abnormality within the ONH were also derived. Diagnostic performance of the technique, as estimated by ROC analysis, was significantly better than the classification tools currently used in the HRT software - the technique offers the additional advantage of working with all images and is fully automated.

  1. The relationship between the active cervical range of motion and changes in head and neck posture after continuous VDT work.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu; An, Duk-Hyun

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the active cervical range of motion (ROM) and changes in the head and neck posture after continuous visual display terminal (VDT) work. Twenty VDT workers were recruited from laboratories. The active cervical ROM of the participants was measured and videotaped to capture the craniocervical and cervicothoracic angles using a single video camera before and after VDT work. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify the linear relationship between active cervical ROM measurements and the changes in the craniocervical and cervicothoracic angles after continuous VDT work. Active neck extension (r=-0.84, p<0.01) was negatively correlated with the mean craniocervical angle, and active neck flexion (r=-0.82, p<0.01) and left lateral flexion (r=-0.67, p<0.01) were negatively correlated with the mean cervicothoracic angle.

  2. The Influence of Neck Muscle Tonus and Posture on Brain Tissue Strain in Pedestrian Head Impacts.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Victor S; Halldin, Peter; Kleiven, Svein

    2014-11-01

    Pedestrians are one of the least protected groups in urban traffic and frequently suffer fatal head injuries. An important boundary condition for the head is the cervical spine, and it has previously been demonstrated that neck muscle activation is important for head kinematics during inertial loading. It has also been shown in a recent numerical study that a tensed neck musculature also has some influence on head kinematics during a pedestrian impact situation. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence on head kinematics and injury metrics during the isolated time of head impact by comparing a pedestrian with relaxed neck and a pedestrian with increased tonus. The human body Finite Element model THUMS Version 1.4 was connected to head and neck models developed at KTH and used in pedestrian-to-vehicle impact simulations with a generalized hood, so that the head would impact a surface with an identical impact response in all simulations. In order to isolate the influence of muscle tonus, the model was activated shortly before head impact so the head would have the same initial position prior to impact among different tonus. A symmetric and asymmetric muscle activation scheme that used high level of activation was used in order to create two extremes to investigate. It was found that for the muscle tones used in this study, the influence on the strain in the brain was very minor, in general about 1-14% change. A relatively large increase was observed in a secondary peak in maximum strains in only one of the simulated cases.

  3. The influence of a semi-reclined seated posture on head and neck kinematics and muscle activity while reading a tablet computer.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Ethan C; Gallagher, Kaitlin M

    2017-04-01

    Increased tablet computer usage calls for a proper understanding of potential injury risks from these devices. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of tablet computer reading postures on head and neck flexion and muscle activity. Nineteen participants completed read a tablet computer in four different postures (standard computer monitor, tablet on a desk, tablet in the lap, semi-reclined with tablet in the lap). Reading the tablet in a semi-reclined trunk posture with the tablet in one's lap increased (p < 0.001) neck flexion angle (71.6%ROM) relative to reading from the standard computer monitor (6.39%ROM). Head flexion in the semi-reclined posture (19.7%ROM) and muscle activity (8.88%MVC) were similar to when reading from a standard computer monitor. Despite potentially reducing the gravitational moment produced by the head, the semi-reclined position could still compromise the force capabilities of the neck extensor musculature and result in increased strain on the passive tissues of the spine. Future work should assess how the semi-reclined position influences cervical intervertebral angles and passive tissue properties of the cervical spine. Overall, more research needs to be conducted on thoracic spine kinematics while reading a tablet computer.

  4. Does a Novel-Developed Product of Wheelchair Incorporating Pelvic Support Prevent Forward Head Posture during Prolonged Sitting?

    PubMed

    Goda, Hiroshi; Hatta, Tatsuo; Kishigami, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, Ayaka; Ikeda, Tamotsu

    2015-01-01

    Disabled elderly individuals with kyphosis or loss of muscle strength often display forward head posture (FHP). This study aimed to determine the utility of a wheelchair incorporating pelvic support in preventing FHP in disabled elderly individuals. In this study, 14 disabled elderly individuals (87.1 ± 8.1 years) were selected. A wheelchair incorporating pelvic support (RX_ABS Lo) and a basic wheelchair (RX-1) were used. Each individual sat on both wheelchairs for 30 minutes. RX_ABS Lo has two belts to support the pelvic and thorax. Postures were recorded in the sagittal plane using a video camera. Cervical and trunk angles from horizontal were measured every 5 minutes. Simultaneously, contact areas and total pressures applied to the wheelchair seats and back supports were measured every 5 minutes. Comparisons of area under the curve values between the wheelchairs were performed using the paired t-test. Comparisons of time-dependent parameters for each wheelchair were performed using repeated one-way ANOVA. Cervical angles were greater when using RX_ABS Lo than RX-1. Although cervical angles were unchanged during 30 minutes when using RX_ABS Lo, the angles were significantly decreased after 30 minutes of using RX-1. Back support pressures and contact areas were greater for RX_ABS Lo than for RX-1. No significant difference in back support pressure distributions was observed during 30 minutes in the wheelchairs. The RX_ABS Lo may have utility in improving FHP by increasing cervical angles and improving stability with a back support to the upper thorax, lower thorax, and pelvis during prolonged sitting.

  5. A multi level system design for vigilance measurement based on head posture estimation and eyes blinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyeb, Ines; Jemai, Olfa; Zaied, Mourad; ben Amar, Chokri

    2015-12-01

    Driving security is an important task for human society. The major challenge in the field of accident avoidance systems is the driver vigilance monitoring. The lack of vigilance can be noticed by various ways, such as, fatigue, drowsiness and distraction. Hence, the need of a reliable driver's vigilance decrease detection system which can alert drivers before a mishap happens. In this paper, we present a novel approach for vigilance estimation based on multilevel system by combining head movement analysis and eyes blinking. We have used Viola and Jones algorithm to analyse head movement and a classification system using wavelet networks for eyelid closure measuring. The contribution of our application is classifiying the vigilance state at multi level. This is different from the binary-class (awakening or hypovigilant state) existing in most popular systems.

  6. Changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Cheon, SongHee; Park, SoHyun

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with Forward Head Posture. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty subjects with forward head postures were recruited. The activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, splenius capitis and splenius cervicis muscles, upper trapezius muscle, and middle trapezius muscle during flexion and extension were assessed. [Results] The activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscle showed significant differences between the 30° flexed position and the full range of motion position, and between the neutral position and the full ROM position. The activity of the middle trapezius muscle showed a significant reduction in the 30° extended position and the full ROM position as compared to the neutral position. [Conclusion] In the full flexed position, sternocleidomastoid muscle activity increased significantly, and during extension position, the middle trapezius muscle reduced its activities.

  7. Changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, SongHee; Park, SoHyun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated changes in neck and upper trunk muscle activities according to the angle of movement of the neck in subjects with Forward Head Posture. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty subjects with forward head postures were recruited. The activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, splenius capitis and splenius cervicis muscles, upper trapezius muscle, and middle trapezius muscle during flexion and extension were assessed. [Results] The activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscle showed significant differences between the 30° flexed position and the full range of motion position, and between the neutral position and the full ROM position. The activity of the middle trapezius muscle showed a significant reduction in the 30° extended position and the full ROM position as compared to the neutral position. [Conclusion] In the full flexed position, sternocleidomastoid muscle activity increased significantly, and during extension position, the middle trapezius muscle reduced its activities. PMID:28265137

  8. Postural Control Characteristics during Single Leg Standing of Individuals with a History of Ankle Sprain: Measurements Obtained Using a Gravicorder and Head and Foot Accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yota; Sugaya, Tomoaki; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to validate the postural control characteristics of individuals with a history of ankle sprain during single leg standing by using a gravicorder and head and foot accelerometry. [Subjects] Twenty subjects with and 23 subjects without a history of ankle sprain (sprain and control groups, respectively) participated. [Methods] The anteroposterior, mediolateral, and total path lengths, as well as root mean square (RMS) of each length, were calculated using the gravicorder. The anteroposterior, mediolateral, and resultant acceleration of the head and foot were measured using accelerometers and were evaluated as the ratio of the acceleration of the head to the foot. [Results] There was no significant difference between the two groups in path length or RMS acceleration of the head and foot. However, the ratios of the mediolateral and resultant components were significantly higher in the sprain group than in the control group. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest that individuals with a history of ankle sprain have a higher head-to-foot acceleration ratio and different postural control characteristics than those of control subjects.

  9. Inferior Oblique Weakening and Abnormal Head Position: Controlled Myotomy versus Recession

    PubMed Central

    Migliorini, R.; Malagola, R.; Comberiati, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Randomized controlled trial aimed at comparing surgical outcomes in a group of patients suffering from hyperfunction of the inferior oblique (IO) muscle with abnormal head position (AHP). The surgical techniques being compared are Recession and (thread) Controlled Myotomy. Materials and Methods. The group of 20 patients suffering from medium-high hyperfunction of the IO was assessed through an ophthalmological and orthoptic examination. 10 patients underwent traditional Recession (Group  A) and 10 were treated with Controlled Myotomy (Group  B). Results. The average age was 19 years ± 10.7 SD. After 1 year, 20% of Group  A showed a small Vertical Deviation associated with a small AHP, while 80% had orthophoria and 40% of them had a small AHP. 80% of Group  B showed a small Vertical Deviation associated with an equally small AHP, while 20% had orthophoria with a full resolution of AHP. Conclusion. Based on the results obtained and the fewer intrasurgical risks involved, thread Controlled Myotomy proved to be a valid alternative to Recession. Furthermore, in case of Recession, over the long period a small residual AHP remained in the patients who had orthophoria, unlike Myotomy which led to a total resolution. PMID:28018670

  10. Automatic detection system for multiple region of interest registration to account for posture changes in head and neck radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencarelli, A.; van Beek, S.; Zijp, L. J.; Rasch, C.; van Herk, M.; Sonke, J.-J.

    2014-04-01

    Despite immobilization of head and neck (H and N) cancer patients, considerable posture changes occur over the course of radiotherapy (RT). To account for the posture changes, we previously implemented a multiple regions of interest (mROIs) registration system tailored to the H and N region for image-guided RT correction strategies. This paper is focused on the automatic segmentation of the ROIs in the H and N region. We developed a fast and robust automatic detection system suitable for an online image-guided application and quantified its performance. The system was developed to segment nine high contrast structures from the planning CT including cervical vertebrae, mandible, hyoid, manubrium of sternum, larynx and occipital bone. It generates nine 3D rectangular-shaped ROIs and informs the user in case of ambiguities. Two observers evaluated the robustness of the segmentation on 188 H and N cancer patients. Bland-Altman analysis was applied to a sub-group of 50 patients to compare the registration results using only the automatically generated ROIs and those manually set by two independent experts. Finally the time performance and workload were evaluated. Automatic detection of individual anatomical ROIs had a success rate of 97%/53% with/without user notifications respectively. Following the notifications, for 38% of the patients one or more structures were manually adjusted. The processing time was on average 5 s. The limits of agreement between the local registrations of manually and automatically set ROIs was comprised between ±1.4 mm, except for the manubrium of sternum (-1.71 mm and 1.67 mm), and were similar to the limits agreement between the two experts. The workload to place the nine ROIs was reduced from 141 s (±20 s) by the manual procedure to 59 s (±17 s) using the automatic method. An efficient detection system to segment multiple ROIs was developed for Cone-Beam CT image-guided applications in the H and N region and is clinically implemented in

  11. Retrograde arterial leg blood flow during tilt-back from a head-up posture: importance of capacitive flows when arterial pressure changes.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, Don D; Nådland, Inger Helene; Toska, Karin

    2010-03-01

    The windkessel function of the arterial system converts the intermittent action of the heart into more continuous microcirculatory blood flow during diastole via the return of elastic energy stored in the walls of the arteries during systole. Might the same phenomenon occur regionally within the arterial system during tilting owing to regional differences in local arterial pressure imposed by gravity? We sought to test the hypothesis that during tilt-back from a head-up posture, the return of stored elastic energy in leg arteries would work to slow, or perhaps transiently reverse, the flow of blood in the femoral artery. Femoral artery blood flow and arterial pressure were recorded during tilt back from a 30 degrees head-up posture to supine (approximately 0.5 G) in young, healthy subjects (n = 7 males and 3 females) before and during clonidine infusion. During control (no drug) conditions femoral artery blood flow ceased for an entire heart beat during tilt-back. During clonidine infusion femoral artery blood flow reversed for at least one entire heart beat during tilt-back, i.e., blood flow in the retrograde direction in the femoral artery from the leg into the abdomen. Thus substantial capacitive effects of tilting on leg blood flow occur in humans during mild changes in posture.

  12. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; O'Hara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during 7 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 h before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na(+)-to-K+ ratio and significant Na+ retention on re-ambulation. After the 1st day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone (Aldo), plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to Aldo appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin, cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of early morning ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 days of HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after HDBR revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and Aldo responses to standing before HDBR and larger Aldo responses to standing after HDBR than males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  13. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; Ohara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during seven days of 6 deg head down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 hr before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na/K ratio and significant Na retention on reambulation. After the first day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone, plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to aldosterone appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of AM ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 day HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after bed rest revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing, before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and aldosterone responses to standing before bedrest and larger aldosterone responses to standing after HDBR than males. Cardiovascular responses to standing before and after bedrest differed markedly: arterial pressure and heart rates increased with standing before HDBR, by contrast, arterial pressure decreased, with greater increases in heart rates after HDBR. In both sexes, all hormonal responses to standing were greater after HDBR. The results show clearly that similar responses to standing as well as to HDBR occur in both sexes, but that females exhibit

  14. Direction-Specific Impairments in Cervical Range of Motion in Women with Chronic Neck Pain: Influence of Head Posture and Gravitationally Induced Torque

    PubMed Central

    Björklund, Martin; Svedmark, Åsa; Srinivasan, Divya; Djupsjöbacka, Mats

    2017-01-01

    Background Cervical range of motion (ROM) is commonly assessed in clinical practice and research. In a previous study we decomposed active cervical sagittal ROM into contributions from lower and upper levels of the cervical spine and found level- and direction-specific impairments in women with chronic non-specific neck pain. The present study aimed to validate these results and investigate if the specific impairments can be explained by the neutral posture (defining zero flexion/extension) or a movement strategy to avoid large gravitationally induced torques on the cervical spine. Methods Kinematics of the head and thorax was assessed in sitting during maximal sagittal cervical flexion/extension (high torque condition) and maximal protraction (low torque condition) in 120 women with chronic non-specific neck pain and 40 controls. We derived the lower and upper cervical angles, and the head centre of mass (HCM), from a 3-segment kinematic model. Neutral head posture was assessed using a standardized procedure. Findings Previous findings of level- and direction-specific impairments in neck pain were confirmed. Neutral head posture was equal between groups and did not explain the direction-specific impairments. The relative magnitude of group difference in HCM migration did not differ between high and low torques conditions, lending no support for our hypothesis that impairments in sagittal ROM are due to torque avoidance behaviour. Interpretation The direction- and level-specific impairments in cervical sagittal ROM can be generalised to the population of women with non-specific neck pain. Further research is necessary to clarify if torque avoidance behaviour can explain the impairments. PMID:28099504

  15. X-y interactions underlie sperm head abnormality in hybrid male house mice.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Polly; Nachman, Michael W

    2014-04-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in house mice is complex, highly polygenic, and strongly X linked. Previous work suggested that there might be interactions between the Mus musculus musculus X and the M. m. domesticus Y with a large negative effect on sperm head morphology in hybrid males with an F1 autosomal background. To test this, we introgressed the M. m. domesticus Y onto a M. m. musculus background and measured the change in sperm morphology, testis weight, and sperm count across early backcross generations and in 11th generation backcross males in which the opportunity for X-autosome incompatibilities is effectively eliminated. We found that abnormality in sperm morphology persists in M. m. domesticus Y introgression males, and that this phenotype is rescued by M. m. domesticus introgressions on the X chromosome. In contrast, the severe reductions in testis weight and sperm count that characterize F1 males were eliminated after one generation of backcrossing. These results indicate that X-Y incompatibilities contribute specifically to sperm morphology. In contrast, X-autosome incompatibilities contribute to low testis weight, low sperm count, and sperm morphology. Restoration of normal testis weight and sperm count in first generation backcross males suggests that a small number of complex incompatibilities between loci on the M. m. musculus X and the M. m. domesticus autosomes underlie F1 male sterility. Together, these results provide insight into the genetic architecture of F1 male sterility and help to explain genome-wide patterns of introgression across the house mouse hybrid zone.

  16. X–Y Interactions Underlie Sperm Head Abnormality in Hybrid Male House Mice

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Polly; Nachman, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in house mice is complex, highly polygenic, and strongly X linked. Previous work suggested that there might be interactions between the Mus musculus musculus X and the M. m. domesticus Y with a large negative effect on sperm head morphology in hybrid males with an F1 autosomal background. To test this, we introgressed the M. m. domesticus Y onto a M. m. musculus background and measured the change in sperm morphology, testis weight, and sperm count across early backcross generations and in 11th generation backcross males in which the opportunity for X–autosome incompatibilities is effectively eliminated. We found that abnormality in sperm morphology persists in M. m. domesticus Y introgression males, and that this phenotype is rescued by M. m. domesticus introgressions on the X chromosome. In contrast, the severe reductions in testis weight and sperm count that characterize F1 males were eliminated after one generation of backcrossing. These results indicate that X–Y incompatibilities contribute specifically to sperm morphology. In contrast, X–autosome incompatibilities contribute to low testis weight, low sperm count, and sperm morphology. Restoration of normal testis weight and sperm count in first generation backcross males suggests that a small number of complex incompatibilities between loci on the M. m. musculus X and the M. m. domesticus autosomes underlie F1 male sterility. Together, these results provide insight into the genetic architecture of F1 male sterility and help to explain genome-wide patterns of introgression across the house mouse hybrid zone. PMID:24504187

  17. Social Postural Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Lagarde, Julien; Bardy, Benoit G.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether a visual coupling between two people can produce spontaneous interpersonal postural coordination and change their intrapersonal postural coordination involved in the control of stance. We examined the front-to-back head displacements of participants and the angular motion of their hip and…

  18. Prevalence of Common Postural Disorders Among Academic Dental Staff

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, Leila; Halabchi, Farzin; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Khami, Mohammad Reza; Irandoost, Shahla; Alizadeh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders are common problems among dentists. These conditions may lead to inappropriate postures and impairment in physical and psychological function. On the other hand, poor postures and inappropriate ergonomic may result in a wide variety of musculoskeletal disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of common postural disorders of the spine and shoulder girdle among the dentists and possible correlations between demographic, anthropometric and occupational characteristics with these abnormal postures. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study, 96 dental staff including academic staff, residents and senior students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences was enrolled. Data were collected using a questionnaire and posture assessment tools such as plumb-line, checkerboard and flexible ruler. Data analysis was done with SPSS version 17. Results The prevalence of the forward head posture (FHP), rounded shoulder posture (RSP), scoliosis and hyperlordosis were reported in 85.5%, 68.8%, 18.8% and 17.3% of the participants, respectively. A significant correlation was found between gender and FHP (P = 0.04) and also scoliosis (P = 0.009). On the other hand, a significant correlation was seen between weight and hyperlordosis (P = 0.007). Conclusions Our study revealed a high prevalence of postural disorders especially FHP, RSP and scoliosis among Iranian dental staff. The female dentists were less susceptible to FHP and scoliosis. PMID:27625751

  19. Interaction between the oculomotor and postural systems during a dual-task: Compensatory reductions in head sway following visually-induced postural perturbations promote the production of accurate double-step saccades in standing human adults.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Mathieu; Giraudet, Guillaume; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    Humans routinely scan their environment for useful information using saccadic eye movements and/or coordinated movements of the eyes and other body segments such the head and the torso. Most previous eye movement studies were conducted with seated subject and showed that single saccades and sequences of saccades (e.g. double-step saccades) made to briefly flashed stimuli were equally accurate and precise. As one can easily appreciate, most gaze shifts performed daily by a given person are not produced from a seated position, but rather from a standing position either as subjects perform an action from an upright stance or as they walk from one place to another. In the experiments presented here, we developed a new dual-task paradigm in order to study the interaction between the gaze control system and the postural system. Healthy adults (n = 12) were required to both maintain balance and produce accurate single-step and double-step eye saccades from a standing position. Visually-induced changes in head sway were evoked using wide-field background stimuli that either moved in the mediolateral direction or in the anteroposterior direction. We found that, as in the seated condition, single- and double-step saccades were very precise and accurate when made from a standing position, but that a tighter control of head sway was necessary in the more complex double-step saccades condition for equivalent results to be obtained. Our perturbation results support the "common goal" hypothesis that state that if necessary, as was the case during the more complex oculomotor task, context-dependent modulations of the postural system can be triggered to reduced instability and therefore support the accomplishment of a suprapostural goal.

  20. Interaction between the oculomotor and postural systems during a dual-task: Compensatory reductions in head sway following visually-induced postural perturbations promote the production of accurate double-step saccades in standing human adults

    PubMed Central

    Giraudet, Guillaume; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    Humans routinely scan their environment for useful information using saccadic eye movements and/or coordinated movements of the eyes and other body segments such the head and the torso. Most previous eye movement studies were conducted with seated subject and showed that single saccades and sequences of saccades (e.g. double-step saccades) made to briefly flashed stimuli were equally accurate and precise. As one can easily appreciate, most gaze shifts performed daily by a given person are not produced from a seated position, but rather from a standing position either as subjects perform an action from an upright stance or as they walk from one place to another. In the experiments presented here, we developed a new dual-task paradigm in order to study the interaction between the gaze control system and the postural system. Healthy adults (n = 12) were required to both maintain balance and produce accurate single-step and double-step eye saccades from a standing position. Visually-induced changes in head sway were evoked using wide-field background stimuli that either moved in the mediolateral direction or in the anteroposterior direction. We found that, as in the seated condition, single- and double-step saccades were very precise and accurate when made from a standing position, but that a tighter control of head sway was necessary in the more complex double-step saccades condition for equivalent results to be obtained. Our perturbation results support the “common goal” hypothesis that state that if necessary, as was the case during the more complex oculomotor task, context-dependent modulations of the postural system can be triggered to reduced instability and therefore support the accomplishment of a suprapostural goal. PMID:28296958

  1. The effect of over-commitment and reward on trapezius muscle activity and shoulder, head, neck, and torso postures during computer use in the field

    PubMed Central

    Bruno Garza, Jennifer L.; Eijckelhof, Belinda H.W.; Huysmans, Maaike A.; Catalano, Paul J.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Johnson, Peter W.; van Dieen, Jaap H.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Dennerlein, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of reported associations of psychosocial factors and computer related musculoskeletal symptoms, we investigated the effects of a workplace psychosocial factor, reward, in the presence of over-commitment, on trapezius muscle activity and shoulder, head, neck, and torso postures during computer use. Methods We measured 120 office workers across four groups (lowest/highest reward/over-commitment), performing their own computer work at their own workstations over a 2 hour period. Results Median trapezius muscle activity (p=0.04) and median neck flexion (p=0.03) were largest for participants reporting simultaneously low reward and high over-commitment. No differences were observed for other muscle activities or postures. Conclusions These data suggest that the interaction of reward and over-commitment can affect upper extremity muscle activity and postures during computer use in the real work environment. This finding aligns with the hypothesized biomechanical pathway connecting workplace psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal symptoms of the neck and shoulder. PMID:23818000

  2. Abnormal Development of the Femoral Head Epiphysis in an Infant with no Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Apparent on Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Atalar, Hakan; Gunay, Cuneyd; Aytekin, Mahmut Nedim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the investigation of hip development in newborns and infants, ultrasonography and radiography are widely used, but their optimal roles in this setting remain controversial. Case Report: Here we describe an 8.5-month-old infant who had undergone hip radiography at a primary care facility and was referred to our hospital to be evaluated for developmental dysplasia of the hip. Ultrasonography showed no developmental dysplasia of the hip according to standard criteria, but developmental retardation of the femoral head was apparent on the radiograph. Conclusion: This patient's findings demonstrate that abnormalities in femoral head epiphysis development can go undetected during routine ultrasonographic evaluations for developmental dysplasia of the hip. PMID:27298982

  3. Otolith and Vertical Canal Contributions to Dynamic Postural Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, F. Owen

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine: 1) how do normal subjects adjust postural movements in response to changing or altered otolith input, for example, due to aging? and 2) how do patients adapt postural control after altered unilateral or bilateral vestibular sensory inputs such as ablative inner ear surgery or ototoxicity, respectively? The following hypotheses are under investigation: 1) selective alteration of otolith input or abnormalities of otolith receptor function will result in distinctive spatial, frequency, and temporal patterns of head movements and body postural sway dynamics. 2) subjects with reduced, altered, or absent vertical semicircular canal receptor sensitivity but normal otolith receptor function or vice versa, should show predictable alterations of body and head movement strategies essential for the control of postural sway and movement. The effect of altered postural movement control upon compensation and/or adaptation will be determined. These experiments provide data for the development of computational models of postural control in normals, vestibular deficient subjects and normal humans exposed to unusual force environments, including orbital space flight.

  4. An Investigation of Horizontal Combined Eye-Head Tracking in Patients with Abnormal Vestibular and Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, William P.; Leigh, R. John; Seidman, Scott H.; Billian, Carl

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of smooth ocular pursuit (SP) and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during horizontal, combined eye-head tracking (CEHT) in patients with abnormalities of either the VOR or SP movements. Our strategy was to apply transient stimuli that capitalized on the different latencies to onset of SP and the VOR. During CEHT of a target moving at 15 deg/sec, normal subjects and patients with VOR deficits all tracked the target with a gain close to 1.O. When the heads of normal subjects were suddenly and unexpectedly braked to a halt during CEHT, the eye promptly began to move in the orbit to track the target, but eye-in-orbit velocity transiently fell to about 60-70% of target velocity. In patients with deficient labyrinthine function, following the onset of the head brake, eye movements to track the target were absent, and SP movements were not generated until about 100 msec later. In patients with deficient SP, CEHT was superior to SP tracking with the head stationary; after the onset of the head brake, tracking eye movements were initiated promptly, but eye velocity was less than 50% of target velocity and increased only slightly thereafter. These results indicate that at least two mechanisms operate to overcome the VOR and allow gaze to track the target during CEHT: (1) the SP system provides a signal to cancel a normally-operating VOR (this cancellation signal is not needed by labyrinthine-deficient patients who have no VOR to cancel), and (2) a reduction of the gain of the VOR is achieved, an ability that is preserved even in patients with cerebral lesions that impair SP.

  5. Metabolic abnormalities associated with weight loss during chemoirradiation of head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Alexander; Jabbari, Siavash; Worden, Francis P.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Nyquist, Gurston G.; Tsien, Christina; Schipper, Matthew J.; Urba, Susan . E-mail: eisbruch@umich.edu

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: Weight loss caused by acute mucositis and dysphagia is common during concurrent chemoirradiation (chemo-RT) of head-and-neck (HN) cancer. The metabolic consequences of weight loss during chemo-RT were investigated. Patients and Methods: Ninety-six patients with locally advanced HN cancer were treated from 1995 to 2001 on protocols that consisted of 1 to 2 cycles of induction cisplatin/5-fluorouracil followed by irradiation (70 Gy over 7 weeks) concurrent with cisplatin (100 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 weeks). Body weights and metabolic evaluations were obtained before and during induction chemotherapy and chemo-RT. Greatest percent changes in weight and in the laboratory values were calculated for each phase of therapy. Results: During induction chemotherapy, significant changes were found in BUN, BUN:creatinine ratio, HCO{sub 3}, Mg, and albumin, but not in creatinine, Na, K, or weight. During chemo-RT, significant additional changes were observed in all parameters measured, including increases in BUN, creatinine, BUN: creatinine ratio, and HCO{sub 3} and decreases in Mg, albumin, Na, K, and weight. The magnitude of most of these changes was significantly greater during chemo-RT than during induction chemotherapy. During chemo-RT, 35% of the patients had more than 10% body weight loss and 6 patients had an increase in creatinine of more than 100%, including 5 patients with Grade 2 nephrotoxicity, all of whom had weight loss 10% or more. Significant correlations were found between weight loss and creatinine (p < 0.0001) or BUN (p = 0.0002) rises, but not with BUN:creatinine ratio or other metabolic changes. Age, gender, tobacco history, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of nephrotoxicity. Conclusions: Weight loss during cisplatin-containing chemo-RT was found to be associated with reduced kidney function. These findings do not establish cause-effect relationships; however, they highlight the importance of intensive supportive

  6. Abnormal white matter integrity related to head impact exposure in a season of high school varsity football.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Elizabeth M; Whitlow, Christopher T; Urban, Jillian E; Espeland, Mark A; Jung, Youngkyoo; Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Gioia, Gerard A; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D; Maldjian, Joseph A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the cumulative effects of head impacts from a season of high school football produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measureable changes in the brain in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussion. Players from a local high school football team were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS™) during all practices and games. All players received pre- and postseason MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was also conducted. Total impacts and risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWE), including linear (RWELinear), rotational (RWERotational), and combined components (RWECP), were computed from the sensor data. Fractional, linear, planar, and spherical anisotropies (FA, CL, CP, and CS, respectively), as well as mean diffusivity (MD), were used to determine total number of abnormal white matter voxels defined as 2 standard deviations above or below the group mean. Delta (post-preseason) ImPACT scores for each individual were computed and compared to the DTI measures using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. None of the players analyzed experienced clinical concussion (N=24). Regression analysis revealed a statistically significant linear relationship between RWECP and FA. Secondary analyses demonstrated additional statistically significant linear associations between RWE (RWECP and RWELinear) and all DTI measures. There was also a strong correlation between DTI measures and change in Verbal Memory subscore of the ImPACT. We demonstrate that a single season of football can produce brain MRI changes in the absence of clinical concussion. Similar brain MRI changes have been previously associated with mild traumatic brain injury.

  7. Endotracheal intubation with flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy in patients with abnormal anatomic conditions of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Elizondo, Eduardo; Navarro, Francisco; Pérez-Romo, Alfredo; Ortega, Concepción; Muñoz, Heberto; Cicero, Raúl

    2007-11-01

    We performed a retrospective chart review to evaluate the indications for endotracheal intubation via flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy in patients who were scheduled for surgery or who were hospitalized in the intensive care unit of our 1100-bed, tertiary care university hospital. We reviewed 9201 clinical records of anesthetic procedures during which endotracheal intubation had been performed from January to December 2002. We identified 66 patients who had been intubated with flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. On preanesthetic examination, 61 of these patients had been found to be poor candidates for conventional laryngoscopic intubation-51 because of abnormal head and neck anatomy and 10 because of reduced visual access to the airway (Mallampati class IV). The remaining 5 patients were intubated via flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy after conventional intubation had failed during emergency surgery. Our study emphasizes (1) the importance of the preanesthetic examination of surgical patients, to identify those in whom conventional intubation would likely be problematic, and (2) the need to have fiberoptic bronchoscopes and an anesthesiologist or bronchoscopist skilled in their use available in operating suites and intensive care units.

  8. Metamorphism in potential function while maintaining upright posture during exposure to a three-dimensional movie on an head-mounted display.

    PubMed

    Takada, Hiroki; Fujikake, Kazuhiro; Miyao, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new index, sparse density (SPD), of stationary stabilograms for detecting the metamorphism in the (temporally averaged) potential function of stochastic differential equations, which occurs when a human attempts to maintain an upright posture. It is known that a mathematical model of the body sway can be developed by a stochastic process. The authors have succeeded in finding the nonlinearity in the potential function. In this study, subjects in a standing position were stimulated by three-dimensional (3-D) movies on an head-mounted display (HMD). We also measured the degree of determinism in the dynamics of the sway of the center of gravity of the subjects. The Double-Wayland algorithm was used as a novel method. As a result, the dynamics of the body sway in the presence of the stimulus as well as in its absence were considered to be stochastic. The metamorphism in the potential function during exposure to the conventional 3-D images could be detected by using the SPD.

  9. The effect of feedback respiratory exercise on muscle activity, craniovertebral angle, and neck disability index of the neck flexors of patients with forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to simultaneously investigate the activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and scalenus anterior muscle, which are agonists of neck and breathing accessory muscles, by implementing breathing exercises. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen subjects were selected for the experimental group, which performed feedback respiratory exercises with McKenzie exercises, and 12 subjects were selected for the control group, which performed McKenzie exercises alone. The intervention program was performed for 30 minutes a session, once a day, four times a week, and for 2 weeks before conducting the experiment. Before intervention, muscle activity was measured using surface electromyogram, and the neck disability index was evaluated. [Results] There were meaningful differences in activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the scalenus anterior muscle, craniovertebral angle, and neck disability index within both the experimental group and control group after intervention. There also were meaningful differences in sternocleidomastoid muscle and neck disability index changes between groups. [Conclusion] Neck flexors as accessory respiratory muscle can affect inefficient respiratory imbalance of forward head posture patients. Multimodal intervention method should be studied continually and not be exposed to upper chest breathing patterns by preventing such phenomenon. PMID:27799674

  10. The effect of feedback respiratory exercise on muscle activity, craniovertebral angle, and neck disability index of the neck flexors of patients with forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to simultaneously investigate the activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and scalenus anterior muscle, which are agonists of neck and breathing accessory muscles, by implementing breathing exercises. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen subjects were selected for the experimental group, which performed feedback respiratory exercises with McKenzie exercises, and 12 subjects were selected for the control group, which performed McKenzie exercises alone. The intervention program was performed for 30 minutes a session, once a day, four times a week, and for 2 weeks before conducting the experiment. Before intervention, muscle activity was measured using surface electromyogram, and the neck disability index was evaluated. [Results] There were meaningful differences in activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the scalenus anterior muscle, craniovertebral angle, and neck disability index within both the experimental group and control group after intervention. There also were meaningful differences in sternocleidomastoid muscle and neck disability index changes between groups. [Conclusion] Neck flexors as accessory respiratory muscle can affect inefficient respiratory imbalance of forward head posture patients. Multimodal intervention method should be studied continually and not be exposed to upper chest breathing patterns by preventing such phenomenon.

  11. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer: effects of treatment with chemotherapy and radiation to the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, N.; Toth, B.B.; Hoar, R.E.; Ried, H.L.; Sullivan, M.P.; McNeese, M.D.

    1984-06-01

    Sixty-eight long-term survivors of childhood cancer were evaluated for dental and maxillofacial abnormalities. Forty-five patients had received maxillofacial radiation for lymphoma, leukemia, rhabdomyosarcoma, and miscellaneous tumors. Forty-three of the 45 patients and the remaining 23 who had not received maxillofacial radiation also received chemotherapy. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities were detected in 37 of the 45 (82%) radiated patients. Dental abnormalities comprised foreshortening and blunting of roots, incomplete calcification, premature closure of apices, delayed or arrested tooth development, and caries. Maxillofacial abnormalities comprised trismus, abnormal occlusal relationships, and facial deformities. The abnormalities were more severe in those patients who received radiation at an earlier age and at higher dosages. Possible chemotherapeutic effects in five of 23 patients who received treatment for tumors located outside the head and neck region comprised acquired amelogenesis imperfecta, microdontia of bicuspid teeth, and a tendency toward thinning of roots with an enlarged pulp chamber. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities should be recognized as a major consequence of maxillofacial radiation in long-term survivors of childhood cancer, and attempts to minimize or eliminate such sequelae should involve an effective interaction between radiation therapists, and medical and dental oncologists.

  12. Association of a Guardian’s Report of a Child Acting Abnormally With Traumatic Brain Injury After Minor Blunt Head Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Daniel K.; Holmes, James F.; Dayan, Peter S.; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Increased use of computed tomography (CT) in children is concerning owing to the cancer risk from ionizing radiation, particularly in children younger than 2 years. A guardian report that a child is acting abnormally is a risk factor for clinically important traumatic brain injury (ciTBI) and may be a driving factor for CT use in the emergency department. OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of ciTBIs and TBIs in children younger than 2 years with minor blunt head trauma and a guardian report of acting abnormally with (1) no other findings or (2) other concerning findings for TBI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Secondary analysis of a large, prospective, multicenter cohort study that included 43 399 children younger than 18 years with minor blunt head trauma evaluated in 25 emergency departments. The study was conducted on data obtained between June 2004 and September 2006. Data analysis was performed between August 21, 2014, and March 9, 2015. EXPOSURES A guardian report that the child was acting abnormally after minor blunt head trauma. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The prevalence of ciTBI (defined as death, neurosurgery, intubation for >24 hours, or hospitalization for ≥2 nights in association with TBI on CT imaging) and TBI on CT imaging in children with a guardian report of acting abnormally with (1) no other findings and (2) other concerning findings for TBI. RESULTS Of 43 399 children in the cohort study, a total of 1297 children had reports of acting abnormally, of whom 411 (31.7%) had this report as their only finding. Reported as percentage (95% CI), 1 of 411 (0.2% [0–1.3%]) had a ciTBI, and 4 TBIs were noted on the CT scans in 185 children who underwent imaging (2.2% [0.6%–5.4%]). In children with reports of acting abnormally and other concerning findings for TBI, 29 of 886 (3.3% [2.2%–4.7%]) had ciTBIs and 66 of 674 (9.8% [7.7%–12.3%]) had TBIs on CT. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Clinically important TBIs are very uncommon, and TBIs

  13. Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is a disease characterized by excessively increased heart rate during orthostatic challenge associated with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance including dizziness, exercise intolerance, headache, fatigue, memory problems, nausea, blurred vision, pallor, and sweating, which improve with recumbence. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome patients may present with a multitude of additional symptoms that are attributable to vascular vasoconstriction. Observed signs and symptoms in a patient with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome include tachycardia at rest, exaggerated heart rate increase with upright position and exercise, crushing chest pain, tremor, syncope, loss of vision, confusion, migraines, fatigue, heat intolerance, parasthesia, dysesthesia, allodynia, altered traditional senses, and thermoregulatory abnormalities. There are a number of possible dermatological manifestations of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome easily explained by its recently discovered pathophysiology. The author reports the case of a 22-year-old woman with moderate-to-severe postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome with numerous dermatological manifestations attributable to the disease process. The cutaneous manifestations observed in this patient are diverse and most noticeable during postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome flares. The most distinct are evanescent, hyperemic, sharply demarcated, irregular patches on the chest and neck area that resolve upon diascopy. This distinct “evanescent hyperemia” disappears spontaneously after seconds to minutes and reappears unexpectedly. Other observed dermatological manifestations of this systemic disease include Raynaud’s phenomenon, koilonychia, onychodystrophy, madarosis, dysesthesia, allodynia, telogen effluvium, increased capillary refill time, and livedo reticularis. The treatment of this disease poses a great challenge. The author reports the unprecedented use of an

  14. Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

  15. New Phenomenon of Abnormal Auditory Perception Associated with Emotional and Head Trauma: Pathological Confirmation by SPECT Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephane, Massoud; Hill, Thomas; Matthew, Elizabeth; Folstein, Marshal

    2004-01-01

    We report the case of an immigrant who suffered from death threats and head trauma while a prisoner of war in Kuwait. Two months later, he began to hear conversations that had taken place previously. These perceptions occurred spontaneously or were induced by the patient's effortful concentration. The single photon emission computerized tomography…

  16. Improvement of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers Using Ultrasonic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobashi, Hiroki; Tajima, Takuya; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko

    This paper proposes a new method for improving an existing abnormality detection system for person who soaks in a bathtub. As the number of aged people increases year by year in Japan, bathing accident of the aged is growing at a rapid rate, especially in-bathtub drowning accident. Therefore, prompt detection of bather's abnormality such as dizziness and fainting is important to prevent in-bathtub drowning. In order to detect bather's abnormality promptly, an abnormality detection system using seven ultrasonic sensors has been proposed. The system uses the following two methods: posture detection and behavior detection, to detect bather's different state from normal before an accident occurs, and improves a delay of detection considered to be a serious problem heretofore. There was however plenty of room for improvement. In order to improve detection rate of the system, we propose a new detection method in this paper. The method uses two ultrasonic sensors to beam bather's head and neck, and detects the head height and swing speed of the head. Experimental results are superior to the accuracy of the existing system, which enables us to detect bather's abnormality more accurately.

  17. Posture and balance control in patients with acromegaly: results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; da Silva, Débora Pedroza Guedes; Kasuki, Leandro; Gadelha, Mônica Roberto; Camilo, Gustavo Bittencourt; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2014-01-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic debilitating disease that presents with multiple systemic manifestations, including changes in body composition, joint abnormalities, muscular impairment and visual disturbances. This study aimed to assess posture and body balance in acromegalic patients and to establish the correlation between these measures. Twenty-eight acromegalic patients and a similar number of control subjects matched for sex, age, weight, height and body mass index underwent postural evaluation using the photogrammetry and measurement of balance using the stabilometry in two tasks: feet apart, eyes open and feet together, eyes closed. In comparison with the control group, the acromegalic group presented postural deviations in lateral views in the vertical alignment of the trunk (P=0.001 for the right side and P=0.021 for the left), the hip angle (P=0001 for the right side and P=0.016 for the left side) and horizontal alignment of the pelvis (P=0.017 for the right and P<0.001 for the left side). Compared with healthy subjects, the acromegalic patients presented displacement of the centre of pressure in both the anterior-posterior direction and the medial-lateral direction in both evaluated tasks. We observed significant correlations between balance measures and the following posture evaluation variables: distance between the lower limbs, horizontal alignment of the head and vertical alignment of the head. Our results suggest that posture and balance need to be evaluated for acromegalic patients in clinical practice, as there are significant postural imbalances and deviations in these patients.

  18. Postural development in rats.

    PubMed

    Lelard, T; Jamon, M; Gasc, J-P; Vidal, P-P

    2006-11-01

    Mammals adopt a limited number of postures during their day-to-day activities. These stereotyped skeletal configurations are functionally adequate and limit the number of degrees of freedom to be controlled by the central nervous system. The temporal pattern of emergence of these configurations in altricial mammals is unknown. We therefore carried out an X-ray study in unrestrained rats from birth (P0) until postnatal day 23 (P23). The X-rays showed that many of the skeletal configurations described in adult rodents were already present at birth. By contrast, limb placement changed abruptly at around P10. These skeletal configurations, observed in anesthetized pups, required the maintenance of precise motor control. On the other hand, motor control continued to mature, as shown by progressive changes in resting posture and head movements from P0 to P23. We suggest that a few innate skeletal configurations provide the necessary frames of reference for the gradual construction of an adult motor repertoire in altricial mammals, such as the rat. The apparent absence of a requirement for external sensorial cues in the maturation of this repertoire may account for the maturation of postural and motor control in utero in precocial mammals (Muir et al., 2000 for a review on the locomotor behavior of altricial and precocial animals).

  19. Ex vivo viscoelastic characterization of head and neck tissue abnormalities using ultrasound-stimulated vibro-acoustography (USVA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccabi, Ashkan; Garritano, James; Arshi, Armin; Saddik, George; Tajudeen, Bobby A.; St. John, Maie; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2014-03-01

    In the absence of an imaging technique that offers a highly dynamic range detection of malignant tissue intra-operatively, surgeons are often forced to excise excess healthy tissue to ensure clear margins of resection. Techniques that are currently used in the detection of tumor regions include palpation, optical coherence tomography (OCT) elastography, dye injections, and conventional ultrasound to pinpoint the affected area. However, these methods suffer from limitations such as minimal specificity, low contrast, and limited depth of penetration. Lack of specificity and low contrast result in the production of vague disease margins and fail to provide a reliable guidance tool for surgeons. The proposed work presents an alternative diagnostic technique, ultrasound-stimulated vibro-acoustography (USVA), which may potentially provide surgeons with detailed intra-operative imagery characterized by enhanced structural boundaries and well-defined borders based on the viscoelastic properties of tissues. We demonstrate selective imaging using ex vivo tissue samples of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with the presence of both malignant and normal areas. Spatially resolved maps of varying acoustic properties were generated and show good contrast between the areas of interest. While the results are promising, determining the precision and sensitivity of the USVA imaging system in identifying boundary regions as well as intensities of ex vivo tissue targets may provide additional information to non-invasively assess confined regions of diseased tissues from healthy areas.

  20. Methods of Postural Assessment Used for Sports Persons

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Deepika

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of postural defects has become very common now-a-days not only in general population but also in sports persons. There are various methods which can be used to assess these postural defects. These methods have evolved over a period of many years. This paper is first of its kind to summarize the methods of postural assessment which have been used and which can be used for evaluation of postural abnormalities in sports persons such as the visual observation, plumbline, goniometry, photographic, radiographic, photogrammetric, flexiruler, electromagnetic tracking device etc. We recommend more and more postural evaluation studies to be done in future based on the photogrammetric method. PMID:24959470

  1. Mutations in Radial Spoke Head Protein Genes RSPH9 and RSPH4A Cause Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia with Central-Microtubular-Pair Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Castleman, Victoria H.; Romio, Leila; Chodhari, Rahul; Hirst, Robert A.; de Castro, Sandra C.P.; Parker, Keith A.; Ybot-Gonzalez, Patricia; Emes, Richard D.; Wilson, Stephen W.; Wallis, Colin; Johnson, Colin A.; Herrera, Rene J.; Rutman, Andrew; Dixon, Mellisa; Shoemark, Amelia; Bush, Andrew; Hogg, Claire; Gardiner, R. Mark; Reish, Orit; Greene, Nicholas D.E.; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Purton, Saul; Chung, Eddie M.K.; Mitchison, Hannah M.

    2009-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous inherited disorder arising from dysmotility of motile cilia and sperm. This is associated with a variety of ultrastructural defects of the cilia and sperm axoneme that affect movement, leading to clinical consequences on respiratory-tract mucociliary clearance and lung function, fertility, and left-right body-axis determination. We performed whole-genome SNP-based linkage analysis in seven consanguineous families with PCD and central-microtubular-pair abnormalities. This identified two loci, in two families with intermittent absence of the central-pair structure (chromosome 6p21.1, Zmax 6.7) and in five families with complete absence of the central pair (chromosome 6q22.1, Zmax 7.0). Mutations were subsequently identified in two positional candidate genes, RSPH9 on chromosome 6p21.1 and RSPH4A on chromosome 6q22.1. Haplotype analysis identified a common ancestral founder effect RSPH4A mutation present in UK-Pakistani pedigrees. Both RSPH9 and RSPH4A encode protein components of the axonemal radial spoke head. In situ hybridization of murine Rsph9 shows gene expression restricted to regions containing motile cilia. Investigation of the effect of knockdown or mutations of RSPH9 orthologs in zebrafish and Chlamydomonas indicate that radial spoke head proteins are important in maintaining normal movement in motile, “9+2”-structure cilia and flagella. This effect is rescued by reintroduction of gene expression for restoration of a normal beat pattern in zebrafish. Disturbance in function of these genes was not associated with defects in left-right axis determination in humans or zebrafish. PMID:19200523

  2. Postural development in school children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lafond, Danik; Descarreaux, Martin; Normand, Martin C; Harrison, Deed E

    2007-01-01

    Background Little information on quantitative sagittal plane postural alignment and evolution in children exists. The objectives of this study are to document the evolution of upright, static, sagittal posture in children and to identify possible critical phases of postural evolution (maturation). Methods A total of 1084 children (aged 4–12 years) received a sagittal postural evaluation with the Biotonix postural analysis system. Data were retrieved from the Biotonix internet database. Children were stratified and analyzed by years of age with n = 36 in the youngest age group (4 years) and n = 184 in the oldest age group (12 years). Children were analyzed in the neutral upright posture. Variables measured were sagittal translation distances in millimeters of: the knee relative to the tarsal joint, pelvis relative to the tarsal joint, shoulder relative to the tarsal joint, and head relative to the tarsal joint. A two-way factorial ANOVA was used to test for age and gender effects on posture, while polynomial trend analyses were used to test for increased postural displacements with years of age. Results Two-way ANOVA yielded a significant main effect of age for all 4 sagittal postural variables and gender for all variables except head translation. No age × gender interaction was found. Polynomial trend analyses showed a significant linear association between child age and all four postural variables: anterior head translation (p < 0.001), anterior shoulder translation (p < 0.001), anterior pelvic translation (p < 0.001), anterior knee translation (p < 0.001). Between the ages of 11 and 12 years, for anterior knee translation, T-test post hoc analysis revealed only one significant rough break in the continuity of the age related trend. Conclusion A significant linear trend for increasing sagittal plane postural translations of the head, thorax, pelvis, and knee was found as children age from 4 years to 12 years. These postural translations provide preliminary

  3. Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)--A novel member of the autoimmune family.

