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Sample records for abnormal head shape

  1. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  2. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  3. Baby's Head Shape: What's Normal?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the top of your baby's head where the skull bones haven't yet grown together. These spots, ... rapidly growing brain during infancy. Because your baby's skull is malleable, however, a tendency to rest the ...

  4. Sperm shape abnormalities in carbaryl-exposed employees

    PubMed Central

    Wyrobek, A. J.; Watchmaker, G.; Gordon, L.; Wong, K.; Moore, D.; Whorton, D.

    1981-01-01

    Semen was collected from 50 men occupationally exposed to carbaryl (1-naphthyl methyl carbamate) in a produciton plant for durations of 1 to 18 years and compared to semen from a control group of 34 unexposed, newly-hired workers. Employment, fertility, health, personal data, and blood samples were collected for each individual. Semen samples were analyzed for changes in sperm count, morphology, and frequency of sperm carrying double flourescent bodies (YFF). As a group, the exposed workers showed a significantly higher proportion of sperm with abnormal head shapes than did the control group (p < 0.005). Age, smoking habits, and medical problems did not appear to affect this result. This finding appears to be limited to men working in the carbaryl production area at the time of sampling. Sperm count and YFF did not show similar differences, which may be because they are known to be statistically less sensitive to small changes. Formerly exposed workers (away from carbaryl for an average of 6.3 years) showed a marginally significant elevation in sperm abnormalities compared to controls (p < .05, one-tailed statistical analyses) suggesting that the increase in abnormal morphology may not be reversible. However, the question of reversibility is sensitive to confounding factors and small sample sizes and, therefore, requires further study. With these data a definitive link between carbaryl exposure and human seminal defects cannot be established. Although a distinct effect on sperm morphology was seen in the exposed group, the increases in sperm shape abnormalities were not related to exposure dose (estimated by number of years on the job or job classification during the year prior to semen collection). Inexplicably, the increases in sperm abnormalities were seen primarily in currently exposed men who had worked with carbaryl for less than approximately 6 years. These findings suggest the need for further study since other workplace-related factor(s) may be responsible

  5. Geometric Morphometrics of Rodent Sperm Head Shape

    PubMed Central

    Varea Sánchez, María; Bastir, Markus; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa, particularly those of rodent species, are extremely complex cells and differ greatly in form and dimensions. Thus, characterization of sperm size and, particularly, sperm shape represents a major challenge. No consensus exists on a method to objectively assess size and shape of spermatozoa. In this study we apply the principles of geometric morphometrics to analyze rodent sperm head morphology and compare them with two traditional morphometry methods, that is, measurements of linear dimensions and dimensions-derived parameters calculated using formulae employed in sperm morphometry assessments. Our results show that geometric morphometrics clearly identifies shape differences among rodent spermatozoa. It is also capable of discriminating between size and shape and to analyze these two variables separately. Thus, it provides an accurate method to assess sperm head shape. Furthermore, it can identify which sperm morphology traits differ between species, such as the protrusion or retraction of the base of the head, the orientation and relative position of the site of flagellum insertion, the degree of curvature of the hook, and other distinct anatomical features and appendices. We envisage that the use of geometric morphometrics may have a major impact on future studies focused on the characterization of sperm head formation, diversity of sperm head shape among species (and underlying evolutionary forces), the effects of reprotoxicants on changes in cell shape, and phenotyping of genetically-modified individuals. PMID:24312234

  6. Clinical predictors of abnormal head computed tomography scan in patients who are conscious after head injury

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rakesh Kumar; Munivenkatappa, Ashok; Prathyusha, Vasuki; Shukla, Dhaval P.; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira

    2017-01-01

    Background: Indication of a head computed tomography (CT) scan in a patient who remains conscious after head injury is controversial. We aimed to determine the clinical features that are most likely to be associated with abnormal CT scan in patients with a history of head injury, and who are conscious at the time of presentation to casualty. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective observation study of patients presented to casualty with history of head injury, and who were conscious, i.e., Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 15 at the time of evaluation. All patients underwent head CT scan. The CT scan was reported as abnormal if it showed any pathology ascribed to trauma. The following variables were used: age, gender, mode of injury (road traffic accident, fall, assault, and others), duration since injury, and history of transient loss of consciousness, headache, vomiting, ear/nose bleeding, and seizures. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the clinical features that predicted an abnormal CT scan. Results: During the observation period, a total of 1629 patients with head injury were evaluated, out of which 453 were in GCS 15. Abnormal CT scan was present in 195 (43%) patients. Among all the variables, the following were found significantly associated with abnormal CT scan: duration since injury (>12 h) P < 0.001; vomiting odds, ratio (OR) 1.89 (1.23, 2.80), P < 0.001; and presence of any symptom, OR 2.36 (1.52, 3.71), P < 0.001. Conclusion: A patient with GCS 15 presenting after 12 hours of injury with vomiting or combination of symptoms has a significant risk of abnormal head CT scan. PMID:28149084

  7. Abnormal hippocampal shape in offenders with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, Marina; Ganzola, Rossana; Rossi, Roberta; Sabattoli, Francesca; Laakso, Mikko P; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Vaurio, Olli; Könönen, Mervi; Aronen, Hannu J; Thompson, Paul M; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Tiihonen, Jari

    2010-03-01

    Posterior hippocampal volumes correlate negatively with the severity of psychopathy, but local morphological features are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate hippocampal morphology in habitually violent offenders having psychopathy. Manual tracings of hippocampi from magnetic resonance images of 26 offenders (age: 32.5 +/- 8.4), with different degrees of psychopathy (12 high, 14 medium psychopathy based on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised), and 25 healthy controls (age: 34.6 +/- 10.8) were used for statistical modelling of local changes with a surface-based radial distance mapping method. Both offenders and controls had similar hippocampal volume and asymmetry ratios. Local analysis showed that the high psychopathy group had a significant depression along the longitudinal hippocampal axis, on both the dorsal and ventral aspects, when compared with the healthy controls and the medium psychopathy group. The opposite comparison revealed abnormal enlargement of the lateral borders in both the right and left hippocampi of both high and medium psychopathy groups versus controls, throughout CA1, CA2-3 and the subicular regions. These enlargement and reduction effects survived statistical correction for multiple comparisons in the main contrast (26 offenders vs. 25 controls) and in most subgroup comparisons. A statistical check excluded a possible confounding effect from amphetamine and polysubstance abuse. These results indicate that habitually violent offenders exhibit a specific abnormal hippocampal morphology, in the absence of total gray matter volume changes, that may relate to different autonomic modulation and abnormal fear-conditioning.

  8. Antipredatory function of head shape for vipers and their mimics.

    PubMed

    Valkonen, Janne K; Nokelainen, Ossi; Mappes, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Most research into the adaptive significance of warning signals has focused on the colouration and patterns of prey animals. However, behaviour, odour and body shape can also have signal functions and thereby reduce predators' willingness to attack defended prey. European vipers all have a distinctive triangular head shape; and they are all venomous. Several non-venomous snakes, including the subfamily Natricinae, commonly flatten their heads (also known as head triangulation) when disturbed. The adaptive significance of this potential behavioural mimicry has never been investigated.We experimentally tested if the triangular head shape typical of vipers offers protection against predation. We compared the predation pressure of free-ranging predators on artificial snakes with triangular-shaped heads against the pressure on replicas with narrow heads. Snakes of both head types had either zigzag patterned bodies, typical of European vipers, or plain (patternless) bodies. Plain snakes with narrower Colubrid-like heads suffered significantly higher predation by raptors than snakes with triangular-shaped heads. Head shape did not, however, have an additive effect on survival in zigzag-patterned snakes, suggesting that species which differ from vipers in colouration and pattern would benefit most from behavioural mimicry. Our results demonstrate that the triangular head shape typical of vipers can act as a warning signal to predators. We suggest that head-shape mimicry may be a more common phenomenon among more diverse taxa than is currently recognised.

  9. Detecting abnormality in optic nerve head images using a feature extraction analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haogang; Poostchi, Ali; Vernon, Stephen A; Crabb, David P

    2014-07-01

    Imaging and evaluation of the optic nerve head (ONH) plays an essential part in the detection and clinical management of glaucoma. The morphological characteristics of ONHs vary greatly from person to person and this variability means it is difficult to quantify them in a standardized way. We developed and evaluated a feature extraction approach using shift-invariant wavelet packet and kernel principal component analysis to quantify the shape features in ONH images acquired by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph [HRT]). The methods were developed and tested on 1996 eyes from three different clinical centers. A shape abnormality score (SAS) was developed from extracted features using a Gaussian process to identify glaucomatous abnormality. SAS can be used as a diagnostic index to quantify the overall likelihood of ONH abnormality. Maps showing areas of likely abnormality within the ONH were also derived. Diagnostic performance of the technique, as estimated by ROC analysis, was significantly better than the classification tools currently used in the HRT software - the technique offers the additional advantage of working with all images and is fully automated.

  10. Head shape dimorphism in European glass eels (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    De Meyer, J; Ide, C; Belpaire, C; Goemans, G; Adriaens, D

    2015-12-01

    The life cycle of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) remained a mystery until the 20th century, when Schmidt discovered that the Sargasso Sea was its spawning area. However, many aspects of the eel's life cycle remain poorly understood. Among these is the bimodal distribution in head shape, with broad- and narrowheaded phenotypes reported in the yellow eel stage. Although this has been linked to dietary preferences of the yellow eels, very little is known about why, how and when this dimorphism arises during their ontogeny. To determine whether this dimorphism indeed appears in relation to trophic niche segregation, we examined head shape variation at an earlier ontogenetic stage, the glass eel stage, as at this stage eels are considered to be non-feeding. Head shape was studied in a large dataset, containing glass eels captured from the Yser river mouth, the Leopold Canal (Belgium) and from the rivers Severn, Trent and Parret (UK), by both taking measurements (head width/head length) and using an outline analysis. Our results show that there is already considerable variation in broadness and bluntness of the head at the glass eel stage. In most cases, equal support for a unimodal and bimodal head shape distribution is found, whereas some cases support head shape bimodality in glass eels, suggesting that glass eel head shape might be shifting from a unimodal to a bimodal distribution. This, in combination with the observation that variation in head width/head length ratios in non-feeding glass eels shows a similar range as in feeding yellow eels, indicates that head shape in European eel might be at least partially determined through other mechanisms than trophic segregation.

  11. Does aquatic foraging impact head shape evolution in snakes?

    PubMed

    Segall, Marion; Cornette, Raphaël; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-08-31

    Evolutionary trajectories are often biased by developmental and historical factors. However, environmental factors can also impose constraints on the evolutionary trajectories of organisms leading to convergence of morphology in similar ecological contexts. The physical properties of water impose strong constraints on aquatic feeding animals by generating pressure waves that can alert prey and potentially push them away from the mouth. These hydrodynamic constraints have resulted in the independent evolution of suction feeding in most groups of secondarily aquatic tetrapods. Despite the fact that snakes cannot use suction, they have invaded the aquatic milieu many times independently. Here, we test whether the aquatic environment has constrained head shape evolution in snakes and whether shape converges on that predicted by biomechanical models. To do so, we used three-dimensional geometric morphometrics and comparative, phylogenetically informed analyses on a large sample of aquatic snake species. Our results show that aquatic snakes partially conform to our predictions and have a narrower anterior part of the head and dorsally positioned eyes and nostrils. This morphology is observed, irrespective of the phylogenetic relationships among species, suggesting that the aquatic environment does indeed drive the evolution of head shape in snakes, thus biasing the evolutionary trajectory of this group of animals.

  12. Abnormalities of the long head of the biceps tendon of the shoulder: MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Tuckman, G A

    1994-11-01

    The normal anatomy of the long head of the biceps tendon of the shoulder has been described in detail [1]. Descriptions of different pathologic processes affecting this structure also have been published [1-3] but have been incomplete, showing only a limited variety of abnormalities. In this article, abnormalities of the long head of the biceps tendon seen on MR images are illustrated in greater variety and detail. Recognizing abnormalities of the biceps tendon is important because they are a common source of shoulder pain both alone and in combination with abnormalities of the rotator cuff, labrum, and other structures. Because incomplete diagnosis can lead to treatment failure, it is important to recognize less common imaging manifestations of common entities.

  13. Case report of malocclusion with abnormal head posture and TMJ symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kondo, E; Aoba, T J

    1999-11-01

    Abnormal cervical muscle function can cause abnormal head posture, adversely affecting the development and morphology of the cervical spine and maxillofacial skeleton, which in turn leads to facial asymmetry and occlusal abnormality. There can be morphologic abnormalities of the mandibular fossa, condyle, ramus, and disk accompanying the imbalance of the cervical and masticatory muscles activities. Two normally growing Japanese female patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion presented with TMJ symptoms and poor head posture as a result of abnormal sternocleidomastoid and trapezius cervical muscle activities. One patient underwent tenotomy of the two heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the other patient did not. In addition to orthodontics, the 2 patients received physiotherapy of the cervical muscles during treatment. Both were treated with a functional appliance as a first step, followed by full multi-bracketed treatment to establish a stable form of occlusion and to improve facial esthetics with no head gear. This interdisciplinary treatment approach resulted in normalization of stomatognathic function, elimination of TMJ symptoms, and improvement of facial esthetics. In the growing patients, the significant response of the fossa, condyle, and ramus on the affected side during and after occlusal correction contributed to the improvement of cervical muscle activity. Based on the result, early occlusal improvement, combined with orthopedic surgery of the neck muscles or physiotherapy to achieve muscular balance of the neck and masticatory muscles, was found to be effective. Two patients illustrate the potential for promoting symmetric formation of the TMJ structures and normal jaw function, with favorable effects on posttreatment growth of the entire maxillofacial skeleton.

  14. Spermatid Head Elongation with Normal Nuclear Shaping Requires ADP-Ribosyltransferase PARP11 (ARTD11) in Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Ficca, Mirella L.; Ihara, Motomasa; Bader, Jessica J.; Leu, N. Adrian; Beneke, Sascha; Meyer, Ralph G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sperm are highly differentiated cells characterized by their species-specific nuclear shapes and extremely condensed chromatin. Abnormal head shapes represent a form of teratozoospermia that can impair fertilization capacity. This study shows that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-11 (ARTD11/PARP11), a member of the ADP-ribosyltransferase (ARTD) family, is expressed preferentially in spermatids undergoing nuclear condensation and differentiation. Deletion of the Parp11 gene results in teratozoospermia and male infertility in mice due to the formation of abnormally shaped fertilization-incompetent sperm, despite normal testis weights and sperm counts. At the subcellular level, PARP11-deficient elongating spermatids reveal structural defects in the nuclear envelope and chromatin detachment associated with abnormal nuclear shaping, suggesting functional relevance of PARP11 for nuclear envelope stability and nuclear reorganization during spermiogenesis. In vitro, PARP11 exhibits mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity with the ability to ADP-ribosylate itself. In transfected somatic cells, PARP11 colocalizes with nuclear pore components, such as NUP153. Amino acids Y77, Q86, and R95 in the N-terminal WWE domain, as well as presence of the catalytic domain, are essential for colocalization of PARP11 with the nuclear envelope, but catalytic activity of the protein is not required for colocalization with NUP153. This study demonstrates that PARP11 is a novel enzyme important for proper sperm head shaping and identifies it as a potential factor involved in idiopathic mammalian teratozoospermia. PMID:25673562

  15. Hippocampal Shape Abnormalities of Patients with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Their Unaffected Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sarah L. M.; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I.; Greenstein, Deanna; Clasen, Liv; Lalonde, Francois; Miller, Rachel; Rapoport, Judith; Gogtay, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The hippocampus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and hippocampal volume deficits have been a consistently reported abnormality, but the subregional specificity of the deficits remains unknown. The authors explored the nature and developmental trajectory of subregional shape abnormalities of the hippocampus in…

  16. Subcortical shape and volume abnormalities in an elderly HIV+ cohort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Benjamin S. C.; Valcour, Victor; Busovaca, Edgar; Esmaeili-Firidouni, Pardis; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Wang, Yalin; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-03-01

    Over 50% of HIV+ individuals show significant impairment in psychomotor functioning, processing speed, working memory and attention [1, 2]. Patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy may still have subcortical atrophy, but the profile of HIV-associated brain changes is poorly understood. With parametric surface-based shape analyses, we mapped the 3D profile of subcortical morphometry in 63 elderly HIV+ subjects (4 female; age=65.35 ± 2.21) and 31 uninfected elderly controls (2 female; age=64.68 ± 4.57) scanned with MRI as part of a San Francisco Bay Area study of elderly people with HIV. We also investigated whether morphometry was associated with nadir CD4+ (T-cell) counts, viral load and illness duration among HIV+ participants. FreeSurfer was used to segment the thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, accumbens, brainstem, callosum and ventricles from brain MRI scans. To study subcortical shape, we analyzed: (1) the Jacobian determinant (JD) indexed over structures' surface coordinates and (2) radial distances (RD) of structure surfaces from a medial curve. A JD less than 1 reflects regional tissue atrophy and greater than 1 reflects expansion. The volumes of several subcortical regions were found to be associated with HIV status. No regional volumes showed detectable associations with CD4 counts, viral load or illness duration. The shapes of numerous subcortical regions were significantly linked to HIV status, detectability of viral RNA and illness duration. Our results show subcortical brain differences in HIV+ subjects in both shape and volumetric domains.

  17. Bilaterally Abnormal Head Impulse Tests Indicate a Large Cerebellopontine Angle Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Jung; Park, Seong-Ho; Koo, Ja Won; Kim, Chae-Yong; Kim, Young-Hoon; Han, Jung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Tumors involving the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) pose a diagnostic challenge due to their diverse manifestations. Head impulse tests (HITs) have been used to evaluate vestibular function, but few studies have explored the head impulse gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in patients with a vestibular schwannoma. This study tested whether the head impulse gain of the VOR is an indicator of the size of a unilateral CPA tumor. Methods Twenty-eight patients (21 women; age=64±12 years, mean±SD) with a unilateral CPA tumor underwent a recording of the HITs using a magnetic search coil technique. Patients were classified into non-compressing (T1-T3) and compressing (T4) groups according to the Hannover classification. Results Most (23/28, 82%) of the patients showed abnormal HITs for the semicircular canals on the lesion side. The bilateral abnormality in HITs was more common in the compressing group than the non-compressing group (80% vs. 8%, Pearson's chi-square test: p<0.001). The tumor size was inversely correlated with the head impulse gain of the VOR in either direction. Conclusions Bilaterally abnormal HITs indicate that a patient has a large unilateral CPA tumor. The abnormal HITs in the contralesional direction may be explained either by adaptation or by compression and resultant dysfunction of the cerebellar and brainstem structures. The serial evaluation of HITs may provide information on tumor growth, and thereby reduce the number of costly brain scans required when following up patients with CPA tumors. PMID:26754780

  18. Head proportion and shape of the head of children between 2 and 7 years--results of a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schüler, Grit

    2007-06-01

    Based upon a longitudinal anthropometric study with integrated picture documentation, the head proportion and head shape of two to seven years old children will be analysed. The study was initiated in April 2002 in the administrative districts of Potsdam and Potsdam-Mittelmark (Germany). 351 boys and girls have been measured and photographed. The children shall be examined up to four years until September 2006 with a half year investigation distance. Twenty-three anthropometric dimensions have been measured including six dimensions of the head. These dimensions of the head are the head length, head breadth, auricular height, interpupillary distance, facial height and lower face height. Furthermore, digital pictures have been taken of each child. So the head of each child can be examined in a frontal view (Norma frontalis) and in a lateral view (Norma lateralis) and will be analysed relating to changing proportions of the head. The results demonstrated and discussed here are based on a longitudinal succession of photos and point out a method to make individual patterns of the changing head proportions and head shape visual on pictures.

  19. Eye and head movements shape gaze shifts in Indian peafowl.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Platt, Michael L; Land, Michael F

    2015-12-01

    Animals selectively direct their visual attention toward relevant aspects of their environments. They can shift their attention using a combination of eye, head and body movements. While we have a growing understanding of eye and head movements in mammals, we know little about these processes in birds. We therefore measured the eye and head movements of freely behaving Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) using a telemetric eye-tracker. Both eye and head movements contributed to gaze changes in peafowl. When gaze shifts were smaller, eye movements played a larger role than when gaze shifts were larger. The duration and velocity of eye and head movements were positively related to the size of the eye and head movements, respectively. In addition, the coordination of eye and head movements in peafowl differed from that in mammals; peafowl exhibited a near-absence of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which may partly result from the peafowl's ability to move their heads as quickly as their eyes.

  20. Shaping Arizona's Future: Head Start in Arizona. Annual Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Ami; Walker, Laura

    The Arizona Head Start Association is a federation of public and private organizations that provide Head Start programs and work to improve the conditions of children in the state. This annual report describes the operation of the Head Start program in Arizona for 2000-2001. Beginning with an introductory letter from the president of the Arizona…

  1. Head shape evolution in monitor lizards (Varanus): interactions between extreme size disparity, phylogeny and ecology.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, G H; Keogh, J S

    2014-02-01

    Characterizing patterns of observed current variation, and testing hypotheses concerning the potential drivers of this variation, is fundamental to understanding how morphology evolves. Phylogenetic history, size and ecology are all central components driving the evolution of morphological variation, but only recently have methods become available to tease these aspects apart for particular body structures. Extant monitor lizards (Varanus) have radiated into an incredible range of habitats and display the largest body size range of any terrestrial vertebrate genus. Although their body morphology remains remarkably conservative, they have obvious head shape variation. We use two-dimensional geometric morphometric techniques to characterize the patterns of dorsal head shape variation in 36 species (375 specimens) of varanid, and test how this variation relates to size, phylogenetic history and ecology as represented by habitat. Interspecific head shape disparity is strongly allometric. Once size effects are removed, principal component analysis shows that most shape variation relates to changes in the snout and head width. Size-corrected head shape variation has strong phylogenetic signal at a broad level, but habitat use is predictive of shape disparity within phylogenetic lineages. Size often explains shape disparity among organisms; however, the ability to separate size and shape variation using geometric morphometrics has enabled the identification of phylogenetic history and habitat as additional key factors contributing to the evolution of head shape disparity among varanid lizards.

  2. Effect of head shape variations among individuals on the EEG/MEG forward and inverse problems.

    PubMed

    von Ellenrieder, Nicolás; Muravchik, Carlos H; Wagner, Michael; Nehorai, Arye

    2009-03-01

    We study the effect of the head shape variations on the EEG/magnetoencephalography (MEG) forward and inverse problems. We build a random head model such that each sample represents the head shape of a different individual and solve the forward problem assuming this random head model, using a polynomial chaos expansion. The random solution of the forward problem is then used to quantify the effect of the geometry when the inverse problem is solved with a standard head model. The results derived with this approach are valid for a continuous family of head models, rather than just for a set of cases. The random model consists of three random surfaces that define layers of different electric conductivity, and we built an example based on a set of 30 deterministic models from adults. Our results show that for a dipolar source model, the effect of the head shape variations on the EEG/MEG inverse problem due to the random head model is slightly larger than the effect of the electronic noise present in the sensors. The variations in the EEG inverse problem solutions are due to the variations in the shape of the volume conductor, while the variations in the MEG inverse problem solutions, larger than the EEG ones, are caused mainly by the variations of the absolute position of the sources in a coordinate system based on anatomical landmarks, in which the magnetometers have a fixed position.

  3. Quantitative survey on the shape of the back of men's head as viewed from the side.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Abraham

    2013-05-01

    This article classifies quantitatively into 4 shapes men's back part of the head viewed from the side that are demonstrated in some of the figures in this article. Because of self-evident reasons, the shapes were blurred. The survey is based on the analysis of 2220 shapes obtained by photographing mainly bald men and by finding pictures in the Internet. To the best of the author's knowledge, this quantitative approach has never been implemented before. The results obtained are as follows: the percentage of 376 "flat heads" is 17%; the percentage of 755 "little round heads," 34%; the percentage of 1017 "round heads," 45.8%; and the percentage of 72 "very round heads," 3.2%. This quantitative survey is an additional step in analyzing quantitatively the shape of the parts of the face wherein, in articles that were previously published or that will be published in this magazine, shapes of the nose, ear conch, and human eye were analyzed quantitatively. In addition, the shapes of the leg toes were also analyzed. Finally, it should be noted that, because of obvious reasons, the survey is based on men's head, most of which are with baldness.

  4. Crowd modeling framework using fast head detection and shape-aware matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tao; Yang, Jie; Loza, Artur; Bhaskar, Harish; Al-Mualla, Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    A framework for crowd modeling using a combination of multiple kernel learning (MKL)-based fast head detection and shape-aware matching is proposed. First, the MKL technique is used to train a classifier for head detection using a combination of the histogram of oriented gradient and local binary patterns feature sets. Further, the head detection process is accelerated by implementing the classification procedure only at those spatial locations in the image where the gradient points overlap with moving objects. Such moving objects are determined using an adaptive background subtraction technique. Finally, the crowd is modeled as a deformable shape through connected boundary points (head detection) and matched with the subsequent detection from the next frame in a shape-aware manner. Experimental results obtained from crowded videos show that the proposed framework, while being characterized by a low computation load, performs better than other state-of-art techniques and results in reliable crowd modeling.

  5. Inferior Oblique Weakening and Abnormal Head Position: Controlled Myotomy versus Recession

    PubMed Central

    Migliorini, R.; Malagola, R.; Comberiati, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Randomized controlled trial aimed at comparing surgical outcomes in a group of patients suffering from hyperfunction of the inferior oblique (IO) muscle with abnormal head position (AHP). The surgical techniques being compared are Recession and (thread) Controlled Myotomy. Materials and Methods. The group of 20 patients suffering from medium-high hyperfunction of the IO was assessed through an ophthalmological and orthoptic examination. 10 patients underwent traditional Recession (Group  A) and 10 were treated with Controlled Myotomy (Group  B). Results. The average age was 19 years ± 10.7 SD. After 1 year, 20% of Group  A showed a small Vertical Deviation associated with a small AHP, while 80% had orthophoria and 40% of them had a small AHP. 80% of Group  B showed a small Vertical Deviation associated with an equally small AHP, while 20% had orthophoria with a full resolution of AHP. Conclusion. Based on the results obtained and the fewer intrasurgical risks involved, thread Controlled Myotomy proved to be a valid alternative to Recession. Furthermore, in case of Recession, over the long period a small residual AHP remained in the patients who had orthophoria, unlike Myotomy which led to a total resolution. PMID:28018670

  6. Identification of femoral head center of bipolar hemiarthroplasy in radiostereometric analysis with elementary geometrical shape models.

    PubMed

    Tsukanaka, Masako; Röhrl, Stephan M; von Schewelov, Thord; Nordsletten, Lars

    2016-02-08

    Elementary geometrical shape (EGS) models are useful in radiostereometric analysis (RSA) on hip stems because tantalum markers attached to the stems can be omitted. In order to create an EGS model of a femoral stem, the center of the femoral head has to be identified. The contour of the femoral head is recommended to be used. However, the contour of the femoral head cannot be detected exclusively by computer if it is combined with a bipolar head or a metal cup. We therefore hypothesized that the contour of the outer head of bipolar hemiarthroplasty can be included in the EGS model as well as the femoral head contour. We calculated the time required for the detection of the contour, the precision of analysis and the stem micromotion at 2 years using the two different methods in the same picture set and compared the results. The detection of the bipolar head contour was 10 times faster than that of the femoral head contour. The precision for subsidence was 0.16 mm in EGS RSA with the femoral head contour, and 0.15 mm with the bipolar head contour (p=0.68). The precisions were comparable and clinically acceptable. There was no significant difference between the results of the 2-year micromotion with the two different methods. We conclude that this new method is applicable to measure stem micromotion of hemi-arthroplasty with EGS RSA and the method facilitates the Radiostereometric analysis.

  7. Linear versus geometric morphometric approaches for the analysis of head shape dimorphism in lizards.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Anne-Claire; Cornette, Raphäel; Huyghe, Katleen; Andrade, Denis V; Herrel, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    Differences between the sexes may arise because of differences in reproductive strategy, with females investing more in traits related to reproductive output and males investing more in traits related to resource holding capacity and territory defence. Sexual dimorphism is widespread in lizards and in many species males and females also differ in head shape. Males typically have bigger heads than females resulting in intersexual differences in bite force. Whereas most studies documenting differences in head dimensions between sexes use linear dimensions, the use of geometric morphometrics has been advocated as more appropriate to characterize such differences. This method may allow the characterization of local shape differences that may have functional consequences, and provides unbiased indicators of shape. Here, we explore whether the two approaches provide similar results in an analyses of head shape in Tupinambis merianae. The Argentine black and white tegu differs dramatically in body size, head size, and bite force between the sexes. However, whether the intersexual differences in bite force are simply the result of differences in head size or whether more subtle modifications (e.g., in muscle insertion areas) are involved remains currently unknown. Based on the crania and mandibles of 19 lizards with known bite force, we show intersexual differences in the shape of the cranium and mandible using both linear and geometric morphometric approaches. Although both types of analyses showed generally similar results for the mandible, this was not the case for the cranium. Geometric morphometric approaches provided better insights into the underlying functional relationships between the cranium and the jaw musculature, as illustrated by shape differences in muscle insertion areas not detected using linear morphometric data.

  8. X-y interactions underlie sperm head abnormality in hybrid male house mice.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Polly; Nachman, Michael W

    2014-04-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in house mice is complex, highly polygenic, and strongly X linked. Previous work suggested that there might be interactions between the Mus musculus musculus X and the M. m. domesticus Y with a large negative effect on sperm head morphology in hybrid males with an F1 autosomal background. To test this, we introgressed the M. m. domesticus Y onto a M. m. musculus background and measured the change in sperm morphology, testis weight, and sperm count across early backcross generations and in 11th generation backcross males in which the opportunity for X-autosome incompatibilities is effectively eliminated. We found that abnormality in sperm morphology persists in M. m. domesticus Y introgression males, and that this phenotype is rescued by M. m. domesticus introgressions on the X chromosome. In contrast, the severe reductions in testis weight and sperm count that characterize F1 males were eliminated after one generation of backcrossing. These results indicate that X-Y incompatibilities contribute specifically to sperm morphology. In contrast, X-autosome incompatibilities contribute to low testis weight, low sperm count, and sperm morphology. Restoration of normal testis weight and sperm count in first generation backcross males suggests that a small number of complex incompatibilities between loci on the M. m. musculus X and the M. m. domesticus autosomes underlie F1 male sterility. Together, these results provide insight into the genetic architecture of F1 male sterility and help to explain genome-wide patterns of introgression across the house mouse hybrid zone.

  9. Binocular vision and abnormal head posture in children when watching television

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Di; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Dai, Shu-Zhen; Peng, Hai-Ying; Wang, Li-Ya

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the association between the binocular vision and an abnormal head posture (AHP) when watching television (TV) in children 7-14y of age. METHODS Fifty normal children in the normal group and 52 children with an AHP when watching TV in the AHP group were tested for spherical equivalents, far and near fusional convergence (FC) and fusional divergence (FD) amplitudes, near point of convergence, far and near heterophoria, accommodative convergence/ accommodation ratio and stereoacuity. The values of these tests were compared between the two groups. The independent t test was applied at a confidence level of 95%. RESULTS The far and near FC amplitudes and far FD amplitudes were lower in the AHP group (the far FC amplitudes: break point 13.6±5.4Δ, recovery point 8.7±5.4Δ. The near FC amplitudes: break point 14.5±7.3Δ, recovery point 10.3±5.1Δ. The far FD amplitudes: break point 3.9±2.7Δ, recovery point 2.6±2.3Δ) compared with those in the normal group (the far FC amplitudes: break point 19.1±6.2Δ, recovery point 12.4±4.5Δ. The near FC amplitudes: break point 22.3±8.0Δ, recovery point 16.1±5.7Δ. The far FD amplitudes: break point 7.0±2.1Δ, recovery point 4.6±1.9Δ). Other tests presented no statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION An association between the reduced FC and FD amplitudes and the AHP in children when watching TV is proposed in the study. This kind of AHP is considered to be an anomalous manifestation which appears in a part of puerile patients of fusional vergence dysfunction. PMID:27275434

  10. X–Y Interactions Underlie Sperm Head Abnormality in Hybrid Male House Mice

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Polly; Nachman, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in house mice is complex, highly polygenic, and strongly X linked. Previous work suggested that there might be interactions between the Mus musculus musculus X and the M. m. domesticus Y with a large negative effect on sperm head morphology in hybrid males with an F1 autosomal background. To test this, we introgressed the M. m. domesticus Y onto a M. m. musculus background and measured the change in sperm morphology, testis weight, and sperm count across early backcross generations and in 11th generation backcross males in which the opportunity for X–autosome incompatibilities is effectively eliminated. We found that abnormality in sperm morphology persists in M. m. domesticus Y introgression males, and that this phenotype is rescued by M. m. domesticus introgressions on the X chromosome. In contrast, the severe reductions in testis weight and sperm count that characterize F1 males were eliminated after one generation of backcrossing. These results indicate that X–Y incompatibilities contribute specifically to sperm morphology. In contrast, X–autosome incompatibilities contribute to low testis weight, low sperm count, and sperm morphology. Restoration of normal testis weight and sperm count in first generation backcross males suggests that a small number of complex incompatibilities between loci on the M. m. musculus X and the M. m. domesticus autosomes underlie F1 male sterility. Together, these results provide insight into the genetic architecture of F1 male sterility and help to explain genome-wide patterns of introgression across the house mouse hybrid zone. PMID:24504187

  11. Brain strain uncertainty due to shape variation in and simplification of head angular velocity profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Ji, Songbai

    2017-04-01

    Head angular velocity, instead of acceleration, is more predictive of brain strains. Surprisingly, no study exists that investigates how shape variation in angular velocity profiles affects brain strains, beyond characteristics such as peak magnitude and impulse duration. In this study, we evaluated brain strain uncertainty due to variation in angular velocity profiles and further compared with that resulting from simplifying the profiles into idealized shapes. To do so, we used reconstructed head impacts from American National Football League for shape extraction and simulated head uniaxial coronal rotations from onset to full stop. The velocity profiles were scaled to maintain an identical peak velocity magnitude and duration in order to isolate the shape for investigation. Element-wise peak maximum principal strains from 44 selected impacts were obtained. We found that the shape of angular velocity profile could significantly affect brain strain magnitude (e.g., percentage difference of 4.29-17.89 % in the whole brain relative to the group average, with cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) uncertainty range of 23.9 %) but not pattern (correlation coefficient of 0.94-0.99). Strain differences resulting from simplifying angular velocity profiles into idealized shapes were largely within the range due to shape variation, in both percentage difference and CSDM (signed difference of 3.91 % on average, with a typical range of 0-6 %). These findings provide important insight into the uncertainty or confidence in the performance of kinematics-based injury metrics. More importantly, they suggest the feasibility to simplify head angular velocity profiles into idealized shapes, at least within the confinements of the profiles evaluated, to enable real-time strain estimation via pre-computation in the future.

  12. Head-and-face shape variations of U.S. civilian workers.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Shu, Chang; Xi, Pengcheng; Bergman, Michael; Joseph, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify head-and-face shape variations of U.S. civilian workers using modern methods of shape analysis. The purpose of this study was based on previously highlighted changes in U.S. civilian worker head-and-face shape over the last few decades - touting the need for new and better fitting respirators - as well as the study's usefulness in designing more effective personal protective equipment (PPE) - specifically in the field of respirator design. The raw scan three-dimensional (3D) data for 1169 subjects were parameterized using geometry processing techniques. This process allowed the individual scans to be put in correspondence with each other in such a way that statistical shape analysis could be performed on a dense set of 3D points. This process also cleaned up the original scan data such that the noise was reduced and holes were filled in. The next step, statistical analysis of the variability of the head-and-face shape in the 3D database, was conducted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) techniques. Through these analyses, it was shown that the space of the head-and-face shape was spanned by a small number of basis vectors. Less than 50 components explained more than 90% of the variability. Furthermore, the main mode of variations could be visualized through animating the shape changes along the PCA axes with computer software in executable form for Windows XP. The results from this study in turn could feed back into respirator design to achieve safer, more efficient product style and sizing. Future study is needed to determine the overall utility of the point cloud-based approach for the quantification of facial morphology variation and its relationship to respirator performance.

  13. Use of water pillows in reducing head shape distortion in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Schwirian, P M; Eesley, T; Cuellar, L

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a water-pillow treatment in reducing bilateral head flattening of preterm infants. The subjects were 21 healthy infants of less than 36 weeks gestational+ age. Care of the experimental babies included supporting the head on a small water pillow and supporting the torso at the same level to avoid flexion or curvature of the spine; the control group received customary care. The ratios of the anterior-posterior diameter to the biparietal diameter were significantly different for the two groups (p less than .0005). The heads of the control infants became flattened on both sides, while those of the experimental babies maintained the round shape they had at admission to the unit. The findings support the use of a small water pillow, in combination with support for the torso, as a means of alleviating bilateral head flattening in preterm infants.

  14. Affect of Shape Abnormality in Foot and Toenail on Tumbling of Aged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Nomoto, Yohei; Umezawa, Jun; Miyagawa, Haruki; Kawasumi, Masashi; Koyama, Hironori; Saito, Masao

    There is the increasing concern of the society to prevent the tumbling of the aged. The study of the static, as well as dynamic aspects, such as the muscular strength of the lower-limb and the postural stability, should be developed, especially from the viewpoint of the aged. This paper focuses on the external observation of the foot and toenail, as being correlated to the physical functions of the lower-limb against tumbling. The lower-limb functions are evaluated in terms of the 10 m walking time, the toe-gap force and single-foot standing period. The correlation to the personal tumbling experiences is also examined. It is seen that the groups, which exhibit external abnormalities in the foot and the toenail, generally decline in the muscular strength and postural stability. They also have more frequent tumbling experiences and express in their concern of the danger of tumbling. It seems that those shapes abnormalities can indicate, to some extent, the tumbling danger of the aged.

  15. Functional aspects of metatarsal head shape in humans, apes, and Old World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Peter J; Almécija, Sergio; Patel, Biren A; Orr, Caley M; Tocheri, Matthew W; Jungers, William L

    2015-09-01

    Modern human metatarsal heads are typically described as "dorsally domed," mediolaterally wide, and dorsally flat. Despite the apparent functional importance of these features in forefoot stability during bipedalism, the distinctiveness of this morphology has not been quantitatively evaluated within a broad comparative framework. In order to use these features to reconstruct fossil hominin locomotor behaviors with any confidence, their connection to human bipedalism should be validated through a comparative analysis of other primates with different locomotor behaviors and foot postures, including species with biomechanical demands potentially similar to those of bipedalism (e.g., terrestrial digitigrady). This study explores shape variation in the distal metatarsus among humans and other extant catarrhines using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics (3 DGM). Shape differences among species in metatarsal head morphology are well captured by the first two principal components of Procrustes shape coordinates, and these two components summarize most of the variance related to "dorsal doming" and "dorsal expansion." Multivariate statistical tests reveal significant differences among clades in overall shape, and humans are reliably distinguishable from other species by aspects of shape related to a greater degree of dorsal doming. Within quadrupeds, terrestrial species also trend toward more domed metatarsal heads, but not to the extent seen in humans. Certain aspects of distal metatarsus shape are likely related to habitual dorsiflexion of the metatarsophalangeal joints, but the total morphological pattern seen in humans is distinct. These comparative results indicate that this geometric morphometric approach is useful to characterize the complexity of metatarsal head morphology and will help clarify its relationship with function in fossil primates, including early hominins.

  16. Covariation between human pelvis shape, stature, and head size alleviates the obstetric dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Barbara; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Compared with other primates, childbirth is remarkably difficult in humans because the head of a human neonate is large relative to the birth-relevant dimensions of the maternal pelvis. It seems puzzling that females have not evolved wider pelvises despite the high maternal mortality and morbidity risk connected to childbirth. Despite this seeming lack of change in average pelvic morphology, we show that humans have evolved a complex link between pelvis shape, stature, and head circumference that was not recognized before. The identified covariance patterns contribute to ameliorate the “obstetric dilemma.” Females with a large head, who are likely to give birth to neonates with a large head, possess birth canals that are shaped to better accommodate large-headed neonates. Short females with an increased risk of cephalopelvic mismatch possess a rounder inlet, which is beneficial for obstetrics. We suggest that these covariances have evolved by the strong correlational selection resulting from childbirth. Although males are not subject to obstetric selection, they also show part of these association patterns, indicating a genetic–developmental origin of integration. PMID:25902498

  17. Shaping of looped miniaturized chalcogenide fiber sensing heads for mid-infrared sensing.

    PubMed

    Houizot, Patrick; Anne, Marie-Laure; Boussard-Plédel, Catherine; Loréal, Olivier; Tariel, Hugues; Lucas, Jacques; Bureau, Bruno

    2014-09-26

    Chalcogenide glass fibers are promising photonic tools to develop Fiber Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy (FEWS) optical sensors working in the mid-infrared region. Numerous pioneering works have already been carried out showing their efficiency, especially for bio-medical applications. Nevertheless, this technology remains confined to academic studies at the laboratory scale because chalcogenide glass fibers are difficult to shape to produce reliable, sensitive and compact sensors. In this paper, a new method for designing and fabricating a compact and robust sensing head with a selenide glass fiber is described. Compact looped sensing heads with diameter equal to 2 mm were thus shaped. This represents an outstanding achievement considering the brittleness of such uncoated fibers. FEWS experiments were implemented using alcoholic solutions as target samples showing that the sensitivity is higher than with the routinely used classical fiber. It is also shown that the best compromise in term of sensitivity is to fabricate a sensing head including two full loops. From a mechanical point of view, the breaking loads of the loop shaped head are also much higher than with classical fiber. Finally, this achievement paves the way for the use of mid-infrared technology during in situ and even in vivo medical operations. Indeed, is is now possible to slide a chalcogenide glass fiber in the operating channel of a standard 2.8 mm diameter catheter.

  18. Shaping of Looped Miniaturized Chalcogenide Fiber Sensing Heads for Mid-Infrared Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Houizot, Patrick; Anne, Marie-Laure; Boussard-Plédel, Catherine; Loréal, Olivier; Tariel, Hugues; Lucas, Jacques; Bureau, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Chalcogenide glass fibers are promising photonic tools to develop Fiber Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy (FEWS) optical sensors working in the mid-infrared region. Numerous pioneering works have already been carried out showing their efficiency, especially for bio-medical applications. Nevertheless, this technology remains confined to academic studies at the laboratory scale because chalcogenide glass fibers are difficult to shape to produce reliable, sensitive and compact sensors. In this paper, a new method for designing and fabricating a compact and robust sensing head with a selenide glass fiber is described. Compact looped sensing heads with diameter equal to 2 mm were thus shaped. This represents an outstanding achievement considering the brittleness of such uncoated fibers. FEWS experiments were implemented using alcoholic solutions as target samples showing that the sensitivity is higher than with the routinely used classical fiber. It is also shown that the best compromise in term of sensitivity is to fabricate a sensing head including two full loops. From a mechanical point of view, the breaking loads of the loop shaped head are also much higher than with classical fiber. Finally, this achievement paves the way for the use of mid-infrared technology during in situ and even in vivo medical operations. Indeed, is is now possible to slide a chalcogenide glass fiber in the operating channel of a standard 2.8 mm diameter catheter. PMID:25264953

  19. Abnormal Development of the Femoral Head Epiphysis in an Infant with no Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Apparent on Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Atalar, Hakan; Gunay, Cuneyd; Aytekin, Mahmut Nedim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the investigation of hip development in newborns and infants, ultrasonography and radiography are widely used, but their optimal roles in this setting remain controversial. Case Report: Here we describe an 8.5-month-old infant who had undergone hip radiography at a primary care facility and was referred to our hospital to be evaluated for developmental dysplasia of the hip. Ultrasonography showed no developmental dysplasia of the hip according to standard criteria, but developmental retardation of the femoral head was apparent on the radiograph. Conclusion: This patient's findings demonstrate that abnormalities in femoral head epiphysis development can go undetected during routine ultrasonographic evaluations for developmental dysplasia of the hip. PMID:27298982

  20. An Investigation of Horizontal Combined Eye-Head Tracking in Patients with Abnormal Vestibular and Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, William P.; Leigh, R. John; Seidman, Scott H.; Billian, Carl

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the interaction of smooth ocular pursuit (SP) and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during horizontal, combined eye-head tracking (CEHT) in patients with abnormalities of either the VOR or SP movements. Our strategy was to apply transient stimuli that capitalized on the different latencies to onset of SP and the VOR. During CEHT of a target moving at 15 deg/sec, normal subjects and patients with VOR deficits all tracked the target with a gain close to 1.O. When the heads of normal subjects were suddenly and unexpectedly braked to a halt during CEHT, the eye promptly began to move in the orbit to track the target, but eye-in-orbit velocity transiently fell to about 60-70% of target velocity. In patients with deficient labyrinthine function, following the onset of the head brake, eye movements to track the target were absent, and SP movements were not generated until about 100 msec later. In patients with deficient SP, CEHT was superior to SP tracking with the head stationary; after the onset of the head brake, tracking eye movements were initiated promptly, but eye velocity was less than 50% of target velocity and increased only slightly thereafter. These results indicate that at least two mechanisms operate to overcome the VOR and allow gaze to track the target during CEHT: (1) the SP system provides a signal to cancel a normally-operating VOR (this cancellation signal is not needed by labyrinthine-deficient patients who have no VOR to cancel), and (2) a reduction of the gain of the VOR is achieved, an ability that is preserved even in patients with cerebral lesions that impair SP.

  1. Sexual size and shape dimorphism and allometric scaling patterns in head traits in the New Zealand common gecko Woodworthia maculatus.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Clint D

    2015-08-01

    Sexual dimorphism in shape and size is widespread across animal taxa and arises when natural or sexual selection operates differently on the sexes. Male and female common geckos (Woodworthia maculatus; formerly Hoplodactylus maculatus) in New Zealand do not appear to experience different viability selection pressure, nor do males appear to be under intense pre-copulatory sexual selection. It was therefore predicted that this species would be sexually monomorphic with regard to body size and the size and shape of the head. In line with the prediction, there was no sexual difference in head width, depth, or length or in lateral head shape. However, contrary to prediction, males had a larger body and lateral head size than females. This study suggests that males, at least on Maud Island, NZ, might be under stronger pre-copulatory sexual selection than previously recognized and thus have evolved larger heads (i.e. lateral head size) for use in male combat for females. Allometric scaling patterns do not differ between the sexes and suggest that head width and depth are under directional selection whereas lateral head size is under stabilizing selection. Diet ecology - an agent of natural selection common to both sexes - is likely largely responsible for the observed patterns of head size and shape and the lack of sexual dimorphism in them.