    PubMed

    Dahan, S; Tomljenovic, L; Shoenfeld, Y

    2016-04-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous disorder of the autonomic nervous system in which a change from the supine position to an upright position causes an abnormally large increase in heart rate or tachycardia (30 bpm within 10 min of standing or head-up tilt). This response is accompanied by a decrease in blood flow to the brain and hence a spectrum of symptoms associated with cerebral hypoperfusion. Many of these POTS-related symptoms are also observed in chronic anxiety and panic disorders, and therefore POTS is frequently under- and misdiagnosed.

  4. Posture and posterior crossbite in oral and nasal breathing children.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jecilene Rosana; Pereira, Silvia Regina Amorim; Pignatari, Shirley S N; Weckx, Luc Louis Maurice

    2010-01-01

    The most known etiologic factors of oral breathing may influence the craniofacial development leading to anatomical and functional alterations. A proper head and cervical spine posture allows a well functioning of the stomatognathic system structures and vice versa. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of posterior crossbite in a group of oral breathing children (OB) and nasal (NB) and associate the type of bite with the head and cervical spine posture. It was concluded that most of the children, either oral or nasal breathers, did not present a crossbite and any kind of head posture and cervical spine can vary independently of a posterior crossbite.

  5. Postural control and perceptive configuration: influence of expertise in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Geoffroy; Thouvarecq, Régis; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate how postural adaptations to the perceptive configuration are modified by specific gymnastics experience. Two groups, one expert in gymnastics and the other non-expert, had to maintain the erected posture while optical flow was imposed as follows: 20s motionless, 30s approaching motion, and 20s motionless. The centre of pressure and head displacements were analysed. The postural adaptations were characterised by the variability of movements for the flow conditions and by the postural latencies for the flow transitions. The results showed that the gymnasts tended to minimise their body movements and were more stationary (head) but not more stable (COP) than the non-gymnasts. These results suggest that gymnastics experience develops a specific postural adaptability relative to the perceptive configuration. We conclude that a specific postural experience could be considered as an intrinsic constraint, which leads to modification in the patterns of functional adaptation in the perceptive motor space.

  6. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Head Movements in Cervical Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Prudente, Cecília N.; Stilla, Randall; Singh, Shivangi; Buetefisch, Cathrin; Evatt, Marian; Factor, Stewart A.; Freeman, Alan; Hu, Xiaoping Philip; Hess, Ellen J.; Sathian, K.; Jinnah, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical dystonia (CD) is a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures of the head. The brain regions responsible for these abnormal movements are not well understood, because most imaging techniques for assessing regional brain activity cannot be used when the head is moving. Recently, we mapped brain activation in healthy individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging during isometric head rotation, when muscle contractions occur without actual head movements. In the current study, we used the same methods to explore the neural substrates for head movements in subjects with CD who had predominantly rotational abnormalities (torticollis). Isometric wrist extension was examined for comparison. Electromyography of neck and hand muscles ensured compliance with tasks during scanning, and any head motion was measured and corrected. Data were analyzed in three steps. First, we conducted within-group analyses to examine task-related activation patterns separately in subjects with CD and in healthy controls. Next, we directly compared task-related activation patterns between participants with CD and controls. Finally, considering that the abnormal head movements in CD occur in a consistently patterned direction for each individual, we conducted exploratory analyses that involved normalizing data according to the direction of rotational CD. The between-group comparisons failed to reveal any significant differences, but the normalization procedure in subjects with CD revealed that isometric head rotation in the direction of dystonic head rotation was associated with more activation in the ipsilateral anterior cerebellum, whereas isometric head rotation in the opposite direction was associated with more activity in sensorimotor cortex. These findings suggest that the cerebellum contributes to abnormal head rotation in CD, whereas regions in the cerebral cortex are involved in opposing the involuntary movements. PMID:27895619

  7. Determining postural stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, Erez (Inventor); Forth, Katharine E. (Inventor); Paloski, William H. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for determining postural stability of a person can include acquiring a plurality of pressure data points over a period of time from at least one pressure sensor. The method can also include the step of identifying a postural state for each pressure data point to generate a plurality of postural states. The method can include the step of determining a postural state of the person at a point in time based on at least the plurality of postural states.

  8. Pure hemidystonia with basal ganglion abnormalities on positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, J.S.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-03-01

    We present a patient with hemidystonia and an abnormality of the contralateral basal ganglion seen only with positron emission tomography. A 50-year-old sinistral man suffered minor trauma to the right side of his head and neck. Within 20 minutes he developed paroxysmal intermittent dystonic posturing of his right face, forearm, hand, and foot, with weaker contractions of the left foot, lasting several seconds and recurring every few minutes. Neurological findings between spells were normal. The following were also normal: electrolyte, calcium, magnesium, and arterial blood gas levels, and findings of drug screen, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalography with nasopharyngeal leads, computed tomographic scanning (initially and four weeks later), and cerebral angiography. Positron emission tomographic scanning revealed abnormalities in the left basal ganglion region, including decreased oxygen metabolism, decreased oxygen extraction, increased blood volume, and increased blood flow.

  9. [Primary neurogenic and myogenic disorders of posture].

    PubMed

    Schranz, C; Meinck, H-M

    2004-05-01

    Disturbance of posture may occur in a variety of neurological disorders and occasionally is the presenting or even the only sign. In the majority of cases, the head or the trunk or both are bent forward (bent spine syndrome, dropped head syndrome). A feature of these primary neurogenic or myogenic postural disturbances that is in contrast to antalgic contraction or ankylosis is that they are not fixed, but the trunk or head are easily erected by the examiner and show a characteristic sagging. Neuromuscular disorders are a frequent cause. They may be confined to the paraspinal muscles. Axial computed tomography of the spine, electromyography of the involved muscles, and muscle biopsy help to make the diagnosis. However, also central movement disorders may lead to a sagging of the head or trunk or of both due to a lessened tone of the head and trunk extensors. This is frequently seen in the various parkinsonian syndromes which may, however, occur in association with a focal myopathy of the paraspinal muscles. Occasionally, sagging of the trunk is seen as a side effect of neuropharmacologic medication. Sagging of the trunk or head should be differentiated from a pathologically increased innervation of the ventral muscles in dystonic movement disorders such as antecollis or camptocormia. Pathologic reclination of the head or trunk or both is a rare disturbance of posture. It may occur in dystonia (retrocollis) or, occasionally, as a consequence of musculotendinous contractures secondary to certain neuromuscular disorders such as the rigid spine syndrome.

  10. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Congenital Abnormalities Page Content Article Body About 3% to 4% ... of congenital abnormalities earlier. 5 Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic ...

  11. [Risks of awkward posture].

    PubMed

    Bazzini, G; Capodaglio, E; Panigazzi, M; Prestifilippo, E; Vercesi, C

    2010-01-01

    For posture we mean the position of the body in the space and the relationship with its segments. The correct posture is determined by neurophysiological, biomechanical, emotional, psychological and relation factors, enabling us to perform daily and working activities with the lowest energy expenditure. When possible we suggest during posture variation, a preventive measure where there are prolonged fixed activities.

  12. Postural stability in children with hemiplegia estimated for three postural conditions: standing, sitting and kneeling.

    PubMed

    Szopa, Andrzej; Domagalska-Szopa, Małgorzata

    2015-04-01

    Postural control deficit is one of the most important problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of the presented study was to compare the effects of body posture asymmetry alone (i.e., in children with mild scoliosis) with the effects of body posture impairment (i.e., in children with hemiplegia) on postural stability. Forty-five outpatients with hemiplegia and 51 children with mild scoliosis were assessed using a posturography device. The examination comprised two parts: (1) analysis of the static load distribution; and (2) a posturographic test (CoP measurements) conducted in three postural conditions: standing, sitting and kneeling. Based on the asymmetry index of the unaffected/affected body sides while standing, the children with hemiplegia were divided into two different postural patterns: a pro-gravitational postural pattern (PGPP) and an anti-gravitational postural pattern (AGPP) (Domagalska-Szopa & Szopa (2013). BioMed Research International, 2013, 462094; (2014). Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 10, 113). The group of children with mild scoliosis, considered as a standard for static body weight distribution, was used as the reference group. The results of present study only partially confirmed that children with hemiplegia have increased postural instability. Strong weight distribution asymmetry was found in children with an AGPP, which induced larger lateral-medial CoP displacements compared with children with scoliosis. In children with hemiplegia, distinguishing between their postural patterns may be useful to improve the guidelines for early therapy children with an AGPP before abnormal patterns of weight-bearing asymmetry are fully established.

  13. Forearm posture and mobility in quadrupedal dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    VanBuren, Collin S; Bonnan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination). Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy.

  14. Forearm Posture and Mobility in Quadrupedal Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    VanBuren, Collin S.; Bonnan, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupedality evolved four independent times in dinosaurs; however, the constraints associated with these transitions in limb anatomy and function remain poorly understood, in particular the evolution of forearm posture and rotational ability (i.e., active pronation and supination). Results of previous qualitative studies are inconsistent, likely due to an inability to quantitatively assess the likelihood of their conclusions. We attempt to quantify antebrachial posture and mobility using the radius bone because its morphology is distinct between extant sprawled taxa with a limited active pronation ability and parasagittal taxa that have an enhanced ability to actively pronate the manus. We used a sliding semi-landmark, outline-based geometric morphometric approach of the proximal radial head and a measurement of the angle of curvature of the radius in a sample of 189 mammals, 49 dinosaurs, 35 squamates, 16 birds, and 5 crocodilians. Our results of radial head morphology showed that quadrupedal ceratopsians, bipedal non-hadrosaurid ornithopods, and theropods had limited pronation/supination ability, and sauropodomorphs have unique radial head morphology that likely allowed limited rotational ability. However, the curvature of the radius showed that no dinosaurian clade had the ability to cross the radius about the ulna, suggesting parallel antebrachial elements for all quadrupedal dinosaurs. We conclude that the bipedal origins of all quadrupedal dinosaur clades could have allowed for greater disparity in forelimb posture than previously appreciated, and future studies on dinosaur posture should not limit their classifications to the overly simplistic extant dichotomy. PMID:24058633

  15. Postural consistency in skilled archers.

    PubMed

    Stuart, J; Atha, J

    1990-01-01

    The consistency of an archer's postural set at the moment of loose (arrow release) is commonly perceived to be an important determinant of success. The coach seeks, among other things, to provide the archer with information about postural consistency, details of which he acquires by eye or occasionally by video-recordings. The gains that might be achieved from more precise information are examined here. Nine skilled archers, classified into either skilled or elite groups according to their officially computed handicap, were continuously monitored and measured with a three-dimensional co-ordinate analyser (Charnwood Dynamics Coda-3 Scanner) while shooting two ends (series) of three arrows each. Considerable variability was observed in the precision with which the positions of head, elbow and bow at the moment of loose were replicated by archers of similar levels of skill. These results are interpreted to suggest that precise postural consistency may not be the primary feature distinguishing between the performance of archers at the higher skill levels.

  16. Global Body Posture Evaluation in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Eliza Tiemi; Akashi, Paula Marie Hanai; de Camargo Neves Sacco, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To identify the relationship between anterior disc displacement and global posture (plantar arches, lower limbs, shoulder and pelvic girdle, vertebral spine, head and mandibles). Common signs and symptoms of anterior disc displacement were also identified. INTRODUCTION: Global posture deviations cause body adaptation and realignment, which may interfere with the organization and function of the temporomandibular joint. METHODS : Global posture evaluation was performed in a group of 10 female patients (20 to 30 years of age) with temporomandibular joint disc displacement and in a control group of 16 healthy female volunteers matched for age, weight and height. Anterior disc displacement signs, symptoms and the presence of parafunctional habits were also identified through interview. RESULTS: Patients with disc displacement showed a higher incidence of pain in the temporomandibular joint area, but there were no differences in parafunctional habits between the groups. In the disc displacement group, postural deviations were found in the pelvis (posterior rotation), lumbar spine (hyperlordosis), thoracic spine (rectification), head (deviation to the right) and mandibles (deviation to the left with open mouth). There were no differences in the longitudinal plantar arches between the groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a close relationship between body posture and temporomandibular disorder, though it is not possible to determine whether postural deviations are the cause or the result of the disorder. Hence, postural evaluation could be an important component in the overall approach to providing accurate prevention and treatment in the management of patients with temporomandibular disorder. PMID:19142549

  17. Reduced postural differences between phobic postural vertigo patients and healthy subjects during a postural threat.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Johan; Tjernström, Fredrik; Karlberg, Mikael; Fransson, Per Anders; Magnusson, Måns

    2009-08-01

    Phobic postural vertigo is characterized by subjective imbalance and dizziness while standing or walking, despite normal values for clinical balance tests. Patients with phobic postural vertigo exhibit an increased high-frequency sway in posturographic tests. Their postural sway, however, becomes similar to the sway of healthy subjects during difficult balance tasks. Posturographic recordings of 30 s of quiet stance was compared to recordings of 30 s of quiet stance during a postural threat, which consisted of the knowledge of forthcoming vibratory calf muscle stimulation, in 37 consecutive patients with phobic postural vertigo and 24 healthy subjects. During quiet stance without the threat of forthcoming vibratory stimulation, patients with phobic postural vertigo exhibited a postural sway containing significantly more high-frequency sway than the healthy subjects. During the quiet stance with forthcoming vibratory stimulation, i.e., anticipation of a postural threat, the significant differences between groups disappeared for all variables except sagittal high-frequency sway. During postural threat, healthy subjects seemed to adopt a postural strategy that was similar to that exhibited by phobic postural vertigo patients. The lack of additional effects facing a postural threat among phobic postural vertigo patients may be due to an already maximized postural adaptation. Deviant postural reactions among patients with phobic postural vertigo may be considered as an avoidant postural response due to a constant fear of losing postural control.

  18. Unilateral compression neuropathy of the hypoglossal nerve due to head suspension orthosis in mitochondriopathy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Hess, Barbara

    2004-12-01

    An 85-year-old woman with multisystem mitochondriopathy experienced tension headache, cervical pain, torque head-posture, and vertigo since 1980 for which she was continuously wearing a head-suspension-orthosis- since 1990. Since 1996 she developed severe left-sided weakness and wasting of the tongue. Needle-EMG of the left genioglossus muscle revealed abnormal spontaneous activity and reduced interference-pattern. No morphological alterations in the anatomical course of the hypoglossal nerve were found. Severe, unilateral weakness and wasting of the tongue was interpreted due to chronic compression of the hypoglossal nerve by long-standing use of a head-suspension-orthosis for cervical pain from cervical muscle weakness and resulting spinal degeneration.

  19. Postural deformities in congenital nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, G; Postlethwaite, R J; Lendon, M; Houston, I B; Savage, J M

    1981-01-01

    Six successive cases of congenital nephrotic syndrome are described. Each one showed flexion deformities of the knees and hips, widely open anterior and posterior fontanelles, and wide separation of the skull sutures. These abnormalities were present not only in cases in which the renal histology was of the microcystic Finnish type of congenital nephrotic syndrome, but also in those in which the histological picture was one of the variants associated with congenital nephrotic syndrome. It is suggested that such abnormalities are postural deformities, possibly produced by the large placenta. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7332344

  20. Alveolar abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001093.htm Alveolar abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alveolar abnormalities are changes in the tiny air sacs in ...

  1. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...

  2. The Vestibular-Evoked Postural Response of Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis Is Altered

    PubMed Central

    Pialasse, Jean-Philippe; Descarreaux, Martin; Mercier, Pierre; Blouin, Jean; Simoneau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a multifactorial disorder including neurological factors. A dysfunction of the sensorimotor networks processing vestibular information could be related to spine deformation. This study investigates whether feed-forward vestibulomotor control or sensory reweighting mechanisms are impaired in adolescent scoliosis patients. Vestibular evoked postural responses were obtained using galvanic vestibular stimulation while participants stood with their eyes closed and head facing forward. Lateral forces under each foot and lateral displacement of the upper body of adolescents with mild (n = 20) or severe (n = 16) spine deformation were compared to those of healthy control adolescents (n = 16). Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients demonstrated greater lateral displacement and net lateral forces than controls both during and immediately after vestibular stimulation. Altered sensory reweighting of vestibular and proprioceptive information changed balance control of AIS patients during and after vestibular stimulation. Therefore, scoliosis onset could be related to abnormal sensory reweighting, leading to altered sensorimotor processes. PMID:26580068

  3. Configural processing in body posture recognition: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weidong; Sun, Hongjin

    2013-11-13

    The body inversion effect is the finding that inverted body posture pictures are more difficult to recognize than upright body posture pictures are. The present study reinvestigated the body inversion effect in human observers using behavioral and eye movement measures to explore whether the body inversion effect correlates with specific eye movement features. Results showed that body postures elicited a robust and stable body inversion effect in reaction time throughout the experimental sessions. Eye-tracking data showed that the body inversion effect was robust only in the first fixation duration, but not in the second fixation duration. The analysis of the regions of interest showed that most fixations were located in the upper body for both the upright and the inverted body postures. Compared with inverted body postures, the upright postures led to a shorter reaction time and a shorter first fixation duration, but a larger portion of time to fixate on the head region, suggesting that participants tended to use head as a reference point to process upright body postures. For both the behavioral and the eye movement measures, the body inversion effect was robust for biomechanically possible body postures. However, for biomechanically impossible body postures (with angular manipulation of two joints), the effect was mixed. Although the error rate failed to show the body inversion effect, the reaction time measure and most eye movement measures, however, showed a body inversion effect. Overall, these results suggested that upright body postures are processed in expertise recognition and are processed configurally by human observers.

  4. Craniocervical postural relations and craniofacial morphology in 30 blind subjects.

    PubMed

    Fjellvang, H; Solow, B

    1986-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that head posture is dependent on vision. The head posture of blind persons therefore can be expected to differ from that of normal subjects. This is of interest in the current analyses of the relation between head posture and craniofacial morphology. The purpose of the present investigation was to describe the posture of the head and cervical column and the craniofacial morphology in a group of blind subjects, and to compare the findings with those previously found in male and female groups of normal subjects. The sample comprised 30 blind subjects--18 men and 12 women, aged 15 to 35 years, all of whom had been without perception of light since birth. The control group comprised 120 male dental students in the age range 22 to 30 years and 51 female dental students in the age range 22 to 27 years. The analysis of head posture showed that the intra-and interindividual variabilities of the craniovertical angles were significantly larger than those of the craniocervical angles in the blind group. The interindividual variabilities of the craniovertical angles were significantly larger in the blind than in the control group, but the variabilities of the craniocervical angles were similar in both groups. Craniovertical relations thus were more variable in the blind subjects, whereas craniocervical relations showed the same variability as normal subjects. On the average, the head was carried in a 4.3 degrees lower position in the neck was 4.5 degrees more forward inclined in the blind group. No differences were found in the position of the head in relation to the cervical column between the two groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Addressing the confounding role of joint hypermobility syndrome and gastrointestinal involvement in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Adam D; Fikree, Asma; Aziz, Qasim

    2014-06-01

    Quantitative and qualitative abnormalities in visceral function have been demonstrated in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Joint hypermobility is frequently associated with both postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and gastrointestinal symptoms. Future studies in this area should appropriately and systematically control for the presence of joint hypermobility syndrome.

  6. Reflex control of the spine and posture: a review of the literature from a chiropractic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Morningstar, Mark W; Pettibon, Burl R; Schlappi, Heidi; Schlappi, Mark; Ireland, Trevor V

    2005-01-01

    either in Earth's gravity or in microgravitational environments. Studies testing the function of each postural component, as well as those discussing postural reflex interactions, were also included in this review. Discussion It is quite apparent from the indexed literature we searched that posture is largely maintained by reflexive, involuntary control. While reflexive components for postural control are found in skin and joint receptors, somatic graviceptors, and baroreceptors throughout the body, much of the reflexive postural control mechanisms are housed, or occur, within the head and neck region primarily. We suggest that the postural reflexes may function in a hierarchical fashion. This hierarchy may well be based on the gravity-dependent or gravity-independent nature of each postural reflex. Some or all of these postural reflexes may contribute to the development of a postural body scheme, a conceptual internal representation of the external environment under normal gravity. This model may be the framework through which the postural reflexes anticipate and adapt to new gravitational environments. Conclusion Visual and vestibular input, as well as joint and soft tissue mechanoreceptors, are major players in the regulation of static upright posture. Each of these input sources detects and responds to specific types of postural stimulus and perturbations, and each region has specific pathways by which it communicates with other postural reflexes, as well as higher central nervous system structures. This review of the postural reflex structures and mechanisms adds to the growing body of posture rehabilitation literature relating specifically to chiropractic treatment. Chiropractic interest in these reflexes may enhance the ability of chiropractic physicians to treat and correct global spine and posture disorders. With the knowledge and understanding of these postural reflexes, chiropractors can evaluate spinal configurations not only from a segmental perspective, but

  7. The Relationship Between the Stomatognathic System and Body Posture

    PubMed Central

    Cuccia, Antonino; Caradonna, Carola

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing), oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system’s proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus). If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss. PMID:19142553

  8. Effect of absence of vision on posture

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z.; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A.; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the resulting postural deficiencies, and strategies to correct and prevent them. [Subjects and Methods] Various electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar were examined using the words “body”, “posture”, “blind” and “absence of vision”. References in the retrieved articles were also examined for cross-references. The search was limited to articles in the English language. [Results] A total of 74 papers were shortlisted for this review, most of which dated back to the 1950s and 60s. [Conclusion] Blind people exhibit consistent musculoskeletal deformities. Absence of vision leads to numerous abnormal sensory and motor interactions that often limit blind people in isolation. Rehabilitation of the blind is a multidisciplinary task. Specialists from different fields need to diagnose and treat the deficiencies of the blind together as a team. Before restoring the normal mechanics of posture and gait, the missing link with the external world should be reestablished. PMID:27190486

  9. Posture and the circulation: the age effect.

    PubMed

    Smith, J J; Porth, C J

    1991-01-01

    The primary instigator of circulatory response to the upright posture is the rapid displacement of about 10% of blood volume from the thorax to the lower body. The resultant hemodynamic deficit induces postural intolerance, especially orthostatic hypotension, in elderly over 70 years of age and in some young subjects after exposure to weightlessness. In this review, our objectives have been: 1) to describe in the normal subject the hemodynamic consequences of the headup posture, as well as lower body negative pressure, the compensatory responses intended to cope with these stresses, and their mechanisms; 2) to outline the effect of age on the circulatory responses to these stresses; and (3) to analyze and compare the tests currently used to assess circulatory tolerance. Our ability to design effective countermeasures to orthostatic circulatory intolerance is severely handicapped by our inadequate knowledge of the basic hemodynamic events incident to normal and abnormal orthostatic tolerance. We believe that better understanding and standardization of the postural tests, better experimental design to include greater emphasis on inter and intra-individual variability, and wider application of currently available noninvasive circulatory techniques would greatly improve the prospects for success in this research area.

  10. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  11. Trunk Accelerometry Reveals Postural Instability in Untreated Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B.; Zampieri, Cris; Carlson-Kuhta, Patricia; Nutt, John G.; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    While several studies have shown that subjects with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit abnormalities in sway parameters during quiet standing, abnormalities of postural sway associated with untreated PD have not been reported. Although not clinically apparent, we hypothesized that spontaneous sway in quiet stance is abnormal in people with untreated PD. We examined 13 subjects, recently diagnosed with PD, who were not yet taking any anti-parkinsonian medications and 12 healthy, age-matched control subjects. Postural sway was measured with a linear accelerometer on the posterior trunk (L5 level) and compared with traditional forceplate measures of sway. Subjects stood for two minutes under two conditions: eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). One of the most discriminative measures of postural changes in subjects with untreated PD was the increased ‘JERK’ of lower trunk in the EO condition, measured with the accelerometer. Root mean square and the frequency dispersion of postural sway in the EO condition also discriminated sway in untreated PD subjects compared to controls subjects. We conclude that accelerometer-based sway metrics could be used as objective measures of postural instability in untreated PD. Accelerometer-based analysis of spontaneous sway may provide a powerful tool for early clinical trials and for monitoring the effects of treatment of balance disorders in subjects with PD. PMID:21641263

  12. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Posture variation among office workers when using different information and communication technologies at work and away from work.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, Marina; Straker, Leon; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Pollock, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Office workers perform tasks using different information and communication technologies (ICT) involving various postures. Adequate variation in postures and muscle activity is generally believed to protect against musculoskeletal complaints, but insufficient information exists regarding the effect on postural variation of using different ICT. Thus, this study among office workers aimed to determine and compare postures and postural variation associated with using distinct types of ICT. Upper arm, head and trunk postures of 24 office workers were measured with the Physiometer over a whole day in their natural work and away-from-work environments. Postural variation was quantified using two indices: APDF(90-10) and EVA(sd). Various ICT had different postural means and variation. Paper-based tasks had more non-neutral, yet also more variable postures. Electronics-based tasks had more neutral postures, with less postural variability. Tasks simultaneously using paper- and electronics-based ICT had least neutral and least variable postures. Tasks without ICT usually had the most posture variability. Interspersing tasks involving different ICT could increase overall exposure variation among office workers and may thus contribute to musculoskeletal risk reduction.

  14. Autoimmune Basis for Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-14

    Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome; Postural Tachycardia Syndrome; Tachycardia; Arrhythmias, Cardiac; Autonomic Nervous System Diseases; Orthostatic Intolerance; Cardiovascular Diseases; Primary Dysautonomias

  15. Reversible dropped head syndrome after hemispheric striatal infarction.

    PubMed

    Funabe, Sayaka; Tanaka, Ryota; Hayashi, Akito; Yamashiro, Kazuo; Shimura, Hideki; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2014-04-01

    We report a rare case of transient "dropped head syndrome" (DHS) after acute ischemic stroke. A 64-year-old man noticed a sudden onset of mild weakness in his left hand and also difficulty in preventing his head from dropping onto his chest without weakness of the neck extensor muscles. Magnetic resonance images showed acute ischemic changes at the right putamen and caudate nucleus. Surface electromyography (EMG) performed 3 days after the stroke showed that both trapeziuses were hypertonic at rest, whereas the activity of the sternocleidomastoids was gradually increased on passive head lifting, indicating dystonia of the neck muscles. His dropped head fully improved by 9 days after the stroke. Re-examination by surface EMG 30 days after the stroke showed no hypertonic activity in the neck muscles. DHS is characterized by an abnormal ante-fixed posture of the neck, usually observed in patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as multiple system atrophy and Parkinson disease. This is the first case of reversible DHS after acute ischemic stroke, and the accumulation of similar cases will be important to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of DHS and stroke-associated movement disorders.

  16. Not just standing there: the use of postural coordination to aid visual tasks.

    PubMed

    Smart, L James; Mobley, Brandy S; Otten, Edward W; Smith, Dean L; Amin, Maryse R

    2004-04-01

    Postural control is an integral part of all physical behavior. Recent research has indicated that postural control functions in a manner that facilitates other higher order (suprapostural) tasks. These studies, while showing that postural sway is modulated in a task specific manner, have not examined the form of postural coordination that allows for the achievement of these higher behavioral goals. The current study examined the relation between visual task constraints (viewing distance), environmental constraints (changes in the surface of support), and the postural coordination employed to complete the task. Thirty-one participants were asked to perform a reading task while standing on various surfaces. Postural motion was recorded from the head, cervico-thoracic spine, sacrum (hip), and ankle. It was found that body segment coordination changed as a function of surface characteristics and task constraints. Additionally, the overall pattern of postural sway (head motion) replicated that which was found by Stoffregen et al. [J. Exp. Psychol. Human Percep. Perform. 25 (6) (1999) 1641]. These findings suggest that postural adaptation involves more than basic reduction or increase of motion; it involves the functional coordination of body segments to achieve a particular goal. The data further suggest that there is a need to examine postural control in the absence of external perturbations.

  17. Perceptions of sitting posture among members of the community, both with and without non-specific chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Kieran; O'Keeffe, Mary; O'Sullivan, Leonard; O'Sullivan, Peter; Dankaerts, Wim

    2013-12-01

    Physiotherapists perceive upright, lordotic sitting postures to be important in the management of non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). Little is known about the perceptions of the wider community about seated posture, despite this being an important consideration before attempting to change seated posture. This study investigated perceptions of the best and worst sitting postures among members of the community, both with (n = 120) and without (n = 235) NSCLBP. Participants with NSCLBP perceived posture to be more important (p < 0.001), and reported thinking about their posture significantly more frequently (p < 0.001), than those without NSCLBP. 54% of participants selected a "neutral" lordotic sitting posture as their best posture, which was more frequent than any other posture (p < 0.001). Sitting postures which were "straight", and were perceived to keep the head, neck and shoulders in good alignment were preferred. However, what people considered "straight" varied considerably. 78% selected a slumped sitting posture as their worst posture, which was more frequent than any other posture (p < 0.001). The choice of best and worst sitting postures was not significantly influenced by gender, the presence of NSCLBP, or measures of pain, disability or back pain beliefs. Interestingly, a very upright sitting posture was the second most popular selection as both the best (19%) and worst (15%) posture. Overall, lordotic lumbar postures were strongly favoured among members of the community, which is broadly in line with the previously reported perceptions of physiotherapists.

  18. Effects of vestibular loss on head stabilization in response to head and body perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Control of head position during postural responses is important to facilitate both the interpretation of vestibular signals and the stabilization of gaze. In these experiments, we compared head stabilization for two different postural tasks: 1) in response to perturbations at the head, and 2) in response to perturbations induced at the support surface, which perturb both body and head position. To determine whether normal vestibular function is necessary for head stabilization in these two tasks, responses to forward and backward mechanical perturbations of the head and body were compared for 13 normal subjects and 4 patients with profound bilateral vestibular loss (two with vestibular loss in adulthood and two in infancy). Normal subjects showed little neck muscle activity for body perturbations, but large, early activations in both neck extensors and flexors for head perturbations. In contrast, vestibular patients showed excessive neck muscle activation for body perturbations and reduced or absent neck muscle activity for head perturbations. Patients with vestibular loss in adulthood also showed increased head acceleration in response to both head and body perturbations, but patients with vestibular loss in infancy showed more normal head accelerations. For body perturbations, the differences in head acceleration between patients and normals were greater for later head acceleration peaks, indicating poor head control during the execution of the postural response. Trunk angle changes were also higher in the patients for forward body perturbations, indicating that poorer control of trunk position could have contributed to their poorer head stabilization. These results indicate that the vestibular system plays an important role in head and trunk stabilization for both head and body perturbations. However, the more normal head accelerations of the patients with infant vestibular loss also indicate that other mechanisms, possibly involving neck reflexes, can at least

  19. Comparison of Postural Recovery Following Short and Long Duration Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Fiedler, J.; Taylor, L. C.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Black, F. O.; Paloski, W. H.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Post-flight postural ataxia reflects adaptive changes to vestibulo-spinal reflexes and control strategies adopted for movement in weightlessness. Quantitative measures obtained during computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) from US and Russian programs provide insight into the effect of spaceflight duration in terms of both the initial decrements and recovery of postural stability. METHODS: CDP was obtained on 117 crewmembers following Shuttle flights lasting 4-17 days, and on 64 crewmembers following long-duration missions lasting 48-380 days. Although the number and timing of sessions varied, the goal was to characterize postural recovery pooling similar measures from different research and flight medicine programs. This report focuses on eyes closed, head erect conditions with either a fixed or sway-referenced base of support. A smaller subset of subjects repeated the sway-referenced condition while making pitch head movements (+/- 20deg at 0.33Hz). Equilibrium scores were derived from peak-to-peak anterior-posterior sway. Fall probability was modeled using Bayesian statistical methods to estimate parameters of a logit function. RESULTS: The standard Romberg condition was the least sensitive. Longer duration flights led to larger decrements in stability with sway-reference support during the first 1-2 days, although the timecourse of recovery was similar across flight duration with head erect. Head movements led to increased incidence of falls during the first week, with a significantly longer recovery following long duration flights. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic assessment of postural instability, and differences in the timecourse of postural recovery between short and long flight durations, are more pronounced during unstable support conditions requiring active head movements.

  20. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... or head trauma Brain tumor Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) Cerebral palsy Cervical spondylosis with myelopathy (a problem with the ... 22. Read More Arthritis Bunions Central nervous system Cerebral palsy Dizziness Ingrown toenail Multiple sclerosis Muscular dystrophy Myositis ...

  1. [Orthostatic postural tachycardia: study of 8 patients].

    PubMed

    Santiago Pérez, S; Ferrer Gila, T

    1998-02-07

    The occurrence of syncopal episodes is a very frequent event. In the absence of a structural systemic or cardiac disease, syncope is resulting of an anomalous cardiovascular response neurally mediated by the autonomic nervous system. It is the final common manifestation of different abnormal mechanisms and is frequently precipitated by orthostatism. Orthostatic intolerance syndrome refers to the development of symptoms during the upright posture that disappear in supine position. Tachycardia may be one of the clinical features of the syndrome. During orthostatic stress a hyperadrenergic response, with maintained increment of heart rate and associated symptoms, is developed. Changes in blood pressure may be diverse and in some cases hypotension and syncope occurs. Eight patients with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance who underwent autonomic evaluation and were diagnosed from postural tachycardia are presented. In all the cases an abnormal increment of heart rate during tilting was found and it was associated to hyperadrenergic symptoms. Evidence of restricted sympathetic impairment was observed in six cases with distal reduction of sudomotor function and abnormal adrenergic response during Valsalva manoeuvre. Symptoms disappeared or mostly subsided with pharmacological (amitriptyline in one case, phenobarbital in another one and non-cardioselective beta-blockers in six patients) and non-pharmacological treatment. In further examinations heart rate and blood pressure were normal.

  2. Stance Postural Strategies in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Missori, Paolo; Trompetto, Carlo; Fattapposta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Polyneuropathy leads to postural instability and an increased risk of falling. We investigated how impaired motor impairment and proprioceptive input due to neuropathy influences postural strategies. Methods Platformless bisegmental posturography data were recorded in healthy subjects and patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Each subject stood on the floor, wore a head and a hip electromagnetic tracker. Sway amplitude and velocity were recorded and the mean direction difference (MDD) in the velocity vector between trackers was calculated as a flexibility index. Results Head and hip postural sway increased more in patients with CIDP than in healthy controls. MDD values reflecting hip strategies also increased more in patients than in controls. In the eyes closed condition MDD values in healthy subjects decreased but in patients remained unchanged. Discussion Sensori-motor impairment changes the balance between postural strategies that patients adopt to maintain upright quiet stance. Motor impairment leads to hip postural strategy overweight (eyes open), and prevents strategy re-balancing when the sensory context predominantly relies on proprioceptive input (eyes closed). PMID:26977594

  3. Posture and Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TP3 includes short reports on: (1) Modification of Goal-Directed Arm Movements During Inflight Adaptation to Microgravity; (2) Quantitative Analysis of Motion control in Long Term Microgravity; (3) Does the Centre of Gravity Remain the Stabilised Reference during Complex Human Postural Equilibrium Tasks in Weightlessness?; and (4) Arm End-Point Trajectories Under Normal and Microgravity Environments.

  4. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A K; Garg, R; Ritch, A; Sarkar, P

    2007-07-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is an autonomic disturbance which has become better understood in recent years. It is now thought to encompass a group of disorders that have similar clinical features, such as orthostatic intolerance, but individual distinguishing parameters--for example, blood pressure and pulse rate. The clinical picture, diagnosis, and management of POTS are discussed.

  5. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M

    1992-01-01

    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  6. Evidence from the eyes: Threatening postures hold attention.

    PubMed

    Azarian, Bobby; Esser, Elizabeth G; Peterson, Matthew S

    2016-06-01

    Efficient detection of threat provides obvious survival advantages and has resulted in a fast and accurate threat-detection system. Although beneficial under normal circumstances, this system may become hypersensitive and cause threat-processing abnormalities. Past research has shown that anxious individuals have difficulty disengaging attention from threatening faces, but it is unknown whether other forms of threatening social stimuli also influence attentional orienting. Much like faces, human body postures are salient social stimuli, because they are informative of one's emotional state and next likely action. Additionally, postures can convey such information in situations in which another's facial expression is not easily visible. Here we investigated whether there is a threat-specific effect for high-anxious individuals, by measuring the time that it takes the eyes to leave the attended stimulus, a task-irrelevant body posture. The results showed that relative to nonthreating postures, threat-related postures hold attention in anxious individuals, providing further evidence of an anxiety-related attentional bias for threatening information. This is the first study to demonstrate that attentional disengagement from threatening postures is affected by emotional valence in those reporting anxiety.

  7. Developing a framework for assessing muscle effort and postures during computer work in the field: the effect of computer activities on neck/shoulder muscle effort and postures.

    PubMed

    Bruno Garza, J L; Eijckelhof, B H W; Johnson, P W; Raina, S M; Rynell, P; Huysmans, M A; van Dieën, J H; van der Beek, A J; Blatter, B M; Dennerlein, J T

    2012-01-01

    The present study, a part of the PROOF (PRedicting Occupational biomechanics in OFfice workers) study, aimed to determine whether trapezius muscle effort was different across computer activities in a field study of computer workers, and also investigated whether head and shoulder postures were different across computer activities. One hundred twenty participants were measured continuously for two hours each while performing their own computer work. Keyboard activities were associated with the highest intensity of left and right trapezius muscle efforts, and mouse activities were associated with the smallest variability in left and right trapezius muscle efforts. Corresponding trends in head and shoulder postures included that the greatest head flexion and left and right shoulder internal rotation was observed during keyboard activities, and that the smallest variability in head flexion, head lateral tilt, and right shoulder internal rotation was observed during mouse activities. Identifying which muscle efforts and postures are different across computer activities is the first essential step for developing prediction rules for muscle efforts and postures, which can be used to link muscle efforts and postures to musculoskeletal symptoms in epidemiological studies.

  8. Sympathovagal balance analysis in idiopathic postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Russo, Vincenzo; De Crescenzo, Ilaria; Ammendola, Ernesto; Santangelo, Lucio; Calabrò, Raffaele

    2007-08-01

    The idiopathic postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a complex disorder characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms and an increase in heart rate within 10 minutes of standing on upright posture, without significant orthostatic hypotension. We describe a case of a 36 year-old patient with POTS, diagnosed by head-up tilt testing. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), performed during the tilt test, revealed the ratio of low and high frequency powers (LF/HF) that increased with the onset of orthostatic intolerance. The increase in LF/HF power ratio may represent sympathetic beta-receptors hyperactivity. Atenolol alleviated his clinical symptoms.

  9. Quantification of the postural and technical errors in asymptomatic adults using direct 3D whole body scan measurements of standing posture.

    PubMed

    Tomkinson, Grant R; Shaw, Linda G

    2013-02-01

    Measurement repeatability has important decision-making implications for clinicians and researchers when assessing individuals. The aims of this study were to quantify: (a) the repeatability of direct measurements of standing posture using three dimensional (3D) whole body scanning, and (b) the magnitude of the postural and technical errors involved. Fifty-two asymptomatic adults were scanned twice, 24h apart, using the Vitus Smart 3D whole body scanner. Eleven clinically relevant standing postural measurements were calculated from scan-extracted data. The process was repeated with 10 shop mannequins. Systematic error was expressed as absolute changes in means and as standardised effect sizes, with random (within-subject) error expressed as the typical error. Technical error was calculated as the typical error in the measurement of mannequins; total error as the typical error in the measurement of subjects; and postural error as the square root of the difference between the squared total error and the squared technical error. Most standing postural measurements demonstrated good repeatability, with median (95% CI) systematic and random errors of -0.1° (1.1°) and 2.8° (1.9°), respectively. However, head and neck postures demonstrated poor repeatability due to large random errors brought about by large postural errors. Overall, most of the error was due to postural error rather than technical error. The relatively small technical errors highlight that this 3D measurement process is generally repeatable, while the relatively large postural errors related to the head and neck suggest that these postures probably lack the precision to be clinically useful using this procedure.

  10. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  11. Natural convection around the human head.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R P; Toy, N

    1975-01-01

    1. Factors determining the convective flow patterns around the human head in 'still' conditions are discussed in relation to body posture. 2. The flow patterns have been visualized using a schlieren optical system which reveals that the head has a thicker 'insulating' layer of convecting air in the erect posture than in the supine position. 3. Local convective and radiative heat transfer measurements from the head have been using surface calorimeters. These results are seen to be closely related to the thickness of the convective boundary layer flows. 4. The total convective and radiative heat loss from the head of a subject in the erect and supine position has been evaluated from the local measurements. For the head of the supine subject the heat loss was found to be 30% more than when the subject was standing. Images Plate 1 PMID:1142118

  12. Posture Statement 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    dispersed, comprising formal, informal, family, and cultural associations tied by varied and sometimes near- invisible links. Th ey ex- ploit the...coordination, and communication between all levels of government. USSOCOM’s leadership, vision, and initiative in prosecuting the GWOT was validated most...Rather, the new vision expresses a need for low density, high demand SOF assets to be postured with a “presence for purpose”, to be at the “right place

  13. Can Postural Instability Respond to Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Okada, Yohei; Kiriyama, Takao; Kita, Yorihiro; Nakamura, Junji; Morioka, Shu; Shomoto, Koji; Ueno, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) activates the vestibular afferents, and these changes in vestibular input exert a strong influence on the subject’s posture or standing balance. In patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), vestibular dysfunction might contribute to postural instability and gait disorders. Methods Current intensity was increased to 0.7 mA, and the current was applied to the patients for 20 minutes. To perform a sham stimulation, the current intensity was increased as described and then decreased to 0 mA over the course of 10 seconds. The patient’s status was recorded continuously for 20 minutes with the patient in the supine position. Results Three out of 5 patients diagnosed with PD with postural instability and/or abnormal axial posture showed a reduction in postural instability after GVS. The score for item 12 of the revised Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part 3 was decreased in these patients. Conclusions The mechanism of postural instability is complex and not completely understood. In 2 out of the 5 patients, postural instability was not changed in response to GVS. Nonetheless, the GVS-induced change in postural instability for 3 patients in our study suggests that GVS might be a therapeutic option for postural instability. PMID:26648182

  14. Postural balance and the risk of falling during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Bulent; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Inanir, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological process and many changes occur in a woman's body during pregnancy. These changes occur in all systems to varying degrees, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems. The hormonal, anatomical, and physiological changes occurring during pregnancy result in weight gain, decreased abdominal muscle strength and neuromuscular control, increased ligamentous laxity, and spinal lordosis. These alterations shift the centre of gravity of the body, altering the postural balance and increasing the risk of falls. Falls during pregnancy can cause maternal and foetal complications, such as maternal bone fractures, head injuries, internal haemorrhage, abruption placenta, rupture of the uterus and membranes, and occasionally maternal death or intrauterine foetal demise. Preventative strategies, such as physical exercise and the use of maternity support belts, can increase postural stability and reduce the risk of falls during pregnancy. This article reviews studies that have investigated changes in postural balance and risk of falling during pregnancy.

  15. Posture modulates implicit hand maps.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    Several forms of somatosensation require that afferent signals be informed by stored representations of body size and shape. Recent results have revealed that position sense relies on a highly distorted body representation. Changes of internal hand posture produce plastic alterations of processing in somatosensory cortex. This study therefore investigated how such postural changes affect implicit body representations underlying position sense. Participants localised the knuckles and tips of each finger in external space in two postures: the fingers splayed (Apart posture) or pressed together (Together posture). Comparison of the relative locations of the judgments of each landmark were used to construct implicit maps of represented hand structure. Spreading the fingers apart produced increases in the implicit representation of hand size, with no apparent effect on hand shape. Thus, changes of internal hand posture produce rapid modulation of how the hand itself is represented, paralleling the known effects on somatosensory cortical processing.

  16. Forced Changes of Combat Posture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-30

    effectiveness. Adkins’s thesi-s on modeling battlefield decision-making provided additional factors. M& Quic addressed the questien of posture change directly in...the study was to gain increased knowledge of the fac- - tors associated with forced changes in combat posture, in order to develop a model of forced...posture change model for use, with appro- priate parameter values, at the divisional and regimental levels. Principles guiding the model development may

  17. Reliability of upright posture measurements in primary school children

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Maureen P; Grimmer, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Background Correct upright posture is considered to be a measure of good musculoskeletal health. Little is known about the usual variability of children's upright standing posture. The aim of this study was to assess differences between repeated measures of upright posture in a group of primary school children. Methods Sagittal plane photographs of usual, relaxed upright standing posture of 38 boys and girls aged 5–12 years were taken twice within an hour. Reflective markers were placed over the canthus, tragus, C7 spinous process, greater trochanter and lateral malleolus. Digitising software was used to calculate the x,y plane coordinates, from which five postural angles were calculated (trunk, neck, gaze, head on neck, lower limb). Height, weight, motor control estimates (as measured by the Brace Tests) and presence of recent pain were recorded for each child, and the association between the first test measure of posture angles and these factors was assessed using linear regression and ANOVA models. Multiple ANOVA models were applied to analyse the effect of repeated testing, and significant predictors on the angles. Results Four of the five postural angles (trunk, neck, head on neck, lower limb) were significantly influenced by age. As age was strongly associated with height (r2 = 0.84) and moderately associated with weight and motor control (r2 = 0.67, 0.56 respectively), these developmental parameters may well explain the age effect on angles. There was no relationship between age and pain reported on either the testing day, or recently, and there was no gender influence on any angle. There was no significant effect of repeated testing on any angle (ICC>0.93). None of the hypothesized predictors were associated with differences in angles from repeated testing. Conclusion This study outlined the variability of relaxed upright standing posture of children aged 5–12 years, when measured twice in an hour. Age influenced the size of the angles but not the

  18. Pilot Study: Measuring the Effects of Center of Gravity Shift on Postural Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Times-Marshall, Chelsea; Reschke, Millard

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that astronauts returning from space often experience postural instability due to the stimulus rearrangement of the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. However, postural control may also be influenced by the head-ward shift in their center of gravity (CG) that occurs as a result of the expansion of their spinal column by as much as two inches during long duration space flight, as well as the CG shift that occurs from the Life Support Pack on the extra-vehicular activity (EVA) suit. This study investigated the effect on postural stability after (1) an immediate shift in the CG towards the head, (2) a 30 minute adaptation to the shifted CG, and (3) immediate shift of the CG back to normal, accomplished by donning and removing a modified backpack. We hypothesized that at each immediate shift in CG, postural performance will be compromised.

  19. Destabilization of Human Balance Control by Static and Dynamic Head Tilts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Wood, Scott J.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Black, F. Owen; Hwang, Emma Y.; Reschke, Millard F.

    2004-01-01

    To better understand the effects of varying head movement frequencies on human balance control, 12 healthy adult humans were studied during static and dynamic (0.14,0.33,0.6 Hz) head tilts of +/-30deg in the pitch and roll planes. Postural sway was measured during upright stance with eyes closed and altered somatosensory inputs provided by a computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) system. Subjects were able to maintain upright stance with static head tilts, although postural sway was increased during neck extension. Postural stability was decreased during dynamic head tilts, and the degree of destabilization varied directly with increasing frequency of head tilt. In the absence of vision and accurate foot support surface inputs, postural stability may be compromised during dynamic head tilts due to a decreased ability of the vestibular system to discern the orientation of gravity.