  2. Scrotal insulation and its relationship to abnormal morphology, chromatin protamination and nuclear shape of spermatozoa in Holstein-Friesian and Belgian Blue bulls.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Bozlur; Vandaele, Leen; Rijsselaere, Tom; Maes, Dominiek; Hoogewijs, Maarten; Frijters, Adrie; Noordman, Jakomien; Granados, Ana; Dernelle, Eric; Shamsuddin, Mohammed; Parrish, John J; Van Soom, Ann

    2011-10-15

    The objectives of this study were to identify the stages of spermatogenesis susceptible to elevated testicular temperature in terms of sperm motility, viability, morphology, chromatin protamination and nuclear shape. The latter two valuable parameters are not included in routine semen analysis. Scrotal insulation (SI) was applied for 48 h in 2 Holstein-Friesian (HF) and 2 Belgian Blue (BB) bulls and semen was collected at 7 d intervals along with semen collection of a non-insulated bull of each breed. Semen samples were frozen and assigned to 4 groups: period 1 (preinsulation) = -7 d and 0 d, where 0 d = initiation of SI after semen collection; period 2 = 7 d (sperm presumed in the epididymis during SI); period 3 = 14 d to 42 d (cells presumed at spermiogenesis and meiosis stages during SI); period 4 = 49 d to 63 d (cells presumed at spermatocytogenesis stage during SI). The percentages of progressively motile and viable spermatozoa as assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) and fluorescence microscopy, respectively were decreased whereas abnormal sperm heads, nuclear vacuoles and tail defects were increased at period 3 (P < 0.05) compared to period 1, 2 or 4 in SI bulls of both HF and BB breeds. Protamine deficient spermatozoa as observed by chromomycin A(3) (CMA(3)) staining were more present (P < 0.05) at period 2 and 3 in both breeds compared to period 1 or 4. Sperm nuclear shape as determined by Fourier harmonic amplitude (FHA) was most affected by heat stress during period 3 (P < 0.01) and a higher response was observed in BB bulls than HF bulls. In conclusion, sperm cells at the spermiogenic and meiotic stages of development are more susceptible to heat stress. The lack of chromatin protamination is the most pertinent result of heat stress, together with subtle changes in sperm head shape, which can be detected by FHA but not by conventional semen analysis.

  3. Metabolic abnormalities associated with weight loss during chemoirradiation of head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Alexander; Jabbari, Siavash; Worden, Francis P.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Nyquist, Gurston G.; Tsien, Christina; Schipper, Matthew J.; Urba, Susan . E-mail: eisbruch@umich.edu

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: Weight loss caused by acute mucositis and dysphagia is common during concurrent chemoirradiation (chemo-RT) of head-and-neck (HN) cancer. The metabolic consequences of weight loss during chemo-RT were investigated. Patients and Methods: Ninety-six patients with locally advanced HN cancer were treated from 1995 to 2001 on protocols that consisted of 1 to 2 cycles of induction cisplatin/5-fluorouracil followed by irradiation (70 Gy over 7 weeks) concurrent with cisplatin (100 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 weeks). Body weights and metabolic evaluations were obtained before and during induction chemotherapy and chemo-RT. Greatest percent changes in weight and in the laboratory values were calculated for each phase of therapy. Results: During induction chemotherapy, significant changes were found in BUN, BUN:creatinine ratio, HCO{sub 3}, Mg, and albumin, but not in creatinine, Na, K, or weight. During chemo-RT, significant additional changes were observed in all parameters measured, including increases in BUN, creatinine, BUN: creatinine ratio, and HCO{sub 3} and decreases in Mg, albumin, Na, K, and weight. The magnitude of most of these changes was significantly greater during chemo-RT than during induction chemotherapy. During chemo-RT, 35% of the patients had more than 10% body weight loss and 6 patients had an increase in creatinine of more than 100%, including 5 patients with Grade 2 nephrotoxicity, all of whom had weight loss 10% or more. Significant correlations were found between weight loss and creatinine (p < 0.0001) or BUN (p = 0.0002) rises, but not with BUN:creatinine ratio or other metabolic changes. Age, gender, tobacco history, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of nephrotoxicity. Conclusions: Weight loss during cisplatin-containing chemo-RT was found to be associated with reduced kidney function. These findings do not establish cause-effect relationships; however, they highlight the importance of intensive supportive

  4. Rapidly re-computable EEG (electroencephalography) forward models for realistic head shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Ermer, J. J.; Mosher, J. C.; Baillet, S.; Leahy, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Solution of the EEG source localization (inverse) problem utilizing model-based methods typically requires a significant number of forward model evaluations. For subspace based inverse methods like MUSIC [6], the total number of forward model evaluations can often approach an order of 10{sup 3} or 10{sup 4}. Techniques based on least-squares minimization may require significantly more evaluations. The observed set of measurements over an M-sensor array is often expressed as a linear forward spatio-temporal model of the form: F = GQ + N (1) where the observed forward field F (M-sensors x N-time samples) can be expressed in terms of the forward model G, a set of dipole moment(s) Q (3xP-dipoles x N-time samples) and additive noise N. Because of their simplicity, ease of computation, and relatively good accuracy, multi-layer spherical models [7] (or fast approximations described in [1], [7]) have traditionally been the 'forward model of choice' for approximating the human head. However, approximation of the human head via a spherical model does have several key drawbacks. By its very shape, the use of a spherical model distorts the true distribution of passive currents in the skull cavity. Spherical models also require that the sensor positions be projected onto the fitted sphere (Fig. 1), resulting in a distortion of the true sensor-dipole spatial geometry (and ultimately the computed surface potential). The use of a single 'best-fitted' sphere has the added drawback of incomplete coverage of the inner skull region, often ignoring areas such as the frontal cortex. In practice, this problem is typically countered by fitting additional sphere(s) to those region(s) not covered by the primary sphere. The use of these additional spheres results in added complication to the forward model. Using high-resolution spatial information obtained via X-ray CT or MR imaging, a realistic head model can be formed by tessellating the head into a set of contiguous regions (typically the

  5. Abnormal white matter integrity related to head impact exposure in a season of high school varsity football.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Elizabeth M; Whitlow, Christopher T; Urban, Jillian E; Espeland, Mark A; Jung, Youngkyoo; Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Gioia, Gerard A; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D; Maldjian, Joseph A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the cumulative effects of head impacts from a season of high school football produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measureable changes in the brain in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussion. Players from a local high school football team were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS™) during all practices and games. All players received pre- and postseason MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was also conducted. Total impacts and risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWE), including linear (RWELinear), rotational (RWERotational), and combined components (RWECP), were computed from the sensor data. Fractional, linear, planar, and spherical anisotropies (FA, CL, CP, and CS, respectively), as well as mean diffusivity (MD), were used to determine total number of abnormal white matter voxels defined as 2 standard deviations above or below the group mean. Delta (post-preseason) ImPACT scores for each individual were computed and compared to the DTI measures using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. None of the players analyzed experienced clinical concussion (N=24). Regression analysis revealed a statistically significant linear relationship between RWECP and FA. Secondary analyses demonstrated additional statistically significant linear associations between RWE (RWECP and RWELinear) and all DTI measures. There was also a strong correlation between DTI measures and change in Verbal Memory subscore of the ImPACT. We demonstrate that a single season of football can produce brain MRI changes in the absence of clinical concussion. Similar brain MRI changes have been previously associated with mild traumatic brain injury.

  6. Endotracheal intubation with flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy in patients with abnormal anatomic conditions of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Elizondo, Eduardo; Navarro, Francisco; Pérez-Romo, Alfredo; Ortega, Concepción; Muñoz, Heberto; Cicero, Raúl

    2007-11-01

    We performed a retrospective chart review to evaluate the indications for endotracheal intubation via flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy in patients who were scheduled for surgery or who were hospitalized in the intensive care unit of our 1100-bed, tertiary care university hospital. We reviewed 9201 clinical records of anesthetic procedures during which endotracheal intubation had been performed from January to December 2002. We identified 66 patients who had been intubated with flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. On preanesthetic examination, 61 of these patients had been found to be poor candidates for conventional laryngoscopic intubation-51 because of abnormal head and neck anatomy and 10 because of reduced visual access to the airway (Mallampati class IV). The remaining 5 patients were intubated via flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy after conventional intubation had failed during emergency surgery. Our study emphasizes (1) the importance of the preanesthetic examination of surgical patients, to identify those in whom conventional intubation would likely be problematic, and (2) the need to have fiberoptic bronchoscopes and an anesthesiologist or bronchoscopist skilled in their use available in operating suites and intensive care units.

  7. Linear headache: a recurrent unilateral head pain circumscribed in a line-shaped area

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A headache circumscribed in a line-shaped area but not confined to the territory of one particular nerve had ever been described in Epicrania Fugax (EF) of which the head pain is moving and ultrashort. In a 25-month period from Feb 2012 to Mar 2014, we encountered 12 patients with a paroxysmal motionless head pain restricted in a linear trajectory. The head pain trajectory was similar to that of EF, but its all other features obviously different from those of EF. We named this distinctive but undescribed type of headache linear headache (LH). Methods A detailed clinical feature of the headache was obtained in all cases to differentiate with EF, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) and cranial neuralgia. Similarities and differences in clinical features were compared between LH and migraine. Results The twelve LH patients (mean age 43.9 ± 12.2) complained of a recurrent, moderate to severe, distending (n = 9), pressure-like (n = 3) or pulsating (n = 3) pain within a strictly unilateral line-shaped area. The painful line is distributed from occipital or occipitocervical region to the ipsilateral eye (n = 5), forehead (n = 6) or parietal region (n = 1). The pain line has a trajecory similar to that of EF but no characteristics of moving. The headache duration would be ranged from five minutes to three days, but usually from half day to one day in most cases (n = 8). Six patients had the accompaniment of nausea with or without vomiting, and two patients had the accompaniment of ipsilateral dizziness. The attacks could be either spontaneous (n = 10) or triggered by noise, depression and resting after physical activity (n = 1), or by stress and staying up late (n = 1). The frequency of attacks was variable. The patients had well response to flunarizine, sodium valproate and amitriptyline but not to carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine. LH is different from EF, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) and cranial neuralgia, but it had couple of features similar

  8. Shape Analysis of 3D Head Scan Data for U.S. Respirator Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Slice, DennisE; Benson, Stacey; Lynch, Stephanie; Viscusi, DennisJ

    2010-12-01

    In 2003, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a head-and-face anthropometric survey of diverse, civilian respirator users. Of the 3,997 subjects measured using traditional anthropometric techniques, surface scans and 26 three-dimensional (3D) landmark locations were collected for 947 subjects. The objective of this study was to report the size and shape variation of the survey participants using the 3D data. Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) was conducted to standardize configurations of landmarks associated with individuals into a common coordinate system. The superimposed coordinates for each individual were used as commensurate variables that describe individual shape and were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to identify population variation. The first four principal components (PC) account for 49% of the total sample variation. The first PC indicates that overall size is an important component of facial variability. The second PC accounts for long and narrow or short and wide faces. Longer narrow orbits versus shorter wider orbits can be described by PC3, and PC4 represents variation in the degree of ortho/prognathism. Geometric Morphometrics provides a detailed and interpretable assessment of morphological variation that may be useful in assessing respirators and devising new test and certification standards.

  9. Automated classification of wall motion abnormalities by principal component analysis of endocardial shape motion patterns in echocardiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Johan G.; Nijland, Francisca; Mitchell, Steven C.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Kamp, Otto; Sonka, Milan; Reiber, Johan H. C.

    2003-05-01

    Principal Component Analysis of sets of temporal shape sequences renders eigenvariations of shape/motion, including typical normal and pathological endocardial contraction patterns. A previously developed Active Appearance Model for time sequences (AAMM) was employed to derive AAMM shape coefficients (ASCs) and we hypothesized these would allow classification of wall motion abnormalities (WMA). A set of stress echocardiograms (single-beat 4-chamber and 2-chamber sequences with expert-verified endocardial contours) of 129 infarct patients was split randomly into training (n=65) and testing (n=64) sets. AAMMs were generated from the training set and for all sequences ASCs were extracted and statistically related to regional/global Visual Wall Motion Scoring (VWMS) and clinical infarct severity and volumetric parameters. Linear regression showed clear correlations between ASCs and VWMS. Infarct severity measures correlated poorly to both ASCs and VWMS. Discriminant analysis showed good prediction from low #ASCs of both segmental (85% correctness) and global WMA (90% correctness). Volumetric parameters correlated poorly to regional VWMS. Conclusions: 1)ASCs show promising accuracy for automated WMA classification. 2)VWMS and endocardial border motion are closely related; with accurate automated border detection, automated WMA classification should be feasible. 3)ASC shape analysis allows contour set evaluation by direct comparison to clinical parameters.

  10. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer: effects of treatment with chemotherapy and radiation to the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffe, N.; Toth, B.B.; Hoar, R.E.; Ried, H.L.; Sullivan, M.P.; McNeese, M.D.

    1984-06-01

    Sixty-eight long-term survivors of childhood cancer were evaluated for dental and maxillofacial abnormalities. Forty-five patients had received maxillofacial radiation for lymphoma, leukemia, rhabdomyosarcoma, and miscellaneous tumors. Forty-three of the 45 patients and the remaining 23 who had not received maxillofacial radiation also received chemotherapy. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities were detected in 37 of the 45 (82%) radiated patients. Dental abnormalities comprised foreshortening and blunting of roots, incomplete calcification, premature closure of apices, delayed or arrested tooth development, and caries. Maxillofacial abnormalities comprised trismus, abnormal occlusal relationships, and facial deformities. The abnormalities were more severe in those patients who received radiation at an earlier age and at higher dosages. Possible chemotherapeutic effects in five of 23 patients who received treatment for tumors located outside the head and neck region comprised acquired amelogenesis imperfecta, microdontia of bicuspid teeth, and a tendency toward thinning of roots with an enlarged pulp chamber. Dental and maxillofacial abnormalities should be recognized as a major consequence of maxillofacial radiation in long-term survivors of childhood cancer, and attempts to minimize or eliminate such sequelae should involve an effective interaction between radiation therapists, and medical and dental oncologists.

  11. Intrauterine growth restricted piglets defined by their head shape ingest insufficient amounts of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Amdi, C; Krogh, U; Flummer, C; Oksbjerg, N; Hansen, C F; Theil, P K

    2013-12-01

    piglets. The present study showed that the physiology of piglets in the colostrum period was affected by IUGR status at birth and their intermediary metabolism was altered due to different colostrum intakes. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the head shape of newborn piglets is a good selection criteria for identifying piglets that need oral supplementation during the neonatal stage.

  12. Dependence of micelle size and shape on detergent alkyl chain length and head group.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Ryan C; Lipfert, Jan; Fox, Daniel A; Lo, Ryan H; Doniach, Sebastian; Columbus, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Micelle-forming detergents provide an amphipathic environment that can mimic lipid bilayers and are important tools for solubilizing membrane proteins for functional and structural investigations in vitro. However, the formation of a soluble protein-detergent complex (PDC) currently relies on empirical screening of detergents, and a stable and functional PDC is often not obtained. To provide a foundation for systematic comparisons between the properties of the detergent micelle and the resulting PDC, a comprehensive set of detergents commonly used for membrane protein studies are systematically investigated. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), micelle shapes and sizes are determined for phosphocholines with 10, 12, and 14 alkyl carbons, glucosides with 8, 9, and 10 alkyl carbons, maltosides with 8, 10, and 12 alkyl carbons, and lysophosphatidyl glycerols with 14 and 16 alkyl carbons. The SAXS profiles are well described by two-component ellipsoid models, with an electron rich outer shell corresponding to the detergent head groups and a less electron dense hydrophobic core composed of the alkyl chains. The minor axis of the elliptical micelle core from these models is constrained by the length of the alkyl chain, and increases by 1.2-1.5 Å per carbon addition to the alkyl chain. The major elliptical axis also increases with chain length; however, the ellipticity remains approximately constant for each detergent series. In addition, the aggregation number of these detergents increases by ∼16 monomers per micelle for each alkyl carbon added. The data provide a comprehensive view of the determinants of micelle shape and size and provide a baseline for correlating micelle properties with protein-detergent interactions.

  13. Erythrocyte Shape Abnormalities, Membrane Oxidative Damage, and β-Actin Alterations: An Unrecognized Triad in Classical Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Guerranti, Roberto; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Durand, Thierry; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Rossi, Marcello; Hayek, Joussef

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory, where the search for biological markers is of paramount importance. Although red blood cells (RBCs) membrane lipidomics and rheological variables have been reported to be altered, with some suggestions indicating an increased lipid peroxidation in the erythrocyte membrane, to date no information exists on how the oxidative membrane damage may affect cytoskeletal membrane proteins and, ultimately, RBCs shape in autism. Here, we investigated RBC morphology by scanning electron microscopy in patients with classical autism, that is, the predominant ASDs phenotype (age range: 6–26 years), nonautistic neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., “positive controls”), and healthy controls (i.e., “negative controls”). A high percentage of altered RBCs shapes, predominantly elliptocytes, was observed in autistic patients, but not in both control groups. The RBCs altered morphology in autistic subjects was related to increased erythrocyte membrane F2-isoprostanes and 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts. In addition, an oxidative damage of the erythrocyte membrane β-actin protein was evidenced. Therefore, the combination of erythrocyte shape abnormalities, erythrocyte membrane oxidative damage, and β-actin alterations constitutes a previously unrecognized triad in classical autism and provides new biological markers in the diagnostic workup of ASDs. PMID:24453417

  14. Erythrocyte shape abnormalities, membrane oxidative damage, and β-actin alterations: an unrecognized triad in classical autism.

    PubMed

    Ciccoli, Lucia; De Felice, Claudio; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Leoncini, Silvia; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Signorini, Cinzia; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Guerranti, Roberto; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Gentile, Mariangela; Zollo, Gloria; Durand, Thierry; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Rossi, Marcello; Hayek, Joussef

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory, where the search for biological markers is of paramount importance. Although red blood cells (RBCs) membrane lipidomics and rheological variables have been reported to be altered, with some suggestions indicating an increased lipid peroxidation in the erythrocyte membrane, to date no information exists on how the oxidative membrane damage may affect cytoskeletal membrane proteins and, ultimately, RBCs shape in autism. Here, we investigated RBC morphology by scanning electron microscopy in patients with classical autism, that is, the predominant ASDs phenotype (age range: 6-26 years), nonautistic neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., "positive controls"), and healthy controls (i.e., "negative controls"). A high percentage of altered RBCs shapes, predominantly elliptocytes, was observed in autistic patients, but not in both control groups. The RBCs altered morphology in autistic subjects was related to increased erythrocyte membrane F2-isoprostanes and 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts. In addition, an oxidative damage of the erythrocyte membrane β-actin protein was evidenced. Therefore, the combination of erythrocyte shape abnormalities, erythrocyte membrane oxidative damage, and β-actin alterations constitutes a previously unrecognized triad in classical autism and provides new biological markers in the diagnostic workup of ASDs.

  15. Shape abnormalities of subcortical and ventricular structures in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: detecting, quantifying, and predicting.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoying; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Younes, Laurent; Miller, Michael I

    2014-08-01

    This article assesses the feasibility of using shape information to detect and quantify the subcortical and ventricular structural changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We first demonstrate structural shape abnormalities in MCI and AD as compared with healthy controls (HC). Exploring the development to AD, we then divide the MCI participants into two subgroups based on longitudinal clinical information: (1) MCI patients who remained stable; (2) MCI patients who converted to AD over time. We focus on seven structures (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and lateral ventricles) in 754 MR scans (210 HC, 369 MCI of which 151 converted to AD over time, and 175 AD). The hippocampus and amygdala were further subsegmented based on high field 0.8 mm isotropic 7.0T scans for finer exploration. For MCI and AD, prominent ventricular expansions were detected and we found that these patients had strongest hippocampal atrophy occurring at CA1 and strongest amygdala atrophy at the basolateral complex. Mild atrophy in basal ganglia structures was also detected in MCI and AD. Stronger atrophy in the amygdala and hippocampus, and greater expansion in ventricles was observed in MCI converters, relative to those MCI who remained stable. Furthermore, we performed principal component analysis on a linear shape space of each structure. A subsequent linear discriminant analysis on the principal component values of hippocampus, amygdala, and ventricle leads to correct classification of 88% HC subjects and 86% AD subjects.

  16. Association of a Guardian’s Report of a Child Acting Abnormally With Traumatic Brain Injury After Minor Blunt Head Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Daniel K.; Holmes, James F.; Dayan, Peter S.; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Increased use of computed tomography (CT) in children is concerning owing to the cancer risk from ionizing radiation, particularly in children younger than 2 years. A guardian report that a child is acting abnormally is a risk factor for clinically important traumatic brain injury (ciTBI) and may be a driving factor for CT use in the emergency department. OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of ciTBIs and TBIs in children younger than 2 years with minor blunt head trauma and a guardian report of acting abnormally with (1) no other findings or (2) other concerning findings for TBI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Secondary analysis of a large, prospective, multicenter cohort study that included 43 399 children younger than 18 years with minor blunt head trauma evaluated in 25 emergency departments. The study was conducted on data obtained between June 2004 and September 2006. Data analysis was performed between August 21, 2014, and March 9, 2015. EXPOSURES A guardian report that the child was acting abnormally after minor blunt head trauma. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The prevalence of ciTBI (defined as death, neurosurgery, intubation for >24 hours, or hospitalization for ≥2 nights in association with TBI on CT imaging) and TBI on CT imaging in children with a guardian report of acting abnormally with (1) no other findings and (2) other concerning findings for TBI. RESULTS Of 43 399 children in the cohort study, a total of 1297 children had reports of acting abnormally, of whom 411 (31.7%) had this report as their only finding. Reported as percentage (95% CI), 1 of 411 (0.2% [0–1.3%]) had a ciTBI, and 4 TBIs were noted on the CT scans in 185 children who underwent imaging (2.2% [0.6%–5.4%]). In children with reports of acting abnormally and other concerning findings for TBI, 29 of 886 (3.3% [2.2%–4.7%]) had ciTBIs and 66 of 674 (9.8% [7.7%–12.3%]) had TBIs on CT. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Clinically important TBIs are very uncommon, and TBIs

  17. Ontogeny of head and caudal fin shape of an apex marine predator: The tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier).

    PubMed

    Fu, Amy L; Hammerschlag, Neil; Lauder, George V; Wilga, Cheryl D; Kuo, Chi-Yun; Irschick, Duncan J

    2016-05-01

    How morphology changes with size can have profound effects on the life history and ecology of an animal. For apex predators that can impact higher level ecosystem processes, such changes may have consequences for other species. Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are an apex predator in tropical seas, and, as adults, are highly migratory. However, little is known about ontogenetic changes in their body form, especially in relation to two aspects of shape that influence locomotion (caudal fin) and feeding (head shape). We captured digital images of the heads and caudal fins of live tiger sharks from Southern Florida and the Bahamas ranging in body size (hence age), and quantified shape of each using elliptical Fourier analysis. This revealed changes in the shape of the head and caudal fin of tiger sharks across ontogeny. Smaller juvenile tiger sharks show an asymmetrical tail with the dorsal (upper) lobe being substantially larger than the ventral (lower) lobe, and transition to more symmetrical tail in larger adults, although the upper lobe remains relatively larger in adults. The heads of juvenile tiger sharks are more conical, which transition to relatively broader heads over ontogeny. We interpret these changes as a result of two ecological transitions. First, adult tiger sharks can undertake extensive migrations and a more symmetrical tail could be more efficient for swimming longer distances, although we did not test this possibility. Second, adult tiger sharks expand their diet to consume larger and more diverse prey with age (turtles, mammals, and elasmobranchs), which requires substantially greater bite area and force to process. In contrast, juvenile tiger sharks consume smaller prey, such as fishes, crustaceans, and invertebrates. Our data reveal significant morphological shifts in an apex predator, which could have effects for other species that tiger sharks consume and interact with.

  18. ZHOUPI controls embryonic cuticle formation via a signalling pathway involving the subtilisin protease ABNORMAL LEAF-SHAPE1 and the receptor kinases GASSHO1 and GASSHO2.

    PubMed

    Xing, Qian; Creff, Audrey; Waters, Andrew; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Goodrich, Justin; Ingram, Gwyneth C

    2013-02-01

    Seed production in angiosperms requires tight coordination of the development of the embryo and the endosperm. The endosperm-specific transcription factor ZHOUPI has previously been shown to play a key role in this process, by regulating both endosperm breakdown and the formation of the embryonic cuticle. To what extent these processes are functionally linked is, however, unclear. In order to address this issue we have concentrated on the subtilisin-like serine protease encoding gene ABNORMAL LEAF-SHAPE1. Expression of ABNORMAL LEAF-SHAPE1 is endosperm specific, and dramatically decreased in zhoupi mutants. We show that, although ABNORMAL LEAF-SHAPE1 is required for normal embryonic cuticle formation, it plays no role in regulating endosperm breakdown. Furthermore, we show that re-introducing ABNORMAL LEAF-SHAPE1 expression in the endosperm of zhoupi mutants partially rescues embryonic cuticle formation without rescuing their persistent endosperm phenotype. Thus, we conclude that ALE1 can normalize cuticle formation in the absence of endosperm breakdown, and that ZHOUPI thus controls two genetically separable developmental processes. Finally, our genetic study shows that ZHOUPI and ABNORMAL LEAF-SHAPE1 promotes formation of embryonic cuticle via a pathway involving embryonically expressed receptor kinases GASSHO1 and GASSHO2. We therefore provide a molecular framework of inter-tissue communication for embryo-specific cuticle formation during embryogenesis.

  19. An optimal set of landmarks for metopic craniosynostosis diagnosis from shape analysis of pediatric CT scans of the head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Carlos S.; Safdar, Nabile; Myers, Emmarie; Kittisarapong, Tanakorn; Rogers, Gary F.; Linguraru, Marius George

    2013-02-01

    Craniosynostosis (premature fusion of skull sutures) is a severe condition present in one of every 2000 newborns. Metopic craniosynostosis, accounting for 20-27% of cases, is diagnosed qualitatively in terms of skull shape abnormality, a subjective call of the surgeon. In this paper we introduce a new quantitative diagnostic feature for metopic craniosynostosis derived optimally from shape analysis of CT scans of the skull. We built a robust shape analysis pipeline that is capable of obtaining local shape differences in comparison to normal anatomy. Spatial normalization using 7-degree-of-freedom registration of the base of the skull is followed by a novel bone labeling strategy based on graph-cuts according to labeling priors. The statistical shape model built from 94 normal subjects allows matching a patient's anatomy to its most similar normal subject. Subsequently, the computation of local malformations from a normal subject allows characterization of the points of maximum malformation on each of the frontal bones adjacent to the metopic suture, and on the suture itself. Our results show that the malformations at these locations vary significantly (p<0.001) between abnormal/normal subjects and that an accurate diagnosis can be achieved using linear regression from these automatic measurements with an area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic of 0.97.

  20. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2015:chap 307. Review Date 2/22/2016 Updated by: Michael Kapner, DDS, general and aesthetic dentistry, Norwalk Medical Center, Norwalk, CT. Review provided by ...

  1. Automatic classification of squamosal abnormality in micro-CT images for the evaluation of rabbit fetal skull defects using active shape models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Antong; Dogdas, Belma; Mehta, Saurin; Bagchi, Ansuman; Wise, L. David; Winkelmann, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    High-throughput micro-CT imaging has been used in our laboratory to evaluate fetal skeletal morphology in developmental toxicology studies. Currently, the volume-rendered skeletal images are visually inspected and observed abnormalities are reported for compounds in development. To improve the efficiency and reduce human error of the evaluation, we implemented a framework to automate the evaluation process. The framework starts by dividing the skull into regions of interest and then measuring various geometrical characteristics. Normal/abnormal classification on the bone segments is performed based on identifying statistical outliers. In pilot experiments using rabbit fetal skulls, the majority of the skeletal abnormalities can be detected successfully in this manner. However, there are shape-based abnormalities that are relatively subtle and thereby difficult to identify using the geometrical features. To address this problem, we introduced a model-based approach and applied this strategy on the squamosal bone. We will provide details on this active shape model (ASM) strategy for the identification of squamosal abnormalities and show that this method improved the sensitivity of detecting squamosal-related abnormalities from 0.48 to 0.92.

  2. Visual quality inspection of capsule heads utilizing shape and gray information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Tie; Cai, Zhenlin; Jiang, Nan; Wu, Jiamei; Zhang, Xiangde

    2015-11-01

    Capsule quality inspection is important and necessary in the pharmaceutical industry. The popular methods often mis-detect capsule head defects. To solve this problem, we propose a high-quality visual defect inspection method for capsule heads. In detail, first, capsule head images are captured by high-speed cameras with ring illuminators. Then, radial symmetry transform (RST) is employed to locate region of interest (ROI). Next, the ROI image is enhanced by homomorphic filter and binarized by basic global thresholding. After that, six discriminative features of ROI are extracted, which are skeleton feature, binary density, number of connected boundaries, RST power, mean, and variance. Finally, these features are classified by support vector machine to inspect the quality of the capsule head. The experiment is carried out on a self-established capsule image database, Northeastern University Capsule Image Database Version 1.0. According to our experiment, the proposed method can detect ROI correctly for all of the capsule head images and inspection accuracy achieves a true positive rate of 100.00% and true negative rate of 100.00%.

  3. Ability of abnormally-shaped human spermatozoa to adhere to and penetrate zona-free hamster eggs: correlation with sperm morphology and postincubation motility.

    PubMed

    Bronson, Richard A; Bronson, Susan K; Oula, Lucila D

    2007-01-01

    A body of evidence indicates that morphologically abnormal human spermatozoa may exhibit impaired ability to fertilize. Yet teratospermia has widely varying etiologies, including associations with varicoceles, following fever, cigarette smoking, and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Abnormalities of sperm shape in mice have also been shown to be associated with autosomal gene mutations. These varying causes of teratospermia could have different molecular consequences reflected in altered sperm function. We studied the ability of morphologically abnormal human sperm to penetrate zona-free hamster eggs as a measure of their ability to undergo an acrosome reaction and gamete membrane fusion. Motile sperm from ejaculates containing 15% normal sperm or less, as judged by World Health Organization (1999) criteria, were recovered by ISolate density centrifugation and capacitated by overnight incubation. Zona-free hamster eggs were inseminated with 1 x 10(6) motile capacitated cells and scored for sperm penetration after 3 hours of coincubation. A significant trend was found between the percent of abnormal spermatozoa within the ejaculate and impaired egg-penetrating ability, reflected in the percent of eggs penetrated, the number of penetrating sperm per egg, and the number of sperm adherent to the oolemma. Because only acrosome-reacted human spermatozoa adhere to the oolemma, these results support the notion that abnormally shaped sperm may exhibit an impaired ability to undergo an acrosome reaction. A correlation was also noted between the loss of motility of sperm following overnight incubation and impairment of their ability to undergo gamete membrane fusion. These results confirm prior findings at the level of the zona pellucida that abnormally shaped sperm exhibit functional abnormalities. However, a wide variation was observed between men in the behavior of such sperm, including occasionally high rates of egg penetration. These observations suggest that

  4. MicroRNA319a-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TCP genes modulate head shape in chinese cabbage by differential cell division arrest in leaf regions.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yanfei; Wu, Feijie; Yu, Xiang; Bai, Jinjuan; Zhong, Weili; He, Yuke

    2014-02-01

    Leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are composed of extremely incurved leaves. The shape of these heads often dictates the quality, and thus the commercial value, of these crops. Using quantitative trait locus mapping of head traits within a population of 150 recombinant inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, we investigated the relationship between expression levels of microRNA-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, cycloidea, and PCF transcription factor4 (BrpTCP4) genes and head shape. Here, we demonstrate that a cylindrical head shape is associated with relatively low BrpTCP4-1 expression, whereas a round head shape is associated with high BrpTCP4-1 expression. In the round-type Chinese cabbage, microRNA319 (miR319) accumulation and BrpTCP4-1 expression decrease from the apical to central regions of leaves. Overexpression of BrpMIR319a2 reduced the expression levels of BrpTCP4 and resulted in an even distribution of BrpTCP4 transcripts within all leaf regions. Changes in temporal and spatial patterns of BrpTCP4 expression appear to be associated with excess growth of both apical and interveinal regions, straightened leaf tips, and a transition from the round to the cylindrical head shape. These results suggest that the miR319a-targeted BrpTCP gene regulates the round shape of leafy heads via differential cell division arrest in leaf regions. Therefore, the manipulation of miR319a and BrpTCP4 genes is a potentially important tool for use in the genetic improvement of head shape in these crops.

  5. Tracing Back to the Onset of Abnormal Head Circumference Growth in Italian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara; Apicella, Fabio; Filippi, Tiziana; Santocchi, Elisa; Calugi, Simona; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Narzisi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to describe head circumference (HC) developmental course during the first year of life in 50 Italian children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in a control group of 100 typically developing children (TD). To this end, we use anthropometric measurements (HC, body height, body weight) obtained at birth (T0), 1-2…

  6. New Phenomenon of Abnormal Auditory Perception Associated with Emotional and Head Trauma: Pathological Confirmation by SPECT Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephane, Massoud; Hill, Thomas; Matthew, Elizabeth; Folstein, Marshal

    2004-01-01

    We report the case of an immigrant who suffered from death threats and head trauma while a prisoner of war in Kuwait. Two months later, he began to hear conversations that had taken place previously. These perceptions occurred spontaneously or were induced by the patient's effortful concentration. The single photon emission computerized tomography…

  7. A non-invasive geometric morphometrics method for exploring variation in dorsal head shape in urodeles: sexual dimorphism and geographic variation in Salamandra salamandra.

    PubMed

    Alarcón-Ríos, Lucía; Velo-Antón, Guillermo; Kaliontzopoulou, Antigoni

    2017-04-01

    The study of morphological variation among and within taxa can shed light on the evolution of phenotypic diversification. In the case of urodeles, the dorso-ventral view of the head captures most of the ontogenetic and evolutionary variation of the entire head, which is a structure with a high potential for being a target of selection due to its relevance in ecological and social functions. Here, we describe a non-invasive procedure of geometric morphometrics for exploring morphological variation in the external dorso-ventral view of urodeles' head. To explore the accuracy of the method and its potential for describing morphological patterns we applied it to two populations of Salamandra salamandra gallaica from NW Iberia. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we detected differences in head shape between populations and sexes, and an allometric relationship between shape and size. We also determined that not all differences in head shape are due to size variation, suggesting intrinsic shape differences across sexes and populations. These morphological patterns had not been previously explored in S. salamandra, despite the high levels of intraspecific diversity within this species. The methodological procedure presented here allows to detect shape variation at a very fine scale, and solves the drawbacks of using cranial samples, thus increasing the possibilities of using collection specimens and alive animals for exploring dorsal head shape variation and its evolutionary and ecological implications in urodeles. J. Morphol. 278:475-485, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Length polymorphism and head shape association among genes with polyglutamine repeats in the stalk-eyed fly, Teleopsis dalmanni

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms of single amino acid repeats (SARPs) are a potential source of genetic variation for rapidly evolving morphological traits. Here, we characterize variation in and test for an association between SARPs and head shape, a trait under strong sexual selection, in the stalk-eyed fly, Teleopsis dalmanni. Using an annotated expressed sequence tag database developed from eye-antennal imaginal disc tissues in T. dalmanni we identified 98 genes containing nine or more consecutive copies of a single amino acid. We then quantify variation in length and allelic diversity for 32 codon and 15 noncodon repeat regions in a large outbred population. We also assessed the frequency with which amino acid repeats are either gained or lost by identifying sequence similarities between T. dalmanni SARP loci and their orthologs in Drosophila melanogaster. Finally, to identify SARP containing genes that may influence head development we conducted a two-generation association study after assortatively mating for extreme relative eyespan. Results We found that glutamine repeats occur more often than expected by amino acid abundance among 3,400 head development genes in T. dalmanni and D. melanogaster. Furthermore, glutamine repeats occur disproportionately in transcription factors. Loci with glutamine repeats exhibit heterozygosities and allelic diversities that do not differ from noncoding dinucleotide microsatellites, including greater variation among X-linked than autosomal regions. In the majority of cases, repeat tracts did not overlap between T. dalmanni and D. melanogaster indicating that large glutamine repeats are gained or lost frequently during Dipteran evolution. Analysis of covariance reveals a significant effect of parental genotype on mean progeny eyespan, with body length as a covariate, at six SARP loci [CG33692, ptip, band4.1 inhibitor LRP interactor, corto, 3531953:1, and ecdysone-induced protein 75B (Eip75B)]. Mixed model analysis of covariance using

  9. [Austin's horizontal V-shaped sliding osteotomy of the metatarsal head [Chevron-osteotomy) in the treatment of hallux valgus].

    PubMed

    Steinböck, G

    1996-08-01

    From 1983 to 1995, 1587 patients suffering from hallux abductovalgus were treated with the Austin bunionectomy. The operation consists of a medial exostosis removal, a V-shaped laterally directed displacement osteotomy of the metatarsal head, lateral release and medial reefing of the capsulo-ligamentous structures. Lateral transposition is facilitated by performing a sufficient lateral release consisting of dissection of the lateral metatarsophalangeal ligament and separation of the adductor tendon from the base of the phalanx and the lateral sesamoid. In the case of intermetatarsal angles greater than 15 degrees, the metatarsal-sesamoid ligament is also severed just above the lateral sesamoid. The periosteum is stripped in a limited fashion dorsally and toward the plantar, leaving its insertion at the metatarsal head intact. After this procedure, reposition of the metatarsal head onto the sesamoids is usually possible and is maintained by reconstruction of the medial metatarsal-sesamoid ligament. In the author's own research material, metatarsophalangeal angles larger than 50 degrees and intermetatarsal angles of over 20 degrees could be corrected. Pronation of the toe is usually corrected by tenotomy of the abductor tendon near the base of the phalanx. Avascular necrosis is extremely rare with a careful operative technique. In our extensive research material, four cases of AVN were recognized. Provided there is free motion of the joint (60-0-20), mild radiological signs of osteoarthritis are no contraindication for the operation. Even in the aged, good results can be achieved provided there are no trophic problems. The Austin bunionectomy has proved to be a versatile method for treating bunion problems. The possibility of transposing the metatarsal head laterally, toward the plantar, proximally and distally by altering the direction of the osteotomy, as well as tilting it medially or laterally, has made this osteotomy an invaluable tool for addressing various

  10. Head-shape polymorphism in Japanese eels Anguilla japonica in relation to differences of somatic growth in freshwater and brackish habitats.

    PubMed

    Kaifu, K; Yokouchi, K; Miller, M J; Aoyama, J; Tsukamoto, K

    2013-04-01

    The age, total length (L(T)), head shape and skull shape were investigated for 379 Japanese eels Anguilla japonica sampled in freshwater and brackish areas of the Kojima Bay-Asahi River system, Okayama, Japan, to learn about the differentiation process of head-shape polymorphism. The relative mouth width (ratio of mouth width to L(T)) of A. japonica > 400 mm L(T) collected in fresh water was significantly greater than that of fish collected in brackish water. Growth rates of mouth width and the distance from the snout to the midpoint of the eyes (the ratio of width and distance to age, respectively) were not significantly different between freshwater and brackish-water samples, whereas the somatic growth rate (the ratio of L(T) to age) of freshwater samples was significantly lower than that of brackish-water eel samples. These results suggest that the factors affecting head and somatic growth of A. japonica are not identical. According to these results and feeding patterns in each habitat reported by another study, it is suggested that somatic growth appears to play a significant role in the differentiation process of the head-shape polymorphism in A. japonica, with the slow-growing fish in fresh water becoming broad-headed and the fast-growing fish in brackish water becoming narrow-headed.

  11. Effects of environmental disturbance on phenotypic variation: an integrated assessment of canalization, developmental stability, modularity, and allometry in lizard head shape.

    PubMed

    Lazić, Marko M; Carretero, Miguel A; Crnobrnja-Isailović, Jelka; Kaliontzopoulou, Antigoni

    2015-01-01

    When populations experience suboptimal conditions, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of phenotypic variation can be challenged, resulting in increased phenotypic variance. This kind of disturbance can be diagnosed by using morphometric tools to study morphological patterns at different hierarchical levels and evaluate canalization, developmental stability, integration, modularity, and allometry. We assess the effect of urbanization on phenotypic variation in the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) by using geometric morphometrics to assess disturbance to head shape development. The head shapes of urban lizards were more variable and less symmetric, suggesting that urban living is more likely to disturb development. Head shape variation was congruent within and across individuals, which indicated that canalization and developmental stability are two related phenomena in these organisms. Furthermore, urban lizards exhibited smaller mean head sizes, divergent size-shape allometries, and increased deviation from within-group allometric lines. This suggests that mechanisms regulating head shape allometry may also be disrupted. The integrated evaluation of several measures of developmental instability at different hierarchical levels, which provided in this case congruent results, can be a powerful methodological guide for future studies, as it enhances the detection of environmental disturbances on phenotypic variation and aids biological interpretation of the results.

  12. Ex vivo viscoelastic characterization of head and neck tissue abnormalities using ultrasound-stimulated vibro-acoustography (USVA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccabi, Ashkan; Garritano, James; Arshi, Armin; Saddik, George; Tajudeen, Bobby A.; St. John, Maie; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2014-03-01

    In the absence of an imaging technique that offers a highly dynamic range detection of malignant tissue intra-operatively, surgeons are often forced to excise excess healthy tissue to ensure clear margins of resection. Techniques that are currently used in the detection of tumor regions include palpation, optical coherence tomography (OCT) elastography, dye injections, and conventional ultrasound to pinpoint the affected area. However, these methods suffer from limitations such as minimal specificity, low contrast, and limited depth of penetration. Lack of specificity and low contrast result in the production of vague disease margins and fail to provide a reliable guidance tool for surgeons. The proposed work presents an alternative diagnostic technique, ultrasound-stimulated vibro-acoustography (USVA), which may potentially provide surgeons with detailed intra-operative imagery characterized by enhanced structural boundaries and well-defined borders based on the viscoelastic properties of tissues. We demonstrate selective imaging using ex vivo tissue samples of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with the presence of both malignant and normal areas. Spatially resolved maps of varying acoustic properties were generated and show good contrast between the areas of interest. While the results are promising, determining the precision and sensitivity of the USVA imaging system in identifying boundary regions as well as intensities of ex vivo tissue targets may provide additional information to non-invasively assess confined regions of diseased tissues from healthy areas.

  13. Comparison of spherical and realistically shaped boundary element head models for transcranial magnetic stimulation navigation

    PubMed Central

    Nummenmaa, Aapo; Stenroos, Matti; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.; Okada, Yoshio C.; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Raij, Tommi

    2013-01-01

    Objective MRI-guided real-time transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) navigators that apply electromagnetic modeling have improved the utility of TMS. However, their accuracy and speed depends on the assumed volume conductor geometry. Spherical models found in present navigators are computationally fast but may be inaccurate in some areas. Realistically-shaped boundary-element models (BEMs) could increase accuracy at a moderate computational cost, but it is unknown which model features have the largest influence on accuracy. Thus, we compared different types of spherical models and BEMs. Methods Globally and locally fitted spherical models and different BEMs with either one or three compartments and with different skull-to-brain conductivity ratios (1/1 – 1/80) were compared against a reference BEM. Results The one-compartment BEM at inner skull surface was almost as accurate as the reference BEM. Skull/brain conductivity ratio in the range 1/10 – 1/80 had only a minor influence. BEMs were superior to spherical models especially in frontal and temporal areas (up to 20 mm localization and 40% intensity improvement); in motor cortex all models provided similar results. Conclusions One-compartment BEMs offer a good balance between accuracy and computational cost. Significance Realistically-shaped BEMs may increase TMS navigation accuracy in several brain areas, such as in prefrontal regions often targeted in clinical applications. PMID:23890512

  14. Changes in quantitative 3D shape features of the optic nerve head associated with age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, Mark; Tang, Li; Fingert, John H.; Scheetz, Todd E.; Abramoff, Michael D.

    2013-02-01

    Optic nerve head (ONH) structure is an important biological feature of the eye used by clinicians to diagnose and monitor progression of diseases such as glaucoma. ONH structure is commonly examined using stereo fundus imaging or optical coherence tomography. Stereo fundus imaging provides stereo views of the ONH that retain 3D information useful for characterizing structure. In order to quantify 3D ONH structure, we applied a stereo correspondence algorithm to a set of stereo fundus images. Using these quantitative 3D ONH structure measurements, eigen structures were derived using principal component analysis from stereo images of 565 subjects from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS). To evaluate the usefulness of the eigen structures, we explored associations with the demographic variables age, gender, and race. Using regression analysis, the eigen structures were found to have significant (p < 0.05) associations with both age and race after Bonferroni correction. In addition, classifiers were constructed to predict the demographic variables based solely on the eigen structures. These classifiers achieved an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.62 in predicting a binary age variable, 0.52 in predicting gender, and 0.67 in predicting race. The use of objective, quantitative features or eigen structures can reveal hidden relationships between ONH structure and demographics. The use of these features could similarly allow specific aspects of ONH structure to be isolated and associated with the diagnosis of glaucoma, disease progression and outcomes, and genetic factors.

  15. Mutations in Radial Spoke Head Protein Genes RSPH9 and RSPH4A Cause Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia with Central-Microtubular-Pair Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Castleman, Victoria H.; Romio, Leila; Chodhari, Rahul; Hirst, Robert A.; de Castro, Sandra C.P.; Parker, Keith A.; Ybot-Gonzalez, Patricia; Emes, Richard D.; Wilson, Stephen W.; Wallis, Colin; Johnson, Colin A.; Herrera, Rene J.; Rutman, Andrew; Dixon, Mellisa; Shoemark, Amelia; Bush, Andrew; Hogg, Claire; Gardiner, R. Mark; Reish, Orit; Greene, Nicholas D.E.; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Purton, Saul; Chung, Eddie M.K.; Mitchison, Hannah M.