  20. The spinal posture of computing adolescents in a real-life setting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is assumed that good postural alignment is associated with the less likelihood of musculoskeletal pain symptoms. Encouraging good sitting postures have not reported consequent musculoskeletal pain reduction in school-based populations, possibly due to a lack of clear understanding of good posture. Therefore this paper describes the variability of postural angles in a cohort of asymptomatic high-school students whilst working on desk-top computers in a school computer classroom and to report on the relationship between the postural angles and age, gender, height, weight and computer use. Methods The baseline data from a 12 month longitudinal study is reported. The study was conducted in South African school computer classrooms. 194 Grade 10 high-school students, from randomly selected high-schools, aged 15–17 years, enrolled in Computer Application Technology for the first time, asymptomatic during the preceding month, and from whom written informed consent were obtained, participated in the study. The 3D Posture Analysis Tool captured five postural angles (head flexion, neck flexion, cranio-cervical angle, trunk flexion and head lateral bend) while the students were working on desk-top computers. Height, weight and computer use were also measured. Individual and combinations of postural angles were analysed. Results 944 Students were screened for eligibility of which the data of 194 students are reported. Trunk flexion was the most variable angle. Increased neck flexion and the combination of increased head flexion, neck flexion and trunk flexion were significantly associated with increased weight and BMI (p = 0.0001). Conclusions High-school students sit with greater ranges of trunk flexion (leaning forward or reclining) when using the classroom computer. Increased weight is significantly associated with increased sagittal plane postural angles. PMID:24950887

  1. Advanced Techniques for Assessment of Postural and Locomotor Ataxia, Spatial Orientation, and Gaze Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, Conrad., III

    1999-01-01

    In addition to adapting to microgravity, major neurovestibular problems of space flight include postflight difficulties with standing, walking, turning corners, and other activities that require stable upright posture and gaze stability. These difficulties inhibit astronauts' ability to stand or escape from their vehicle during emergencies. The long-ter7n goal of the NSBRI is the development of countermeasures to ameliorate the effects of long duration space flight. These countermeasures must be tested with valid and reliable tools. This project aims to develop quantitative, parametric approaches for assessing gaze stability and spatial orientation during normal gait and when gait is perturbed. Two of this year's most important findings concern head fixation distance and ideal trajectory analysis. During a normal cycle of walking the head moves up and down linearly. A simultaneous angular pitching motion of the head keeps it aligned toward an imaginary point in space at a distance of about one meter in front of a subject and along the line of march. This distance is called the head fixation distance. Head fixation distance provides the fundamental framework necessary for understanding the functional significance of the vestibular reflexes that couple head motion to eye motion. This framework facilitates the intelligent design of counter-measures for the effects of exposure to microgravity upon the vestibular ocular reflexes. Ideal trajectory analysis is a simple candidate countermeasure based upon quantifying body sway during repeated up and down stair stepping. It provides one number that estimates the body sway deviation from an ideal sinusoidal body sway trajectory normalized on the subject's height. This concept has been developed with NSBRI funding in less than one year. These findings are explained in more detail below. Compared to assessments of the vestibuo-ocular reflex, analysis of vestibular effects on locomotor function is relatively less well developed

  2. Relationship between antigravity control and postural control in young children.

    PubMed

    Sellers, J S

    1988-04-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the relationship between antigravity control (supine flexion and prone extension) and postural control (static and dynamic balance), 2) to determine the quality of antigravity and postural control, and 3) to determine whether sex and ethnic group differences correlate with differences in antigravity control and postural control in young children. I tested 107 black, Hispanic, and Caucasian children in a Head Start program, with a mean age of 61 months. The study results showed significant relationships between antigravity control and postural control. Subjects' supine flexion performance was significantly related to the quantity and quality of their static and dynamic balance performance, whereas prone extension performance was related only to the quality of dynamic balance performance. Quality scale measurements (r = .90) indicated that the children in this study had not yet developed full antigravity or postural control. The study results revealed differences between sexes in the quality of static balance and prone extension performance and ethnic differences in static balance, dynamic balance, and prone extension performance.

  3. Persons with lower-limb amputation have impaired trunk postural control while maintaining seated balance.

    PubMed

    Hendershot, Brad D; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2013-07-01

    Abnormal mechanics of movement resulting from lower-limb amputation (LLA) may increase stability demands on the spinal column and/or alter existing postural control mechanisms and neuromuscular responses. A seated balance task was used to investigate the effects of LLA on trunk postural control and stability, among eight males with unilateral LLA (4 transtibial, 4 transfemoral), and eight healthy, non-amputation controls (matched by age, stature, and body mass). Traditional measures derived from center of pressure (COP) time series, and measures obtained from non-linear stabilogram diffusion analyses, were used to characterize trunk postural control. All traditional measures of postural control (95% ellipse area, RMS distance, and mean velocity) were significantly larger among participants with LLA. Non-linear stabilogram diffusion analyses also revealed significant differences in postural control among persons with LLA, but only in the antero-posterior direction. Normalized trunk muscle activity was also larger among participants with LLA. Larger COP-based sway measures among participants with LLA during seated balance suggest an association between LLA and reduced trunk postural control. Reductions in postural control and spinal stability may be a result of adaptations in functional tissue properties and/or neuromuscular responses, and may potentially be caused by repetitive exposure to abnormal gait and movement. Such alterations could then lead to an increased risk for spinal instability, intervertebral motions beyond physiological limits, and pain.

  4. Determining posture from physiological tremor.

    PubMed

    Albert, Mark V; Kording, Konrad P

    2011-12-01

    The measurement of body and limb posture is important to many clinical and research studies. Current approaches either directly measure posture (e.g., using optical or magnetic methods) or more indirectly measure it by integrating changes over time (e.g., using gyroscopes and/or accelerometers). Here, we introduce a way of estimating posture from movements without requiring integration over time and the resulting complications. We show how the almost imperceptible tremor of the hand is affected by posture in an intuitive way and therefore can be used to estimate the posture of the arm. We recorded postures and tremor of the arms of volunteers. By using only the minor axis in the covariance of hand tremor, we could estimate the angle of the forearm with a standard deviation of about 4° when the subject's elbow is resting on a table and about 10° when it is off the table. This technique can also be applied as a post hoc analysis on other hand-position data sets to extract posture. This new method allows the estimation of body posture from tremor, is complementary to other techniques, and so can become a useful tool for future research and clinical applications.

  5. Sitting bodily configuration: a study investigating the intra-tester reliability of positioning subjects into a predetermined sitting posture.

    PubMed

    Korakakis, Vasileios; Sideris, Vasilis; Giakas, Giannis

    2014-06-01

    Sitting posture predominates in lifestyle and workplace, but quantitative postural designation is limited due to divergence of methodology used in the studies. To date, no study has investigated the upper body's habitual or a predetermined sitting posture in healthy individuals assessing together pelvis, spine and head. The objectives were (i) assessment of intra-rater reliability of positioning subjects to a lordotic sitting posture and (ii) comparison of habitual sitting posture (HSP) with the lordotic posture. Another objective was to synthesize and propose an improved 3D model for pelvis, trunk and head to assess quantitatively the postural sagittal configuration. A single session test-retest design was employed. After power calculations 25 subjects were recruited. A repeated measure ANOVA revealed significant differences between HSP and the predetermined posture used in the study. Intra-rater reliability was analysed used the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and also standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest real difference (SRD) were calculated. The ICC values for all angles ranged from 0.85 to 0.98 indicating almost perfect agreement. The SEMs for all angles ranged in degrees from 0.65 to 1.50 and the SRDs from 1.80 to 4.16. This study provides the most specific sagittal measurement of surface spinal curves, head and pelvis position, in reference to a lordotic seated posture. The clinical significance of this study is reinforced by the fact that postural assessment is conducted by body surface evaluation. The results regarding reliability and SEMs established that healthy individuals can be reliably positioned in an upright lordotic sitting posture.

  6. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    Head lice are parasitic wingless insects. They live on people's heads and feed on their blood. An adult louse ... Children ages 3-11 and their families get head lice most often. Personal hygiene has nothing to ...

  7. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Home Diseases and Conditions Head Lice Head Lice Condition Family HealthKids and Teens Share Head Lice Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Causes4. Prevention5. ...

  8. First-Person Perspective Virtual Body Posture Influences Stress: A Virtual Reality Body Ownership Study

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Ilias; Kilteni, Konstantina; Slater, Mel

    2016-01-01

    In immersive virtual reality (IVR) it is possible to replace a person’s real body by a life-sized virtual body that is seen from first person perspective to visually substitute their own. Multisensory feedback from the virtual to the real body (such as the correspondence of touch and also movement) can also be present. Under these conditions participants typically experience a subjective body ownership illusion (BOI) over the virtual body, even though they know that it is not their real one. In most studies and applications the posture of the real and virtual bodies are as similar as possible. Here we were interested in whether the BOI is diminished when there are gross discrepancies between the real and virtual body postures. We also explored whether a comfortable or uncomfortable virtual body posture would induce feelings and physiological responses commensurate with the posture. We carried out an experiment with 31 participants in IVR realized with a wide field-of-view head-mounted display. All participants were comfortably seated. Sixteen of them were embodied in a virtual body designed to be in a comfortable posture, and the remainder in an uncomfortable posture. The results suggest that the uncomfortable body posture led to lesser subjective BOI than the comfortable one, but that participants in the uncomfortable posture experienced greater awareness of their autonomic physiological responses. Moreover their heart rate, heart rate variability, and the number of mistakes in a cognitive task were associated with the strength of their BOI in the uncomfortable posture: greater heart rate, lower heart rate variability and more mistakes were associated with higher levels of the BOI. These findings point in a consistent direction—that the BOI over a body that is in an uncomfortable posture can lead to subjective, physiological and cognitive effects consistent with discomfort that do not occur with the BOI over a body in a comfortable posture. PMID:26828365

  9. First-Person Perspective Virtual Body Posture Influences Stress: A Virtual Reality Body Ownership Study.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Ilias; Kilteni, Konstantina; Slater, Mel

    2016-01-01

    In immersive virtual reality (IVR) it is possible to replace a person's real body by a life-sized virtual body that is seen from first person perspective to visually substitute their own. Multisensory feedback from the virtual to the real body (such as the correspondence of touch and also movement) can also be present. Under these conditions participants typically experience a subjective body ownership illusion (BOI) over the virtual body, even though they know that it is not their real one. In most studies and applications the posture of the real and virtual bodies are as similar as possible. Here we were interested in whether the BOI is diminished when there are gross discrepancies between the real and virtual body postures. We also explored whether a comfortable or uncomfortable virtual body posture would induce feelings and physiological responses commensurate with the posture. We carried out an experiment with 31 participants in IVR realized with a wide field-of-view head-mounted display. All participants were comfortably seated. Sixteen of them were embodied in a virtual body designed to be in a comfortable posture, and the remainder in an uncomfortable posture. The results suggest that the uncomfortable body posture led to lesser subjective BOI than the comfortable one, but that participants in the uncomfortable posture experienced greater awareness of their autonomic physiological responses. Moreover their heart rate, heart rate variability, and the number of mistakes in a cognitive task were associated with the strength of their BOI in the uncomfortable posture: greater heart rate, lower heart rate variability and more mistakes were associated with higher levels of the BOI. These findings point in a consistent direction--that the BOI over a body that is in an uncomfortable posture can lead to subjective, physiological and cognitive effects consistent with discomfort that do not occur with the BOI over a body in a comfortable posture.

  10. Progression of postural changes in Parkinson's disease: quantitative assessment.

    PubMed

    Khlebtovsky, Alexander; Djaldetti, Ruth; Rodity, Yaniv; Keret, Ofir; Tsvetov, Gloria; Slutzcki-Shraga, Ilana; Benninger, Felix

    2017-02-02

    Previous studies of posture in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients focused on the pathophysiology of severe deformities, using mainly subjective estimations or goniometric measures. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors associated with flexed posture in PD and their effects on the course of posture variations. One hundred-ninety patients with definite PD were prospectively evaluated for angles of spinal inclination in upright position, extension, and flexion using a mechanical computer-assisted, hand-held device (SpinalMouse). Patients underwent clinical examination, including background data and bone mineral density. Motor function was evaluated with the UPDRS, and back pain with the RMDQ. Physical activity data were collected by self-report. Postural measurements were repeated after 10-17 months. Angle of upright inclination correlated with age (p = 0.0004), older age at disease onset (p = 0.0085), longer disease duration (p = 0.003), higher UPDRS motor and posture score (p = 0.0005 and 0.0001), the presence of back-pain (p = 0.0097), and osteoporosis (p = 0.027). There was no correlation between upright angle of inclination and gender, disease type, or side of disease onset. Re-evaluation of posture in 124 patients at 13.77 ± 4.4 months after the initial evaluation showed significant deterioration in forward bending (p < 0.0001) and was significantly associated with disease duration (p = 0.029), worsening of the UPDRS score (p = 0.016), right-side disease onset (p = 0.032), presence of vertebral fractures (p = 0.049), and the lack of physical activity (p = 0.0327). Older age, disease severity and duration, presence of back-pain and osteoporosis are associated with postural abnormalities in PD. Physical activity might slow the worsening of postural abnormalities in PD.

  11. Postural control responses sitting on unstable board during visual stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Y.; Shindo, M.; Kuno, S.; Kawakita, T.; Watanabe, S.

    2001-08-01

    Concerning with the relation of vection induced by the optokinetic stimulation and the body movement, especially we attended to the neck joint movement, which counteracted to the shoulder movement. Then, we analyzed the mechanisms of the sitting postural control by using the seesaw board. By the optokinetic stimulation through the head mounted display (H.M.D.), the vection was leaded, and it affected to the sway of the body on the seesaw board. In this experiment, we found that the movement of upper part of body except for the head was the same direction to the seesaw board but the head moved out of phase to the seesaw board. This phenomenon will be suggested that the unstable condition of sway is balanced by the counter swing of head and the neck muscle tonus is controlled by acting of the vestiburo-collic reflex.

  12. Postural reorganization induced by torso cutaneous covibration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Beom-Chan; Martin, Bernard J; Ho, Allison; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2013-05-01

    Cutaneous information from joints has been attributed proprioceptive properties similar to those of muscle spindles. This study aimed to assess whether vibration-induced changes in torso cutaneous information contribute to whole-body postural reorganization in humans. Ten healthy young adults stood in normal and Romberg stances with six vibrating actuators positioned on the torso in contact with the skin over the left and right external oblique, internal oblique, and erector spinae muscle locations at the L4/L5 vertebrae level. Vibrations around the torso were randomly applied at two locations simultaneously (covibration) or at all locations simultaneously. Kinematic analysis of the body segments indicated that covibration applied to the skin over the internal oblique muscles induced shifts of both the head and torso in the anterior direction (torso flexion) while the hips shifted in the posterior direction (ankle plantar flexion). Conversely, covibration applied to the skin over the erector spinae muscle locations produced opposite effects. However, covibration applied to the skin over the left internal oblique and left erector spinae, the right internal oblique and right erector spinae, or at all locations simultaneously did not induce any significant postural changes. In addition, the center of pressure position as measured by the force plate was unaffected by all covibration conditions tested. These results were independent of stance and suggest an integrated and coordinated reorganization of posture in response to vibration-induced changes in cutaneous information. In addition, combinations of vibrotactile stimuli over multiple locations exhibit directional summation properties in contrast to the individual responses we observed in our previous work.

  13. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Beyond Orthostatic Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Garland, Emily M; Celedonio, Jorge E; Raj, Satish R

    2015-09-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a form of chronic orthostatic intolerance for which the hallmark physiological trait is an excessive increase in heart rate with assumption of upright posture. The orthostatic tachycardia occurs in the absence of orthostatic hypotension and is associated with a >6-month history of symptoms that are relieved by recumbence. The heart rate abnormality and orthostatic symptoms should not be caused by medications that impair autonomic regulation or by debilitating disorders that can cause tachycardia. POTS is a "final common pathway" for a number of overlapping pathophysiologies, including an autonomic neuropathy in the lower body, hypovolemia, elevated sympathetic tone, mast cell activation, deconditioning, and autoantibodies. Not only may patients be affected by more than one of these pathophysiologies but also the phenotype of POTS has similarities to a number of other disorders, e.g., chronic fatigue syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vasovagal syncope, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. POTS can be treated with a combination of non-pharmacological approaches, a structured exercise training program, and often some pharmacological support.

  14. The head-mounted microscope.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery.

  15. [Menisci and posture].

    PubMed

    Sérgio, J S

    2000-01-01

    The first aim of this work is not only to review the localised perspective of meniscopathy, concerned with the consequences of meniscectomy, but to also view it in a broader dimension, in the behavioural aspect--related to postural activity. The second aim is to establish the relationship between these two dimensions. Meniscopathies invariably lead to degenerative alterations of the knee joint--not sufficiently explained by the local factors--that result in a situation of osteoarthritis. Some investigators established that the osteoarthritis process should not be confined only to the mechanical responsibility, due to some studies that also confirm the existence of biochemical alterations. However, others have also shown that the nervous system (NS) is likely to influence the inflammatory manifestations through the unmyelinated afferent fibers and sympathetic efferent fibers of the joints. These fibers can interact with non-neural elements, releasing some mediators, such as P substance (PS) and norepinephrine (NE), which, by themselves, or through other substances, contribute to the exacerbation of the inflammatory process. In order to relate the facts above, this longitudinal study comprised the following approaches clinical: anthropometric; biotechnical; and posturographic. It was characterised by five moments of data collection, the periodicity of which is related to the time of the surgery: the first moment is before surgery, followed by the remaining four, at six-week intervals, the sample being composed of--15 male caucasians, aged between 20 and 30 years, working for the Air Force. These Subjects were divided into two groups, according to the amount of meniscus removed in the longitudinal direction. Group A--meniscectomy < 1/2 the longitudinal body, composed of 7 subjects, with an average age of 21.4 years; and Group B, meniscectomy > 1/2 the longitudinal body, composed of: 8 subjects, with an average age of 24.1 years. The statistical analysis contained a

  16. The effect of asymmetry of posture on anticipatory postural adjustments.

    PubMed

    Aruin, Alexander S

    2006-06-19

    The study investigates the effect of body asymmetry on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Subjects performed a task involving a standard load release induced by a shoulder abduction movement while standing symmetrically or in an asymmetrical stance with either their right or left leg in 45 degrees of external rotation. EMG activities of trunk and leg muscles were recorded during the postural perturbation and were quantified within the time intervals typical of APAs. Anticipatory postural adjustments were observed in all experimental conditions. It was found that asymmetrical body positioning was associated with significant asymmetrical patterns of APAs seen in the right and left distal muscles. These APA asymmetries were dependant upon the side in which the body asymmetry was induced: reduced APAs were observed in the leg muscles on the side of leg rotation, while increased APAs were seen in the muscles on the contralateral side. These findings stress the important role that body asymmetries play in the control of upright posture.

  17. Development of Postural Control in Healthy Children: A Functional Approach

    PubMed Central

    Assaiante, Christine; Mallau, Sophie; Viel, Sébastien; Jover, Marianne; Schmitz, Christina

    2005-01-01

    From a set of experimental studies showing how intersegmental coordination develops during childhood in various posturokinetic tasks, we have established a repertoire of equilibrium strategies in the course of ontogenesis. The experimental data demonstrate that the first reference frame used for the organization of balance control during locomotion is the pelvis, especially in young children. Head stabilization during posturokinetic activities, particularly locomotion, constitutes a complex motor skill requiring a long time to develop during childhood. When studying the emergence of postural strategies, it is essential to distinguish between results that can be explained by biomechanical reasons strictly and those reflecting the maturation of the central nervous system (CNS). To address this problem, we have studied our young subjects in situations requiring various types of adaptation. The studies dealing with adaptation of postural strategies aimed at testing short and long-term adaptation capacity of the CNS during imposed transient external biomechanical constraints in healthy children, and during chronic internal constraints in children with skeletal pathologies. In addition to maintenance of balance, another function of posture is to ensure the orientation of a body segment. It appears that the control of orientation and the control of balance both require the trunk as an initial reference frame involving a development from egocentric to exocentric postural control. It is concluded that the first step for children consists in building a repertoire of postural strategies, and the second step consists in learning to select the most appropriate postural strategy, depending on the ability to anticipate the consequence of the movement in order to maintain balance control and the efficiency of the task. PMID:16097479

  18. Craniocervical Posture in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Piccin, Chaiane Facco; Pozzebon, Daniela; Scapini, Fabricio; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. Objective  The objective of this study is to verify the craniofacial characteristics and craniocervical posture of OSA and healthy subjects, determining possible relationships with the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI). Methods  This case-control study evaluated 21 subjects with OSA, who comprised the OSA group (OSAG), and 21 healthy subjects, who constituted the control group (CG). Cephalometry analyzed head posture measurements, craniofacial measurements, and air space. Head posture was also assessed by means of photogrammetry. Results  The groups were homogeneous regarding gender (12 men and 9 women in each group), age (OSAG = 41.86 ± 11.26 years; GC = 41.19 ± 11.20 years), and body mass index (OSAG = 25.65 ± 2.46 kg/m2; CG = 24.72 ± 3.01 kg/m2). We found significant differences between the groups, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance between the hyoid bone and the mandibular plane in OSAG, when compared with CG. A positive correlation was found between higher head hyperextension and head anteriorization, with greater severity of OSA as assessed by AHI. Conclusion  OSAG subjects showed changes in craniofacial morphology, with lower average pharyngeal space and greater distance from the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane, as compared with healthy subjects. Moreover, in OSA subjects, the greater the severity of OSA, the greater the head hyperextension and anteriorization. PMID:27413397

  19. Prephonatory chest wall posturing in stutterers.

    PubMed

    Baken, R J; McManus, D A; Cavallo, S A

    1983-09-01

    The possibility that prephonatory chest wall posturing is abnormal in stutterers was explored by observing rib cage and abdominal hemicircumference changes during the interval between the presentation of a stimulus and the production of/alpha/by a group of stutterers (N = 5). It was found that the patterns of chest wall adjustment for phonation were qualitatively identical in the stutterers and in a comparable group of normal men studied previously. There was, however, a significant difference in the way in which lung volume changed during the execution of the chest wall adjustment. This was considered to be indicative of delayed glottal closure among the stutterers rather than representative of a primary ventilatory disturbance.

  20. The normal response to prolonged passive head up tilt testing

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, M; Williams, T; Gordon, C; Chamberlain-Webbe..., R; Sutton, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To define the responses to head up tilt in a large group of normal adult subjects using the most widely employed protocol for tilt testing.
METHODS—127 normal subjects aged 19-88 years (mean (SD), 49 (20) years) without a previous history of syncope underwent tilt testing at 60° for 45 minutes or until syncope intervened. Blood pressure monitoring was performed with digital photoplethysmography, providing continuous, non-invasive, beat to beat heart rate and pressure measurements.
RESULTS—13% of subjects developed vasovagal syncope after a mean (SD) tilt time of 31.7 (12.4) minutes (range 8.5-44.9 minutes). Severe cardioinhibition during syncope was observed less often than is reported in patients investigated for syncope. There were no differences in the age or sex distributions of subjects with positive or negative outcomes, or in the proportions with cardioinhibitory and vasodepressor vasovagal syncope compared with previously reported patient populations. Subjects with negative outcomes showed age related differences in heart rate and blood pressure behaviour throughout tilt.
CONCLUSIONS—False positive results with tilting appear to be common. This has important implications for the use of diagnostic tilt testing. The magnitude of the heart rate and blood pressure changes observed during negative tilts largely invalidates previously suggested criteria for abnormal non-syncopal outcomes.


Keywords: syncope; head up tilt; postural hypotension PMID:11040011

  1. Development of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers using Ultrasonic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Yosuke; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko; Ogoshi, Yasuhiro

    This paper proposes an abnormality detection system for bather sitting in bathtub. Increasing number of in-bathtub drowning accidents in Japan draws attention. Behind this large number of bathing accidents, Japan's unique social and cultural background come surface. For majority of people in Japan, bathing serves purpose in deep warming up of body, relax and enjoyable time. Therefore it is the custom for the Japanese to soak in bathtub. However overexposure to hot water may cause dizziness or fainting, which is possible to cause in-bathtub drowning. For drowning prevention, the system detects bather's abnormal state using an ultrasonic sensor array. The array, which has many ultrasonic sensors, is installed on the ceiling of bathroom above bathtub. The abnormality detection system uses the following two methods: posture detection and behavior detection. The function of posture detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's posture. Meanwhile, the function of behavior detection is to estimate the risk of drowning by monitoring bather's behavior. By using these methods, the system detects bathers' different state from normal. As a result of experiment with a subject in the bathtub, the system was possible to detect abnormal state using subject's posture and behavior. Therefore the system is useful for monitoring bather to prevent drowning in bathtub.

  2. Emergence of postural patterns as a function of vision and translation frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, J. J.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Emergence of postural patterns as a function of vision and translation frequency. We examined the frequency characteristics of human postural coordination and the role of visual information in this coordination. Eight healthy adults maintained balance in stance during sinusoidal support surface translations (12 cm peak to peak) in the anterior-posterior direction at six different frequencies. Changes in kinematic and dynamic measures revealed that both sensory and biomechanical constraints limit postural coordination patterns as a function of translation frequency. At slow frequencies (0.1 and 0.25 Hz), subjects ride the platform (with the eyes open or closed). For fast frequencies (1.0 and 1.25 Hz) with the eyes open, subjects fix their head and upper trunk in space. With the eyes closed, large-amplitude, slow-sway motion of the head and trunk occurred for fast frequencies above 0.5 Hz. Visual information stabilized posture by reducing the variability of the head's position in space and the position of the center of mass (CoM) within the support surface defined by the feet for all but the slowest translation frequencies. When subjects rode the platform, there was little oscillatory joint motion, with muscle activity limited mostly to the ankles. To support the head fixed in space and slow-sway postural patterns, subjects produced stable interjoint hip and ankle joint coordination patterns. This increase in joint motion of the lower body dissipated the energy input by fast translation frequencies and facilitated the control of upper body motion. CoM amplitude decreased with increasing translation frequency, whereas the center of pressure amplitude increased with increasing translation frequency. Our results suggest that visual information was important to maintaining a fixed position of the head and trunk in space, whereas proprioceptive information was sufficient to produce stable coordinative patterns between the support surface and legs. The CNS organizes

  3. Inter- and intra-rater agreement of static posture analysis using a mobile application

    PubMed Central

    Boland, David M.; Neufeld, Eric V.; Ruddell, Jack; Dolezal, Brett A.; Cooper, Christopher B.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine the intra- and inter-rater agreement of a mobile application, PostureScreen Mobile® (PSM), that assesses static standing posture. [Subjects and Methods] Three examiners with different levels of experience of assessing posture, one licensed physical therapist and two untrained undergraduate students, performed repeated postural assessments of 10 subjects, fully clothed or minimally clothed, using PSM on two nonconsecutive days. Anterior and right lateral images were captured and seventeen landmarks were identified on them. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for each of 13 postural measures to evaluate inter-rater agreement on the first visit (fully or minimally clothed), as well as intra-rater agreement between the first and second visits (minimally clothed). [Results] Eleven postural measures were ultimately analyzed for inter- and intra-rater agreement. Inter-rater agreement was almost perfect (ICC≥0.81) for four measures and substantial (0.60postural screening tool that requires little formal training. To maximize inter- and intra-rater agreement, postural screening using this mobile application should be conducted with subjects wearing minimal clothing. Assessing static standing posture via PSM gives repeatable measures for anatomical landmarks that were found to have substantial or almost perfect agreement. Our data also suggest that this technology may also be useful for diagnosing forward head posture. PMID:28174460

  4. Posture and movement in healthy preterm infants in supine position in and outside the nest

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, F; Bertoncelli, N; Gallo, C; Roversi, M F; Guerra, M P; Ranzi, A; Hadders‐Algra, M

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether lying in a nest affects the posture and spontaneous movements of healthy preterm infants. Method 10 healthy preterm infants underwent serial video recording in the supine position, when lying in a nest and outside it, at three ages: 30–33 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) (early preterm), 34–36 weeks PMA (late preterm) and 37–40 weeks PMA (term). The nest was shell‐shaped, made by putting two rolled blankets in a form of an oval. Posture was assessed both before and after general movements by scoring the predominant postural pattern. Movements towards and across the midline, elegant wrist movements, abrupt hand and/or limb movements, rolling to side, and frozen postures of the arms and legs were assessed during four general movements. All data relating to motor and postural items were normalised into frequencies of events per minute because the general movements varied in duration. Results When lying in the nest, the infants more often displayed a flexed posture with shoulder adduction and elbow, and hip and knee flexion, and the head was frequently in the midline. The nest was also associated with an increase in elegant wrist movements and movements towards and across the midline and a reduction in abrupt movements and frozen postures of the limbs. The nest did not affect the occurrence of asymmetrical tonic neck posture. Conclusions A nest promotes a flexed posture of the limbs with adduction of shoulders, facilitates elegant wrist movements and movements towards and across the midline and reduces abrupt movements and frozen postures of the arms and legs. PMID:17344252

  5. Children's catching performance when the demands on the postural system is altered.

    PubMed

    Angelakopoulos, Georgios T; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Grouios, George

    2014-07-01

    In many dynamic interceptive actions performers need to integrate activity of manual and postural subsystems for successful performance. Groups of different skill level (poor and good catchers), (mean age = 9.1 and 9.4 respectively) were required to perform one-handed catches under different postural constraints: standing; standing in contact with a postural support aid by their side (PSAS) or to the left of their trunk (PSAF); Tandem; and sitting (control). Results revealed that, for poor catchers, the number of successful catches increased and grasp errors decreased significantly when sitting and with both postural aids in comparison with standing alone and Tandem conditions. Kinematic analyses showed that the postural aid devices reduced head sway in the anterior-posterior direction, while the PSAF reduced lateral head sway. The poor catchers' performance benefited from an enlarged support surface, and reduction of lateral sway. Good catchers performed successfully under all task constraints, signifying the existence of a functional relationship between postural and grasping subsystems during performance. The results are discussed in the frame of Bernstein's (1967) and Newell's (1986) theory.

  6. A method to model anticipatory postural control in driver braking events.

    PubMed

    Östh, Jonas; Eliasson, Erik; Happee, Riender; Brolin, Karin

    2014-09-01

    Human body models (HBMs) for vehicle occupant simulations have recently been extended with active muscles and postural control strategies. Feedback control has been used to model occupant responses to autonomous braking interventions. However, driver postural responses during driver initiated braking differ greatly from autonomous braking. In the present study, an anticipatory postural response was hypothesized, modelled in a whole-body HBM with feedback controlled muscles, and validated using existing volunteer data. The anticipatory response was modelled as a time dependent change in the reference value for the feedback controllers, which generates correcting moments to counteract the braking deceleration. The results showed that, in 11 m/s(2) driver braking simulations, including the anticipatory postural response reduced the peak forward displacement of the head by 100mm, of the shoulder by 30 mm, while the peak head flexion rotation was reduced by 18°. The HBM kinematic response was within a one standard deviation corridor of corresponding test data from volunteers performing maximum braking. It was concluded that the hypothesized anticipatory responses can be modelled by changing the reference positions of the individual joint feedback controllers that regulate muscle activation levels. The addition of anticipatory postural control muscle activations appears to explain the difference in occupant kinematics between driver and autonomous braking. This method of modelling postural reactions can be applied to the simulation of other driver voluntary actions, such as emergency avoidance by steering.

  7. Task, muscle and frequency dependent vestibular control of posture

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Patrick A.; Siegmund, Gunter P.; Schouten, Alfred C.; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The vestibular system is crucial for postural control; however there are considerable differences in the task dependence and frequency response of vestibular reflexes in appendicular and axial muscles. For example, vestibular reflexes are only evoked in appendicular muscles when vestibular information is relevant to postural control, while in neck muscles they are maintained regardless of the requirement to maintain head on trunk balance. Recent investigations have also shown that the bandwidth of vestibular input on neck muscles is much broader than appendicular muscles (up to a factor of 3). This result challenges the notion that vestibular reflexes only contribute to postural control across the behavioral and physiological frequency range of the vestibular organ (i.e., 0–20 Hz). In this review, we explore and integrate these task-, muscle- and frequency-related differences in the vestibular system’s contribution to posture, and propose that the human nervous system has adapted vestibular signals to match the mechanical properties of the system that each group of muscles controls. PMID:25620919

  8. Imaging Posture Veils Neural Signals

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, Robert T.; Raz, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Whereas modern brain imaging often demands holding body positions incongruent with everyday life, posture governs both neural activity and cognitive performance. Humans commonly perform while upright; yet, many neuroimaging methodologies require participants to remain motionless and adhere to non-ecological comportments within a confined space. This inconsistency between ecological postures and imaging constraints undermines the transferability and generalizability of many a neuroimaging assay. Here we highlight the influence of posture on brain function and behavior. Specifically, we challenge the tacit assumption that brain processes and cognitive performance are comparable across a spectrum of positions. We provide an integrative synthesis regarding the increasingly prominent influence of imaging postures on autonomic function, mental capacity, sensory thresholds, and neural activity. Arguing that neuroimagers and cognitive scientists could benefit from considering the influence posture wields on both general functioning and brain activity, we examine existing imaging technologies and the potential of portable and versatile imaging devices (e.g., functional near infrared spectroscopy). Finally, we discuss ways that accounting for posture may help unveil the complex brain processes of everyday cognition. PMID:27818629

  9. Short-term differential training decreases postural sway.

    PubMed

    James, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Differential training has been shown to enhance motor learning in sports skills. In the present study differential training was applied to the minimization of postural sway. A differential training group performed 15 one minute practice trials, each with different postural movement instructions. A repetitive practice group performed 15 trials standing as still as possible for one minute. Pre- and post-tests were performed standing as still as possible in 1 and 2-leg stance. Accelerometry data were collected approximately at the level of the center of mass (COM) and at the head. The root mean square jerk (RMSJ) of movement at the COM and head was estimated for the anteroposterior and mediolateral axes of motion. A significant Group × Test interaction revealed that the differential training led to lower anteroposterior RMSJ on the post-test than on the Pre-test in both the 1 and 2-leg stance tasks. A significant Group × Effector × Test interaction revealed that the decrease in anteroposterior RMSJ with differential training occurred in the RMSJ of the head but not the COM. The repetitive practice did not lead to a significant change in anteroposterior RMSJ at either the COM or the head. Neither form of training led to a significant change in mediolateral RMSJ. The results indicated that differential training can enhance motor learning not only in complex sports skills but in relatively simple motor tasks such as maintaining quiet stance.

  10. The Effect of Body Posture on Brain Glymphatic Transport

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hedok; Xie, Lulu; Yu, Mei; Kang, Hongyi; Feng, Tian; Deane, Rashid; Logan, Jean; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2015-01-01

    The glymphatic pathway expedites clearance of waste, including soluble amyloid β (Aβ) from the brain. Transport through this pathway is controlled by the brain's arousal level because, during sleep or anesthesia, the brain's interstitial space volume expands (compared with wakefulness), resulting in faster waste removal. Humans, as well as animals, exhibit different body postures during sleep, which may also affect waste removal. Therefore, not only the level of consciousness, but also body posture, might affect CSF–interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange efficiency. We used dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI and kinetic modeling to quantify CSF-ISF exchange rates in anesthetized rodents' brains in supine, prone, or lateral positions. To validate the MRI data and to assess specifically the influence of body posture on clearance of Aβ, we used fluorescence microscopy and radioactive tracers, respectively. The analysis showed that glymphatic transport was most efficient in the lateral position compared with the supine or prone positions. In the prone position, in which the rat's head was in the most upright position (mimicking posture during the awake state), transport was characterized by “retention” of the tracer, slower clearance, and more CSF efflux along larger caliber cervical vessels. The optical imaging and radiotracer studies confirmed that glymphatic transport and Aβ clearance were superior in the lateral and supine positions. We propose that the most popular sleep posture (lateral) has evolved to optimize waste removal during sleep and that posture must be considered in diagnostic imaging procedures developed in the future to assess CSF-ISF transport in humans. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The rodent brain removes waste better during sleep or anesthesia compared with the awake state. Animals exhibit different body posture during the awake and sleep states, which might affect the brain's waste removal efficiency. We investigated the influence of body posture on

  11. Methomyl poisoning presenting with decorticate posture and cortical blindness.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Ming

    2014-01-17

    Methomyl is a potent pesticide that is widely used in the field of agriculture. The systemic toxic effects of methomyl have been well described. However, the neurological effects of methomyl intoxication are not well understood. In this study, we report a 61-year-old Taiwanese man sent to our emergency department because of altered mental status. His family stated that he had consumed liquid methomyl in a suicide attempt. He was provided cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of unstable vital signs. He was then sent to an intensive care unit for close observation. On the second day of admission, he regained consciousness but exhibited irregular limb and torso posture. On the sixth day, he started to complain of blurred vision. An ophthalmologist was consulted but no obvious abnormalities could be identified. On suspicion of cerebral disease, a neurologist was consulted. Further examination revealed cortical blindness and decorticate posture. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was arranged, which identified bilateral occipital regions lesions. The patient was administered normal saline and treated with aspirin and piracetam for 3 weeks in hospital. During the treatment period, his symptom of cortical blindness resolved, whereas his decorticate posture was refractory. Follow-up brain MRI results supported our clinical observations by indicating the disappearance of the bilateral occipital lesions and symmetrical putaminal high signal abnormalities. In this article, we briefly discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the cerebral effects of methomyl poisoning. Our study can provide clinicians with information on the manifestations of methomyl intoxication and an appropriate treatment direction.

  12. Methomyl Poisoning Presenting with Decorticate Posture and Cortical Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Methomyl is a potent pesticide that is widely used in the field of agriculture. The systemic toxic effects of methomyl have been well described. However, the neurological effects of methomyl intoxication are not well understood. In this study, we report a 61-year-old Taiwanese man sent to our emergency department because of altered mental status. His family stated that he had consumed liquid methomyl in a suicide attempt. He was provided cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of unstable vital signs. He was then sent to an intensive care unit for close observation. On the second day of admission, he regained consciousness but exhibited irregular limb and torso posture. On the sixth day, he started to complain of blurred vision. An ophthalmologist was consulted but no obvious abnormalities could be identified. On suspicion of cerebral disease, a neurologist was consulted. Further examination revealed cortical blindness and decorticate posture. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was arranged, which identified bilateral occipital regions lesions. The patient was administered normal saline and treated with aspirin and piracetam for 3 weeks in hospital. During the treatment period, his symptom of cortical blindness resolved, whereas his decorticate posture was refractory. Follow-up brain MRI results supported our clinical observations by indicating the disappearance of the bilateral occipital lesions and symmetrical putaminal high signal abnormalities. In this article, we briefly discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the cerebral effects of methomyl poisoning. Our study can provide clinicians with information on the manifestations of methomyl intoxication and an appropriate treatment direction. PMID:24744847

  13. Head Position Comparison between Students with Normal Hearing and Students with Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Renato de Souza; Amorim da Silva, Polyanna Waleska; Souza, Robson Arruda; Raposo, Maria Cristina Falcão; Ferraz, Karla Mônica

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Head sense position is coordinated by sensory activity of the vestibular system, located in the inner ear. Children with sensorineural hearing loss may show changes in the vestibular system as a result of injury to the inner ear, which can alter the sense of head position in this population. Aim Analyze the head alignment in students with normal hearing and students with sensorineural hearing loss and compare the data between groups. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study examined the head alignment of 96 students, 48 with normal hearing and 48 with sensorineural hearing loss, aged between 7 and 18 years. The analysis of head alignment occurred through postural assessment performed according to the criteria proposed by Kendall et al. For data analysis we used the chi-square test or Fisher exact test. Results The students with hearing loss had a higher occurrence of changes in the alignment of the head than normally hearing students (p < 0.001). Forward head posture was the type of postural change observed most, occurring in greater proportion in children with hearing loss (p < 0.001), followed by the side slope head posture (p < 0.001). Conclusion Children with sensorineural hearing loss showed more changes in the head posture compared with children with normal hearing. PMID:25992037

  14. Effects of an adapted physical activity program in a group of elderly subjects with flexed posture: clinical and instrumental assessment

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Maria Grazia; Berti, Lisa; Presti, Chiara; Frizziero, Antonio; Giannini, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    Background Flexed posture commonly increases with age and is related to musculoskeletal impairment and reduced physical performance. The purpose of this clinical study was to systematically compare the effects of a physical activity program that specifically address the flexed posture that marks a certain percentage of elderly individuals with a non specific exercise program for 3 months. Methods Participants were randomly divided into two groups: one followed an Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture and the other one completed a non-specific physical activity protocol for the elderly. A multidimensional clinical assessment was performed at baseline and at 3 months including anthropometric data, clinical profile, measures of musculoskeletal impairment and disability. The instrumental assessment of posture was realized using a stereophotogrammetric system and a specific biomechanical model designed to describe the reciprocal position of the body segments on the sagittal plane in a upright posture. Results The Adapted Physical Activity program determined a significant improvement in several key parameters of the multidimensional assessment in comparison to the non-specific protocol: decreased occiput-to-wall distance, greater lower limb range of motion, better flexibility of pectoralis, hamstrings and hip flexor muscles, increased spine extensor muscles strength. Stereophotogrammetric analysis confirmed a reduced protrusion of the head and revealed a reduction in compensative postural adaptations to flexed posture characterized by knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion in the participants of the specific program. Conclusion The Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture significantly improved postural alignment and musculoskeletal impairment of the elderly. The stereophotogrammetric evaluation of posture was useful to measure the global postural alignment and especially to analyse the possible compensatory strategies at lower limbs in flexed

  15. Gender difference in mobile phone use and the impact of digital device exposure on neck posture.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiaofei; Fan, Guoxin; Chen, Zhengqi; Zeng, Ying; Zhang, Hailong; Hu, Annan; Gu, Guangfei; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Xin; He, Shisheng

    2016-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to identify gender differences in the cervical postures when young adults were using mobile phones, as well as the correlations between the postures and the digital devices use (computer and mobile phone). Questionnaires regarding the habits of computer and mobile phone use were administrated to 429 subjects aged from 17 to 33 years old (19.75 ± 2.58 years old). Subjects were instructed to stand habitually and use a mobile phone as in daily life; the sagittal head and cervical postures were measured by head flexion, neck flexion angle and gaze angle. Male participants had a significantly larger head flexion angle (96.41° ± 12.23° vs. 93.57° ± 12.62°, p  =  0.018) and neck flexion angle (51.92°  ±  9.55° vs. 47.09° ± 9.45°, p  <  0.001) than females. There were significant differences in head (F  =  3.62, p  =  0.014) and neck flexion (F  =  3.99, p  =  0.009) between different amounts of computer use. Practitioner Summary: We investigated possible gender differences in head and neck postures of young adults using mobile phones, as well as the potential correlations between these postures and digital device use. We found that males displayed larger head and neck flexion angles than females, which were associated with the amount of computer use.

  16. Development of a cost effective three-dimensional posture analysis tool: validity and reliability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The lack of clear understanding of the association between sitting posture and adolescent musculoskeletal pain, might reflect invalid and/or unreliable posture measurement instruments. The psychometric properties of any new measurement instrument should be demonstrated prior to use for research or clinical purposes. This paper describes psychometric testing of a new three-dimensional (3D), portable, non-invasive posture analysis tool (3D-PAT), from sequential studies using a mannequin and high school students. Methods The first study compared the 3D-(X-, Y- and Z-) coordinates of reflective markers placed on a mannequin using the 3D-PAT, and the Vicon motion analysis system. This study also tested the reliability of taking repeated measures of the 3D-coordinates of the reflective markers. The second study determined the concurrent validity and test-retest reliability of the 3D-PAT measurements of nine sitting postural angles of high school students undertaking a standard computing task. In both studies, concordance correlation coefficients and Intraclass correlation coefficients described test-retest reliability, whilst Pearson product moment correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots demonstrated concurrent validity. Results The 3D-PAT provides reliable and valid 3D measurements of five of the nine postural angles i.e. head flexion, neck flexion, cranio-cervical angle, trunk flexion and head lateral bending in adolescents undertaking a standard task. Conclusions The 3D-PAT is appropriate for research and clinical settings to measure five upper quadrant postural angles in three dimensions. As a measurement instrument it can provide further understanding of the relationship between sitting posture, changes to sitting posture and adolescent musculoskeletal pain. PMID:24289665

  17. Common postural defects among music students.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez, Aurora

    2015-07-01

    Postural quality during musical performance affects both musculoskeletal health and the quality of the performance. In this study we examined the posture of 100 students at a Higher Conservatory of Music in Spain. By analysing video tapes and photographs of the students while performing, a panel of experts extracted values of 11 variables reflecting aspects of overall postural quality or the postural quality of various parts of the body. The most common postural defects were identified, together with the situations in which they occur. It is concluded that most students incur in unphysiological postures during performance. It is hoped that use of the results of this study will help correct these errors.

  18. Persons with multiple disabilities engage in stimulus choice and postural control with the support of a technology-aided program.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Perilli, Viviana; Campodonico, Francesca; Marchiani, Paola; Lang, Russell

    2015-05-01

    Technology-aided programs have been reported to help persons with disabilities develop adaptive responding and control problem behavior/posture. This study assessed one such program in which choice of stimulus events was used as adaptive responding for three adults with multiple disabilities. A computer system presented the participants stimulus samples. For each sample, they could perform a choice response (gaining access to the related stimulus whose length they could extend) or abstain from responding (making the system proceed to the next sample). Once choice responding had strengthened, the program also targeted the participants' problem posture (i.e., head and trunk forward bending). The stimulus exposure gained with a choice response was interrupted if the problem posture occurred. All three participants successfully (a) managed choice responses and access to preferred stimuli and (b) gained postural control (i.e., reducing the problem posture to very low levels). The practical implications of those results are discussed.

  19. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... the test, tell your provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips An artificial heart valves Heart defibrillator ...

  20. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... scalp internal head injuries, which may involve the skull, the blood vessels within the skull, or the brain Fortunately, most childhood falls or ... knock the brain into the side of the skull or tear blood vessels. Some internal head injuries ...

  1. Heads Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... fit, and maintain the right helmet for specific sports. Concussion Laws Learn about Return to Play and other ...

  2. Recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying postural tachycardia syndrome in children: practical implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaochun; Chen, Yonghong; Du, Junbao

    2016-12-12

    Postural tachycardia syndrome is defined by a heart rate increment of 40 beats/minute (bpm) (or a heart rate that exceeds 125 bpm) within 10 minutes of change from the supine position to an upright position in the absence of obvious orthostatic hypotension. There are multiple pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie postural tachycardia syndrome, including peripheral denervation, β-receptor supersensitivity, hypovolaemia, and impaired muscle pump. Some children afflicted with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and hypovolaemic dysregulation have been found to have perturbed renin-angiotensin-aldosterone profile, disturbed vascular endothelial function, and abnormal vasodilation. The hyperadrenergic state in some postural tachycardia syndrome patients is likely a driver for orthostatic tachycardia. Other mechanisms include the presence of treatable autonomic neuropathies. An understanding of these pathophysiological mechanisms might be helpful for the effective treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome.

  3. NET silencing by let-7i in postural tachycardia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Waheed; Corcoran, Susan J.; K.N, Harikrishnan; Okabe, Jun; Rafehi, Haloom; Maxwell, Scott S.; Esler, Murray D.

    2017-01-01

    While strongly implicated in postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), considerable controversy exists regarding norepinephrine transporter (NET) loss of function. POTS is characterized by the clinical symptoms of orthostatic intolerance, lightheadedness, tachycardia, and syncope or near syncope with upright posture. Abnormal sympathetic nervous system activity is typical, of a type which suggests dysfunction of the NET, with evidence that the gene responsible is under tight epigenetic control. Using RNA of isolated chromatin combined with massive parallel sequencing (RICh-seq) we show that let-7i miRNA suppresses NET by methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Vorinostat restores epigenetic control and NET expression in leukocytes derived from POTS participants. PMID:28352654

  4. Head lice.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Barbara L; Weiner, Leonard B

    2002-09-01

    Head lice infestation is associated with little morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. This statement attempts to clarify issues of diagnosis and treatment of head lice and makes recommendations for dealing with head lice in the school setting.

  5. Fright Posture of the Plesiopid Fish Calloplesiops altivelis: An Example of Batesian Mimicry.

    PubMed

    McCosker, J E

    1977-07-22

    When frightened by a predator, the plesiopid fish, Calloplesiops altivelis, adopts a posture and appearance that mimics the head of a noxious moray eel, Gymnothorax meleagris. Tests indicate that the mimicry is Batesian and not Müllerian. Unlike the strategy of other reef-fish prey species, which hide when threatened, the Calloplesiops's strategy is one of intimidation.

  6. Stimulus Control, Transfer and Maintenance of Upright Walking Posture with a Severely Retarded Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Robert H.

    Upright walking posture was successfully trained, maintained, and transferred to a new setting in a 28-year-old profoundly retarded adult. An apparatus in the S's cap and vest provided reinforcement (radio) when the S's head was up. The first four phases of the study demonstrated stimulus control in the training setting, while the next nine phases…

  7. [The experimental investigations upon the influence of ocular fixation on habituation of postural reflexes in pigeon].

    PubMed

    Kaźmierczak, H

    1994-01-01

    The subject of investigation was the influence of ocular fixation on acquisition of habituation in experimental rotatory test in pigeons. The habituation training was performed in the three difference conditions: with full ocular fixation, fixation partly reduced and fixation excluded. Author confirmed that habituation with fixation excluded gave the best results of habituation of postural reflexes and head nystagmus in pigeons in rotatory training.

  8. Motor systems and postural instability.

    PubMed

    Vassar, Rachel L; Rose, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependence alter the neurologic control of posture and motor function. Ethanol delays the conduction of electric signals from the central nervous system to the muscles controlling posture and impairs the integration of sensory inputs required for maintaining vertical stance. Consequently, alcohol intoxication delays the ability to detect postural changes and enact the appropriate response. Common signs of acute alcohol intoxication include spinocerebellar and vestibulocerebellar ataxia, oculomotor changes, and increased reliance on visuospatial clues. Chronic alcoholism results in postural tremors and excessive sway during quiet stance that can persist even after sobriety is achieved. Underlying neurologic changes due to chronic alcoholism have been found to be associated with these characteristic postural changes and include decreased volume of the anterior superior vermis of the cerebellum, decreased connectivity within the corpus callosum, and overall cortical atrophy. Severity of motor impairments and other symptoms from alcoholism relate to a variety of factors, including duration of alcoholism, age, sex, and other health determinants and comorbidities. Imaging studies highlight the potential for partial recovery from neurologic and motor deficits caused by alcoholism. Emerging evidence on the motor and neurologic changes caused by alcohol dependence may allow for improved treatment and prevention of the morbidities associated with alcoholism.

  9. Evaluation of validity and reliability of a methodology for measuring human postural attitude and its relation to temporomandibular joint disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Ramón Fuentes; Carter, Pablo; Muñoz, Sergio; Silva, Héctor; Venegas, Gonzalo Hernán Oporto; Cantin, Mario; Ottone, Nicolás Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJDs) are caused by several factors such as anatomical, neuromuscular and psychological alterations. A relationship has been established between TMJDs and postural alterations, a type of anatomical alteration. An anterior position of the head requires hyperactivity of the posterior neck region and shoulder muscles to prevent the head from falling forward. This compensatory muscular function may cause fatigue, discomfort and trigger point activation. To our knowledge, a method for assessing human postural attitude in more than one plane has not been reported. Thus, the aim of this study was to design a methodology to measure the external human postural attitude in frontal and sagittal planes, with proper validity and reliability analyses. METHODS The variable postures of 78 subjects (36 men, 42 women; age 18–24 years) were evaluated. The postural attitudes of the subjects were measured in the frontal and sagittal planes, using an acromiopelvimeter, grid panel and Fox plane. RESULTS The method we designed for measuring postural attitudes had adequate reliability and validity, both qualitatively and quantitatively, based on Cohen’s Kappa coefficient (> 0.87) and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r = 0.824, > 80%). CONCLUSION This method exhibits adequate metrical properties and can therefore be used in further research on the association of human body posture with skeletal types and TMJDs. PMID:26768173

  10. Development of a computational framework to adjust the pre-impact spine posture of a whole-body model based on cadaver tests data.

    PubMed

    Poulard, David; Subit, Damien; Donlon, John-Paul; Kent, Richard W

    2015-02-26

    A method was developed to adjust the posture of a human numerical model to match the pre-impact posture of a human subject. The method involves pulling cables to prescribe the position and orientation of the head, spine and pelvis during a simulation. Six postured models matching the pre-impact posture measured on subjects tested in previous studies were created from a human numerical model. Posture scalars were measured on pre- and after applying the method to evaluate its efficiency. The lateral leaning angle θL defined between T1 and the pelvis in the coronal plane was found to be significantly improved after application with an average difference of 0.1±0.1° with the PMHS (4.6±2.7° before application). This method will be applied in further studies to analyze independently the contribution of pre-impact posture on impact response using human numerical models.

  11. Postural discomfort and perceived exertion in standardized box-holding postures.

    PubMed

    Olendorf, M R; Drury, C G

    2001-12-15

    To help in the design or redesign of workplaces it would be helpful to know in advance the postural stress consequences of a wide range of body postures. This experiment evaluated 168 postures chosen to represent those in the Ovako Working-posture Analysing System (OWAS) using Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) and Body Part Discomfort (BPD) measures. The postures comprised all combinations of three arm postures, four back postures, seven leg postures and two forces (weights of held boxes). Twelve male subjects held each posture for a fixed duration (20 s) before providing RPE and BPD ratings. Analysis of the ratings gave highly significant main effects, with the major driver being the object weight. As each factor was varied, the largest effect was on the body region corresponding to that factor. A simple main-effects-only additive model explained 91% of the variance of RPE means for the postures.

  12. Ultrasound, normal fetus - head measurements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many health care providers like to have fetal measurements to verify the size of the fetus and ... any abnormalities. This ultrasound is of a head measurement, indicated by the cross hairs and dotted lines.

  13. Hemodynamic response to the upright posture.

    PubMed

    Smith, J J; Porth, C M; Erickson, M

    1994-05-01

    The authors' objective was to review previous studies of immediate (first 30 seconds) and stabilized (30 seconds to 20 minutes) hemodynamic responses of healthy adults to the head-up posture, with particular reference to alteration of such responses in the elderly and the usefulness of such data in the diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension. The immediate response in healthy young adults is characterized by a prompt rise in heart rate, which peaks at about 8 to 15 seconds and then tapers; the arterial pressure and total vascular resistance decrease sharply at 5 to 10 seconds, followed by a rapid rebound and overshoot. Over the first 30 seconds there is a steady parallel decline of thoracic blood volume and stroke volume; there is also an initial surge of cardiac output followed by a steady decrease. During the stabilized response (30 seconds to 20 minutes), the hemodynamic variables are relatively steady, showing average increases in heart rate of about 15 to 30%, in diastolic pressure of 10 to 15%, and in total vascular resistance of 30 to 40%; during the 5th to 20th minutes there are also decreases in thoracic blood volume averaging about 25 to 30%, in cardiac output 15 to 30%, and in pulse pressure about 5 to 10%. It is evident that in normal human subjects, assumption of the upright posture results in profound hemodynamic changes, most of them occurring during the first 30 seconds. In elderly subjects (aged 60-69 years), there are, in the upright posture, lesser increments of heart rate and diastolic pressure, but no significant differences from younger age groups in the response of thoracic blood volume, cardiac output or total vascular resistance. However, beginning at about age 75, there is an increasing incidence of orthostatic hypotension, which averages about 14 to 20% at age 75 and older. The tendency toward orthostatic hypotension in the elderly is due (1) to the structural and functional changes in the circulation itself, (2) to a decline in autonomic

  14. Age Related Decline in Postural Control Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelmach, George E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied voluntary and reflexive mechanisms of postural control of young (N=8) and elderly (N=8) adults through measurement of reflexive reactions to large-fast and small-slow ankle rotation postural disturbances. Found reflexive mechanisms relatively intact for both groups although elderly appeared more disadvantaged when posture was under the…

  15. Postural Control in Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen-Raz, Reuven; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Postural control was evaluated in 91 autistic, 166 normal, and 18 mentally retarded children using a computerized posturographic procedure. In comparison to normal children, the autistic subjects were less likely to exhibit age-related changes in postural performance, and postures were more variable and less stable. (Author/JDD)

  16. The impact of computer display height and desk design on 3D posture during information technology work by young adults.

    PubMed

    Straker, L; Burgess-Limerick, R; Pollock, C; Murray, K; Netto, K; Coleman, J; Skoss, R

    2008-04-01

    Computer display height and desk design to allow forearm support are two critical design features of workstations for information technology tasks. However there is currently no 3D description of head and neck posture with different computer display heights and no direct comparison to paper based information technology tasks. There is also inconsistent evidence on the effect of forearm support on posture and no evidence on whether these features interact. This study compared the 3D head, neck and upper limb postures of 18 male and 18 female young adults whilst working with different display and desk design conditions. There was no substantial interaction between display height and desk design. Lower display heights increased head and neck flexion with more spinal asymmetry when working with paper. The curved desk, designed to provide forearm support, increased scapula elevation/protraction and shoulder flexion/abduction.

  17. Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Welch, Robert D; Ayaz, Syed I; Lewis, Lawrence M; Unden, Johan; Chen, James Y; Mika, Valerie H; Saville, Ben; Tyndall, Joseph A; Nash, Marshall; Buki, Andras; Barzo, Pal; Hack, Dallas; Tortella, Frank C; Schmid, Kara; Hayes, Ronald L; Vossough, Arastoo; Sweriduk, Stephen T; Bazarian, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-15

    Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70-0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65-0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice.

  18. Postural analysis of nursing work.

    PubMed

    Hignett, S

    1996-06-01

    Back pain in the nursing profession is an acknowledged wide spread occupational hazard. This study used OWAS (Ovako Working posture Analysis System) to measure the severity of the working postures adopted by nurses on Care of the Elderly wards when carrying out manual handling operations for animate and inanimate loads. Twenty-six nurses were observed on 31 occasions to obtain 4299 observations, these data were collected and processed using the OWASCO and OWASAN programs, and then analysed by grouping the results into defined patient (animate) handling and non-patient (inanimate) handling tasks. A statistical comparison was made between the two groups using the percentage of action categories two, three and four, to the total number of action categories. A significant difference (p < 0.05) was found, demonstrating that the percentage of harmful postures adopted during patient handling tasks was significantly higher than during non-patient handling tasks. This high level of postural stress and the poor track record of risk management within the Health Care Industry leads to the recommendation that an attitudinal change is needed to successfully address and reduce the manual handling burden which is currently being carried by the nursing staff.

  19. Recognizing postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pavlik, Daniel; Agnew, Donna; Stiles, Lauren; Ditoro, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, diagnosis, and management of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), a potentially debilitating autonomic disorder that can have many causes and presentations. POTS can be mistaken for panic disorder, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, and chronic fatigue syndrome. Clinician suspicion for the syndrome is key to prompt patient diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Analysis of body posture in children with mild to moderate asthma.

    PubMed

    Belli, Juliana Fernanda Canhadas; Chaves, Thaís Cristina; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani; Grossi, Débora Bevilaqua

    2009-10-01

    The mechanical alterations related to the excessive use of accessory respiratory muscles and the mouth breathing observed in children with asthma may lead to the development of alterations in head posture, shoulders, thoracic region and, consequently, in alterations of body posture. The purpose of this study was to assess body posture changes of children with asthma compared to a non-asthmatic control group matched for gender, age, weight, and height. Thirty children with asthma and 30 non-asthmatic children aged 7 to 12 years were enrolled in this study. Digital photographic records were obtained for analysis of the body posture of the children by computed photogrammetry. The intraclass correlation coefficient and Student's t test (p < 0.05) were used for statistical analysis. There were no significant differences between groups for the angles analyzed, except for the knee flexor angle. These results demonstrate that children with asthma did not present postural alterations compared to non-asthmatic controls since the only angle for which there was a significant difference between groups showed weak reproducibility. The findings of this study do not support the notion that children with asthma present alterations in body posture.

  1. Postural assessment of school children: an input for the design of furniture.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Maria Antónia; Arezes, Pedro M

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades of the previous century, school desks with a tilt top have disappeared. The chairs have been designed for sitting upright, with the hip, knees and ankles all at right angles. However, the erect posture cannot be maintained for more than one or two minutes, after which it will result in fatigue, discomfort or poor posture. The main aim of project is to identify the type of furniture that most effectively contribute to adequate neck and back postures of the school children, by carrying out a postural analysis of a sample of school pupils when using three different types of furniture. The postures adopted by school pupils were monitored by video during several activities, such as reading, writing and painting tasks, copying from a blackboard and listening the teacher. Additionally, the characteristics of the adopted postures were assessed by registering the head tilt, flexion of the neck, trunk and hips position. All these aspects were classified and the results were recorded for future analysis. The obtained results seem to point out that the use of a school desk with a tilted table surface resulted in a reduction in trunk and neck flexion, preserving the natural lordosis in the lumbar and cervical regions. Accordingly, it can be concluded that there are alternatives to consider in the furniture design in order to eliminate tensions and, consequently, to improve children's wellbeing.

  2. [The influence of posture on transmission and absorption of vibration energy in whole body vibration exercise].

    PubMed

    Berschin, G; Sommer, H-M

    2010-03-01

    Muscle exercise using whole body vibration platforms is well known as an alternative physical exercise in therapy as well as in high performance sports. Various studies could show an effectiveness in particular to improve maximal strength and springiness. Using these platforms there is no consideration to posture although the damage potential of vibration stress i. e. on intervertebral discs is well-known. Therefore the effect of posture on the transmission and absorption of vibration loads in bipedal standing was examined in a study with 20 sport students. They were exposed to a whole body vibration load in bipedal standing at a vibration frequency of 25 Hz. The transmission of energy was measured at the head in different postural positions. An average transmission of 9 % was measured in spontaneous bipedal standing. It significantly decreased with gradual changes of posture. After 6 weeks posture conditioning exercise this effect was significantly improved. In conclusion different posture in bipedal standing implies not only different energy absorption but also different effects on muscle performance which can explain the partly inconsistent results after vibration exercise. In addition whole body vibration exercise in a prone or sitting position may increase the risk of overload and should be avoided because of reduced energy absorption capacity.

  3. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury, cerebral contusion, cerebral laceration, coma, head trauma, hematoma, impaired consciousness, postconcussion syndrome, skull fracture, skull penetration, stupor, vegetative state Family Health, Infants ...

  4. Effect of table top slope and height on body posture and muscular activity pattern.

    PubMed

    Hassaïne, M; Hamaoui, A; Zanone, P-G

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of table top slope and height on body posture and muscular activity pattern. Twelve asymptomatic participants performed a 5-min reading task while sitting, in six experimental conditions manipulating the table top slope (20° backward slope, no slope) and its height (low, medium, up). EMGs recordings were taken on 9 superficial muscles located at the trunk and shoulder level, and the angular positions of the head, trunk and pelvis were assessed using an inertial orientation system. Results revealed that the sloping table top was associated with a higher activity of deltoideus pars clavicularis (P<0.05) and a smaller flexion angle of the head (P<0.05). A tentative conclusion is that a sloping table top induces a more erect posture of the head and the neck, but entails an overload of the shoulder, which might be harmful on the long run.

  5. Postural correction reduces hip pain in adult with acetabular dysplasia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Cara L.; Khuu, Anne; Marinko, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dysplasia of the hip is often diagnosed in infancy, but less severe cases of acetabular dysplasia are being detected in young active adults. The purpose of this case report is to present a non-surgical intervention for a 31-year-old female with mild acetabular dysplasia and an anterior acetabular labral tear. The patient presented with right anterior hip and groin pain, and she stood with the trunk swayed posterior to the pelvis (swayback posture). The hip pain was reproduced with the anterior impingement test. During gait, the patient maintained the swayback posture and reported 6/10 hip pain. Following correction of the patient’s posture, the patient’s pain rating was reduced to a 2/10 while walking. The patient was instructed to maintain the improved posture. At the 1 year follow-up, she demonstrated significantly improved posture in standing and walking. She had returned to recreational running and was generally pain-free. The patient demonstrated improvement on self-reported questionnaires for pain, function and activity. These findings suggest that alteration of posture can have an immediate and lasting effect on hip pain in persons with structural abnormality and labral pathology. PMID:25731688

  6. Haptic cues for orientation and postural control in sighted and blind individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeka, J. J.; Easton, R. D.; Bentzen, B. L.; Lackner, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Haptic cues from fingertip contact with a stable surface attenuate body sway in subjects even when the contact forces are too small to provide physical support of the body. We investigated how haptic cues derived from contact of a cane with a stationary surface at low force levels aids postural control in sighted and congenitally blind individuals. Five sighted (eyes closed) and five congenitally blind subjects maintained a tandem Romberg stance in five conditions: (1) no cane; (2,3) touch contact (< 2 N of applied force) while holding the cane in a vertical or slanted orientation; and (4,5) force contact (as much force as desired) in the vertical and slanted orientations. Touch contact of a cane at force levels below those necessary to provide significant physical stabilization was as effective as force contact in reducing postural sway in all subjects, compared to the no-cane condition. A slanted cane was far more effective in reducing postural sway than was a perpendicular cane. Cane use also decreased head displacement of sighted subjects far more than that of blind subjects. These results suggest that head movement control is linked to postural control through gaze stabilization reflexes in sighted subjects; such reflexes are absent in congenitally blind individuals and may account for their higher levels of head displacement.

  7. POSTURAL EVALUATION OF PATIENTS WITH TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS UNDER USE OF OCCLUSAL SPLINTS

    PubMed Central

    Strini, Paulinne Junqueira Silva Andresen; Machado, Naila Aparecida de Godoi; Gorreri, Marília Cavalheri; Ferreira, Amanda de Freitas; Sousa, Gilmar da Cunha; Fernandes, Alfredo Júlio

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Alterations in the temporomandibular complex can reflect in adaptations of the individual's entire muscular system, intervening with the head position and scapular waist, developing postural alterations and modifying all corporal biomechanics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the head position (HP) and head postural alterations before and after installation of occlusal splints. Material and Methods: Twenty patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) underwent clinical and postural examination, before the installation of an occlusal splint, and after 1 week and 1 month of use. Results: There were statistically differences for HP, between the initial values and after 1 week of use of the occlusal device (p= 0.048) and also between 1 week and 1 month of evaluation (p= 0.001). Decrease of the painful symptomatology and maintenance of the rectification were also observed. Conclusions: The individual's postural position can suffer biomechanical alterations due to stomatognathic alterations, causing clinically visible changes in dysfunctional individuals and affecting the performance of the involved structures. PMID:19936539

  8. Effectuation of adaptive stability and postural alignment strategies are decreased by alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Hafström, A; Modig, F; Magnusson, M; Fransson, P A

    2014-06-01

    Human stability control is a complex process comprising contributions from several partly independent mechanisms such as coordination, feedback and feed-forward control, and adaptation. Acute alcohol intoxication impairs these functions and is recognized as a major contributor to fall traumas. The study aimed to investigate how alcohol intoxication at .06% and .10% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) affected the movement spans and control of posture alignment. The angular positions of the head, shoulder, hip and knees relative to the ankles were measured with a 3D motion analysis system in 25 healthy adults during standing with eyes open or closed and with or without vibratory balance perturbations. Alcohol intoxication significantly increased the movement spans of the head, shoulders, hip and knees in anteroposterior and lateral directions during quiet stance (p < or = .047 and p < or = .003) and balance perturbations (p<.001, both directions). Alcohol intoxication also decreased the ability to reduce the movement spans through adaptation in both anteroposterior (p < or = .011) and lateral (p < or = .004) directions. When sober and submitted to balance perturbations, the subjects aligned the head, shoulders, hip and knees more forward relative to the ankle joint (p < .001), hence adopting a more resilient posture increasing the safety margin for backward falls. Alcohol intoxication significantly delayed this forward realignment (p < or = .022). Alcohol intoxication did not cause any significant posture realignment in the lateral direction. Thus, initiation of adaptive posture realignments to alcohol or other disruptions might be context dependent and associated with reaching a certain level of stability threats.

  9. Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with Down syndrome: case reports.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Danielle; Dugas, Claude

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe the impact of an 11-week hippotherapy program on the gross motor functions of two children (respectively 28 and 37 months old) diagnosed with Down syndrome. Hippotherapy is a strategy that uses the horse's motion to stimulate and enhance muscle contraction and postural control. The children were assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and accelerometry. The results indicate that both children improved on many dimensions of the GMFM. Power spectral analysis of the acceleration signals showed improvement in postural control of either the head or trunk, because the children adopted two different adaptative strategies to perturbation induced by the moving horse.

  10. Geometric morphometrics as a tool for improving the comparative study of behavioural postures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fureix, Carole; Hausberger, Martine; Seneque, Emilie; Morisset, Stéphane; Baylac, Michel; Cornette, Raphaël; Biquand, Véronique; Deleporte, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Describing postures has always been a central concern when studying behaviour. However, attempts to compare postures objectively at phylogenetical, populational, inter- or intra-individual levels generally either rely upon a few key elements or remain highly subjective. Here, we propose a novel approach, based on well-established geometric morphometrics, to describe and to analyse postures globally (i.e. considering the animal's body posture in its entirety rather than focusing only on a few salient elements, such as head or tail position). Geometric morphometrics is concerned with describing and comparing variation and changes in the form (size and shape) of organisms using the coordinates of a series of homologous landmarks (i.e. positioned in relation to skeletal or muscular cues that are the same for different species for every variety of form and function and that have derived from a common ancestor, i.e. they have a common evolutionary ancestry, e.g. neck, wings, flipper/hand). We applied this approach to horses, using global postures (1) to characterise behaviours that correspond to different arousal levels, (2) to test potential impact of environmental changes on postures. Our application of geometric morphometrics to horse postures showed that this method can be used to characterise behavioural categories, to evaluate the impact of environmental factors (here human actions) and to compare individuals and groups. Beyond its application to horses, this promising approach could be applied to all questions involving the analysis of postures (evolution of displays, expression of emotions, stress and welfare, behavioural repertoires…) and could lead to a whole new line of research.

  11. Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Syed I.; Lewis, Lawrence M.; Unden, Johan; Chen, James Y.; Mika, Valerie H.; Saville, Ben; Tyndall, Joseph A.; Nash, Marshall; Buki, Andras; Barzo, Pal; Hack, Dallas; Tortella, Frank C.; Schmid, Kara; Hayes, Ronald L.; Vossough, Arastoo; Sweriduk, Stephen T.; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70–0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71–0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65–0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice. PMID:26467555

  12. Dropped head syndrome in mitochondriopathy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, J

    2004-11-01

    In a 63-year-old, 165-cm-tall woman with a history of repeated tick bites, dilative cardiomyopathy, osteoporosis, progressive head ptosis with neck stiffness and cervical pain developed. The family history was positive for thyroid dysfunction and neuromuscular disorders. Neurological examination revealed prominent forward head drop, weak anteflexion and retroflexion, nuchal rigidity, weakness of the shoulder girdle, cogwheel rigidity, and tetraspasticity. The lactate stress test was abnormal. Electromyograms of various muscles were myogenic. Muscle biopsy showed non-specific myogenic abnormalities and generally weak staining for cytochrome oxydase. Mitochondriopathy with multi-organ involvement was suspected. The response to anti-Parkinson medication was poor. In conclusion, dropped head syndrome (DHS) may be due to multi-organ mitochondriopathy, manifesting as Parkinsonism, tetraspasticity, dilative cardiomyopathy, osteoporosis, short stature, and myopathy. Anti-Parkinson medication is of limited effect.

  13. A Methodology for Investigating Adaptive Postural Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, P. V.; Riccio, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    overt goals. It follows that an essential characteristic of postural behavior is the effective maintenance of the orientation and stability of the sensory and motor "platforms" (e.g., head or shoulders) over variations in the human, the environment and the task. This general skill suggests that individuals should be sensitive to the functional consequences of body configuration and stability. In other words, individuals should perceive the relation between configuration, stability, and performance so that they can adaptively control their interaction with the surroundings. Human-environment interactions constitute robust systems in that individuals can maintain the stability of such interactions over uncertainty about and variations in the dynamics of the interaction. Robust interactions allow individuals to adopt orientations and configurations that are not optimal with respect to purely energetic criteria. Individuals can tolerate variation in postural states, and such variation can serve an important function in adaptive systems. Postural variability generates stimulation which is "textured" by the dynamics of the human-environment system. The texture or structure in stimulation provides information about variation in dynamics, and such information can be sufficient to guide adaption in control strategies. Our method were designed to measure informative patterns of movement variability.

  14. Changes in posture through the use of simple inclines with notebook computers placed on a standard desk.

    PubMed

    Asundi, Krishna; Odell, Dan; Luce, Adam; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the use of simple inclines as a portable peripheral for improving head and neck postures during notebook computer use on tables in portable environments such as hotel rooms, cafés, and airport lounges. A 3D motion analysis system measured head, neck and right upper extremity postures of 15 participants as they completed a 10 min computer task in six different configurations, all on a fixed height desk: no-incline, 12° incline, 25° incline, no-incline with external mouse, 25° incline with an external mouse, and a commercially available riser with external mouse and keyboard. After completion of the task, subjects rated the configuration for comfort and ease of use and indicated perceived discomfort in several body segments. Compared to the no-incline configuration, use of the 12° incline reduced forward head tilt and neck flexion while increasing wrist extension. The 25° incline further reduced head tilt and neck flexion while further increasing wrist extension. The 25° incline received the lowest comfort and ease of use ratings and the highest perceived discomfort score. For portable, temporary computing environments where internal input devices are used, users may find improved head and neck postures with acceptable wrist extension postures with the utilization of a 12° incline.

  15. Postural risk assessment of mechanised firewood processing.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Raffaele; Aminti, Giovanni; De Francesco, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    The study assessed the postural risk of mechanised firewood processing with eight machines, representing the main technology solutions available on the market. Assessment was conducted with the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS) on 1000 still frames randomly extracted from videotaped work samples. The postural risk associated with firewood processing was variable and associated with technology type. Simple, manually operated new machines incurred a higher postural risk compared with semi- or fully automatic machines. In contrast, new semi-automatic and automatic machines were generally free from postural risk. In all cases, attention should be paid to postural risk that may occur during blockage resolution. The study did not cover the postural risk of firewood processing sites as a whole. The study provided useful information for selecting firewood processing machinery and for improving firewood machinery design, as part of a more articulate strategy aimed at enhancing the safety of firewood processing work sites. Practitioner Summary: The postural risk associated with mechanised firewood processing (eg cutting and splitting) depends on the type of equipment. Postural risk is highest (OWAS Action Category 2) with new in-line machines, designed for operation by a single worker. Fully automatic machines present minimum postural risk, except during blockage resolution.

  16. Exercise in the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-03-01

    Patients with the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) have orthostatic intolerance, as well as exercise intolerance. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is generally lower in these patients compared with healthy sedentary individuals, suggesting a lower physical fitness level. During acute exercise, POTS patients have an excessive increase in heart rate and reduced stroke volume for each level of absolute workload; however, when expressed at relative workload (%VO2peak), there is no difference in the heart rate response between patients and healthy individuals. The relationship between cardiac output and VO2 is similar between POTS patients and healthy individuals. Short-term (i.e., 3 months) exercise training increases cardiac size and mass, blood volume, and VO2peak in POTS patients. Exercise performance is improved after training. Specifically, stroke volume is greater and heart rate is lower at any given VO2 during exercise after training versus before training. Peak heart rate is the same but peak stroke volume and cardiac output are greater after training. Heart rate recovery from peak exercise is significantly faster after training, indicating an improvement in autonomic circulatory control. These results suggest that patients with POTS have no intrinsic abnormality of heart rate regulation during exercise. The tachycardia in POTS is due to a reduced stroke volume. Cardiac remodeling and blood volume expansion associated with exercise training increase physical fitness and improve exercise performance in these patients.

  17. Time course analysis of baroreflex sensitivity during postural stress.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, Berend E; Gisolf, Janneke; Karemaker, John M; Wesseling, Karel H; Secher, Niels H; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2006-12-01

    Postural stress requires immediate autonomic nervous action to maintain blood pressure. We determined time-domain cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and time delay (tau) between systolic blood pressure and interbeat interval variations during stepwise changes in the angle of vertical body axis (alpha). The assumption was that with increasing postural stress, BRS becomes attenuated, accompanied by a shift in tau toward higher values. In 10 healthy young volunteers, alpha included 20 degrees head-down tilt (-20 degrees), supine (0 degree), 30 and 70 degrees head-up tilt (30 degrees, 70 degrees), and free standing (90 degrees). Noninvasive blood pressures were analyzed over 6-min periods before and after each change in alpha. The BRS was determined by frequency-domain analysis and with xBRS, a cross-correlation time-domain method. On average, between 28 (-20 degrees) to 45 (90 degrees) xBRS estimates per minute became available. Following a change in alpha, xBRS reached a different mean level in the first minute in 78% of the cases and in 93% after 6 min. With increasing alpha, BRS decreased: BRS = -10.1.sin(alpha) + 18.7 (r(2) = 0.99) with tight correlation between xBRS and cross-spectral gain (r(2) approximately 0.97). Delay tau shifted toward higher values. In conclusion, in healthy subjects the sensitivity of the cardiac baroreflex obtained from time domain decreases linearly with sin(alpha), and the start of baroreflex adaptation to a physiological perturbation like postural stress occurs rapidly. The decreases of BRS and reduction of short tau may be the result of reduced vagal activity with increasing alpha.

  18. Orthostatic Intolerance and Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome in Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type: Neurovegetative Dysregulation or Autonomic Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Castori, Marco; Censi, Federica; Gioffrè, Laura; Calcagnini, Giovanni; Strano, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Background. Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT), is a hereditary connective tissue disorder mainly characterized by generalized joint hypermobility, skin texture abnormalities, and visceral and vascular dysfunctions, also comprising symptoms of autonomic dysfunction. This study aims to further evaluate cardiovascular autonomic involvement in JHS/EDS-HT by a battery of functional tests. Methods. The response to cardiovascular reflex tests comprising deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, 30/15 ratio, handgrip test, and head-up tilt test was studied in 35 JHS/EDS-HT adults. Heart rate and blood pressure variability was also investigated by spectral analysis in comparison to age and sex healthy matched group. Results. Valsalva ratio was normal in all patients, but 37.2% of them were not able to finish the test. At tilt, 48.6% patients showed postural orthostatic tachycardia, 31.4% orthostatic intolerance, 20% normal results. Only one patient had orthostatic hypotension. Spectral analysis showed significant higher baroreflex sensitivity values at rest compared to controls. Conclusions. This study confirms the abnormal cardiovascular autonomic profile in adults with JHS/EDS-HT and found the higher baroreflex sensitivity as a potential disease marker and clue for future research. PMID:28286774

  19. Orthostatic Intolerance and Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome in Joint Hypermobility Syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Hypermobility Type: Neurovegetative Dysregulation or Autonomic Failure?

    PubMed

    Celletti, Claudia; Camerota, Filippo; Castori, Marco; Censi, Federica; Gioffrè, Laura; Calcagnini, Giovanni; Strano, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Background. Joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (JHS/EDS-HT), is a hereditary connective tissue disorder mainly characterized by generalized joint hypermobility, skin texture abnormalities, and visceral and vascular dysfunctions, also comprising symptoms of autonomic dysfunction. This study aims to further evaluate cardiovascular autonomic involvement in JHS/EDS-HT by a battery of functional tests. Methods. The response to cardiovascular reflex tests comprising deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, 30/15 ratio, handgrip test, and head-up tilt test was studied in 35 JHS/EDS-HT adults. Heart rate and blood pressure variability was also investigated by spectral analysis in comparison to age and sex healthy matched group. Results. Valsalva ratio was normal in all patients, but 37.2% of them were not able to finish the test. At tilt, 48.6% patients showed postural orthostatic tachycardia, 31.4% orthostatic intolerance, 20% normal results. Only one patient had orthostatic hypotension. Spectral analysis showed significant higher baroreflex sensitivity values at rest compared to controls. Conclusions. This study confirms the abnormal cardiovascular autonomic profile in adults with JHS/EDS-HT and found the higher baroreflex sensitivity as a potential disease marker and clue for future research.

  20. The Steps to Perfect Posture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Many people have memories of being told to "stop slouching" while seated at the piano bench. But the reality is that good piano posture is not as simple as bolting upright on the bench when the teacher barks. According to Eric Sutz, a Chicago-area piano teacher and performer, one should see a natural curve in his/her lower lumbar area and should…

  1. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  2. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  3. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003170.htm Skeletal limb abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems ...

  4. Absence of Rotation Perception during Warm Water Caloric Irrigation in Some Seniors with Postural Instability

    PubMed Central

    Chiarovano, Elodie; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Magnani, Christophe; Lamas, Georges; Curthoys, Ian S.; de Waele, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Falls in seniors are a major public health problem. Falls lead to fear of falling, reduced mobility, and decreased quality of life. Vestibular dysfunction is one of the fall risk factors. The relationship between objective measures of vestibular responses and age has been studied. However, the effects of age on vestibular perception during caloric stimulation have not been studied. Twenty senior subjects were included in the study, and separated in two groups: 10 seniors reporting postural instability (PI) and exhibiting absence of vestibular perception when they tested with caloric stimulation and 10 sex- and age-matched seniors with no such problems (controls). We assessed vestibular perception on a binary rating scale during the warm irrigation of the caloric test. The function of the various vestibular receptors was assessed using video head impulse test (vHIT), caloric tests, and cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. The Equitest was used to evaluate balance. No horizontal canal dysfunction assessed using both caloric test and vHIT was detected in either group. No significant difference was detected between PI and control groups for the peak SPV of caloric-induced ocular nystagmus or for the HVOR gain. All the controls perceived rotation when the maximal SPV during warm irrigation was equal to or ≥15°/s. None of the subjects in the PI group perceived rotation even while the peak SPV exceeded 15°/s, providing objective evidence of normal peripheral horizontal canal function. All the PI group had abnormal Equitest results, particularly in the two last conditions. These investigations show for the first time that vestibular perception can be absent during a caloric test despite normal horizontal canal function. We call this as dissociation vestibular neglect. Patients with poor vestibular perception may not be aware of postural perturbations and so will not correct for them. Thus, falls in the elderly may result, among other factors, from

  5. Absence of Rotation Perception during Warm Water Caloric Irrigation in Some Seniors with Postural Instability.

    PubMed

    Chiarovano, Elodie; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Magnani, Christophe; Lamas, Georges; Curthoys, Ian S; de Waele, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Falls in seniors are a major public health problem. Falls lead to fear of falling, reduced mobility, and decreased quality of life. Vestibular dysfunction is one of the fall risk factors. The relationship between objective measures of vestibular responses and age has been studied. However, the effects of age on vestibular perception during caloric stimulation have not been studied. Twenty senior subjects were included in the study, and separated in two groups: 10 seniors reporting postural instability (PI) and exhibiting absence of vestibular perception when they tested with caloric stimulation and 10 sex- and age-matched seniors with no such problems (controls). We assessed vestibular perception on a binary rating scale during the warm irrigation of the caloric test. The function of the various vestibular receptors was assessed using video head impulse test (vHIT), caloric tests, and cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. The Equitest was used to evaluate balance. No horizontal canal dysfunction assessed using both caloric test and vHIT was detected in either group. No significant difference was detected between PI and control groups for the peak SPV of caloric-induced ocular nystagmus or for the HVOR gain. All the controls perceived rotation when the maximal SPV during warm irrigation was equal to or ≥15°/s. None of the subjects in the PI group perceived rotation even while the peak SPV exceeded 15°/s, providing objective evidence of normal peripheral horizontal canal function. All the PI group had abnormal Equitest results, particularly in the two last conditions. These investigations show for the first time that vestibular perception can be absent during a caloric test despite normal horizontal canal function. We call this as dissociation vestibular neglect. Patients with poor vestibular perception may not be aware of postural perturbations and so will not correct for them. Thus, falls in the elderly may result, among other factors, from

  6. Postural Stability is Altered by Blood Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marais, M.; Denise, P.; Guincetre, J. Y.; Normand, H.

    2008-06-01

    Non-vestibular influences as shift in blood volume changed perception of body posture. Then, factors affecting blood shift may alter postural control. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of leg venous contention on postural stability. Twelve subjects were studied on a balance plate for 5 minutes with the eyes closed, in 3 conditions: with no leg venous contention or grade 1 and 3 support stockings. Standard deviation of x and y position was calculated before and after the closure of the eyes. Strong venous contention altered postural stability, after the eyes were closed, during the first 10 s of standing. As support stockings prevent blood shift induced by upright posture, this result is in line with the hypothesis that blood shifts influence the perception of body orientation and postural control among others factors as vision, vestibular inputs... This strong venous contention could induce an increase of fall.

  7. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... treat abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  8. Head Tilt

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco ...

  9. Head Noises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Explains how a toy called "Sound Bites" can be modified to demonstrate the transmission of sound waves. Students can hear music from the toy when they press it against any bone in their heads or shoulders. (WRM)

  10. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  11. Head lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... make the nits easier to remove. Some dishwashing detergents can help dissolve the "glue" that makes the ... clothes and bed linens in hot water with detergent. This also helps prevent head lice from spreading ...

  12. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... won't stop crying complains of head and neck pain (younger or nonverbal children may be more fussy) ... vision pupils of unequal size weakness or paralysis neck pain or stiffness seizure If your child is unconscious: ...

  13. The feasibility of repositioning ability as a tool for ergonomic evaluation: effects of chair back inclination and fatigue on head repositioning.

    PubMed

    Wong, T F Y; Chow, D H K; Holmes, A D; Cheung, K M C

    2006-07-15

    Poor posture has been suggested as one of the main factors contributing to the high prevalence of neck pain in video display unit (VDU) users, but no clear association between pain and any particular resting neck posture has been found. Postural awareness of the neck, as indicated by the repositioning accuracy, may therefore be an appropriate measure and potentially useful assessment tool. The objective of this study is to examine whether posture and fatigue affect the head repositioning ability in typical VDU usage. A group of 20 healthy participants reproduced a normal comfortable posture for forward, upright and backward chair back inclinations in random order both before and after fatigue of the upper trapezius muscles. Ten repetitions of the posture were recorded for 2 s each, and the angular and translational deviations from the original head position were measured with regard to the external environment (head in space repositioning) and with regard to the trunk (head on trunk repositioning). Analysis by repeated measures ANOVA showed significant effects and interactions of fatigue and chair back inclination on the repositioning errors in the sagittal plane, which typically showed systematic trends towards certain postures rather than random errors around a mean position. While further work is required to examine the ergonomic impact of impaired repositioning ability, head repositioning is sensitive to ergonomic factors such as seating configuration and fatigue, and may therefore be a useful tool for evaluation of static working postures.

  14. The neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Costa, F.; Shannon, J. R.; Robertson, R. M.; Wathen, M.; Stein, M.; Biaggioni, I.; Ertl, A.; Black, B.; Robertson, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The postural tachycardia syndrome is a common disorder that is characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms and a dramatic increase in heart rate on standing, but that does not involve orthostatic hypotension. Several lines of evidence indicate that this disorder may result from sympathetic denervation of the legs. METHODS: We measured norepinephrine spillover (the rate of entry of norepinephrine into the venous circulation) in the arms and legs both before and in response to exposure to three stimuli (the cold pressor test, sodium nitroprusside infusion, and tyramine infusion) in 10 patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome and in 8 age- and sex-matched normal subjects. RESULTS: At base line, the mean (+/-SD) plasma norepinephrine concentration in the femoral vein was lower in the patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome than in the normal subjects (135+/-30 vs. 215+/-55 pg per milliliter [0.80+/-0.18 vs. 1.27+/-0.32 nmol per liter], P=0.001). Norepinephrine spillover in the arms increased to a similar extent in the two groups in response to each of the three stimuli, but the increases in the legs were smaller in the patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome than in the normal subjects (0.001+/-0.09 vs. 0.12+/-0.12 ng per minute per deciliter of tissue [0.006+/-0.53 vs. 0.71+/-0.71 nmol per minute per deciliter] with the cold pressor test, P=0.02; 0.02+/-0.07 vs. 0.23+/-0.17 ng per minute per deciliter [0.12+/-0.41 vs. 1.36+/-1.00 nmol per minute per deciliter] with nitroprusside infusion, P=0.01; and 0.008+/-0.09 vs. 0.19+/-0.25 ng per minute per deciliter [0.05+/-0.53 vs. 1.12+/-1.47 nmol per minute per deciliter] with tyramine infusion, P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome results from partial sympathetic denervation, especially in the legs.

  15. Cervical and shoulder postural assessment of adolescents between 15 and 17 years old and association with upper quadrant pain

    PubMed Central

    Ruivo, Rodrigo M.; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Carita, Ana I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is sparse literature that provides evidence of cervical and shoulder postural alignment of 15 to 17-year-old adolescents and that analyzes sex differences. Objectives: To characterize the postural alignment of the head and shoulder in the sagittal plane of 15 to 17-year-old Portuguese adolescents in natural erect standing and explore the relationships between three postural angles and presence of neck and shoulder pain. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools in Portugal. 275 adolescent students (153 females and 122 males) aged 15 to 17 were evaluated. Sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were measured with photogrammetry and PAS software. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Assessment (ASES) was used to assess shoulder pain, whereas neck pain was self-reported with a single question. Results: Mean values of sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were 17.2±5.7, 47.4±5.2, and 51.4±8.5º, respectively. 68% of the participants revealed protraction of the head, whereas 58% of them had protraction of the shoulder. The boys showed a significantly higher mean cervical angle, and adolescents with neck pain revealed lower mean cervical angle than adolescents without neck pain. 53% of the girls self-reported regular neck pain, contrasting with 19% of the boys. Conclusions: This data shows that forward head and protracted shoulder are common postural disorders in adolescents, especially in girls. Neck pain is prevalent in adolescents, especially girls, and it is associated with forward head posture. PMID:25054381

  16. Postural behavior in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Fallang, Bjørg; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2005-01-01

    The present paper presents clinical and neurophysiological data of postural behavior in preterm children without CP. Clinical follow-up studies of preterm infants until toddler and school age have reported that low-risk preterm infants may have atypical postural behavior in terms of reduced amount of rotation during crawling, delayed dynamic balance, delayed onset of and a poor quality of early walking behavior. At school age, dysfunctions such as problems in standing on one leg and poor hopping are reported. Neurophysiological data of postural control at early age indicated the presence of a dysfunction in the capacity to modulate postural activity, and the postural activity has been characterized by temporal disorganization of EMG responses. Postural responses to goal-directed reaching in supine lying have been recorded and analyzed in terms of the total body center of pressure. In this study, preterm infants show less mobile postural behavior compared with full-term infants. In infancy, the less mobile postural behavior seemed to be adequate as it was related to better goal-directed reaching quality, but the results indicated that the relatively immobile postural behavior during reaching in early age was related to less favorable neuromotor behavior in school-age.

  17. Validation of a computer analysis to determine 3-D rotations and translations of the rib cage in upright posture from three 2-D digital images

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Deed E.; Janik, Tadeusz J.; Cailliet, Rene; Normand, Martin C.; Perron, Denise L.; Ferrantelli, Joseph R

    2006-01-01

    Since thoracic cage posture affects lumbar spine coupling and loads on the spinal tissues and extremities, a scientific analysis of upright posture is needed. Common posture analyzers measure human posture as displacements from a plumb line, while the PosturePrint™ claims to measure head, rib cage, and pelvic postures as rotations and translations. In this study, it was decided to evaluate the validity of the PosturePrint™ Internet computer system’s analysis of thoracic cage postures. In a university biomechanics laboratory, photographs of a mannequin thoracic cage were obtained in different postures on a stand in front of a digital camera. For each mannequin posture, three photographs were obtained (left lateral, right lateral, and AP). The mannequin thoracic cage was placed in 68 different single and combined postures (requiring 204 photographs) in five degrees of freedom: lateral translation (Tx), lateral flexion (Rz), axial rotation (Ry), flexion–extension (Rx), and anterior–posterior translation (Tz). The PosturePrint™ system requires 13 reflective markers to be placed on the subject (mannequin) during photography and 16 additional “click-on” markers via computer mouse before a set of three photographs is analyzed by the PosturePrint™ computer system over the Internet. Errors were the differences between the positioned mannequin and the calculated positions from the computer system. Average absolute value errors were obtained by comparing the exact inputted posture to the PosturePrint™’s computed values. Mean and standard deviation of computational errors for sagittal displacements of the thoracic cage were Rx=0.3±0.1°, Tz=1.6±0.7 mm, and for frontal view displacements were Ry=1.2±1.0°, Rz=0.6±0.4°, and Tx=1.5±0.6 mm. The PosturePrint™ system is sufficiently accurate in measuring thoracic cage postures in five degrees of freedom on a mannequin indicating the need for a further study on human subjects. PMID:16547756

  18. Acute systematic and variable postural adaptations induced by an orthopaedic shoe lift in control subjects.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, L; Zabjek, K F; Leroux, M A; Coillard, C; Rivard, C H

    1999-01-01

    A small leg length inequality, either true or functional, can be implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous spinal disorders. The correction of a leg length inequality with the goal of treating a spinal pathology is often achieved with the use of a shoe lift. Little research has focused on the impact of this correction on the three-dimensional (3D) postural organisation. The goal of this study is to quantify in control subjects the 3D postural changes to the pelvis, trunk, scapular belt and head, induced by a shoe lift. The postural geometry of 20 female subjects (X = 22, sigma = 1.2) was evaluated using a motion analysis system for three randomised conditions: control, and right and left shoe lift. Acute postural adaptations were noted for all subjects, principally manifested through the tilt of the pelvis, asymmetric version of the left and right iliac bones, and a lateral shift of the pelvis and scapular belt. The difference in the version of the right and left iliac bones was positively associated with the pelvic tilt. Postural adaptations were noted to vary between subjects for rotation and postero-anterior shift of the pelvis and scapular belt. No notable differences between conditions were noted in the estimation of kyphosis and lordosis. The observed systematic and variable postural adaptations noted in the presence of a shoe lift reflects the unique constraints of the musculoskeletal system. This suggests that the global impact of a shoe lift on a patient's posture should also be considered during treatment. This study provides a basis for comparison of future research involving pathological populations.

  19. Diurnal changes in postural control in normal children: Computerized static and dynamic assessments.

    PubMed

    Bourelle, Sophie; Taiar, Redha; Berge, Benoit; Gautheron, Vincent; Cottalorda, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) causes postural control deficits and accordingly comparison of aberrant postural control against normal postural control may help diagnose mTBI. However, in the current literature, little is known regarding the normal pattern of postural control in young children. This study was therefore conducted as an effort to fill this knowledge gap. Eight normal school-aged children participated. Posture assessment was conducted before (7-8 a.m. in the morning) and after (4-7 p.m. in the afternoon) school on regular school days using the Balance Master® evaluation system composed of 3 static tests and 2 dynamic balance tests. A significant difference in the weight-bearing squats was detected between morning hours and afternoon hours (P < 0.05). By end of afternoon, the body weight was borne mainly on the left side with the knee fully extended and at various degrees of knee flexion. A significantly better directional control of the lateral rhythmic weight shifts was observed at the end of the afternoon than at morning hours (P < 0.05). In summary, most of our findings are inconsistent with results from previous studies in adults, suggesting age-related differences in posture control in humans. On a regular school day, the capacity of postural control and laterality or medio-lateral balance in children varies between morning and afternoon hours. We suggest that posturographic assessment in children, either in normal (e.g., physical education and sports training) or in abnormal conditions (e.g., mTBI-associated balance disorders), be better performed late in the afternoon.

  20. Postural control in bipolar disorder: increased sway area and decreased dynamical complexity.

    PubMed

    Bolbecker, Amanda R; Hong, S Lee; Kent, Jerillyn S; Klaunig, Mallory J; O'Donnell, Brian F; Hetrick, William P

    2011-01-01

    Structural, neurochemical, and functional abnormalities have been identified in the brains of individuals with bipolar disorder, including in key brain structures implicated in postural control, i.e. the cerebellum, brainstem, and basal ganglia. Given these findings, we tested the hypothesis that postural control deficits are present in individuals with bipolar disorder. Sixteen participants with bipolar disorder (BD) and 16 age-matched non-psychiatric healthy controls were asked to stand as still as possible on a force platform for 2 minutes under 4 conditions: (1) eyes open-open base; (2) eyes closed-open base; (3) eyes open-closed base; and (4) eyes closed-closed base. Postural sway data were submitted to conventional quantitative analyses of the magnitude of sway area using the center of pressure measurement. In addition, data were submitted to detrended fluctuation analysis, a nonlinear dynamical systems analytic technique that measures complexity of a time-series, on both the anterior-posterior and medio-lateral directions. The bipolar disorder group had increased sway area, indicative of reduced postural control. Decreased complexity in the medio-lateral direction was also observed for the bipolar disorder group, suggesting both a reduction in dynamic range available to them for postural control, and that their postural corrections were primarily dominated by longer time-scales. On both of these measures, significant interactions between diagnostic group and visual condition were also observed, suggesting that the BD participants were impaired in their ability to make corrections to their sway pattern when no visual information was available. Greater sway magnitude and reduced complexity suggest that individuals with bipolar disorder have deficits in sensorimotor integration and a reduced range of timescales available on which to make postural corrections.