    2009-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetically heterogeneous inherited disorder arising from dysmotility of motile cilia and sperm. This is associated with a variety of ultrastructural defects of the cilia and sperm axoneme that affect movement, leading to clinical consequences on respiratory-tract mucociliary clearance and lung function, fertility, and left-right body-axis determination. We performed whole-genome SNP-based linkage analysis in seven consanguineous families with PCD and central-microtubular-pair abnormalities. This identified two loci, in two families with intermittent absence of the central-pair structure (chromosome 6p21.1, Zmax 6.7) and in five families with complete absence of the central pair (chromosome 6q22.1, Zmax 7.0). Mutations were subsequently identified in two positional candidate genes, RSPH9 on chromosome 6p21.1 and RSPH4A on chromosome 6q22.1. Haplotype analysis identified a common ancestral founder effect RSPH4A mutation present in UK-Pakistani pedigrees. Both RSPH9 and RSPH4A encode protein components of the axonemal radial spoke head. In situ hybridization of murine Rsph9 shows gene expression restricted to regions containing motile cilia. Investigation of the effect of knockdown or mutations of RSPH9 orthologs in zebrafish and Chlamydomonas indicate that radial spoke head proteins are important in maintaining normal movement in motile, “9+2”-structure cilia and flagella. This effect is rescued by reintroduction of gene expression for restoration of a normal beat pattern in zebrafish. Disturbance in function of these genes was not associated with defects in left-right axis determination in humans or zebrafish. PMID:19200523

  16. Influence of stiffness and shape of contact surface on skull fractures and biomechanical metrics of the human head of different population underlateral impacts.

    PubMed

    Shaoo, Debasis; Deck, Caroline; Yoganandan, Narayan; Willinger, Rémy

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the responses of 5th-percentile female, and 50th- and 95th-percentile male human heads during lateral impacts at different velocities and determine the role of the stiffness and shape of the impacting surface on peak forces and derived skull fracture metrics. A state-of-the-art validated finite element (FE) head model was used to study the influence of different population human heads on skull fracture for lateral impacts. The mass of the FE head model was altered to match the adult size dummies. Numerical simulations of lateral head impacts for 45 cases (15 experiments×3 different population human heads) were performed at velocities ranging from 2.4 to 6.5m/s and three impacting conditions (flat and cylindrical 90D; and flat 40D padding). The entire force-time signals from simulations were compared with experimental mean and upper/lower corridors at each velocity, stiffness (40 and 90 durometer) and shapes (flat and cylindrical) of the impacting surfaces. Average deviation of peak force from the 50th male to 95th male and 5th female were 6.4% and 10.6% considering impacts on the three impactors. These results indicate hierarchy of variables which can be used in injury mitigation efforts.

  17. Head shape and size of adult males as possible indicators of childhood stress in northern Jordan (1900-1978): a study in human biology and political economy.

    PubMed

    Abu Dalou, Ahmad Y; Al-Shiyab, Abdel-Halim; Benfer, Robert A

    2008-08-01

    Stature, sitting height, stature by weight, and head circumference change with varying economic conditions during early childhood. Our hypothesis is that adult head shape, as well as head size, is influenced by changes in childhood nutrition. When economic conditions are bad, nutrition and health suffer, and the result is dolichocephaly. To test this hypothesis, we measured the head length, width, and circumference of 398 adult males in Jordan. Fifty-six percent are ethnic Jordanians, and 44% are ethnic Palestinians. We divided the modern history of Jordan and the West Bank into four periods developed from historical economic data. The results of the study show that the cephalic index (CI) among Jordanians increased significantly with economic improvement but decreased slightly during the best economic period, whereas CI remained stable across all periods among Palestinians. The pattern among Jordanians can be explained in terms of maternal environment and early childhood nutrition. The lack of pattern in Palestinians may be due to changing nursing practices, bottle feeding, or sleeping position. When economic conditions were bad, Jordanian mothers and infants suffered from malnutrition and deficits in health care services during pre- and postnatal periods. Infants were born with very low birth weight and longer heads. However, the highest mean value of head size, circumference, among Jordanians and Palestinians is obtained from individuals who were children during the bad economic period, an unexpected result. No significant linear or quadratic trend was found for either Palestinians' or Jordanians' head circumference over time.

  18. Comparison of Pressure Changes by Head and Neck Position between High-Volume Low-Pressure and Taper-Shaped Cuffs: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Mihara, Ryosuke; Imagawa, Kentaro; Hattori, Kazuo; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared changes in cuff pressure by head and neck position between high-volume low-pressure (HVLP) and taper-shaped (taper) cuffs in a prospective randomized clinical trial. Methods. Forty patients were intubated using tracheal tubes with either HVLP (n = 20; HVLP group) or taper-shaped (n = 20; Taper group) cuffs. Initial cuff pressure was adjusted to 15, 20, or 25 cmH2O in the neutral position. Cuff pressure was evaluated after changing the head and neck positions to flexion, extension, and rotation. Results. Cuff pressure significantly increased with flexion in both HVLP and Taper groups at all initial cuff pressures. It significantly increased with extension in the HVLP group, but not in the Taper group. Cuff pressure did not significantly differ with rotation in either group and was significantly smaller in the Taper group during flexion and extension than in the HVLP group, regardless of initial cuff pressure. Conclusion. Cuff pressure changes with head and neck flexion and extension were smaller in the Taper group than in the HVLP group. Our results highlight the potential for taper cuffs to prevent excessive cuff pressure increases with positional changes in the head and neck. This trial is registered with UMIN000016119.

  19. Bipartite life cycle of coral reef fishes promotes increasing shape disparity of the head skeleton during ontogeny: an example from damselfishes (Pomacentridae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Quantitative studies of the variation of disparity during ontogeny exhibited by the radiation of coral reef fishes are lacking. Such studies dealing with the variation of disparity, i.e. the diversity of organic form, over ontogeny could be a first step in detecting evolutionary mechanisms in these fishes. The damselfishes (Pomacentridae) have a bipartite life-cycle, as do the majority of demersal coral reef fishes. During their pelagic dispersion phase, all larvae feed on planktonic prey. On the other hand, juveniles and adults associated with the coral reef environment show a higher diversity of diets. Using geometric morphometrics, we study the ontogenetic dynamic of shape disparity of different head skeletal units (neurocranium, suspensorium and opercle, mandible and premaxilla) in this fish family. We expected that larvae of different species might be relatively similar in shapes. Alternatively, specialization may become notable even in the juvenile and adult phase. Results The disparity levels increase significantly throughout ontogeny for each skeletal unit. At settlement, all larval shapes are already species-specific. Damselfishes show high levels of ontogenetic allometry during their post-settlement growth. The divergence of allometric patterns largely explains the changes in patterns and levels of shape disparity over ontogeny. The rate of shape change and the length of ontogenetic trajectories seem to be less variable among species. We also show that the high levels of shape disparity at the adult stage are correlated to a higher level of ecological and functional diversity in this stage. Conclusion Diversification throughout ontogeny of damselfishes results from the interaction among several developmental novelties enhancing disparity. The bipartite life-cycle of damselfishes exemplifies a case where the variation of environmental factors, i.e. the transition from the more homogeneous oceanic environment to the coral reef offering a wide

  20. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Congenital Abnormalities Page Content Article Body About 3% to 4% ... of congenital abnormalities earlier. 5 Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic ...

  1. Study on the Temperature Field Loaded by a Shaped Laser Beam on the Top Surface of a Cylinder Head for Thermal Fatigue Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, S.-Z.; Yu, J.; Yu, G.; Tan, Q.-F.; Fan, Z.-W.

    2014-09-01

    In thermal fatigue test, the key point is whether the temperature field on the top surface of cylinder head induced by the heat source can well match it in real service. In order to produce the target temperature field in service which is measured by thermocouples, shaped laser beam generated by diffractive optics element (DOE) is chosen as the heat source to irradiate on the top surface of cylinder head. The DOE is designed based on the Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm and the simulated temperature field is calculated by finite element model (FEM). The results show that the simulated and experimental temperature field can well match the target one which demonstrates that this method is feasible to produce the target temperature field and can be used in thermal fatigue test.

  2. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings... shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant...

  3. Comparison of frequency difference reconstruction algorithms for the detection of acute stroke using EIT in a realistic head-shaped tank.

    PubMed

    Packham, B; Koo, H; Romsauerova, A; Ahn, S; McEwan, A; Jun, S C; Holder, D S

    2012-05-01

    Imaging of acute stroke might be possible using multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (MFEIT) but requires absolute or frequency difference imaging. Simple linear frequency difference reconstruction has been shown to be ineffective in imaging with a frequency-dependant background conductivity; this has been overcome with a weighted frequency difference approach with correction for the background but this has only been validated for a cylindrical and hemispherical tank. The feasibility of MFEIT for imaging of acute stroke in a realistic head geometry was examined by imaging a potato perturbation against a saline background and a carrot-saline frequency-dependant background conductivity, in a head-shaped tank with the UCLH Mk2.5 MFEIT system. Reconstruction was performed with time difference (TD), frequency difference (FD), FD adjacent (FDA), weighted FD (WFD) and weighted FDA (WFDA) linear algorithms. The perturbation in reconstructed images corresponded to the true position to <9.5% of image diameter with an image SNR of >5.4 for all algorithms in saline but only for TD, WFDA and WFD in the carrot-saline background. No reliable imaging was possible with FD and FDA. This indicates that the WFD approach is also effective for a realistic head geometry and supports its use for human imaging in the future.

  4. Alveolar abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001093.htm Alveolar abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alveolar abnormalities are changes in the tiny air sacs in ...

  5. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...

  6. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  7. Heating properties of the needle type applicator made of shape memory alloy by 3-D anatomical human head model.

    PubMed

    Mimoto, N; Kato, K; Kanazawa, Y; Shindo, Y; Tsuchiya, K; Kubo, M; Uzuka, T; Takahashi, H; Fujii, Y

    2009-01-01

    Since the human brain is protected by the skull, it is not easy to non-invasively heat deep brain tumors with electromagnetic energy for hyperthermia treatments. Generally, needle type applicators were used in clinical practice to heat brain tumors. To expand the heating area of needle type applicators, we have developed a new type of needle made of a shape memory alloy (SMA). In this paper, heating properties of the proposed SMA needle type applicator were discussed. Here, in order to apply the SMA needle type applicator clinically. First, we constructed an anatomical 3-D FEM model from MRI and X-ray CT images using 3D-CAD software. Second, we estimated electric and temperature distributions to confirm the SMA needle type applicator using the FEM soft were JMAG-Studio. From these results, it was confirmed that the proposed method can expand the heating area and control the heating of various sizes of brain tumors.

  8. Blocking protein farnesylation improves nuclear shape abnormalities in keratinocytes of mice expressing the prelamin A variant in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuexia; Ostlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J

    2010-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an accelerated aging disorder caused by mutations in LMNA leading to expression of a truncated prelamin A variant termed progerin. Whereas a farnesylated polypeptide is normally removed from the carboxyl-terminus of prelamin A during endoproteolytic processing to lamin A, progerin lacks the cleavage site and remains farnesylated. Cultured cells from human subjects with HGPS and genetically modified mice expressing progerin have nuclear morphological abnormalities, which are reversed by inhibitors of protein farnesylation. In addition, treatment with protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors improves whole animal phenotypes in mouse models of HGPS. However, improvement in nuclear morphology in tissues after treatment of animals has not been demonstrated. We therefore treated transgenic mice that express progerin in epidermis with the protein farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI-276 or a combination of pravastatin and zoledronate to determine if they reversed nuclear morphological abnormalities in tissue. Immunofluorescence microscopy and "blinded" electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that systemic administration of FTI-276 or pravastatin plus zoledronate significantly improved nuclear morphological abnormalities in keratinocytes of transgenic mice. These results show that pharmacological blockade of protein prenylation reverses nuclear morphological abnormalities that occur in HGPS in vivo. They further suggest that skin biopsy may be useful to determine if protein farnesylation inhibitors are exerting effects in subjects with HGPS in clinical trials.

  9. Combining registration and active shape models for the automatic segmentation of the lymph node regions in head and neck CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Antong; Deeley, Matthew A.; Niermann, Kenneth J.; Moretti, Luigi; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the state of the art technique for head and neck cancer treatment. It requires precise delineation of the target to be treated and structures to be spared, which is currently done manually. The process is a time-consuming task of which the delineation of lymph node regions is often the longest step. Atlas-based delineation has been proposed as an alternative, but, in the authors' experience, this approach is not accurate enough for routine clinical use. Here, the authors improve atlas-based segmentation results obtained for level II-IV lymph node regions using an active shape model (ASM) approach. Methods: An average image volume was first created from a set of head and neck patient images with minimally enlarged nodes. The average image volume was then registered using affine, global, and local nonrigid transformations to the other volumes to establish a correspondence between surface points in the atlas and surface points in each of the other volumes. Once the correspondence was established, the ASMs were created for each node level. The models were then used to first constrain the results obtained with an atlas-based approach and then to iteratively refine the solution. Results: The method was evaluated through a leave-one-out experiment. The ASM- and atlas-based segmentations were compared to manual delineations via the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) for volume overlap and the Euclidean distance between manual and automatic 3D surfaces. The mean DSC value obtained with the ASM-based approach is 10.7% higher than with the atlas-based approach; the mean and median surface errors were decreased by 13.6% and 12.0%, respectively. Conclusions: The ASM approach is effective in reducing segmentation errors in areas of low CT contrast where purely atlas-based methods are challenged. Statistical analysis shows that the improvements brought by this approach are significant.

  10. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  11. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than..., tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal findings, NIOSH...

  12. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Abnormal selective area growth of irregularly-shaped GaN structures on the apex of GaN pyramids and its application for wide spectral emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yeon Su; Lee, Jun Hyeong; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yang, Min

    2014-12-01

    We report on the growth and the characterization of three-dimensional randomly-shaped InGaN/GaN structures selectively grown on the apex of GaN pyramids for the purpose of enlarging the emission spectral range. We found that the variations in the shape and the size of the three-dimensional GaN structures depend on the growth temperature and the surface area for selective growth under intentional turbulence in the gas stream. The selectively grown GaN structures grown at 1020 °C have irregular shape, while the samples grown at 1100 °C have rather uniform hexagonal pyramidal shapes. Irregularly shaped GaN structures were also obtained on the apex of GaN pyramids when the SiO2 mask was removed to 1/10 of the total height of the underlying GaN pyramid. When only 1/5 of the SiO2 mask was removed, however, the selectively grown GaN structures had similar hexagonal pyramidal shapes resembling those of the underlying GaN pyramids. The CL (Cathodoluminescence) spectra of the InGaN layers grown on the randomly shaped GaN structures showed a wide emission spectral range from 388 to 433 nm due to the non-uniform thickness and spatially inhomogeneous indium composition of the InGaN layers. This new selective growth method might have great potential for applications of non-phosphor white light emitting diodes (LEDs) with optimized growth conditions for InGaN active layers of high indium composition and with optimum process for fabrication of electrodes for electrical injection.

  14. Vacuoles in sperm head are not associated with head morphology, DNA damage and reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Adriana; Boni, Raffaele; Leo, Rita; Nacchia, Giuseppina; Liguori, Francesca; Casale, Sofia; Bonassisa, Paolo; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2016-02-01

    In this retrospective study of 873 men enrolled for assisted reproduction techniques, relationships between sperm quality parameters, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME), DNA damage and live birth rate were evaluated. The presence of vacuoles in the sperm heads was detected by MSOME. Either chromatin decondensation or DNA fragmentation was used to study DNA damage. Results show that age significantly affected some of the examined parameters. In particular, sperm concentration was positively correlated (R = 0.088; P = 0.01) and chromatin decondensation was negatively correlated (R = -0.102; P = 0.003) with age. Furthermore, live birth rate was significantly lower in men aged 40 years or older (P < 0.02) compared with the younger age groups. The presence of sperm head vacuoles was not associated with head morphology, main sperm quality parameters, DNA fragmentation and live birth rate. Considering sperm heads in relation to the shape (normal/abnormal) and vacuoles (presence/absence), no significant variations in the occurrence of vacuoles in either normal or abnormal heads were found. These data suggest that vacuoles are physiological features that do not alter sperm functionality, and it seems that MSOME is not necessary for increasing the success of assisted reproduction techniques.

  15. Design and optimization of a beam shaping assembly for BNCT based on D-T neutron generator and dose evaluation using a simulated head phantom.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Fatemeh S; Masoudi, S Farhad

    2012-12-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to design a beam shaping assembly for BNCT based on D-T neutron generator. The optimization of this configuration has been realized in different steps. This proposed system consists of metallic uranium as neutron multiplier, TiF(3) and Al(2)O(3) as moderators, Pb as reflector, Ni as shield and Li-Poly as collimator to guide neutrons toward the patient position. The in-air parameters recommended by IAEA were assessed for this proposed configuration without using any filters which enables us to have a high epithermal neutron flux at the beam port. Also a simulated Snyder head phantom was used to evaluate dose profiles due to the irradiation of designed beam. The dose evaluation results and depth-dose curves show that the neutron beam designed in this work is effective for deep-seated brain tumor treatments even with D-T neutron generator with a neutron yield of 2.4×10(12) n/s. The Monte Carlo Code MCNP-4C is used in order to perform these calculations.

  16. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... or head trauma Brain tumor Cerebrovascular accident (stroke) Cerebral palsy Cervical spondylosis with myelopathy (a problem with the ... 22. Read More Arthritis Bunions Central nervous system Cerebral palsy Dizziness Ingrown toenail Multiple sclerosis Muscular dystrophy Myositis ...

  17. Evaluation of Tumor Shape Variability in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Over the Course of Radiation Therapy Using Implanted Gold Markers

    SciTech Connect

    Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Kranen, Simon Robert van; Beek, Suzanne van; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Herk, Marcel van; Brekel, Michiel Wilhelmus Maria van den; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Rasch, Coenraad Robert Nico

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: This study quantifies tumor shape variability in head-and-neck cancer patients during radiation therapy using implanted markers. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients with oropharyngeal tumors treated with (chemo)radiation were included. Helical gold markers (0.35 Multiplication-Sign 2 mm, 3-10/patient, average 6) were implanted around the tumor. Markers were identified on planning computed tomography (CT) and daily cone beam CT (CBCT). After bony anatomy registration, the daily vector length on CBCT in reference to the planning CT and daily marker movement perpendicular to the gross tumor volume (GTV) surface at planning CT (d{sub normal}) of each marker were analyzed. Time trends were assessed with linear regression of the {sub markers}. In 2 patients, 2 markers were implanted in normal tissue to evaluate migration by measuring intermarker distances. Results: Marker implantation was feasible without complications. Three-dimensional vectors (4827 measurements, mean 0.23 cm, interquartile ratio 0.24 cm) were highest in base of tongue sublocalization (P<.001) and bulky tumors (vectors exceeded 0.5 cm in 5.7% [0-20 mL], 12.0% [21-40 mL], and 21.7% [{>=}41 mL], respectively [P<.001] of measurements). The measured inward time trend in 11/27 patients correlated with the visual observed marker pattern. In patients with an outward trend (5/27) or no trend (11/27), visual observation showed predominantly an inhomogeneous pattern. Remarkably, in 6 patients, outward marker movement was observed in the posterior pharyngeal wall. The difference in distance between normal tissue markers (1 SD) was 0.05-0.06 cm without time trend, indicating that implanted markers did not migrate. Conclusions: During head-and-neck radiation therapy, normal tissue markers remained stable. Changes in position of tumor markers depended on sublocalization and tumor volume. Large differences in marker patterns between patients as well as within patients were observed

  18. Effects of normal and abnormal loading conditions on morphogenesis of the prenatal hip joint: application to hip dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Mario; Carriero, Alessandra; Shefelbine, Sandra J.; Nowlan, Niamh C.

    2015-01-01

    Joint morphogenesis is an important phase of prenatal joint development during which the opposing cartilaginous rudiments acquire their reciprocal and interlocking shapes. At an early stage of development, the prenatal hip joint is formed of a deep acetabular cavity that almost totally encloses the head. By the time of birth, the acetabulum has become shallower and the femoral head has lost substantial sphericity, reducing joint coverage and stability. In this study, we use a dynamic mechanobiological simulation to explore the effects of normal (symmetric), reduced and abnormal (asymmetric) prenatal movements on hip joint shape, to understand their importance for postnatal skeletal malformations such as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). We successfully predict the physiological trends of decreasing sphericity and acetabular coverage of the femoral head during fetal development. We show that a full range of symmetric movements helps to maintain some of the acetabular depth and femoral head sphericity, while reduced or absent movements can lead to decreased sphericity and acetabular coverage of the femoral head. When an abnormal movement pattern was applied, a deformed joint shape was predicted, with an opened asymmetric acetabulum and the onset of a malformed femoral head. This study provides evidence for the importance of fetal movements in the prevention and manifestation of congenital musculoskeletal disorders such as DDH. PMID:26163754

  19. Effects of normal and abnormal loading conditions on morphogenesis of the prenatal hip joint: application to hip dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Mario; Carriero, Alessandra; Shefelbine, Sandra J; Nowlan, Niamh C

    2015-09-18

    Joint morphogenesis is an important phase of prenatal joint development during which the opposing cartilaginous rudiments acquire their reciprocal and interlocking shapes. At an early stage of development, the prenatal hip joint is formed of a deep acetabular cavity that almost totally encloses the head. By the time of birth, the acetabulum has become shallower and the femoral head has lost substantial sphericity, reducing joint coverage and stability. In this study, we use a dynamic mechanobiological simulation to explore the effects of normal (symmetric), reduced and abnormal (asymmetric) prenatal movements on hip joint shape, to understand their importance for postnatal skeletal malformations such as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). We successfully predict the physiological trends of decreasing sphericity and acetabular coverage of the femoral head during fetal development. We show that a full range of symmetric movements helps to maintain some of the acetabular depth and femoral head sphericity, while reduced or absent movements can lead to decreased sphericity and acetabular coverage of the femoral head. When an abnormal movement pattern was applied, a deformed joint shape was predicted, with an opened asymmetric acetabulum and the onset of a malformed femoral head. This study provides evidence for the importance of fetal movements in the prevention and manifestation of congenital musculoskeletal disorders such as DDH.

  20. Raman spectroscopy of DNA packaging in individual human sperm cells distinguishes normal from abnormal cells.

    PubMed

    Huser, Thomas; Orme, Christine A; Hollars, Christopher W; Corzett, Michele H; Balhorn, Rod

    2009-05-01

    Healthy human males produce sperm cells of which about 25-40% have abnormal head shapes. Increases in the percentage of sperm exhibiting aberrant sperm head morphologies have been correlated with male infertility, and biochemical studies of pooled sperm have suggested that sperm with abnormal shape may contain DNA that has not been properly repackaged by protamine during spermatid development. We have used micro-Raman spectroscopy to obtain Raman spectra from individual human sperm cells and examined how differences in the Raman spectra of sperm chromatin correlate with cell shape. We show that Raman spectra of individual sperm cells contain vibrational marker modes that can be used to assess the efficiency of DNA-packaging for each cell. Raman spectra obtained from sperm cells with normal shape provide evidence that DNA in these sperm is very efficiently packaged. We find, however, that the relative protein content per cell and DNA packaging efficiencies are distributed over a relatively wide range for sperm cells with both normal and abnormal shape. These findings indicate that single cell Raman spectroscopy should be a valuable tool in assessing the quality of sperm cells for in-vitro fertilization.

  1. Raman Spectroscopy of DNA Packaging in Individual Human Sperm Cells distinguishes Normal from Abnormal Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huser, T; Orme, C; Hollars, C; Corzett, M; Balhorn, R

    2009-03-09

    Healthy human males produce sperm cells of which about 25-40% have abnormal head shapes. Increases in the percentage of sperm exhibiting aberrant sperm head morphologies have been correlated with male infertility, and biochemical studies of pooled sperm have suggested that sperm with abnormal shape may contain DNA that has not been properly repackaged by protamine during spermatid development. We have used micro-Raman spectroscopy to obtain Raman spectra from individual human sperm cells and examined how differences in the Raman spectra of sperm chromatin correlate with cell shape. We show that Raman spectra of individual sperm cells contain vibrational marker modes that can be used to assess the efficiency of DNA-packaging for each cell. Raman spectra obtained from sperm cells with normal shape provide evidence that DNA in these sperm is very efficiently packaged. We find, however, that the relative protein content per cell and DNA packaging efficiencies are distributed over a relatively wide range for sperm cells with both normal and abnormal shape. These findings indicate that single cell Raman spectroscopy should be a valuable tool in assessing the quality of sperm cells for in-vitro fertilization.

  2. The effect of head size/shape, miscentering, and bowtie filter on peak patient tissue doses from modern brain perfusion 256-slice CT: How can we minimize the risk for deterministic effects?

    SciTech Connect

    Perisinakis, Kostas; Seimenis, Ioannis; Tzedakis, Antonis; Papadakis, Antonios E.; Damilakis, John

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To determine patient-specific absorbed peak doses to skin, eye lens, brain parenchyma, and cranial red bone marrow (RBM) of adult individuals subjected to low-dose brain perfusion CT studies on a 256-slice CT scanner, and investigate the effect of patient head size/shape, head position during the examination and bowtie filter used on peak tissue doses. Methods: The peak doses to eye lens, skin, brain, and RBM were measured in 106 individual-specific adult head phantoms subjected to the standard low-dose brain perfusion CT on a 256-slice CT scanner using a novel Monte Carlo simulation software dedicated for patient CT dosimetry. Peak tissue doses were compared to corresponding thresholds for induction of cataract, erythema, cerebrovascular disease, and depression of hematopoiesis, respectively. The effects of patient head size/shape, head position during acquisition and bowtie filter used on resulting peak patient tissue doses were investigated. The effect of eye-lens position in the scanned head region was also investigated. The effect of miscentering and use of narrow bowtie filter on image quality was assessed. Results: The mean peak doses to eye lens, skin, brain, and RBM were found to be 124, 120, 95, and 163 mGy, respectively. The effect of patient head size and shape on peak tissue doses was found to be minimal since maximum differences were less than 7%. Patient head miscentering and bowtie filter selection were found to have a considerable effect on peak tissue doses. The peak eye-lens dose saving achieved by elevating head by 4 cm with respect to isocenter and using a narrow wedge filter was found to approach 50%. When the eye lies outside of the primarily irradiated head region, the dose to eye lens was found to drop to less than 20% of the corresponding dose measured when the eye lens was located in the middle of the x-ray beam. Positioning head phantom off-isocenter by 4 cm and employing a narrow wedge filter results in a moderate reduction of

  3. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  4. Deposition head for laser

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    A deposition head for use as a part of apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. The deposition head delivers the laser beam and powder to a deposition zone, which is formed at the tip of the deposition head. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of the deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which the deposition head moves along the tool path.

  5. Star-shape redox-responsive PEG-sheddable copolymer of disulfide-linked polyethylene glycol-lysine-di-tocopherol succinate for tumor-triggering intracellular doxorubicin rapid release: head-to-head comparison.

    PubMed

    Ai, Xiaoyu; Sun, Jin; Zhong, Lu; Wu, Chunnuan; Niu, Handong; Xu, Tao; Lian, He; Han, Xiaopeng; Ren, Guolian; Ding, Wenya; Wang, Jia; Pu, Xiaohui; He, Zhonggui

    2014-10-01

    A redox-responsive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-sheddable copolymer of disulfide-linked PEG 5000-lysine-di-tocopherol succinate (P(5k)SSLV) is developed which can self-assemble into nanomicelles in aqueous condition and trigger the rapid release of encapsulated drugs within tumor cells. The reduction-insensitive doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded P(5k)LV (P(5k)LV-DOX) nanomicelles are further prepared. Then head-to-head comparison of P(5k)SSLV-DOX, P(5k)LV-DOX and DOX-Sol is performed concerning in vitro release, cytotoxicity, cellular uptake and apoptosis. Results show that P(5k)SSLV-DOX nanomicelles have a faster DOX release, a higher anti-tumor activity and more DOX concentrating in the nucleus than P(5k)LV-DOX nanomicelles. In conclusion, the redox-responsive P(5k)SSLV nanomicelles might hold a great potential to improve chemotherapy by tumor-triggering intracellular rapid release. The outcomes of this study also address the significance of such head-to-head comparison studies in translational research of nanomedicine.

  6. Pressure-induced fast axonal transport abnormalities and the anatomy at the lamina cribrosa in primate eyes.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L

    1983-03-01

    In ten owl monkey eyes (Aotus trivirgatus) the location of pressure-induced (perfusion pressure 35 mmHg) axonal transport abnormalities was determined by the examination of serial step cross-section tissue radio autographs from the optic nerve head. The degree of the local transport interruption did not correlate with the fiber bundle cross-section area, the shape of the laminar pores or the density of the inter-bundle septa in that region.

  7. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    Head lice are parasitic wingless insects. They live on people's heads and feed on their blood. An adult louse ... Children ages 3-11 and their families get head lice most often. Personal hygiene has nothing to ...

  8. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Home Diseases and Conditions Head Lice Head Lice Condition Family HealthKids and Teens Share Head Lice Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Causes4. Prevention5. ...

  9. Development of new punch shape to replicate scale-up issues in laboratory tablet press II: a new design of punch head to emulate consolidation and dwell times in commercial tablet press.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Shigeru; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Ito, Manabu

    2014-06-01

    Differences between laboratory and commercial tablet presses are frequently observed during scale-up of tableting process. These scale-up issues result from the differences in total compression time that is the sum of consolidation and dwell times. When a lubricated blend is compressed into tablets, the tablet thickness produced by the commercial tablet press is often thicker than that by a laboratory tablet press. A new punch shape design, designated as shape adjusted for scale-up (SAS), was developed and used to demonstrate the ability to replicate scale-up issues in commercial-scale tableting processes. It was found that the consolidation time can be slightly shortened by changing the vertical curvature of the conventional punch head rim. However, this approach is not enough to replicate the consolidation time. A secondary two-stage SAS punch design and an embossed punch head was designed to replicate the consolidation and dwell times on a laboratory tablet press to match those of a commercial tablet press. The resulting tablet thickness using this second SAS punch on a laboratory tablet press was thicker than when using a conventional punch in the same laboratory tablet press. The secondary SAS punches are more useful tools for replicating and understanding potential scale-up issues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci.

  10. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... the test, tell your provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips An artificial heart valves Heart defibrillator ...

  11. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... scalp internal head injuries, which may involve the skull, the blood vessels within the skull, or the brain Fortunately, most childhood falls or ... knock the brain into the side of the skull or tear blood vessels. Some internal head injuries ...

  12. Heads Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... fit, and maintain the right helmet for specific sports. Concussion Laws Learn about Return to Play and other ...

  13. Cutting Head for Ultrasonic Lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, Earl D. (Inventor); Goodfriend, Roger (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A cutting head for attachment to the end of the wire probe of an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument. The cutting head has a plurality of circumferentially arranged teeth formed at one end thereof to provide a cup-shaped receptacle for kidney stones encountered during the disintegration procedure. An integral reduced diameter collar diminishes stress points in the wire and reduces breakage thereof.

  14. Head lice.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Barbara L; Weiner, Leonard B

    2002-09-01

    Head lice infestation is associated with little morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. This statement attempts to clarify issues of diagnosis and treatment of head lice and makes recommendations for dealing with head lice in the school setting.

  15. Ultrasound, normal fetus - head measurements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many health care providers like to have fetal measurements to verify the size of the fetus and ... any abnormalities. This ultrasound is of a head measurement, indicated by the cross hairs and dotted lines.

  16. Tension Recovery following Ramp-Shaped Release in High-Ca and Low-Ca Rigor Muscle Fibers: Evidence for the Dynamic State of AMADP Myosin Heads in the Absence of ATP

    PubMed Central

    Sugi, Haruo; Yamaguchi, Maki; Ohno, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Takakazu; Chaen, Shigeru; Okuyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    During muscle contraction, myosin heads (M) bound to actin (A) perform power stroke associated with reaction, AMADPPi → AM + ADP + Pi. In this scheme, A • M is believed to be a high-affinity complex after removal of ATP. Biochemical studies on extracted protein samples show that, in the AM complex, actin-binding sites are located at both sides of junctional peptide between 50K and 20K segments of myosin heavy chain. Recently, we found that a monoclonal antibody (IgG) to the junctional peptide had no effect on both in vitro actin-myosin sliding and skinned muscle fiber contraction, though it covers the actin-binding sites on myosin. It follows from this that, during muscle contraction, myosin heads do not pass through the static rigor AM configuration, determined biochemically and electron microscopically using extracted protein samples. To study the nature of AM and AMADP myosin heads, actually existing in muscle, we examined mechanical responses to ramp-shaped releases (0.5% of Lo, complete in 5ms) in single skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers in high-Ca (pCa, 4) and low-Ca (pCa, >9) rigor states. The fibers exhibited initial elastic tension drop and subsequent small but definite tension recovery to a steady level. The tension recovery was present over many minutes in high-Ca rigor fibers, while it tended to decrease quickly in low-Ca rigor fibers. EDTA (10mM, with MgCl2 removed) had no appreciable effect on the tension recovery in high-Ca rigor fibers, while it completely eliminated the tension recovery in low-Ca rigor fibers. These results suggest that the AMADP myosin heads in rigor muscle have long lifetimes and dynamic properties, which show up as the tension recovery following applied release. Possible AM linkage structure in muscle is discussed in connection with the X-ray diffraction pattern from contracting muscle, which is intermediate between resting and rigor muscles. PMID:27583360

  17. High dietary arachidonic acid levels affect the process of eye migration and head shape in pseudoalbino Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis early juveniles.

    PubMed

    Boglino, A; Wishkerman, A; Darias, M J; Andree, K B; de la Iglesia, P; Estévez, A; Gisbert, E

    2013-11-01

    The effect of high dietary levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) on the eye migration and cranial bone remodelling processes in Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis early juveniles (age: 50 days post hatch) was evaluated by means of geometric morphometric analysis and alizarin red staining of cranial skeletal elements. The incidence of normally pigmented fish fed the control diet was 99·1 ± 0·3% (mean ± s.e.), whereas it was only 18·7 ± 7·5% for those fed high levels of ARA (ARA-H). The frequency of cranial deformities was significantly higher in fish fed ARA-H (95·1 ± 1·5%) than in those fed the control diet (1·9 ± 1·9%). Cranial deformities were significantly and negatively correlated with the incidence of normally pigmented animals (r² = -0·88, P < 0·001, n = 16). Thus, fish displaying pigmentary disorders differed in the position of their eyes with regard to the vertebral column and mouth axes, and by the interocular distance and head height, which were shorter than in fish not displaying pigmentary disorders. In addition to changes in the positioning of both eyes, pseudoalbino fish showed some ARA-induced osteological differences for some of the skeletal elements from the splanchnocranium (e.g. right premaxillary, dentary, angular, lacrimal, ceratohyal and branchiostegal rays) and neurocranium (e.g. sphenotic, left lateral ethmoid and left frontal) by comparison to normally pigmented specimens. Pseudoalbino fish also had teeth in both lower and upper jaws. This is the first study in Pleuronectiformes that describes impaired metamorphic relocation of the ocular side eye, the right eye in the case of S. senegalensis, whereas the left eye migrated into the ocular side almost normally.

  18. Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Welch, Robert D; Ayaz, Syed I; Lewis, Lawrence M; Unden, Johan; Chen, James Y; Mika, Valerie H; Saville, Ben; Tyndall, Joseph A; Nash, Marshall; Buki, Andras; Barzo, Pal; Hack, Dallas; Tortella, Frank C; Schmid, Kara; Hayes, Ronald L; Vossough, Arastoo; Sweriduk, Stephen T; Bazarian, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-15

    Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70-0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65-0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice.

  19. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury, cerebral contusion, cerebral laceration, coma, head trauma, hematoma, impaired consciousness, postconcussion syndrome, skull fracture, skull penetration, stupor, vegetative state Family Health, Infants ...

  20. Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Syed I.; Lewis, Lawrence M.; Unden, Johan; Chen, James Y.; Mika, Valerie H.; Saville, Ben; Tyndall, Joseph A.; Nash, Marshall; Buki, Andras; Barzo, Pal; Hack, Dallas; Tortella, Frank C.; Schmid, Kara; Hayes, Ronald L.; Vossough, Arastoo; Sweriduk, Stephen T.; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70–0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71–0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65–0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice. PMID:26467555

  1. Dropped head syndrome in mitochondriopathy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, J

    2004-11-01

    In a 63-year-old, 165-cm-tall woman with a history of repeated tick bites, dilative cardiomyopathy, osteoporosis, progressive head ptosis with neck stiffness and cervical pain developed. The family history was positive for thyroid dysfunction and neuromuscular disorders. Neurological examination revealed prominent forward head drop, weak anteflexion and retroflexion, nuchal rigidity, weakness of the shoulder girdle, cogwheel rigidity, and tetraspasticity. The lactate stress test was abnormal. Electromyograms of various muscles were myogenic. Muscle biopsy showed non-specific myogenic abnormalities and generally weak staining for cytochrome oxydase. Mitochondriopathy with multi-organ involvement was suspected. The response to anti-Parkinson medication was poor. In conclusion, dropped head syndrome (DHS) may be due to multi-organ mitochondriopathy, manifesting as Parkinsonism, tetraspasticity, dilative cardiomyopathy, osteoporosis, short stature, and myopathy. Anti-Parkinson medication is of limited effect.

  2. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  3. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  4. Skeletal limb abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003170.htm Skeletal limb abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skeletal limb abnormalities refers to a variety of bone structure problems ...

  5. The effects of cervical joint manipulation, based on passive motion analysis, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture, and cervical ROM in university students with abnormal posture of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wontae

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cervical posture manipulation, based on passive motion analysis (MBPMA) and general mobilization, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture (FHP), and cervical ROM in university students with problems in cervical posture and range of motion (ROM). [Subjects] The Subjects were 40 university students in their 20s who displayed problems in cervical posture and ROM; they were divided into an MBPMA group (n=20) and a mobilization group (n=20). [Methods] Each group underwent MBPMA or mobilization three times a week for four weeks. The effects of MBPMA and mobilization on cervical lordosis, FHP, and cervical ROM were analyzed by radiography. [Results] MBPMA was effective in increasing the cervical lordosis, cervical extension ROM (CER), and ranges of flexion and extension motion (RFEM) and in decreasing FHP. Mobilization was effective in increasing CER and decreasing FHP. [Conclusion] MBPMA can be utilized as an effective method for decreasing FHP and improving cervical lordosis and cervical ROM.

  6. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... PROBLEMS Abnormal Uterine Bleeding • What is a normal menstrual cycle? • When is bleeding abnormal? • At what ages is ... treat abnormal bleeding? •Glossary What is a normal menstrual cycle? The normal length of the menstrual cycle is ...

  7. Head Tilt

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco ...

  8. Head Noises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Explains how a toy called "Sound Bites" can be modified to demonstrate the transmission of sound waves. Students can hear music from the toy when they press it against any bone in their heads or shoulders. (WRM)

  9. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  10. Head lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... make the nits easier to remove. Some dishwashing detergents can help dissolve the "glue" that makes the ... clothes and bed linens in hot water with detergent. This also helps prevent head lice from spreading ...

  11. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... won't stop crying complains of head and neck pain (younger or nonverbal children may be more fussy) ... vision pupils of unequal size weakness or paralysis neck pain or stiffness seizure If your child is unconscious: ...

  12. Morphological analysis of the skull shape in craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Tejszerska, Dagmara; Wolański, Wojciech; Larysz, Dawid; Gzik, Marek; Sacha, Edyta

    2011-01-01

    Craniosynostosis represents premature suture fusion of the fetal and neonatal skull. Pathogenesis of craniosynostosis is complex and probably multifactorial. Growth of skull bones is strictly connected with the expanding growth of the brain and cranial malformations or prematurely fused sutures cause abnormal head shape. In order to diagnose the craniosynostosis, physical examination, plain radiography, and computed tomography with 3D reconstructions are indispensable. Engineering software such as Mimics v.13.1 and 3-matic v.5.0 enables a 3-dimensional model of head to be generated, based on the pictures obtained from CT. It is also possible to indicate the distances between the characteristic anatomical points. These measures are helpful during planning the neurosurgical correction of the skull, because the possibility of strictly specifing incisions before surgery, which is very important to provide the maximal safety of a child.

  13. Cutting head for ultrasonic lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anguluo, E. D.; Goodfriend, R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A cutting head for attachment to the end of the wire probe of an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is described. The cutting head has a plurality of circumferentially arranged teeth formed at one end thereof to provide a cup shaped receptacle for kidney stones encountered during the disintegration procedure. An integral reduced diameter collar diminishes stress points in the wire and reduce breakage thereof.

  14. Developmental pragmatics in normal and abnormal children.

    PubMed

    Bara, B G; Bosco, F M; Bucciarelli, M

    1999-07-01

    We propose a critical review of current theories of developmental pragmatics. The underlying assumption is that such a theory ought to account for both normal and abnormal development. From a clinical point of view, we are concerned with the effects of brain damage on the emergence of pragmatic competence. In particular, the paper deals with direct speech acts, indirect speech acts, irony, and deceit in children with head injury, closed head injury, hydrocephalus, focal brain damage, and autism. Since no single theory covers systematically the emergence of pragmatic capacity in normal children, it is not surprising that we have not found a systematic account of deficits in the communicative performance of brain injured children. In our view, the challenge for a pragmatic theory is the determination of the normal developmental pattern within which different pragmatic phenomena may find a precise role. Such a framework of normal behavior would then permit the systematic study of abnormal pragmatic development.

  15. The head-mounted microscope.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery.

  16. Magnetic Heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoshima, Tokihiko

    Figure 6.1 shows how rapidly the areal density of hard disk drives (HDD) has been increasing over the past 20 years [1]. Several critical innovations were necessary to bring about such rapid progress in the field of magnetic recording [2]. One of the most significant innovations from the viewpoint of material improvement was the electrodeposition of permalloy (Ni80Fe20), which was introduced by IBM in 1979 as the core material of a thin-film inductive head to increase the magnetic recording density [3]. After the introduction of the magneto-resistive (MR) element as the read head and the electrodeposited permalloy as the write head by IBM in 1991 [4], the rate of increase in the recording density of HDDs jumped from 30% per year to 60% per year. Recently, a giant magneto-resistive (GMR) element has been used for the read element instead of the MR element. The rate of increase in the recording density jumped to over 100% per year in 1999, which is an incredible rate of increase. Since 2002, however, the rate of increase has decreased to 30%; thus, new innovations are required to maintain the rate of increase. In 2004, the practical use of perpendicular magnetic recording instead of longitudinal magnetic recording was announced [5]. This system is a critical innovation for developing high-performance HDD systems with high-recording density. The design of the magnetic recording head was changed because of the change of the recording system.

  17. 49 CFR 179.100-8 - Tank heads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tank heads. 179.100-8 Section 179.100-8... Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100-8 Tank heads. (a) The tank head shape... adjacent to the head and the minor axis shall be one-half the major axis. (b) Each tank head made...

  18. 49 CFR 179.100-8 - Tank heads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tank heads. 179.100-8 Section 179.100-8... Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100-8 Tank heads. (a) The tank head shape... adjacent to the head and the minor axis shall be one-half the major axis. (b) Each tank head made...

  19. 49 CFR 179.100-8 - Tank heads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tank heads. 179.100-8 Section 179.100-8... Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100-8 Tank heads. (a) The tank head shape... adjacent to the head and the minor axis shall be one-half the major axis. (b) Each tank head made...

  20. 49 CFR 179.100-8 - Tank heads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tank heads. 179.100-8 Section 179.100-8... Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.100-8 Tank heads. (a) The tank head shape... adjacent to the head and the minor axis shall be one-half the major axis. (b) Each tank head made...

  1. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Head injuries.

    PubMed

    Yanko, J

    1984-08-01

    In summary, the broad term "head injury" represents a large variety of more specific injuries. In order to anticipate and plan appropriate patient care, nurses need information regarding the cause of injury, the impact site, and the patient's clinical course in addition to current assessment findings. The nurse must also anticipate sequelae from secondary brain injury due to hypoxia, edema, increased intracranial pressure, changes in regional blood flows, or hypovolemic shock due to internal bleeding in another body system or cavity. The head-injured patient is a complex patient requiring intensive nursing care, observation, and assessment. By incorporating knowledge of the mechanisms of injury into nursing observations and assessments, nurses can provide more effective nursing interventions.

  3. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than... findings suggesting, abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other... files and the most recent examination was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis,...

  4. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  5. [Abnormal absence of displacement of the cerebral median line].

    PubMed

    de Tribolet, N; Oberson, R

    1975-03-08

    The angiographic cerebral midline is described. It is pointed out that the midline may be abnormally undisplaced despite the presence of a unilateral or bilateral expansive lesion. The causes of such abnormal non-displacement of the midline are reviewed in the light of examples, and the importance is stressed of bilateral carotid angiograms, sometimes with oblique series, in the case of head injuries and certain tumors.

  6. Head lice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Head lice can only be diagnosed by finding live lice, as eggs take 7 days to hatch and may appear viable for weeks after death of the egg. Infestation may be more likely in school children, with risks increased in children with more siblings, longer hair, and of lower socioeconomic group. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for head lice? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 26 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: benzyl alcohol, dimeticone, herbal and essential oils, insecticide combinations, isopropyl myristate, ivermectin, lindane, malathion, mechanical removal by combing ("bug busting"), oral trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole, TMP-SMX), permethrin, phenothrin, pyrethrum, and spinosad. PMID:21575285

  7. Head lice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Head louse infection is diagnosed by finding live lice, as eggs take 7 days to hatch (but a few may take longer, up to 13 days) and may appear viable for weeks after death of the egg. Infestation may be more likely in school children, with risks increased in children with more siblings or of lower socioeconomic group. Factors such as longer hair make diagnosis and treatment more difficult. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of physically acting treatments for head lice? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found six studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 1,2-octanediol, dimeticone, herbal and essential oils, and isopropyl myristate. PMID:25587918

  8. Chemical impurity produces extra compound eyes and heads in crickets

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, B.T.

    1981-04-03

    A chemical impurity isolated from commercially purchased acridine causes cricket embryos to develop extra compound eyes, branched antennae, extra antennae, and extra heads. Purified acridine does not produce similar duplications of cricket heads or head structures nor do the substituted acridines proflavine, acriflavine, or acridine orange. A dose-response relation exists such that the number and severity of abnormalities increase with increasing concentration of the teratogen.

  9. Dropped head as an unusual presenting sign of myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    D'Amelio, M; Di Benedetto, N; Ragonese, P; Daniele, O; Brighina, F; Fierro, B; Savettieri, G

    2007-04-01

    Prominent or isolated weakness of cervical extensor muscles is a relatively rare clinical sign. Commonly, this is known as "dropped-head syndrome". This abnormal flexion of the head may occur in a variety of neuromuscular diseases and in a few non-neurological disorders as well. The case we describe concerns a 61-year-old woman with dropped-head syndrome as the unique complaint of myasthenia gravis.

  10. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders.

  11. [The relativity of abnormity].