  1. Vojta therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment in children with infantile postural asymmetry: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Michael Wilhelm; Landenberger, Margarete; Jung, Tatjana; Lindenthal, Thorsten; Philippi, Heike

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical therapy is an acknowledged and frequently applied method for infantile postural asymmetry. However, there is not yet sufficient evidence for its effectiveness. [Subjects and Methods] In a randomised controlled trial, the effect of Vojta therapy versus Neurodevelopmental treatment is assessed in infants with postural asymmetry. 65 infants with postural asymmetry were recruited. 37 infants aged six to eight weeks (mean 7.38) were found to be eligible and randomly assigned to two groups, with 19 receiving Vojta and 18 Neurodevelopmental treatment. Using a standardised and blinded video-based assessment, we documented restriction in head rotation and convexity of the spine in prone and supine position before and after therapy. A reduction of at least four points (range of scale 20 points) in postural asymmetry was regarded as a clinically relevant change. [Results] On average a four-point reduction was achieved in both groups within eight weeks. A mean difference (pre-post) between the groups of −2.96 points in favour of Vojta therapy was observed. [Conclusion] While both Neurodevelopmental treatment and Vojta are effective in the treatment of infantile postural asymmetry and comparably well applied by the parents, therapeutic effectiveness is significant greater within the Vojta group. PMID:28265162

  2. Vojta therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment in children with infantile postural asymmetry: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jung, Michael Wilhelm; Landenberger, Margarete; Jung, Tatjana; Lindenthal, Thorsten; Philippi, Heike

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] Physical therapy is an acknowledged and frequently applied method for infantile postural asymmetry. However, there is not yet sufficient evidence for its effectiveness. [Subjects and Methods] In a randomised controlled trial, the effect of Vojta therapy versus Neurodevelopmental treatment is assessed in infants with postural asymmetry. 65 infants with postural asymmetry were recruited. 37 infants aged six to eight weeks (mean 7.38) were found to be eligible and randomly assigned to two groups, with 19 receiving Vojta and 18 Neurodevelopmental treatment. Using a standardised and blinded video-based assessment, we documented restriction in head rotation and convexity of the spine in prone and supine position before and after therapy. A reduction of at least four points (range of scale 20 points) in postural asymmetry was regarded as a clinically relevant change. [Results] On average a four-point reduction was achieved in both groups within eight weeks. A mean difference (pre-post) between the groups of -2.96 points in favour of Vojta therapy was observed. [Conclusion] While both Neurodevelopmental treatment and Vojta are effective in the treatment of infantile postural asymmetry and comparably well applied by the parents, therapeutic effectiveness is significant greater within the Vojta group.

  3. Upper quadrant postural changes of school children in response to interaction with different information technologies.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Andrew; Straker, Leon; Greig, Alison

    2004-06-10

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively analyse the sitting posture of school children interacting with both old (book) and new (laptop and desktop computers) information technologies to test the hypothesis that posture is effected by the type of information technology (IT) used. A mixed model design was used to test the effect of IT type (within subjects) and age and gender (between subjects). The sitting posture of 32 children aged 4-17 years was measured whilst they read from a book, laptop, and desktop computer at a standard school chair and desk. Video images were captured and then digitized to calculate mean angles for head tilt, neck flexion, trunk flexion, and gaze angle. Posture was found to be influenced by IT type (p < 0.001), age (p < 0.001) and gender (p = 0.024) and significantly correlated to the stature of the participants. Measurement of resting posture and the maximal range of motion of the upper and lower cervical spines in the sagittal plane was also undertaken. The biophysical impact and the suitability of the three different information technologies are discussed.

  4. Postural analysis of workers in a typical meat processing company in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Wemerton Luis; de Fátima Tinoco, Ilda; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José; da Costa Baeta, Fernando; da Silva, Emilia Pio; de Oliveira, Luciana Aparecida

    2012-01-01

    Companies have increasingly sought strategies that will ensure a more competitive position in the marketplace. Among these strategies adopted by companies include the health and welfare of the worker, factors currently valued by consumers, especially those of most demanding market. Thus, the postural analysis is of great importance and interest because it is the study of positioning related to body parts like head, torso and limbs, capable of producing loads that may be excessive or insufficient causing disturbances in the muscle skeletal system worker. The aim of this study was to perform a postural analysis of the main sectors of workers (slaughter, cutting room, special cuts, packaging and dispatch) of a typical refrigerator pig industry in Brazil during the execution of their daily activities as well as developing proposals to minimize and/or eliminate the diseases and accidents. The study followed the safety norms of Brazilian Ministry of Labor and Employment. The posture analysis used the OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analyzing System) methodology. The postures assumed by workers in the sector of packaging were as the most in need of emergency and quick action.

  5. Quantitative postural analysis and pain in children and adolescents victims of burns

    PubMed Central

    Valenciano, Paola Janeiro; Itakussu, Edna Yukimi; Trelha, PhD, Celita Salmaso; Fujisawa, PhD, Dirce Shizuko

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to quantitatively assess postural alignment in both frontal and sagittal planes, as well as pain in children and adolescents victims of burn injuries. [Subjects and Methods] This cross-sectional study included 21 victims of burns, nine children (age [mean ± SD], 7.3 ± 1.1 yrs) and 12 adolescents (12,0 ± 1.4 yrs), classified as medium and large burns, being investigated on pain and postural alignment evaluated by photogrammetry. Pain intensity was assessed by face scales and postural examination included the assessment of global and thoraco-lumbo-pelvic alignment by previously designed protocols. [Results] Only two adolescents reported mild pain associated with burn injuries, whereas deviations of the projection of the gravity center; forward head posture, and scapular asymmetry were observed in both groups. In the analysis of the thoraco-lumbo-pelvic alignment, children tended to have anterior inclination trunk, increased thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis, while in adolescents, increased thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis were observed. [Conclusion] The results indicate that due to the postural alterations and asymmetries in both frontal and sagittal planes, there is an increased risk of developing scoliosis and possible future pain. Thus, physiotherapy is indicated and should be maintained until complete growth is reached. PMID:26834321

  6. Assessing postural asymmetry with a podoscope in infants with Central Coordination Disturbance.

    PubMed

    Pyzio-Kowalik, Magdalena; Wójtowicz, Dorota; Skrzek, Anna

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to digitally evaluate the incidence and severity of postural asymmetry in infants with Central Coordination Disturbance (CCD) by using a computer-aided podoscope (PodoBaby) from CQ Elektronik System. A sample of 120 infants aged from 3 months (± 1 week) to 6 months (± 1 week) took part in the study, of which 60 were diagnosed with CCD by a neurologist using Vojta's method and the remaining half healthy, non-afflicted infants. The relationships between Vojta's method, as a subjective clinical diagnostic tool for assessing the functional performance of infants with CCD, and the postural asymmetry results recorded with the podoscope, were also defined. Each infant was placed on the podoscope and photographed underneath in two positions: first lying on their back and then on their stomach. A symmetry index was used to calculate body asymmetry, i.e., the percent difference of abnormal body posture by favoring one side of the body to the other. The results confirmed that postural asymmetry assessed by the PodoBaby was in line with the earlier clinical diagnosis using Vojta's method. Statistically significant differences in postural asymmetry were also found between the healthy infants and infants with CCD. In addition, significant relationships were demonstrated in the magnitude and direction of asymmetry in the stomach and back positions.

  7. Classification of Posture in Poststroke Upper Limb Spasticity: A Potential Decision Tool for Botulinum Toxin A Treatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefter, Harald; Jost, Wolfgang H.; Reissig, Andrea; Zakine, Benjamin; Bakheit, Abdel Magid; Wissel, Jorg

    2012-01-01

    A significant percentage of patients suffering from a stroke involving motor-relevant central nervous system regions will develop a spastic movement disorder. Hyperactivity of different muscle combinations forces the limbs affected into abnormal postures or movement patterns. As muscular hyperactivity can effectively and safely be treated with…

  8. Position and velocity coupling of postural sway to somatosensory drive.

    PubMed

    Jeka, J; Oie, K; Schöner, G; Dijkstra, T; Henson, E

    1998-04-01

    Light touch contact of a fingertip to a stationary surface provides orientation information that enhances control of upright stance. Slight changes in contact force at the fingertip lead to sensory cues about the direction of body sway, allowing attenuation of sway. In the present study, the coupling of postural sway to a moving contact surface was investigated in detail. Head, center of mass, and center of pressure displacement were measured as the contact surface moved rhythmically at 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 Hz. Stimulus amplitude decreased with frequency to maintain peak velocity constant across frequency. Head and body sway were highly coherent with contact surface motion at all frequencies except 0.8 Hz, where a drop-off in coherence was observed. Mean frequency of head and body sway matched the driving frequency postural control parameters are not fixed but adapt to the moving frame of reference. Moreover, coupling to both position and velocity suggest that a spatial reference frame is defined by the somatosensory system.

  9. Effect of posture on arterial baroreflex control of heart rate in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, M. H.; Rittenhouse, D.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of blood-volume redistribution induced by postural changes on baroreflex activity are investigated. The central blood volume and baroreceptor functions of ten males between 23-51 years old were examined while they were in the head-up tilt (HUT), head-down tilt (HDT), and supine positions. It is observed that during HDT at 15 deg the pulse interval over the first five cardiac cycles following neck suction onset is 51 + or - 18 ms longer, at 30 deg it is 61 + or - 20 ms longer, and at 45 deg it is 74 + or - 35 ms longer than at supine; during HUT at 15 deg the pulse interval is 25 + or - 9 ms shorter than when supine, but for the 30 and 45 deg there is no significant difference in pulse interval detected. The data reveal that posture does modify arterial baroreflex control of heart rate.

  10. Relation between the Sensory and Anthropometric Variables in the Quiet Standing Postural Control: Is the Inverted Pendulum Important for the Static Balance Control?

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Angélica C.; Mochizuki, Luis; Silva Luna, Natália Mariana; Ayama, Sérgio; Canonica, Alexandra Carolina; Greve, Júlia M. D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the sensory and anthropometric variables in the quiet standing. Methods. One hundred individuals (50 men, 50 women; 20–40 years old) participated in this study. For all participants, the body composition (fat tissue, lean mass, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density) and body mass, height, trunk-head length, lower limb length, and upper limb length were measured. The center of pressure was measured during the quiet standing posture, the eyes opened and closed with a force platform. Correlation and regression analysis were run to analyze the relation among body composition, anthropometric data, and postural sway. Results. The correlation analysis showed low relation between postural sway and anthropometric variables. The multiple linear regression analyses showed that the height explained 12% of the mediolateral displacement and 11% of the center of pressure area. The length of the trunk head explained 6% of displacement in the anteroposterior postural sway. During eyes closed condition, the support basis and height explained 18% of mediolateral postural sway. Conclusion. The postural control depends on body composition and dimension. This relation is mediated by the sensory information. The height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced the postural sway. PMID:26539550

  11. [Postural examination in daily occlusodontology].

    PubMed

    Serviere, F

    1989-03-01

    According to the osteopathic and chiropractic concepts, facing a TMJ problem, the practitioner has to determine if the trouble observed in the stomatognatic apparatus is the cause or the effect of the structural problems present anywhere else in the body. The postural examination allows to answer this question. Tow techniques can be used. First a static and dynamic posture test proposed by Bricot. The level of the cranium, the eyes, the shoulders, the wrists, the pelvis and the ankles is analysed, from a front view; from the side, the gravity line is inspected: vertex, auditory meatus, shoulder, hip joint, anterior side of the tibia, ankle joint. The vertical posture can be studied from the front: the arms are held straight and the antero-posterior length between the fingers is measured. From the back, one notes the recoil of the buttocks on one side. An ocular convergence test is performed. Then one uses a Romberg test (oscillation of the body when the eyes are closed), and a Fukuda stepping test. The patient is then asked to bite on a compress, and the same exams are redone. If no change occurs, we are dealing with an ascending problem: the origin of the problem is not the stomatognathic system. The second technique is the Meerssemann test that needs the practice of Applied Kinesiology muscle testing. The patient is lying supine and one tests: the dental occlusion, the two TMJs, the temporal muscles, masseters, pterygoids, sterno-cleido-mastoids, upper tapezius, left and right sacro-iliac joints, psoas muscles bilaterally.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Developmental pragmatics in normal and abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Bara, B G; Bosco, F M; Bucciarelli, M

    1999-07-01

    We propose a critical review of current theories of developmental pragmatics. The underlying assumption is that such a theory ought to account for both normal and abnormal development. From a clinical point of view, we are concerned with the effects of brain damage on the emergence of pragmatic competence. In particular, the paper deals with direct speech acts, indirect speech acts, irony, and deceit in children with head injury, closed head injury, hydrocephalus, focal brain damage, and autism. Since no single theory covers systematically the emergence of pragmatic capacity in normal children, it is not surprising that we have not found a systematic account of deficits in the communicative performance of brain injured children. In our view, the challenge for a pragmatic theory is the determination of the normal developmental pattern within which different pragmatic phenomena may find a precise role. Such a framework of normal behavior would then permit the systematic study of abnormal pragmatic development.

  13. Vestibulospinal control of reflex and voluntary head movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Secondary canal-related vestibulospinal neurons respond to an externally applied movement of the head in the form of a firing rate modulation that encodes the angular velocity of the movement, and reflects in large part the input "head velocity in space" signal carried by the semicircular canal afferents. In addition to the head velocity signal, the vestibulospinal neurons can carry a more processed signal that includes eye position or eye velocity, or both (see Boyle on ref. list). To understand the control signals used by the central vestibular pathways in the generation of reflex head stabilization, such as the vestibulocollic reflex (VCR), and the maintenance of head posture, it is essential to record directly from identified vestibulospinal neurons projecting to the cervical spinal segments in the alert animal. The present report discusses two key features of the primate vestibulospinal system. First, the termination morphology of vestibulospinal axons in the cervical segments of the spinal cord is described to lay the structural basis of vestibulospinal control of head/neck posture and movement. And second, the head movement signal content carried by the same class of secondary vestibulospinal neurons during the actual execution of the VCR and during self-generated, or active, rapid head movements is presented.

  14. Correcting Poor Posture without Awareness or Willpower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernik, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a new technique for correcting poor posture is presented. Rather than intentionally increasing awareness or mobilizing willpower to correct posture, this approach offers a game using randomly drawn cards with easy daily assignments. A case using the technique is presented to emphasize the subjective experience of living with poor…

  15. Postural Variables in Girls Practicing Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…

  16. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control.

    PubMed

    Takakusaki, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture-gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture-gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling.

  17. Variations in Writing Posture and Cerebral Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Jerre; Reid, Marylou

    1976-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between hand writing posture and cerebral dominance of 48 left handed writers and 25 right handed writers. Determined that cerebral dominance is related to handedness and to whether or not the writing hand posture is normal or inverted. (SL)

  18. Neuromechanical tuning of nonlinear postural control dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Lena H.; van Antwerp, Keith W.; Scrivens, Jevin E.; McKay, J. Lucas; Welch, Torrence D. J.; Bingham, Jeffrey T.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2009-06-01

    Postural control may be an ideal physiological motor task for elucidating general questions about the organization, diversity, flexibility, and variability of biological motor behaviors using nonlinear dynamical analysis techniques. Rather than presenting "problems" to the nervous system, the redundancy of biological systems and variability in their behaviors may actually be exploited to allow for the flexible achievement of multiple and concurrent task-level goals associated with movement. Such variability may reflect the constant "tuning" of neuromechanical elements and their interactions for movement control. The problem faced by researchers is that there is no one-to-one mapping between the task goal and the coordination of the underlying elements. We review recent and ongoing research in postural control with the goal of identifying common mechanisms underlying variability in postural control, coordination of multiple postural strategies, and transitions between them. We present a delayed-feedback model used to characterize the variability observed in muscle coordination patterns during postural responses to perturbation. We emphasize the significance of delays in physiological postural systems, requiring the modulation and coordination of both the instantaneous, "passive" response to perturbations as well as the delayed, "active" responses to perturbations. The challenge for future research lies in understanding the mechanisms and principles underlying neuromechanical tuning of and transitions between the diversity of postural behaviors. Here we describe some of our recent and ongoing studies aimed at understanding variability in postural control using physical robotic systems, human experiments, dimensional analysis, and computational models that could be enhanced from a nonlinear dynamics approach.

  19. Functional Neuroanatomy for Posture and Gait Control

    PubMed Central

    Takakusaki, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture-gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture-gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord. Particularly, reticulospinal pathways arising from the lateral part of the mesopontine tegmentum and spinal locomotor network contribute to this process. On the other hand, walking in unfamiliar circumstance requires cognitive process of postural control, which depends on knowledges of self-body, such as body schema and body motion in space. The cognitive information is produced at the temporoparietal association cortex, and is fundamental to sustention of vertical posture and construction of motor programs. The programs in the motor cortical areas run to execute anticipatory postural adjustment that is optimal for achievement of goal-directed movements. The basal ganglia and cerebellum may affect both the automatic and cognitive processes of posturegait control through reciprocal connections with the brainstem and cerebral cortex, respectively. Consequently, impairments in cognitive function by damages in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum may disturb posture-gait control, resulting in falling. PMID:28122432

  20. [An attempt to evaluate postural control with a magnetic motion capture system].

    PubMed

    Kudo, Koji; Mitobe, Kazutaka; Honda, Kohei; Ishikawa, Kazuo

    2013-10-01

    Measurement of the body sway can be useful in the assessment of the ability to maintain posture. It is, however, difficult to quantitatively evaluate the chronological changes in the equilibrium function in the elderly. Although it is considered that not only sway movement of body center of gravity but also head movement should be measured for essential assessment of postural control, few methods are suitable for a clinical test. In this study, we investigated the head and trunk movement in elderly subjects standing upright, using a magnetic motion capture system to substantiate its usefulness. Seven subjects aged 66 to 83 years old were instructed to stand with their feet close together on the stabilometer with eyes open and then eyes closed for periods of 30 seconds each, while the movement of the head, cervix and lumbar region (MH, MC and ML) were monitored three-dimensionally with the magnetic motion capture system. The obtained data were compared with the movement of the body's center of gravity (MCG). The results were as follows: The MH was the largest, followed by MC and ML, and the ML trace was similar to that of the MCG. MH, MC, ML and the ratio of the MH to ML increased with age, and they were considered to be a valid index for assessment of postural control. A magnetic motion capture system, which can record the movements of the head, cervix and lumbar region accurately and conveniently, is seen as potentially and clinically useful apparatus for evaluation of postural control in dizzy patients, especially the elderly.

  1. Head flexion angle while using a smartphone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sojeong; Kang, Hwayeong; Shin, Gwanseob

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive or prolonged head flexion posture while using a smartphone is known as one of risk factors for pain symptoms in the neck. To quantitatively assess the amount and range of head flexion of smartphone users, head forward flexion angle was measured from 18 participants when they were conducing three common smartphone tasks (text messaging, web browsing, video watching) while sitting and standing in a laboratory setting. It was found that participants maintained head flexion of 33-45° (50th percentile angle) from vertical when using the smartphone. The head flexion angle was significantly larger (p < 0.05) for text messaging than for the other tasks, and significantly larger while sitting than while standing. Study results suggest that text messaging, which is one of the most frequently used app categories of smartphone, could be a main contributing factor to the occurrence of neck pain of heavy smartphone users. Practitioner Summary: In this laboratory study, the severity of head flexion of smartphone users was quantitatively evaluated when conducting text messaging, web browsing and video watching while sitting and standing. Study results indicate that text messaging while sitting caused the largest head flexion than that of other task conditions.

  2. Head stabilization in peripheral vestibular syndromes.

    PubMed

    Norré, M E

    1996-04-01

    In classical posturography the standing position has been evaluated by recording the postural sway on a force-plate and measuring some parameters such as surface and velocity (Platform or P-recording). The postural sway not only results in forces exerted on the support surface by the feet, but the head also participates in the movements of this postural sway. For recording of the head movements (H-recording), a lightbulb is placed on top of the head and the described light-path is recorded by a TV camera. Such an H-recording can be achieved simultaneously with the platform-recording. A comparative study indicates that, for some patients differences could be found between H- and P-recordings, for others not. The H-recording, in fact, gives information about the stabilization of the head, compared with the stability on the platform (P-recording). The importance of the information furnished by the double recording in Static Posturography type IV (SPGIV) can be deduced from the number of patients showing one or more differences between the types of recording. Nearly 70% showed a difference in at least one test. In fact, 55% showed it in two or more tests. In half of the tests, considered separately, a difference was noted. The differences observed provide complementary information in this combined recording. If the H-recording were to be used as a separate technique, it has to be born in mind that the results are certainly not always the same as when using P-recording, as in classical posturography.

  3. Postural activity and motion sickness during video game play in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hui; Pan, Wu-Wen; Tseng, Li-Ya; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2012-03-01

    Research has confirmed that console video games give rise to motion sickness in many adults. During exposure to console video games, there are differences in postural activity (movement of the head and torso) between participants who later experience motion sickness and those who do not, confirming a prediction of the postural instability theory of motion sickness. Previous research has not addressed relations between video games, movement and motion sickness in children. We evaluated the nauseogenic properties of a commercially available console video game in both adults and 10-year-old children. Individuals played the game for up to 50 min and were instructed to discontinue immediately if they experienced any symptoms of motion sickness, however mild. During game play, we monitored movement of the head and torso. Motion sickness was reported by 67% of adults and by 56% of children; these rates did not differ. As a group, children moved more than adults. Across age groups, the positional variability of the head and torso increased over time during game play. In addition, we found differences in movement between participants who later reported motion sickness and those who did not. Some of these differences were general across age groups but we also found significant differences between the movement of adults and children who later reported motion sickness. The results confirm that console video games can induce motion sickness in children and demonstrate that changes in postural activity precede the onset of subjective symptoms of motion sickness in children.

  4. Postural Coordination during Socio-motor Improvisation

    PubMed Central

    Gueugnon, Mathieu; Salesse, Robin N.; Coste, Alexandre; Zhao, Zhong; Bardy, Benoît G.; Marin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    Human interaction often relies on socio-motor improvisation. Creating unprepared movements during social interaction is not a random process but relies on rules of synchronization. These situations do not only involve people to be coordinated, but also require the adjustment of their posture in order to maintain balance and support movements. The present study investigated posture in such a context. More precisely, we first evaluated the impact of amplitude and complexity of arm movements on posture in solo situation. Then, we assessed the impact of interpersonal coordination on posture using the mirror game in which dyads performed improvised and synchronized movements (i.e., duo situation). Posture was measured through ankle-hip coordination in medio-lateral and antero-posterior directions (ML and AP respectively). Our results revealed the spontaneous emergence of in-phase pattern in ML direction and antiphase pattern in AP direction for solo and duo situations. These two patterns respectively refer to the simultaneous flexion/extension of the ankles and the hips in the same or opposite direction. It suggests different functional roles of postural coordination patterns in each direction, with in-phase supporting task performance in ML (dynamical stability) and antiphase supporting postural control in AP (mechanical stability). Although amplitude of movement did not influence posture, movement complexity disturbed postural stability in both directions. Conversely, interpersonal coordination promoted postural stability in ML but not in AP direction. These results are discussed in terms of the difference in coupling strength between ankle-hip coordination and interpersonal coordination. PMID:27547193

  5. Postural tachycardia syndrome: time frequency mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, V.; Novak, P.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Low, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Orthostatic tachycardia is common but its specificity remains uncertain. Our preliminary work suggested that using autonomic function testing in conjunction with time-frequency mapping (TFM), it might be possible to characterize a subset of the postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), that is due to a restricted autonomic neuropathy. We describe 20 patients (17 women and 3 men, aged 14-43 years) with florid POTS and 20 controls (14 women and 6 men, aged 20-41 years). Autonomic failure was quantified by its distribution (cardiovagal, adrenergic and sudomotor) and severity, a symptom profile was generated, and spectral indices, based on modified Wigner distribution during rest and head-up tilt (80 degrees) were evaluated. During tilt-up POTS patients differed from controls by an excessive heart rate (> 130 bpm) (P < 0.001), and higher diastolic pressure (P < 0.01). During rest, cardiovagal oscillations (at respiratory frequencies [RF]) and slow rhythms at nonrespiratory frequencies (NONRF) (from 0.01 to 0.07 Hz) in R-R intervals (RRI) (P < 0.01) were reduced. Both RF and NONRF rhythms in RRI were further blunted with tilt-up (P < 0.001). Slow adrenergic vasomotor rhythms in blood pressure (BP) (approximately 0.07 Hz) surged with tilt-up and returned to normal levels afterwards. The index of sympatho-vagal balance (NONRF-Systolic BP (SBP)/RF-RRI) was dramatically increased in POTS (P < 0.001). Distal postganglionic sudomotor failure was observed, and impairment of the BP responses to the Valsalva maneuver (phase II) suggested peripheral adrenergic dysfunction. Persistent orthostatic dizziness, tiredness, gastrointestinal symptoms and palpitations were common in POTS patients. It is possible to identify a subset of POTS patients who have a length-dependent autonomic neuropathy, affecting the peripheral adrenergic and cardiovagal fibers, with relative preservation of cardiac adrenergic fibers.

  6. Magnetic Heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoshima, Tokihiko

    Figure 6.1 shows how rapidly the areal density of hard disk drives (HDD) has been increasing over the past 20 years [1]. Several critical innovations were necessary to bring about such rapid progress in the field of magnetic recording [2]. One of the most significant innovations from the viewpoint of material improvement was the electrodeposition of permalloy (Ni80Fe20), which was introduced by IBM in 1979 as the core material of a thin-film inductive head to increase the magnetic recording density [3]. After the introduction of the magneto-resistive (MR) element as the read head and the electrodeposited permalloy as the write head by IBM in 1991 [4], the rate of increase in the recording density of HDDs jumped from 30% per year to 60% per year. Recently, a giant magneto-resistive (GMR) element has been used for the read element instead of the MR element. The rate of increase in the recording density jumped to over 100% per year in 1999, which is an incredible rate of increase. Since 2002, however, the rate of increase has decreased to 30%; thus, new innovations are required to maintain the rate of increase. In 2004, the practical use of perpendicular magnetic recording instead of longitudinal magnetic recording was announced [5]. This system is a critical innovation for developing high-performance HDD systems with high-recording density. The design of the magnetic recording head was changed because of the change of the recording system.

  7. Do postures of distal effectors affect the control of actions of other distal effectors? Evidence for a system of interactions between hand and mouth.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Campione, Giovanna Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at determining whether, in healthy humans, postures assumed by distal effectors affect the control of the successive grasp executed with other distal effectors. In experiments 1 and 2, participants reached different objects with their head and grasped them with their mouth, after assuming different hand postures. The postures could be implicitly associated with interactions with large or small objects. The kinematics of lip shaping during grasp varied congruently with the hand posture, i.e. it was larger or smaller when it could be associated with the grasping of large or small objects, respectively. In experiments 3 and 4, participants reached and grasped different objects with their hand, after assuming the postures of mouth aperture or closure (experiment 3) and the postures of toe extension or flexion (experiment 4). The mouth postures affected the kinematics of finger shaping during grasp, that is larger finger shaping corresponded with opened mouth and smaller finger shaping with closed mouth. In contrast, the foot postures did not influence the hand grasp kinematics. Finally, in experiment 5 participants reached-grasped different objects with their hand while pronouncing opened and closed vowels, as verified by the analysis of their vocal spectra. Open and closed vowels induced larger and smaller finger shaping, respectively. In all experiments postures of the distal effectors induced no effect, or only unspecific effects on the kinematics of the reach proximal/axial component. The data from the present study support the hypothesis that there exists a system involved in establishing interactions between movements and postures of hand and mouth. This system might have been used to transfer a repertoire of hand gestures to mouth articulation postures during language evolution and, in modern humans, it may have evolved a system controlling the interactions existing between speech and gestures.

  8. Effect of lower-body positive pressure on postural fluid shifts in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Kravik, S. E.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) on the orthostatic fluid and protein shifts were investigated in five men during combined tilt-table/antigravity suit inflation and deflation experiments. Changes in the mass densities of venous blood and plasma were measured and the values were used to calculate the densities of erythrocytes, whole-body blood, and shifted fluid. It was found that the application of 60 mm Hg LBPP during 60-deg head-up tilt prevented about half of the postural hemoconcentration occurring during passive head-up tilt.

  9. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Postural effects on intracranial pressure: modeling and clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Qvarlander, Sara; Sundström, Nina; Malm, Jan; Eklund, Anders

    2013-11-01

    The physiological effect of posture on intracranial pressure (ICP) is not well described. This study defined and evaluated three mathematical models describing the postural effects on ICP, designed to predict ICP at different head-up tilt angles from the supine ICP value. Model I was based on a hydrostatic indifference point for the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) system, i.e., the existence of a point in the system where pressure is independent of body position. Models II and III were based on Davson's equation for CSF absorption, which relates ICP to venous pressure, and postulated that gravitational effects within the venous system are transferred to the CSF system. Model II assumed a fully communicating venous system, and model III assumed that collapse of the jugular veins at higher tilt angles creates two separate hydrostatic compartments. Evaluation of the models was based on ICP measurements at seven tilt angles (0-71°) in 27 normal pressure hydrocephalus patients. ICP decreased with tilt angle (ANOVA: P < 0.01). The reduction was well predicted by model III (ANOVA lack-of-fit: P = 0.65), which showed excellent fit against measured ICP. Neither model I nor II adequately described the reduction in ICP (ANOVA lack-of-fit: P < 0.01). Postural changes in ICP could not be predicted based on the currently accepted theory of a hydrostatic indifference point for the CSF system, but a new model combining Davson's equation for CSF absorption and hydrostatic gradients in a collapsible venous system performed well and can be useful in future research on gravity and CSF physiology.

  11. Postural tachycardia syndrome: a heterogeneous and multifactorial disorder.

    PubMed

    Benarroch, Eduardo E

    2012-12-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is defined by a heart rate increment of 30 beats/min or more within 10 minutes of standing or head-up tilt in the absence of orthostatic hypotension; the standing heart rate is often 120 beats/min or higher. POTS manifests with symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion and excessive sympathoexcitation. The pathophysiology of POTS is heterogeneous and includes impaired sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction, excessive sympathetic drive, volume dysregulation, and deconditioning. POTS is frequently included in the differential diagnosis of chronic unexplained symptoms, such as inappropriate sinus tachycardia, chronic fatigue, chronic dizziness, or unexplained spells in otherwise healthy young individuals. Many patients with POTS also report symptoms not attributable to orthostatic intolerance, including those of functional gastrointestinal or bladder disorders, chronic headache, fibromyalgia, and sleep disturbances. In many of these cases, cognitive and behavioral factors, somatic hypervigilance associated with anxiety, depression, and behavioral amplification contribute to symptom chronicity. The aims of evaluation in patients with POTS are to exclude cardiac causes of inappropriate tachycardia; elucidate, if possible, the most likely pathophysiologic basis of postural intolerance; assess for the presence of treatable autonomic neuropathies; exclude endocrine causes of a hyperadrenergic state; evaluate for cardiovascular deconditioning; and determine the contribution of emotional and behavioral factors to the patient's symptoms. Management of POTS includes avoidance of precipitating factors, volume expansion, physical countermaneuvers, exercise training, pharmacotherapy (fludrocortisone, midodrine, β-blockers, and/or pyridostigmine), and behavioral-cognitive therapy. A literature search of PubMed for articles published from January 1, 1990, to June 15, 2012, was performed using the following terms (or combination of terms): POTS

  12. Static and dynamic posture control in postlingual cochlear implanted patients: effects of dual-tasking, visual and auditory inputs suppression

    PubMed Central

    Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Léonard, Jacques; Dumitrescu, Michel; Meller, Renaud; Magnan, Jacques; Lacour, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Posture control is based on central integration of multisensory inputs, and on internal representation of body orientation in space. This multisensory feedback regulates posture control and continuously updates the internal model of body's position which in turn forwards motor commands adapted to the environmental context and constraints. The peripheral localization of the vestibular system, close to the cochlea, makes vestibular damage possible following cochlear implant (CI) surgery. Impaired vestibular function in CI patients, if any, may have a strong impact on posture stability. The simple postural task of quiet standing is generally paired with cognitive activity in most day life conditions, leading therefore to competition for attentional resources in dual-tasking, and increased risk of fall particularly in patients with impaired vestibular function. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of postlingual cochlear implantation on posture control in adult deaf patients. Possible impairment of vestibular function was assessed by comparing the postural performance of patients to that of age-matched healthy subjects during a simple postural task performed in static (stable platform) and dynamic (platform in translation) conditions, and during dual-tasking with a visual or auditory memory task. Postural tests were done in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions, with the CI activated (ON) or not (OFF). Results showed that the postural performance of the CI patients strongly differed from the controls, mainly in the EC condition. The CI patients showed significantly reduced limits of stability and increased postural instability in static conditions. In dynamic conditions, they spent considerably more energy to maintain equilibrium, and their head was stabilized neither in space nor on trunk: they behaved dynamically without vision like an inverted pendulum while the controls showed a whole body rigidification strategy. Hearing (prosthesis on) as well

  13. Compensatory postural sway while seated posture during tasks in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Yoshimi; Karashima, Chieko; Hoshiyama, Minoru

    2014-12-01

    Postural stability while seated was investigated in 16 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 16 typically developed (TD) children, aged 7-8 years. The lateral and antero-posterior (A-P) deviations of the centre of pressure (COP) were serially measured during sequential, upper limb, desk-top tasks, including nine subtests. The average COP deviation was larger, especially in the lateral direction, in the group of children with ASD compared with TD children. However, the larger COP deviation in the children with ASD was not generalized across tasks. Analyses of subtests revealed that deviations were different on three and four (of eight) subtests in the lateral and A-P directions, respectively. The time needed to complete each subtest was not correlated with the lateral COP deviation but with A-P deviation during the subtest in the children with ASD. Preserved task performance with marked body sway in the children with ASD suggested that the body sway was not a functionally abnormal movement that disturbed performance but could be a compensatory movement to actually facilitate performance. A new approach with occupational therapy to support such compensatory movement of ASD children could be considered in their school life. Further studies, including those in the classroom, to clarify the relationship between daily task performance and body instability are necessary.

  14. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  15. Swimming fundamentals: turning performance of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) is predicted by body shape and postural reconfiguration.

    PubMed

    Porter, Marianne E; Roque, Cassandra M; Long, John H

    2011-12-01

    Turns are essential maneuvers that sharks employ when foraging, feeding, and migrating. How well any individual performs in turning is determined, in part, by the static form and postural reconfiguration of its body. Since the importance of postural reconfiguration in determining turning performance is not well understood, our goal was to examine how body form and posture correlate with turning performance in juvenile leopard sharks, Triakis semifasciata. From videos of sharks turning laterally in yaw, performance was measured as turning radius, turning angle, angular speed of the head, and translational speed of the body along its path. Body form variables included the body's length, mass, width, second moment of area, and mass moment of inertia. Postural variables included body-bending coefficient, body flexion at different longitudinal positions, and lag time between body flexion and turning of the center of rotation. Using step-wise linear regression followed by multiple regression, each performance variable was regressed onto three pools of independent variables: (i) all form variables alone, (ii) all postural variables alone, and (iii) a combination of all form and postural variables. From these correlations, it appears that turning performance may be controlled primarily by the magnitude and timing of the flexion of the body. In other words, sharks alter how they turn by changing the pattern in which they bend their bodies; the body acts as a dynamically reconfiguring rudder.

  16. Interest of active posturography to detect age-related and early Parkinson's disease-related impairments in mediolateral postural control.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Delval, Arnaud; Defebvre, Luc

    2014-11-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease display impairments of postural control most particularly in active, challenging conditions. The objective of the present study was to analyze early signs of disease-related and also age-related impairments in mediolateral body extension and postural control. Fifty-five participants (18 Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 patients in the off-drug condition, 18 healthy elderly control subjects, and 19 young adults) were included in the study. The participants performed a quiet stance task and two active tasks that analyzed the performance in mediolateral body motion: a limit of stability and a rhythmic weight shift task. As expected, the patients displayed significantly lower and slower body displacement (head, neck, lower back, center of pressure) than elderly control subjects when performing the two body excursion tasks. However, the behavioral variability in both tasks was similar between the groups. Under these active conditions, the patients showed significantly lower contribution of the hip postural control mechanisms compared with the elderly control subjects. Overall, the patients seemed to lower their performance in order to prevent a mediolateral postural instability. However, these patients, at an early stage of their disease, were not unstable in quiet stance. Complementarily, elderly control subjects displayed slower body performance than young adults, which therefore showed an additional age-related impairment in mediolateral postural control. Overall, the study illustrated markers of age-related and Parkinson's disease impairments in mediolateral postural control that may constrain everyday activities in elderly adults and even more in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  17. Postural Effects on Intracranial Pressure as Assessed Noninvasively

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki; Hargens, Alan R.; Ballard, R. E.; Shuer, L. M.; Cantrell, J. H.; Yost, W. T.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate effects of whole body tilting on intracranial compliance and pressure in six healthy volunteers by using a noninvasive ultrasonic device. Subjects were randomly tilted up or down sequentially at 60 degree, 30 degree head-up, supine, and 15 degree head-down position for one minute at each angle. We measured arterial blood pressure with a finger pressure cuff and changes in intracranial distance with an ultrasonic device. The device measures skull movement on the order of micro-meter. Our ultrasound technique demonstrates that skull movement is highly correlated (r$(circumflex){2}$=0.77) with intracranial pressure variations due to cerebral arterial pulsation. The amplitudes of arterial pressure (r$(circumflex){2}$=0.99 and those of intracranial distance changes (r$(circumflex){2}$=0.87) associated with one cardiac cycle were inversely correlated with the angle of tilt. The ratio of pulsation amplitudes for intracranial distance over arterial pressure also showed a significant increase as the angle of tilt was lowered (p=0.003). Thus, postural changes alter intracranial compliance in healthy volunteers and intracranial volume-buffering capacity is reduced in head-down position.

  18. Recovery of postural equilibrium control following spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, W. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Black, F. O.; Doxey, D. D.; Harm, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Decreased postural stability is observed in most astronauts immediately following spaceflight. Because ataxia may present postflight operational hazards, it is important to determine the incidence of postural instability immediately following landing and the dynamics of recovery of normal postural equilibrium control. It is postulated that postflight postural instability results from in-flight adaptive changes in central nervous system (CNS) processing of sensory information from the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the magnitude and time course of postflight recovery of postural equilibrium control and, hence, readaptation of CNS processing of sensory information. Thirteen crew members from six spaceflight missions were studied pre- and postflight using a modified commercial posturography system. Postural equilibrium control was found to be seriously disrupted immediately following spaceflight in all subjects. Readaptation to the terrestrial environment began immediately upon landing, proceeded rapidly for the first 10-12 hours, and then proceeded much more slowly for the subsequent 2-4 days until preflight stability levels were reachieved. It is concluded that the overall postflight recovery of postural stability follows a predictable time course.

  19. Reducing patient posture variability using the predicted couch position.

    PubMed

    de Kruijf, Wilhelmus J M; Martens, Rob J W

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented in which the couch position is predicted before the treatment instead of obtaining a reference position at the first treatment fraction. This prevents systematic differences in patient posture between preparation and treatment. In literature, only limited data are available on couch positioning. We position our patients at the planned couch position, allowing a small difference between skin marks and lasers, followed by online imaging. For a 3-month period, our standard deviations (mm) in couch position in the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions were head and neck-1.6, 2.8, and 2.5; thorax-2.9, 5.5, and 4.5; breast-3.0, 4.1, and 4.0; and pelvis-3.5, 4.0, and 4.7, respectively. We have improved the reproducibility of patient posture in our institute by using the predicted couch position. Our data may serve as a reference for other institutes because the couch position variation is less than that published in literature.

  20. Hierarchical human action recognition around sleeping using obscured posture information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Yuta; Sashida, Takehiko; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach for human action recognition around sleeping with the human body parts locations and the positional relationship between human and sleeping environment. Body parts are estimated from the depth image obtained by a time-of-flight (TOF) sensor using oriented 3D normal vector. Issues in action recognition of sleeping situation are the demand of availability in darkness, and hiding of the human body by duvets. Therefore, the extraction of image features is difficult since color and edge features are obscured by covers. Thus, first in our method, positions of four parts of the body (head, torso, thigh, and lower leg) are estimated by using the shape model of bodily surface constructed by oriented 3D normal vector. This shape model can represent the surface shape of rough body, and is effective in robust posture estimation of the body hidden with duvets. Then, action descriptor is extracted from the position of each body part. The descriptor includes temporal variation of each part of the body and spatial vector of position of the parts and the bed. Furthermore, this paper proposes hierarchical action classes and classifiers to improve the indistinct action classification. Classifiers are composed of two layers, and recognize human action by using the action descriptor. First layer focuses on spatial descriptor and classifies action roughly. Second layer focuses on temporal descriptor and classifies action finely. This approach achieves a robust recognition of obscured human by using the posture information and the hierarchical action recognition.

  1. Postural & striatal deformities in Parkinson's disease: Are these rare?

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sanjay; Garg, Hitesh

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by tremor, rigidity and akinesia. Diagnosis is clinical in the majority of the patients. Patients with PD may have stooped posture but some of them develop different types of postural and striatal deformities. Usually these deformities are more common in atypical parkinsonian disorders such as progressive supranuclear palsy and multisystem atrophy. But in many studies it has been highlighted that these may also be present in approximately one third of PD patients leading to severe disability. These include antecollis or dropped head, camptocormia, Pisa syndrome, scoliosis, striatal hands and striatal toes. The pathogenesis of these deformities is a complex combination of central and peripheral influences such as rigidity, dystonia and degenerative skeletal changes. Duration of parkinsonism symptoms is an important risk factor and in majority of the patients these deformities are seen in advanced statge of the disease. The patients with such symptoms may initially respond to dopaminergic medications but if not intervened they may become fixed and difficult to treat. Pain and restriction of movement are most common clinical manifestations and these may mimick symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders like rheumatoid arthritis. Early diagnosis is important as the patients may respond to adjustment in dopaminergic medications. Recent advances such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and ultrasound guided botulinum toxin injection are helpful in management of these deformities in patients with PD. PMID:26997007

  2. Reducing patient posture variability using the predicted couch position

    SciTech Connect

    Kruijf, Wilhelmus J.M. de Martens, Rob J.W.

    2015-10-01

    A method is presented in which the couch position is predicted before the treatment instead of obtaining a reference position at the first treatment fraction. This prevents systematic differences in patient posture between preparation and treatment. In literature, only limited data are available on couch positioning. We position our patients at the planned couch position, allowing a small difference between skin marks and lasers, followed by online imaging. For a 3-month period, our standard deviations (mm) in couch position in the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions were head and neck—1.6, 2.8, and 2.5; thorax—2.9, 5.5, and 4.5; breast—3.0, 4.1, and 4.0; and pelvis—3.5, 4.0, and 4.7, respectively. We have improved the reproducibility of patient posture in our institute by using the predicted couch position. Our data may serve as a reference for other institutes because the couch position variation is less than that published in literature.

  3. Head injuries.

    PubMed

    Yanko, J

    1984-08-01

    In summary, the broad term "head injury" represents a large variety of more specific injuries. In order to anticipate and plan appropriate patient care, nurses need information regarding the cause of injury, the impact site, and the patient's clinical course in addition to current assessment findings. The nurse must also anticipate sequelae from secondary brain injury due to hypoxia, edema, increased intracranial pressure, changes in regional blood flows, or hypovolemic shock due to internal bleeding in another body system or cavity. The head-injured patient is a complex patient requiring intensive nursing care, observation, and assessment. By incorporating knowledge of the mechanisms of injury into nursing observations and assessments, nurses can provide more effective nursing interventions.

  4. Adaptation to transient postural perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andres, Robert O.

    1992-01-01

    This research was first proposed in May, 1986, to focus on some of the problems encountered in the analysis of postural responses gathered from crewmembers. The ultimate driving force behind this line of research was the desire to treat, predict, or explain 'Space Adaptation Syndrome' (SAS) and hence circumvent any adverse effects of space motion sickness on crewmember performance. The aim of this project was to develop an easily implemented analysis of the transient responses to platform translation that can be elicited with a protocol designed to force sensorimotor reorganization, utilizing statistically reliable criterion measures. This report will present: (1) a summary of the activity that took place in each of the three funded years of the project; (2) discussion of experimental results and their implications for future research; and (3) a list of presentations and publications resulting from this project.

  5. Reversible postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Aza; Rajeevan, Thirumagal

    2015-07-16

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a relatively rare syndrome recognised since 1940. It is a heterogenous condition with orthostatic intolerance due to dysautonomia and is characterised by rise in heart rate above 30 bpm from base line or to more than 120 bpm within 5-10 min of standing with or without change in blood pressure which returns to base line on resuming supine position. This condition present with various disabling symptoms such as light headedness, near syncope, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, tremor, palpitations and mental clouding, etc. However there are no identifiable signs on clinical examination and patients are often diagnosed to have anxiety disorder. The condition predominantly affects young female between the ages of 15-50 but is rarely described in older people. We describe an older patient who developed POTS which recovered over 12 mo. Recognising this condition is important as there are treatment options available to alleviate the disabling symptoms.

  6. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS).

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Bharat; Obiechina, Nonyelum; Rattu, Noman; Mitra, Shanta

    2013-09-16

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous group of conditions characterised by autonomic dysfunction and an exaggerated sympathetic response to assuming an upright position. Up till recently, it was largely under-recognised as a clinical entity. There is now consensus about the definition of POTS as a greater than 30/min heart rate increase on standing from a supine position (greater than 40/min increase in 12-19-year-old patients) or an absolute heart rate of greater than 120/min within 10 min of standing from a supine position and in the absence of hypotension, arrhythmias, sympathomimetic drugs or other conditions that cause tachycardia. We present two cases of POTS, followed by a discussion of its pathogenesis, pathophysiology, epidemiology and management.

  7. Notebook computer use with different monitor tilt angle: effects on posture, muscle activity and discomfort of neck pain users.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Ko; Chou, Wei-Ying; Chen, Bi-Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the posture, muscle activities, and self reported discomforts of neck pain notebook computer users on three monitor tilt conditions: 100°, 115°, and 130°. Six subjects were recruited in this study to completed typing tasks. Results showed subjects have a trend to show the forward head posture in the condition that monitor was set at 100°, and the significant less neck and shoulder discomfort were noted in the condition that monitor was set at 130°. These result suggested neck pain notebook user to set their monitor tilt angle at 130°.

  8. [Electromyographic analysis of the role of the otolith apparatus in regulation of postural disorders in humans with extrapyramidal pathology].

    PubMed

    Sheliakin, A M; Naryshkin, A G; Preobrazhenskaia, I G

    2002-02-01

    In 30 patients with cervical dystonia in the posture of orthostasis, an obvious change of the electromyographic pattern was shown both at rest and in different functional tests. The analysis has shown an enhanced excitability of motoneurons and a disorder of the cortical control, as well as enhancement of the irradiation process between paired structures controlling activity of opposite muscular groups. After treatment with intratympanal administration of an ototoxical preparation on the opposite side in respect to head turn direction, normalising of the cortical control and diminishing of the excitation irradiation. The data obtained suggest a significant role of the vestibular otolithic apparatus in regulation of postural disorders in extrapyramidal pathology.

  9. The demands of professional opera singing on cranio-cervical posture.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Gillian; Skinner, Margot

    2009-04-01

    Difficulty with singing is a rare but important complication following cervical spine surgery but there is little objective information regarding the cervical and head postural changes taking place during singing. The aim of this study was to identify postural changes in the cranio-cervical region associated with the demands of voice production in professional opera singing. The two Roentgen-cephalograms, one of which are taken whilst performing a specified singing task were taken from 18 professional opera students, 12 females (mean age 20.86 +/- 3.07 years) and six males (18.66 +/- 1.36 years). A paired t test compared mean cranio-cervical postural and pharyngeal/hyoid variables between the two registrations (P = 0.05). The association between the cranio-cervical postural variables and the pharyngeal/hyoid region in each registration position was examined using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. In singing, the position of the atlas with respect to the true vertical (P < 0.001), the axis (P < 0.001) and the C4 vertebra both with respect to the horizontal (P < 0.001), and the axis with respect to the cranium (P < 0.001), were all significantly different to those at rest. Of the cranio-cervical postural variables in the singing registration, the angles measuring positional change of the atlas and C4 relative to the true horizontal were shown be significantly related to an increased pharyngeal airway space at the C3 level (P < 0.01). An appreciation of the requirement for the cervical spine to undergo postural change during professional opera singing has relevance to the potential impact on voice quality in professional opera singers should they undergo cervical spine surgery.

  10. Body posture changes in women with migraine with or without temporomandibular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Mariana C.; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Dach, Fabíola É.; Speciali, José G.; Gonçalves, Maria C.; Chaves, Thais C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are reported to be associated. However, there are no reports on the association among migraines, TMDs and changes in body posture. Objectives To assess changes in body posture in women suffering migraines with or without TMD compared with a control group. Method Sixty-six women with a mean age of 18 to 45 years participated in this study. The groups were composed of 22 volunteers with migraine and TMD (MTMD), 22 volunteers with migraines without TMD (MG) and 22 women in the control group (CG). Static posture was assessed by photogrammetry, and 19 angles were measured. Results Postural asymmetry was observed in the face for 4 angles measured on the frontal plane in the MG group and for 4 angles of the trunk in the MG and MTMD groups with respect to CG. However, for comparisons between MTMD and CG, clinical relevance was identified for two angles of the sagittal plane (Cervical and Lumbar Lordosis, Effect Size - ES - moderate: 0.53 and 0.60). For comparisons between the MG and CG, the clinical relevance/potential was verified for three angles with moderate ES (ES>0.42). The clinical relevance when comparing MTMD and CG was identified for four angles of facial symmetry head inclination (ES>0.54) and for two angles between MG and CG (ES>0.48). Conclusion The results demonstrated the presence of postural changes compared with a control group in women with migraines with or without TMD, and there were similar clinically relevant postural changes among the patients with migraines with and without TMD. PMID:24675909

  11. Change in posture control after recent knee anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction?

    PubMed

    Dauty, Marc; Collon, Sylvie; Dubois, Charles

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare statical postures of a knee anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) population with a healthy control population. Thirty-five patients (age 25.5 +/- 5.8 years) were compared at 15 days after an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with 35 healthy, age and sex-matched subjects. Bilateral and unilateral postures were studied according to various stances, knee extension and 20 degrees knee flexion with opened and closed eyes, using a stabilometric platform. A comparison with the non-ACLR limb and the healthy limbs of the control population was carried out. The ACLR subjects present with the following: (i) a significant change in two-legged stance, i.e. distances covered by the centre of pressure projection are significantly increased; (ii) a postural alteration during the ACLR one-legged stance with knee extension and opened eyes in comparison with the non-ACLR limb; (iii) an incapacity for certain ACLR subjects to perform one-legged stance on the non-ACLR limb when there is no visual compensation. Only 11.4% (95% CI: 0.9-21.9%) and 42.8% (95% CI: 26.3-59.3%) of ACLR subjects are capable of maintaining correctly a one-legged stance posture with closed eyes on both sides (knee extension and flexion, respectively). The identification of the ACLR knee limb is possible from the one-legged stance postural test in knee extension and opened eyes condition. Because of a change in two-legged balance and of the incapacity for certain ACLR subjects to maintain one-legged stance with closed eyes, a central origin explaining the abnormalities of postural control is suggested.

  12. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: a dermatologic perspective and successful treatment with losartan.

    PubMed

    Landero, James

    2014-08-01

    The postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is a disease characterized by excessively increased heart rate during orthostatic challenge associated with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance including dizziness, exercise intolerance, headache, fatigue, memory problems, nausea, blurred vision, pallor, and sweating, which improve with recumbence. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome patients may present with a multitude of additional symptoms that are attributable to vascular vasoconstriction. Observed signs and symptoms in a patient with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome include tachycardia at rest, exaggerated heart rate increase with upright position and exercise, crushing chest pain, tremor, syncope, loss of vision, confusion, migraines, fatigue, heat intolerance, parasthesia, dysesthesia, allodynia, altered traditional senses, and thermoregulatory abnormalities. There are a number of possible dermatological manifestations of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome easily explained by its recently discovered pathophysiology. The author reports the case of a 22-year-old woman with moderate-to-severe postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome with numerous dermatological manifestations attributable to the disease process. The cutaneous manifestations observed in this patient are diverse and most noticeable during postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome flares. The most distinct are evanescent, hyperemic, sharply demarcated, irregular patches on the chest and neck area that resolve upon diascopy. This distinct "evanescent hyperemia" disappears spontaneously after seconds to minutes and reappears unexpectedly. Other observed dermatological manifestations of this systemic disease include Raynaud's phenomenon, koilonychia, onychodystrophy, madarosis, dysesthesia, allodynia, telogen effluvium, increased capillary refill time, and livedo reticularis. The treatment of this disease poses a great challenge. The author reports the unprecedented use of an oral

  13. Proprioceptive encoding of head position in the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Paulk, Angelique; Gilbert, Cole

    2006-10-01

    Because the eyes of insects cannot be moved independently of the head, information about head posture is essential for stabilizing the visual world or providing information about the direction of gaze. We examined the external anatomy and physiological capabilities of a head posture proprioceptor, the prosternal organ (PO), located at the base of the neck in the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Family: Stratiomyidae). The PO is sexually isomorphic and is composed of two fused plates of about 130 mechanosensory hairs set in asymmetrical sockets whose orientation varies across the organ. A multi-joint mechanical coupling between the head, neck membrane, and contact sclerites deflects the hairs more or less to increase or decrease their level of excitation. The PO sensory afferents project to the central nervous system (CNS) via a pair of bilateral prosternal nerves (PN) to the fused thoracic ganglia. Simultaneous recording of spiking activity in the PN and videotaping of wind-induced and voluntary head movements around all three axes of head rotation reveal that a few PN afferents are active at rest, but activity increases tonically in response to head deflections. Activity is significantly modulated by change in head angles around the pitch (+/-40 degrees ), yaw (+/-30 degrees ) and roll (more than +/-90 degrees ) axes, although the dynamic range of spiking activity differs for each axis of rotation. Prosternal nerve afferents are bilaterally excited (inhibited) by pitch down (up); excited (inhibited) by head yaw toward the ipsilateral (contralateral) side; excited by roll down toward the ipsilateral side, but little inhibited by roll toward the opposite side. Although bilateral comparison of activity in PN afferents reliably encodes head posture around a given rotational axis, from the point of view of the CNS, the problem of encoding head posture is ill-posed with three axes of rotation and only two streams of afferent information. Furthermore, when the

  14. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kathryn W; Loughlin, Patrick J; Redfern, Mark S; Sparto, Patrick J

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of three conditions were performed: (1) constant 12 cm optic flow amplitude (24 cm peak-to-peak), (2) constant 4 cm amplitude (8 cm p-t-p), and (3) a transition in amplitude from 4 to 12 cm. The average power of head sway velocity (P(vel)) was calculated for consecutive 5s intervals during the trial to examine the changes in sway within and between trials. A mixed factor repeated measures ANOVA was performed to examine the effects of subject Group, Trial, and Interval on the P(vel). P(vel) was greater in older adults in all conditions (p<0.001). During the 12 cm constant amplitude trials, within-trial adaptation occurred for all subjects, but there were differences in the between-trial habituation. P(vel) of the older adults decreased significantly between all 3 trials, but decreased only between Trials 1 and 2 in young adults. While the responses of the young adults to the transition in optic flow from 4 to 12 cm did not significantly change, older adults had an increase in P(vel) following the transition, ranging from 6.5 dB for the first trial to 3.4 dB for the third trial. These results show that older adults can habituate to repeated visual perturbation exposures; however, this habituation requires a greater number of exposures than young adults. This suggests aging impacts the ability to quickly modify the relative weighting of the sensory feedback for postural stabilization.

  15. Head stability during quiet sitting in children with cerebral palsy: effect of vision and trunk support.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Sandra; Woollacott, Marjorie; van Donkelaar, Paul

    2010-02-01

    Deficits in postural control are one of the hallmarks of disability in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Yet, much remains unknown regarding the etiology of postural deficits in these children. Here we evaluated postural control at a simplified task level by measuring head stability during quiet sitting while systematically manipulating the level of trunk support and vision in 15 children with CP (6-16 years), 26 typically developing (TD) children (4-14 years), and 11 adults. While TD children did not differ significantly from adults, children with CP had greater head movement than adults in both the sagittal and frontal planes under all conditions except frontal plane movement with Torso Support. Vision did not affect head stability in the sagittal plane for any group while it had differential effects on head stability in the frontal plane. Lack of vision improved head stability in adults and older TD children while destabilizing the head in young children (TD and CP) during the most unstable sitting position. Moreover, vision affected children with CP differently depending on their movement disorder. Children with spastic CP performed worse with eyes closed while those with dyskinetic CP had improved head stability with eyes closed. Our results demonstrate that children with mild to moderate CP have deficits in head stability even during quiet sitting.

  16. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  17. [Abnormal absence of displacement of the cerebral median line].

    PubMed

    de Tribolet, N; Oberson, R

    1975-03-08

    The angiographic cerebral midline is described. It is pointed out that the midline may be abnormally undisplaced despite the presence of a unilateral or bilateral expansive lesion. The causes of such abnormal non-displacement of the midline are reviewed in the light of examples, and the importance is stressed of bilateral carotid angiograms, sometimes with oblique series, in the case of head injuries and certain tumors.

  18. Neuromechanical tuning of nonlinear postural control dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Lena H.; van Antwerp, Keith W.; Scrivens, Jevin E.; McKay, J. Lucas; Welch, Torrence D. J.; Bingham, Jeffrey T.; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2009-01-01

    Postural control may be an ideal physiological motor task for elucidating general questions about the organization, diversity, flexibility, and variability of biological motor behaviors using nonlinear dynamical analysis techniques. Rather than presenting “problems” to the nervous system, the redundancy of biological systems and variability in their behaviors may actually be exploited to allow for the flexible achievement of multiple and concurrent task-level goals associated with movement. Such variability may reflect the constant “tuning” of neuromechanical elements and their interactions for movement control. The problem faced by researchers is that there is no one-to-one mapping between the task goal and the coordination of the underlying elements. We review recent and ongoing research in postural control with the goal of identifying common mechanisms underlying variability in postural control, coordination of multiple postural strategies, and transitions between them. We present a delayed-feedback model used to characterize the variability observed in muscle coordination patterns during postural responses to perturbation. We emphasize the significance of delays in physiological postural systems, requiring the modulation and coordination of both the instantaneous, “passive” response to perturbations as well as the delayed, “active” responses to perturbations. The challenge for future research lies in understanding the mechanisms and principles underlying neuromechanical tuning of and transitions between the diversity of postural behaviors. Here we describe some of our recent and ongoing studies aimed at understanding variability in postural control using physical robotic systems, human experiments, dimensional analysis, and computational models that could be enhanced from a nonlinear dynamics approach. PMID:19566271

  19. An effect of posture on anticipatory anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lipnicki, Darren M; Byrne, Don G

    2008-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of body posture on state anxiety and psychological stress. Twenty normal adults performed a demanding mental arithmetic task in both standing and supine conditions, with subjective measures of anxiety and stress obtained before, immediately, and 10 min after the task. Participants were found to experience anticipatory anxiety when standing, although not when supine. The mechanism underlying this effect remains to be determined, although it could involve a postural difference in baroreceptor load.

  20. Microgravity effects on 'postural' muscle activity patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, Charles S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in neuromuscular activation patterns associated with movements made in microgravity can contribute to muscular atrophy. Using electromyography (EMG) to monitor 'postural' muscles, it was found that free floating arm flexions made in microgravity were not always preceded by neuromuscular activation patterns normally observed during movements made in unit gravity. Additionally, manipulation of foot sensory input during microgravity arm flexion impacted upon anticipatory postural muscle activation.

  1. Photographic measurement of upper-body sitting posture of high school students: A reliability and validity study

    PubMed Central

    van Niekerk, Sjan-Mari; Louw, Quinette; Vaughan, Christopher; Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Schreve, Kristiaan

    2008-01-01

    Background All the reported measures of sitting posture, as well as photographs, have one flaw, as these measures are external to the body. These measures use calculations from external bony landmarks to estimate spinal posture, on the understanding that what is being measured externally reflects the shape, health and performance of structures of the underlying spine. Without a comparative measure of the relative position of the structures of the spine, the validity of any external spinal posture measure cannot be established. This paper reports on a study which tests the validity of photographs to measure adolescent sitting posture. Methods The study was conducted in a laboratory at the Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town. A random sample of 40 adolescents were recruited from the Cape metropolitan schools, to detect differences of three degrees or more between the repeated measures of upright, normal or slouched posture (photographs) and between the posture photographs and LODOX measures. Eligible participants were healthy male and female subjects aged 15 or 16 years old, in Grade 10, and who were undertaking Computer or Computype studies at their schools. Two posture measurement tools were used in the study, namely: Photographs were taken using the Photographic Posture Analysis Method (PPAM) and Radiographs were taken using the LODOX (LODOX (Pty) Ltd) system. Subjects' posture was assessed in simulated computer workstations. The following angles were measured: the sagittal head angle, cervical angle, protraction/retraction angle, arm angle and the thoracic angle. Results Data from 39 subjects (19 males, 20 females) was used for analysis (17 15-year-olds (7 boys and 10 girls), 22 16-year-olds (12 boys and 10 girls)). All but one photographic angle showed moderate to good correlation with the LODOX angles (Pearson r values 0.67–0.95) with the exception being the shoulder protraction/retraction angle Pearson r values. Bland Altman limits of

  2. Postural Control Disturbances Produced By Exposure to HMD and Dome Vr Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harm, D. L.; Taylor, L. C.

    2005-01-01

    Two critical and unresolved human factors issues in VR systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", a form of motion sickness which is experienced in virtual worlds, and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Most astronauts and cosmonauts experience perceptual and sensorimotor disturbances during and following space flight. All astronauts exhibit decrements in postural control following space flight. It has been suggested that training in virtual reality (VR) may be an effective countermeasure for minimizing perceptual and/or sensorimotor disturbances. People adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity, and experimentally-produced stimulus rearrangements (e.g., reversing prisms, magnifying lenses, flight simulators, and VR systems). Adaptation is revealed by aftereffects including perceptual disturbances and sensorimotor control disturbances. The purpose of the current study was to compare disturbances in postural control produced by dome and head-mounted virtual environment displays. Individuals recovered from motion sickness and the detrimental effects of exposure to virtual reality on postural control within one hour. Sickness severity and initial decrements in postural equilibrium decreases over days, which suggests that subjects become dual-adapted over time. These findings provide some direction for developing training schedules for VR users that facilitate adaptation, and address safety concerns about aftereffects.

  3. Assessment of Organ Doses for a Glovebox Worker Using Realistic Postures with PIMAL and VOXMAT

    SciTech Connect

    Akkurt, Hatice; Bekar, Kursat; Eckerman, Keith F

    2009-01-01

    In an earlier effort, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) mathematical phantom has been revised to enable assessment of radiation dose for different postures in occupational exposures by enabling freely positioning arms and legs. The revised phantom is called PIMAL: Phantom wIth Moving Arms and Legs. Further, to assist the analyst with input preparation and output manipulation for different postures, a graphical user interface has been developed. Also, at ORNL a hybrid computational phantom, which uses a combination of voxelized and stylized geometry, for radiation dose assessment was recently developed. This phantom is based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP's) male phantom model and is called VOXMAT. For VOXMAT, the head and torso, which contain significant anatomical details, were described using voxel geometry. The arms and legs, which contain less-detailed anatomical structures, were modeled using the mathematical equations (stylized approach). With this approach the number of voxels was reduced from 7 million to 2.3 million, which translated into a proportional reduction in computational time and memory requirements. More importantly, VOXMAT allows easy the movement of arms and legs for radiation dose assessment for realistic postures. To determine/demonstrate the importance of the realistic posture for a case study, PIMAL and VOXMAT are applied to assess the dose to a glovebox worker. In this paper, the comparative computational results for the estimated dose are presented.

  4. Resolving Sensory Conflict: the Effect of Muscle Vibration on Postural Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, Charles S.

    1991-01-01

    The otolith-tilt reinterpretation hypothesis (OTTR) proposes that the central nervous system adapts to weightlessness by reinterpreting all otolith input as linear motion. While interpreting otolith input exclusively as linear motion is functionally useful in space, it is maladaptive upon return to Earth. Astronauts have reported experiencing illusory sensations during head movement which contributes to postural instability. The effect is assessed of muscle vibration in combination with a variety of sensory conflicts on postural equilibrium. The equilibrium of six healthy subjects was tested using the EquiTest sensory test protocol, with and without the confounding influence of triceps surea vibration. The data were analyzed with repeated measures with vibration, vision status, and platform status as independent variables. All main effects and an interaction between the presence of vision and platform sway referencing were found to be significant. Overall, a 4.5 pct. decrease in postural stability was observed with vibration. The trend of the difference scores between conditions with and without vibration suggests that vibration is most destabilizing when the triceps surea is able to change length during postural sway (i.e., conditions with a fixed support surface). The impact of sway referencing vision was virtually identical to that of eye closure, providing compelling evidence that sway referencing 'nulls out' useful cues about subject sway.

  5. Effect of inclined support surface on postural strategy during anterior-posterior platform translations.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Masanori; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiroh

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that postural coordination patterns change as a function of translation frequency. However, the effect of inclined support surface on postural strategy was not clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of inclined support surface on postural strategy during platform translations. Eight healthy adults maintained their balance in stance during support surface translations in the anterior-posterior direction at two different frequencies (0.2 and 0.8[Hz]) and at three different base of support condition (LV: Level, TD: Toe Down, TU: Toe Up). For the kinematic data at slow frequency, subjects rode the platform depending on the movement of platform itself, while at fast frequency subjects fixed their head and center of mass (COM) in space. For the kinetic data at slow frequency, the ankle moment amplitude is similar among all support surface conditions, while at fast frequency the ankle moment amplitude for TU is significantly larger than LV. Result shown that the effect of inclined surface on postural strategy changed according to frequency of support surface translations.

  6. Human body 3D posture estimation using significant points and two cameras.

    PubMed

    Juang, Chia-Feng; Chen, Teng-Chang; Du, Wei-Chin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional (3D) human posture estimation system that locates 3D significant body points based on 2D body contours extracted from two cameras without using any depth sensors. The 3D significant body points that are located by this system include the head, the center of the body, the tips of the feet, the tips of the hands, the elbows, and the knees. First, a linear support vector machine- (SVM-) based segmentation method is proposed to distinguish the human body from the background in red, green, and blue (RGB) color space. The SVM-based segmentation method uses not only normalized color differences but also included angle between pixels in the current frame and the background in order to reduce shadow influence. After segmentation, 2D significant points in each of the two extracted images are located. A significant point volume matching (SPVM) method is then proposed to reconstruct the 3D significant body point locations by using 2D posture estimation results. Experimental results show that the proposed SVM-based segmentation method shows better performance than other gray level- and RGB-based segmentation approaches. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the 3D posture estimation results in different postures.

  7. Control of vertical posture while elevating one foot to avoid a real or virtual obstacle.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hirofumi; Mohapatra, Sambit; Aruin, Alexander

    2017-03-07

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the control of vertical posture during obstacle avoidance in a real versus a virtual reality (VR) environment. Ten healthy participants stood upright and lifted one leg to avoid colliding with a real obstacle sliding on the floor toward a participant and with its virtual image. Virtual obstacles were delivered by a head mounted display (HMD) or a 3D projector. The acceleration of the foot, center of pressure, and electrical activity of the leg and trunk muscles were measured and analyzed during the time intervals typical for early postural adjustments (EPAs), anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), and compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs). The results showed that the peak acceleration of foot elevation in the HMD condition decreased significantly when compared with that of the real and 3D projector conditions. Reduced activity of the leg and trunk muscles was seen when dealing with virtual obstacles (HMD and 3D projector) as compared with that seen when dealing with real obstacles. These effects were more pronounced during APAs and CPAs. The onsets of muscle activities in the supporting limb were seen during EPAs and APAs. The observed modulation of muscle activity and altered patterns of movement seen while avoiding a virtual obstacle should be considered when designing virtual rehabilitation protocols.

  8. Effects of Neck Exercise on High-School Students’ Neck–Shoulder Posture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myoung-Hyo; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Jin-Sang

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of deep flexor muscle-strengthening exercise on the neck–shoulder posture, and the strength and endurance of the deep flexor muscles of high-school students. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 seventeen-year-old female high-school students who complained about bad posture and chronic neck–shoulder pain. They were randomly divided into an experimental group of 15 subjects, who performed a deep flexor muscle-strengthening exercise and a control group of 15 subjects, who performed a basic stretching exercise. [Methods] The experimental group of 15 subjects performed a deep flexor muscle-strengthening exercise consisting of low-load training of the cranio-cervical flexor muscle, and the control group of 15 subjects performed a basic stretching exercise consisting of seven motions. [Results] The experimental group showed statistically significant changes in head tilt angle, neck flexion angle, forward shoulder angle, and the result of the cranio-cervical flexion test after the training. In contrast, the control group showed no statistically significant changes in these measures following the training. When the results of the groups were compared, statistically significant differences were found for all items between the experimental group and the control group. [Conclusion] Strengthening cranio-cervical flexor muscles is important for the adjustment of neck posture, and maintaining their stability is required to improve neck-shoulder posture. PMID:24259804

  9. Posture strategies generated by constrained optimization.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Robert; Bartonek, Åsa; Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M

    2012-02-02

    For people with motion disorders, posture can impact fatigue, discomfort or deformities in the long term. Orthopedic treatments such as orthoses or orthopedic surgeries which change geometric properties can improve posture in these individuals. In this study, a model has been created to study posture strategies in such situations. A 3D mechanical model consisting of eight rigid segments and 30 muscle groups is used in which varying moment arms along the ranges of motion and biarticular muscles are considered. The method is based on static optimization, both to solve the load sharing in the muscle system and to choose posture strategy. The optimization computes the specific posture with minimal required effort (level of muscle activations), while fulfilling constraints containing subject specific ranges of motion, muscle strength/weakness and external support if present. Anthropometry and strength were scaled to each individual, based on reported pediatric anthropometry and strength values, combined with each individual's physical assessment. A control group of 10 able-bodied subjects as well as three subjects with motion disorders were studied, and simulated posture was compared with experimental data. The simulation showed reasonable to good agreement and ability to predict the effect of motion disorders and of external support. An example of application in parameter studies was also presented wherein ankle orthosis angles were varied. The model allows the user to study muscle activity at the muscle group level, position of center of mass and moments at joints in various situations.

  10. Postural Control in Man: The Phylogenetic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Gramsbergen, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Erect posture in man is a recent affordance from an evolutionary perspective. About eight million years ago, the stock from which modern humans derived split off from the ape family, and from around sixty-thousand years ago, modern man developed. Upright gait and manipulations while standing pose intricate cybernetic problems for postural control. The trunk, having an older evolutionary history than the extremities, is innervated by medially descending motor systems and extremity muscles by the more recent, laterally descending systems. Movements obviously require concerted actions from both systems. Research in rats has demonstrated the interdependencies between postural control and the development of fluent walking. Only 15 days after birth, adult-like fluent locomotion emerges and is critically dependent upon postural development. Vesttibular deprivation induces a retardation in postural development and, consequently, a retarded development of adult-like locomotion. The cerebellum obviously has an important role in mutual adjustments in postural control and extremity movements, or, in coupling the phyiogenetic older and newer structures. In the human, the cerebellum develops partly after birth and therefore is vulnerable to adverse perinatal influences. Such vulnerability seems to justify focusing our scientific research efforts onto the development of this structure. PMID:16097476

  11. Does pilates-based exercise improve postural alignment in adult women?

    PubMed

    Cruz-Ferreira, Ana; Fernandes, Jorge; Kuo, Yi-Liang; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Fernandes, Orlando; Laranjo, Luís; Silva, António

    2013-01-01

    A randomized, controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of Pilates-based exercise on postural alignment. Seventy-four adult women (mean age ± SD, 34.9 ± 16.4 years) were randomized to a Pilates-based mat class (n = 40) or a control group (n = 34). Pilates-based exercise participants were taught the Initial Mat of Body Control Pilates for 6 months, twice a week, for 60 minutes per session; the control group received no exercise intervention. Repeated measurements were performed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months of the frontal alignment of the thoracolumbar spine, shoulder, and pelvis, and sagittal alignment of the head and pelvis. No differences were found in either group, over time, on frontal alignment of the thoracolumbar spine and pelvis. The experimental group showed significant improvements in frontal alignment of the shoulder and sagittal alignment of the head and pelvis at 6 months. The Pilates-based exercise enhanced some parameters of the postural alignment of women, as measured by frontal alignment of the shoulder and sagittal alignment of the head and pelvis. The significant improvement in sagittal alignment of the head may imply that 6 months of Pilates-based exercise enhances sagittal alignment of the cervical or thoracic spine.

  12. Analysis of posture and eye movement responses to Coriolis stimulation under 1 G and microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Motoki; Takahashi, Masahiro; Iida, Masahiro

    2009-12-20

    To detect the effect of microgravity on vestibular responses, we conducted Coriolis stimulation experiments at 1 G and μ G. Five men with vision occluded were asked to tilt their head forward while rotating at 100 degrees/sec. Postural changes were recorded by a 3D linear accelerometer, and the distance of upper body movement was derived from recordings of linear acceleration. Eye movements were recorded by a CCD camera. For a second period after commencing head tilt, the upper body moved 10 cm in the direction of inertia input at 1 G, but it moved to the opposite direction at μ G, i.e., 4 cm in the direction of inertia force. Nystagmus peak slow-phase velocity immediately after head tilt and its attenuation process did not differ between 1 G and μ G. The strength of movement sensation and the severity of motion sickness were far weaker at μ G than at 1 G. It was concluded that inertia input is valid to induce postural and sensation responses only when the external reference is given Z axis by gravity. Vestibular ocular response may be maintained at μ G because the head reference is valid even after the external reference becomes arbitrary.

  13. Physiological interdependence of the cardiovascular and postural control systems under orthostatic stress.

    PubMed

    Garg, Amanmeet; Xu, Da; Laurin, Alexandre; Blaber, Andrew P

    2014-07-15

    The cardiovascular system has been observed to respond to changes in human posture and the environment. On the same lines, frequent fallers have been observed to suffer from cardiovascular deficits. The present article aims to demonstrate the existence of interactions between the cardiovascular and postural control systems. The behavior of the two systems under orthostatic challenge was studied through novel adaptations of signal processing techniques. To this effect, the interactions between the two systems were assessed with two metrics, coherence and phase lock value, based on the wavelet transform. Measurements from the cardiovascular system (blood pressure), lower limb muscles (surface electromyography), and postural sway (center of pressure) were acquired from young healthy adults (n = 28, men = 12, age = 20-28 yr) during quiet stance. The continuous wavelet transform was applied to decompose the representative signals on a time-scale basis in a frequency region of 0.01 to 0.1 Hz. Their linear coupling was quantified through a coherence metric, and the synchrony was characterized via the phase information. The outcomes of this study present evidence that the cardiovascular and postural control systems work together to maintain homeostasis under orthostatic challenge. The inferences open a new direction of study for effects under abnormalities and extreme environmental conditions.

  14. Cardio-postural interactions and short-arm centrifugation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaber, Andrew; Goswami, Nandu; Xu, Da; Laurin, Alexendre

    INTRODUCTION: We are interested in mechanisms associated with orthostatic tolerance. In previous studies we have shown that postural muscles in the calf contribute to both posture and blood pressure regulation during orthostatic stress. In this study we investigated the relationship between cardiovascular and postural muscle control before, during and after short arm human centrifuge (SAHC) up to 2.2 G. METHODS: Eleven healthy young subjects (6 m, 5 f), with no history of cardiovascular disease, falls or orthostatic hypotension, participated. All were familiarized with the SAHC with 10 minutes at 1-G at the feet. Each subject was instrumented in the supine position on the SAHC for beat-to-beat ECG and blood pressure (Portapres derived SBP). Bilateral lower leg EMG was collected from four leg postural muscles: tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, and medial soleus. Transdermal differential recording of signals was performed using an 8-channel EMG system, (Myosystem 1200, Noraxon Inc., Arizona, USA). Postural sway data of the body COP was computed from the force and moment data collected with a force platform (Accusway, AMTI, MA, USA). Before and after SAHC, the subject stood on a force platform with their gaze fixed on a point at eye level, closed their eyes and stood quietly for 5 min. A final stand was conducted 30 min after centrifugation with supine rest in between. During clockwise centrifugation (10-min 1g and 10-min 2.2g at the foot) the subjects’ head was hooded and in the dark. The subject’s body was restrained into the rotation arm with a parachute harness and given additional body support with a foot-plate. ECG, EMG and BP data were collected throughout and centre of pressure trajectory (COP) collected during the stand test. Subjects were requested to relax and not to voluntarily contract the leg muscles; however, they were not to suppress contractions as they occurred involuntarily or by reflex. A Continuous Wavelet

  15. Locomotor head-trunk coordination strategies following space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Smith, S. L.; Huebner, W. P.; Reschke, M. F.

    1997-01-01

    During locomotion, angular head movements act in a compensatory fashion to oppose the vertical trunk translation that occurs during each step in the gait cycle. This coordinated strategy between head and trunk motion serves to aid gaze stabilization and perhaps simplifies the sensory coordinate transformation between the head and trunk, allowing efficient descending motor control during locomotion. Following space flight, astronauts often experience oscillopsia during locomotion in addition to postural and gait instabilities, suggesting a possible breakdown in head-trunk coordination. The goal of the present investigation was to determine if exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight induces alteration in head-trunk coordination during locomotion. Astronaut subjects were asked to walk (6.4 km/h, 20 s trials) on a motorized treadmill while visually fixating on a centrally located earthfixed target positioned either 2 m (FAR) or 30 cm (NEAR) from the eyes. In addition, some trials were also performed during periodic visual occlusion. Head and trunk kinematics during locomotion were determined with the aid of a video-based motion analyzing system. We report data collected preflight (10 days prior to launch) and postflight (2 to 4 hours after landing). The coherence between pitch head and vertical trunk movements during gaze fixation of both FAR and NEAR targets was significantly reduced following space flight indicating decreased coordination between the head and trunk during postflight locomotion. Astronauts flying on their first mission showed greater alterations in the frequency spectra of pitch head movements as compared to their more experienced counterparts. These modifications in the efficacy of head movement control may account for the reported disruption in gaze performance during locomotion and may contribute to postflight postural and gait dysfunction.

  16. Head lice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Head lice can only be diagnosed by finding live lice, as eggs take 7 days to hatch and may appear viable for weeks after death of the egg. Infestation may be more likely in school children, with risks increased in children with more siblings, longer hair, and of lower socioeconomic group. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for head lice? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 26 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: benzyl alcohol, dimeticone, herbal and essential oils, insecticide combinations, isopropyl myristate, ivermectin, lindane, malathion, mechanical removal by combing ("bug busting"), oral trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole, TMP-SMX), permethrin, phenothrin, pyrethrum, and spinosad. PMID:21575285

  17. Head lice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Head louse infection is diagnosed by finding live lice, as eggs take 7 days to hatch (but a few may take longer, up to 13 days) and may appear viable for weeks after death of the egg. Infestation may be more likely in school children, with risks increased in children with more siblings or of lower socioeconomic group. Factors such as longer hair make diagnosis and treatment more difficult. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of physically acting treatments for head lice? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found six studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 1,2-octanediol, dimeticone, herbal and essential oils, and isopropyl myristate. PMID:25587918

  18. Effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson's disease. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 18 patients who received simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training and 15 patients who received expiratory muscle strength training only. Postural techniques were conducted in the order of chin tucking, head rotation, head tilting, bending head back, and lying down, while expiratory muscle strength training was conducted at a resistance level of about 70% of the maximal expiratory pressure. Swallowing recovery was assessed by using the Functional Dysphagia Scale based on videofluoroscopic studies. [Results] The mean value obtained in the videofluoroscopic studies for both groups decreased after the treatment. In the postural techniques plus expiratory muscle strength training group, the decrease was significantly greater than that in the expiratory muscle strength training-only group. [Conclusion] The results imply that simultaneous performance of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training is more effective than expiratory muscle strength training alone when applied in the swallowing rehabilitation for patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson's disease.

  19. Sensory processing in the vestibular nuclei during active head movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gdowski, G. T.; Boyle, R.; McCrea, R. A.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Many secondary vestibular neurons are sensitive to head on trunk rotation during reflex-induced and voluntary head movements. During passive whole body rotation the interaction of head on trunk signals related to the vestibulo-collic reflex with vestibular signals increases the rotational gain of many secondary vestibular neurons, including many that project to the spinal cord. In some units, the sensitivity to head on trunk and vestibular input is matched and the resulting interaction produces an output that is related to the trunk velocity in space. In other units the head on trunk inputs are stronger and the resulting interaction produces an output that is larger during the reflex. During voluntary head movements, inputs related to head on trunk movement combine destructively with vestibular signals, and often cancel the sensory reafferent consequences of self-generated movements. Cancellation of sensory vestibular signals was observed in all of the antidromically identified secondary vestibulospinal units, even though many of these units were not significantly affected by reflexive head on trunk movements. The results imply that the inputs to vestibular neurons related to head on trunk rotation during reflexive and voluntary movements arise from different sources. We suggest that the relative strength of reflexive head on trunk input to different vestibular neurons might reflect the different functional roles they have in controlling the posture of the neck and body.

  20. Active vision task and postural control in healthy, young adults: Synergy and probably not duality.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Baudry, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    In upright stance, individuals sway continuously and the sway pattern in dual tasks (e.g., a cognitive task performed in upright stance) differs significantly from that observed during the control quiet stance task. The cognitive approach has generated models (limited attentional resources, U-shaped nonlinear interaction) to explain such patterns based on competitive sharing of attentional resources. The objective of the current manuscript was to review these cognitive models in the specific context of visual tasks involving gaze shifts toward precise targets (here called active vision tasks). The selection excluded the effects of early and late stages of life or disease, external perturbations, active vision tasks requiring head and body motions and the combination of two tasks performed together (e.g., a visual task in addition to a computation in one's head). The selection included studies performed by healthy, young adults with control and active - difficult - vision tasks. Over 174 studies found in Pubmed and Mendeley databases, nine were selected. In these studies, young adults exhibited significantly lower amplitude of body displacement (center of pressure and/or body marker) under active vision tasks than under the control task. Furthermore, the more difficult the active vision tasks were, the better the postural control was. This underscores that postural control during active vision tasks may rely on synergistic relations between the postural and visual systems rather than on competitive or dual relations. In contrast, in the control task, there would not be any synergistic or competitive relations.

  1. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trong-Nguyen; Huynh, Huu-Hung; Meunier, Jean

    2016-10-26

    Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton) in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  2. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Trong-Nguyen; Huynh, Huu-Hung; Meunier, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton) in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%. PMID:27792181

  3. Impaired Synergic Control of Posture in Parkinson’s Patients without Postural Instability

    PubMed Central

    Falaki, Ali; Huang, Xuemei; Lewis, Mechelle M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Postural instability is one of most disabling motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. Indices of multi-muscle synergies are new measurements of movement and postural stability. Objectives Multi-muscle synergies stabilizing vertical posture were studied in Parkinson’s disease patients without clinical symptoms of postural instability (Hoehn-Yahr- ≤ II) and age-matched controls. We tested the hypothesis that both synergy indices during quiet standing and synergy adjustments to self-triggered postural perturbations would be reduced in patients. Methods Eleven Parkinson’s disease patients and 11 controls performed whole-body tasks while standing. Surface electromyography was used to quantify synergy indices stabilizing center of pressure shifts in the anterior-posterior direction during a load-release task. Results Parkinson’s disease patients showed a significantly lower percentage of variance in the muscle activation space accounted for by the first four principal components, significantly reduced synergy indices during steady state, and significantly reduced anticipatory synergy adjustments (a drop in the synergy index prior to the self-triggered unloading). Conclusions The study demonstrates for the first time that impaired synergic control in Parkinson’s disease can be quantified in postural tasks, even in patients without clinical manifestations of postural instability. Synergy measurements may provide a biomarker sensitive for early problems with postural stability in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:27004660

  4. Development of Human Posture Simulation Method for Assessing Posture Angles and Spinal Loads

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Waters, Thomas; Werren, Dwight

    2015-01-01

    Video-based posture analysis employing a biomechanical model is gaining a growing popularity for ergonomic assessments. A human posture simulation method of estimating multiple body postural angles and spinal loads from a video record was developed to expedite ergonomic assessments. The method was evaluated by a repeated measures study design with three trunk flexion levels, two lift asymmetry levels, three viewing angles and three trial repetitions as experimental factors. The study comprised two phases evaluating the accuracy of simulating self and other people’s lifting posture via a proxy of a computer-generated humanoid. The mean values of the accuracy of simulating self and humanoid postures were 12° and 15°, respectively. The repeatability of the method for the same lifting condition was excellent (~2°). The least simulation error was associated with side viewing angle. The estimated back compressive force and moment, calculated by a three dimensional biomechanical model, exhibited a range of 5% underestimation. The posture simulation method enables researchers to simultaneously quantify body posture angles and spinal loading variables with accuracy and precision comparable to on-screen posture matching methods. PMID:26361435

  5. Is There a Correlation Between Static and Dynamic Postural Balance Among Young Male and Female Dancers?

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Nili; Adams, Roger; Waddington, Gordon; Karin, Janet; Tirosh, Oren

    2017-01-01

    Aimed to investigate whether young male and female dancers have different patterns of association between static and dynamic postural balance (PB), 60 dancers from the Australian Ballet School (14-19 years old) were tested for static and dynamic PB with head and lumbar accelerometers. Monotonic relationships between static and dynamic PB were found in head movements among young female dancers in all three directions, but were found for young male dancers in the mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) directions only. In lumbar movements, monotonic relationships were found for young female dancers in the AP direction only. Comparing head with lumbar movements in static PB, young male dancers demonstrated monotonic relationships between head and lumbar movements in all 3 directions; however, young female dancers demonstrated monotonic relationships in the AP direction only. In the dynamic measurements, both male and female dancers demonstrated monotonic relationships between head and lumbar movements for all parameters measured in the ML and vertical directions (p < .05). In conclusions, among female dancers static PB ability is correlated with their dynamic ability, whereas among male dancers, no relationship between the static and dynamic PB in the AP direction exists. Male dancers showed head and lumbar coordination in the static PB movement, but both genders manifested no head and lumbar coordination in the AP direction measured for dynamic PB.

  6. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments associated with reaching movements are programmed according to the availability of visual information.

    PubMed

    Esposti, Roberto; Bruttini, Carlo; Bolzoni, Francesco; Cavallari, Paolo

    2017-02-17

    During goal-directed arm movements, the eyes, head, and arm are coordinated to look at and reach the target. We examined whether the expectancy of visual information about the target modifies Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs). Ten standing subjects had to (1) move the eyes, head and arm, so as to reach, with both gaze and index-finger, a target of known position placed outside their visual field (Gaze-Reach); (2) look at the target while reaching it (Reach in Full Vision); (3) keep the gaze away until having touched it (Reach then Gaze) and (4) just Gaze without Reach the target. We recorded eye, head, right arm, and acromion kinematics, EMGs from upper- and lower-limb muscles, and forces exerted on the ground. In Gaze-Reach, two coordination strategies were found: when gaze preceded arm muscle recruitment (Gaze-first) and when the opposite occurred (Reach-first). APAs in acromion kinematics, leg muscles, and ground forces started significantly earlier in Gaze-first vs. Reach-first (mean time advance: 44.3 ± 8.9 ms), as it was in Reach in Full Vision vs. Reach then Gaze (39.5 ± 7.9 ms). The Gaze-first to Reach-first time-shift was similar to that between Reach in Full Vision and Reach then Gaze (p = 0.58). Moreover, Gaze without Reach data witnessed that the head-induced postural actions did not affect the APA onset in Gaze-first and Reach-first. In conclusion, in Gaze-first, the central control of posture considers visual information while planning the movement, like in Reach in Full Vision; while Reach-first is more similar to Reach then Gaze, where vision is not required.

  7. Gravitational Effects upon Locomotion Posture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John K.; Bentley, Jason R.; Edwards, W. Brent; Perusek, Gail P.; Samorezov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Researchers use actual microgravity (AM) during parabolic flight and simulated microgravity (SM) obtained with horizontal suspension analogs to better understand the effect of gravity upon gait. In both environments, the gravitational force is replaced by an external load (EL) that returns the subject to the treadmill. However, when compared to normal gravity (N), researchers consistently find reduced ground reaction forces (GRF) and subtle kinematic differences (Schaffner et al., 2005). On the International Space Station, the EL is applied by elastic bungees attached to a waist and shoulder harness. While bungees can provide EL approaching body weight (BW), their force-length characteristics coupled with vertical oscillations of the body during gait result in a variable load. However, during locomotion in N, the EL is consistently equal to 100% body weight. Comparisons between AM and N have shown that during running, GRF are decreased in AM (Schaffner et al, 2005). Kinematic evaluations in the past have focussed on joint range of motion rather than joint posture at specific instances of the gait cycle. The reduced GRF in microgravity may be a result of differing hip, knee, and ankle positions during contact. The purpose of this investigation was to compare joint angles of the lower extremities during walking and running in AM, SM, and N. We hypothesized that in AM and SM, joints would be more flexed at heel strike (HS), mid-stance (MS) and toe-off (TO) than in N.

  8. Postural tremor of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J M; Yiannikas, C; Morris, J G; Einstein, R; Jackson, D; Byth, K

    1994-06-01

    Previous studies have reported the resting tremor (RT) of Parkinson's disease to occur at frequencies between 3-7 Hz and to be characterised by an alternating pattern of electromyographic (EMG) bursting activity between opposing muscles. A postural tremor (PT), of higher frequency (> 6 Hz) and with a synchronous pattern of EMG activity, has also been previously described in Parkinson's disease. We investigated the electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of both the RT and PT of 11 patients with Parkinson's disease and 10 patients with essential tremor in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of L-Dopa/benserazide and propranolol. Tremor amplitude and frequency were assessed via bidirectional accelerometry, and the pattern of activation of the antagonist muscles of the forearm was determined with use of surface EMG. In the Parkinson's disease group studied, the frequency, EMG pattern of bursts, and response to L-Dopa were similar for the two tremors (median improvement of RT by 70% and PT by 61%). Despite some overlap between the Parkinson's disease and essential tremor groups in the electrophysiology of the tremor, there was no such dramatic pharmacological response in the latter group. These results suggest that the RT and PT of Parkinson's disease share a common pathophysiology and are distinct from essential tremor.

  9. Effect of postural changes on cardiovascular parameters across gender

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kieran; Rössler, Andreas; Lackner, Helmut Karl; Trozic, Irhad; Laing, Charles; Lorr, David; Green, David A; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Goswami, Nandu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: We investigated the effect of postural changes on various cardiovascular parameters across gender. Twenty-eight healthy subjects (16 male, 12 female) were observed at rest (supine) and subjected to 3 interventions; head-down tilt (HDT), HDT with lower body negative pressure (HDT+ LBNP at −30 mm Hg), and head-up tilt (HUT), each for 10 minutes separated by a 10 minutes recovery period. Methods: Measurements were recorded for heart rate (HR), standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals, root mean square of successive differences between the normal-to-normal intervals, heart rate variability-low frequency (LFRRI), heart rate variability-high frequency (HFRRI), low frequency/high frequency ratio (LFRRI/HFRRI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total peripheral resistance index (TPRI), stroke index (SI), cardiac index (CI), index of contractility (IC), left ventricular work index, and left ventricular ejection time. Results: Across all cardiovascular parameters, there was a significant main effect of the intervention applied but there was no significant main effect of gender across all parameters. Conclusions: The results suggest that there are no specific gender differences in regards to the measured variables under the conditions of this study. Furthermore, these results suggest that in healthy subjects, there appears to be evidence that LBNP partially elicits similar cardiovascular responses to HUT, which supports the use of LBNP as an intervention to counteract the effects of central hypovolemia. PMID:27428203

  10. Pathogenesis and Individualized Treatment for Postural Tachycardia Syndrome in Children

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen-Rui; Jin, Hong-Fang; Du, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is one of the major causes of orthostatic intolerance in children. We systematically reviewed the pathogenesis and the progress of individualized treatment for POTS in children. Data Sources: The data analyzed in this review are mainly from articles included in PubMed and EMBASE. Study Selection: The original articles and critical reviews about POTS were selected for this review. Results: Studies have shown that POTS might be related to several factors including hypovolemia, high catecholamine status, abnormal local vascular tension, and decreased skeletal muscle pump activity. In addition to exercise training, the first-line treatments mainly include oral rehydration salts, beta-adrenoreceptor blockers, and alpha-adrenoreceptor agonists. However, reports about the effectiveness of various treatments are diverse. By analyzing the patient's physiological indexes and biomarkers before the treatment, the efficacy of medication could be well predicted. Conclusions: The pathogenesis of POTS is multifactorial, including hypovolemia, abnormal catecholamine state, and vascular dysfunction. Biomarker-directed individualized treatment is an important strategy for the management of POTS children. PMID:27625098

  11. Chemical impurity produces extra compound eyes and heads in crickets

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, B.T.

    1981-04-03

    A chemical impurity isolated from commercially purchased acridine causes cricket embryos to develop extra compound eyes, branched antennae, extra antennae, and extra heads. Purified acridine does not produce similar duplications of cricket heads or head structures nor do the substituted acridines proflavine, acriflavine, or acridine orange. A dose-response relation exists such that the number and severity of abnormalities increase with increasing concentration of the teratogen.

  12. Dropped head as an unusual presenting sign of myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    D'Amelio, M; Di Benedetto, N; Ragonese, P; Daniele, O; Brighina, F; Fierro, B; Savettieri, G

    2007-04-01

    Prominent or isolated weakness of cervical extensor muscles is a relatively rare clinical sign. Commonly, this is known as "dropped-head syndrome". This abnormal flexion of the head may occur in a variety of neuromuscular diseases and in a few non-neurological disorders as well. The case we describe concerns a 61-year-old woman with dropped-head syndrome as the unique complaint of myasthenia gravis.

  13. Thoracic outlet syndrome--a myofascial variant: Part 3. Structural and postural considerations.

    PubMed

    Sucher, B M; Heath, D M

    1993-03-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome involves more than just local neurovascular compression. Myofascial release treatments and stretching exercises may be only partially or temporarily successful unless all related components of somatic dysfunction, including craniosacral mechanisms, are addressed. Structural and postural abnormalities in the frontal plane, as with a short leg, and in the sagittal plane, such as lumbopelvic imbalances, as well as neural involvement all contribute to thoracic outlet syndrome symptoms. Once segmental restrictions are treated and symptoms diminish, postural correction and strengthening exercises may be initiated. Osteopathic diagnosis and treatment of the local, regional, and remote structural problems is necessary for optimal treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome and the maintenance of a symptom-free status.

  14. Coupling of postural and manual tasks in expert performers.

    PubMed

    Amado, A C; Palmer, C J; Hamill, J; van Emmerik, R E A

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the integration of bimanual rhythmic movements and posture in expert marching percussionists. Participants (N=11) performed three rhythmic manual tasks [1:1, 2:3, and 2:3-F (2:3 rhythm played faster at a self-selected tempo)] in one of three postures: sitting, standing on one foot, and standing on two feet. Discrete relative phase, postural time-to-contact, and coherence analysis were used to analyze the performance of the manual task, postural control, and the integration between postural and manual performance. Across all three rhythms, discrete relative phase mean and variability results showed no effects of posture on rhythmic performance. The complexity of the manual task (1:1 vs. 2:3) had no effect on postural time-to-contact. However, increasing the tempo of the manual task (2:3 vs. 2:3-F) did result in a decreased postural time-to-contact in the two-footed posture. Coherence analysis revealed that the coupling between the postural and manual task significantly decreased as a function of postural difficulty (going from a two-footed to a one-footed posture) and rhythmic complexity (1:1 vs. 2:3). Taken together, these results demonstrate that expert marching percussionists systematically decouple postural and manual fluctuations in order to preserve the performance of the rhythmic movement task.