    PubMed

    Nilson, Annika

    2006-01-01

    In the late 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, mental diseases and abnormal behavior was considered to be a great danger to culture and society. "Degeneration" was the buzzword of the time, used and misused by artists and scientists alike. At the same time, some scientists saw abnormity as the key to unlock the mysteries of the ordinary mind. Naturalistic curiosity left Pandoras box open when religion declined in Darwins wake. Two swedish scientists, the physician Bror Gadelius (1862-1938) and his friend the philosopher Axel Herrlin (1870-1937), inspired by the French psychologist Theodule Ribots (1839-1916) "psychology without a soul", denied all fixed demarcation lines between abnormity and normality. All humans are natures creatures ruled by physiological laws, not ruled by God or convention. Even ordinary morality was considered to be an utterly backward explanation and guideline for complex human behavior. Different forms of therapy, not various kinds of penalties for wicked and disturbing behavior, are the now the solution for lots of people, "normal" as well as "abnormal". Psychiatry is expanding.

  12. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Berkovitz, G D; Seeherunvong, T

    1998-04-01

    Gonadal differentiation involves a complex interplay of developmental pathways. The sex determining region Y (SRY) gene plays a key role in testis determination, but its interaction with other genes is less well understood. Abnormalities of gonadal differentiation result in a range of clinical problems. 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis is defined by an absence of testis determination. Subjects have female external genitalia and come to clinical attention because of delayed puberty. Individuals with 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis usually present in the newborn period for the valuation of ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal histology always shows an abnormality of seminiferous tubule formation. A diagnosis of 46,XY true hermaphroditism is made if the gonads contain well-formed testicular and ovarian elements. Despite the pivotal role of the SRY gene in testis development, mutations of SRY are unusual in subjects with a 46,XY karyotype and abnormal gonadal development. 46,XX maleness is defined by testis determination in an individual with a 46,XX karyotype. Most affected individuals have a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome. In contrast, subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism usually present with ambiguous genitalia. The majority of subjects with 46,XX maleness have Y sequences including SRY in genomic DNA. However, only rare subjects with 46,XX true hermaphroditism have translocated sequences encoding SRY. Mosaicism and chimaerism involving the Y chromosome can also be associated with abnormal gonadal development. However, the vast majority of subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism have normal testes and normal male external genitalia.

  13. Improvement of Abnormality Detection System for Bathers Using Ultrasonic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobashi, Hiroki; Tajima, Takuya; Abe, Takehiko; Nambo, Hidetaka; Kimura, Haruhiko

    This paper proposes a new method for improving an existing abnormality detection system for person who soaks in a bathtub. As the number of aged people increases year by year in Japan, bathing accident of the aged is growing at a rapid rate, especially in-bathtub drowning accident. Therefore, prompt detection of bather's abnormality such as dizziness and fainting is important to prevent in-bathtub drowning. In order to detect bather's abnormality promptly, an abnormality detection system using seven ultrasonic sensors has been proposed. The system uses the following two methods: posture detection and behavior detection, to detect bather's different state from normal before an accident occurs, and improves a delay of detection considered to be a serious problem heretofore. There was however plenty of room for improvement. In order to improve detection rate of the system, we propose a new detection method in this paper. The method uses two ultrasonic sensors to beam bather's head and neck, and detects the head height and swing speed of the head. Experimental results are superior to the accuracy of the existing system, which enables us to detect bather's abnormality more accurately.

  14. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... happen from a gunshot to the head. Head injuries include: Concussion , in which the brain is shaken, is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. Scalp wounds. Skull fractures. Head injuries ...

  15. Head circumference (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Head circumference is a measurement of the circumference of the child's head at its largest area (above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head). During routine check-ups, the distance is measured ...

  16. The development and evaluation of head probes for optical imaging of the infant head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branco, Gilberto

    The objective of this thesis was to develop and evaluate optical imaging probes for mapping oxygenation and haemodynamic changes in the newborn infant brain. Two imaging approaches are being developed at University College London (UCL): optical topography (surface mapping of the cortex) and optical tomography (volume imaging). Both have the potential to provide information about the function of the normal brain and about a variety of neurophysiologies! abnormalities. Both techniques require an array of optical fibres/fibre bundles to be held in contact with the head, for periods of time from tens of seconds to an hour or more. The design of suitable probes must ensure the comfort and safety of the subject, and provide measurements minimally sensitive to external sources of light and patient motion. A series of prototype adaptable helmets were developed for optical tomography of the premature infant brain using the UCL 32-channel time-resolved system. They were required to attach 32 optical fibre bundles over the infant scalp, and were designed to accommodate infants with a variety of head shapes and sizes, aged between 24-weeks gestational age and term. Continual improvements to the helmet design were introduced following the evaluation of each prototype on infants in the hospital. Data were acquired to generate images revealing the concentration and oxygenation of blood in the brain, and the response of the brain to sensory stimulation. This part of the project also involved designing and testing new methods of acquiring calibration data using reference phantoms. The second focus of the project was the development of probes for use with the UCL frequency-multiplexed near-infrared topography system. This is being used to image functional activation in the infant cortex. A series of probes were developed and experiments were conducted to evaluate their sensitivity to patient motion and to compression of the probe. The probes have been used for a variety of

  17. Growth characteristics of the fetal ligament of the head of femur: significance in congenital hip disease.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement of the length and width of the ligament of the head of femur (ligamentum teres) in 140 normal human fetuses between 12 weeks and term provides limits for growth changes in this structure. These observations provide no morphological evidence of a significant difference between males and females, or between the right and left sides, to explain the female and left hip preponderance reported in congenital hip disease. The ligament is shown to be variable in length, width, and shape, and it is not a distinctly linear structure through linearity may increase with age. Tests of femoral head mobility support the opinion that this ligament must play a role in fetal and neonatal hip joint stability. Weak correlation only was demonstrated between the ligament variables and acetabular depth, which suggests that ligament shape and socket shape are not closely related. Comparison of measurements from normal and 12 dysplastic or subluxated joints provides no evidence to support previous observations that this structure is unusually long in abnormal hip joints which are not frankly dislocated. Images FIG. 1 PMID:7445537

  18. Analytic elements of smooth shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strack, Otto D. L.; Nevison, Patrick R.

    2015-10-01

    We present a method for producing analytic elements of a smooth shape, obtained using conformal mapping. Applications are presented for a case of impermeable analytic elements as well as for head-specified ones. The mathematical operations necessary to use the elements in practical problems can be carried out before modeling of flow problems begins. A catalog of shapes, along with pre-determined coefficients could be established on the basis of the approach presented here, making applications in the field straight forward.

  19. Heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B K; Kaiser, L; Maxwell, H S

    2008-08-01

    The etiologies for congenital bovine fetal anomalies can be divided into heritable, toxic, nutritional, and infectious categories. Although uncommon in most herds, inherited congenital anomalies are probably present in all breeds of cattle and propagated as a result of specific trait selection that inadvertently results in propagation of the defect. In some herds, the occurrence of inherited anomalies has become frequent, and economically important. Anomalous traits can affect animals in a range of ways, some being lethal or requiring euthanasia on humane grounds, others altering structure, function, or performance of affected animals. Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the potential for inherited defects, and be prepared to investigate and report animals exhibiting abnormal characteristics. This review will discuss the morphologic characteristics, mode of inheritance, breeding lines affected, and the availability of genetic testing for selected heritable bovine fetal abnormalities.

  20. Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

    2013-08-01

    Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication.

  1. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    PubMed

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  2. Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?

    PubMed

    Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

    2016-04-01

    Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (∼1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old.

  3. Dropped head syndrome and Systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rosato, Edoardo; Rossi, Carmelina; Salsano, Felice

    2009-05-01

    The prominent or isolated weakness of cervical extensor muscles is a relatively rare clinical sign. Commonly, this is known as "dropped-head syndrome". This abnormal flexion of the head may occur in a variety of neuromuscular diseases and in a few non-neurological disorders as well. Systemic sclerosis is a clinically heterogeneous disorder which affects small arteries, microvessels and connective tissue with the involvement of multiple organs such as lung, heart, kidney and gastrointestinal tract. There is no evidence in literature of association between dropped head syndrome and rheumatic diseases, particularly systemic sclerosis. The case we describe concerns a 74-year-old woman with dropped-head syndrome associated to Systemic sclerosis and pulmonary hypertension in absence of myositis signs.

  4. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  5. [Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Delsol, G

    2010-11-01

    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities

  6. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  7. Corneal-shaping electrode

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D.; Hutson, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a circulating saline electrode for changing corneal shape in eyes. The electrode comprises a tubular nonconductive electrode housing having an annular expanded base which has a surface substantially matched to a subject corneal surface. A tubular conductive electrode connected to a radiofrequency generating source is disposed within the electrode housing and longitudinally aligned therewith. The electrode has a generally hemispherical head having at least one orifice. Saline solution is circulated through the apparatus and over the cornea to cool the corneal surface while radiofrequency electric current emitted from the electrode flows therefrom through the cornea to a second electrode, on the rear of the head. This current heats the deep corneal stroma and thereby effects corneal reshaping as a biological response to the heat.

  8. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  9. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  10. A canine model of osteonecrosis of the femoral head induced by MRI guided argon helium cryotherapy system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Sun, Lixin; Zhang, Huawu; Jiang, Honglei; Liu, Ming; Tian, Jing; Hu, Na; Sun, Shui

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study is to identify the reliability of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) modeling established by MRI guided argon helium cryotherapy system in beagles. Methods: A total of 15 beagles were used to establish the ONFH model. The left femoral heads of the beagles received two cycles of argon helium freezing-thawing under MRI guidance and were considered as experimental group while the right femoral heads received only one cycle of argon helium freezing-thawing and were considered as the control group. X-ray, MRI, general shape and histological examinations were performed so as to identify the effect of modeling. Results: At 4 week after modeling, MRI showed obvious bilateral hip joint effusion and marked femoral head bone marrow high signal. At 8 week after surgery, abnormal signal appeared in bilateral femoral heads. T1WI showed irregular patchy low signal, T2WI showed irregular mixed signals and the joint capsule effusion showed long T1 and T2 changes. Twelve weeks after operation, T1WI showed a low signal strip with clear boundary and T2WI showed intermediate signal. The changes of the left femoral heads were significant while compared with those of the right sides. The lacunae rates of femoral heads in the experimental group at 4, 8, and 12 week after surgery (40.75 ± 3.77, 57.46 ± 4.01, 50.27 ± 2.98) were higher than those in control group (30.08 ± 3.61, 49.43 ± 2.82, 40.56 ± 2.73). Conclusion: Canine model of ONFH was successfully established using an argon helium cryotherapy system. PMID:26550205

  11. Dizziness following head injury: a neuro-otological study.

    PubMed

    Davies, R A; Luxon, L M

    1995-03-01

    Dizziness is a frequent and debilitating complications of head injury and accounts for increasing numbers of medico-legal claims. A detailed neuro-otological study was carried out from the records of 100 patients with post-traumatic dizziness to explore the neuro-otological basis of their symptoms: 50 patients presenting for medico-legal purposes (group I) and 50 presenting for management of their vestibular symptoms (group II). The two groups showed a similar sex distribution, a similar range of causes of head injury and similar severity of head injury (72 minor, 24 moderate and 4 severe). Of the 100, 88 showed at least one audio-vestibular abnormality on testing. Vertigo of the benign positional paroxysmal type was the commonest vestibular diagnosis in both groups (61/100), and only 8 patients showed central vestibular abnormalities. Fifty-three patients had audiometric abnormalities attributable to the head injury, the commonest of which was a high-tone sensorineural hearing loss. There was no significant difference in the incidence of any of the abnormalities in the medico-legal group (group I) when compared with the symptom management group (group II). The results provide strong evidence for an organic basis to recurring dizziness after head injury, whether or not a claim for compensation is pending, and emphasize the need for specialist neuro-otological investigation if abnormalities are to be identified and managed correctly.

  12. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

  13. Sperm ultrastructure, morphometry, and abnormal morphology in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Brito, L F C; Sertich, P L; Stull, G B; Rives, W; Knobbe, M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe sperm ultrastructure, morphometry, and abnormal morphology in American black bears. Electroejaculation was successful in 53.8% (7/13) of the attempts, but urine contamination was common. Epididymal sperm samples were also obtained from five bears. Sperm had a paddle-like head shape and the ultrastructure was similar to that of most other mammals. The most striking particularity of black bear sperm ultrastructure was a tightening of the nucleus in the equatorial region. Although the differences were not significant in all bears, the overall decrease in sperm nucleus dimensions during transport from the caput epididymis to the cauda suggested increasing compaction of the nucleus during maturation. For ejaculated sperm, nucleus length, width, and base width were 4.9, 3.7, and 1.8 μm, respectively, whereas sperm head length, width, and base width were 6.6, 4.8, and 2.3 μm, and midpiece, tail (including midpiece), and total sperm lengths were 9.8, 68.8, and 75.3 μm. Evaluation of sperm cytoplasmic droplets in the epididymis revealed that proximal droplets start migrating toward a distal position in the caput epididymis and that the process was mostly completed by the time sperm reached the cauda epididymis. The proportion of morphologically normal sperm in the ejaculate was 35.6%; the most prevalent sperm defects were distal cytoplasmic droplets and bent/coiled tails. The morphology of abnormal sperm and the underlying ultrastructural defects were similar to that in other large domestic animals thus suggesting similar underlying pathogenesis of specific sperm defects and similar effects on fertility.

  14. Skeletal abnormalities in homocystinuria.

    PubMed Central

    Brenton, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The skeletal changes of thirty-four patients with the biochemical and clinical features of cystathionine synthase deficiency are described. It is emphasized that there is clinical evidence of excessive bone growth and the formation for bone which is structurally weaker than normal. The similarities and differences between this condition and Marfan's syndrome are stressed and the possible nature of the connective tissue defect leading to the skeletal changes discussed. The most characteristic skeletal changes in homocystinuria are the skeletal disproportion (pubis-heel length greater than crown-pubis length), the abnormal vertebrae, sternal deformities, genu valgum and large metaphyses and epiphyses. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:917963

  15. Eye movement abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Jorge; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Generation and control of eye movements requires the participation of the cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem. The signals of this complex neural network finally converge on the ocular motoneurons of the brainstem. Infarct or hemorrhage at any level of the oculomotor system (though more frequent in the brain-stem) may give rise to a broad spectrum of eye movement abnormalities (EMAs). Consequently, neurologists and particularly stroke neurologists are routinely confronted with EMAs, some of which may be overlooked in the acute stroke setting and others that, when recognized, may have a high localizing value. The most complex EMAs are due to midbrain stroke. Horizontal gaze disorders, some of them manifesting unusual patterns, may occur in pontine stroke. Distinct varieties of nystagmus occur in cerebellar and medullary stroke. This review summarizes the most representative EMAs from the supratentorial level to the brainstem.

  16. Sealed head access area enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Govi, Aldo R.

    1978-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder power reactor is provided with a sealed head access area enclosure disposed above the reactor vessel head consisting of a plurality of prefabricated structural panels including a center panel removably sealed into position with inflatable seals, and outer panels sealed into position with semipermanent sealant joints. The sealant joints are located in the joint between the edge of the panels and the reactor containment structure and include from bottom to top an inverted U-shaped strip, a lower layer of a room temperature vulcanizing material, a separator strip defining a test space therewithin, and an upper layer of a room temperature vulcanizing material. The test space is tapped by a normally plugged passage extending to the top of the enclosure for testing the seal or introducing a buffer gas thereinto.

  17. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  18. The 'chef's hat' appearance of the femoral head in cleidocranial dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Aktas, S; Wheeler, D; Sussman, M D

    2000-04-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by failure of membranous ossification. The condition is due to a mutation of the cbfa1 gene on chromosome 6 which has a role in the development of osteoblasts from the mesenchymal cells. In their growing years, these patients have an unusual shape of the femoral head reminiscent of a 'chef's hat'. In order to confirm the consistency of this sign, we have reviewed the radiographs of 28 patients with CCD. All except three had this appearance. The sign was also seen in patients with coxa vara associated with a variety of other conditions. The chef's hat sign may occur secondary to the particular mechanical environment created by coxa vara as well as abnormal cellular function in patients with CCD. Although coxa vara has some influence on the shape of the femoral head, it is not entirely responsible for its morphology since it was present in only six of the 28 patients with CCD.

  19. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  20. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... swallowing A change or hoarseness in the voice Head and neck cancers are twice as common in men. Using ...

  1. Increased head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003305.htm Increased head circumference To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the ...

  2. Head injury. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiographic Evaluation; Epidemiology of Head Injury; Emergency Care and Initial Evaluation; Skull Fracture and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas; Mild Head Injury; and Injuries of the Cranial Nerves.

  3. Development of age-specific Japanese head phantoms for dose evaluation in paediatric head CT examinations.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi-Kawaura, C; Fujii, K; Akahane, K; Yamauchi, M; Narai, K; Aoyama, T; Katsu, T; Obara, S; Imai, K; Ikeda, M

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the authors developed age-specific physical head phantoms simulating the physique of Japanese children for dose evaluation in paediatric head computed tomography (CT) examinations. Anatomical structures at 99 places in 0-, 0.5-, 1- and 3-y-old Japanese patients were measured using DICOM viewer software from CT images, and the head phantom of each age was designed. For trial manufacture, a 3-y-old head phantom consisting of acrylic resin and gypsum was produced by machine processing. Radiation doses for the head phantom were measured with radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters and Si-pin photodiode dosemeters. To investigate whether the phantom shape was suitable for dose evaluation, organ doses in the same scan protocol were compared between the 3-y-old head and commercially available anthropomorphic phantoms having approximately the same head size. The doses of organs in both phantoms were equivalent. The authors' designed paediatric head phantom will be useful for dose evaluation in paediatric head CT examinations.

  4. Sperm head phenotype and male fertility in ram semen.

    PubMed

    Maroto-Morales, A; Ramón, M; García-Álvarez, O; Montoro, V; Soler, A J; Fernández-Santos, M R; Roldan, E R S; Pérez-Guzmán, M D; Garde, J J

    2015-12-01

    Although there is ample evidence for the effects of sperm head shape on sperm function, its impact on fertility has not been explored in detail at the intraspecific level in mammals. Here, we assess the relationship between sperm head shape and male fertility in a large-scale study in Manchega sheep (Ovis aries), which have not undergone any selection for fertility. Semen was collected from 83 mature rams, and before insemination, head shapes were measured for five parameters: area, perimeter, length, width, and p2a (perimeter(2)/2×π×area) using a computer-assisted sperm morphometric analysis. In addition, a cluster analysis using sperm head length and p2a factor was performed to determine sperm subpopulations (SPs) structure. Our results show the existence of four sperm SPs, which present different sperm head phenotype: SP1 (large and round), SP2 (short and elongated), SP3 (shortest and round), and SP4 (large and the most elongated). No relationships were found between males' fertility rates and average values of sperm head dimensions. However, differences in fertility rates between rams were strongly associated to the proportion of spermatozoa in an ejaculate SP with short and elongated heads (P < 0.001). These findings show how the heterogeneity in sperm head shape of the ejaculate has an effect on reproductive success, and highlight the important role of modulation of the ejaculate at the intraspecific level.

  5. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  6. Mania following head injury.

    PubMed

    Yatham, L N; Benbow, J C; Jeffers, A M

    1988-03-01

    A case of mania following head injury in an individual with a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia is reported. It is argued that the head injury is probably causative in his case and suggested that head injury should be considered as one of the aetiological factors in secondary mania.

  7. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person’s risk of head and neck cancer. Marijuana use. Research suggests that people who have used marijuana may be at higher risk for head and ... head and neck cancer include: Avoiding alcohol Discussing marijuana as a risk factor with your doctor and ...

  8. Treating Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... 180 K) En Español On this page: Blood-Sucking Bugs Steps for Safe Use Heading Off Head Lice Head lice. Every parent’s nightmare. A year-round problem, the number of cases seems to peak when ...

  9. Head Start Automation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park. Univ. Coll.

    The task for the National Data Management Project is to share technological capabilities with the Head Start Community in order to implement improved services for children and families involved in Head Start. Many Head Start programs have incorporated technology into their programs, including word processing, database management systems,…

  10. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fax: 847-378-0600 www.NeurosurgeryToday.org A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and ...

  11. Head Circumference and Height in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Lainhart, Janet E.; Bigler, Erin D.; Bocian, Maureen; Coon, Hilary; Dinh, Elena; Dawson, Geraldine; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dunn, Michelle; Estes, Annette; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Folstein, Susan; Hepburn, Susan; Hyman, Susan; McMahon, William; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeff; Osann, Kathy; Ozonoff, Sally; Rodier, Patricia; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Spence, M. Anne; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Volkmar, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Data from 10 sites of the NICHD/NIDCD Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism were combined to study the distribution of head circumference and relationship to demographic and clinical variables. Three hundred thirty-eight probands with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) including 208 probands with autism were studied along with 147 parents, 149 siblings, and typically developing controls. ASDs were diagnosed, and head circumference and clinical variables measured in a standardized manner across all sites. All subjects with autism met ADI-R, ADOS-G, DSM-IV, and ICD-10 criteria. The results show the distribution of standardized head circumference in autism is normal in shape, and the mean, variance, and rate of macrocephaly but not microcephaly are increased. Head circumference tends to be large relative to height in autism. No site, gender, age, SES, verbal, or non-verbal IQ effects were present in the autism sample. In addition to autism itself, standardized height and average parental head circumference were the most important factors predicting head circumference in individuals with autism. Mean standardized head circumference and rates of macrocephaly were similar in probands with autism and their parents. Increased head circumference was associated with a higher (more severe) ADI-R social algorithm score. Macrocephaly is associated with delayed onset of language. Although mean head circumference and rates of macrocephaly are increased in autism, a high degree of variability is present, underscoring the complex clinical heterogeneity of the disorder. The wide distribution of head circumference in autism has major implications for genetic, neuroimaging, and other neurobiological research. PMID:17022081

  12. Chemical induction of sperm abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wyrobek, A J; Bruce, W R

    1975-01-01

    The sperm of (C57BL X C3H)F1 mice were examined 1, 4, and 10 weeks after a subacute treatment with one of 25 chemicals at two or more dose levels. The fraction of sperm that were abnormal in shape was elevated above control values of 1.2-3.4% for methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, griseofulvin, benzo[a]pyrene, METEPA [tris(2-methyl-l-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide], THIO-TEPA [tris(l-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide], mitomycin C, myleran, vinblastine sulphate, hydroxyurea, 3-methylcholanthrene, colchicine, actinomycin D, imuran, cyclophosphamide, 5-iododeoxyuridine, dichlorvos, aminopterin, and trimethylphosphate. Dimethylnitrosamine, urethane, DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, caffeine, and calcium cyclamate did not induce elevated levels of sperm abnormalities. The results suggest that sperm abnormalities might provide a rapid inexpensive mammalian screen for agents that lead to errors in the differentiation of spermatogenic stem cells in vivo and thus indicate agents which might prove to be mutagenic, teratogenic, or carcinogenic. Images PMID:1060122

  13. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What ... there any new developments in treating my disease? Head and neck cancer overview The way a particular head and ...

  14. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ...

  15. Combination of density gradient centrifugation and swim-up methods effectively decreases morphologically abnormal sperms

    PubMed Central

    YAMANAKA, Masaya; TOMITA, Kazuhisa; HASHIMOTO, Shu; MATSUMOTO, Hiroshi; SATOH, Manabu; KATO, Hiromi; HOSOI, Yoshihiko; INOUE, Masayasu; NAKAOKA, Yoshiharu; MORIMOTO, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Density gradient centrifugation (DGC) and swim-up techniques have been reported for semen preparation in assisted reproductive techniques in humans. We investigated whether semen preparation using a combination of DGC and swim-up techniques could effectively decrease morphologically abnormal human sperms at the ultrastructural level. Semen samples were obtained from 16 infertile males and fractionated by swim-up following DGC. Ultrastructural abnormalities of sperms obtained from original semen, lower layer of swim-up following DGC, and upper layer of swim-up following DGC were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The correlation among ultrastructural head abnormality in sperms from the upper layer of swim-up, fertilization in in vitro fertilization, and pregnancy after embryo transfer was also investigated. Furthermore, sperms with DNA fragmentation in the samples processed via a combination of DGC and swim-up was assessed in a sperm chromatin structure assay. Ultrastructural abnormalities in sperm heads and tails in the upper layer after swim-up following DGC was the lowest among the three groups. Sperms with nuclear vacuoles were the most difficult to eliminate using a combination of DGC and swim-up in all types of head abnormalities. A negative correlation was confirmed between the fertilization rates of intracytoplasmic sperm injection and head abnormality of sperms obtained from the upper layer of the swim-up following DGC. Sperms with DNA fragmentation were effectively decreased using the combination of two techniques. In conclusion, the combination of DGC and swim-up effectively decreased the number of sperms with ultrastructural abnormalities both in the head and in the tail. However, sperms with ultrastructural abnormalities that cannot be completely decreased using a combination of DGC and swim-up may impair fertilization in some cases of intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:27616283

  16. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  17. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  18. Effects of Soccer Heading on Brain Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6–12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety

  19. Craniofacial abnormalities in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, N J; Silvera, V M; Campbell, S E; Gordon, L B

    2012-09-01

    HGPS is a rare syndrome of segmental premature aging. Our goal was to expand the scope of structural bone and soft-tissue craniofacial abnormalities in HGPS through CT or MR imaging. Using The Progeria Research Foundation Medical and Research Database, 98 imaging studies on 25 patients, birth to 14.1 years of age, were comprehensively reviewed. Eight newly identified abnormalities involving the calvaria, skull base, and soft tissues of the face and orbits were present with prevalences between 43% and 100%. These included J-shaped sellas, a mottled appearance and increased vascular markings of the calvaria, abnormally configured mandibular condyles, hypoplastic articular eminences, small zygomatic arches, prominent parotid glands, and optic nerve kinking. This expanded craniofacial characterization helps link disease features and improves our ability to evaluate how underlying genetic and cellular abnormalities culminate in a disease phenotype.

  20. Directional abnormalities of vestibular and optokinetic responses in cerebellar disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, M. F.; Zee, D. S.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Directional abnormalities of vestibular and optokinetic responses in patients with cerebellar degeneration are reported. Three-axis magnetic search-coil recordings of the eye and head were performed in eight cerebellar patients. Among these patients, examples of directional cross-coupling were found during (1) high-frequency, high-acceleration head thrusts; (2) constant-velocity chair rotations with the head fixed; (3) constant-velocity optokinetic stimulation; and (4) following repetitive head shaking. Cross-coupling during horizontal head thrusts consisted of an inappropriate upward eye-velocity component. In some patients, sustained constant-velocity yaw-axis chair rotations produced a mixed horizontal-torsional nystagmus and/or an increase in the baseline vertical slow-phase velocity. Following horizontal head shaking, some patients showed an increase in the slow-phase velocity of their downbeat nystagmus. These various forms of cross-coupling did not necessarily occur to the same degree in a given patient; this suggests that different mechanisms may be responsible. It is suggested that cross-coupling during head thrusts may reflect a loss of calibration of brainstem connections involved in the direct vestibular pathways, perhaps due to dysfunction of the flocculus. Cross-coupling during constant-velocity rotations and following head shaking may result from a misorientation of the angular eye-velocity vector in the velocity-storage system. Finally, responses to horizontal optokinetic stimulation included an inappropriate torsional component in some patients. This suggests that the underlying organization of horizontal optokinetic tracking is in labyrinthine coordinates. The findings are also consistent with prior animal-lesion studies that have shown a role for the vestibulocerebellum in the control of the direction of the VOR.

  1. Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust

    PubMed Central

    Tjoe, N; Burdorf, A; Parker, J; Attfield, M; van Duivenbooden, C; Heederik, D

    2003-01-01

    Background: Construction workers are exposed to quartz containing respirable dust, at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. Studies so far have not established a dose-response relation for radiographic abnormalities for this occupational group. Aims: To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz containing respirable dust. Methods: A cross sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing, and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 International Labour Organisation system of three certified "B" readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. Results: An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities (irregularly shaped) is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis (small rounded opacities of category 1/0 or greater) was low (0.8%). Conclusions: The study suggests an elevated risk of radiographic abnormalities among these workers with expected high exposure. An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables. PMID:12771392

  2. Classification of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Nur Atiqah Kamarul; Rahman, Wan Eny Zarina Wan Abdul; Jumaat, Abdul Kadir; Yasiran, Siti Salmah

    2015-05-01

    Classification is the process of recognition, differentiation and categorizing objects into groups. Breast abnormalities are calcifications which are tumor markers that indicate the presence of cancer in the breast. The aims of this research are to classify the types of breast abnormalities using artificial neural network (ANN) classifier and to evaluate the accuracy performance using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. The methods used in this research are ANN for breast abnormalities classifications and Canny edge detector as a feature extraction method. Previously the ANN classifier provides only the number of benign and malignant cases without providing information for specific cases. However in this research, the type of abnormality for each image can be obtained. The existing MIAS MiniMammographic database classified the mammogram images into three features only namely characteristic of background tissues, class of abnormality and radius of abnormality. However, in this research three other features are added-in. These three features are number of spots, area and shape of abnormalities. Lastly the performance of the ANN classifier is evaluated using ROC curve. It is found that ANN has an accuracy of 97.9% which is considered acceptable.

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, D J; Blackwood, D H R; Porteous, D J; Pickard, B S; Muir, W J

    2003-03-01

    Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness are reviewed along with supporting evidence that this may amount to an association. Chromosomal abnormalities are considered to be of possible significance if (a) the abnormality is rare and there are independent reports of its coexistence with psychiatric illness, or (b) there is colocalisation of the abnormality with a region of suggestive linkage findings, or (c) there is an apparent cosegregation of the abnormality with psychiatric illness within the individual's family. Breakpoints have been described within many of the loci suggested by linkage studies and these findings support the hypothesis that shared susceptibility factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may exist. If these abnormalities directly disrupt coding regions, then combining molecular genetic breakpoint cloning with bioinformatic sequence analysis may be a method of rapidly identifying candidate genes. Full karyotyping of individuals with psychotic illness especially where this coexists with mild learning disability, dysmorphism or a strong family history of mental disorder is encouraged.

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  5. Haematological abnormalities in mitochondrial disorders

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Frank, Marlies

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to assess the kind of haematological abnormalities that are present in patients with mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) and the frequency of their occurrence. METHODS The blood cell counts of a cohort of patients with syndromic and non-syndromic MIDs were retrospectively reviewed. MIDs were classified as ‘definite’, ‘probable’ or ‘possible’ according to clinical presentation, instrumental findings, immunohistological findings on muscle biopsy, biochemical abnormalities of the respiratory chain and/or the results of genetic studies. Patients who had medical conditions other than MID that account for the haematological abnormalities were excluded. RESULTS A total of 46 patients (‘definite’ = 5; ‘probable’ = 9; ‘possible’ = 32) had haematological abnormalities attributable to MIDs. The most frequent haematological abnormality in patients with MIDs was anaemia. 27 patients had anaemia as their sole haematological problem. Anaemia was associated with thrombopenia (n = 4), thrombocytosis (n = 2), leucopenia (n = 2), and eosinophilia (n = 1). Anaemia was hypochromic and normocytic in 27 patients, hypochromic and microcytic in six patients, hyperchromic and macrocytic in two patients, and normochromic and microcytic in one patient. Among the 46 patients with a mitochondrial haematological abnormality, 78.3% had anaemia, 13.0% had thrombopenia, 8.7% had leucopenia and 8.7% had eosinophilia, alone or in combination with other haematological abnormalities. CONCLUSION MID should be considered if a patient’s abnormal blood cell counts (particularly those associated with anaemia, thrombopenia, leucopenia or eosinophilia) cannot be explained by established causes. Abnormal blood cell counts may be the sole manifestation of MID or a collateral feature of a multisystem problem. PMID:26243978

  6. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  7. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

  8. Unknown syndrome: abnormal facies, congenital heart defects, hypothyroidism, and severe retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Young, I D; Simpson, K

    1987-01-01

    We present a female infant with (1) abnormal facies: microcephaly, blepharophimosis, small, low set, posteriorly rotated ears, bulbous nose, carp shaped mouth, micrognathia; (2) congenital heart abnormalities: large atrial and ventricular septal defects; (3) congenital hypothyroidism; (4) severe global retardation. Images PMID:3430551

  9. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Head Movements in Cervical Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Prudente, Cecília N.; Stilla, Randall; Singh, Shivangi; Buetefisch, Cathrin; Evatt, Marian; Factor, Stewart A.; Freeman, Alan; Hu, Xiaoping Philip; Hess, Ellen J.; Sathian, K.; Jinnah, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical dystonia (CD) is a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal movements and postures of the head. The brain regions responsible for these abnormal movements are not well understood, because most imaging techniques for assessing regional brain activity cannot be used when the head is moving. Recently, we mapped brain activation in healthy individuals using functional magnetic resonance imaging during isometric head rotation, when muscle contractions occur without actual head movements. In the current study, we used the same methods to explore the neural substrates for head movements in subjects with CD who had predominantly rotational abnormalities (torticollis). Isometric wrist extension was examined for comparison. Electromyography of neck and hand muscles ensured compliance with tasks during scanning, and any head motion was measured and corrected. Data were analyzed in three steps. First, we conducted within-group analyses to examine task-related activation patterns separately in subjects with CD and in healthy controls. Next, we directly compared task-related activation patterns between participants with CD and controls. Finally, considering that the abnormal head movements in CD occur in a consistently patterned direction for each individual, we conducted exploratory analyses that involved normalizing data according to the direction of rotational CD. The between-group comparisons failed to reveal any significant differences, but the normalization procedure in subjects with CD revealed that isometric head rotation in the direction of dystonic head rotation was associated with more activation in the ipsilateral anterior cerebellum, whereas isometric head rotation in the opposite direction was associated with more activity in sensorimotor cortex. These findings suggest that the cerebellum contributes to abnormal head rotation in CD, whereas regions in the cerebral cortex are involved in opposing the involuntary movements. PMID:27895619

  10. 77 FR 28614 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of Chemopreventive Treatments for Head and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... use of the Licensed Patent Rights for the prevention and treatment of head and neck cancers. DATE... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), a cancer occurring mostly in the mouth, it is frequently observed that the Akt/mTOR pathway is abnormally activated....

  11. Congenital abnormalities and selective abortion.

    PubMed

    Seller, M J

    1976-09-01

    The technique of amniocentesis, by which an abnormal fetus can be detected in utero, has brought a technological advance in medical science but attendant medical and moral problems. Dr Seller describes those congenital disabilities which can be detected in the fetus before birth, for which the "remedy" is selective abortion. She then discusses the arguments for and against selective abortion, for the issue is not simple, even in the strictly genetic sense of attempting to ensure a population free of congenital abnormality.

  12. Head Start. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Head Start is a national program that provides comprehensive developmental services for preschool children (ages 3 to 5) from low-income families and social services for their families. Approximately 1,400 community-based nonprofit organizations and school systems develop programs to meet specific needs. Head Start began in 1965 in the Office of…

  13. Woodpeckers and head injury.

    PubMed

    May, P R; Fuster, J M; Newman, P; Hirschman, A

    1976-02-28

    The woodpecker is an experiment in Nature, a model for the investigation of mechanisms of basic importance for head injury and its prevention. A preliminary anatomical study of the woodpecker's head suggests that it may be fruitful to explore impact protective systems which are radically different from those in common use.

  14. [Diagnosticum of abnormalities of plant meiotic division].

    PubMed

    Shamina, N V

    2006-01-01

    Abnormalities of plant meiotic division leading to abnormal meiotic products are summarized schematically in the paper. Causes of formation of monads, abnormal diads, triads, pentads, polyads, etc. have been observed in meiosis with both successive and simultaneous cytokinesis.

  15. Flexible heating head for induction heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Johnson, Samuel D. (Inventor); Coultrip, Robert H. (Inventor); Phillips, W. Morris (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An induction heating head includes a length of wire having first and second opposite ends and being wound in a flat spiral shape to form an induction coil, a capacitor connected to the first and second ends of the wire, the induction coil and capacitor defining a tank circuit, and a flexible, elastomeric body molded to encase the induction coil. When a susceptor is placed in juxtaposition to the body, and the tank circuit is powered, the susceptor is inductively heated.

  16. Experimental high-velocity missile head injury.

    PubMed

    Allen, I V; Scott, R; Tanner, J A

    1982-09-01

    A standardized experimental high-velocity penetrating head-injury model has been produced in which pathological lesions were observed, not only in the wound track but at sites more remote from the track in the hypothalamus, brain stem and cerebellum. Diffuse subarachnoid haemorrhage was common and intraventricular haemorrhage was a constant feature. Other constant histological abnormalities were:L 1. Perivascular "ring' haemorrhages. 2. Perivascular haemorrhage with a surrounding zone of decreased staining intensity. 3. Perivascular increased staining intensity. 4. Areas of decreased staining intensity apparently dissociated from areas of haemorrhage. The pathogenesis of the perivascular lesions is discussed and preliminary studies suggest that these may be the site of early oedema. The implications of this experiment for military surgery and for ballistic protection of the head are discussed.

  17. Ulnar head replacement.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  18. β1 Integrin Deficiency Results in Multiple Abnormalities of the Knee Joint*

    PubMed Central

    Raducanu, Aurelia; Hunziker, Ernst B.; Drosse, Inga; Aszódi, Attila

    2009-01-01

    The lack of β1 integrins on chondrocytes leads to severe chondrodysplasia associated with high mortality rate around birth. To assess the impact of β1 integrin-mediated cell-matrix interactions on the function of adult knee joints, we conditionally deleted the β1 integrin gene in early limb mesenchyme using the Prx1-cre transgene. Mutant mice developed short limbed dwarfism and had joint defects due to β1 integrin deficiency in articular regions. The articular cartilage (AC) was structurally disorganized, accompanied by accelerated terminal differentiation, altered shape, and disrupted actin cytoskeleton of the chondrocytes. Defects in chondrocyte proliferation, cytokinesis, and survival resulted in hypocellularity. However, no significant differences in cartilage erosion, in the expression of matrix-degrading proteases, or in the exposure of aggrecan and collagen II cleavage neoepitopes were observed between control and mutant AC. We found no evidence for disturbed activation of MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) in vivo. Furthermore, fibronectin fragment-stimulated ERK activation and MMP-13 expression were indistinguishable in control and mutant femoral head explants. The mutant synovium was hyperplastic and frequently underwent chondrogenic differentiation. β1-null synoviocytes showed increased proliferation and phospho-focal adhesion kinase expression. Taken together, deletion of β1 integrins in the limb bud results in multiple abnormalities of the knee joints; however, it does not accelerate AC destruction, perturb cartilage metabolism, or influence intracellular MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:19586917

  19. Epigenetics in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiar, Syeda Marriam; Ali, Amjad; Barh, Debmalya

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics refers to the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in DNA sequence. Research has shown that epigenetic mechanisms provide an "extra" layer of transcriptional control that regulates how genes are expressed. These mechanisms are critical components in the normal development and growth of cells. Epigenetic abnormalities have been found to be causative factors in cancer, genetic disorders, and pediatric syndromes. Head and neck cancers are a group of malignancies with diverse biological behaviors and a strong, well-established association with environmental effects. Although the hunt for genetic alterations in head and neck cancer has continued in the past two decades, with unequivocal proof of a genetic role in multistage head and neck carcinogenesis, epigenetic alteration in association with promoter CpG islands hypermethylation has emerged in the past few years as one of the most active areas of cancer research. Silencing of the genes by hypermethylation or induction of oncogenes by promoter hypomethylation is a frequent mechanism in head and neck cancer and achieves increasing diagnostic and therapeutic importance. In this context it is important for clinicians to understand the principles of epigenetic mechanisms and how these principles relate to human health and disease. It is important to address the use of epigenetic pathways in new approaches to molecular diagnosis and novel targeted treatments across the clinical spectrum.

  20. Modal and harmonic response analysis of cutter head of juice extractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinkuan; Liu, Zaixin; Zhou, Dingli; Li, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    A cutter head is one of the most important parts in juice extractor, because whether the juice extractor is reliable or secure enough is directly to the cutter head natural frequency as well as its mode shape size. Cutter head is took as an example in this paper. By establishing the vibration dynamics equations and using finite element method, the 6 modal of the cutter head is analyzed. The range of the rotate speed to keep safety is obtained when it is working. The result shows that the highest rotate speed of the cutter head is far lower than its first order critical speed which avoids the sympathetic vibration efficiently, and the cutter head is designed relatively rational. The harmonic response of the cutter head is analyzed based on the result of modal analysis. The resonant frequency and amplitude of cutter head are obtained. They can provide a theoretical basis for the further design optimization of the cutter head.

  1. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Reutzel, E.W.

    1998-08-18

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure. 8 figs.

  2. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W. Thor; Reutzel, Edward W.

    1998-01-01

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure.

  3. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    PubMed

    Proctor, C A

    1981-10-01

    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  4. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  5. Ghost Head Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, a new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth.

    The image of NGC 2080, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is available online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . Images like this help astronomers investigate star formation in nebulas.

    NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the local group of galaxies. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained by Hubble on March 28, 2000.

    The red and blue light come from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind, a stream of high-speed particles coming from a massive star just outside the image. The central white region is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. Intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in surrounding gas.

    In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) -- are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from one massive star. A2 contains more dust and several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newborn stars.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center

  6. Narrow-headed garter snake (Thamnophis rufipunctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowak, Erika M.

    2006-01-01

    The narrow-headed garter snake is a harmless, nonvenomous snake that is distinguished by its elongated, triangular-shaped head and the red or dark spots on its olive to tan body. Today, the narrow-headed garter snake is a species of special concern in the United States because of its decline over much of its historic range. Arizona's Oak Creek has historically contained the largest population of narrow-headed garter snakes in the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Arizona Game and Fish Department jointly funded research by USGS scientists in Oak Creek to shed light on the factors causing declining population numbers. The research resulted in better understanding of the snake's habitat needs, winter and summer range, and dietary habits. Based on the research findings, the U.S. Forest Service has developed recommendations that visitors and local residents can adopt to help slow the decline of the narrow-headed garter snake in Oak Creek.

  7. Ectodermal dysplasia and abnormal thumbs.

    PubMed

    Lucky, A W; Esterly, N B; Tunnessen, W W

    1980-05-01

    Two unrelated children, a girl and a boy, with alopecia, anomalous cutaneous pigmentation, abnormal thumbs, and endocrine disorders, including short stature and delayed bone age in one patient and juvenile onset diabetes mellitus in the other, are described. In one instance, the mother and the maternal grandmother had similar abnormalities, although of a less severe nature. Both children had normal nails and no unusual susceptibility to infections. We believe these two patients represent a previously undescribed syndrome of ectodermal dysplasia that may be inherited as an autosomal-dominant trait.

  8. Spin Transfer in Polymer Degradation of Abnormal Linkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tianrong; Tian, Chuanjin; Liu, Xizhe; Wang, Jia; Gao, Yang; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    The degradation of polymer materials plays an important role in production and life. In this work, the degradation mechanism of poly-α-methylstyrene (PAMS) tetramers with abnormal linkage was investigated by using density functional theory (DFT). Calculated results indicate that the head-to-head and the tail-to-tail reactions needed to overcome the energy barriers are about 0.15 eV and about 1.26 eV, respectively. The broken C-C bond at the unsaturated end of the chain leads to the dissociation of alpha-methylstyrene (AMS) monomers one by one. Furthermore, the analyses of bond characteristics are in good agreement with the results of energy barriers. In addition, the spin population analysis presents an interesting net spin transfer process in depolymerization reactions. We hope that the current theoretical results provide useful help to understand the degradation mechanism of polymers.

  9. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  10. Overview of Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... appear to be more serious than it is. Did You Know... Because the scalp has many blood ... these symptoms occur, prompt medical attention is essential. Did You Know... The degree of external head injury ...

  11. Radial head fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Elbow fracture - radial head - aftercare ... to 2 weeks. If you have a small fracture and your bones did not move around much, ... to see a bone doctor (orthopedic surgeon). Some fractures require surgery to: Insert pins and plates to ...

  12. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  13. TCGA head Neck

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  14. Pure hemidystonia with basal ganglion abnormalities on positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, J.S.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-03-01

    We present a patient with hemidystonia and an abnormality of the contralateral basal ganglion seen only with positron emission tomography. A 50-year-old sinistral man suffered minor trauma to the right side of his head and neck. Within 20 minutes he developed paroxysmal intermittent dystonic posturing of his right face, forearm, hand, and foot, with weaker contractions of the left foot, lasting several seconds and recurring every few minutes. Neurological findings between spells were normal. The following were also normal: electrolyte, calcium, magnesium, and arterial blood gas levels, and findings of drug screen, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalography with nasopharyngeal leads, computed tomographic scanning (initially and four weeks later), and cerebral angiography. Positron emission tomographic scanning revealed abnormalities in the left basal ganglion region, including decreased oxygen metabolism, decreased oxygen extraction, increased blood volume, and increased blood flow.

  15. Quantifying the abnormal hemodynamics of sickle cell anemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huan; Karniadakis, George

    2012-02-01

    Sickle red blood cells (SS-RBC) exhibit heterogeneous morphologies and abnormal hemodynamics in deoxygenated states. A multi-scale model for SS-RBC is developed based on the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Different cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes) typically observed in deoxygenated states are constructed and quantified by the Asphericity and Elliptical shape factors. The hemodynamics of SS-RBC suspensions is studied in both shear and pipe flow systems. The flow resistance obtained from both systems exhibits a larger value than the healthy blood flow due to the abnormal cell properties. Moreover, SS-RBCs exhibit abnormal adhesive interactions with both the vessel endothelium cells and the leukocytes. The effect of the abnormal adhesive interactions on the hemodynamics of sickle blood is investigated using the current model. It is found that both the SS-RBC - endothelium and the SS-RBC - leukocytes interactions, can potentially trigger the vicious ``sickling and entrapment'' cycles, resulting in vaso-occlusion phenomena widely observed in micro-circulation experiments.

  16. A Pilot Study of Abnormal Growth in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Peters, Cindy T. R.; Oosterling, Iris J.; Visser, Janne C.; Bons, Danielle; van Steijn, Daphne J.; Draaisma, Jos; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan. K.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine whether early growth abnormalities are (a) comparable in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other childhood psychiatric disorders, and (b) specific to the brain or generalized to the whole body. Head circumference, height, and weight were measured during the first 19 months of life in 129 children…

  17. Hemifacial spasm and postural abnormalities; clinical and posturographical analyses.

    PubMed

    Degirmenci, Eylem; Oguzhanoglu, Attila; Atalay, Nilgun; Sahin, Fusun

    2015-09-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is defined as an involuntary, irregular clonic, or tonic movement of muscles innervated by the ipsilateral seventh cranial nerve. It is reported that the coexistence of non-motor- and motor-related symptoms can be seen in patients with HFS. Postural disturbances were investigated in some movement disorders; however, postural abnormalities due to HFS had not been reported before. In this study, we aimed to investigate the postural abnormalities in patients with HFS. In this cross-sectional, controlled study, Tinetti Balance and Gait Test (TBGT) scores and static posturography were performed on fifteen patients with HFS and fifteen healthy age- and sex-matched controls. The total TBGT score and TBGT-balance score were found to be significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group (p values were, respectively, 0.046 and 0.011). The ratio of the patients with high risk of falling was 40 %, and the difference was found to be significantly higher in the patient group (p value = 0.008). In Fourier analyses, a significant difference was found in the medium to high frequencies (F5-6) when the posturographic evaluation was performed on a solid ground with closed eyes, head rotated to right, and head rotated to the left positions (p values were, respectively, 0.045 and 0.007). The stability index of the HFS group was significantly higher than the control group when tested on the neutral, head right, and head left positions (p values were, respectively, 0.004, 0.049, and 0.003). In conclusion, our study showed that the patients with HFS have more balance and falling problems than the controls, which can be both clinically and posturographically determined.