  15. Transfer of dynamic learning across postures.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Alaa A; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2009-11-01

    When learning a difficult motor task, we often decompose the task so that the control of individual body segments is practiced in isolation. But on re-composition, the combined movements can result in novel and possibly complex internal forces between the body segments that were not experienced (or did not need to be compensated for) during isolated practice. Here we investigate whether dynamics learned in isolation by one part of the body can be used by other parts of the body to immediately predict and compensate for novel forces between body segments. Subjects reached to targets while holding the handle of a robotic, force-generating manipulandum. One group of subjects was initially exposed to the novel robot dynamics while seated and was then tested in a standing position. A second group was tested in the reverse order: standing then sitting. Both groups adapted their arm dynamics to the novel environment, and this movement learning transferred between seated and standing postures and vice versa. Both groups also generated anticipatory postural adjustments when standing and exposed to the force field for several trials. In the group that had learned the dynamics while seated, the appropriate postural adjustments were observed on the very first reach on standing. These results suggest that the CNS can immediately anticipate the effect of learned movement dynamics on a novel whole-body posture. The results support the existence of separate mappings for posture and movement, which encode similar dynamics but can be adapted independently.

  16. Transfer of Dynamic Learning Across Postures

    PubMed Central

    Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2009-01-01

    When learning a difficult motor task, we often decompose the task so that the control of individual body segments is practiced in isolation. But on re-composition, the combined movements can result in novel and possibly complex internal forces between the body segments that were not experienced (or did not need to be compensated for) during isolated practice. Here we investigate whether dynamics learned in isolation by one part of the body can be used by other parts of the body to immediately predict and compensate for novel forces between body segments. Subjects reached to targets while holding the handle of a robotic, force-generating manipulandum. One group of subjects was initially exposed to the novel robot dynamics while seated and was then tested in a standing position. A second group was tested in the reverse order: standing then sitting. Both groups adapted their arm dynamics to the novel environment, and this movement learning transferred between seated and standing postures and vice versa. Both groups also generated anticipatory postural adjustments when standing and exposed to the force field for several trials. In the group that had learned the dynamics while seated, the appropriate postural adjustments were observed on the very first reach on standing. These results suggest that the CNS can immediately anticipate the effect of learned movement dynamics on a novel whole-body posture. The results support the existence of separate mappings for posture and movement, which encode similar dynamics but can be adapted independently. PMID:19710374

  17. Postural sway following cryotherapy in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Claudiane A; Duarte, Marcos; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2014-01-01

    In light of the wide use of cryotherapy and its potential negative effects on postural stability, little is known about how postural sway is affected, particularly when the whole lower limb is immersed. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of cryotherapy on postural sway in healthy males. Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned into two intervention groups: control (tepid water at ∼26°C) or ice (cold water at ∼11°C). Postural sway was measured through the center of pressure (COP) position while they stood on a force plate during bipedal (70 s) and unipedal (40 s) conditions before and after the subjects were immersed in a water tub up to the umbilical level for 20 min. COP standard deviation (SD) and COP velocity were analyzed in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions. Statistical analysis showed that in the bipedal condition cryotherapy increased the COP SD and COP velocity in the ML direction. During the unipedal condition, a higher COP velocity in the AP and ML directions was also reported. Our findings indicate that cryotherapy by immersing the whole lower limb should be used with caution before engaging in challenging postural control activities.

  18. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders.

  19. Postural and action myoclonus in patients with parkinsonian type multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Salazar, G; Valls-Solé, J; Martí, M J; Chang, H; Tolosa, E S

    2000-01-01

    Patients with a parkinsonian syndrome and features of multisystem atrophy (pMSA) may exhibit abnormal movements of the hands and fingers, which are reported in the literature either as "jerky" tremor or myoclonus. We studied clinically and electrophysiologically these movements in 11 consecutive patients with pMSA. No abnormal movements were observed when the patients were at complete rest, except for a characteristic parkinsonian "pill-rolling" tremor in one patient. Abnormal small-amplitude, nonrhythmic movements involving just one or a few fingers, or more rarely the whole hand, were observed in nine patients when holding a posture or at the beginning of an action. Accelerometric recordings showed small-amplitude irregular oscillations which, contrary to those of patients with tremor, had no predominant peak in the Fast Fourier frequency spectrum analysis. Electromyographic recordings in the forearm and hand muscles showed brief jerks of less than 100 ms duration which were synchronous in antagonist muscles of the forearm and alternated with brief periods of silence. Electrical stimulation of the digital nerves evoked consistent reflex responses in the wrist flexor and extensor muscles at a latency of 55.3+/-4.1 ms (range, 50-63 ms). Routine electroencephalographic (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials to median nerve stimulation were normal. Back-averaging of the EEG activity time-locked to the jerks was performed in two patients with no evidence of abnormal cortical activity. Two patients had episodes of transient respiratory failure related to pneumonia. This caused a long-lasting enhancement of the abnormal hand and finger movements, which became larger and more widespread, with features of posthypoxic myoclonus. We conclude that the abnormal hand and finger movements of patients with pMSA are a form of postural and action myoclonus, and can be described as mini-polymyoclonus.

  20. [The relativity of abnormity].

    PubMed

    Nilson, Annika

    2006-01-01

    In the late 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, mental diseases and abnormal behavior was considered to be a great danger to culture and society. "Degeneration" was the buzzword of the time, used and misused by artists and scientists alike. At the same time, some scientists saw abnormity as the key to unlock the mysteries of the ordinary mind. Naturalistic curiosity left Pandoras box open when religion declined in Darwins wake. Two swedish scientists, the physician Bror Gadelius (1862-1938) and his friend the philosopher Axel Herrlin (1870-1937), inspired by the French psychologist Theodule Ribots (1839-1916) "psychology without a soul", denied all fixed demarcation lines between abnormity and normality. All humans are natures creatures ruled by physiological laws, not ruled by God or convention. Even ordinary morality was considered to be an utterly backward explanation and guideline for complex human behavior. Different forms of therapy, not various kinds of penalties for wicked and disturbing behavior, are the now the solution for lots of people, "normal" as well as "abnormal". Psychiatry is expanding.

  1. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T

    1998-04-01

    Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.

  2. Static and dynamic postural stability in veterans with combat-related mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tao; Liao, Ke; Roenigk, Kristen; Daly, Janis J; Walker, Mark F

    2015-10-01

    Persistent post-concussive symptoms are reported by 10-15% of individuals who suffer mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), but their basis is often uncertain. One such symptom is disequilibrium, a sensation of impaired balance during standing and walking. The hypothesis for this study was that this subjective symptom is associated with objective and measurable deficits in static and dynamic postural stability. An infrared motion tracking system was used to record body motion during quiet standing and in response to waist perturbations in fourteen veterans (age 22-40 years, 13 male) of the Operations Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Iraqi Freedom (OIF), who had a history of mTBI that occurred 7 months to 7 years prior to testing. We compared body sway between veterans with mTBI reporting persistent disequilibrium (TD, n=8) and those with no vestibular symptoms (n=6), as well as to a group of non-veterans with no balance symptoms (n=10). Static postural stability was reduced in TD veterans in comparison to each of the other two groups (p<0.0002), most notably on a compliant surface with eyes closed. The TD group also had decreased dynamic stability of the upper trunk (p<0.05) and enhanced postural oscillations (p<0.02) following waist perturbations. Our findings support a physiological basis for persistent disequilibrium after mTBI and are consistent with impaired vestibular processing. Disruption of semicircular canal inputs is unlikely to be the cause, as head impulse responses were normal in all groups. The unexpected finding of dynamic postural oscillations requires further study but may indicate enhanced instability in sensorimotor networks responsible for postural control.

  3. The effects of posture and isoproterenol on the velocity of left ventricular contraction in man

    PubMed Central

    Paley, H. W.; McDonald, Ian G.; Blumenthal, Joseph; Mailhot, James; Modin, Gunnard W.

    1971-01-01

    A study was performed in five normal men in whom left ventricular volume was measured by thermodilution in the supine and 60° head-up postures, in the control state, and then during steady-state response to isoproterenol. The mean rate of circumferential shortening of the left ventricle was calculated for each of the postures in both inotropic states and was found to remain constant in the control state at 12.5 ±0.6 cm/sec in the supine posture and 13.3 ±0.5 cm/sec in the tilted posture. Similarly, mean rate of circumferential shortening remained constant in response to the positive inotropic effect of isoproterenol at 20.9 ±0.5 cm/sec in the supine position and 20.7 ±0.5 cm/sec in the tilted posture. It is concluded that the constancy of mean rate of circumferential shortening over the relatively broad physiologic range of left ventricular end-diastolic volume and mean force of ejection during a given state of myocardial contractility represents the coupled reciprocal influences of ventricular wall tension and myocardial fiber length on the velocity of ventricular wall shortening. Unlike stroke work, stroke power, and mean rate of left ventricular ejection, which are volume-dependent parameters of myocardial performance, the mean rate of circumferential shortening appears to be a reasonable index of left ventricular contractility, which in steady-state conditions is independent of left ventricular end-diastolic volume and mean ventricular wall force of ejection. In this study, changes in mean rate of circumferential shortening associated with changes of heart rate were small and variable. PMID:4938131

  4. Good Posture--An Aid to Learning and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marciante, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Emphasizes the importance of promoting children's good health and proper posture through encouragement and the efforts of parents, physical education teachers, and classroom instructors. Outlines precise roles and responsibilities of each in improving children's posture. (DMM)

  5. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... happen from a gunshot to the head. Head injuries include: Concussion , in which the brain is shaken, is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. Scalp wounds. Skull fractures. Head injuries ...

  6. Head circumference (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Head circumference is a measurement of the circumference of the child's head at its largest area (above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head). During routine check-ups, the distance is measured ...

  7. Head movement measurement: An alternative method for posturography studies.

    PubMed

    Ciria, L F; Muñoz, M A; Gea, J; Peña, N; Miranda, J G V; Montoya, P; Vila, J

    2017-02-01

    The present study evaluated the measurement of head movements as a valid method for postural emotional studies using the comparison of simultaneous recording of center of pressure (COP) sway as criterion. Thirty female students viewed a set of 12 pleasant, 12 unpleasant and 12 neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System, repeated twice, using a block presentation procedure while standing on a force platform (AMTI AccuSway). Head movements were recorded using a webcam (©KPC139E) located in the ceiling in line with the force platform and a light-emitting diode (LED) placed on the top of the head. Open source software (CvMob 3.1) was used to process the data. High indices of correlation and coherence between head and COP sway were observed. In addition, pleasant pictures, compared with unpleasant pictures, elicited greater body sway in the anterior-posterior axis, suggesting an approach response to appetitive stimuli. Thus, the measurement of head movement can be an alternative or complementary method to recording COP for studying human postural changes.

  8. Smart garment to help children improve posture.

    PubMed

    Lou, E; Moreau, M J; Hill, D L; Raso, V J; Mahood, J K

    2006-01-01

    Many of the aches and pains of adults are the result not of injuries, but of the long-term effects of distortions in posture or alignment. Postural kyphosis in adolescence may be one of the effects of poor standing and sitting habits. Kyphosis is an excessive rounding of the upper spine. A smart garment that can monitor and provide vibration feedback to children has been developed to investigate an alternative treatment possibility. Laboratory tests verified that the accuracy of the system was +/-2 degrees within the full 180 degrees range. A clinical trial has been conducted and it showed that the system can aid subjects to improve by 20% the proportion of time in a more balanced posture. The long term effect is still under investigation.

  9. Falls study: Proprioception, postural stability, and slips.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jeehoon; Kim, Sukwon

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated effects of exercise training on the proprioception sensitivity, postural stability, and the likelihood of slip-induced falls. Eighteen older adults (6 in balance, 6 in weight, and 6 in control groups) participated in this study. Three groups met three times per week over the course of eight weeks. Ankle and knee proprioception sensitivities and postural stability were measured. Slip-induced events were introduced for all participants before and after training. The results indicated that, overall, strength and postural stability were improved only in the training group, although proprioception sensitivity was improved in all groups. Training for older adults resulted in decreased likelihood of slip-induced falls. The study suggested that proprioception can be improved by simply being active, however, the results suggested that training would aid older adults in reducing the likelihood of slip-induced falls.

  10. Integrated postural analysis in children with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Boccalandro, E; Pasta, G; Mannucci, P M; Santagostino, E; Peyvandi, F; Seuser, A; Mancuso, M E; Solimeno, L P

    2014-03-01

    The maintenance of a correct posture in haemophilic boys might contribute to prevent joint bleeds, chronic pain and dysfunction. This single-centre study was aimed at evaluating whether or not postural alterations are more common in haemophilic than in non-haemophilic boys and whether they are related to the orthopaedic status. Posture and balance were investigated in boys with severe/moderate haemophilia (cases) and in age-matched non-haemophilic peers (controls). Thirty-five cases (89% with haemophilia A: 74% with severe disease) were included in the study and compared with 57 controls. Posture was evaluated on digital pictures of anterior, lateral and posterior views of the habitual standing position. Balance was examined with a portable force platform with eyes open and closed. The trajectory of the total body centre of force (CoF) displacement over the platform was computed by multiple planes obtaining different measures: sway area, velocity, acceleration and body loads. The joint status of cases was assessed with the Haemophilia Joint Health Score. Cases were more disharmonic than controls (52% vs. 26% in controls; P = 0.04), swayed significantly less and more slowly than controls (P < 0.05 for several parameters of CoF displacement) revealing stiffness of the musculoskeletal system. However, they were able to maintain their stance within a similar sway area. Haemophilic boys have more postural disharmonies than non-haemophilic peers, hence a global evaluation of the orthopaedic status should include also balance and posture examination to identify early dysfunction and establish a tailored physical or rehabilitation programme.

  11. Gender affects sympathetic and hemodynamic response to postural stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, J. K.; Hogeman, C. S.; Khan, M.; Kimmerly, D. S.; Sinoway, L. I.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that differences in sympathetic reflex responses to head-up tilt (HUT) between males (n = 9) and females (n = 8) were associated with decrements in postural vasomotor responses in women. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography), heart rate, stroke volume (SV; Doppler), and blood pressure (Finapres) were measured during a progressive HUT protocol (5 min at each of supine, 20 degrees, 40 degrees, and 60 degrees ). MSNA and hemodynamic responses were also measured during the cold pressor test (CPT) to examine nonbaroreflex neurovascular control. SV was normalized to body surface area (SV(i)) to calculate the index of cardiac output (Q(i)), and total peripheral resistance (TPR). During HUT, heart rate increased more in females versus males (P < 0.001) and SV(i) and Q(i) decreased similarly in both groups. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased to a lesser extent in females versus males in the HUT (P < 0.01) but increases in TPR during HUT were similar. MSNA burst frequency was lower in females versus males in supine (P < 0.03) but increased similarly during HUT. Average amplitude/burst increased in 60 degrees HUT for males but not females. Both males and females demonstrated an increase in MAP as well as MSNA burst frequency, mean burst amplitude, and total MSNA during the CPT. However, compared with females, males demonstrated a greater neural response (DeltaTotal MSNA) due to a larger increase in mean burst amplitude (P < 0.05). Therefore, these data point to gender-specific autonomic responses to cardiovascular stress. The different MSNA response to postural stress between genders may contribute importantly to decrements in blood pressure control during HUT in females.

  12. Additional helmet and pack loading reduce situational awareness during the establishment of marksmanship posture.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jongil; Palmer, Christopher J; Busa, Michael A; Amado, Avelino; Rosado, Luis D; Ducharme, Scott W; Simon, Darnell; Van Emmerik, Richard E A

    2016-09-03

    The pickup of visual information is critical for controlling movement and maintaining situational awareness in dangerous situations. Altered coordination while wearing protective equipment may impact the likelihood of injury or death. This investigation examined the consequences of load magnitude and distribution on situational awareness, segmental coordination and head gaze in several protective equipment ensembles. Twelve soldiers stepped down onto force plates and were instructed to quickly and accurately identify visual information while establishing marksmanship posture in protective equipment. Time to discriminate visual information was extended when additional pack and helmet loads were added, with the small increase in helmet load having the largest effect. Greater head-leading and in-phase trunk-head coordination were found with lighter pack loads, while trunk-leading coordination increased and head gaze dynamics were more disrupted in heavier pack loads. Additional armour load in the vest had no consequences for Time to discriminate, coordination or head dynamics. This suggests that the addition of head borne load be carefully considered when integrating new technology and that up-armouring does not necessarily have negative consequences for marksmanship performance. Practitioner Summary: Understanding the trade-space between protection and reductions in task performance continue to challenge those developing personal protective equipment. These methods provide an approach that can help optimise equipment design and loading techniques by quantifying changes in task performance and the emergent coordination dynamics that underlie that performance.

  13. Postural Responses Following Space Flight and Ground Based Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofman, Igor S.; Reschke, Millard F.; Cerisano, Jody M.; Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Tomilovskaya, Elena V.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa B.; Bloomberg, Jacob B.

    2013-01-01

    With the transition from the Shuttle program to the International Space Station (ISS), the opportunity to fly sensorimotor experiments in a weightless environment has become increasingly more difficult to obtain. As a result, more investigations have turned to ground-based analogs as a way of evaluating an experiment's viability. The two primary analogs available to most investigators are 6deg head down bed rest (HDBR) and dry immersion (DI). For the time being, HDBR investigations have been associated with studies conducted in the United States while the Russians and several other European Union states have concentrated their efforts on using DI as the space flight analog of choice. While either model may be viable for cardiovascular, bone and other system changes, vestibular and sensorimotor investigators have retained serious reservations of either analog's potential to serve as a replacement for a true weightless environment. These reservations have merit, but it is worthwhile to consider that not all changes associated with sensorimotor function during space flight are the result of top-down modifications, but may also be due to the lack, or change, of appropriate support surfaces applying force to the bottom of the feet. To this end we have compared quiet stance postural responses between short duration Space Shuttle flights, long duration ISS flights and HDBR of varying duration. Using these three platforms, representing different modifications of support we investigated postural ataxia using a quiet stance model. Quiet stance was obtained by asking the subjects to stand upright on a force plate, eyes open, arms at the side of the body for three min. From the force plate we obtained average sway velocity in two axes as well as length of line (stabilogram). These parameters were then related to EMG activity recorded from the medial gastrocnemius and lateral tibialis. It is significant to note that postural ataxia measured as quiet stance shows analogous

  14. An OWAS-based analysis of nurses' working postures.

    PubMed

    Engels, J A; Landeweerd, J A; Kant, Y

    1994-05-01

    The working postures of Dutch nurses (n = 18) in an orthopaedic ward and a urology ward were observed using the Ovako Working posture Analysis System (OWAS). During observation, both working postures and activities were recorded. A specially developed computer program was used for data analysis. By means of this program, it was possible to calculate the working posture load for each activity and the contribution of a specific activity to the total working posture load. This study shows that some activities of the nurses in both wards were performed with poor working postures. In the orthopaedic (resp. urology) ward two (resp. one) out of 19 observed postures of parts of the body were classified as Action Category 2. Moreover, 20% (resp. 16%) of the so-called typical working postures was classified in Action Category 2. This suggests, that in both wards working postures that are slightly harmful to the musculoskeletal system, occur during a substantial part of the working day. Differences between both wards with respect to working posture load and time expenditure were determined. Activities causing the workload to fall into OWAS higher Action Categories were identified. The data show that poor working postures in the nursing profession not only occur during patient handling activities but also during tasks like 'administration'. Focusing on patient-handling (i.e., lifting patients) in order to determine the load on the musculoskeletal system would therefore lead to an underestimation of the total working posture load of nurses.

  15. Postural Control in Children: Implications for Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Sarah L.; Burtner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Based on a systems theory of motor control, reactive postural control (RPA) and anticipatory postural control (APA) in children are reviewed from several perspectives in order to develop an evidence-based intervention strategy for improving postural control in children with limitations in motor function. Research on development of postural…

  16. Development of the Coordination between Posture and Manual Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Jeffrey M.; Claxton, Laura J.; Keen, Rachel; Berthier, Neil E.; Riccio, Gary E.; Hamill, Joseph; Van Emmerik, Richard E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have suggested that proper postural control is essential for the development of reaching. However, little research has examined the development of the coordination between posture and manual control throughout childhood. We investigated the coordination between posture and manual control in children (7- and 10-year-olds) and adults during…

  17. Coupling of Head and Body Movement with Motion of the Audible Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Villard, Sebastien; Kim, ChungGon; Ito, Kiyohide; Bardy, Benoit G.

    2009-01-01

    The authors asked whether standing posture could be controlled relative to audible oscillation of the environment. Blindfolded sighted adults were exposed to acoustic flow in a moving room, and were asked to move so as to maintain a constant distance between their head and the room. Acoustic flow had direct (source) and indirect (reflected)…

  18. Heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B K; Kaiser, L; Maxwell, H S

    2008-08-01

    The etiologies for congenital bovine fetal anomalies can be divided into heritable, toxic, nutritional, and infectious categories. Although uncommon in most herds, inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection that inadvertently results in propagation of the defect. In some herds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Anomalous traits can affect animals in a range of ways, some being lethal or requiring euthanasia on humane grounds, others altering structure, function, or performance of affected animals. Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the potential for inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal characteristics. This review will discuss the morphologic characteristics, mode of inheritance, breeding lines affected, and the availability of genetic testing for selected heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

  19. Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

    2013-08-01

    Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication.

  20. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    PubMed

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  1. Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?

    PubMed

    Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-04-01

    Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (∼1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old.

  2. Dropped head syndrome and Systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rosato, Edoardo; Rossi, Carmelina; Salsano, Felice

    2009-05-01

    The prominent or isolated weakness of cervical extensor muscles is a relatively rare clinical sign. Commonly, this is known as "dropped-head syndrome". This abnormal flexion of the head may occur in a variety of neuromuscular diseases and in a few non-neurological disorders as well. Systemic sclerosis is a clinically heterogeneous disorder which affects small arteries, microvessels and connective tissue with the involvement of multiple organs such as lung, heart, kidney and gastrointestinal tract. There is no evidence in literature of association between dropped head syndrome and rheumatic diseases, particularly systemic sclerosis. The case we describe concerns a 74-year-old woman with dropped-head syndrome associated to Systemic sclerosis and pulmonary hypertension in absence of myositis signs.

  3. Coupling of fingertip somatosensory information to head and body sway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeka, J. J.; Schoner, G.; Dijkstra, T.; Ribeiro, P.; Lackner, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Light touch contact of a fingertip with a stationary surface can provide orientation information that enhances control of upright stance. Slight changes in contact force at the fingertip provide sensory cues about the direction of body sway, allowing attenuation of sway. In the present study, we asked to which extent somatosensory cues are part of the postural control system, that is, which sensory signal supports this coupling? We investigated postural control not only when the contact surface was stationary, but also when it was moving rhythmically (from 0.1 to 0.5 Hz). In doing so, we brought somatosensory cues from the hand into conflict with other parts of the postural control system. Our focus was the temporal relationship between body sway and the contact surface. Postural sway was highly coherent with contact surface motion. Head and body sway assumed the frequency of the moving contact surface at all test frequencies. To account for these results, a simple model was formulated by approximating the postural control system as a second-order linear dynamical system. The influence of the touch stimulus was captured as the difference between the velocity of the contact surface and the velocity of body sway, multiplied by a coupling constant. Comparison of empirical results (relative phase, coherence, and gain) with model predictions supports the hypothesis of coupling between body sway and touch cues through the velocity of the somatosensory stimulus at the fingertip. One subject, who perceived movement of the touch surface, demonstrated weaker coupling than other subjects, suggesting that cognitive mechanisms introduce flexibility into the postural control scheme.

  4. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  5. Convergent evidence for abnormal striatal synaptic plasticity in dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, David A.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Poizner, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Dystonia is a functionally disabling movement disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures. Although substantial recent progress has been made in identifying genetic factors, the pathophysiology of the disease remains a mystery. A provocative suggestion gaining broader acceptance is that some aspect of neural plasticity may be abnormal. There is also evidence that, at least in some forms of dystonia, sensorimotor “use” may be a contributing factor. Most empirical evidence of abnormal plasticity in dystonia comes from measures of sensorimotor cortical organization and physiology. However, the basal ganglia also play a critical role in sensorimotor function. Furthermore, the basal ganglia are prominently implicated in traditional models of dystonia, are the primary targets of stereotactic neurosurgical interventions, and provide a neural substrate for sensorimotor learning influenced by neuromodulators. Our working hypothesis is that abnormal plasticity in the basal ganglia is a critical link between the etiology and pathophysiology of dystonia. In this review we set up the background for this hypothesis by integrating a large body of disparate indirect evidence that dystonia may involve abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the striatum. After reviewing evidence implicating the striatum in dystonia, we focus on the influence of two neuromodulatory systems: dopamine and acetylcholine. For both of these neuromodulators, we first describe the evidence for abnormalities in dystonia and then the means by which it may influence striatal synaptic plasticity. Collectively, the evidence suggests that many different forms of dystonia may involve abnormal plasticity in the striatum. An improved understanding of these altered plastic processes would help inform our understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, and, given the role of the striatum in sensorimotor learning, provide a principled basis for designing therapies aimed at the dynamic processes

  6. [Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Delsol, G

    2010-11-01

    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities

  7. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nurwulan, Nurul Retno; Jiang, Bernard C.; Iridiastadi, Hardianto

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1) texting impaired postural stability, (2) the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3) performing texting is perceived to be more difficult. PMID:26230323

  8. Can Smartwatches Replace Smartphones for Posture Tracking?

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nemati, Ebrahim; VanderWall, Kristina; Flores-Rodriguez, Hector G.; Cai, Jun Yu Jacinta; Lucier, Jessica; Naeim, Arash; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a human posture tracking platform to identify the human postures of sitting, standing or lying down, based on a smartwatch. This work develops such a system as a proof-of-concept study to investigate a smartwatch’s ability to be used in future remote health monitoring systems and applications. This work validates the smartwatches’ ability to track the posture of users accurately in a laboratory setting while reducing the sampling rate to potentially improve battery life, the first steps in verifying that such a system would work in future clinical settings. The algorithm developed classifies the transitions between three posture states of sitting, standing and lying down, by identifying these transition movements, as well as other movements that might be mistaken for these transitions. The system is trained and developed on a Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch, and the algorithm was validated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation of 20 subjects. The system can identify the appropriate transitions at only 10 Hz with an F-score of 0.930, indicating its ability to effectively replace smart phones, if needed. PMID:26506354

  9. Evaluation of postural mechanisms under dynamic conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A stimulus delivery and data acquisition system for assessment of human posture was developed based on a digital computer and a translating platform. The movement of the platform acts to displace the subject's base of support while the computer tracks the corrections which are made by the subject to maintain balance. Various stimuli are used ranging from fast transients to sine waves.

  10. Body Posture Facilitates Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed potential facilitation of congruent body posture on access to and retention of autobiographical memories in younger and older adults. Response times were shorter when body positions during prompted retrieval of autobiographical events were similar to the body positions in the original events than when body position was incongruent.…

  11. Postural Determinants in the Blind. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Irwin M.; Murphy, Thomas J.

    The problem of malposture in the blind and its affect on orientation and travel skills was explored. A group of 45 students were enrolled in a standard 3-month mobility training program. Each student suffered a postural problem, some compounded by severe orthopedic and/or neurological deficit. All subjects were given complete orthopedic and…

  12. Posture Training for Special Needs Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Terrance N.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Educable mentally handicapped adolescents with and without additional health problems (N=24) participated in a three-month fitness intervention program. Pre- and post-measures revealed a high incidence of poor posture in both groups. Related topics discussed include subsequent biomechanical interventions, subjective symptomatology, and the need…

  13. Can smartwatches replace smartphones for posture tracking?

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nemati, Ebrahim; VanderWall, Kristina; Flores-Rodriguez, Hector G; Cai, Jun Yu Jacinta; Lucier, Jessica; Naeim, Arash; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-10-22

    This paper introduces a human posture tracking platform to identify the human postures of sitting, standing or lying down, based on a smartwatch. This work develops such a system as a proof-of-concept study to investigate a smartwatch's ability to be used in future remote health monitoring systems and applications. This work validates the smartwatches' ability to track the posture of users accurately in a laboratory setting while reducing the sampling rate to potentially improve battery life, the first steps in verifying that such a system would work in future clinical settings. The algorithm developed classifies the transitions between three posture states of sitting, standing and lying down, by identifying these transition movements, as well as other movements that might be mistaken for these transitions. The system is trained and developed on a Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch, and the algorithm was validated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation of 20 subjects. The system can identify the appropriate transitions at only 10 Hz with an F-score of 0.930, indicating its ability to effectively replace smart phones, if needed.

  14. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jonathan N; Mack, Kenneth J; Kuntz, Nancy L; Brands, Chad K; Porter, Coburn J; Fischer, Philip R

    2010-02-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome was defined in adult patients as an increase >30 beats per minute in heart rate of a symptomatic patient when moving from supine to upright position. Clinical signs may include postural tachycardia, headache, abdominal discomfort, dizziness/presyncope, nausea, and fatigue. The most common adolescent presentation involves teenagers within 1-3 years of their growth spurt who, after a period of inactivity from illness or injury, cannot return to normal activity levels because of symptoms induced by upright posture. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is complex and likely has numerous, concurrent pathophysiologic etiologies, presenting along a wide spectrum of potential symptoms. Nonpharmacologic treatment includes (1) increasing aerobic exercise, (2) lower-extremity strengthening, (3) increasing fluid/salt intake, (4) psychophysiologic training for management of pain/anxiety, and (5) family education. Pharmacologic treatment is recommended on a case-by-case basis, and can include beta-blocking agents to blunt orthostatic increases in heart rate, alpha-adrenergic agents to increase peripheral vascular resistance, mineralocorticoid agents to increase blood volume, and serotonin reuptake inhibitors. An interdisciplinary research approach may determine mechanistic root causes of symptoms, and is investigating novel management plans for affected patients.

  15. An analysis of the activity and muscle fatigue of the muscles around the neck under the three most frequent postures while using a smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Min-Ho; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the activity and fatigue of the splenius capitis and upper trapezius muscles, which are agonists to the muscles supporting the head, under the three postures most frequently adopted while using a smartphone. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 15 college students in their 20s. They formed a single group and had to adopt three different postures (maximum bending, middle bending, and neutral). While the 15 subjects maintained the postures, muscle activity and fatigue were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] Comparison of the muscle fatigue caused by each posture showed statistically significant differences for the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles. In addition, maintaining the maximum bending posture while using a smartphone resulted in higher levels of fatigue in the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles compared with those for the middle bending posture. [Conclusion] Therefore, this study suggests that individuals should bend their neck slightly when using a smartphone, rather than bending it too much, or keep their neck straight to reduce fatigue of the cervical erector muscles. PMID:27313393

  16. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  17. Control of posture during tasks representing common work-related postures - a reliability study.

    PubMed

    Mani, Ramakrishnan; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Sullivan, S John

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of control of posture using a task battery that represents work-related postural conditions is highly recommended for providing a comprehensive understanding of collective postural demands. However, dearth of evidence exists on the reliability of a task battery, thus precluding its use as an outcome measure in field research. This study investigated the intrasession reliability and systematic variation of force plate derived centre of pressure (COP) measures obtained during repeated performance of a task battery (lifting task, limits of stability and bipedal and unipedal stance). COP signals obtained during each task performance were processed to derive various time-domain COP measures. Statistical analyses revealed that 13 of the 19 COP measures displayed excellent relative (ICC(2,3) ≥ 0.75) and acceptable absolute reliability (SEM%: ≤ 10). Although COP measures displayed systematic variation, the differences were less or equal to the measurement error, except COP measures of unipedal stance and limits of stability. The chosen task battery is reliable and can be used for comprehensive evaluation of control of posture, in both field and laboratory research. Practitioner Summary: Repeated evaluation of multiple tasks together sequentially could introduce measurement variability. This study investigated intrasession reliability of a task battery representing common work-related postures. The chosen task battery was found to be reliable with acceptable measurement error and can be used in field research settings for evaluation of control of posture.

  18. The influence of somatosensory and muscular deficits on postural stabilization: Insights from an instrumented analysis of subjects affected by different types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Lencioni, Tiziana; Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Rabuffetti, Marco; Bovi, Gabriele; Calabrese, Daniela; Aiello, Alessia; Di Sipio, Enrica; Padua, Luca; Diverio, Manuela; Pareyson, Davide; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2015-08-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common hereditary neuromuscular disorder. CMT1 is primarily demyelinating, CMT2 is primarily axonal, and CMTX1 is characterized by both axonal and demyelinating abnormalities. We investigated the role of somatosensory and muscular deficits on quiet standing and postural stabilization in patients affected by different forms of CMT, comparing their performances with those of healthy subjects. Seventy-six CMT subjects (CMT1A, CMT2 and CMTX1) and 41 healthy controls were evaluated during a sit-to-stand transition and the subsequent quiet upright posture by means of a dynamometric platform. All CMT patients showed altered balance and postural stabilization compared to controls. Multivariate analysis showed that in CMT patients worsening of postural stabilization was related to vibration sense deficit and to dorsi-flexor's weakness, while quiet standing instability was related to the reduction of pinprick sensibility and to plantar-flexor's weakness. Our results show that specific sensory and muscular deficits play different roles in balance impairment of CMT patients, both during postural stabilization and in static posture. An accurate evaluation of residual sensory and muscular functions is therefore necessary to plan for the appropriate balance rehabilitation treatment for each patient, besides the CMT type.

  19. Influence of ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) haplotypes on nortriptyline pharmacokinetics and nortriptyline-induced postural hypotension in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Berit Packert; Roberts, Rebecca Lee; Vyas, Ritva; Bonke, Gitte; Jardine, David L; Begg, Evan James

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To investigate the influence of ABCB1 (1236-2677-3435) polymorphisms on nortriptyline pharmacokinetics and nortriptyline-induced postural hypotension in healthy volunteers. METHODS Genetic screening of 67 healthy volunteers identified eight CGC homozygotes and nine TTT homozygotes of ABCB1 (1236-2677-3435), who were administered a single dose of nortriptyline 25 mg. Plasma exposure of nortriptyline and its active metabolites, E- and Z-10-hydroxynortriptyline, was determined over 72 h. Heart rate and blood pressure responses to posture change (active standing and passive head-up tilt) were measured continuously using finger plethysmography. RESULTS There were no differences in plasma exposure between ABCB1 haplotype groups, as the geometric mean (95% CI) AUC(0,72 h) ratios were 0.98 (0.94, 1.03), 1.02 (0.96, 1.09) and 0.95 (0.80, 1.10) for nortriptyline, E- and Z-10-hydroxynortriptyline, respectively. The pre dose heart rate response to standing was greater in the TTT than CGC homozygotes (mean (95% CI) difference 7.4 (1.5, 13.4) beats min–1, P = 0.02). At tmax at 8 h post dose, nortriptyline increased the heart rate response to posture change in all subjects with mean (95% CI) Δ heart rate values of 7.4 (3.6, 11.3) beats min–1 on active standing (P = 0.0009) and 4.8 (2.0, 7.6) beats min–1 on head-up tilt (P = 0.002), but no difference was observed between haplotype groups. There was no difference in blood pressure response to posture change in either group. CONCLUSION The association between ABCB1 polymorphisms and nortriptyline-induced postural hypotension found in the previous study could not be confirmed. The results raise the possibility of a predisposition in heart rate response in the TTT homozygotes rather than an effect of nortriptyline. PMID:21999196

  20. The effect of backpack weight on the standing posture and balance of schoolgirls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Chow, Daniel H K; Kwok, Monica L Y; Cheng, Jack C Y; Lao, Miko L M; Holmes, Andrew D; Au-Yang, Alexander; Yao, Fiona Y D; Wong, M S

    2006-10-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the effect of carrying a backpack on adolescent posture and balance, but the effect of backpack loading combined with other factors affecting balance, such as adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), has not been determined. This study examines the effects of backpack load on the posture and balance of schoolgirls with AIS and normal controls. The standing posture of 26 schoolgirls with mild AIS (mean age 13, Cobb angle 10-25 degrees ) and 20 age-matched normal schoolgirls were recorded without a backpack and while carrying a standard dual-strap backpack loaded at 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% of the subject's bodyweight (BW). Kinematics of the pelvis, trunk and head were recorded using a motion analysis system and centre of pressure (COP) data were recorded using a force platform. Reliable COP data could only be derived for 13 of the subjects with AIS. Increasing backpack load causes a significantly increased flexion of the trunk in relation to the pelvis and extension of the head in relation to the trunk, as well as increased antero-posterior range of COP motion. While backpack load appears to affect balance predominantly in the antero-posterior direction, differences between groups were more evident in the medio-lateral direction, with AIS subjects showing poor balance in this direction. Overall, carrying a backpack causes similar sagittal plane changes in posture and balance in both normal and AIS groups. Load size or subject group did not influence balance, but the additive effect of backpack carrying and AIS on postural control alters the risk of fall in this population. Therefore, load limit recommendations based on normal subjects should not be applicable to subjects with AIS.

  1. Normative values for the Foot Posture Index

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Anthony C; Crane, Yvonne Z; Menz, Hylton B

    2008-01-01

    Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI) is a validated method for quantifying standing foot posture, and is being used in a variety of clinical settings. There have however, been no normative data available to date for comparison and reference. This study aimed to establish normative FPI reference values. Methods Studies reporting FPI data were identified by searching online databases. Nine authors contributed anonymised versions of their original datasets comprising 1648 individual observations. The datasets included information relating to centre, age, gender, pathology (if relevant), FPI scores and body mass index (BMI) where available. FPI total scores were transformed to interval logit scores as per the Rasch model and normal ranges were defined. Comparisons between groups employed t-tests or ANOVA models as appropriate and data were explored descriptively and graphically. Results The main analysis based on a normal healthy population (n = 619) confirmed that a slightly pronated foot posture is the normal position at rest (mean back transformed FPI raw score = +4). A 'U' shaped relationship existed for age, with minors and older adults exhibiting significantly higher FPI scores than the general adult population (F = 51.07, p < 0.001). There was no difference between the FPI scores of males and females (2.3 versus 2.5; t = -1.44, p = 0.149). No relationship was found between the FPI and BMI. Systematic differences from the adult normals were confirmed in patients with neurogenic and idiopathic cavus (F = 216.981, p < 0.001), indicating some sensitivity of the instrument to detect a posturally pathological population. Conclusion A set of population norms for children, adults and older people have been derived from a large sample. Foot posture is related to age and the presence of pathology, but not influenced by gender or BMI. The normative values identified may assist in classifying foot type for the purpose of research and clinical decision making. PMID

  2. Postural control in women with breast hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Alessandra Ferreira; Raggi, Gabriela Cristina; dos Santos Cardoso Sá, Cristina; Costa, Márcio Paulino; de Lima, Jonas Eraldo; Tanaka, Clarice

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The consequences of breast hypertrophy have been described based on the alteration of body mass distribution, leading to an impact on psychological and physical aspects. The principles of motor control suggest that breast hypertrophy can lead to sensorimotor alterations and the impairment of body balance due to postural misalignment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the postural control of women with breast hypertrophy under different sensory information conditions. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 14 women with breast hypertrophy and 14 without breast hypertrophy, and the mean ages of the groups were 39±15 years and 39±16 years, respectively. A force platform was used to assess the sensory systems that contribute to postural control: somatosensory, visual and vestibular. Four postural conditions were sequentially tested: eyes open and fixed platform, eyes closed and fixed platform, eyes open and mobile platform, and eyes closed and mobile platform. The data were processed, and variables related to the center of pressure were analyzed for each condition. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the conditions between the groups for the area of center of pressure displacement and the velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. The alpha level error was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Women with breast hypertrophy presented an area that was significantly higher for three out of four conditions and a higher velocity of center of pressure displacement in the anterior-posterior direction under two conditions: eyes open and mobile platform and eyes closed and mobile platform. CONCLUSIONS: Women with breast hypertrophy have altered postural control, which was demonstrated by the higher area and velocity of center of pressure displacement. PMID:22892919

  3. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  4. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Unintentional Interpersonal Synchronization Represented as a Reciprocal Visuo-Postural Feedback System: A Multivariate Autoregressive Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Shuntaro; Hirotani, Masako; Koike, Takahiko; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Takahashi, Haruka K.; Hashiguchi, Maho; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    People’s behaviors synchronize. It is difficult, however, to determine whether synchronized behaviors occur in a mutual direction—two individuals influencing one another—or in one direction—one individual leading the other, and what the underlying mechanism for synchronization is. To answer these questions, we hypothesized a non-leader-follower postural sway synchronization, caused by a reciprocal visuo-postural feedback system operating on pairs of individuals, and tested that hypothesis both experimentally and via simulation. In the behavioral experiment, 22 participant pairs stood face to face either 20 or 70 cm away from each other wearing glasses with or without vision blocking lenses. The existence and direction of visual information exchanged between pairs of participants were systematically manipulated. The time series data for the postural sway of these pairs were recorded and analyzed with cross correlation and causality. Results of cross correlation showed that postural sway of paired participants was synchronized, with a shorter time lag when participant pairs could see one another’s head motion than when one of the participants was blindfolded. In addition, there was less of a time lag in the observed synchronization when the distance between participant pairs was smaller. As for the causality analysis, noise contribution ratio (NCR), the measure of influence using a multivariate autoregressive model, was also computed to identify the degree to which one’s postural sway is explained by that of the other’s and how visual information (sighted vs. blindfolded) interacts with paired participants’ postural sway. It was found that for synchronization to take place, it is crucial that paired participants be sighted and exert equal influence on one another by simultaneously exchanging visual information. Furthermore, a simulation for the proposed system with a wider range of visual input showed a pattern of results similar to the behavioral

  6. Unintentional Interpersonal Synchronization Represented as a Reciprocal Visuo-Postural Feedback System: A Multivariate Autoregressive Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Shuntaro; Hirotani, Masako; Koike, Takahiko; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Takahashi, Haruka K; Hashiguchi, Maho; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    People's behaviors synchronize. It is difficult, however, to determine whether synchronized behaviors occur in a mutual direction--two individuals influencing one another--or in one direction--one individual leading the other, and what the underlying mechanism for synchronization is. To answer these questions, we hypothesized a non-leader-follower postural sway synchronization, caused by a reciprocal visuo-postural feedback system operating on pairs of individuals, and tested that hypothesis both experimentally and via simulation. In the behavioral experiment, 22 participant pairs stood face to face either 20 or 70 cm away from each other wearing glasses with or without vision blocking lenses. The existence and direction of visual information exchanged between pairs of participants were systematically manipulated. The time series data for the postural sway of these pairs were recorded and analyzed with cross correlation and causality. Results of cross correlation showed that postural sway of paired participants was synchronized, with a shorter time lag when participant pairs could see one another's head motion than when one of the participants was blindfolded. In addition, there was less of a time lag in the observed synchronization when the distance between participant pairs was smaller. As for the causality analysis, noise contribution ratio (NCR), the measure of influence using a multivariate autoregressive model, was also computed to identify the degree to which one's postural sway is explained by that of the other's and how visual information (sighted vs. blindfolded) interacts with paired participants' postural sway. It was found that for synchronization to take place, it is crucial that paired participants be sighted and exert equal influence on one another by simultaneously exchanging visual information. Furthermore, a simulation for the proposed system with a wider range of visual input showed a pattern of results similar to the behavioral results.

  7. Effect of visual distortion on postural balance in a full immersion stereoscopic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faubert, Jocelyn; Allard, Remy

    2004-05-01

    This study attempted to determine the influence of non-linear visual movements on our capacity to maintain postural control. An 8x8x8 foot CAVE immersive virtual environment was used. Body sway recordings were obtained for both head and lower back (lumbar 2-3) positions. The subjects were presented with visual stimuli for periods of 62.5 seconds. Subjects were asked to stand still on one foot while viewing stimuli consisting of multiplied sine waves generating movement undulation of a textured surface (waves moving in checkerboard pattern). Three wave amplitudes were tested: 4 feet, 2 feet, and 1 foot. Two viewing conditions were also used; observers looking at 36 inches in front of their feet; observers looking at a distance near the horizon. The results were compiled using an instability index and the data showed a profound and consistent effect of visual disturbances on postural balance in particular for the x (side-to-side) movement. We have demonstrated that non-linear visual distortions similar to those generated by progressive ophthalmic lenses of the kind used for presbyopia corrections, can generate significant postural instability. This instability is particularly evident for the side-to-side body movement and is most evident for the near viewing condition.

  8. Assessment of posture and joint movements of the upper limbs of patients after mastectomy and lymphadenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Cinira Assad Simão; Saad, Marcelo; Perez, Maria del Carmen Janeiro; Miranda, Fausto

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate alterations in posture and range of motion of the upper limbs in women after mastectomy and lymphadenectomy, submitted to radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment. Methods: Two groups were evaluated: 16 post-mastectomy women with lymphedema of the upper limb and 14 post-mastectomy women without lymphedema. Patients were submitted to analysis made by software, one for posture and the other to measure ranges of movement of the shoulder, elbow, and wrists. The results obtained were compared between the right and left sides, and operated and non-operated sides, and then were submitted to statistical tests. Results: Both groups presented with anteriorization of the trunk. The women with lymphedema had head rotation to the right, protrusion of the left shoulder, and trunk inclination angle smaller on the operated side, besides bilateral elevation of the scapula when compared to the group with no lymphedema. Changes in range of motion were also smaller on the operated side in terms of flexion, abduction, and external rotation of the shoulder for all women, and for those with lymphedema, elbow extension and wrist flexion had a smaller range of motion. Conclusion: Women submitted to mastectomy presented with asymmetries and modifications in posture, and lymphedema seemed to worsen this condition. Additionally, they had deficits in range of motion in the shoulders on the operated side. Women with lymphedema also showed deficits in the elbows and wrist. PMID:24488379

  9. The significance of intraocular pressure elevation during sleep-related postures.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2014-05-01

    Intraocular pressure and its fluctuations are associated with the development and progression of glaucoma. This review examines the potential for sleep-related intraocular pressure elevations to contribute to the onset and progression of glaucoma. Also considered is the potential for patient education and appropriate changes in behaviour as a means of reducing exposure to elevated intraocular pressure. A PubMed search using the combination key words 'glaucoma and sleep' was conducted. Information was taken from representative articles from the 187 yielded from the search. Additional papers were found after accessing references in selected papers. Several studies have indicated an association between the progression of glaucoma and both lateral decubitus (side sleep) and supine sleep positions. Evidence that prone sleep positions could raise intraocular pressure to high levels suggests a similar if not stronger association. Intraocular pressure elevation and progression of glaucoma associated with sleep positions suggest that there are similar risks of progression associated with sleep-related body postures adopted during non-sleep activities, such as reading, watching television and sun-bathing. Posture-related management of patients with glaucoma, which is intended to reduce the risk or degree of progression may include the use of specially designed pillows, bed-head elevation and recommendations to avoid postures which induce higher intraocular pressure.

  10. Neck and shoulder muscle activity during standardized work-related postural tasks.

    PubMed

    Ng, D; McNee, C; Kieser, J; Farella, M

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the activity levels of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and upper trapezius muscle during static postures under controlled and standardized conditions, and to determine whether the muscle activity differed between sexes. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded unilaterally from the sternocleidomastoid and upper trapezius muscle in 17 participants whilst they were performing various postural tasks. EMG amplitude was measured by the root mean square values of the raw signals and normalized to peak maximum contractile values for each muscle (%MVC). The intensity of muscle activity was ranked as light (<3%MVC), moderate (3%MVC ≤ EMG ≤ 8%MVC), and substantial (>8%MVC). During most tasks the two muscles contracted light to moderately. Head leaning and shoulder shrugging postures yielded substantial muscle activity in both muscles. Muscle activity did not differ significantly between male and female participants (F = 3.1; p = 0.078). Our findings provided normative values, which will enhance future studies of muscle activity during work in a natural, unrestrained environment.