  18. Vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders.

    PubMed

    Sando, I; Orita, Y; Miura, M; Balaban, C D

    2001-10-01

    This paper reviews the histopathologic features of vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders affecting the inner ear, based upon a comprehensive literature survey and a review of cases in our temporal bone collection. The review proceeds in three systematic steps. First, we surveyed associated diseases with the major phenotypic features of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear (including the internal auditory canal and otic capsule). Second, the vestibular anomalies are examined specifically. Finally, the anomalies are discussed from a developmental perspective. Among vestibular anomalies, a hypoplastic endolymphatic duct and sac are observed most frequently. Anomalies of the semicircular canals are also often observed. From embryological and clinical viewpoints, many of these resemble the structural features from fetal stages and appear to be associated with vestibular dysfunction. It is expected that progress in genetic analysis and accumulation of temporal bone specimens with vestibular abnormalities in congenital diseases will provide crucial information not only for pathology of those diseases, but also for genetic factors that are responsible for the specific vestibular abnormalities.

  19. Eurosid-2 dummy head-neck responses to lateral acceleration.

    PubMed

    Humm, John; Yoganandan, Narayan; Stemper, Brian; Shender, Barry; Paskoff, Glen

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the ES-2 head and neck response to lateral impacts at varying low magnitudes of impact velocities. A pendulum and mini sled were used to deliver inertial acceleration pulses to an isolated ES-2 head and neck. The base of the neck was attached to a cart which slid along the direction of impact from left to right on two precision ground rails. The shape of the cart acceleration was controlled by altering the momentum transfer of the pendulum. Eighteen tests were conducted at velocities ranging from 1.0 to 4.3 m/s. The head was instrumented with an internal nine accelerometer package to measure the linear and angular head accelerations. Upper and lower neck load cells measured the forces and moments. Cart and pendulum acceleration were measured from uniaxial accelerometers. All data was sampled at 20 kHz and filtered according to SAEJ211. A six-camera 1 kHz Vicon system measured the 3-d kinematics of retroreflective targets affixed to the head and neck. All forces and moments increased with velocity. Peak axial and shear forces at the upper and lower neck were similar, however moments at the lower neck were up to three times higher. The Head to T1 (Head-T1) and Head to Upper Spine (Head-US) angles were calculated from the marker position data. The Head-US angle plateaued at about 10 degrees at the high velocity due to the physical constraints of the upper neck joint. Peak Head-T1 angle increased up to about 50 degrees at the end velocity; however the overall percentage contribution of the Head-US angle to the Head-T1 angle decreased. The ES-2 head displayed a characteristic head lag that was demonstrated in Head-US angle and upper neck moment plots in velocities above 1.0 m/s which have also been reported in the human head neck complex studies. Matched paired tests with isolated Post Mortem Human Subjects are necessary to fully compare the ES-2 head and neck biofidelity.

  20. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  1. Vestibulocollic reflexes in the absence of head postural control

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Patrick A.; Siegmund, Gunter P.; Happee, Riender; Schouten, Alfred C.

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous electrical vestibular stimulation evokes reflexive responses in appendicular muscles that are suppressed during tasks in which the muscles are not contributing to balance control. In neck muscles, which stabilize the head on the torso and in space, it is unclear whether similar postural task dependence shapes vestibular reflexes. We investigated whether vestibulocollic reflexes are modulated during tasks in which vestibular information is not directly relevant to maintaining the head balanced on the torso. We hypothesized that vestibulocollic reflexes would be 1) evoked when neck muscles are not involved in balancing the head on the torso and 2) invariant across synergistic neck muscle contraction tasks. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally in sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles during head-free and head-fixed conditions while subjects were exposed to stochastic electrical vestibular stimulation (±5 mA, 0–75 Hz). Significant vestibular reflex responses (P < 0.05) were observed during head-free and head-fixed trials. Response magnitude and timing were similar between head-free and head-fixed trials for sternocleidomastoid, but splenius capitis magnitudes decreased with the head fixed by ∼25% (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, this indicates that vestibulocollic responses are evoked independent of the requirement to maintain postural control of the head on the torso. Response magnitude and timing were similar across focal muscle contractions (i.e., axial rotation/flexion/extension) provided the muscle was active. In contrast, when subjects cocontracted neck muscles, vestibular-evoked responses decreased in sternocleidomastoid by ∼30–45% (P < 0.05) compared with focal muscle contractions but remained unchanged in splenius capitis. These results indicate robust vestibulocollic reflex coupling, which we suggest functions through its closed-loop influence on head posture to ensure cervical spine stabilization. PMID:25008409

  2. Vestibulocollic reflexes in the absence of head postural control.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Patrick A; Siegmund, Gunter P; Happee, Riender; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-10-01

    Percutaneous electrical vestibular stimulation evokes reflexive responses in appendicular muscles that are suppressed during tasks in which the muscles are not contributing to balance control. In neck muscles, which stabilize the head on the torso and in space, it is unclear whether similar postural task dependence shapes vestibular reflexes. We investigated whether vestibulocollic reflexes are modulated during tasks in which vestibular information is not directly relevant to maintaining the head balanced on the torso. We hypothesized that vestibulocollic reflexes would be 1) evoked when neck muscles are not involved in balancing the head on the torso and 2) invariant across synergistic neck muscle contraction tasks. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally in sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles during head-free and head-fixed conditions while subjects were exposed to stochastic electrical vestibular stimulation (± 5 mA, 0-75 Hz). Significant vestibular reflex responses (P < 0.05) were observed during head-free and head-fixed trials. Response magnitude and timing were similar between head-free and head-fixed trials for sternocleidomastoid, but splenius capitis magnitudes decreased with the head fixed by ∼ 25% (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, this indicates that vestibulocollic responses are evoked independent of the requirement to maintain postural control of the head on the torso. Response magnitude and timing were similar across focal muscle contractions (i.e., axial rotation/flexion/extension) provided the muscle was active. In contrast, when subjects cocontracted neck muscles, vestibular-evoked responses decreased in sternocleidomastoid by ∼ 30-45% (P < 0.05) compared with focal muscle contractions but remained unchanged in splenius capitis. These results indicate robust vestibulocollic reflex coupling, which we suggest functions through its closed-loop influence on head posture to ensure cervical spine stabilization.

  3. Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, John; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the classification of shapes into broad natural categories such as "animal" or "leaf". We asked whether such coarse classifications can be achieved by a simple statistical classification of the shape skeleton. We surveyed databases of natural shapes, extracting shape skeletons and tabulating their…

  4. Endocrine abnormalities in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Klibanski, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease associated with notable medical complications and increased mortality. Endocrine abnormalities, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, growth hormone resistance and sick euthyroid syndrome, mediate the clinical manifestations of this disease. Alterations in anorexigenic and orexigenic appetite-regulating pathways have also been described. Decreases in fat mass result in adipokine abnormalities. Although most of the endocrine changes that occur in AN represent physiologic adaptation to starvation, some persist after recovery and might contribute to susceptibility to AN recurrence. In this Review, we summarize key endocrine alterations in AN, with a particular focus on the profound bone loss that can occur in this disease. Although AN is increasingly prevalent among boys and men, the disorder predominantly affects girls and women who are, therefore, the focus of this Review.

  5. Eye abnormalities in Fryns syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Diane M; Taboada, Eugenio; Butler, Merlin G

    2004-03-15

    Fryns syndrome is a rare, generally lethal, autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly (MCA) syndrome first described in 1979. Patients with the syndrome present with the classical findings of cloudy cornea, brain malformations, diaphragmatic defects, and distal limb deformities. Over 70 patients have been reported revealing a wide variety of phenotypic features. Although initially considered a major feature of Fryns syndrome, cloudy cornea has been relegated as a minor diagnostic sign and not commonly reported in patients since the original description. However, eye findings per se are not uncommon. Abnormal eye findings occasionally reported in Fryns syndrome potentially result in amblyopia and blindness, profoundly affecting neurologic outcome of those who survive the neonatal period. We reviewed 77 reported patients with Fryns syndrome and summarized the abnormal eye findings identified in 12 of the reported cases. In addition, we contribute three new patients with Fryns syndrome, one of which demonstrated unilateral microphthalmia and cloudy cornea.

  6. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  7. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    De Pablo-Fernández, Eduardo; Breen, David P; Bouloux, Pierre M; Barker, Roger A; Foltynie, Thomas; Warner, Thomas T

    2017-02-01

    Neuroendocrine abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include disruption of melatonin secretion, disturbances of glucose, insulin resistance and bone metabolism, and body weight changes. They have been associated with multiple non-motor symptoms in PD and have important clinical consequences, including therapeutics. Some of the underlying mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and represent promising targets for the development of disease biomarkers and neuroprotective therapies. In this systems-based review, we describe clinically relevant neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease to highlight their role in overall phenotype. We discuss pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical implications, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions based on the current evidence. We also review recent advances in the field, focusing on the potential targets for development of neuroprotective drugs in Parkinson's disease and suggest future areas for research.

  8. Shape-based classification of 3D facial data to support 22q11.2DS craniofacial research.

    PubMed

    Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Wu, Jia; Heike, Carrie; Shapiro, Linda

    2012-06-01

    3D imaging systems are used to construct high-resolution meshes of patient's heads that can be analyzed by computer algorithms. Our work starts with such 3D head meshes and produces both global and local descriptors of 3D shape. Since these descriptors are numeric feature vectors, they can be used in both classification and quantification of various different abnormalities. In this paper, we define these descriptors, describe our methodology for constructing them from 3D head meshes, and show through a set of classification experiments involving cases and controls for a genetic disorder called 22q11.2 deletion syndrome that they are suitable for use in craniofacial research studies. The main contributions of this work include: automatic generation of novel global and local data representations, robust automatic placement of anthropometric landmarks, generation of local descriptors for nasal and oral facial features from landmarks, use of local descriptors for predicting various local facial features, and use of global features for 22q11.2DS classification, showing their potential use as descriptors in craniofacial research.

  9. Effect of small head tilt on ocular fundus image: Consideration of proper head positioning for ocular fundus scanning

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shin Hae; Kang, Nam Yeo; Kim, Jihyun; Baek, Jiwon; Hong, Seung Woo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Head tilt and resultant ocular cyclotorsion can influence the results of ophthalmologic examinations. Thus, proper head positioning during fundus scanning has been emphasized. However, there is no perfect method to control the head tilt and little is known about the effect of small head tilts. In this study, we investigated the effect of minimal head tilt on the ocular cyclotorsion which we cannot easily detect. Forty-seven participants without ophthalmologic or vestibular abnormalities were recruited as normal subjects. Their faces were positioned at the desired head tilt using a customized adjustable head tilter and facial and fundus photographs of both the left and right eyes were taken in the upright neutral position; as well as at rightward and leftward head tilts of 2°, 4°, and 6°. The actual head tilt was determined using the facial photographs by measuring the slope of a line that intersected the corneal reflexes of both eyes. Rotational changes in the fundus images were recorded and the correlation of these changes with the degree of head tilt was determined. The degree of head tilt was significantly correlated with rotational changes in the fundus images from both the right and left eyes (P < 0.001; right eye: R2 = 0.897, left eye: R2 = 0.899). The mean relative compensations for head tilt, mediated by the ocular counterrolling reflex, were 0.376 ± 0.255 in the right eye (range: −0.02 to 1.0), and 0.350 ± 0.263 in the left eye (range: −0.03 to 1.0), and exhibited a significant negative correlation with head tilt (P < 0.05). The mean relative compensation of the right eye did not differ significantly from that of the left eye (P = 0.380), but the value did vary widely among individuals and within individuals. Even very small head tilt was partially and variably compensated for, and caused significant rotation in the fundus image. We concluded that proper head positioning does not guarantee the minimal ocular

  10. "Dropped head syndrome" caused by Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ueda, T; Kanda, F; Kobessho, H; Hamaguchi, H; Motomura, M

    2009-07-01

    A 67-year-old man was admitted with a 2-year history of dropped head. Neurological examination revealed ptosis, dysarthria, neck weakness, hyporeflexia of all limbs, and autonomic failure. Electrophysiologic study showed a 400% increment response to high-rate repetitive nerve stimulation. Serum anti-P/Q-voltage-gated calcium channel antibody was positive, confirming the diagnosis of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). His symptoms and electrophysiological abnormalities improved with oral prednisolone following plasmapheresis. This is the first report of LEMS as a cause of dropped head syndrome.

  11. Congenital abnormalities of the goat.

    PubMed

    Basrur, P K

    1993-03-01

    Congenital abnormalities of genetic and environmental causes constitute a striking proportion of the afflictions seen in goats. These include a variety of malformations and metabolic diseases that could occur in all breeds but tend to exhibit predisposition in some breeds of goats. Genetic abnormalities for which the carrier state is detectable with the aid of enzymes and surface protein markers can be eliminated from goat populations, whereas common polygenic disorders including udder problems in does and gynecomastia in bucks are more difficult to eradicate because the mutant genes responsible for these traits generally do not declare themselves until inbreeding brings together a critical concentration of liability genes to create a crisis. A substantial reduction of common abnormalities in this species, such as intersexuality in dairy breeds, abortion in Angora breed, and arthritis in the Pygmy breed, will require a change in breeders' preference and selection practice. In making these changes, however, the beneficial traits will have to be balanced against the undesirable effects of the selected mutant genes (pleiotropy), which hold the key to success or failure of a breed under domestication.

  12. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F

    2005-01-01

    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  13. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Here again, a basic segmental plan for the head has been sought among chordates. We convened a symposium that brought together leading researchers dealing with this problem, in a number of different evolutionary and developmental contexts. Here we give an overview of the outcome and the status of the field in this modern era of Evo-Devo. We emphasize the fact that the head segmentation problem is not fully resolved, and we discuss new directions in the search for hints for a way out of this maze. PMID:20607135

  14. Pediatric head injury.

    PubMed

    Tulipan, N

    1998-01-01

    Pediatric head injury is a public health problem that exacts a high price from patients, their families and society alike. While much of the brain damage in head-injured patients occurs at the moment of impact, secondary injuries can be prevented by aggressive medical and surgical intervention. Modern imaging devices have simplified the task of diagnosing intracranial injuries. Recent advances in monitoring technology have made it easier to assess the effectiveness of medical therapy. These include intracranial pressure monitoring devices that are accurate and safe, and jugular bulb monitoring which provides a continuous, qualitative measure of cerebral blood flow. The cornerstones of treatment remain hyperventilation and osmotherapy. Despite maximal treatment, however, the mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric head injury remains high. Reduction of this mortality and morbidity will likely depend upon prevention rather than treatment.

  15. A revised metric for quantifying body shape in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Collar, David C; Reynaga, Crystal M; Ward, Andrea B; Mehta, Rita S

    2013-08-01

    Vertebrates exhibit tremendous diversity in body shape, though quantifying this variation has been challenging. In the past, researchers have used simplified metrics that either describe overall shape but reveal little about its anatomical basis or that characterize only a subset of the morphological features that contribute to shape variation. Here, we present a revised metric of body shape, the vertebrate shape index (VSI), which combines the four primary morphological components that lead to shape diversity in vertebrates: head shape, length of the second major body axis (depth or width), and shape of the precaudal and caudal regions of the vertebral column. We illustrate the usefulness of VSI on a data set of 194 species, primarily representing five major vertebrate clades: Actinopterygii, Lissamphibia, Squamata, Aves, and Mammalia. We quantify VSI diversity within each of these clades and, in the course of doing so, show how measurements of the morphological components of VSI can be obtained from radiographs, articulated skeletons, and cleared and stained specimens. We also demonstrate that head shape, secondary body axis, and vertebral characteristics are important independent contributors to body shape diversity, though their importance varies across vertebrate groups. Finally, we present a functional application of VSI to test a hypothesized relationship between body shape and the degree of axial bending associated with locomotor modes in ray-finned fishes. Altogether, our study highlights the promise VSI holds for identifying the morphological variation underlying body shape diversity as well as the selective factors driving shape evolution.

  16. Flexible Heating Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Phillips, W. Morris

    1994-01-01

    United States Air Force is investigating method of repairing aircraft by use of adhesive bonding with induction heating to cure adhesive. Fast-acting and reliable induction heating device that is lightweight, portable, and easy to use needed for such applications. Newly developed flexible heating head lightweight and conforms to complex, curved surfaces. Incorporates principles and circuitry of toroid joining gun described in "Toroid Joining Gun for Fittings and Couplings" (LAR-14278). Concentrates heat in local area through induction heating. Flexible heating head contains tank circuit, connected via cable to source of power.

  17. Holographic Optical Head

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    optical path from HOE to focal point can be made (ie same for both rays. We do this for a thin lens; in reality, the condition is obtained by ray...I2 RADC-TR-90-200 Final Technical Report September 1990 uric FILE COPY HOLOGRAPHIC OPTICAL HEAD Holometrix, Inc. P. Gregory DeBaryshe, Charles S. th...aa w 1. REPOA ATE 3. Reoa"rm AND DAS C September 1990 Final Aug 88 - May 90 4. TME AND hTME s. FUMO NUMBERS HOLOGRAPHIC OPTICAL HEAD C - F30602-88-C

  18. Visual pathway abnormalities in tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Sharma, Lalit; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Ophthalmological complications are common and disabling in patients with tuberculous meningitis. We aimed to study the visual pathway abnormalities in patients with tuberculous meningitis. Forty-three patients with tuberculous meningitis were subjected to visual evoked responses (VER) and neuroophthalmologic assessment. Neuroophthalmologic assessment revealed abnormalities in 22 (51.3%) patients. VER were found to be abnormal in 27 (62.8%) patients. The VER abnormalities included prolonged P100 latencies with relatively normal amplitude and significant interocular latency differences. Visual pathways abnormalities are common in patients with tuberculous meningitis and are often subclinical. Pathophysiologic explanations for electrophysiological abnormalities on VER in these patients are incompletely understood and needs further exploration.

  19. Hydrodynamic drag constrains head enlargement for mouthbrooding in cichlids.

    PubMed

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Potes, Nuno Zavattieri; Adriaens, Dominique

    2015-08-06

    Presumably as an adaptation for mouthbrooding, many cichlid fish species have evolved a prominent sexual dimorphism in the adult head. Since the head of fishes serves as a bow during locomotion, an evolutionary increase in head volume to brood more eggs can trade-off with the hydrodynamic efficiency of swimming. Here, the differences between males and females in three-dimensional shape and size of the external head surfaces and the effect thereof on drag force during locomotion was analysed for the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a maternal mouthbrooder. To do so, three-dimensional body surface reconstructions from laser scans and computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed. After scaling the scanned specimens to post-cranial body volume, in order to theoretically equalize propulsive power, the external volume of the head of females was 27% larger than that of males (head length + 14%; head width + 9%). These differences resulted in an approximate 15% increase in drag force. Yet, hydrodynamics imposed important constraints on the adaptation for mouthbrooding as a much more drastic drop in swimming efficiency seems avoided by mainly enlarging the head along the swimming direction.

  20. Eye-head coordination during large gaze shifts.

    PubMed

    Tweed, D; Glenn, B; Vilis, T

    1995-02-01

    movements could accompany slow head movements and vice versa. Peak head acceleration and deceleration were also very weakly correlated with eye velocity. Further, the head rotated about an essentially fixed axis, with a smooth bell-shaped velocity profile, whereas the axis of eye rotation relative to the head varied throughout the movement and the velocity profiles were more ragged. 4. Plots of 3D eye orientation revealed strong and consistent looping in eye trajectories relative to space.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  1. Sculpting Ceramic Heads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapiro, Maurice

    1983-01-01

    Clay sculpture is difficult to produce because of the requirements of kiln firing. The problems can be overcome by modeling the original manikin head and making a plaster mold, pressing molding slabs of clay into the plaster mold to form the hollow clay armature, and sculpting on the armature. (IS)

  2. MULTIPLE SHAFT TOOL HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Colbert, H.P.

    1962-10-23

    An improved tool head arrangement is designed for the automatic expanding of a plurality of ferruled tubes simultaneously. A plurality of output shafts of a multiple spindle drill head are driven in unison by a hydraulic motor. A plurality of tube expanders are respectively coupled to the shafts through individual power train arrangements. The axial or thrust force required for the rolling operation is provided by a double acting hydraulic cylinder having a hollow through shaft with the shaft cooperating with an internally rotatable splined shaft slidably coupled to a coupling rigidly attached to the respectlve output shaft of the drill head, thereby transmitting rotary motion and axial thrust simultaneously to the tube expander. A hydraulic power unit supplies power to each of the double acting cylinders through respective two-position, four-way valves, under control of respective solenoids for each of the cylinders. The solenoids are in turn selectively controlled by a tool selection control unit which in turn is controlled by signals received from a programmed, coded tape from a tape reader. The number of expanders that are extended in a rolling operation, which may be up to 42 expanders, is determined by a predetermined program of operations depending upon the arrangement of the ferruled tubes to be expanded in the tube bundle. The tape reader also supplies dimensional information to a machine tool servo control unit for imparting selected, horizontal and/or vertical movement to the tool head assembly. (AEC)

  3. Is Head Start Dying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Ann; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of problems faced by Head Start and its present status includes a review of its transfer from O.E.O. to H.E.W., its extensions, the Westinghouse Report, and other studies and articles. Decline in public interest and support is noted. (KW)

  4. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOEpatents

    Sawabe, James K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

  5. Statistical Shape Modeling of Cam Femoroacetabular Impingement

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Michael D.; Dater, Manasi; Whitaker, Ross; Jurrus, Elizabeth R.; Peters, Christopher L.; Anderson, Andrew E.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, statistical shape modeling (SSM) was used to quantify three-dimensional (3D) variation and morphologic differences between femurs with and without cam femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). 3D surfaces were generated from CT scans of femurs from 41 controls and 30 cam FAI patients. SSM correspondence particles were optimally positioned on each surface using a gradient descent energy function. Mean shapes for control and patient groups were defined from the resulting particle configurations. Morphological differences between group mean shapes and between the control mean and individual patients were calculated. Principal component analysis was used to describe anatomical variation present in both groups. The first 6 modes (or principal components) captured statistically significant shape variations, which comprised 84% of cumulative variation among the femurs. Shape variation was greatest in femoral offset, greater trochanter height, and the head-neck junction. The mean cam femur shape protruded above the control mean by a maximum of 3.3 mm with sustained protrusions of 2.5-3.0 mm along the anterolateral head-neck junction and distally along the anterior neck, corresponding well with reported cam lesion locations and soft-tissue damage. This study provides initial evidence that SSM can describe variations in femoral morphology in both controls and cam FAI patients and may be useful for developing new measurements of pathological anatomy. SSM may also be applied to characterize cam FAI severity and provide templates to guide patient-specific surgical resection of bone.

  6. Incidence, structure and morphological classification of abnormal sperm in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Lizette; Soley, John T

    2011-03-01

    Little detailed information is currently available on the incidence and morphological characteristics of abnormal sperm in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and of ratites in general. This situation is further compounded by the lack of a uniform system for the morphological classification of avian sperm defects. Considering the important role that sperm morphology plays in the assessment of semen quality, a detailed description of avian sperm defects is of paramount importance. Based on morphological data provided by light and electron microscopy, a mean of 17.3% abnormal sperm was recorded in semen samples collected from the distal deferent duct of four adult emus during the middle of the breeding season. Four categories of defects were identified. Head defects (57.2% of total defects) consisted of bent heads, macrocephalic heads, round heads and acephalic sperm. Zones of incomplete chromatin condensation and retained cytoplasmic droplets appeared to be implicated in head bending, while giant heads were often associated with multiple tails. Acephalic sperm revealed a complete tail devoid of a head which was replaced by a small spherical structure. Tail defects (22.6% of total defects) were subdivided into neck/midpiece defects and principal piece defects. In the neck/midpiece region disjointed sperm were the exclusive defect noted and were characterized by the complete separation of the head and midpiece in the neck region but within the confines of the plasmalemma. Defects observed in the principal piece were subdivided into short tails, coiled tails and multiple tails. No conclusive evidence was obtained that tail coiling represented the 'Dag' defect. Biflagellate sperm were the most common form of multiple tails, demonstrating two complete tails with all the normal structural elements. Cytoplasmic droplets (13.9% of total defects) were classified as a separate defect. The location and eccentric positioning of retained cytoplasmic droplets was similar to that

  7. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... most cases, a health care provider finds pinna abnormalities during the first well-baby exam. This exam ...

  8. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy.

  9. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  10. Abnormal retinal development associated with FRMD7 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mervyn G.; Crosier, Moira; Lindsay, Susan; Kumar, Anil; Araki, Masasuke; Leroy, Bart P.; McLean, Rebecca J.; Sheth, Viral; Maconachie, Gail; Thomas, Shery; Moore, Anthony T.; Gottlob, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, often associated with FRMD7 mutations. As the appearance of the retina is reported to be normal based on conventional fundus photography, IIN is postulated to arise from abnormal cortical development. To determine whether the afferent visual system is involved in FRMD7 mutations, we performed in situ hybridization studies in human embryonic and fetal stages (35 days post-ovulation to 9 weeks post-conception). We show a dynamic retinal expression pattern of FRMD7 during development. We observe expression within the outer neuroblastic layer, then in the inner neuroblastic layer and at 9 weeks post-conception a bilaminar expression pattern. Expression was also noted within the developing optic stalk and optic disk. We identified a large cohort of IIN patients (n = 100), and performed sequence analysis which revealed 45 patients with FRMD7 mutations. Patients with FRMD7 mutations underwent detailed retinal imaging studies using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography. The tomograms were compared with a control cohort (n = 60). The foveal pit was significantly shallower in FRMD7 patients (P < 0.0001). The optic nerve head morphology was abnormal with significantly decreased optic disk area, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, cup area and cup depth in FRMD7 patients (P < 0.0001). This study shows for the first time that abnormal afferent system development is associated with FRMD7 mutations and could be an important etiological factor in the development of nystagmus. PMID:24688117

  11. Abnormal retinal development associated with FRMD7 mutations.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mervyn G; Crosier, Moira; Lindsay, Susan; Kumar, Anil; Araki, Masasuke; Leroy, Bart P; McLean, Rebecca J; Sheth, Viral; Maconachie, Gail; Thomas, Shery; Moore, Anthony T; Gottlob, Irene

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, often associated with FRMD7 mutations. As the appearance of the retina is reported to be normal based on conventional fundus photography, IIN is postulated to arise from abnormal cortical development. To determine whether the afferent visual system is involved in FRMD7 mutations, we performed in situ hybridization studies in human embryonic and fetal stages (35 days post-ovulation to 9 weeks post-conception). We show a dynamic retinal expression pattern of FRMD7 during development. We observe expression within the outer neuroblastic layer, then in the inner neuroblastic layer and at 9 weeks post-conception a bilaminar expression pattern. Expression was also noted within the developing optic stalk and optic disk. We identified a large cohort of IIN patients (n = 100), and performed sequence analysis which revealed 45 patients with FRMD7 mutations. Patients with FRMD7 mutations underwent detailed retinal imaging studies using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography. The tomograms were compared with a control cohort (n = 60). The foveal pit was significantly shallower in FRMD7 patients (P < 0.0001). The optic nerve head morphology was abnormal with significantly decreased optic disk area, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, cup area and cup depth in FRMD7 patients (P < 0.0001). This study shows for the first time that abnormal afferent system development is associated with FRMD7 mutations and could be an important etiological factor in the development of nystagmus.

  12. Detecting rare, abnormally large grains by x-ray diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    Boyce, Brad L.; Furnish, Timothy Allen; Padilla, H. A.; ...

    2015-07-16

    Bimodal grain structures are common in many alloys, arising from a number of different causes including incomplete recrystallization and abnormal grain growth. These bimodal grain structures have important technological implications, such as the well-known Goss texture which is now a cornerstone for electrical steels. Yet our ability to detect bimodal grain distributions is largely confined to brute force cross-sectional metallography. The present study presents a new method for rapid detection of unusually large grains embedded in a sea of much finer grains. Traditional X-ray diffraction-based grain size measurement techniques such as Scherrer, Williamson–Hall, or Warren–Averbach rely on peak breadth andmore » shape to extract information regarding the average crystallite size. However, these line broadening techniques are not well suited to identify a very small fraction of abnormally large grains. The present method utilizes statistically anomalous intensity spikes in the Bragg peak to identify regions where abnormally large grains are contributing to diffraction. This needle-in-a-haystack technique is demonstrated on a nanocrystalline Ni–Fe alloy which has undergone fatigue-induced abnormal grain growth. In this demonstration, the technique readily identifies a few large grains that occupy <0.00001 % of the interrogation volume. Finally, while the technique is demonstrated in the current study on nanocrystalline metal, it would likely apply to any bimodal polycrystal including ultrafine grained and fine microcrystalline materials with sufficiently distinct bimodal grain statistics.« less

  13. Detecting rare, abnormally large grains by x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, Brad L.; Furnish, Timothy Allen; Padilla, H. A.; Van Campen, Douglas; Mehta, Apurva

    2015-07-16

    Bimodal grain structures are common in many alloys, arising from a number of different causes including incomplete recrystallization and abnormal grain growth. These bimodal grain structures have important technological implications, such as the well-known Goss texture which is now a cornerstone for electrical steels. Yet our ability to detect bimodal grain distributions is largely confined to brute force cross-sectional metallography. The present study presents a new method for rapid detection of unusually large grains embedded in a sea of much finer grains. Traditional X-ray diffraction-based grain size measurement techniques such as Scherrer, Williamson–Hall, or Warren–Averbach rely on peak breadth and shape to extract information regarding the average crystallite size. However, these line broadening techniques are not well suited to identify a very small fraction of abnormally large grains. The present method utilizes statistically anomalous intensity spikes in the Bragg peak to identify regions where abnormally large grains are contributing to diffraction. This needle-in-a-haystack technique is demonstrated on a nanocrystalline Ni–Fe alloy which has undergone fatigue-induced abnormal grain growth. In this demonstration, the technique readily identifies a few large grains that occupy <0.00001 % of the interrogation volume. Finally, while the technique is demonstrated in the current study on nanocrystalline metal, it would likely apply to any bimodal polycrystal including ultrafine grained and fine microcrystalline materials with sufficiently distinct bimodal grain statistics.

  14. Preventing head injuries in children

    MedlinePlus

    Concussion - preventing in children; Traumatic brain injury - preventing in children; TBI - children; Safety - preventing head injury ... not ride on these vehicles. After having a concussion or mild head injury , your child may need ...

  15. CT angiography - head and neck

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007677.htm CT angiography - head and neck To use the sharing features on this page, ... create pictures of the blood vessels in the head and neck. How the Test is Performed You will be ...

  16. Head-Tail Modes for Strong Space Charge

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, Alexey

    2008-12-01

    Head-tail modes are described here for the space charge tune shift significantly exceeding the synchrotron tune. General equation for the modes is derived. Spatial shapes of the modes, their frequencies, and coherent growth rates are explored. The Landau damping rates are also found. Suppression of the transverse mode coupling instability by the space charge is explained.

  17. Lower extremity abnormalities in children.

    PubMed

    Sass, Pamela; Hassan, Ghinwa

    2003-08-01

    Rotational and angular problems are two types of lower extremity abnormalities common in children. Rotational problems include intoeing and out-toeing. Intoeing is caused by one of three types of deformity: metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and increased femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing, and its causes are similar but opposite to those of intoeing. These include femoral retroversion and external tibial torsion. Angular problems include bowlegs and knock-knees. An accurate diagnosis can be made with careful history and physical examination, which includes torsional profile (a four-component composite of measurements of the lower extremities). Charts of normal values and values with two standard deviations for each component of the torsional profile are available. In most cases, the abnormality improves with time. A careful physical examination, explanation of the natural history, and serial measurements are usually reassuring to the parents. Treatment is usually conservative. Special shoes, cast, or braces are rarely beneficial and have no proven efficacy. Surgery is reserved for older children with deformity from three to four standard deviations from the normal.

  18. Normal and abnormal lid function.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Janet C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter on lid function is comprised of two primary sections, the first on normal eyelid anatomy, neurological innervation, and physiology, and the second on abnormal eyelid function in disease states. The eyelids serve several important ocular functions, the primary objectives of which are protection of the anterior globe from injury and maintenance of the ocular tear film. Typical eyelid behaviors to perform these functions include blinking (voluntary, spontaneous, or reflexive), voluntary eye closure (gentle or forced), partial lid lowering during squinting, normal lid retraction during emotional states such as surprise or fear (startle reflex), and coordination of lid movements with vertical eye movements for maximal eye protection. Detailed description of the neurological innervation patterns and neurophysiology of each of these lid behaviors is provided. Abnormal lid function is divided by conditions resulting in excessive lid closure (cerebral ptosis, apraxia of lid opening, blepharospasm, oculomotor palsy, Horner's syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and mechanical) and those resulting in excessive lid opening (midbrain lid retraction, facial nerve palsy, and lid retraction due to orbital disease).

  19. Identifying Differences in Early Mathematical Skills among Children in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Qiong; Lei, Pui-wa; DiPerna, James C.; Morgan, Paul L.; Reid, Erin E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine early mathematical skill differences among preschool children in US Head Start classrooms. Latent class analysis based on six early mathematical subtest scores (i.e. counting aloud, measurement, counting objects, numbers and shapes, pattern recognition, and grouping) from a sample of 279 Head Start children…

  20. Yes, Head Start Improves Reading!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Janet J.

    This study evaluated the effect of a Head Start program on children's intelligence and reading achievement test scores over a three year period. Each of 25 Head Start children was paired with a non-Head Start child of the same reace, sex, age, socioeconomic status, date of school entrance, kindergarten experience, promotion record, and type of…

  1. Minnesota: Early Head Start Initiatiive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Minnesota provides supplemental state funding to existing federal Head Start and Early Head Start (EHS) grantees to increase their capacity to serve additional infants, toddlers, and pregnant women. The initiative was started in 1997 when the state legislature earmarked $1 million of the general state Head Start supplemental funds for children…

  2. MAGNETIC RECORDING HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, L.C.

    1958-06-17

    An electromagetic recording head is described for simultaneous recording of a plurality of signals within a small space on a magnetically semsitized medium. Basically the head structure comprises a non-magnetic centerpiece provided with only first and second groups of spaced cut-out slots respectively on opposite sides of the centerpiece. The two groups of slots are in parallel alignment and the slots of one group are staggered with respect to the slots of the other group so that one slot is not directly opposite another slot. Each slot has a magnet pole piece disposed therein and cooperating with a second pole and coil to provide a magnetic flux gap at the upper end of the slot. As a tape is drawn over the upper end of the centerpiece the individual magnetic circuits are disposed along its width to provide means for simultaneously recording information on separate portions, tracks. of the tape.

  3. Delayed and isolated oculomotor nerve palsy following minor head trauma

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Yu; Toda, Masahiro; Shibao, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Kazunari

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to consider the mechanism of isolated oculomotor nerve palsy after minor head trauma. Case Description: We report a rare case of delayed and isolated oculomotor nerve palsy following minor head trauma. A 19-year-old boy complained of double vision 1 day after a minor head trauma. Neuro-ophthalmic examination showed isolated left oculomotor nerve palsy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examination revealed no abnormal findings and steroid therapy was administered for a week. Three months after the injury, the ptosis and extraocular movements had fully resolved, although the pupillary light reflex was still abnormal. Conclusions: Delayed and isolated oculomotor nerve palsy may be caused by an injury at the point where the oculomotor nerve runs over the posterior petroclinoid ligament. Because edema of the damaged oculomotor nerve might result in constriction at the point where the nerve pierces the dura of the cavernous sinus, symptoms of oculomotor nerve palsy appeared late after trauma. Steroid treatment reducing edema could be effective for delayed and isolated oculomotor nerve palsy following minor head trauma. PMID:28217399

  4. Shape-Shifting Plastic

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    A new plastic developed by ORNL and Washington State University transforms from its original shape through a series of temporary shapes and returns to its initial form. The shape-shifting process is controlled through changes in temperature

  5. Distribution of pressure-induced fast axonal transport abnormalities in primate optic nerve. An autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L

    1981-07-01

    The distribution of transport abnormalities in primate optic nerve from eyes subjected to five hours of pressure elevation (perfusion pressure of 35 mm Hg) was studied. Tissue autoradiography and electron microscopy were used to localize regions of the lamina cribrosa with increased transport interruption. A preferential involvement by this transport abnormality involved the superior, temporal, and inferior portions, to the exclusion of the nasal portion, of the optic nerve head. This observation supports the hypothesis that transport interruption seen in this model may be pertinent to the study of clinical glaucomatous neuropathy.

  6. Optic nerve fast axonal transport abnormalities in primates. Occurrence after short posterior ciliary artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L

    1980-11-01

    Fast axonal transport abnormalities in primate (Aotus trivirgatus) optic nerve were studied in ten eyes at various intervals after occlusion of the lateral short posterior ciliary circulation. Evidence of focal axonal ischemia, as indicated by swelling of mitochondria and dissolution of cytoplasmic detail, was noted as early as one hour after occlusion. Accumulation of mitochondria, microvesicles, and dense bodies, indicating focal interruption of axonal transport mechanisms, was noted in eyes examined at 2, 4, and 6 hours. This accumulation of organelles was limited to the region of the lamina cribrosa. Nerve head abnormalities were not seen in two eyes studied at two weeks.

  7. Non-invasive primate head restraint using thermoplastic masks

    PubMed Central

    Drucker, Caroline B.; Carlson, Monica L.; Toda, Koji; DeWind, Nicholas K.; Platt, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The success of many neuroscientific studies depends upon adequate head fixation of awake, behaving animals. Typically, this is achieved by surgically affixing a head-restraint prosthesis to the skull. New Method Here we report the use of thermoplastic masks to non-invasively restrain monkeys’ heads. Mesh thermoplastic sheets become pliable when heated and can then be molded to an individual monkey’s head. After cooling, the custom mask retains this shape indefinitely for day-to-day use. Results We successfully trained rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to perform cognitive tasks while wearing thermoplastic masks. Using these masks, we achieved a level of head stability sufficient for high-resolution eye-tracking and intracranial electrophysiology. Comparison with Existing Method Compared with traditional head-posts, we find that thermoplastic masks perform at least as well during infrared eye-tracking and single-neuron recordings, allow for clearer magnetic resonance image acquisition, enable freer placement of a transcranial magnetic stimulation coil, and impose lower financial and time costs on the lab. Conclusions We conclude that thermoplastic masks are a viable non-invasive form of primate head restraint that enable a wide range of neuroscientific experiments. PMID:26112334

  8. Evaluation of the Optic Nerve Head in Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Monica; Dubey, Suneeta

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy leading to changes in the intrapaillary and parapaillary regions of the optic disk. Despite technological advances, clinical identification of optic nerve head characteristics remains the first step in diagnosis. Careful examination of the disk parameters including size, shape, neuroretinal rim shape and pallor; size of the optic cup in relation to the area of the disk; configuration and depth of the optic cup; ratios of cup-to-disk diameter and cup-to-disk area; presence and location of splinter-shaped hemorrhages; occurrence, size, configuration, and location of parapapillary chorioretinal atrophy; and visibility of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) is important to differentiate between the glaucomatous and nonglaucomatous optic neuropathy. How to cite this article: Gandhi M, Dubey S. Evaluation of the Optic Nerve Head in Glaucoma. J Current Glau Prac 2013;7(3):106-114.

  9. Head trauma and in vivo measures of amyloid and neurodegeneration in a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Savica, Rodolfo; Wiste, Heather J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Knopman, David S.; Lowe, Val J.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Machulda, Mary M.; Geda, Yonas E.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Jack, Clifford R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We determined whether head trauma was associated with amyloid deposition and neurodegeneration among individuals who were cognitively normal (CN) or had mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Participants included 448 CN individuals and 141 individuals with MCI from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging who underwent Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET, fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, and MRI. Head trauma was defined as a self-reported brain injury with at least momentary loss of consciousness or memory. Regression models examined whether head trauma was associated with each neuroimaging variable (assessed as continuous and dichotomous measures) in both CN and MCI participants, controlling for age and sex. Results: Among 448 CN individuals, 74 (17%) self-reported a head trauma. There was no difference in any neuroimaging measure between CN subjects with and without head trauma. Of 141 participants with MCI, 25 (18%) self-reported a head trauma. MCI participants with a head trauma had higher amyloid levels (by an average 0.36 standardized uptake value ratio units, p = 0.002). Conclusions: Among individuals with MCI, but not CN individuals, self-reported head trauma with at least momentary loss of consciousness or memory was associated with greater amyloid deposition, suggesting that head trauma may be associated with Alzheimer disease–related neuropathology. Differences between CN individuals and individuals with MCI raise questions about the relevance of head injury–PET abnormality findings in those with MCI. PMID:24371306

  10. Multi-modality imaging review of congenital abnormalities of kidney and upper urinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Kumar, Devendra; Khanna, Maneesh; Al Heidous, Mahmoud; Sheikh, Adnan; Virmani, Vivek; Palaniappan, Yegu

    2016-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include a wide range of abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic ectopic kidneys to life threatening renal agenesis (bilateral). Many of them are detected in the antenatal or immediate postnatal with a significant proportion identified in the adult population with varying degree of severity. CAKUT can be classified on embryological basis in to abnormalities in the renal parenchymal development, aberrant embryonic migration and abnormalities of the collecting system. Renal parenchymal abnormalities include multi cystic dysplastic kidneys, renal hypoplasia, number (agenesis or supernumerary), shape and cystic renal diseases. Aberrant embryonic migration encompasses abnormal location and fusion anomalies. Collecting system abnormalities include duplex kidneys and Pelvi ureteric junction obstruction. Ultrasonography (US) is typically the first imaging performed as it is easily available, non-invasive and radiation free used both antenatally and postnatally. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful to confirm the ultrasound detected abnormality, detection of complex malformations, demonstration of collecting system and vascular anatomy and more importantly for early detection of complications like renal calculi, infection and malignancies. As CAKUT are one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease, it is important for the radiologists to be familiar with the varying imaging appearances of CAKUT on US, CT and MRI, thereby helping in prompt diagnosis and optimal management. PMID:26981222

  11. From Shape to Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Hillel A.

    In order to make letter shape recognition an integral part of perception training, the use of the line in its two basic shapes is proposed. Letter shapes may seem exceedingly complex linear shapes to young minds. Thus instead of instruction in configuration, instruction involving transformational activities to manipulate and create the…

  12. "E" Heating Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L.; Swaim, Robert J.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Phillips, W. Morris; Copeland, Carl E.

    1994-01-01

    Two separate areas heated inductively for adhesive bonding in single operation. "E" heating head developed to satisfy need for fast-acting and reliable induction heating device. Used in attaching "high-hat" stiffeners to aircraft panels. Incorporates principles and circuitry of toroid joining gun. Width and length configured to provide variously sized heat zones, depending on bonding requirements. Lightweight, portable and provides rapid, reliable heating of dual areas in any environment. Well suited for flight-line and depot maintenance, and battlefield repair. Also useful in automotive assembly lines to strengthen automobile panels.

  13. Imaging in head and neck oncology.

    PubMed

    Alberico, Ronald A; Husain, Syed Hamed S; Sirotkin, Igor

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of head and neck cancer with imaging is a topic that is far more extensive than can be covered in this article. The main reason for head and neck imaging is to evaluate the true extent of disease to best determine surgical and therapeutic options. This process includes evaluation of the size, location, and extent of tumor infiltration into surrounding vascular and visceral structures. Important anatomic variants must be pointed out so the surgeon can avoid potential intraoperative complications. These variant scan be evaluated with the appropriate multiplanar and three-dimensional images to provide as much information as possible to the surgeon preoperatively. Second, nodal staging should be assessed in an effort to increase the number of abnormal nodes detected by physical examination and, more important, to precisely define their location by a standard classification system that can be understood and consistently applied by the radiologist, surgeon, radiation oncologist, and pathologist. Although secondary to the previously described tasks, imaging frequently enables a limitation of the diagnostic and histologic possibilities based on lesion location and signal-attenuation characteristics, which may lead the clinical investigation along a different path. saving the patient unnecessary risk and shortening the time to diagnosis and ultimate treatment. This article has attempted to detail the current state of the controversy between CT, MRI, and other modalities, and has emphasized the constant evolution of this controversy because of the evolving imaging technology. Although CT and MRI are both well suited to evaluation of the deep spaces and submucosal spaces of the head and neck, each has some limitations.MRI has the advantages of higher soft tissue contrast resolution, the lack of iodine-based contrast agents, and high sensitivity for perineural and intracranial disease. The disadvantages of MRI include lower patient tolerance, contraindications in

  14. Shape memory polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  15. Cranial index of children with normal and abnormal brain development in Sokoto, Nigeria: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Muhammad Awwal; Zagga, Abdullahi Daudu; Danfulani, Mohammed; Tadros, Aziz Abdo; Ahmed, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abnormal brain development due to neurodevelopmental disorders in children has always been an important concern, but yet has to be considered as a significant public health problem, especially in the low- and middle-income countries including Nigeria. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine whether abnormal brain development in the form of neurodevelopmental disorders causes any deviation in the cranial index of affected children. Materials and Methods: This is a comparative study on the head length, head width, and cranial index of 112 children (72 males and 40 females) diagnosed with at least one abnormal problem in brain development, in the form of a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), in comparison with that of 218 normal growing children without any form of NDD (121 males and 97 females), aged 0-18 years old seen at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, over a period of six months, June to December, 2012. The head length and head width of the children was measured using standard anatomical landmarks and cranial index calculated. The data obtained was entered into the Microsoft excel worksheet and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: The mean Cephalic Index for normal growing children with normal brain development was 79.82 ± 3.35 and that of the children with abnormal brain development was 77.78 ± 2.95 and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: It can be deduced from this present study that the cranial index does not change in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:24966551

  16. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Cummins, D; Bennett, D; Fisher-Hoch, S P; Farrar, B; McCormick, J B

    1989-10-01

    Electrocardiograms from 32 patients with acute Lassa fever were abnormal in over 70% of cases. The changes noted included non-specific ST-segment and T-wave abnormalities, ST-segment elevation, generalized low-voltage complexes, and changes reflecting electrolyte disturbance. None of the abnormalities correlated with clinical severity of infection, serum transaminase levels, or eventual outcome. ECG changes are common in Lassa fever, but usually unassociated with clinical manifestations of myocarditis.

  17. Design and fabrication of a solid simplified head phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Yukari; Imai, Daigo; Mizuno, Sho; Maki, Hiroshi; Shinozaki, Osamu; Yamada, Yukio

    1997-08-01

    Optical tomography aims to image the distribution of optical properties in human bodies by measuring transmitted light at skin surfaces. Pervious calculations and experiments have been mainly performed on phantoms with simple geometries such as slabs and cylinders, but for optical tomography it is inevitable to fully understand light propagation through and perform experiments using phantoms with complicated structures in three dimensions. Therefore, we need stable and realistic solid phantoms for experimental studies toward the goal of optical tomography. In this study, we have fabricated two types of solid phantoms which optically and anatomically simulate human heads. One has a shape and structures of a part of human head above eye plane, and the other has a more simplified shape of hemisphere. These phantoms consisted of five layers which corresponded to five tissue types in human head; i.e., skin, skull, clear CSF layer, gray matter and white matter. Size and optical properties were given according to those of human neonatal head. After taking original shapes from MRI images, prototypes of five layers were fabricated by a rapid prototyping based photolithography. Epoxy resin with titanium oxide particles as scatterers and green dye as absorber was cast into the molds of the prototypes to make optical phantoms. Absorbers simulating inhomogeneities were also embedded.

  18. Floating-Harbor syndrome associated with middle ear abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Jan-Jaap; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Desprechins, Brigitte; Casselman, Jan; Gordts, Frans

    2010-01-01

    Floating-Harbor syndrome is a rare syndrome of unknown etiology, which was first described in 1973. A triad of main features characterizes Floating-Harbor syndrome: short stature, characteristic face, and an expressive speech delay. We present a patient in whom the hearing thresholds improved insufficiently after placement of grommets. High-resolution CT scan of the temporal bone showed a prominent soft-tissue thickening suspected of causing fixation of the malleus, and fusion of the malleus head with the body of the incus. To our knowledge this is the first reported abnormal middle ear anatomy in a patient with Floating-Harbor syndrome. A conservative treatment with hearing aids was preferred as an initial treatment in favor of a surgical exploration.

  19. Three-dimensional head anthropometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James

    2003-05-01

    Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).

  20. Phenotypic integration of brain size and head morphology in Lake Tanganyika Cichlids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Phenotypic integration among different anatomical parts of the head is a common phenomenon across vertebrates. Interestingly, despite centuries of research into the factors that contribute to the existing variation in brain size among vertebrates, little is known about the role of phenotypic integration in brain size diversification. Here we used geometric morphometrics on the morphologically diverse Tanganyikan cichlids to investigate phenotypic integration across key morphological aspects of the head. Then, while taking the effect of shared ancestry into account, we tested if head shape was associated with brain size while controlling for the potentially confounding effect of feeding strategy. Results The shapes of the anterior and posterior parts of the head were strongly correlated, indicating that the head represents an integrated morphological unit in Lake Tanganyika cichlids. After controlling for phylogenetic non-independence, we also found evolutionary associations between head shape, brain size and feeding ecology. Conclusions Geometric morphometrics and phylogenetic comparative analyses revealed that the anterior and posterior parts of the head are integrated, and that head morphology is associated with brain size and feeding ecology in Tanganyikan cichlid fishes. In light of previous results on mammals, our results suggest that the influence of phenotypic integration on brain diversification is a general process. PMID:24593160

  1. Effects of head models and dipole source parameters on EEG fields.

    PubMed

    Peng, Li; Peng, Mingming; Xu, Anhuai

    2015-01-01

    Head model and an efficient method for computing the forward EEG (electroencephalography)problem are essential to dipole source localization(DSL). In this paper, we use less expensive ovoid geometry to approximate human head, aiming at investigating the effects of head shape and dipole source parameters on EEG fields. The application of point least squares (PLS) based on meshless method was introduced for solving EEG forward problem and numerical simulation is implemented in three kinds of ovoid head models. We present the performances of the surface potential in the face of varying dipole source parameters in detail. The results show that the potential patterns are similar for different dipole position in different head shapes, but the peak value of potential is significantly influenced by the head shape. Dipole position induces a great effect on the peak value of potential and shift of peak potential. The degree of variation between sphere head model and non-sphere head models is seen at the same time. We also show that PLS method with the trigonometric basis is superior to the constant basis, linear basis, and quadratic basis functions in accuracy and efficiency.

  2. Effects of Head Models and Dipole Source Parameters on EEG Fields

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Li; Peng, Mingming; Xu, Anhuai

    2015-01-01

    Head model and an efficient method for computing the forward EEG (electroencephalography)problem are essential to dipole source localization(DSL). In this paper, we use less expensive ovoid geometry to approximate human head, aiming at investigating the effects of head shape and dipole source parameters on EEG fields. The application of point least squares (PLS) based on meshless method was introduced for solving EEG forward problem and numerical simulation is implemented in three kinds of ovoid head models. We present the performances of the surface potential in the face of varying dipole source parameters in detail. The results show that the potential patterns are similar for different dipole position in different head shapes, but the peak value of potential is significantly influenced by the head shape. Dipole position induces a great effect on the peak value of potential and shift of peak potential. The degree of variation between sphere head model and non-sphere head models is seen at the same time. We also show that PLS method with the trigonometric basis is superior to the constant basis, linear basis, and quadratic basis functions in accuracy and efficiency. PMID:25893011

  3. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  4. Abnormal band of lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Brian; Goldblatt, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a case of an "abnormal band" of the lateral meniscus, extending from the posterior horn of the true lateral meniscus to its antero-mid portion, observed during arthroscopy in a 45-year-old white man of Bosnian descent. The periphery of the aberrant lateral meniscus was freely mobile, and not connected to the underlying true lateral meniscus. Preoperative physical examination findings were consistent with medial-sided meniscal pathology only; however, evidence of an anomalous lateral meniscus was seen with magnetic resonance imaging. This anatomical pattern is rare and has been reported in the literature only once, in a report of 2 Asian patients. This article illustrates an anatomical variant of the lateral meniscus in a non-Asian patient with a clinical presentation that has not been previously described. In addition to the case report, the article presents a comprehensive review of the existing body of literature on anomalous lateral meniscus patterns. We believe that the definitions of the types of aberrant meniscus can be clarified to establish improved accuracy in reporting.

  5. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  6. Head and neck MR imaging in the pediatric patient

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, R.B.; Lufkin, R.B.; Kangarloo, H.; Hanafee, W.N.; Wilson, G.H.

    1986-06-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of the head and neck (excluding the brain) were obtained in 49 children believed to have lesions of the head and neck. Seven children had normal images; in the remaining 42, lesions were divided into four categories: midline lesions, lesions of symmetric paired structures, facial lesions, and naso-pharyngeal and oropharyngeal lesions. All entities were well delineated by MR imaging. The imaging planes and sequences chosen depended on the suspected abnormality. Midline lesions were best imaged in the sagittal plane, lesions of paired structures and the face in the axial or coronal planes, and naso-pharyngeal and oropharyngeal lesions in the axial or sagittal planes. Intracranial extension of head and neck neoplasms was best evaluated in the coronal plane. Surface coils provided better resolution and were thus more useful in evaluating small superficial lesions; head or body coils were more useful in defining the extent of large lesions. T2-weighted images provided better differentiation between normal and tumor tissue in patients with head and neck neoplasms.

  7. Head stabilization in herons.

    PubMed

    Katzir, G; Schechtman, E; Carmi, N; Weihs, D

    2001-07-01

    We examined head stabilization in relation to body mass and length of legs in four heron species (little egrets, Egretta garzetta; night herons, Nycticorax nycticorax; squacco herons, Ardeola ralloides; and cattle egrets, Bubulcus ibis: Aves: Ardeidae). Head stabilization, under controlled, sinusoidal, perch perturbations was mostly elicited at frequencies lower than 1 Hz. Maximal perturbation amplitudes sustained were positively correlated with leg length and maximal perturbation frequencies sustained were negatively correlated with body mass and with leg length. The species differed significantly in average maximal perturbation amplitudes sustained. Combinations of amplitude and frequency for which stabilization was achieved were bounded by a decreasing concave "envelope" curve in the frequency-amplitude plane, with inter specific differences in "envelope". As physical constraints, we tested maximal vertical acceleration, which translates into a line defined by the product of frequency2 x amplitude, and maximal vertical velocity, which translates into a line defined by the product of frequency x amplitude. Both relations were in good agreement with the experimental results for all but squacco herons. The results support predictions based on mechanical considerations and may explain the predominance of motor patterns employed by herons while foraging.

  8. Perspectives on Hilton Head.

    PubMed

    Zellmer, W A

    1986-06-01

    A conference ASHP sponsored in 1985 on directions for clinical practice in pharmacy (the "Hilton Head conference") is analyzed, and the implications of the conference for practitioners are discussed. The Hilton Head conference was a consensus-building exercise through which practitioners developed shared values, goals, and ideals about the basic purpose of the profession. The conferees agreed that a fundamental purpose of pharmacy is to serve as a force in society for safe and appropriate use of drugs. In pursuing the implications of this point of agreement, it is argued that pharmacy should not foster a separate corps of clinical practitioners. Rather, traditional pharmacy should be melded with the values system fostered by the clinical movement so that pharmacy as a whole will become more fully professionalized. Directors of pharmacy departments should launch consensus-building efforts within their departments through which strategic plans can be developed to increase pharmacy's clinical thrust. If all pharmacists in a department participate in the development of a clinically focused strategic plan, they will have a greater commitment to the success of that plan. If pharmacists see themselves as practitioners of a clinical profession, they will speak and behave accordingly, and others will perceive of them as clinical professionals.

  9. Wedding ring shaped excitation coil

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency.

  10. Segmentation and Image Analysis of Abnormal Lungs at CT: Current Approaches, Challenges, and Future Trends.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Awais; Bagci, Ulas; Foster, Brent; Xu, Ziyue; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Folio, Les R; Udupa, Jayaram K; Mollura, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The computer-based process of identifying the boundaries of lung from surrounding thoracic tissue on computed tomographic (CT) images, which is called segmentation, is a vital first step in radiologic pulmonary image analysis. Many algorithms and software platforms provide image segmentation routines for quantification of lung abnormalities; however, nearly all of the current image segmentation approaches apply well only if the lungs exhibit minimal or no pathologic conditions. When moderate to high amounts of disease or abnormalities with a challenging shape or appearance exist in the lungs, computer-aided detection systems may be highly likely to fail to depict those abnormal regions because of inaccurate segmentation methods. In particular, abnormalities such as pleural effusions, consolidations, and masses often cause inaccurate lung segmentation, which greatly limits the use of image processing methods in clinical and research contexts. In this review, a critical summary of the current methods for lung segmentation on CT images is provided, with special emphasis on the accuracy and performance of the methods in cases with abnormalities and cases with exemplary pathologic findings. The currently available segmentation methods can be divided into five major classes: (a) thresholding-based, (b) region-based, (c) shape-based, (d) neighboring anatomy-guided, and (e) machine learning-based methods. The feasibility of each class and its shortcomings are explained and illustrated with the most common lung abnormalities observed on CT images. In an overview, practical applications and evolving technologies combining the presented approaches for the practicing radiologist are detailed.

  11. Hippocampal abnormalities and age in chronic schizophrenia: morphometric study across the adult lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, N.; Penadés, R.; Junqué, C.; Dinov, I.; Fu, C. H. Y.; Catalán, R.; Ibarretxe-Bilbao, N.; Bargalló, N.; Bernardo, M.; Toga, A.; Howard, R. J.; Costafreda, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hippocampal abnormalities have been demonstrated in schizophrenia. It is unclear whether these abnormalities worsen with age, and whether they affect cognition and function. Aims To determine whether hippocampal abnormalities in chronic schizophrenia are associated with age, cognition and socio-occupational function. Method Using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging we scanned 100 persons aged 19-82 years: 51 were out-patients with stable schizophrenia at least 2 years after diagnosis and 49 were healthy volunteers matched for age and gender. Automated analysis was used to determine hippocampal volume and shape. Results There were differential effects of age in the schizophrenia and control samples on total hippocampal volume (group×age interaction: F(1,95) = 6.57, P = 0.012), with steeper age-related reduction in the schizophrenia group. Three-dimensional shape analysis located the age-related deformations predominantly in the mid-body of the hippocampus. In the schizophrenia group similar patterns of morphometric abnormalities were correlated with impaired cognition and poorer socio-occupational function. Conclusions Hippocampal abnormalities are associated with age in people with chronic schizophrenia, with a steeper decline than in healthy individuals. These abnormalities are associated with cognitive and functional deficits, suggesting that hippocampal morphometry may be a biomarker for cognitive decline in older patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25213158

  12. The association between anger-related personality trait and cardiac autonomic response abnormalities in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Narita, Kosuke; Murata, Tetsuhito; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Hamada, Toshihiko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Yoshida, Haruyoshi; Wada, Yuji

    2007-09-01

    Cardiac autonomic response abnormality associated with trait anger has been recognized to elevate blood pressure in daily life, leading to atherosclerotic progression and cardiovascular disease. To clarify the relationship between anger-related personality traits and cardiac autonomic response in healthy elderly subjects, 54 volunteers consisting of 30 male (mean age 62.2+/-5.4) and 24 female (mean age 58.4+/-4.6) subjects underwent testing of heart rate variability (HRV) with head-up tilt. For the evaluation of trait anger, we used a questionnaire corresponding to the trait anger score taken from the State and Trait Anger Expression Inventory. Furthermore, we measured carotid intima-medial thickness (IMT) to evaluate atherosclerotic progression in subjects with anger trait. In female subjects, higher trait anger was positively associated with elevated carotid IMT and the suppression of HRV vagal attenuation from the supine to head-up position, and negatively associated with the HRV sympathetic activity in the head-up position and also with the HRV sympathetic response from the supine to head-up position. In male subjects, trait anger was not significantly associated with carotid IMT or any HRV component with or without head-up tilt testing. We conclude that a simple noninvasive measure, short-term HRV with head-up tilt testing, could be a useful method to investigate the association between cardiac autonomic imbalance and increased risk of atherosclerosis associated with trait anger in healthy elderly subjects.

  13. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOEpatents

    Sawabe, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell. 6 figures.

  14. Single-plane compensatory phase shift of head and eye oscillations in infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Evangelos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Anastasopoulos, Dimitri

    2011-09-15

    A 43-year-old man with infantile nystagmus syndrome complained of "head tremor" that would occur during attempted reading. Three-dimensional, combined eye and head recordings were performed with the magnetic search coil technique in two conditions: 1) looking straight-ahead under photopic conditions without a particular attentional focus and 2) reading a simple text held one meter away. A mainly vertical-horizontal spontaneous nystagmus was evident in both conditions, whereas head nodding emerged in the second condition. The head oscillated only in the vertical plane and concomitant analysis of eye and head displacement revealed a counterphase, compensatory pattern of the first harmonic of the INS waveform. This was verified by the significant negative peak of the crosscorrelogram at zero lag. Eye-in-space (gaze) displacement during nystagmic oscillations was thereby reduced suggesting a central adaptive behavior that may have evolved to partly compensate for the abnormal eye movements during reading.

  15. Does dimeticone clear head lice?

    PubMed

    2007-07-01

    Head lice infestation is common and mainly affects children of primary school age. Treatments include licensed topical preparations containing conventional chemical insecticides and medical devices. Each of these fail to eradicate head lice in some patients and resistance is a problem with chemical insecticides. Dimeticone 4% lotion (Hedrin - Thornton & Ross) is a new treatment licensed "for the eradication of head lice infestations". Here we consider its place in the context of other options.

  16. Adult Education as a Heterotopia of Deviation: A Dwelling for the Abnormal Citizen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Fredrik; Fejes, Andreas; Dahlstedt, Magnus; Olson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We argue that municipal adult education (MAE) can be seen as a place for displaced and abnormal citizens to gain temporary stability, enabling their shaping into desirable subjects. Drawing on a poststructural discursive analysis, we analyze policy texts and interviews with teachers and students. Our analysis illustrates how two distinct but…

  17. An automatic segmentation system of acetabulum in sequential CT images for the personalized artificial femoral head design.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Zhang, Hui; Hua, Shungang; Jiang, Qianfeng; Huang, Rui; Liu, Wenpeng; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Bingbing; Yue, Zongge

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes an automatic and accurate segmentation method to extract the acetabulum tissue from sequential CT images. The hip joint consists of acetabulum and femoral head. In the personalized femoral head prosthesis designing by reverse engineering technology, obtaining the accurate acetabulum shape is the most important task. However, due to the necrotic femoral head's complex shape and the extremely narrow inter-bone region, obtaining the accurate acetabulum shape remains a challenging work. In this paper, we overcame these difficulties and developed an automatic segmentation method. First, we obtain the rough contour of the femoral head by utilizing the constraints of the great trochanter and the shape of femoral head in the initial slice. Second, we refine the rough contour by an orthogonal line edge detection approach and obtain a refined contour which will be used as the initial contour of the snake algorithm. Then, the snake algorithm is performed slice by slice upwards and downwards to generate the adjacent contours. During this process, the contour of the femoral head in a segmented slice is used as the initial contour of the next unsegmented slice. Finally, we can obtain the accurate sequential contours of the acetabulum by removing the femoral head and the femoral regions. And the 3D models of the acetabulum can be obtained correspondingly. The experimental result shows that the 3D models obtained by the proposed method are accurate and satisfactory. On this condition, we can reconstruct the personalized femoral head 3D models and design the personalized femoral head prosthesis.

  18. Modeling and Vibration Analysis of Spinning Hard Disk and Head Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kao-An; Huang, Shyh-Chin

    A read/write head assembly attached to a spinning disk was modeled and investigated through a different approach, in which the head assembly was represented by a suspension arm with an attached mass and an air spring (film) at its free end. The receptance method was applied to connect the spinning disk and the head assembly. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the combined spinning disk-fixed head assembly as a whole were then interpreted. Numerical results showed that the head assembly induced extra modes from a single disk. Even for just weak coupling between disk and head, the bifurcations of mode shapes were very obvious, but the changes of natural frequencies were slight. The effects on frequency changes due to head's flexibility, air spring constant, head's location, and spinning speed were examined as well. Disk's spinning speed was found to pull the disk-head frequency loci to pass through the crossings of single disk's frequency loci and induce curve veering phenomenon.

  19. Cylinder head structure for V-type engine

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, M.; Asanomi, K.; Choshi, M.; Abe, R.

    1988-03-08

    A cylinder head structure for a V-type engine having a pair of cylinder banks is described comprising a pair of cylinder head members which are the same in shape and oriented in opposite directions and which are provided in each of the front and rear end wall portions with an opening, and camshaft supported for rotation in the respective cylinder head members so that the respective one ends of the camshafts project outside through the openings on the same end of the engine. A cam pulley is mounted on the projecting portion of each cam shaft, a transmission belt means is for transmitting the driving force off the crankshaft to the cam pulley on each camshaft, a pair of first cover members are mounted on the end wall portions of the respective cylinder head members through which the camshafts project to form closed cross section spaces together with the corresponding cylinder head members for covering the transmission belt means, and second cover members are mounted on the end wall portions of the respective cylinder heads opposite to the end wall portions through which the camshafts project to cover the openings therein.

  20. Large nuclear vacuoles are indicative of abnormal chromatin packaging in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Franco, J G; Mauri, A L; Petersen, C G; Massaro, F C; Silva, L F I; Felipe, V; Cavagna, M; Pontes, A; Baruffi, R L R; Oliveira, J B A; Vagnini, L D

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the presence of abnormal sperm chromatin packaging in spermatozoa with large nuclear vacuoles (LNV) selected via high magnification by analysing the pattern of chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining. A prospective observational study was designed to analyse semen samples obtained from 66 men undergoing infertility diagnosis and treatment. The numbers of cells with normal (dull yellow staining of the sperm head/CMA3-negative) and abnormal (bright yellow fluorescence of the sperm head/CMA3-positive) chromatin packaging were determined on slides with normal and LNV spermatozoa. The presence of bright yellow fluorescence (CMA3-positive) was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in spermatozoa with LNV than in normal spermatozoa (719/1351; 53.2% vs. 337/835; 40.3%, respectively), reflecting a higher percentage of abnormal chromatin packaging in spermatozoa with large LNV. Our data support the hypothesis that the presence of LNV reflects the presence of abnormal chromatin packaging, which may facilitate sperm DNA damage. As sperm nuclear vacuoles are evaluated more precisely at high magnifications using motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME), the present results support the use of high-magnification sperm selection for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

  1. 3D shape decomposition and comparison for gallbladder modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weimin; Zhou, Jiayin; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Su, Yi; Law, Gim Han; Chui, Chee Kong; Chang, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to gallbladder shape comparison by using 3D shape modeling and decomposition. The gallbladder models can be used for shape anomaly analysis and model comparison and selection in image guided robotic surgical training, especially for laparoscopic cholecystectomy simulation. The 3D shape of a gallbladder is first represented as a surface model, reconstructed from the contours segmented in CT data by a scheme of propagation based voxel learning and classification. To better extract the shape feature, the surface mesh is further down-sampled by a decimation filter and smoothed by a Taubin algorithm, followed by applying an advancing front algorithm to further enhance the regularity of the mesh. Multi-scale curvatures are then computed on the regularized mesh for the robust saliency landmark localization on the surface. The shape decomposition is proposed based on the saliency landmarks and the concavity, measured by the distance from the surface point to the convex hull. With a given tolerance the 3D shape can be decomposed and represented as 3D ellipsoids, which reveal the shape topology and anomaly of a gallbladder. The features based on the decomposed shape model are proposed for gallbladder shape comparison, which can be used for new model selection. We have collected 19 sets of abdominal CT scan data with gallbladders, some shown in normal shape and some in abnormal shapes. The experiments have shown that the decomposed shapes reveal important topology features.

  2. Terminology of developmental abnormalities in common laboratory mammals (version 1).

    PubMed

    Wise, L D; Beck, S L; Beltrame, D; Beyer, B K; Chahoud, I; Clark, R L; Clark, R; Druga, A M; Feuston, M H; Guittin, P; Henwood, S M; Kimmel, C A; Lindstrom, P; Palmer, A K; Petrere, J A; Solomon, H M; Yasuda, M; York, R G

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents the first version of an internationally-developed glossary of terms for structural developmental abnormalities in common laboratory animals. The glossary is put forward by the International Federation of Teratology Societies (IFTS) Committee on International Harmonization of Nomenclature in Developmental Toxicology, and represents considerable progress toward harmonization of terminology in this area. The purpose of this effort is to provide a common vocabulary that will reduce confusion and ambiguity in the description of developmental effects, particularly in submissions to regulatory agencies worldwide. The glossary contains a primary term or phrase, a definition of the abnormality, and notes, where appropriate. Selected synonyms or related terms, which reflect a similar or closely related concept, are noted. Nonpreferred terms are indicated where their usage may be incorrect. Modifying terms used repeatedly in the glossary (e.g., absent, branched) are listed and defined separately, instead of repeating their definitions for each observation. Syndrome names are generally excluded from the glossary, but are listed separately in an appendix. The glossary is organized into broad sections for external, visceral, and skeletal observations, then subdivided into regions, structures, or organs in a general overall head to tail sequence. Numbering is sequential, and not in any regional or hierarchical order. Uses and misuses of the glossary are discussed. Comments, questions, suggestions, and additions from practitioners in the field of developmental toxicology are welcomed on the organization of the glossary as well as on the specific terms and definitions. Updates of the glossary are planned based on the comments received.

  3. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  4. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  5. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  6. Pattern recognition of abnormal left ventricle wall motion in cardiac MR.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingli; Radau, Perry; Connelly, Kim; Dick, Alexander; Wright, Graham

    2009-01-01

    There are four main problems that limit application of pattern recognition techniques for recognition of abnormal cardiac left ventricle (LV) wall motion: (1) Normalization of the LV's size, shape, intensity level and position; (2) defining a spatial correspondence between phases and subjects; (3) extracting features; (4) and discriminating abnormal from normal wall motion. Solving these four problems is required for application of pattern recognition techniques to classify the normal and abnormal LV wall motion. In this work, we introduce a normalization scheme to solve the first and second problems. With this scheme, LVs are normalized to the same position, size, and intensity level. Using the normalized images, we proposed an intra-segment classification criterion based on a correlation measure to solve the third and fourth problems. Application of the method to recognition of abnormal cardiac MR LV wall motion showed promising results.

  7. Chryse 'Alien Head'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater in Chryse Planitia, not too far from the Viking 1 lander site, that to seems to resemble a bug-eyed head. The two odd depressions at the north end of the crater (the 'eyes') may have formed by wind or water erosion. This region has been modified by both processes, with water action occurring in the distant past via floods that poured across western Chryse Planitia from Maja Valles, and wind action common occurrence in more recent history. This crater is located near 22.5oN, 47.9oW. The 150 meter scale bar is about 164 yards long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  8. "Dropped-head" syndrome due to isolated myositis of neck extensor muscles: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Gaeta, Michele; Mazziotti, Silvio; Toscano, Antonio; Rodolico, Carmelo; Mazzeo, Anna; Blandino, Alfredo

    2006-02-01

    MRI findings of a patient with dropped-head syndrome due to focal myositis of the neck extensor muscles are presented. MRI showed oedematous changes and marked enhancement of the neck extensor muscles. After therapy MRI demonstrated disappearance of the abnormal findings.

  9. 77 FR 65699 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of Chemopreventive Treatments for Head and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... to use of the Licensed Patent Rights for the prevention and treatment of head and neck cancers. Upon... carcinoma (HNSCC), a cancer occurring mostly in the mouth, it is frequently observed that the Akt/mTOR pathway is abnormally activated. Therefore, inhibiting this signaling pathway may help in treating...

  10. Can transcutaneous recordings detect gastric electrical abnormalities?

    PubMed Central

    Familoni, B O; Bowes, K L; Kingma, Y J; Cote, K R

    1991-01-01

    The ability of transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity to detect gastric electrical abnormalities was determined by simultaneous measurements of gastric electrical activity with surgically implanted serosal electrodes and cutaneous electrodes in six patients undergoing abdominal operations. Transient abnormalities in gastric electrical activity were seen in five of the six patients during the postoperative period. Recognition of normal gastric electrical activity by visual analysis was possible 67% of the time and with computer analysis 95% of the time. Ninety four per cent of abnormalities in frequency were detected by visual analysis and 93.7% by computer analysis. Abnormalities involving a loss of coupling, however, were not recognised by transcutaneous recordings. Transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity assessed by computer analysis can usually recognise normal gastric electrical activity and tachygastria. Current techniques, however, are unable to detect abnormalities in electrical coupling. PMID:1864531

  11. Abnormal functional connectivity during visuospatial processing is associated with disrupted organisation of white matter in autism

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Jane; Johnson, Katherine; O'Hanlon, Erik; Garavan, Hugh; Leemans, Alexander; Gallagher, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of structural and functional neural connectivity has been widely reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but there is a striking lack of research attempting to integrate analysis of functional and structural connectivity in the same study population, an approach that may provide key insights into the specific neurobiological underpinnings of altered functional connectivity in autism. The aims of this study were (1) to determine whether functional connectivity abnormalities were associated with structural abnormalities of white matter (WM) in ASD and (2) to examine the relationships between aberrant neural connectivity and behavior in ASD. Twenty-two individuals with ASD and 22 age, IQ-matched controls completed a high-angular-resolution diffusion MRI scan. Structural connectivity was analysed using constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) based tractography. Regions for tractography were generated from the results of a previous study, in which 10 pairs of brain regions showed abnormal functional connectivity during visuospatial processing in ASD. WM tracts directly connected 5 of the 10 region pairs that showed abnormal functional connectivity; linking a region in the left occipital lobe (left BA19) and five paired regions: left caudate head, left caudate body, left uncus, left thalamus, and left cuneus. Measures of WM microstructural organization were extracted from these tracts. Fractional anisotropy (FA) reductions in the ASD group relative to controls were significant for WM connecting left BA19 to left caudate head and left BA19 to left thalamus. Using a multimodal imaging approach, this study has revealed aberrant WM microstructure in tracts that directly connect brain regions that are abnormally functionally connected in ASD. These results provide novel evidence to suggest that structural brain pathology may contribute (1) to abnormal functional connectivity and (2) to atypical visuospatial processing in ASD. PMID:24133425

  12. Interview with Joe F. Head

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Kim

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Joe F. Head, Dean of University Admissions and Enrollment Services at Kennesaw State University (KSU) in Georgia, who has more than 35 years of experience in admissions and enrollment services. After completing an M.Ed. in higher education at Georgia Southern University, Head immediately landed a position as…

  13. Maine: Early Head Start Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Maine has two initiatives that build on Early Head Start (EHS). The first initiative, Fund for a Healthy Maine, has since 2001 provided tobacco settlement money to existing Head Start and EHS programs to expand the number of children who receive full-day, full-year services. Local programs have the option of using these funds for EHS, depending on…

  14. Head Start Nutrition Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montclair State Coll., Upper Montclair, NJ.

    This multidisciplinary preschool nutrition education curriculum was written for use in the instruction of 3- to 5-year-olds in the National Head Start program. Introductory notes on cooking experiences for Head Start children and suggested menus for young children are followed by nine units. The curriculum incorporates a variety of teaching…

  15. Dual-Head Robotic Welder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, Gary S.

    1990-01-01

    Robotic welder uses two welding heads simultaneously. Developed for assembly of "hot dog" shell on main injector for Space Shuttle main engine, concept applicable to other, similarly rounded or contoured workpieces. Opposed heads reduce distortion and stress in opposed weld joints and speed up welding operations.

  16. The Start of Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The creation of the Head Start program occurred at break-neck speed with many dramatic turns and many colorful players. No one tells the story better than Edward Zigler in "Head Start: The Inside Story of America's Most Successful Educational Experiment"--a detailed and personal, behind the scenes look at the program's inception. From this…

  17. State Funding of Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Legislature, Boise. Office of Performance Evaluation.

    This background paper details Head Start, a federally funded program serving preschool age children from low-income families, and focuses on the program's effectiveness and the adequacy of historic federal funding levels. The paper provides an overview of the Head Start Program, describes federal requirements for local programs, and describes Head…

  18. The Hue of Shapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertazzi, Liliana; Da Pos, Osvaldo; Canal, Luisa; Micciolo, Rocco; Malfatti, Michela; Vescovi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an experimental study on the naturally biased association between shape and color. For each basic geometric shape studied, participants were asked to indicate the color perceived as most closely related to it, choosing from the Natural Color System Hue Circle. Results show that the choices of color for each shape were not…

  19. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180-1000...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  20. 49 CFR 572.112 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.112 Section 572.112... 50th Percentile Male § 572.112 Head assembly. The head assembly consists of the head (drawing 78051-61X...) accelerometers that are mounted in conformance to § 572.36 (c). (a) Test procedure. (1) Soak the head assembly...

  1. 49 CFR 572.112 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.112 Section 572.112... 50th Percentile Male § 572.112 Head assembly. The head assembly consists of the head (drawing 78051-61X...) accelerometers that are mounted in conformance to § 572.36 (c). (a) Test procedure. (1) Soak the head assembly...

  2. 49 CFR 572.112 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.112 Section 572.112... 50th Percentile Male § 572.112 Head assembly. The head assembly consists of the head (drawing 78051-61X...) accelerometers that are mounted in conformance to § 572.36 (c). (a) Test procedure. (1) Soak the head assembly...

  3. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180-1000...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  4. 49 CFR 572.112 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.112 Section 572.112... 50th Percentile Male § 572.112 Head assembly. The head assembly consists of the head (drawing 78051-61X...) accelerometers that are mounted in conformance to § 572.36 (c). (a) Test procedure. (1) Soak the head assembly...

  5. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  6. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  7. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180-1000...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  8. Head Start Impact Study: First Year Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Lopez, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Congressionally-mandated Head Start Impact Study is being conducted across 84 nationally representative grantee/delegate agencies. Approximately 5,000 newly entering 3- and 4-year-old children applying for Head Start were randomly assigned to either a Head Start group that had access to Head Start program services or to a non-Head Start group…

  9. [Intracranial occlusion of the internal carotid artery after minor closed head injury].

    PubMed

    Nakashima, S; Tomokiyo, M; Koga, H; Furukawa, Y; Nomura, S; Shimokawa, S; Nakagawa, S; Anegawa, S; Hayashi, T

    2001-10-01

    Thrombosis of the extracranial portion of the internal carotid artery as a result of nonpenetrating head and neck injury is not uncommon. However, intracranial occlusion of the internal carotid artery after minor head and neck injury without skull fracture is rare. We report a case of 14-year-old male who suffered a minor head injury during an athletic meeting of his school and developed a right hemiparesis and a lethargy state resulting from thrombosis of the supraclinoid portion of the left internal carotid artery. On admission, skull films and a CT scan revealed no abnormality. One hour later, he fully recovered. One day later, no definite lesions were detected on T1-weighted and T2-weighted image of MRI, but an abnormal high signal lesion in the left frontal lobe was detected on diffusion-weighted image of MRI. On additional MR angiography, intracranial occlusion of the internal carotid artery due to dissection was demonstrated.

  10. Angel-shaped phalango-epiphyseal dysplasia (ASPED): identification of a new genetic bone marker.

    PubMed

    Giedion, A; Prader, A; Fliegel, C; Krasikov, N; Langer, L; Poznanski, A

    1993-10-01

    We describe a "new" mild malformation of the phalanx, which we call the "angel-shaped phalanx" (ASP) because of its resemblance to the little angels used for the decoration of Christmas trees. A particular middle phalangeal type of ASPs is found in a distinct variety of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia with marked retardation of bone age and severe coxarthrosis in adult life, previously reported as "hereditary peripheral dysostosis" [Bachman, 1967: Proc R Soc Med 60:21-22; Giedion, 1969: Fortschr Rontgenstr 110:507-524]. However, these authors overlooked the unique configuration of the middle phalanges. We renamed the condition "angel-shaped phalango-epiphyseal dysplasia (ASPED)", which may be transmitted in an autosomal-dominant manner. Six new patients are added, bringing the total to nine patients (two families and two isolated patients). ASPs were seen in five of six children. The ASPs grew into inconspicuous brachydactyly after physeal closure (3/3). The most important additional radiological finding is late and dysplastic development of both femoral heads (5/5), leading to Perthes-like and osteoarthritic changes and severe hip pain in the early thirties (2/2 adults, having reached this age). The marked retardation of carpal bone age may lead to unnecessary clinical evaluation for endocrine disorders. Less frequent clinical manifestations of ASPED are hyperextensibility of the interphalangeal joints (7/9) and hypodontia (4/7). Other types of ASPs are observed in brachyphalangy type C, spondylo-megepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia, and other conditions. The concept of mild bone abnormalities as specific markers for genetic disease, as with cone-shaped epiphyses and now evident in ASPED, may also be useful for ASPs in general.

  11. Bioelectric signaling regulates head and organ size during planarian regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Beane, Wendy Scott; Morokuma, Junji; Lemire, Joan M.; Levin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A main goal of regenerative medicine is to replace lost or damaged tissues and organs with functional parts of the correct size and shape. But the proliferation of new cells is not sufficient; we will also need to understand how the scale and ultimate form of newly produced tissues are determined. Using the planarian model system, we report that membrane voltage-dependent bioelectric signaling determines both head size and organ scaling during regeneration. RNA interference of the H+,K+-ATPase ion pump results in membrane hyperpolarization, which has no effect on the amount of new tissue (blastema) that is regenerated yet produces regenerates with tiny ‘shrunken’ heads and proportionally oversized pharynges. Our data show that this disproportionality results from a lack of the apoptosis required to adjust head and organ size and placement, highlighting apoptotic remodeling as the link between bioelectric signaling and the establishment of organ size during regeneration. PMID:23250205

  12. Bioelectric signaling regulates head and organ size during planarian regeneration.

    PubMed

    Beane, Wendy Scott; Morokuma, Junji; Lemire, Joan M; Levin, Michael

    2013-01-15

    A main goal of regenerative medicine is to replace lost or damaged tissues and organs with functional parts of the correct size and shape. But the proliferation of new cells is not sufficient; we will also need to understand how the scale and ultimate form of newly produced tissues are determined. Using the planarian model system, we report that membrane voltage-dependent bioelectric signaling determines both head size and organ scaling during regeneration. RNA interference of the H(+),K(+)-ATPase ion pump results in membrane hyperpolarization, which has no effect on the amount of new tissue (blastema) that is regenerated yet produces regenerates with tiny 'shrunken' heads and proportionally oversized pharynges. Our data show that this disproportionality results from a lack of the apoptosis required to adjust head and organ size and placement, highlighting apoptotic remodeling as the link between bioelectric signaling and the establishment of organ size during regeneration.

  13. Electrostatic Droplet Ejection Using Planar Needle Inkjet Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakiai, Kazunori; Ishida, Yuji; Baba, Akiyoshi; Asano, Tanemasa

    2005-07-01

    For the purpose of investigating the electrostatic droplet ejection event, a planar needle inkjet head with a projected cone-shaped needle (3-D head) was prepared to observe the phenomenon of droplet ejection. As the initial approach to developing a liquid ejection monitoring method, electric current was also measured. The ejection was found to take place as a series of single events that are composed of fine droplet ejections forming the Taylor cone and the subsequent swing back of the liquid front owing to the relationship between surface tension and electrostatic force. The critical factors for ejecting fine droplets in the case of using the inkjet head having a protruding needle were back pressure from the reservoir and the wetting control of the structures. The fast Fourier transform of electric current revealed the appearance of periodic signals during ejection, which may be used in developing a technique of sensing droplet ejection.

  14. The coolability limits of a reactor pressure vessel lower head

    SciTech Connect

    Theofanous, T.G.; Syri, S.

    1995-09-01

    Configuration II of the ULPU experimental facility is described, and from a comprehensive set of experiments are provided. The facility affords full-scale simulations of the boiling crisis phenomenon on the hemispherical lower head of a reactor pressure vessel submerged in water, and heated internally. Whereas Configuration I experiments (published previously) established the lower limits of coolability under low submergence, pool-boiling conditions, with Configuration II we investigate coolability under conditions more appropriate to practical interest in severe accident management; that is, heat flux shapes (as functions of angular position) representative of a core melt contained by the lower head, full submergence of the reactor pressure vessel, and natural circulation. Critical heat fluxes as a function of the angular position on the lower head are reported and related the observed two-phase flow regimes.

  15. A different approach to missile induced head injuries.

    PubMed

    Pabuscu, Yüksel; Bulakbasi, Nail; Kocaoglu, Murat; Ustünsöz, Bahri; Tayfun, Cem

    2003-01-01

    Missile induced head injuries can be influenced by the anatomical location of the injury, i.e. type of tissue and by the ballistic properties such as the design of the weapon and the mass, shape and construction of the projectile, as well as its velocity characteristics and trajectory angle. In the diagnostic work up of the patients with missile induced head injuries, every available modality can be used. It is important, however, to recognize that CT scan is the primary and most efficacious diagnostic tool in such patients. In this article we have identified risk factors for both morbidity and mortality in patients with missile induced head injury with excluding the patients who had also extracranial serious trauma and systemic disease.

  16. Basal Ganglia Shapes Predict Social, Communication, and Motor Dysfunctions in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Anqi; Adler, Marcy; Crocetti, Deana; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Basal ganglia abnormalities have been suggested as contributing to motor, social, and communicative impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Volumetric analyses offer limited ability to detect localized differences in basal ganglia structure. Our objective was to investigate basal ganglia shape abnormalities and their association…

  17. QTL mapping of leafy heads by genome resequencing in the RIL population of Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang; Wang, Han; Zhong, Weili; Bai, Jinjuan; Liu, Pinglin; He, Yuke

    2013-01-01

    Leaf heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are important vegetables that supply mineral nutrients, crude fiber and vitamins in the human diet. Head size, head shape, head weight, and heading time contribute to yield and quality. In an attempt to investigate genetic basis of leafy head in Chinese cabbage (B. rapa), we took advantage of recent technical advances of genome resequencing to perform quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using 150 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between heading and non-heading Chinese cabbage. The resequenced genomes of the parents uncovered more than 1 million SNPs. Genotyping of RILs using the high-quality SNPs assisted by Hidden Markov Model (HMM) generated a recombination map. The raw genetic map revealed some physical assembly error and missing fragments in the reference genome that reduced the quality of SNP genotyping. By deletion of the genetic markers in which recombination rates higher than 20%, we have obtained a high-quality genetic map with 2209 markers and detected 18 QTLs for 6 head traits, from which 3 candidate genes were selected. These QTLs provide the foundation for study of genetic basis of leafy heads and the other complex traits.

  18. Head modeling for realistic electrical brain activity mapping identification of a multimodal neuroimaging protocol.

    PubMed

    Vatta, F; Bruno, P; Di Salle, F; Esposito, F; Meneghini, F; Mininel, S; Rodaro, M

    2008-01-01

    Realistic electrical brain activity mapping implies reconstructing and visualizing sources of electrical brain activity within the specific patient's head. This requires the assumption of a precise and realistic volume conductor model of the specific subject's head, i.e., a 3-D representation of the head's electrical properties in terms of shape and electrical conductivities. Source reconstruction accuracy is influenced by errors committed in head modeling. Clinical images, MRI and CT, are used to identify the head structures to be included in the volume conductor head model. Modeling accuracy mainly relies on the correct image-based identification of head structures, characterized by different electrical conductivities, to be included as separate compartments in the model. This paper analyzes the imaging protocols used in clinical practice to define the most suitable procedures for identification of the various head structures necessary to build an accurate head model also in the presence of morphologic brain pathologies. Furthermore, tissues anisotropy is discussed and identified as well. With this work we have identified a protocol for the acquisition of multimodal patient's imaging data for realistic electrical brain activity mapping purposes, able to account for pathological conditions and for head tissues anisotropy.

  19. Local Solid Shape

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Local solid shape applies to the surface curvature of small surface patches—essentially regions of approximately constant curvatures—of volumetric objects that are smooth volumetric regions in Euclidean 3-space. This should be distinguished from local shape in pictorial space. The difference is categorical. Although local solid shape has naturally been explored in haptics, results in vision are not forthcoming. We describe a simple experiment in which observers judge shape quality and magnitude of cinematographic presentations. Without prior training, observers readily use continuous shape index and Casorati curvature scales with reasonable resolution. PMID:27648217

  20. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  1. Congenital abnormalities of the ovine paramesonephric ducts.

    PubMed

    Smith, K C; Long, S E; Parkinson, T J

    1995-01-01

    A 15 month survey of ovine reproductive tracts was undertaken in slaughterhouses in southwest England. A total of 33506 tracts were examined; 23536 from lambs and 9970 from adults. In total, 3.4% of tracts were pregnant and 3.3% exhibited abnormalities. Twenty cases of uterus unicornis, six of uterus didelphys and 11 of segmental aplasia were encountered, such that partial aplasia of the paramesonephric ducts accounted for 3.3% of all abnormalities. Although developmental abnormalities of the ovine female genital system are relatively uncommon, a substantial proportion of these can be accounted for by development defects of the paramesonephric ducts.

  2. [Radionuclide studies of congenital kidney abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Vlakhov, N

    1984-06-01

    Using the potentialities of isotope nephrograms as a screening test a total of 4746 patients suspected of renal abnormalities were examined. The author established pathological deviations in 561 cases (11.8%). During further verification using scintigraphy unsuspected congenital renal abnormalities (aplasia, hypoplasia, dystopia, double kidney, horseshoe kidney, solitary cyst and polycystic renal disease) were found in 46 patients (8.2%). The diagnosis was confirmed at subsequent venous x-ray urography. A conclusion has been made as to the role of comprehensive nephrographic-scintigraphic examination in the diagnosis of congenital renal abnormalities.

  3. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. General shape optimization capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chargin, Mladen K.; Raasch, Ingo; Bruns, Rudolf; Deuermeyer, Dawson

    1991-01-01

    A method is described for calculating shape sensitivities, within MSC/NASTRAN, in a simple manner without resort to external programs. The method uses natural design variables to define the shape changes in a given structure. Once the shape sensitivities are obtained, the shape optimization process is carried out in a manner similar to property optimization processes. The capability of this method is illustrated by two examples: the shape optimization of a cantilever beam with holes, loaded by a point load at the free end (with the shape of the holes and the thickness of the beam selected as the design variables), and the shape optimization of a connecting rod subjected to several different loading and boundary conditions.

  5. Obstetrical Forceps Would Limit Force On An Infant's Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stan; Lawson, Seth

    1995-01-01

    Improved obstetrical forceps proposed to reduce injuries to newborn infants. Fabricated mostly of thermoplastic material. Reinforcing fibers added in hinge region of forceps. Combination of material, size, and shape chosen to make forceps yield elastically by amount keeping applied force from rising beyond maximum allowable value. Fiber-optic sensors for measuring strains embedded in forceps. Strain measurements used to compute tensile and compressive forces applied to infant's head.

  6. Constructional morphology within the head of hammerhead sharks (sphyrnidae).

    PubMed

    Mara, Kyle R; Motta, Philip J; Martin, Andrew P; Hueter, Robert E

    2015-05-01

    The study of functional trade-offs is important if a structure, such as the cranium, serves multiple biological roles, and is, therefore, shaped by multiple selective pressures. The sphyrnid cephalofoil presents an excellent model for investigating potential trade-offs among sensory, neural, and feeding structures. In this study, hammerhead shark species were chosen to represent differences in head form through phylogeny. A combination of surface-based geometric morphometrics, computed tomography (CT) volumetric analysis, and phylogenetic analyses were utilized to investigate potential trade-offs within the head. Hammerhead sharks display a diversity of cranial morphologies where the position of the eyes and nares vary among species, with only minor changes in shape, position, and volume of the feeding apparatus through phylogeny. The basal winghead shark, Eusphyra blochii, has small anteriorly positioned eyes. Through phylogeny, the relative size and position of the eyes change, such that derived species have larger, more medially positioned eyes. The lateral position of the external nares is highly variable, showing no phylogenetic trend. Mouth size and position are conserved, remaining relatively unchanged. Volumetric CT analyses reveal no trade-offs between the feeding apparatus and the remaining cranial structures. The few trade-offs were isolated to the nasal capsule volume's inverse correlation with braincase, chondrocranial, and total cephalofoil volume. Eye volume also decreased as cephalofoil width increased. These data indicate that despite considerable changes in head shape, much of the head is morphologically conserved through sphyrnid phylogeny, particularly the jaw cartilages and their associated feeding muscles, with shape change and morphological trade-offs being primarily confined to the lateral wings of the cephalofoil and their associated sensory structures.