  11. A computational approach to predict pulse transit time variations during postural change.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel

    2007-09-01

    The human autonomic nervous system modulates blood pressure (BP) and heart rate in order to maintain homeostasis. Present techniques that monitor BP may cause discomforts to children. Pulse transit time change (DeltaPTT) is known to be inversely correlated to BP change. In this study, a mathematical model using only a few empirical parameters and the measured lower limb vascular path length is introduced to estimate DeltaPTT when a different posture is adopted. To assess the reliability of the model, 23 healthy children aged 8.4 +/- 2.3 years were recruited to adopt the sitting and supine position at discrete intervals. PTT measurements were obtained from their toe with respect to an ECG for both postures. The results showed that there was significant correlation between the model and measured DeltaPTT (P < 0.05; R(2) = 0.813). The findings herein suggest that this simple yet practical model can have the accuracy to estimate the DeltaPTT value. Moreover, it does not require the use of an ECG or pulse oximeter in its computation. Hence, it can provide a rapid prediction before a child adopts a postural change. This may be potentially useful for detection of children with vascular abnormalities at their lower limbs.

  12. Diabetic foot and exercise therapy: step by step the role of rigid posture and biomechanics treatment.

    PubMed

    Francia, Piergiorgio; Gulisano, Massimo; Anichini, Roberto; Seghieri, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Lower extremity ulcers represent a serious and costly complication of diabetes mellitus. Many factors contribute to the development of diabetic foot. Peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are the main causes of foot ulceration and contribute in turn to the growth of additional risk factors such as limited joint mobility, muscular alterations and foot deformities. Moreover, a deficit of balance, posture and biomechanics can be present, in particular in patients at high risk for ulceration. The result of this process may be the development of a vicious cycle which leads to abnormal distribution of the foot's plantar pressures in static and dynamic postural conditions. This review shows that some of these risk factors significantly improve after a few weeks of exercise therapy (ET) intervention. Accordingly it has been suggested that ET can be an important weapon in the prevention of foot ulcer. The aim of ET can relate to one or more alterations typically found in diabetic patients, although greater attention should be paid to the evaluation and possible correction of body balance, rigid posture and biomechanics. Some of the most important limitations of ET are difficult access to therapy, patient compliance and the transitoriness of the results if the training stops. Many proposals have been made to overcome such limitations. In particular, it is important that specialized centers offer the opportunity to participate in ET and during the treatment the team should work to change the patient's lifestyle by improving the execution of appropriate daily physical activity.

  13. Tremor modulation in patients with Parkinson's disease compared to healthy counterparts during loaded postural holding.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ing-Shiou; Lin, Chou-Ching K; Wu, Pei-Shan

    2009-12-01

    Through examining tremor dynamics, the study sought to investigate the effects of load characteristics upon control strategies in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) during postural holding. Eleven untreated patients and eleven healthy adults conducted a static pointing task with an outstretched arm, with a manipulated load of 100 g on the index finger. Oscillatory activities in the upper limb were contrasted between the unloaded and loaded conditions. The results showed that PD patients demonstrated abnormal modulation of tremor amplitude in the finger, hand, and upper arm in the opposing load condition. When the load was applied, the PD patients presented a nearly opposite pattern of tremor coupling between limb segments, contrary to the normal release and enhancement of tremor coupling in the finger-hand and hand-forearm complexes, respectively. Principal component analysis suggested that normal postural tremors could be explained by a load-dependent component that had high communality with tremors of the distal segments. In contrast, major principal components of PD tremor were invariant to load addition. Multi-segment tremors in PD were atypically organized during loaded postural holding, signifying that coordinative control of the upper limb in the patients was impaired in the absence of exploitation of a germane distal strategy against inertial perturbation.

  14. Dizziness following head injury: a neuro-otological study.

    PubMed

    Davies, R A; Luxon, L M

    1995-03-01

    Dizziness is a frequent and debilitating complications of head injury and accounts for increasing numbers of medico-legal claims. A detailed neuro-otological study was carried out from the records of 100 patients with post-traumatic dizziness to explore the neuro-otological basis of their symptoms: 50 patients presenting for medico-legal purposes (group I) and 50 presenting for management of their vestibular symptoms (group II). The two groups showed a similar sex distribution, a similar range of causes of head injury and similar severity of head injury (72 minor, 24 moderate and 4 severe). Of the 100, 88 showed at least one audio-vestibular abnormality on testing. Vertigo of the benign positional paroxysmal type was the commonest vestibular diagnosis in both groups (61/100), and only 8 patients showed central vestibular abnormalities. Fifty-three patients had audiometric abnormalities attributable to the head injury, the commonest of which was a high-tone sensorineural hearing loss. There was no significant difference in the incidence of any of the abnormalities in the medico-legal group (group I) when compared with the symptom management group (group II). The results provide strong evidence for an organic basis to recurring dizziness after head injury, whether or not a claim for compensation is pending, and emphasize the need for specialist neuro-otological investigation if abnormalities are to be identified and managed correctly.

  15. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

  16. Effect of simulated weightlessness on the postural response of microvascular cutaneous blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aratow, M.; Hargens, A. R.; Arnaud, S. B.; Meyer, J.-U.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of simulated weightlessness (1 week of bed rest) on the response of cutaneous microcirculatory blood flow to postural changes was investigated by measuring rates of the cutaneous blood flow in the central forehead and in the dorsum of the left foot in subjects who were tested in -6 deg head-down tilt (HDT) and 60-deg head-up tilt (HUT) before and after the week of bed rest. It was found that, when the subjects were moved from HUT to HDT before the bed rest period, the forehead cutaneous blood flow increased (in comparison to no-tilt baseline), due to increased arterial pressure, by about 26 percent, and that the response was the same on the first and the second day after 1 week of bed rest. The cutaneous blood flow in the dorsum of the foot decreased by about 46 percent in response to tilting from HDT to HUT both before and after bedrest.

  17. Determining suitable dimensions for dairy goat feeding places by evaluating body posture and feeding reach.

    PubMed

    Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2017-02-01

    Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study. Goats were tested individually in an experimental feeding stall that allowed the height difference between the feed table, the standing area of the forelegs, and a feeding area step (difference in height between forelegs and hind legs) to be varied. The goats accessed the feed table via a palisade feeding barrier. The feed table was equipped with recesses at varying distances to the feeding barrier (5-55 cm in 5-cm steps) at angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° (feeding angle), which were filled with the goats' preferred food. In 18 trials, balanced for order across animals, each animal underwent all possible combinations of feeding area step (3 levels: 0, 10, and 20 cm) and of difference in height between feed table and standing area of forelegs (6 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm). The minimum and maximum reach at which the animals could reach feed on the table with a relaxed body posture was determined for each combination. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. The animals were able to feed with a relaxed posture when the feed table was at least 10 cm higher than the standing height of the goats' forelegs. Larger goats achieved smaller minimum reaches and minimum reach increased if the goats' head and neck were angled. Maximum reach increased with increasing height at withers and height of the feed table. The presence of a feeding area step had no influence on minimum and

  18. Clinical abnormalities in working donkeys and their associations with behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Regan (nee Ashley), F. H.; Hockenhull, J.; Pritchard, J. C.; Waterman-Pearson, A. E.; Whay, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Introductions Working donkeys are at risk of developing multiple, acute and chronic health problems. The ability to recognise and assess pain in donkeys associated with these health problems is important for people responsible for their care and treatment, including owners and veterinary or animal health workers. Aims and objectives The aims of this study were firstly to quantify the prevalence of a range of clinical abnormalities within a sample of working donkeys; and secondly to find out whether these abnormalities were associated with potential behavioural indicators of pain. Materials and methods One hundred and thirty-three entire male adult working donkeys were observed for ten minutes before and after a one-hour rest period. Using an ethogram developed and refined in associated studies, posture and event behaviours were recorded by a single observer. The health of each donkey was then assessed by a veterinarian for specific clinical abnormalities. Results Working donkeys have a high prevalence of clinical abnormalities and a number of behaviours are associated with these. Significant associations were found between observed behaviours and systemic, ocular and limb-related clinical abnormalities. Cumulative clinical scores for limb-related problems were associated with a higher frequency of leg trembling, knuckling of the forelimb, leg-lifting and weight-shifting behaviours (all R≥0.4; P<0.001) and with a lower frequency of weight-bearing evenly on all four feet (R=-0.458; P<0.001). Conclusions The specific behaviour changes associated with clinical abnormalities identified in this study, together with general changes in demeanour identified in related studies, may be useful in assessing the presence and severity of pain in working donkeys and their response to medical and palliative interventions. PMID:26392903

  19. [Walking abnormalities in children].

    PubMed

    Segawa, Masaya

    2010-11-01

    Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional

  20. Relationship between Postural Sway and Dynamic Balance in Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kihun; Lee, Kyoungsuk; Lee, Byungjoon; Lee, Hwangjae; Lee, Wanhee

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between postural sway and dynamic balance in post stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty-one stroke patients (20 men and 11 women; age 64.25 years; stroke duration 12.70 months; MMSE-K score 26.35) participated in this study. [Methods] This study applied a cross-sectional design. A Good Balance system was used for measurement of the postural sway velocity (anteroposterior and mediolateral) and velocity moment of subjects under the eyes open and eyes closed conditions in a standing posture. The postural sway of subjects was measured under two surface conditions (stable and unstable surfaces). [Results] On the unstable surface (foam), no significant correlation was observed between postural sway and dynamic balance except for the berg balance scale (BBS) score and anteroposterior postural sway velocity under the eyes open condition, anteroposterior postural sway velocity under the eyes closed condition, and postural sway velocity moment. In addition, in the stable condition, no significant correlation was observed between postural sway and dynamic balance. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that a decrease in postural sway does not necessarily reflect improvement of dynamic balance ability. We believe that this finding may be useful in balance rehabilitation for prevention of falls after a stroke.

  1. Photogrammetry as a tool for the postural evaluation of the spine: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Furlanetto, Tássia Silveira; Sedrez, Juliana Adami; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the use of photogrammetry and identify the mathematical procedures applied when evaluating spinal posture. METHODS: A systematic search using keywords was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Science and Medicine® databases. The following inclusion criteria adopted were: (1) the use of photogrammetry as a method to evaluate spinal posture; (2) evaluations of spinal curvature in the sagittal and/or frontal plane; (3) studies published within the last three decades; and (4) written entirely in English. The exclusion criteria were: (1) studies which objective involved the verification of some aspect of validation of instruments; (2) studies published as abstracts and those published in scientific events; and (3) studies using evaluation of the anteriorization of the head to determine the angular positioning of the cervical spine. The articles in this review were included and evaluated for their methodological quality, based on the Downs and Black scale, by two independent reviewers. RESULTS: Initially, 1758 articles were found, 76 of which were included upon reading the full texts and 29 were included in accordance with the predetermined criteria. In addition, after analyzing the references in those articles, a further six articles were selected, so that 35 articles were included in this review. This systematic review revealed that the photogrammetry has been using in observational studies. Furthermore, it was also found that, although the data collection methodologies are similar across the studies, in relation to aspects of data analysis, the methodologies are very different, especially regarding the mathematical routines employed to support different postural evaluation software. CONCLUSION: With photogrammetry, the aim of the assessment, whether it is for clinical, research or collective health purposes, must be considered when choosing which protocol to use to evaluate spinal posture. PMID:26925386

  2. Posture-independent sensorimotor analysis of inter-hemispheric receptor asymmetries in neostriatum.

    PubMed

    Schallert, T; Upchurch, M; Wilcox, R E; Vaughn, D M

    1983-05-01

    Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons are thought to be critically important for somato-sensorimotor behavior. Following unilateral irreversible elimination of these neurons, an animal shows an ipsiversive postural bias and permanently fails to orient its head toward tactile stimuli placed on the contralateral side of the body. In response to apomorphine, a dopamine agonist, these rats display contraversive circling. This effect is thought to reflect denervation-induced proliferation of dopamine receptors in the ipsilateral striatum. We have developed a sensitive procedure that measures sensorimotor function independent of postural and circling biases. We record the latencies to remove small pieces of adhesive stimuli placed onto the snout or radial surface of the forelimbs. The stimuli are placed symmetrically and simultaneously, which is analogous to tactile-extinction procedures used clinically. In the first study we found that rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced lesions of the nigrostriatal pathway showed a contralateral sensorimotor bias in response to doses of apomorphine below those necessary to produce contraversive circling. In a second study, unilateral striatal microinjections of kainic acid (KA) were used to destroy the neurons on which the postsynaptic dopaminergic receptors of the nigrostriatal system are contained. Compared to 6-OHDA, KA produced unexpected results in standard orientation tests. None of the KA-treated rats showed contralateral neglect, and some even showed ipsilateral deficits. However, the standard orientation tests are confounded by postural asymmetries, which were irregular in the KA-treated group. Using again the posture-independent sensorimotor procedure, we found that all KA-treated rats, like the 6-OHDA-treated rats, uniformly displayed ipsilateral sensorimotor biases. Sensorimotor function relating to inter-striatal asymmetries may be more specifically assessed with the bilateral-adhesive tests.

  3. A photographic method for multi-plane assessment of adolescent posture.

    PubMed

    Puglisi, Filadelfio; Donati, Paolo; Marini, Mirca; Romeo, Loris; Scidone, Stefano; Ferrari, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To date there have been no photographic methods reported for assessing the standing postural alignment in a manner that can be used in large scale populations. The purpose of this study was to describe a photographic, multi-plane postural measurement method in a pilot group of subjects in a school setting. A total of 83 healthy male adolescents, volunteered for the study, were photographed. The mean age was 14.5 +/- 0.7 years (range 14-16). The mean height was 170.7 +/- 3.5 cm, (range 155-187), and the mean weight was 63.2 +/- 13.9 kg (range 37-110). During procedure, subjects stood on a platform, with specific markers placed on landmarks that could be identified photographically. Photography was accomplished from above, below, each side, and front and back. These six photographs permit views to be projected onto the six sides of an ideal parallelepiped enclosing the body. Five angles were calculated and reported to describe the alignments of the head, shoulders, torso, and pelvis. As expected the means of each of the five angles were small, the absolute value varying from 0 to 7 degrees. This paper describes the results of a simple, practical, and effective way to gather data concerning standing postural alignment in adolescents using a photographic technique. This technique will be used to form a normative database by large-scale studies. Using this approach, a number of angles can be calculated and eventually models can be developed, relating these angles to sitting posture measurements and to symptoms.

  4. Cerebrovascular regulation in the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Novak, V.; Spies, J. M.; Novak, P.; Petty, G. W.

    1999-01-01

    Patients with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) have symptoms of orthostatic intolerance despite having a normal orthostatic blood pressure (BP), which suggests some impairment of cerebrovascular regulation. Cerebrovascular autoregulation refers to the maintenance of normal cerebral blood flow in spite of changing BP. Mechanisms of autoregulation include myogenic, metabolic and neurogenic vasoregulation. Beat-to-beat recording of blood-flow velocity (BFV) is possible using transcranial Doppler imaging. It is possible to evaluate autoregulation by regressing deltaBFV to deltaBP during head-up tilt. A number of dynamic methods, relating deltaBFV to deltaBP during sudden induced changes in BP by occluding then releasing peripheral arterial flow or by the Valsalva maneuver. The deltaBFV to deltaBP provides an index of autoregulation. In orthostatic hypotension, the autoregulated range is typically expanded. In contrast, paradoxical vasoconstriction occurs in POTS because of an increased depth of respiration, resulting in hypocapnic cerebrovascular constriction, and impaired autoregulation.

  5. Correlation between occlusion and cervical posture in patients with bruxism.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Guilherme Manna; Tosato, Juliana de Paiva; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Ap

    2006-08-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate head and neck posture in the rest position of patients with bruxism and patients without temporomandibular disorder signs or symptoms to further relate them with Angle's class of malocclusion. Fifty-six volunteers participated in this study, ages 18 to 27 years with an average age of 22.5 years. They were divided into 2 groups: Group B--28 subjects with parafunctions (teeth grinding or clenching); and Group C--28 subjects without parafunctional habits (control group). All participants were photographed, and their pictures were analyzed and compared with the software Alcimagem (Instrumental Concept and Movement Analysis Laboratory, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil). The results demonstrated that variation of angular values did not present statistical difference for the studied groups. Regarding Angle's class of malocclusion, class I was predominant in Group C, and classes II and III were predominant in Group B. The mental-sternal angle calculated did not present statistical significance between the groups; however, there was a greater variation between the smaller angle and the higher angle in Group B, contrary to Group C.

  6. Obesity Impact on the Attentional Cost for Controlling Posture

    PubMed Central

    Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste; Olivier, Isabelle; Promayon, Emmanuel; Nougier, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of obesity on attentional resources allocated to postural control in seating and unipedal standing. Methods Ten non obese adults (BMI = 22.4±1.3, age = 42.4±15.1) and 10 obese adult patients (BMI = 35.2±2.8, age = 46.2±19.6) maintained postural stability on a force platform in two postural tasks (seated and unipedal). The two postural tasks were performed (1) alone and (2) in a dual-task paradigm in combination with an auditory reaction time task (RT). Performing the RT task together with the postural one was supposed to require some attentional resources that allowed estimating the attentional cost of postural control. 4 trials were performed in each condition for a total of 16 trials. Findings (1) Whereas seated non obese and obese patients exhibited similar centre of foot pressure oscillations (CoP), in the unipedal stance only obese patients strongly increased their CoP sway in comparison to controls. (2) Whatever the postural task, the additional RT task did not affect postural stability. (3) Seated, RT did not differ between the two groups. (4) RT strongly increased between the two postural conditions in the obese patients only, suggesting that body schema and the use of internal models was altered with obesity. Interpretation Obese patients needed more attentional resources to control postural stability during unipedal stance than non obese participants. This was not the case in a more simple posture such as seating. To reduce the risk of fall as indicated by the critical values of CoP displacement, obese patients must dedicate a strong large part of their attentional resources to postural control, to the detriment of non-postural events. Obese patients were not able to easily perform multitasking as healthy adults do, reflecting weakened psycho-motor abilities. PMID:21187914

  7. The effect of a Stroop-like task on postural control in dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Bui-Quoc, Emmanuel; Gerard, Christophe-Loic

    2013-01-01

    The influence of a secondary task on concurrent postural control was explored in twenty-one dyslexic children (mean age: 10.4 ± 0.3 years). Data were compared with twenty age-matched non-dyslexic children. As a secondary task, a modified Stroop test was used, in which words were replaced with pictures of fruits. The postural control of children was recorded in standard Romberg condition as the children were asked to name the colour of fruits appearing consecutively on a computer screen. Two conditions were tested: a congruent condition, in which the fruit was drawn in its natural ripe colour, and a non-congruent colour condition (NC), in which the fruit was drawn in three abnormal colours. A fixating condition was used as baseline. We analyzed the surface, length and mean speed of the center of pressure and measured the number of correct responses in the Stroop-like tasks. Dyslexic children were seen to be significantly more unstable than non-dyslexic ones. For both groups of children, the secondary task significantly increased postural instability in comparison with the fixating condition. The number of correct responses in the modified Stroop task was significantly higher in the non-dyslexic than in the dyslexic group. The postural instability observed in dyslexic children is in line with the cerebellar hypothesis and supports the idea of a deficit in automatic performance in such children. Furthermore, in accordance with cross domain competition model, our findings show that attentional resources are used to a greater extent by the secondary task than in controlling body stability.

  8. Does Postural Rigidity Decrease during REM Sleep without Atonia in Parkinson Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Arnaldi, Dario; Latimier, Alice; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; De Carli, Fabrizio; Vidailhet, Marie; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Rigidity is a muscle hypertonia typical of Parkinson disease (PD), whereas rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by abnormally increased muscle tone during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia) and enacting dream behaviors. Because movements are not bradykinetic during RBD in patients with PD, we investigated whether the background, wake postural rigidity is attenuated during REM sleep without atonia, in absence of movement. Methods: The amplitude of levator menti (postural muscle) electromyographic activity during relaxed evening wakefulness (considered as reference) and sleep (N2, N3, atonic REM sleep, and quiet REM sleep without atonia) was measured in 20 patients with PD (with and without RBD), 10 patients with idiopathic RBD patients and 10 healthy subjects. Results: The chin tone amplitude progressively decreased from wake to N2, N3, and atonic REM sleep in the four groups, but the highest amplitude was observed in PD patients with RBD during atonic REM sleep. Furthermore, chin muscle tone amplitude did not attenuate from wake to REM sleep without atonia in patients with both PD and RBD but dramatically attenuated (by 40% on average) in patients with idiopathic RBD. Conclusions: The high amplitude of chin muscle tone in PD with RBD (but not in idiopathic RBD) during REM sleep with and without atonia suggests that both PD-related hypertonia and RBD-related enhanced muscle tone coexist during REM sleep, together affecting chin muscle tone. Consequently, some rapid RBD movements likely start against a rigid postural tone. Citation: Arnaldi D, Latimier A, Leu-Semenescu S, De Carli F, Vidailhet M, Arnulf I. Does postural rigidity decrease during REM sleep without atonia in Parkinson disease? J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(6):839–847. PMID:26857056

  9. Verticality Perceptions Associate with Postural Control and Functionality in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Baggio, Jussara A. O.; Mazin, Suleimy S. C.; Alessio-Alves, Frederico F.; Barros, Camila G. C.; Carneiro, Antonio A. O.; Leite, João P.; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M.; Santos-Pontelli, Taiza E. G.

    2016-01-01

    Deficits of postural control and perceptions of verticality are disabling problems observed in stroke patients that have been recently correlated to each other. However, there is no evidence in the literature confirming this relationship with quantitative posturography analysis. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to analyze the relationship between Subjective Postural Vertical (SPV) and Haptic Vertical (HV) with posturography and functionality in stroke patients. We included 45 stroke patients. The study protocol was composed by clinical interview, evaluation of SPV and HV in roll and pitch planes and posturography. Posturography was measured in the sitting and standing positions under the conditions: eyes open, stable surface (EOSS); eyes closed, stable surface (ECSS); eyes open, unstable surface (EOUS); and eyes closed, unstable surface (ECUS). The median PV in roll plane was 0.34° (-1.44° to 2.54°) and in pitch plane 0.36° (-2.72° to 2.45°). The median of HV in roll and pitch planes were -0.94° (-5.86° to 3.84°) and 3.56° (-0.68° to 8.36°), respectively. SPV in the roll plane was correlated with all posturagraphy parameters in sitting position in all conditions (r = 0.35 to 0.47; p < 0.006). There were moderate correlations with the verticality perceptions and all the functional scales. Linear regression model showed association between speed and SPV in the roll plane in the condition EOSS (R2 of 0.37; p = 0.005), in the condition ECSS (R2 of 0.13; p = 0.04) and in the condition EOUS (R2 of 0.22; p = 0.03). These results suggest that verticality perception is a relevant component of postural control and should be systematically evaluated, particularly in patients with abnormal postural control. PMID:26954679

  10. Skeletal abnormalities in homocystinuria.

    PubMed Central

    Brenton, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The skeletal changes of thirty-four patients with the biochemical and clinical features of cystathionine synthase deficiency are described. It is emphasized that there is clinical evidence of excessive bone growth and the formation for bone which is structurally weaker than normal. The similarities and differences between this condition and Marfan's syndrome are stressed and the possible nature of the connective tissue defect leading to the skeletal changes discussed. The most characteristic skeletal changes in homocystinuria are the skeletal disproportion (pubis-heel length greater than crown-pubis length), the abnormal vertebrae, sternal deformities, genu valgum and large metaphyses and epiphyses. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:917963

  11. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem.

  12. Measuring postural control during mini-squat posture in men with early knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Petrella, M; Gramani-Say, K; Serrão, P R M S; Lessi, G C; Barela, J A; Carvalho, R P; Mattiello, S M

    2017-02-06

    Studies have suggested a compromised postural control in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) evidenced by larger and faster displacement of center of pressure (COP). However, quantification of postural control in the mini-squat posture performed by patients with early knee OA and its relation to muscle strength and self-reported symptoms have not been investigated. The main aim of this cross-sectional, observational, controlled study was to determine whether postural control in the mini-squat posture differs between individuals with early knee OA and a control group (CG) and verify the relation among knee extensor torque (KET) and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. Twenty four individuals with knee OA grades I and II (OAG) (mean age: 52.35±5.00) and twenty subjects without knee injuries (CG) (mean age: 51.40±8.07) participated in this study. Participants were assessed in postural control through a force plate (Bertec Mod. USA), which provided information about the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) COP displacement during the mini-squat, in isometric, concentric and eccentric knee extensor torque (KET) (90°/s) through an isokinetic dynamometer (BiodexMulti-Joint System3, Biodex Medical Incorporation, New York, NY, USA), and in self-reported symptoms through the WOMAC questionnaire. The main outcomes measured were the AP and ML COP amplitude and velocity of displacement; isometric, concentric, and eccentric KET and self-reported physical function, stiffness and pain. No significant differences were found between groups for postural control (p>0.05). Significant lower eccentric KET (p=0.01) and higher scores for the WOMAC subscales of pain (p=<0.001), stiffness (p=0.001) and physical function (p<0.001) were found for the OAG. Moderate and negative correlations were found between the AP COP amplitude of displacement and physical function (ρ=-0.40, p=0.02). Moderate and negative correlations were observed between the AP COP

  13. The role of anticipatory postural adjustments in compensatory control of posture: 1. Electromyographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marcio J; Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2010-06-01

    Anticipatory (APAs) and compensatory (CPAs) postural adjustments are the two principal mechanisms that the central nervous system uses to maintain equilibrium while standing. We studied the role of APAs in compensatory postural adjustments. Eight subjects were exposed to external predictable and unpredictable perturbations induced at the shoulder level, while standing with eyes open and closed. Electrical activity of leg and trunk muscles was recorded and analyzed during four epochs representing the time duration typical for anticipatory and compensatory postural control. No anticipatory activity of the trunk and leg muscles was seen in the case of unpredictable perturbations; instead, significant compensatory activation of muscles was observed. When the perturbations were predictable, strong anticipatory activation was seen in all the muscles: such APAs were associated with significantly smaller compensatory activity of muscles and COP displacements after the perturbations. The outcome of the study highlights the importance of APAs in control of posture and points out the existence of a relationship between the anticipatory and the compensatory components of postural control. It also suggests a possibility to enhance balance control by improving the APAs responses during external perturbations.

  14. Smart Rehabilitation Garment for posture monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Chen, W; Timmermans, A A A; Karachristos, C; Martens, J B; Markopoulos, P

    2015-08-01

    Posture monitoring and correction technologies can support prevention and treatment of spinal pain or can help detect and avoid compensatory movements during the neurological rehabilitation of upper extremities, which can be very important to ensure their effectiveness. We describe the design and development of Smart Rehabilitation Garment (SRG) a wearable system designed to support posture correction. The SRG combines a number of inertial measurement units (IMUs), controlled by an Arduino processor. It provides feedback with vibration on the garment, audible alarm signals and visual instruction through a Bluetooth connected smartphone. We discuss the placement of sensing modules, the garment design, the feedback design and the integration of smart textiles and wearable electronics which aimed at achieving wearability and ease of use. We report on the system's accuracy as compared to optical tracker method.

  15. Correlations between posturographic findings and symptoms in subjects with fractures of the condylar head of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Faralli, Mario M; Calenti, Claudio C; Ibba, Maria Cristina M; Ricci, Gianpietro G; Frenguelli, Antonio A

    2009-04-01

    Our study examined the posture of 15 patients who had sustained a simple unilateral or bilateral fracture of the condylar head of the mandible as a result of sports or traffic accidents. Following preliminary testing of vestibular function, the patients underwent balance testing: Romberg test with eyes closed (EC), Romberg EC and bite test (ECBT), EC and head retroflexed (ECR). The study parameters were: surface (S) of the statokinesigram, stomatognathic influence index related to S (SSI), and postural oscillations on the frontal plane (X). In keeping with the literature, we felt that the following pattern in static balance suggested a posture destabilised by the stomatognathic system: SSI values of less than 60, reduction of S in the transition from EC to ECR, pathological increase of postural oscillations on the X plane. The study was completed by obtaining a list of new symptoms reported by the patients (altered bite, fullness, tinnitus, pain, loss of balance). The most significant patterns were observed in patients with vestibular dysfunctions and neck pain. It seems that a fracture of the condylar head can affect postural behaviour, although proprioceptive changes alone are not enough to cause true loss of balance and there must be concomitant vestibular dysfunction. The stabilometric pattern is not conditioned by the extent of the trauma or the related treatment. In terms of proprioceptive elements, the presence of muscle pain seems to point to cervical muscle tension as the main culprit in the onset of posttraumatic instability.

  16. Development of a Wearable Instrumented Vest for Posture Monitoring and System Usability Verification Based on the Technology Acceptance Model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen-Yen; Chou, Wen-Cheng; Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Lin, Chung-Chih; Lee, Ming-Yih

    2016-01-01

    Body posture and activity are important indices for assessing health and quality of life, especially for elderly people. Therefore, an easily wearable device or instrumented garment would be valuable for monitoring elderly people’s postures and activities to facilitate healthy aging. In particular, such devices should be accepted by elderly people so that they are willing to wear it all the time. This paper presents the design and development of a novel, textile-based, intelligent wearable vest for real-time posture monitoring and emergency warnings. The vest provides a highly portable and low-cost solution that can be used both indoors and outdoors in order to provide long-term care at home, including health promotion, healthy aging assessments, and health abnormality alerts. The usability of the system was verified using a technology acceptance model-based study of 50 elderly people. The results indicated that although elderly people are anxious about some newly developed wearable technologies, they look forward to wearing this instrumented posture-monitoring vest in the future. PMID:27999324

  17. Development of a Wearable Instrumented Vest for Posture Monitoring and System Usability Verification Based on the Technology Acceptance Model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Yen; Chou, Wen-Cheng; Tsai, Tsai-Hsuan; Lin, Chung-Chih; Lee, Ming-Yih

    2016-12-17

    Body posture and activity are important indices for assessing health and quality of life, especially for elderly people. Therefore, an easily wearable device or instrumented garment would be valuable for monitoring elderly people's postures and activities to facilitate healthy aging. In particular, such devices should be accepted by elderly people so that they are willing to wear it all the time. This paper presents the design and development of a novel, textile-based, intelligent wearable vest for real-time posture monitoring and emergency warnings. The vest provides a highly portable and low-cost solution that can be used both indoors and outdoors in order to provide long-term care at home, including health promotion, healthy aging assessments, and health abnormality alerts. The usability of the system was verified using a technology acceptance model-based study of 50 elderly people. The results indicated that although elderly people are anxious about some newly developed wearable technologies, they look forward to wearing this instrumented posture-monitoring vest in the future.

  18. Effects of caffeine on postural stability.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, Ashlee; Sklaar, Jessica; Viirre, Erik; Chase, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a caffeine-containing "energy drink" on postural stability. Twenty-three young adult participants stood on a balance-measuring platform for two intervals of 30 seconds each, once with eyes open and once with eyes closed. Subjects performed the tasks before and 1 hour after consumption. Results showed no significant effect, either with eyes open or eyes closed, on movement of the body's center of pressure.

  19. Effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Haewon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training on the enhancement of the swallowing function of patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson’s disease. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 18 patients who received simultaneous application of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training and 15 patients who received expiratory muscle strength training only. Postural techniques were conducted in the order of chin tucking, head rotation, head tilting, bending head back, and lying down, while expiratory muscle strength training was conducted at a resistance level of about 70% of the maximal expiratory pressure. Swallowing recovery was assessed by using the Functional Dysphagia Scale based on videofluoroscopic studies. [Results] The mean value obtained in the videofluoroscopic studies for both groups decreased after the treatment. In the postural techniques plus expiratory muscle strength training group, the decrease was significantly greater than that in the expiratory muscle strength training-only group. [Conclusion] The results imply that simultaneous performance of postural techniques and expiratory muscle strength training is more effective than expiratory muscle strength training alone when applied in the swallowing rehabilitation for patients with dysphagia caused by Parkinson’s disease. PMID:27390429

  20. Lead effects on postural balance of children

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, A.; Shukla, R.; Bornschein, R.L.; Dietrich, K.N. ); Keith, R. )

    1990-11-01

    The postural sway responses of 63 children with a mean age of 5.74 years were quantified with a Force Platform technique. The average maximum (max) blood lead (PbB) of these children during the first 5 years of life was 20.7 {mu}g/dL (range 9.2 to 32.5). The backward stepwise regression analysis for sway area response during the eyes-closed, no-foam test with all the covariates and confounders and the PbB parameters showed a significant relationship with peak or max PbB during the second year of life. These results are consistent with their previous study with a smaller group of children. The data have been analyzed to provide some insight into the role of various afferents for the maintenance of postural balance. The results suggests a hypothesis that if the max PbB had caused some level of impairment in the functional capacities or interconnectivity of the vestibular and/or proprioception systems at 2 years of age, then it is reasonable to assume that the redundancy in the postural afferent systems would naturally adapt to rely more on the remaining intact afferent system (in this case, vision).

  1. Ice skating promotes postural control in children.

    PubMed

    Keller, M; Röttger, K; Taube, W

    2014-12-01

    High fall rates causing injury and enormous financial costs are reported for children. However, only few studies investigated the effects of balance training in children and these studies did not find enhanced balance performance in postural (transfer) tests. Consequently, it was previously speculated that classical balance training might not be stimulating enough for children to adequately perform these exercises. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of ice skating as an alternative form of balance training. Volunteers of an intervention (n = 17; INT: 13.1 ± 0.4 years) and a control group (n = 13; CON: 13.2 ± 0.3 years) were tested before and after training in static and dynamic postural transfer tests. INT participated in eight sessions of ice skating during education lessons, whereas CON participated in normal physical education. Enhanced balance performance was observed in INT but not in CON when tested on an unstable free-swinging platform (P < 0.05) or when performing a functional reach test (P < 0.001). This is the first study showing significantly enhanced balance performance after ice skating in children. More importantly, participating children improved static and dynamic balance control in postural tasks that were not part of the training.

  2. Fingertip contact influences human postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeka, J. J.; Lackner, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Touch and pressure stimulation of the body surface can strongly influence apparent body orientation, as well as the maintenance of upright posture during quiet stance. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between postural sway and contact forces at the fingertip while subjects touched a rigid metal bar. Subjects were tested in the tandem Romberg stance with eyes open or closed under three conditions of fingertip contact: no contact, touch contact (< 0.98 N of force), and force contact (as much force as desired). Touch contact was as effective as force contact or sight of the surroundings in reducing postural sway when compared to the no contact, eyes closed condition. Body sway and fingertip forces were essentially in phase with force contact, suggesting that fingertip contact forces are physically counteracting body sway. Time delays between body sway and fingertip forces were much larger with light touch contact, suggesting that the fingertip is providing information that allows anticipatory innervation of musculature to reduce body sway. The results are related to observations on precision grip as well as the somatosensory, proprioceptive, and motor mechanisms involved in the reduction of body sway.

  3. Postural dynamics and habituation to seasickness.

    PubMed

    Tal, Dror; Bar, Ronen; Nachum, Zohar; Gil, Amnon; Shupak, Avi

    2010-07-26

    The computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) test examines the response pattern to simultaneous, multimodal sensory stimulation. The purpose of this prospective, controlled study was to investigate whether postural dynamics evaluated by CDP are related to seasickness severity and the process of habituation to sea conditions. Subjects included 74 naval personnel assigned to service aboard ship and 29 controls designated for shore-based positions. Study participants performed a baseline CDP test, and subsequent follow-up examinations 6 and 12 months after completion of their training. On those occasions they also completed a seasickness severity questionnaire. Longitudinal changes in postural parameters were examined, as well as a possible correlation between baseline CDP results and final seasickness severity scores. The results indicated longitudinal habituation to seasickness. Reduced scores were found for sensory organization sub-tests 3 and 5 in the first follow-up examination, reflecting increased weighting of visual and somatosensory input in the maintenance of balance. Scores in the second follow-up examination were above baseline values, indicating increased reliance on vestibular cues. These significant bimodal changes were found only in study subjects having the highest degree of habituation to seasickness. A significant decrease in motor response strength was found in parallel with increased habituation to seasickness. Baseline CDP results and postural control dynamics were not correlated with subjects' final seasickness severity score. These results suggest a potential role for CDP in monitoring the process of habituation to unusual motion conditions.

  4. Humanlike agents with posture planning ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Moon R.; Badler, Norman I.

    1992-11-01

    Human body models are geometric structures which may be ultimately controlled by kinematically manipulating their joints, but for animation, it is desirable to control them in terms of task-level goals. We address a fundamental problem in achieving task-level postural goals: controlling massively redundant degrees of freedom. We reduce the degrees of freedom by introducing significant control points and vectors, e.g., pelvis forward vector, palm up vector, and torso up vector, etc. This reduced set of parameters are used to enumerate primitive motions and motion dependencies among them, and thus to select from a small set of alternative postures (e.g., bend versus squat to lower shoulder height). A plan for a given goal is found by incrementally constructing a goal/constraint set based on the given goal, motion dependencies, collision avoidance requirements, and discovered failures. Global postures satisfying a given goal/constraint set are determined with the help of incremental mental simulation which uses a robust inverse kinematics algorithm. The contributions of the present work are: (1) There is no need to specify beforehand the final goal configuration, which is unrealistic for the human body, and (2) the degrees of freedom problem becomes easier by representing body configurations in terms of `lumped' control parameters, that is, control points and vectors.

  5. Analysis on the relationship between the school furniture and the work surface lighting and the body posture of public Middle School students from João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luiz Bueno; da Costa Eulálio, Eliza Juliana; Souto Coutinho, Antonio; Gonçalves Soares, Elaine Victor; de Lourdes Silva dos Santos, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of school furniture and work surface lighting on the body posture of two public Middle School students from Paraíba (Brazil). The target population included 8th grade groups involving 31 students. Brazilian standards for lighting levels, the CEBRACE standards for furniture measurements and the Postural Assessment Software (SAPO) for the postural misalignment assay were adopted for the measurements comparison. The statistic analysis includes analyses of parametric and non-parametric correlations. The results show that the students' most affected parts of the body were the spine, the regions of the knees and head and neck and about 90% of the students presented postural misalignment. The lighting levels were usually found below 300 lux, below recommended levels. Such results indicate the need of investments in more suitable school furniture and structural reforms aimed at improving the lighting in the classrooms, which could fulfill the students' profile and reduce their complaints.

  6. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  7. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... swallowing A change or hoarseness in the voice Head and neck cancers are twice as common in men. Using ...

  8. Increased head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003305.htm Increased head circumference To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the ...

  9. Head injury. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiographic Evaluation; Epidemiology of Head Injury; Emergency Care and Initial Evaluation; Skull Fracture and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas; Mild Head Injury; and Injuries of the Cranial Nerves.

  10. The School of Posture as a postural training method for Paraíba Telecommunications Operators.

    PubMed

    Cardia, M C; Soares Màsculo, F

    2001-01-01

    This work proposes to show the experience of posture training accomplished in the Paraíba State Telecommunication Company, using the knowledge of the Back School. The sample was composed of 12 operators, employees of the company, representing 31% of this population. The model applied in TELPA (Paraíba Telecommunication Company, Brazil) was based on the models of Sherbrooke, Canada, and of the School of Posture of Paraìba Federal University. Fifty-eight point four percent of participants showed a reduction of column pain, 25% improved the quality of the rest and the received training was considered enough for the learning of correct postures at work in 75% of the cases. The whole population approved of the training, and 83.3% of the cases considered that this training influenced their lives very positively.

  11. Postural responses explored through classical conditioning.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A D; Dakin, C J; Carpenter, M G

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether the central nervous system (CNS) requires the sensory feedback generated by balance perturbations in order to trigger postural responses (PRs). In Experiment 1, twenty-one participants experienced toes-up support-surface tilts in two blocks. Control blocks involved unexpected balance perturbations whereas an auditory tone cued the onset of balance perturbations in Conditioning blocks. A single Cue-Only trial followed each block (Cue-Only(Control) and Cue-Only(Conditioning) trials) in the absence of balance perturbations. Cue-Only(Conditioning) trials were used to determine whether postural perturbations were required in order to trigger PRs. Counter-balancing the order of Control and Conditioning blocks allowed Cue-Only(Control) trials to examine both the audio-spinal/acoustic startle effects of the auditory cue and the carryover effects of the initial conditioning procedure. In Experiment 2, six participants first experienced five consecutive Tone-Only trials that were followed by twenty-five conditioning trials. After conditioning, five Tone-Only trials were again presented consecutively to first elicit and then extinguish the conditioned PRs. Surface electromyography (EMG) recorded muscle activity in soleus (SOL), tibialis anterior (TA) and rectus femoris (RF). EMG onset latencies and amplitudes were calculated together with the onset latency, peak and time-to-peak of shank angular accelerations. Results indicated that an auditory cue could be conditioned to initiate PRs in multiple muscles without balance-relevant sensory triggers generated by balance perturbations. Postural synergies involving excitation of TA and RF and inhibition of SOL were observed following the Cue-Only(Conditioning) trials that resulted in shank angular accelerations in the direction required to counter the expected toes-up tilt. Postural synergies were triggered in response to the auditory cue even 15 min post-conditioning. Furthermore

  12. Acute effects of head-down tilt and hypoxia on modulators of fluid homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Cintron, N. M.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Scotto, P.; Loeppky, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to understand the interaction between acute postural fluid shifts and hypoxia on hormonal regulation of fluid homeostasis, the authors measured the responses to head-down tilt with and without acute exposure to normobaric hypoxia. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), plasma aldosterone (ALD), and plasma renin activity (PRA) were measured in six healthy male volunteers who were exposed to a head-down tilt protocol during normoxia and hypoxia. The tilt protocol consisted of a 17 degrees head-up phase (30 minutes), a 28 degrees head-down phase (1 hour), and a 17 degrees head-up recovery period (2 hours, with the last hour normoxic in both experiments). Altitude equivalent to 14,828 ft was simulated by having the subjects breathe an inspired gas mixture with 13.9% oxygen. The results indicate that the postural fluid redistribution associated with a 60-minute head-down tilt induces the release of ANP and cGMP during both hypoxia and normoxia. Hypoxia increased cGMP, cAMP, ALD, and PRA throughout the protocol and significantly potentiated the increase in cGMP during head-down tilt. Hypoxia had no overall effect on the release of ANP, but appeared to attenuate the increase with head-down tilt. This study describes the acute effects of hypoxia on the endocrine response during fluid redistribution and suggests that the magnitude, but not the direction, of these changes with posture is affected by hypoxia.

  13. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  14. Mania following head injury.

    PubMed

    Yatham, L N; Benbow, J C; Jeffers, A M

    1988-03-01

    A case of mania following head injury in an individual with a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia is reported. It is argued that the head injury is probably causative in his case and suggested that head injury should be considered as one of the aetiological factors in secondary mania.

  15. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person’s risk of head and neck cancer. Marijuana use. Research suggests that people who have used marijuana may be at higher risk for head and ... head and neck cancer include: Avoiding alcohol Discussing marijuana as a risk factor with your doctor and ...

  16. Treating Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... 180 K) En Español On this page: Blood-Sucking Bugs Steps for Safe Use Heading Off Head Lice Head lice. Every parent’s nightmare. A year-round problem, the number of cases seems to peak when ...

  17. Head Start Automation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park. Univ. Coll.

    The task for the National Data Management Project is to share technological capabilities with the Head Start Community in order to implement improved services for children and families involved in Head Start. Many Head Start programs have incorporated technology into their programs, including word processing, database management systems,…

  18. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fax: 847-378-0600 www.NeurosurgeryToday.org A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and ...

  19. Effect of different insoles on postural balance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Christovão, Thaluanna Calil Lourenço; Neto, Hugo Pasini; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Ferreira, Luiz Alfredo Braun; Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Eliege de Souza, Maria; Franco de Oliveira, Luis Vicente; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the effect of different insoles on postural balance. [Subjects and Methods] A systematic review was conducted of four databases. The papers retrieved were evaluated based on the following inclusion criteria: 1) design: controlled clinical trial; 2) intervention: insole; 3) outcome: change in static postural balance; and 4) year of publication: 2005 to 2012. [Results] Twelve controlled trials were found comparing the effects of different insoles on postural balance. The papers had methodological quality scores of 3 or 4 on the PEDro scale. [Conclusion] Insoles have benefits that favor better postural balance and control.

  20. The Effect of Training on Postural Control in Dyslexic Children.

    PubMed

    Goulème, Nathalie; Gérard, Christophe-Loïc; Bucci, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether a short postural training period could affect postural stability in dyslexic children. Postural performances were evaluated using Multitest Equilibre from Framiral. Posture was recorded in three different viewing conditions (eyes open fixating a target, eyes closed and eyes open with perturbed vision) and in two different postural conditions (on stable and unstable support). Two groups of dyslexic children participated in the study, i.e. G1: 16 dyslexic participants (mean age 9.9 ± 0.3 years) who performed short postural training and G2: 16 dyslexic participants of similar ages (mean age 9.1 ± 0.3 years) who did not perform any short postural training. Findings showed that short postural training improved postural stability on unstable support surfaces with perturbed vision: indeed the surface, the mean velocity of CoP and the spectral power indices in both directions decreased significantly, and the cancelling time in the antero-posterior direction improved significantly. Such improvement could be due to brain plasticity, which allows better performance in sensory process and cerebellar integration.

  1. Transfer of postural adaptation depends on context of prior exposure.

    PubMed

    Pienciak-Siewert, Alison; Barletta, Anthony J; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2014-04-01

    Postural control is significantly affected by the postural base of support; however, the effects on postural adaptation are not well understood. Here we investigated how adaptation and transfer of anticipatory postural control are affected by stance width. Subjects made reaching movements in a novel dynamic environment while holding the handle of a force-generating robotic arm. Each subject initially adapted to the dynamics while standing in a wide stance and then switched to a narrow stance, or vice versa. Our hypothesis is that anticipatory postural control, reflected in center of pressure (COP) movement, is not affected by stance width, as long as the control remains within functional limits; therefore we predicted that subjects in either stance would show similar COP movement by the end of adaptation and immediately upon transfer to the other stance. We found that both groups showed similar adaptation of postural control, by using different muscle activation strategies to account for the differing stance widths. One group, after adapting in wide stance, transferred similar postural control to narrow stance, by modifying their muscle activity to account for the new stance. Interestingly, the other group showed an increase in postural control when transferring from narrow to wide stance, associated with no change in muscle activity. These results confirm that adaptation of anticipatory postural control is not affected by stance width, as long as the control remains within biomechanical limits. However, transfer of control between stance widths is affected by the initial context in which the task is learned.

  2. Eye Movements Affect Postural Control in Young and Older Females

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Neil M.; Bampouras, Theodoros M.; Donovan, Tim; Dewhurst, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Visual information is used for postural stabilization in humans. However, little is known about how eye movements prevalent in everyday life interact with the postural control system in older individuals. Therefore, the present study assessed the effects of stationary gaze fixations, smooth pursuits, and saccadic eye movements, with combinations of absent, fixed and oscillating large-field visual backgrounds to generate different forms of retinal flow, on postural control in healthy young and older females. Participants were presented with computer generated visual stimuli, whilst postural sway and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with a force platform and eye tracking equipment, respectively. The results showed that fixed backgrounds and stationary gaze fixations attenuated postural sway. In contrast, oscillating backgrounds and smooth pursuits increased postural sway. There were no differences regarding saccades. There were also no differences in postural sway or gaze errors between age groups in any visual condition. The stabilizing effect of the fixed visual stimuli show how retinal flow and extraocular factors guide postural adjustments. The destabilizing effect of oscillating visual backgrounds and smooth pursuits may be related to more challenging conditions for determining body shifts from retinal flow, and more complex extraocular signals, respectively. Because the older participants matched the young group's performance in all conditions, decreases of posture and gaze control during stance may not be a direct consequence of healthy aging. Further research examining extraocular and retinal mechanisms of balance control and the effects of eye movements, during locomotion, is needed to better inform fall prevention interventions. PMID:27695412

  3. Physical Workload Analysis Among Small Industry Activities Using Postural Data.

    PubMed

    Rabiul Ahasan,