  7. Influence of head mass on temporo-parietal skull impact using finite element modeling.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Debasis; Deck, Caroline; Yoganandan, Narayan; Willinger, Rémy

    2015-09-01

    The effect of head mass on its biomechanical response during lateral impact to the head is investigated in this computational study. The mass of the head of a state-of-the-art validated finite element head model is altered by ± 10 % from the base value of 4.7 kg. Numerical simulations of lateral head impacts for 30 cases (representing 15 human cadaver experiments × 2 mass configurations) are performed using the LS-DYNA solver at different velocities ranging from 2.4 to 6.5 m/s and three impacting conditions representing different stiffness and shapes of the contact/impact surfaces. Results are compared with the original model using the baseline head mass, thus resulting in a total of 45 simulations. Present findings show that the head mass has greater influence for peak interaction forces and the force has a greater dependency on stiffness of contact surface than the shape. Mass variations have also influence on skull strain energy. Regardless of increase/decrease in skull strain energy influenced by head mass variations used in the computational study, the 50 % fracture tolerance limit was unaltered, which was 544 mJ. The present study gives a better understanding of the mechanism of temporo-parietal skull impact.

  8. Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs Request Permissions Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs Approved by the Cancer. ... f t k e P Types of Cancer Head and Neck Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Head and Neck ...

  9. Heads Up to High School Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... leading experts and organizations, developed the HEADS UP: Concussion in School Sports initiative and materials. Specific Concussion Information for... Coaches ...

  10. Skull roentgenography in the evaluation of head injury

    SciTech Connect

    North, S.; Pollak, E.W.

    1983-04-01

    The role of skull roentgenograms in determining choice of therapy, hospital admission, and length of hospitalization was evaluated in 106 consecutive patients with head injury. Thirty patients were discharged from the emergency room after initial evaluation and had uneventful recovery. Seventy-six were admitted and discharged without operative treatment one to ten days later. Only five had pathologic skull findings roentgenographicaly. Of these, one was discharged from the emergency department; the remaining four were admitted because of abnormal neurologic findings. All five recovered uneventfully. Another patient who had a normal roentgenographic evaluation required subsequent admission for craniotomy. Skull roentgenograms were an unimportant factor in the management of head injury patients and did not eliminate the need for complete and serial neurologic evaluation.

  11. Improved Gear Shapes for Face Worm Gear Drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Nava, Alessandro; Fan, Qi; Fuentes, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Shapes different from the traditional ones have been proposed for face worm gears and for conical and cylindrical worms that mesh with them. The proposed shapes are based on the concept of generating a face worm gear surface by use of a tilted head cutter instead of by the traditional use of a hob. (As used here, head cutter is also meant to signify, alternatively, a head grinding tool.) The gear-surface-generation equipment would be similar to that used for generation of spiral bevel and hypoid gears. In comparison with the corresponding traditional hob, a tilted head cutter according to the proposal would be larger, could be fabricated with greater precision, and would enable the generation of gear surfaces with greater precision and greater productivity. A face worm gear would be generated (see figure) by use of a tilted head cutter, the blades or grinding surfaces of which would have straight-line profiles. The tilt of the head cutter would prevent interference with teeth adjacent to the groove being cut or ground. A worm to mesh with the face worm gear would be generated by use of a tilted head cutter mounted on the cradle of a generating machine. The blades or grinding surfaces of the head cutter would have a parabolic profile and would deviate from the straight-line profiles of the head cutter for the face worm gear. The shortest distance between the worm and the cradle would follow a parabolic function during the cycle of meshing in the generating process to provide a parabolic function of transmission errors to the gear drive. The small mismatch between the profiles of the face-worm-gear and worm head cutters would make it possible to localize the bearing contact in the worm gear drive. The parabolic function of transmission errors could absorb discontinuous linear functions of transmission errors caused by errors of alignment; this could afford a significant benefit, in that such errors are main sources of noise and vibration in gear drives. The main

  12. Reversible dropped head syndrome after hemispheric striatal infarction.

    PubMed

    Funabe, Sayaka; Tanaka, Ryota; Hayashi, Akito; Yamashiro, Kazuo; Shimura, Hideki; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2014-04-01

    We report a rare case of transient "dropped head syndrome" (DHS) after acute ischemic stroke. A 64-year-old man noticed a sudden onset of mild weakness in his left hand and also difficulty in preventing his head from dropping onto his chest without weakness of the neck extensor muscles. Magnetic resonance images showed acute ischemic changes at the right putamen and caudate nucleus. Surface electromyography (EMG) performed 3 days after the stroke showed that both trapeziuses were hypertonic at rest, whereas the activity of the sternocleidomastoids was gradually increased on passive head lifting, indicating dystonia of the neck muscles. His dropped head fully improved by 9 days after the stroke. Re-examination by surface EMG 30 days after the stroke showed no hypertonic activity in the neck muscles. DHS is characterized by an abnormal ante-fixed posture of the neck, usually observed in patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as multiple system atrophy and Parkinson disease. This is the first case of reversible DHS after acute ischemic stroke, and the accumulation of similar cases will be important to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of DHS and stroke-associated movement disorders.

  13. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identified an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 through December 31, 1990. The report discusses five abnormal occurrences, none of which involved a nuclear power plant. Two involved significant overexposures to the hands of two radiographers, two involved medical therapy misadministrations, and one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration. No abnormal occurrences were reported by the Agreement States. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported abnormal occurrence. 8 refs.

  14. MRI Helps Assess Fetal Brain Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decisions about their pregnancy," said lead author Paul Griffiths. He's a professor of radiology at the University ... the fetus may have a suspected brain abnormality," Griffiths said in a journal news release. In this ...

  15. Abnormal Position and Presentation of the Fetus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Interest (Quiz) Breast Cancer (Video) Overview of the Female Reproductive System (News) Study: Plenty of IV Fluids May Make Childbirth Safer, Easier (News) Zejula Approved for Certain Female Cancers Additional Content Medical News Abnormal Position and ...

  16. Abnormalities of lung function in hay fever.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, E J; Hall, D R

    1976-01-01

    Twenty subjects with symptoms of hay fever were studied to see whether abnormalities could be detected in the function of small airways. The investigations included dynamic compliance at varying respiratory frequencies, closing capacity, residual volume, transfer factor, and maximal expiratory flow-volume curves. The tests were repeated in the winter when symptoms had resolved. Frequency dependence of compliance was found in eight subjects with symptoms (40%), closing capacities being abnormal in only two instances. Conventional pulmonary function tests, including expiratory flow rates at mid vital capacity, were within the predicted range of all subjects. When tests were repeated in the winter, frequency dependence of compliance was no longer present in subjects whose symptoms had resolved. The study suggests that reversible small airway abnormalities are present in a significant proportion of subjects with symptoms of hay fever and that such abnormalities are best detected by the measurement of dynamic compliance at varying respiratory frequencies. PMID:769243

  17. Eye and head motion during head turns in spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Uri, John J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.

    1988-01-01

    Eye-head motion was studied pre-, in- and postflight during single voluntary head turns. A transient increase in vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain occurred early in the flight, but later trended toward normal. This increased gain was produced by a relative increase in eye counterrotation velocity. Asymmetries in gain with right and left turns also occurred, caused by asymmetries in eye counterrotation velocities. These findings were remarkably similar to those from Soviet primate studies using gaze fixation targets, except the human study trended more rapidly toward normal. These findings differ substantially from those measuring VOR gain by head oscillation, in which no significant changes were found inflight. No visual disturbances were noted in either test condition or in normal activities. These head turn studies are the only ones to date documenting any functional change in VOR in weightlessness.

  18. Scoliosis and vertebral anomalies: additional abnormal phenotypes associated with chromosome 16p11.2 rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Al-Kateb, Hussam; Khanna, Geetika; Filges, Isabel; Hauser, Natalie; Grange, Dorothy K; Shen, Joseph; Smyser, Christopher D; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Shinawi, Marwan

    2014-05-01

    The typical chromosome 16p11.2 rearrangements are estimated to occur at a frequency of approximately 0.6% of all samples tested clinically and have been identified as a major cause of autism spectrum disorders, developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities, and seizures. Careful examination of patients with these rearrangements revealed association with abnormal head size, obesity, dysmorphism, and congenital abnormalities. In this report, we extend this list of phenotypic abnormalities to include scoliosis and vertebral anomalies. We present detailed characterization of phenotypic and radiological data of 10 new patients, nine with the 16p11.2 deletion and one with the duplication within the coordinates chr16:29,366,195 and 30,306,956 (hg19) with a minimal size of 555 kb. We discuss the phenotypical and radiological findings in our patients and review 5 previously reported patients with 16p11.2 rearrangement and similar skeletal abnormalities. Our data suggest that patients with the recurrent 16p11.2 rearrangement have increased incidence of scoliosis and vertebral anomalies. However, additional studies are required to confirm this observation and to establish the incidence of these anomalies. We discuss the potential implications of our findings on the diagnosis, surveillance and genetic counseling of patients with 16p11.2 rearrangement.

  19. Medial medullary infarction: abnormal ocular motor findings.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Soo; Choi, K-D; Oh, S-Y; Park, S-H; Han, M-K; Yoon, B-W; Roh, J-K

    2005-10-25

    In 20 consecutive patients with isolated medial medullary infarction, abnormal ocular motor findings included nystagmus (n = 8), ocular contrapulsion (n = 5), and contralesional ocular tilt reaction (n = 2). The nystagmus was ipsilesional (n = 4), gaze-evoked (n = 5), upbeating (n = 4), and hemiseesaw (n = 1). The ocular motor abnormalities may be explained by involvements of the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, medial longitudinal fasciculus or efferent fibers from the vestibular nuclei, climbing fibers, and cells of the paramedian tracts.

  20. Congenital abnormalities associated with extrahepatic portal hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Odièvre, M; Pigé, G; Alagille, D

    1977-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities were present in 12 out of 30 (40%) children with extrahepatic portal hypertension of unknown cause, but in only 2 out of 17 (12%) children with extnahepatic portal hypertension secondary to umbilical vein catheterization or omphalitis. The most frequent abnormalities in this series and in published reports were atrial septal defect, malformation of the biliary tract, and anomalous inferior vena cava. These findings are consistent with the view that some cases with extrahepatic portal hypertension are congenital in origin. PMID:869567

  1. Congenital abnormalities associated with extrahepatic portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Odièvre, M; Pigé, G; Alagille, D

    1977-05-01

    Congenital abnormalities were present in 12 out of 30 (40%) children with extrahepatic portal hypertension of unknown cause, but in only 2 out of 17 (12%) children with extnahepatic portal hypertension secondary to umbilical vein catheterization or omphalitis. The most frequent abnormalities in this series and in published reports were atrial septal defect, malformation of the biliary tract, and anomalous inferior vena cava. These findings are consistent with the view that some cases with extrahepatic portal hypertension are congenital in origin.

  2. Basilar artery migraine and reversible imaging abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Maytal, J; Libman, R B; Lustrin, E S

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of a basilar artery migraine in a 17-year-old boy with transient CT and MR abnormalities after each of two migraine episodes. A repeat MR study 6 months after the last event showed complete resolution of the lesion. Transient abnormalities on brain images similar to those shown in our case have been reported in patients with migraine and other neurologic conditions and are most likely related to cerebral vasogenic edema.

  3. Cutting Head for Ultrasonic Lithotripsy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D.; Goodfriend, R.

    1987-01-01

    Kidney stones lodged in urinary tract disintegrated with increased safety and efficiency by cutting head attached to end of vibrated wire probe. Aligns probe with stone and enables probe to vibrate long enough to disintegrate stone. Design of cutting head reduces risk of metal-fatigue-induced breakage of probe tip leaving metal fragments in urinary tract. Teeth of cutting head both seat and fragment kidney stone, while extension of collar into catheter lessens mechanical strain in probe wire, increasing probe life and lessening danger of in situ probe breakage.

  4. Anaphylaxis due to head injury.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Heather C; Bruner, David I

    2015-05-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury.

  5. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, Heather C.; Bruner, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. PMID:25987924

  6. Driver head pose tracking with thermal camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bole, S.; Fournier, C.; Lavergne, C.; Druart, G.; Lépine, T.

    2016-09-01

    Head pose can be seen as a coarse estimation of gaze direction. In automotive industry, knowledge about gaze direction could optimize Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Pose estimation systems are often based on camera when applications have to be contactless. In this paper, we explore uncooled thermal imagery (8-14μm) for its intrinsic night vision capabilities and for its invariance versus lighting variations. Two methods are implemented and compared, both are aided by a 3D model of the head. The 3D model, mapped with thermal texture, allows to synthesize a base of 2D projected models, differently oriented and labeled in yaw and pitch. The first method is based on keypoints. Keypoints of models are matched with those of the query image. These sets of matchings, aided with the 3D shape of the model, allow to estimate 3D pose. The second method is a global appearance approach. Among all 2D models of the base, algorithm searches the one which is the closest to the query image thanks to a weighted least squares difference.

  7. Anatomical organization of presubicular head-direction circuits

    PubMed Central

    Preston-Ferrer, Patricia; Coletta, Stefano; Frey, Markus; Burgalossi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Neurons coding for head-direction are crucial for spatial navigation. Here we explored the cellular basis of head-direction coding in the rat dorsal presubiculum (PreS). We found that layer2 is composed of two principal cell populations (calbindin-positive and calbindin-negative neurons) which targeted the contralateral PreS and retrosplenial cortex, respectively. Layer3 pyramidal neurons projected to the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). By juxtacellularly recording PreS neurons in awake rats during passive-rotation, we found that head-direction responses were preferentially contributed by layer3 pyramidal cells, whose long-range axons branched within layer3 of the MEC. In contrast, layer2 neurons displayed distinct spike-shapes, were not modulated by head-direction but rhythmically-entrained by theta-oscillations. Fast-spiking interneurons showed only weak directionality and theta-rhythmicity, but were significantly modulated by angular velocity. Our data thus indicate that PreS neurons differentially contribute to head-direction coding, and point to a cell-type- and layer-specific routing of directional and non-directional information to downstream cortical targets. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14592.001 PMID:27282390

  8. The origin and diversification of the developmental mechanisms that pattern the vertebrate head skeleton.

    PubMed

    Square, Tyler; Jandzik, David; Romášek, Marek; Cerny, Robert; Medeiros, Daniel Meulemans

    2016-11-21

    The apparent evolvability of the vertebrate head skeleton has allowed a diverse array of shapes, sizes, and compositions of the head in order to better adapt species to their environments. This encompasses feeding, breathing, sensing, and communicating: the head skeleton somehow participated in the evolution of all these critical processes for the last 500 million years. Through evolution, present head diversity was made possible via developmental modifications to the first head skeletal genetic program. Understanding the development of the vertebrate common ancestor's head skeleton is thus an important step in identifying how different lineages have respectively achieved their many innovations in the head. To this end, cyclostomes (jawless vertebrates) are extremely useful, having diverged from jawed vertebrates approximately 400 million years ago, at the deepest node within living vertebrates. From this ancestral vantage point (that is, the node connecting cyclostomes and gnathostomes) we can best identify the earliest major differences in development between vertebrate classes, and start to address how these might translate onto morphology. In this review we survey what is currently known about the cell biology and gene expression during head development in modern vertebrates, allowing us to better characterize the developmental genetics driving head skeleton formation in the most recent common ancestor of all living vertebrates. By pairing this vertebrate composite with information from fossil chordates, we can also deduce how gene regulatory modules might have been arranged in the ancestral vertebrate head. Together, we can immediately begin to understand which aspects of head skeletal development are the most conserved, and which are divergent, informing us as to when the first differences appear during development, and thus which pathways or cell types might be involved in generating lineage specific shape and structure.

  9. Gap Junctional Blockade Stochastically Induces Different Species-Specific Head Anatomies in Genetically Wild-Type Girardia dorotocephala Flatworms

    PubMed Central

    Emmons-Bell, Maya; Durant, Fallon; Hammelman, Jennifer; Bessonov, Nicholas; Volpert, Vitaly; Morokuma, Junji; Pinet, Kaylinnette; Adams, Dany S.; Pietak, Alexis; Lobo, Daniel; Levin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The shape of an animal body plan is constructed from protein components encoded by the genome. However, bioelectric networks composed of many cell types have their own intrinsic dynamics, and can drive distinct morphological outcomes during embryogenesis and regeneration. Planarian flatworms are a popular system for exploring body plan patterning due to their regenerative capacity, but despite considerable molecular information regarding stem cell differentiation and basic axial patterning, very little is known about how distinct head shapes are produced. Here, we show that after decapitation in G. dorotocephala, a transient perturbation of physiological connectivity among cells (using the gap junction blocker octanol) can result in regenerated heads with quite different shapes, stochastically matching other known species of planaria (S. mediterranea, D. japonica, and P. felina). We use morphometric analysis to quantify the ability of physiological network perturbations to induce different species-specific head shapes from the same genome. Moreover, we present a computational agent-based model of cell and physical dynamics during regeneration that quantitatively reproduces the observed shape changes. Morphological alterations induced in a genomically wild-type G. dorotocephala during regeneration include not only the shape of the head but also the morphology of the brain, the characteristic distribution of adult stem cells (neoblasts), and the bioelectric gradients of resting potential within the anterior tissues. Interestingly, the shape change is not permanent; after regeneration is complete, intact animals remodel back to G. dorotocephala-appropriate head shape within several weeks in a secondary phase of remodeling following initial complete regeneration. We present a conceptual model to guide future work to delineate the molecular mechanisms by which bioelectric networks stochastically select among a small set of discrete head morphologies. Taken together

  10. Gap Junctional Blockade Stochastically Induces Different Species-Specific Head Anatomies in Genetically Wild-Type Girardia dorotocephala Flatworms.

    PubMed

    Emmons-Bell, Maya; Durant, Fallon; Hammelman, Jennifer; Bessonov, Nicholas; Volpert, Vitaly; Morokuma, Junji; Pinet, Kaylinnette; Adams, Dany S; Pietak, Alexis; Lobo, Daniel; Levin, Michael

    2015-11-24

    The shape of an animal body plan is constructed from protein components encoded by the genome. However, bioelectric networks composed of many cell types have their own intrinsic dynamics, and can drive distinct morphological outcomes during embryogenesis and regeneration. Planarian flatworms are a popular system for exploring body plan patterning due to their regenerative capacity, but despite considerable molecular information regarding stem cell differentiation and basic axial patterning, very little is known about how distinct head shapes are produced. Here, we show that after decapitation in G. dorotocephala, a transient perturbation of physiological connectivity among cells (using the gap junction blocker octanol) can result in regenerated heads with quite different shapes, stochastically matching other known species of planaria (S. mediterranea, D. japonica, and P. felina). We use morphometric analysis to quantify the ability of physiological network perturbations to induce different species-specific head shapes from the same genome. Moreover, we present a computational agent-based model of cell and physical dynamics during regeneration that quantitatively reproduces the observed shape changes. Morphological alterations induced in a genomically wild-type G. dorotocephala during regeneration include not only the shape of the head but also the morphology of the brain, the characteristic distribution of adult stem cells (neoblasts), and the bioelectric gradients of resting potential within the anterior tissues. Interestingly, the shape change is not permanent; after regeneration is complete, intact animals remodel back to G. dorotocephala-appropriate head shape within several weeks in a secondary phase of remodeling following initial complete regeneration. We present a conceptual model to guide future work to delineate the molecular mechanisms by which bioelectric networks stochastically select among a small set of discrete head morphologies. Taken together

  11. The abnormal behavior analysis of single person on the road based on region and behavior features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Runsheng; Chen, Yiwen

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, a method to detect whether the behavior of a single person in video sequence is abnormal is proposed. Firstly, after the pre-processing, the background model is gotten based on the Mixture Gaussian Model(GMM), at the same time the shadow is eliminated; then use the color-shape information and the Random Hough Transform (RHT) to abstract the zebra crossing and segment the background; Lastly, we use the rectangle and the centroid to judge whether the person's behavior is abnormal.

  12. Structural and functional studies of bioobjects prepared from femoral heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, I. A.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Podorozhnaya, V. T.; Popova, K. S.; Uvarkin, P. V.

    2015-11-01

    Results of examination of physicomechanical characteristics of samples of medial femoral head cuts are presented. The samples of medial femoral head cuts resected in 6 patients with coxarthrosis in primary endoprosthetic replacement of a coxofemoral joint have been tested for micro- and nanohardness. Young's modulus and elemental composition of bone tissue have been investigated. To estimate the architectonics of cancellous tissue of the femoral head, adjacent cuts of the same patient have been analyzed. The porosity of bone tissue was estimated from macroscopic images obtained using macrophotography. The total porosity is calculated as the ratio of the total length of straight line segments overlapping pores to the total length of secants. A three-point bending test of the samples has shown that their strength changed from 0.187 to 1.650 MPa and their elasticity modulus changes from 1.69 to 8.15 MPa. The microhardness of the samples changes in the range 220-265 MPa and the average microhardness of medial femoral head cuts is 240 MPa. The elemental composition of medial femoral head cuts is represented by basic Ca, P, O, Na and Mg elements as well as by Sn, S, Fe, Cr, and C in microamounts. The atomic Ca to P ratio for bone tissue is 1.55. It is revealed that pores of the upper part of the femoral head have a more regular shape and in the lower part they are more elongated along the cut and occupy a larger volume. The lower part of the femoral head has a higher porosity (39 and 33%) than the upper part (34 and 30%). The total porosity of all samples does not exceed 37%.

  13. Structural and functional studies of bioobjects prepared from femoral heads

    SciTech Connect

    Kirilova, I. A. Podorozhnaya, V. T.; Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Popova, K. S. Uvarkin, P. V.

    2015-11-17

    Results of examination of physicomechanical characteristics of samples of medial femoral head cuts are presented. The samples of medial femoral head cuts resected in 6 patients with coxarthrosis in primary endoprosthetic replacement of a coxofemoral joint have been tested for micro- and nanohardness. Young’s modulus and elemental composition of bone tissue have been investigated. To estimate the architectonics of cancellous tissue of the femoral head, adjacent cuts of the same patient have been analyzed. The porosity of bone tissue was estimated from macroscopic images obtained using macrophotography. The total porosity is calculated as the ratio of the total length of straight line segments overlapping pores to the total length of secants. A three-point bending test of the samples has shown that their strength changed from 0.187 to 1.650 MPa and their elasticity modulus changes from 1.69 to 8.15 MPa. The microhardness of the samples changes in the range 220–265 MPa and the average microhardness of medial femoral head cuts is 240 MPa. The elemental composition of medial femoral head cuts is represented by basic Ca, P, O, Na and Mg elements as well as by Sn, S, Fe, Cr, and C in microamounts. The atomic Ca to P ratio for bone tissue is 1.55. It is revealed that pores of the upper part of the femoral head have a more regular shape and in the lower part they are more elongated along the cut and occupy a larger volume. The lower part of the femoral head has a higher porosity (39 and 33%) than the upper part (34 and 30%). The total porosity of all samples does not exceed 37%.

  14. Simulation of exposure and SAR estimation for adult and child heads exposed to radiofrequency energy from portable communication devices.

    PubMed

    Bit-Babik, G; Guy, A W; Chou, C-K; Faraone, A; Kanda, M; Gessner, A; Wang, J; Fujiwara, O

    2005-05-01

    The level and distribution of radiofrequency energy absorbed in a child's head during the use of a mobile phone compared to those in an adult head has been a controversial issue in recent years. It has been suggested that existing methods that are used to determine specific absorption rate (SAR) and assess compliance with exposure standards using an adult head model may not adequately account for potentially higher levels of exposure in children due to their smaller head size. The present study incorporates FDTD computations of locally averaged SAR in two different anatomically correct adult and child head models using the IEEE standard (Std. C95.3-2002) SAR averaging algorithm. The child head models were obtained by linear scaling of the adult head model to replicate the conditions of previous studies reported in the literature and also by transforming the different adult head models based on data on the external shapes of children's heads. The tissue properties of the adult and corresponding child head models were kept the same. In addition, modeling and experimental measurements were made using three spheres filled with a tissue-equivalent mixture to approximate heads of increasing size. Results show that the peak local average SAR over 1 g and 10 g of tissue and the electromagnetic energy penetration depths are about the same in all of the head models under the same exposure conditions. When making interlaboratory comparisons, the model and the SAR averaging algorithm used must be standardized to minimize controversy.

  15. Heater head for stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  16. Zero torque gear head wrench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdougal, A. R.; Norman, R. M. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A gear head wrench particularly suited for use in applying torque to bolts without transferring torsional stress to bolt-receiving structures is introduced. The wrench is characterized by a coupling including a socket, for connecting a bolt head with a torque multiplying gear train, provided within a housing having an annulus concentrically related to the socket and adapted to be coupled with a spacer interposed between the bolt head and the juxtaposed surface of the bolt-receiving structure for applying a balancing counter-torque to the spacer as torque is applied to the bolt head whereby the bolt-receiving structure is substantially isolated from torsional stress. As a result of the foregoing, the operator of the wrench is substantially isolated from any forces which may be imposed.

  17. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cancer and the stage (extent) of the disease. In general, patients with early-stage head and neck cancers (particularly those limited to the site of origin) are treated with one modality—either radiation therapy ...

  18. Flat Head Syndrome (Positional Plagiocephaly)

    MedlinePlus

    ... symmetrical, but for a variety of reasons the asymmetry becomes less apparent as well. For example, in ... a flattened head does not affect a child's brain growth or cause developmental delays or brain damage. ...

  19. Shape Preserving Spline Interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    A rational spline solution to the problem of shape preserving interpolation is discussed. The rational spline is represented in terms of first derivative values at the knots and provides an alternative to the spline-under-tension. The idea of making the shape control parameters dependent on the first derivative unknowns is then explored. The monotonic or convex shape of the interpolation data can then be preserved automatically through the solution of the resulting non-linear consistency equations of the spline.

  20. Head capsule, chephalic central nervous system and head circulatory system of an aberrant orthopteran, Prosarthria teretrirostris (Caelifera, Hexapoda).

    PubMed

    Baum, Eileen; Hertel, Wieland; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2007-01-01

    The head capsule, the circulatory system and the central nervous system of the head of Prosarthria teretrirostris (Proscopiidae) is described in detail, with special consideration of modifications resulting from the aberrant head shape. The transformations of the head are completely different from those found in phasmatodeans, which are also characterised by twig mimesis. The circulatory system is distinctly modified. A hitherto undescribed additional structure in the posterior head region very likely functions as a pulsatile organ. The cephalic central nervous system is strongly elongated, with changes in the position of the suboesophageal ganglion, the corpora cardiaca and the course of the nervus mandibularis. Three-dimensional reconstructions of these two organ systems in combination with the pharynx were made using Alias Maya 6.0 software. Comparisons with other representatives of Caelifera suggest a clade comprising Proscopiidae and Morabinae. The presence of a transverse muscle connecting the antennal ampullae in Prosarthria shows that this structure likely belongs to the groundplan of Orthoptera, even though it is missing in different representatives of this group. The transverse ampullary muscle is a potential synapomorphy of Orthoptera, Phasmatodea and Dictyoptera.

  1. Vibrotactile Sensitivity of the Head

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    tissue in the skull, via vibrators mounted on the head, which stimulates the cochlea (resulting in an auditory sensation) while bypassing the external...are compatible with the sensitivity of the user. The extent to which vibrotactile* stimulation of the head is viable as a method of communication...cycle fraction of 0.25, and three repetitions extending the stimulation period of the signal to 750 ms (figure 5). Furthermore, the signal was divided

  2. The shape of thought.

    PubMed

    Markson, Lori; Diesendruck, Gil; Bloom, Paul

    2008-03-01

    When children learn the name of a novel object, they tend to extend that name to other objects similar in shape - a phenomenon referred to as the shape bias. Does the shape bias stem from learned associations between names and categories of objects, or does it derive from more general properties of children's understanding of language and the world? We argue here for the second alternative, presenting evidence that the shape bias emerges early in development, is not limited to names, and is intimately related to how children make sense of categories.

  3. Development/global validation of a 6-month-old pediatric head finite element model and application in investigation of drop-induced infant head injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Luo, Xiao; Zhang, Jinhuan

    2013-12-01

    Drop is a frequent cause for infant head injury. To date, finite element (FE) modeling was gradually used to investigate child head dynamic response under drop impact conditions, however, two shortages still exist on this topic: (1) due to ethical reasons, none of developed 6-month-old (6MO) head FE model was found to be quantitatively validated against child cadaver tests at similar age group; (2) drop height and impact surface stiffness effects on infant head responses were not comprehensively investigated. In this study, motivated by the recently published material properties of soft tissues (skull and suture, etc.) and reported pediatric head global cadaver tests, a 6MO child head FE model was developed and simulated results compared with the child cadaver experimental data under compression and drop conditions. Comparison of results indicated that the FE model showed a fairly good biofidelic behavior in most dynamic responses. The validated FE model was further used to investigate effects of different drop heights and impact surface stiffness on the head dynamic responses. Numerical results show that the pediatric head mechanical parameters (peak acceleration, HIC, maximal vonMises stress and maximal first principal strain of skull) keep increasing with the increase in drop height, and exhibit "logarithmic function" shapes at "fast-slow" trends with increase in impact surface stiffness. Based on above analysis, the regressions were conducted to describe the relationship between drop height and impact surface stiffness and head global injury predictors (head peak acceleration, HIC, etc.). This paper provides a fundamental study of child head injury mechanism and protection under drop conditions.

  4. Cerebellar white matter abnormalities following primary blast injury in US military personnel.

    PubMed

    Mac Donald, Christine; Johnson, Ann; Cooper, Dana; Malone, Thomas; Sorrell, James; Shimony, Joshua; Parsons, Matthew; Snyder, Abraham; Raichle, Marcus; Fang, Raymond; Flaherty, Stephen; Russell, Michael; Brody, David L

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of blast exposure on the human brain in the absence of head impact. Clinical reports, experimental animal studies, and computational modeling of blast exposure have suggested effects on the cerebellum and brainstem. In US military personnel with isolated, primary blast-related 'mild' traumatic brain injury and no other known insult, we found diffusion tensor MRI abnormalities consistent with cerebellar white matter injury in 3 of 4 subjects. No abnormalities in other brain regions were detected. These findings add to the evidence supporting the hypothesis that primary blast exposure contributes to brain injury in the absence of head impact and that the cerebellum may be particularly vulnerable. However, the clinical effects of these abnormalities cannot be determined with certainty; none of the subjects had ataxia or other detected evidence of cerebellar dysfunction. The details of the blast events themselves cannot be disclosed at this time, thus additional animal and computational modeling will be required to dissect the mechanisms underlying primary blast-related traumatic brain injury. Furthermore, the effects of possible subconcussive impacts and other military-related exposures cannot be determined from the data presented. Thus many aspects of topic will require further investigation.

  5. Complications of free radial forearm flap transfers for head and neck reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Ming; Lin, Gau-Tyan; Fu, Yin-Chih; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Huang, I-Yueh; Shen, Yee-Shyong; Chen, Chung-Ho

    2005-06-01

    Free tissue transfer using microvascular anastomosis has been established as an accepted maxillofacial reconstructive procedure. The free radial forearm flap (FRFF) has become a workhorse flap as a means of reconstructing surgical defects in the head and neck region. Since 1992, we have carried out 38 FRFF transfers in 37 patients for reconstruction after head and neck cancer ablative surgery. We present our clinical experience with head and neck reconstruction using the FRFF and the morbidity of the donor sites. Of the 38 FRFFs, 35 FRFFs were performed successfully. The survival rate of FRFF was 92%. Donor site complications included partial loss of skin graft in 4 donor sites (11%), abnormal sensations in 10 (26%), poor appearance in 3 (8%), and reduced grip strength in 4 (11%). Therefore, we believe that, because of the reliability, functional characteristics, and low donor site morbidity, the FRFF is a useful and versatile flap for reconstruction of head and neck defects.

  6. Echocardiographic assessment of abnormal left ventricular relaxation in man.

    PubMed Central

    Upton, M T; Gibson, D G; Brown, D J

    1976-01-01

    In 64 patients requiring cardiac catheterization for chest pain, echocardiograms showing anterior mitral leaflet and left ventricular cavity simultaneously were recorded. These were digitized and their first derivatives computed in order to study time relations between mitral valve and left ventricular wall movement in early distole. In 10 patients with normal left ventricular angiograms and coronary arteriograms, mitral valve opening began 1-1 +/- 9-3 ms (mean +/- SD) before the onset of outward wall movement, and reached peak opening velocity 2-0 +/- 13 ms after maximum rate of change of dimension. Virtually identical time relations were seen in 15 patients with normal left ventricular angiograms but with obstructive coronary artery disease (3-6 +/- 9-3 ms and 0-7 +/- 7-3 ms, respectively). These close relations were lost in patients with segmental abnormalities of contraction on left ventricular angiogram. In 19 such patients with normal septal motion, outward wall movement began 53 +/- 31 ms before the onset of anterior movement of the mitral valve leaflet, and this isovolumic wall movement accounted for 31 per cent of the total diastolic excursion. In 9 patients with reversed septal movement, these abnormalities were greater, 92 +/- 39 ms and 33 per cent, respectively, while in 11 patients with diffuse left ventricular involvement they were small, 5-5 +/- 13 ms and 3 per cent. Frame-by-frame digitization of cineangiograms was used to confirm these findings which appear to reflect an abnormal change in left ventricular cavity shape during isovolumic relaxation. Images PMID:973873

  7. Epidemiology of children with head injury: a national overview

    PubMed Central

    Trefan, L; Houston, R; Pearson, G; Edwards, R; Hyde, P; Maconochie, I; Parslow, RC; Kemp, A

    2016-01-01

    Background The National Confidential Enquiry describes the epidemiology of children admitted to hospital with head injury. Method Children (<15 years old) who died or were admitted for >4 h with head injury were identified from 216 UK hospitals (1 September 2009 to 28 February 2010). Data were collected using standard proformas and entered on to a database. A descriptive analysis of the causal mechanisms, child demographics, neurological impairment, CT findings, and outcome at 72 h are provided. Results Details of 5700 children, median age 4 years (range 0–14.9 years), were analysed; 1093 (19.2%) were <1 year old, 3500 (61.4%) were boys. There was a significant association of head injury with social deprivation 39.7/100 000 (95% CI 37.0 to 42.6) in the least deprived first quintile vs. 55.1 (95% CI 52.1 to 58.2) in the most deprived fifth quintile (p<0.01). Twenty-four children died (0.4%). Most children were admitted for one night or less; 4522 (79%) had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 or were Alert (on AVPU (Alert, Voice, Pain, Unresponsive)). The most common causes of head injury were falls (3537 (62.1%); children <5 years), sports-related incidents (783 (13.7%); median age 12.4 years), or motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) (401 (7.1%); primary-school-aged children). CT scans were performed in 1734 (30.4%) children; 536 (30.9%) were abnormal (skull fracture and/or intracranial injury or abnormality): 269 (7.6%) were falls, 82 (10.5%) sports related and 100 (25%). A total of 357 (6.2%) children were referred to social care because of child protection concerns (median age 9 months (range 0–14.9 years)). Conclusions The data described highlight priorities for targeted age-specific head injury prevention and have the potential to provide a baseline to evaluate the effects of regional trauma networks (2012) and National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) head injury guidelines (2014), which were revised after the study was completed

  8. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yuan, X Q; Wade, C E

    1991-01-01

    This article provides an overview of hypothalamic and pituitary alterations in brain trauma, including the incidence of hypothalamic-pituitary damage, injury mechanisms, features of the hypothalamic-pituitary defects, and major hypothalamic-pituitary disturbances in brain trauma. While hypothalamic-pituitary lesions have been commonly described at postmortem examination, only a limited number of clinical cases of traumatic hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction have been reported, probably because head injury of sufficient severity to cause hypothalamic and pituitary damage usually leads to early death. With the improvement in rescue measures, an increasing number of severely head-injured patients with hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction will survive to be seen by clinicians. Patterns of endocrine abnormalities following brain trauma vary depending on whether the injury site is in the hypothalamus, the anterior or posterior pituitary, or the upper or lower portion of the pituitary stalk. Injury predominantly to the hypothalamus can produce dissociated ACTH-cortisol levels with no response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a limited or failed metopirone test, hypothyroxinemia with a preserved thyroid-stimulating hormone response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, low gonadotropin levels with a normal response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone, a variable growth hormone (GH) level with a paradoxical rise in GH after glucose loading, hyperprolactinemia, the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH), temporary or permanent diabetes insipidus (DI), disturbed glucose metabolism, and loss of body temperature control. Severe damage to the lower pituitary stalk or anterior lobe can cause low basal levels of all anterior pituitary hormones and eliminate responses to their releasing factors. Only a few cases showed typical features of hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction. Most severe injuries are sufficient to damage both structures and produce a mixed endocrine picture

  9. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in patients with traumatic brain injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, X. Q.; Wade, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    This article provides an overview of hypothalamic and pituitary alterations in brain trauma, including the incidence of hypothalamic-pituitary damage, injury mechanisms, features of the hypothalamic-pituitary defects, and major hypothalamic-pituitary disturbances in brain trauma. While hypothalamic-pituitary lesions have been commonly described at postmortem examination, only a limited number of clinical cases of traumatic hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction have been reported, probably because head injury of sufficient severity to cause hypothalamic and pituitary damage usually leads to early death. With the improvement in rescue measures, an increasing number of severely head-injured patients with hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction will survive to be seen by clinicians. Patterns of endocrine abnormalities following brain trauma vary depending on whether the injury site is in the hypothalamus, the anterior or posterior pituitary, or the upper or lower portion of the pituitary stalk. Injury predominantly to the hypothalamus can produce dissociated ACTH-cortisol levels with no response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and a limited or failed metopirone test, hypothyroxinemia with a preserved thyroid-stimulating hormone response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone, low gonadotropin levels with a normal response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone, a variable growth hormone (GH) level with a paradoxical rise in GH after glucose loading, hyperprolactinemia, the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH), temporary or permanent diabetes insipidus (DI), disturbed glucose metabolism, and loss of body temperature control. Severe damage to the lower pituitary stalk or anterior lobe can cause low basal levels of all anterior pituitary hormones and eliminate responses to their releasing factors. Only a few cases showed typical features of hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction. Most severe injuries are sufficient to damage both structures and produce a mixed endocrine picture

  10. The postconcussion syndrome and the sequelae of mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Evans, R W

    1992-11-01

    The postconcussion syndrome refers to a large number of symptoms and signs that may occur alone or in combination following usually mild head injury. The most common complaints are headaches, dizziness, fatigue, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, loss of consciousness and memory, and noise sensitivity. Mild head injury is a major public health concern because the annual incidence is about 150 per 100,000 population, accounting for 75% or more of all head injuries. The postconcussion syndrome has been recognized for at least the last few hundred years and has been the subject of intense controversy for more than 100 years. The Hollywood head injury myth has been an important contributor to persisting skepticism and might be countered by educational efforts and counter-examples from boxing. The organicity of the postconcussion syndrome has now become well documented. Abnormalities following mild head injury have been reported in neuropathologic, neurophysiologic, neuroimaging, and neuropsychologic studies. There are multiple sequelae of mild head injury, including headaches of multiple types, cranial nerve symptoms and signs, psychologic and somatic complaints, and cognitive impairment. Rare sequelae include hematomas, seizures, transient global amnesia, tremor, and dystonia. Neuroimaging and physiologic and psychologic testing should be used judiciously based on the problems of the particular patient rather than in a cookbook fashion. Prognostic studies clearly substantiate the existence of a postconcussion syndrome. Manifestations of the postconcussion syndrome are common, with resolution in most patients by 3 to 6 months after the injury. Persistent symptoms and cognitive deficits are present in a distinct minority of patients for additional months or years. Risk factors for persisting sequelae include age over 40 years; lower educational, intellectual, and socioeconomic level; female gender; alcohol abuse; prior head injury; and multiple trauma. Although a small

  11. Finite element analysis and die design of heading processes of magnesium alloy screws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Y. M.; Chang, C. Y.

    2016-05-01

    This study is to develop related manufacturing technologies of LZ91 magnesium alloy M6 screws. Firstly, a warm heading process composed of three stages is proposed. The material flow pattern of the billet inside the die is analyzed using the finite element analyses. The effects of the friction factor, die speed and forming temperature on the heading load are discussed. The effects of the stroke at the first stage on the formability at the second stage are also discussed. Finally, warm heading experiments are conducted using a self-designed die set and a lubricant of MoS2. The experimental values of heading load and product shapes and dimensions are compared with the simulation results to verify the validity of the finite element models and the proposed warm heading procedures.

  12. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  13. Dog sperm head morphometry: its diversity and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Carles; Alambiaga, Ana; Martí, Maria A; García-Molina, Almudena; Valverde, Anthony; Contell, Jesús; Campos, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Dogs have been under strong artificial selection as a consequence of their relationship with man. Differences between breeds are evident that could be reflected in seminal characteristics. The present study was to evaluate differences in sperm head morphometry between seven well-defined breeds of dog: the British Bulldog, Chihuahua, German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, Staffordshire Terrier, and Valencian Rat Hunting dog. Semen samples were obtained by masturbation and smears stained with Diff-Quik. Morphometric analysis (CASA-Morph) produced four size and four shape parameters. Length, Ellipticity, and Elongation showed higher differences between breeds. MANOVA revealed differences among all breeds. Considering the whole dataset, principal component analysis (PCA) showed that PC1 was related to head shape and PC2 to size. Procluster analysis showed the British Bulldog to be the most isolated breed, followed by the German Shepherd. The PCA breed by breed showed the Chihuahua, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, and Staffordshire Terrier to have PC1 related to shape and PC2 to size, whereas the British Bulldog, Valencia Rat Hunting dog, and German Shepherd had PC1 related to size and PC2 to shape. The dendrogram for cluster groupings and the distance between them showed the British Bulldog to be separated from the rest of the breeds. Future work on dog semen must take into account the large differences in the breeds’ sperm characteristics. The results provide a base for future work on phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of dogs, based on their seminal characteristics. PMID:27751991

  14. Dog sperm head morphometry: its diversity and evolution.

    PubMed

    Soler, Carles; Alambiaga, Ana; Martí, Maria A; García-Molina, Almudena; Valverde, Anthony; Contell, Jesús; Campos, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Dogs have been under strong artificial selection as a consequence of their relationship with man. Differences between breeds are evident that could be reflected in seminal characteristics. The present study was to evaluate differences in sperm head morphometry between seven well-defined breeds of dog: the British Bulldog, Chihuahua, German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, Staffordshire Terrier, and Valencian Rat Hunting dog. Semen samples were obtained by masturbation and smears stained with Diff-Quik. Morphometric analysis (CASA-Morph) produced four size and four shape parameters. Length, Ellipticity, and Elongation showed higher differences between breeds. MANOVA revealed differences among all breeds. Considering the whole dataset, principal component analysis (PCA) showed that PC1 was related to head shape and PC2 to size. Procluster analysis showed the British Bulldog to be the most isolated breed, followed by the German Shepherd. The PCA breed by breed showed the Chihuahua, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, and Staffordshire Terrier to have PC1 related to shape and PC2 to size, whereas the British Bulldog, Valencia Rat Hunting dog, and German Shepherd had PC1 related to size and PC2 to shape. The dendrogram for cluster groupings and the distance between them showed the British Bulldog to be separated from the rest of the breeds. Future work on dog semen must take into account the large differences in the breeds' sperm characteristics. The results provide a base for future work on phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of dogs, based on their seminal characteristics.

  15. Odd Shape Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Jo Ann; Wells, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The Odd Shape Out task was an open-ended problem that engaged students in comparing shapes based on their properties. Four teachers submitted the work of 116 students from across the country. This article compares various student's responses to the task. The problem allowed for differentiation, as shown by the many different ways that students…

  16. Crystal Shape Bingo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.

    This document describes a game that provides students with practice in recognizing three dimensional crystal shapes and planar geometric shapes of crystal faces. It contains information on the objective of the game, game preparation, and rules for playing. Play cards are included (four to a page). (ASK)

  17. Fertilization and embryo quality of mature oocytes with specific morphological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Hyojeong; Lee, Jang Mi; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate fertilization and embryo quality of dysmorphic mature oocytes with specific morphological abnormalities obtained from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Methods The fertilization rate (FR) and embryo quality were compared among 58 dysmorphic and 42 normal form oocytes (control 1) obtained from 35 consecutive ICSI cycles, each of which yielded at least one dysmorphic mature oocyte, performed over a period of 5 years. The FR and embryo quality of 441 normal form oocytes from another 119 ICSI cycles that did not involve dysmorphic oocytes served as control 2. Dysmorphic oocytes were classified as having a dark cytoplasm, cytoplasmic granularity, cytoplasmic vacuoles, refractile bodies in the cytoplasm, smooth endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm, an oval shape, an abnormal zona pellucida, a large perivitelline space, debris in the perivitelline space, or an abnormal polar body (PB). Results The overall FR was significantly lower in dysmorphic oocytes than in normal form oocytes in both the control 1 and control 2 groups. However, embryo quality in the dysmorphic oocyte group and the normal form oocyte groups at day 3 was similar. The FR and embryo quality were similar in the oocyte groups with a single abnormality and multiple abnormalities. Specific abnormalities related with a higher percentage of top-quality embryos were dark cytoplasm (66.7%), abnormal PB (50%), and cytoplasmic vacuoles (25%). Conclusion The fertilization potential of dysmorphic oocytes in our study was lower, but their subsequent embryonic development and embryo quality was relatively good. We were able to define several specific abnormalities related with good or poor embryo quality. PMID:26815385

  18. Pediatric minor head trauma: do cranial CT scans change the therapeutic approach?

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Felipe P; Montoro, Roberto; Oliveira, Renan; Loures, Gabriela; Flessak, Luana; Gross, Roberta; Donnabella, Camille; Puchnick, Andrea; Suzuki, Lisa; Regacini, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: 1) To verify clinical signs correlated with appropriate cranial computed tomography scan indications and changes in the therapeutic approach in pediatric minor head trauma scenarios. 2) To estimate the radiation exposure of computed tomography scans with low dose protocols in the context of trauma and the additional associated risk. METHODS: Investigators reviewed the medical records of all children with minor head trauma, which was defined as a Glasgow coma scale ≥13 at the time of admission to the emergency room, who underwent computed tomography scans during the years of 2013 and 2014. A change in the therapeutic approach was defined as a neurosurgical intervention performed within 30 days, hospitalization, >12 hours of observation, or neuro-specialist evaluation. RESULTS: Of the 1006 children evaluated, 101 showed some abnormality on head computed tomography scans, including 49 who were hospitalized, 16 who remained under observation and 36 who were dismissed. No patient underwent neurosurgery. No statistically significant relationship was observed between patient age, time between trauma and admission, or signs/symptoms related to trauma and abnormal imaging results. A statistically significant relationship between abnormal image results and a fall higher than 1.0 meter was observed (p=0.044). The mean effective dose was 2.0 mSv (0.1 to 6.8 mSv), corresponding to an estimated additional cancer risk of 0.05%. CONCLUSION: A computed tomography scan after minor head injury in pediatric patients did not show clinically relevant abnormalities that could lead to neurosurgical indications. Patients who fell more than 1.0 m were more likely to have changes in imaging tests, although these changes did not require neurosurgical intervention; therefore, the use of computed tomography scans may be questioned in this group. The results support the trend of more careful indications for cranial computed tomography scans for children with minor head trauma. PMID

  19. Abnormal sperm in mice with targeted deletion of the act (activator of cAMP-responsive element modulator in testis) gene

    PubMed Central

    Kotaja, Noora; De Cesare, Dario; Macho, Betina; Monaco, Lucia; Brancorsini, Stefano; Goossens, Ellen; Tournaye, Herman; Gansmuller, Anne; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    ACT [activator of cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) in testis] is a LIM-only protein that interacts with transcription factor CREM in postmeiotic male germ cells and enhances CREM-dependent transcription. CREM regulates many crucial genes required for spermatid maturation, and targeted mutation of the Crem gene in the mouse germ-line blocks spermatogenesis. Here we report the phenotype of mice in which targeted disruption of the act gene was obtained by homologous recombination. Whereas the seminiferous tubules of the act–/– mice contain all of the developmental stages of germ cells and the mice are fertile, the amount of mature sperm in the epididymis is drastically reduced. The residual sperm display severe abnormalities, including fully folded tails and aberrant head shapes. These results indicate that numerous postmeiotic genes under CREM control require the coactivator function of ACT. Thus, the fine-tuning of sperm development is achieved by the coordinated action of two transcriptional regulators. PMID:15247423

  20. Subdividing Text: Headings, Content and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struck, Larry

    Text headings can be used to structural and expressive advantage in technical material, increasing textual coherence and encouraging reader/text correspondence. The five general types of headings are differentiated by their functions: (1) descriptive headings refer to the most prominent feature of a text section; (2) reflective headings provide…

  1. 29 CFR 1917.93 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1917.93 Section 1917.93 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.93 Head protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each... the head from falling objects. (b)(1) The employer must ensure that head protection complies with...

  2. 49 CFR 572.182 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.182 Section 572.182... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.182 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head... 1 of 6). When tested to the test procedure specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  3. 49 CFR 572.182 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.182 Section 572.182... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.182 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head... 1 of 6). When tested to the test procedure specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.100 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Head protection. 1926.100 Section 1926.100 Labor... § 1926.100 Head protection. (a) Employees working in areas where there is a possible danger of head... Institute, Z89.1-1969, Safety Requirements for Industrial Head Protection. (c) Helmets for the...

  5. 49 CFR 572.182 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.182 Section 572.182... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.182 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head... 1 of 6). When tested to the test procedure specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  6. 49 CFR 572.182 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.182 Section 572.182... Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.182 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (drawing 175-1000), including the neck upper transducer structural replacement, and a set of...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.100 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1926.100 Section 1926.100 Labor... § 1926.100 Head protection. (a) Employees working in areas where there is a possible danger of head... Institute, Z89.1-1969, Safety Requirements for Industrial Head Protection. (c) Helmets for the...

  8. 29 CFR 1917.93 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Head protection. 1917.93 Section 1917.93 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.93 Head protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each... the head from falling objects. (b)(1) The employer must ensure that head protection complies with...

  9. 29 CFR 1917.93 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Head protection. 1917.93 Section 1917.93 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.93 Head protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each... the head from falling objects. (b)(1) The employer must ensure that head protection complies with...

  10. 29 CFR 1917.93 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Head protection. 1917.93 Section 1917.93 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.93 Head protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each... the head from falling objects. (b)(1) The employer must ensure that head protection complies with...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.100 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Head protection. 1926.100 Section 1926.100 Labor... § 1926.100 Head protection. (a) Employees working in areas where there is a possible danger of head... protected by protective helmets. (b) Criteria for head protection. (1) The employer must provide...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.100 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Head protection. 1926.100 Section 1926.100 Labor... § 1926.100 Head protection. (a) Employees working in areas where there is a possible danger of head... protected by protective helmets. (b) Criteria for head protection. (1) The employer must provide...

  13. 49 CFR 572.182 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.182 Section 572.182... Test Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.182 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (drawing 175-1000), including the neck upper transducer structural replacement, and a set of...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.93 - Head protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Head protection. 1917.93 Section 1917.93 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.93 Head protection. (a) The employer shall ensure that each... the head from falling objects. (b)(1) The employer must ensure that head protection complies with...

  15. Pulse shaping system

    DOEpatents

    Skeldon, Mark D.; Letzring, Samuel A.

    1999-03-23

    Temporally shaped electrical waveform generation provides electrical waveforms suitable for driving an electro-optic modulator (EOM) which produces temporally shaped optical laser pulses for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. The temporally shaped electrical waveform generation is carried out with aperture coupled transmission lines having an input transmission line and an aperture coupled output transmission line, along which input and output pulses propagate in opposite directions. The output electrical waveforms are shaped principally due to the selection of coupling aperture width, in a direction transverse to the lines, which varies along the length of the line. Specific electrical waveforms, which may be high voltage (up to kilovolt range), are produced and applied to the EOM to produce specifically shaped optical laser pulses.

  16. Pulse shaping system

    DOEpatents

    Skeldon, M.D.; Letzring, S.A.

    1999-03-23

    Temporally shaped electrical waveform generation provides electrical waveforms suitable for driving an electro-optic modulator (EOM) which produces temporally shaped optical laser pulses for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. The temporally shaped electrical waveform generation is carried out with aperture coupled transmission lines having an input transmission line and an aperture coupled output transmission line, along which input and output pulses propagate in opposite directions. The output electrical waveforms are shaped principally due to the selection of coupling aperture width, in a direction transverse to the lines, which varies along the length of the line. Specific electrical waveforms, which may be high voltage (up to kilovolt range), are produced and applied to the EOM to produce specifically shaped optical laser pulses. 8 figs.

  17. [Differential physical growth during the 1st year of life. II. Growth of the head].

    PubMed

    Rosales-López, A; Martínez-Meza, A; Sánchez-Aguilar, G; Chávez-Rojas, G; Guízar-Vázquez, J J

    1992-11-01

    The corporal segment that display the major growth velocity before and after born is the head; that is, once a baby is born, it represents the fourth part of the stature, it has the greater corporal circumference, and their development is superior than other corporal segments. However, the growth shape of the craniofacial structures is different; so, the growth gradient of brain, is the responsible of the morphological view described previously; the facial structures follow the general growth curve; moreover, the facial bone that contributes with the growth of brain, describes mixed growth gradients. This complex shape of the head growth, requires the existence of growth standards for these structures. The present paper describes the results of longitudinal research on head growth. We studied 200 children of both sex and ages from 0 to 1 year of extrauterine life. We got 18 growth measures of the head, such as: head circumference, head length and width, minimum frontal diameter; head, total facial, upper facial, and nose height; bizygomatic, bigonial, external bipalpebral, internal bipalpebral and nose widths; length and width of lips and ear. Moreover, we report the final increments and the differences on sexual dimorphism.

  18. Small queens and big-headed workers in a monomorphic ponerine ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tomonori; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Junichi; Nakajima, Yumiko; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2008-10-01

    Evolution of caste is a central issue in the biology of social insects. Comparative studies on their morphology so far suggest the following three patterns: (1) a positive correlation between queen worker size dimorphism and the divergence in reproductive ability between castes, (2) a negative correlation among workers between morphological diversity and reproductive ability, and (3) a positive correlation between queen worker body shape difference and the diversity in worker morphology. We conducted morphological comparisons between castes in Pachycondyla luteipes, workers of which are monomorphic and lack their reproductive ability. Although the size distribution broadly overlapped, mean head width, head length, and scape length were significantly different between queens and workers. Conversely, in eye length, petiole width, and Weber’s length, the size differences were reversed. The allometries (head length/head width, scape length/head width, and Weber’s length/head width) were also significantly different between queens and workers. Morphological examinations showed that the body shape was different between queens and workers, and the head part of workers was disproportionately larger than that of queens. This pattern of queen worker dimorphism is novel in ants with monomorphic workers and a clear exception to the last pattern. This study suggests that it is possible that the loss of individual-level selection, the lack of reproductive ability, influences morphological modification in ants.

  19. XYY chromosome abnormality in sexual homicide perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas

    2006-03-05

    In a retrospective investigation of the court reports about sexual homicide perpetrators chromosome analysis had been carried out in 13 of 166 (7.8%) men. Three men (1.8%) with XYY chromosome abnormality were found. This rate is much higher than that found in unselected samples of prisoners (0.7-0.9%) or in the general population (0.01%). The three men had shown prepubescent abnormalities, school problems, and had suffered from physical abuse. The chromosome analysis in all cases had been carried out in connection with the forensic psychiatric court report due to the sexual homicide. However, two men had earlier psychiatric referrals. All were diagnosed as sexual sadistic, showed a psychopathic syndrome or psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised [Hare RD, 1991, The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems]. Two were multiple murderers. Especially forensic psychiatrists should be vigilant of the possibility of XYY chromosome abnormalities in sexual offenders.

  20. Visual perceptual abnormalities: hallucinations and illusions.

    PubMed

    Norton, J W; Corbett, J J

    2000-01-01

    Visual perceptual abnormalities may be caused by diverse etiologies which span the fields of psychiatry and neurology. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of visual perceptual abnormalities from both a neurological and a psychiatric perspective. Psychiatric etiologies include mania, depression, substance dependence, and schizophrenia. Common neurological causes include migraine, epilepsy, delirium, dementia, tumor, and stroke. The phenomena of palinopsia, oscillopsia, dysmetropsia, and polyopia among others are also reviewed. A systematic approach to the many causes of illusions and hallucinations may help to achieve an accurate diagnosis, and a more focused evaluation and treatment plan for patients who develop visual perceptual abnormalities. This article provides the practicing neurologist with a practical understanding and approach to patients with these clinical symptoms.

  1. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs.

    PubMed

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

  2. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy.

  3. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major

    PubMed Central

    Bhoiwala, Devang L.; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: thalassemia major, β-TI: thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelium degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-TM are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy (ICT) in order to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by ICT. Some who were never treated with ICT exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving ICT had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-TM viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  4. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  5. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  6. Chromosome abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Less information is available on the cytogenetic abnormalities in marrow cells of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) than on abnormalities in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL); nonetheless, some patterns of karyotypic change in ALL are evident. Even with banding, about 50% of patients appear to have a normal karyotype. The modal chromosome number tends to be higher in ALL than in ANLL. Every patient with B-cell ALL has had an abnormality of one chromosome No. 14 that involved the translocation of material to the end of the long arm. Among seven reported cases, the translocation was from 8q in three patients and 11q in one. Cells with a haploid or near-haploid (24 to 35) chromosome number have been reported in five patients with ALL and in four patients in a lymphoid blast crisis of chronic myelogeneous leukemia. The karyotype in the four ALL patients whose cells were analyzed with banding was remarkably consistent. All patients had the haploid number, usually with both sex chromosomes, plus an additional No. 10, 18, and 21. Evolution of the karyotype, which occurs in the leukemic cells of about 50% of patients, involves cells of patients who had an initially normal or an initially abnormal karyotype. The evidence regarding a correlation between the presence of an abnormal clone prior to treatment and response to treatment is contradictory at present. Some chromosome abnormalities, such as the presence of a Philadelphia (Ph/sup 1/) chromosome, a 14q+chromosome, or a haploid clone, are associated with a relatively short survival.

  7. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity.

  8. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  9. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  10. Roentgenographic abnormalities in Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    McCook, T A; Briley, C; Ravin, C E

    1982-02-01

    Rock Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne rickettsial disease which produces a widespread vasculitis. A mortality of 7% to 13% has been reported in the United States which is due at least in part to delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The classic features of this disease include a history of tick bite with the clinical presentation of skin rash and fever in association with thrombocytopenia. Few reports have emphasized the radiologic chest abnormalities in this disease or their relationship to thrombocytopenia. We review 70 cases of RMSF with abnormal roentgenographic features and their pathologic correlation.

  11. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  12. Somatosensory temporal discrimination in essential tremor and isolated head and voice tremors.

    PubMed

    Conte, Antonella; Ferrazzano, Gina; Manzo, Nicoletta; Leodori, Giorgio; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Fasano, Alfonso; Tinazzi, Michele; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold in patients with essential tremor (sporadic and familial) and to evaluate whether somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold values differ depending on the body parts involved by tremor. We also investigated the somatosensory temporal discrimination in patients with isolated voice tremor. We enrolled 61 patients with tremor: 48 patients with essential tremor (31 patients with upper limb tremor alone, nine patients with head tremor alone, and eight patients with upper limb plus head tremor; 22 patients with familial vs. 26 sporadic essential tremor), 13 patients with isolated voice tremor, and 45 healthy subjects. Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold values were normal in patients with familial essential tremor, whereas they were higher in patients with sporadic essential tremor. When we classified patients according to tremor distribution, somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold values were normal in patients with upper limb tremor and abnormal only in patients with isolated head tremor. Temporal discrimination threshold values were also abnormal in patients with isolated voice tremor. Somatosensory temporal discrimination processing is normal in patients with familial as well as in patients with sporadic essential tremor involving the upper limbs. By contrast, somatosensory temporal discrimination is altered in patients with isolated head tremor and voice tremor. This study with somatosensory temporal discrimination suggests that isolated head and voice tremors might possibly be considered as separate clinical entities from essential tremor.

  13. The Vestibulo-ocular Reflex During Active Head Motion in Chiari II Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Michael S.; Sharpe, James A.; Lillakas, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Steinbach, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Chiari type II malformation (CII) is a developmental anomaly of the cerebellum and brainstem, which are important structures for processing the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). We investigated the effects of the deformity of CII on the angular VOR during active head motion. Methods Eye and head movements were recorded using an infrared eye tracker and magnetic head tracker in 20 participants with CII [11 males, age range 8-19 years, mean (SD) 14.4 (3.2) years]. Thirty-eight age-matched healthy children and adolescents (21 males) constituted the control group. Participants were instructed to ‘look’ in darkness at the position of their thumb, placed 25 cm away, while they made horizontal and vertical sinusoidal head rotations at frequencies of about 0.5 Hz and 2 Hz. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to compare the two groups. Results The VOR gains, the ratio of eye to head velocities, were abnormally low in two participants with CII and abnormally high in one participant with CII. Conclusion The majority of participants with CII had normal VOR performance in this investigation. However, the deformity of CII can impair the active angular VOR in some patients with CII. Low gain is attributed to brainstem damage and high gain to cerebellar dysfunction. PMID:18973069

  14. The perception of heading during eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royden, Constance S.; Banks, Martin S.; Crowell, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Warren and Hannon (1988, 1990), while studying the perception of heading during eye movements, concluded that people do not require extraretinal information to judge heading with eye/head movements present. Here, heading judgments are examined at higher, more typical eye movement velocities than the extremely slow tracking eye movements used by Warren and Hannon. It is found that people require extraretinal information about eye position to perceive heading accurately under many viewing conditions.

  15. Dropped head syndrome. Three case-reports.

    PubMed

    Chaouat, D; Belange, G

    1999-01-01

    Dropped head syndrome is characterized by gradual forward sagging of the head due to weakness of the neck extensor muscles. We report three cases in elderly patients seen by rheumatologists at our institution. There was some evidence suggestive of a neurogenic process, whereas most reported cases of dropped head syndrome have been ascribed to myopathy. Dropped head syndrome can probably be produced by multiple causes. The close ties between dropped head syndrome and acquired camptocormia in adults are discussed.

  16. Segmentation and Image Analysis of Abnormal Lungs at CT: Current Approaches, Challenges, and Future Trends

    PubMed Central

    Mansoor, Awais; Foster, Brent; Xu, Ziyue; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Folio, Les R.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    The computer-based process of identifying the boundaries of lung from surrounding thoracic tissue on computed tomographic (CT) images, which is called segmentation, is a vital first step in radiologic pulmonary image analysis. Many algorithms and software platforms provide image segmentation routines for quantification of lung abnormalities; however, nearly all of the current image segmentation approaches apply well only if the lungs exhibit minimal or no pathologic conditions. When moderate to high amounts of disease or abnormalities with a challenging shape or appearance exist in the lungs, computer-aided detection systems may be highly likely to fail to depict those abnormal regions because of inaccurate segmentation methods. In particular, abnormalities such as pleural effusions, consolidations, and masses often cause inaccurate lung segmentation, which greatly limits the use of image processing methods in clinical and research contexts. In this review, a critical summary of the current methods for lung segmentation on CT images is provided, with special emphasis on the accuracy and performance of the methods in cases with abnormalities and cases with exemplary pathologic findings. The currently available segmentation methods can be divided into five major classes: (a) thresholding-based, (b) region-based, (c) shape-based, (d) neighboring anatomy–guided, and (e) machine learning–based methods. The feasibility of each class and its shortcomings are explained and illustrated with the most common lung abnormalities observed on CT images. In an overview, practical applications and evolving technologies combining the presented approaches for the practicing radiologist are detailed. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26172351

  17. Ultrasonic features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma coexisting with a thyroid abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Yaqiong; Yin, Ping; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Tian'an

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) coexisting with a thyroid abnormality, and to improve the accuracy of PTMC diagnosis. The ultrasonic features of 38 PTMC nodules coexisting with a thyroid abnormality and 56 thyroid benign nodules, obtained by surgical resection and confirmed by pathological analysis, were retrospectively analyzed. All masses were ≤ 1.0 cm in diameter. Ultrasonic features that were analyzed included the shape, aspect ratio, boundary, margin, echo, uniformity, presence or absence of microcalcification and enlargement of the lymph nodes, as well as the blood flow of the nodules. Furthermore, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of PTMC were obtained. The following ultrasonic features of thyroid nodules were significantly (P<0.05) associated with PTMC coexisting with a thyroid abnormality: An irregular shape; an aspect ratio of ≥ 1; an unclear boundary; blurred margins; internal heterogeneous hypoechogenicity; and microcalcification. Therefore, thyroid nodules with these ultrasonic characteristics coexisting with a thyroid abnormality may be suspected as malignant PTMC. The present study demonstrated that ultrasound-guided biopsies are necessary to prevent misdiagnosis of PTMC. The sensitivities of enlarged neck lymph nodes and abundant blood flow are so low that they may be considered as references for the differentiation of PTMC from benign nodules. PMID:27698812

  18. The Shapes of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2013-12-01

    I have used many ploys to start a course in introductory physics, but one of the more interesting ones was to spend 20 minutes describing some of the curves and shapes that we would encounter in our year together. The students saw parabolas, catenaries, hyperbolas, cycloids, circles, ellipses, and helices, and were shown examples, either live or on slides, of these shapes. The world of physics is three-dimensional, and students need to see what curves and trajectories span it. Once they see these shapes in nature, they look at the world around them in fresh ways.

  19. Shaped Crystal Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatartchenko, Vitali A.

    Crystals of specified shape and size (shaped crystals) with controlled crystal growth (SCG) defect and impurity structure have to be grown for the successful development of modern engineering. Since the 1950s many hundreds of papers and patents concerned with shaped growth have been published. In this chapter, we do not try to enumerate the successful applications of shaped growth to different materials but rather to carry out a fundamental physical and mathematical analysis of shaping as well as the peculiarities of shaped crystal structures. Four main techniques, based on which the lateral surface can be shaped without contact with the container walls, are analyzed: the Czochralski technique (CZT), the Verneuil technique (VT), the floating zone technique (FZT), and technique of pulling from shaper (TPS). Modifications of these techniques are analyzed as well. In all these techniques the shape of the melt meniscus is controlled by surface tension forces, i.e., capillary forces, and here they are classified as capillary shaping techniques (CST). We look for conditions under which the crystal growth process in each CST is dynamically stable. Only in this case are all perturbations attenuated and a crystal of constant cross section shaping technique (CST) grown without any special regulation. The dynamic stability theory of the crystal growth process for all CST is developed on the basis of Lyapunov's dynamic stability theory. Lyapunov's equations for the crystal growth processes follow from fundamental laws. The results of the theory allow the choice of stable regimes for crystal growth by all CST as well as special designs of shapers in TPS. SCG experiments by CZT, VT, and FZT are discussed but the main consideration is given to TPS. Shapers not only allow crystal of very complicated cross section to be grown but provide a special distribution of impurities. A history of TPS is provided later in the chapter, because it can only be described after explanation of the

  20. The shapes of nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsch, G. F.

    Gerry Brown initiated some early studies on the coexistence of different nuclear shapes. The subject has continued to be of interest and is crucial for understanding nuclear fission. We now have a very good picture of the potential energy surface with respect to shape degrees of freedom in heavy nuclei, but the dynamics remain problematic. In contrast, the early studies on light nuclei were quite successful in describing the mixing between shapes. Perhaps a new approach in the spirit of the old calculations could better elucidate the character of the fission dynamics and explain phenomena that current theory does not model well.

  1. Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head after pregnancy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Kawtar; Rachidi, Wafae; Janani, Saadia; Mkinsi, Ouafa

    2016-01-01

    A documented case of beginning aseptic necrosis of the femoral head associated with pregnancy together with a review of the literature about this rare complication of pregnancy is presented. The known risk factors of osteonecrosis are; steroid use, alcoholism, organ transplantation, especially after kidney transplant or bone marrow transplantation bone, systemic lupus erythematosus, dyslipidemia especially hypertriglyceridemia, dysbaric decompression sickness, drepanocytosis and Gaucher's disease. Among the less established factors, we mention procoagulations abnormalities, HIV infection, chemotherapy. We report a case of osteonecrosis of femoral head after pregnancy. PMID:27795792

  2. The making of abnormal spermatozoa: cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying pathological spermiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chemes, Hector E; Rawe, Vanesa Y

    2010-09-01

    Fertilization in mammals occurs via a series of well-defined events in the secluded environment of the female reproductive tract. The mode of selection of the fertilizing spermatozoon nevertheless remains unknown. As has become evident during in vitro fertilization by sperm microinjection into the oocyte, abnormal spermatozoa can successfully fertilize oocytes. Under these extreme conditions, post-fertilization events, early embryonic development and implantation are significantly compromised indicating that the contribution of spermatozoa extends beyond sperm penetration. Microscopic identification of normal spermatozoa is a well-standardized procedure but insights into the mechanisms that lead to aberrant sperm differentiation and into the subcellular nature of sperm abnormalities have only recently begun to be obtained. The spermatozoon is the result of a complex development in which spermatid organelles give rise to various structural components with characteristic functions. Similar to other differentiated cells, the spermatozoon has a specific pathology that is most clearly identified by ultrastructural evaluation coupled with immunocytochemistry and molecular techniques. This multidisciplinary approach allows the precise characterization of sperm abnormalities, including structural, molecular and functional aspects. We summarize here studies of the physiopathology of spermiogenesis in two abnormal sperm phenotypes of infertile men: dysplasia of the fibrous sheath and acephalic spermatozoa/abnormal head-tail attachment. The characterization of the abnormalities of the tail cytoskeleton and centrioles has uncovered aspects of the subcellular basis of pathological spermiogenesis, has suggested experimental approaches to explore the nature of these anomalies and has opened the way for genetic studies that will ultimately lead to the design of the therapeutic tools of the future.

  3. Memory and head injury severity.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, S; Temkin, N; McLean, A; Wyler, A; Machamer, J

    1987-12-01

    One hundred and two consecutive head injured patients were studied at 1 and 12 months after injury. Their performances were compared with a group of uninjured friends. The results indicate that impairment in memory depends on the type of task used, time from injury to testing, and on the severity of head injury (that is, degree of impaired consciousness). Head injury severity indices are more closely related to behavioural outcome early as compared with later after injury. At 1 year, only those with deep or prolonged impaired consciousness (as represented by greater than 1 day of coma, Glasgow Coma Scale of 8 or less, and post traumatic amnesia of 2 weeks or greater) are performing significantly worse than comparison subjects.

  4. Characterization and differentiation of normal and abnormal spermatozoa via micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z. F.; Chen, X. W.; Chen, G. N.; Chen, J. H.; Wang, J.; Lin, J. Q.; Zeng, H. S.; Chen, R.

    2013-03-01

    Growth in the percentage of spermatozoa with aberrant sperm head morphologies has been correlated with a rise in male infertility. In our study, micro-Raman spectroscopy using a new substrate was utilized to characterize and differentiate the morphologically normal and abnormal human sperm cells based on their different biochemical components by showing their different specific Raman spectra. A detailed classification based on the PCA-LDA method was performed showing a diagnostic sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 91%, with 80% classification accuracy. Our results suggest that micro-Raman spectroscopy can serve as a reliable and non-invasive tool for detection and differentiation of human spermatozoa.

  5. ABNORMALITIES PRODUCED IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM BY ELECTRICAL INJURIES.

    PubMed

    Langworthy, O R

    1930-05-31

    The alternating and continuous circuits produced different types of lesions in the central nervous system. Hemorrhages were common after alternating current shocks and few hemorrhages were observed in the continuous circuit group. With both types of circuits at 1000 and 500 volts potential, severe abnormalities in the nerve cells were observed. These were more marked in the continuous circuit group. A uniformly staining, shrunken, pyknotic nucleus was taken as a criterion of nerve cell death. The Purkinje cells of the cerebellum were most susceptible to the current. Injured cells were studied in the dorsal nucleus of the vagus, in the somatic motor group, among the primary sensory neurones and in the olives. Changes in the histological structure of the cells in reference to recovery have been discussed. Injury to the cerebral and cerebellar cortices occurred on the dorsal surface close to the head electrode. Small cavities were produced, particularly in the cerebral cortex, as the result of the circuit contact. With the continuous and alternating circuits at 110 and 220 volts potential less severe changes were observed in the nerve cells although hemorrhages were common in the alternating circuit group. It must be assumed in these cases that death was due to respiratory block rather than actual death of the cells.

  6. Developmental disabilities and intracranial abnormalities in children with symptomatic cytomegalovirus and cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Hart, Catherine K; Wiley, Susan; Choo, Daniel I; Eby, Christine; Tucker, Laura; Schapiro, Mark; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association of intracranial radiographic abnormalities and developmental measures with outcomes in children with congenital symptomatic cytomegalovirus (CMV) and cochlear implants (CI). Design/Methods. It was a retrospective review of 15 children implanted from 2004 to 2010. Preimplant nonverbal intelligence quotient/developmental quotient (IQ/DQ) and head circumference (HC) were obtained. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and post-CI audiometry and language assessments were reviewed. Results. Eleven children (73%) had cognitive delay. Most had >1 developmental disability. Median IQ/DQ was 65 (23-90). All had imaging abnormalities. Most imaging abnormalities were in parietal (60%) and temporal (60%) lobes. Children with HC < 5th percentile had poorer median post-CI PTA (38 dB versus 27 dB, P = 0.02). Periventricular calcifications were associated with lower receptive (r b = -0.75, P = 0.03) and expressive (r b = -0.84, P = 0.008) language. Because IQ/DQ was associated with periventricular calcifications (r b = -0.53, P = 0.04) and small HC (r b = -0.73, P = 0.002), their relationships with language appear partially driven by IQ/DQ. Conclusions. The location of brain abnormalities appears to correlate with worse outcomes after CI. These findings may allow for more accurate counseling of parents regarding anticipated postimplantation performance.

  7. Recurrent chromosome 6 abnormalities in malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Ribotta, M; Roseo, F; Salvio, M; Castagneto, B; Carbone, M; Procopio, A; Giordano, A; Mutti, L

    1998-04-01

    The long latency period between asbestos exposure and the onset of malignant mesothelioma (MM) suggests that a multistep tumorigenesis process occurs whilst the capability of asbestos fibres to interfere directly with chromosomes focuses on the critical role of the chromosomal abnormalities in this neoplasm. The aim of our study was to identify any recurrent chromosomal changes in ten primary MM cell cultures derived from pleural effusions of patients with MM from the same geographic area and environmental and/or occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. Cytogenetic analysis was performed in accordance with International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Our results confirmed a great number of cytogenetic abnormalities in MM cells. Recurrent loss of the long arms of chromosome 6 (6q-) was the most frequent abnormality detected (four epithelial and two mixed subtypes) while, on the whole, abnormalities of chromosome 6 were found in nine out of ten cases whereas chromosome 6 was normal only in the case with fibromatous subtype. Monosomy 13 and 17 was found in five cases, monosomy 14 in four cases and 22 in three cases. Since deletion of 6q- was detected even in relatively undisturbed karyotype, we hypothesize a multistep carcinogenic process in which deletion of 6q- is an early event in the development and progression of malignant mesothelioma.

  8. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  9. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  10. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  11. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  12. Abnormal activated partial thromboplastin time and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Delicata, M; Hambley, H

    2011-08-01

    Malignancy often results in clotting abnormalities. The aetiology of haemostasis problems in cancer is complex, and is still not completely understood. We describe a case of a patient with malignant mesothelioma, who was found to have elevated activated partial thromboplastin time, due to lupus anticoagulant. We suggest that patients with malignancy should have their coagulation checked prior to any invasive procedures.

  13. First-Trimester Detection of Surface Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Rousian, Melek; Koning, Anton H. J.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Eggink, Alex J.; Cornette, Jérôme M. J.; Schoonderwaldt, Ernst M.; Husen-Ebbinge, Margreet; Teunissen, Katinka K.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Exalto, Niek

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine the diagnostic performance of 3-dimensional virtual reality ultrasound (3D_VR_US) and conventional 2- and 3-dimensional ultrasound (2D/3D_US) for first-trimester detection of structural abnormalities. Forty-eight first trimester cases (gold standard available, 22 normal, 26 abnormal) were evaluated offline using both techniques by 5 experienced, blinded sonographers. In each case, we analyzed whether each organ category was correctly indicated as normal or abnormal and whether the specific diagnosis was correctly made. Sensitivity in terms of normal or abnormal was comparable for both techniques (P = .24). The general sensitivity for specific diagnoses was 62.6% using 3D_VR_US and 52.2% using 2D/3D_US (P = .075). The 3D_VR_US more often correctly diagnosed skeleton/limb malformations (36.7% vs 10%; P = .013). Mean evaluation time in 3D_VR_US was 4:24 minutes and in 2D/3D_US 2:53 minutes (P < .001). General diagnostic performance of 3D_VR_US and 2D/3D_US apparently is comparable. Malformations of skeleton and limbs are more often detected using 3D_VR_US. Evaluation time is longer in 3D_VR_US. PMID:24440996

  14. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  15. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal…

  16. Engineering molecular crystals with abnormally weak cohesion.

    PubMed

    Maly, Kenneth E; Gagnon, Eric; Wuest, James D

    2011-05-14

    Adding astutely placed methyl groups to hexaphenylbenzene increases molecular weight but simultaneously weakens key C-H···π interactions, thereby leading to decreased enthalpies of sublimation and showing that materials with abnormally weak cohesion can be made by identifying and then obstructing interactions that help control association.

  17. Eye movement abnormalities in essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    Plinta, Klaudia; Krzak-Kubica, Agnieszka; Zajdel, Katarzyna; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Dylak, Jacek; Ober, Jan; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Rudzińska, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent movement disorder, characterized mainly by an action tremor of the arms. Only a few studies published as yet have assessed oculomotor abnormalities in ET and their results are unequivocal. The aim of this study was to assess the oculomotor abnormalities in ET patients compared with the control group and to find the relationship between oculomotor abnormalities and clinical features of ET patients. We studied 50 ET patients and 42 matched by age and gender healthy controls. Saccadometer Advanced (Ober Consulting, Poland) was used to investigate reflexive, pace-induced and cued saccades and conventional electrooculography for evaluation of smooth pursuit and fixation. The severity of the tremor was assessed by the Clinical Rating Scale for Tremor. Significant differences between ET patients and controls were found for the incidence of reflexive saccades dysmetria and deficit of smooth pursuit. Reflexive saccades dysmetria was more frequent in patients in the second and third phase of ET compared to the first phase. The reflexive saccades latency increase was correlated with severity of the tremor. In conclusion, oculomotor abnormalities were significantly more common in ET patients than in healthy subjects. The most common oculomotor disturbances in ET were reflexive saccades dysmetria and slowing of smooth pursuit. The frequency of reflexive saccades dysmetria increased with progression of ET. The reflexive saccades latency increase was related to the severity of tremor. PMID:28149393

  18. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  19. Abnormal Saccadic Eye Movements in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, C.; Verbaten, M. N.; Cuperus, J. M.; Camfferman, G.; van Engeland, H.

    1998-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements, generated during a visual oddball task, were compared for 10 autistic children, 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 10 dyslexic children, and 10 typically developing children. Several abnormal patterns of saccades were found in the autistic group. (DB)

  20. Pathways to abnormal revenge and forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2013-02-01

    The target article’s important point is easily misunderstood to claim that all revenge is adaptive. Revenge and forgiveness can overstretch (or understretch) the bounds of utility due to misperceptions, minimization of costly errors, a breakdown within our evolved revenge systems, or natural genetic and developmental variation. Together, these factors can compound to produce highly abnormal instances of revenge and forgiveness.

  1. Meiotic chromosome abnormalities in human spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Renée H

    2006-08-01

    The last few years have witnessed an explosion in the information about chromosome abnormalities in human sperm and the meiotic events that predispose to these abnormalities. We have determined that all chromosomes are susceptible to nondisjunction, but chromosomes 21 and 22 and, especially, the sex chromosomes have an increased frequency of aneuploidy. Studies are just beginning on the effects of potential mutagens on the chromosomal constitution of human sperm. The effects of pesticides and cancer therapeutic agents have been reviewed. In the last decade, there has been a great impetus to study chromosome abnormalities in sperm from infertile men because the advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) made it possible for these men to father pregnancies. A large number of studies have demonstrated that infertile men have an increased frequency of chromosomally abnormal sperm and children, even when they have a normal somatic karyotype. Meiotic studies on the pachytene stage of spermatogenesis have demonstrated that infertile men have impaired chromosome synapsis, a significantly decreased frequency of recombination, and an increased frequency of chromosomes completely lacking a recombination site. Such errors make these cells susceptible to meiotic arrest and the production of aneuploid gametes.

  2. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  3. [Y chromosome structural abnormalities and Turner's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ravel, C; Siffroi, J-P

    2009-06-01

    Although specifically male, the human Y chromosome may be observed in female karyotypes, mostly in women with Turner syndrome stigmata. In women with isolated gonadal dysgenesis but otherwise normal stature, the testis determining factor or SRY gene may have been removed from the Y chromosome or may be mutated. In other women with Turner syndrome, the karyotype is usually abnormal and shows a frequent 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. In these cases, the phenotype depends on the ratio between Y positive and 45,X cell lines in the body. When in mosaicism, Y chromosomes are likely to carry structural abnormalities which explain mitotic instability, such as the existence of two centromeres. Dicentric Y isochromosomes for the short arm (idic[Yp]) or ring Y chromosomes (r[Y]) are the most frequent abnormal Y chromosomes found in infertile patients and in Turner syndrome in mosaic with 45,X cells. Although monocentric, deleted Y chromosomes for the long arm and those carrying microdeletions in the AZF region are also instable and are frequently associated with a 45,X cell line. Management of infertile patients carrying such abnormal Y chromosomes must take into account the risk and the consequences of a mosaicism in the offspring.

  4. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-05-06

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted.

  5. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  6. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  7. Rotary head type reproducing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Takayama, Nobutoshi; Edakubo, Hiroo; Kozuki, Susumu; Takei, Masahiro; Nagasawa, Kenichi

    1986-01-01

    In an apparatus of the kind arranged to reproduce, with a plurality of rotary heads, an information signal from a record bearing medium having many recording tracks which are parallel to each other with the information signal recorded therein and with a plurality of different pilot signals of different frequencies also recorded one by one, one in each of the recording tracks, a plurality of different reference signals of different frequencies are simultaneously generated. A tracking error is detected by using the different reference signals together with the pilot signals which are included in signals reproduced from the plurality of rotary heads.

  8. Head kinematics during shaking associated with abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Lintern, T O; Puhulwelle Gamage, N T; Bloomfield, F H; Kelly, P; Finch, M C; Taberner, A J; Nash, M P; Nielsen, P M F

    2015-09-18

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a potentially fatal result of child abuse but the mechanisms of injury are controversial. To address the hypothesis that shaking alone is sufficient to elicit the injuries observed, effective computational and experimental models are necessary. This paper investigates the use of a coupled rigid-body computational modelling framework to reproduce in vivo shaking kinematics in AHT. A sagittal plane OpenSim computational model of a lamb was developed and used to interpret biomechanical data from in vivo shaking experiments. The acceleration of the head during shaking was used to provide in vivo validation of the associated computational model. Results of this study demonstrated that peak accelerations occurred when the head impacted the torso and produced acceleration magnitudes exceeding 200ms(-)(2). The computational model demonstrated good agreement with the experimental measurements and was shown to be able to reproduce the high accelerations that occur during impact. The biomechanical results obtained with the computational model demonstrate the utility of using a coupled rigid-body modelling framework to describe infant head kinematics in AHT.

  9. Shaping Crystals using Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacci, Jeremie; Mackiewicz, Kristian

    2016-11-01

    Electrophoresis is size and shape independent as stressed by Morrison in his seminal paper. Here we present an original approach to reshape colloidal crystals using an electric field as a carving tool.

  10. Approximate average head models for EEG source imaging.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Hernández, Pedro A; von Ellenrieder, Nicolás; Ojeda-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Kochen, Silvia; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Muravchik, Carlos; Valdés-Sosa, Pedro A

    2009-12-15

    We examine the performance of approximate models (AM) of the head in solving the EEG inverse problem. The AM are needed when the individual's MRI is not available. We simulate the electric potential distribution generated by cortical sources for a large sample of 305 subjects, and solve the inverse problem with AM. Statistical comparisons are carried out with the distribution of the localization errors. We propose several new AM. These are the average of many individual realistic MRI-based models, such as surface-based models or lead fields. We demonstrate that the lead fields of the AM should be calculated considering source moments not constrained to be normal to the cortex. We also show that the imperfect anatomical correspondence between all cortices is the most important cause of localization errors. Our average models perform better than a random individual model or the usual average model in the MNI space. We also show that a classification based on race and gender or head size before averaging does not significantly improve the results. Our average models are slightly better than an existing AM with shape guided by measured individual electrode positions, and have the advantage of not requiring such measurements. Among the studied models, the Average Lead Field seems the most convenient tool in large and systematical clinical and research studies demanding EEG source localization, when MRI are unavailable. This AM does not need a strict alignment between head models, and can therefore be easily achieved for any type of head modeling approach.

  11. Morphometric analysis of llama (Lama glama) sperm head.

    PubMed

    Casaretto, C; Lombardo, D M; Giuliano, S; Gambarotta, M; Carretero, M I; Miragaya, M H

    2012-05-01

    Llama production in Argentina has increased, as the international interest in breeding this type of animals has grown in the last years. Considering the great polymorphism that llama spermatozoa present at evaluation using light microscopy, the aim of this study was to objectively evaluate llama sperm head morphometry using digital morphometric analysis. Five ejaculates from each of eight males were obtained to evaluate morphometric parameters of 8000 sperm heads stained with Tinción 15(®). The following average results were obtained for each parameter: size parameters: area 20.09 μm(2), length 6.60 μm, width 4.14 μm, equivalent circle diameter 5.06 μm, curve length 5.79 μm and curve width 3.48 μm; boundary parameters: perimeter 18.54 μm and convex perimeter 17.34 μm; and shape parameters: roundness 1.28 and elongation 1.59. Morphometric parameters of sperm head were compared between ejaculates of the same male and between males. Significant differences between ejaculates of the same male were found for all parameters evaluated (P < 0.01). Significant differences between males were found for all morphometric parameters (P < 0.01) except for curve length, curve width and perimeter. The differences detected would indicate that there is not a single morphometric pattern for Lama glama sperm head, because parameter values cannot be standardised.

  12. Silicon Carbide Shapes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Free-standing silicon carbide shapes are produced by passing a properly diluted stream of a reactant gas, for example methyltrichlorosilane, into a...reaction chamber housing a thin walled, hollow graphite body heated to 1300-1500C. After the graphite body is sufficiently coated with silicon carbide , the...graphite body is fired, converting the graphite to gaseous CO2 and CO and leaving a silicon carbide shaped article remaining.

  13. Laser shaping of cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobol, Emil N.; Bagratashvili, Victor N.; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Sviridov, Alexander P.; Helidonis, Emmanuel S.; Kavvalos, George; Christodoulou, P. N.; Naoumidi, I.; Velegrakis, G.; Ovchinnikov, Yuriy M.; Shechter, A.

    1994-09-01

    The carbon dioxide laser has been used for the first time to change the cartilage's shape. After the laser irradiation the cartilage has the tendency to retain its new form. Different types of laser modified cartilage structures were studied. The inferred physical mechanism for cartilage shaping using the stresses relaxation process is presented. The clinical significance of the results for corrective laser surgery is discussed.

  14. Universality of fragment shapes

    PubMed Central

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism. PMID:25772300

  15. On Characterizing Particle Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennis, Bryan J.; Rickman, Douglas; Rollins, A. Brent; Ennis, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that particle shape affects flow characteristics of granular materials, as well as a variety of other solids processing issues such as compaction, rheology, filtration and other two-phase flow problems. The impact of shape crosses many diverse and commercially important applications, including pharmaceuticals, civil engineering, metallurgy, health, and food processing. Two applications studied here include the dry solids flow of lunar simulants (e.g. JSC-1, NU-LHT-2M, OB-1), and the flow properties of wet concrete, including final compressive strength. A multi-dimensional generalized, engineering method to quantitatively characterize particle shapes has been developed, applicable to both single particle orientation and multi-particle assemblies. The two-dimension, three dimension inversion problem is also treated, and the application of these methods to DEM model particles will be discussed. In the case of lunar simulants, flow properties of six lunar simulants have been measured, and the impact of particle shape on flowability - as characterized by the shape method developed here -- is discussed, especially in the context of three simulants of similar size range. In the context of concrete processing, concrete construction is a major contributor to greenhouse gas production, of which the major contributor is cement binding loading. Any optimization in concrete rheology and packing that can reduce cement loading and improve strength loading can also reduce currently required construction safety factors. The characterization approach here is also demonstrated for the impact of rock aggregate shape on concrete slump rheology and dry compressive strength.

  16. Universality of fragment shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-03-01

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism.

  17. Postcopulatory Sexual Selection Results in Spermatozoa with More Uniform Head and Flagellum Sizes in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Varea-Sánchez, María; Gómez Montoto, Laura; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific comparative studies have shown that, in most taxa, postcopulatory sexual selection (PCSS) in the form of sperm competition drives the evolution of longer and faster swimming sperm. Work on passserine birds has revealed that PCSS also reduces variation in sperm size between males at the intraspecific level. However, the influence of PCSS upon intra-male sperm size diversity is poorly understood, since the few studies carried out to date in birds have yielded contradictory results. In mammals, PCSS increases sperm size but there is little information on the effects of this selective force on variations in sperm size and shape. Here, we test whether sperm competition associates with a reduction in the degree of variation of sperm dimensions in rodents. We found that as sperm competition levels increase males produce sperm that are more similar in both the size of the head and the size of the flagellum. On the other hand, whereas with increasing levels of sperm competition there is less variation in head length in relation to head width (ratio CV head length/CV head width), there is no relation between variation in head and flagellum sizes (ratio CV head length/CV flagellum length). Thus, it appears that, in addition to a selection for longer sperm, sperm competition may select more uniform sperm heads and flagella, which together may enhance swimming velocity. Overall, sperm competition seems to drive sperm components towards an optimum design that may affect sperm performance which, in turn, will be crucial for successful fertilization. PMID:25243923

  18. Experimental validation of a newly designed 6 degrees of freedom scanning laser head: application to three-dimensional beam structure.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, D; Copertaro, E

    2013-12-01

    A new scanning laser head is designed to use single Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) for performing measurements up to 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) at a target. The scanning head is supported by a rotating hollow shaft, which allows the laser beam to travel up to the scanning head from an opposite direction where an LDV is set up. The scanning head is made of a set of two mirrors, which deflects the laser beam with an angle so that the rotation of the scanning head produces a conical scan. When measurements are performed at the focal point of the conical scan then three translational vibration components can be measured, otherwise the very small circle scan, before and after the focal point, can measure up to 6 degrees of freedom, including three translations and three rotations. This paper presents the 6DOF scanning head and the measurements of 3D operational deflection shapes of a test structure.

  19. Experimental validation of a newly designed 6 degrees of freedom scanning laser head: Application to three-dimensional beam structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Maio, D.; Copertaro, E.

    2013-12-01

    A new scanning laser head is designed to use single Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) for performing measurements up to 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) at a target. The scanning head is supported by a rotating hollow shaft, which allows the laser beam to travel up to the scanning head from an opposite direction where an LDV is set up. The scanning head is made of a set of two mirrors, which deflects the laser beam with an angle so that the rotation of the scanning head produces a conical scan. When measurements are performed at the focal point of the conical scan then three translational vibration components can be measured, otherwise the very small circle scan, before and after the focal point, can measure up to 6 degrees of freedom, including three translations and three rotations. This paper presents the 6DOF scanning head and the measurements of 3D operational deflection shapes of a test structure.

  20. Experimental validation of a newly designed 6 degrees of freedom scanning laser head: Application to three-dimensional beam structure

    SciTech Connect

    Di Maio, D.; Copertaro, E.

    2013-12-15

    A new scanning laser head is designed to use single Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) for performing measurements up to 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) at a target. The scanning head is supported by a rotating hollow shaft, which allows the laser beam to travel up to the scanning head from an opposite direction where an LDV is set up. The scanning head is made of a set of two mirrors, which deflects the laser beam with an angle so that the rotation of the scanning head produces a conical scan. When measurements are performed at the focal point of the conical scan then three translational vibration components can be measured, otherwise the very small circle scan, before and after the focal point, can measure up to 6 degrees of freedom, including three translations and three rotations. This paper presents the 6DOF scanning head and the measurements of 3D operational deflection shapes of a test structure.