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Sample records for abnormal hepatobiliary scans

  1. Predictive value of an abnormal hepatobiliary scan in patients with severe intercurrent illness

    SciTech Connect

    Kalff, V.; Froelich, J.W.; Lloyd, R.; Thrall, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Ten patients had severe intercurrent illness and the gallbladder could not be seen on a hepatobiliary scan. In 4, surgery and pathological examination showed that the gallbladder was normal; 1 had chronic cholecystitis and 5 had acute acalculous cholecystitis. This study indicates that a positive hepatobiliary scan may not be indicative of acute gallbladder disease in the seriously ill patient.

  2. Technetium-99m HIDA hepatobiliary scanning in evaluation of afferent loop syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Sivelli, R.; Farinon, A.M.; Sianesi, M.; Percudani, M.; Ugolotti, G.; Calbiani, B.

    1984-08-01

    A study of 118 patients, operated on with Billroth II gastrectomy for peptic disease and affected by postgastrectomy syndromes, was carried out. Fifty patients were investigated by means of technetium-99m HIDA hepatobiliary scanning. In 18 patients, in whom an afferent loop syndrome was clinically suspected, hepatobiliary scanning demonstrated an altered afferent loop emptying in 8 and atonic distension of the gallbladder without afferent loop motility changes in 10. Among the patients in the first group, four were treated with a biliary diversion surgical procedure and in the second group, two patients underwent cholecystectomy. Our findings indicate that biliary vomiting, right upper abdominal pain pyrosis, and biliary diarrhea in Billroth II gastrectomized patients are not always pathognomonic symptoms of afferent loop syndrome. Technetium-99m HIDA hepatobiliary scanning represents the only diagnostic means of afferent loop syndrome definition. A differential diagnosis of abnormal afferent loop emptying and gallbladder dyskinesia is necessary for the management planning of these patients, and furthermore, when a surgical treatment is required, biliary diversion with Roux-Y anastomosis or Braun's biliary diversion seems the treatment of choice for afferent loop syndrome, whereas cholecystectomy represents the best procedure for atonic distension of the gallbladder.

  3. Hepatobiliary scanning with 99mTc-PIPIDA in acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Mauro, M.A.; McCartney, W.H.; Melmed, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-five patients with clinically suspected acute cholecystitis underwent hepatobiliary scanning with 99mTc-PIPIDA. A positive scan (nonvisualization of the gallbladder with visualization of the common bile duct and gut) was found in 29 patients; 25 of them (86%) had surgically proven acute cholecystitis and 4 (14%) had chronic cholecystitis. Five of the 25 with acute cholecystitis had acalculous disease. A negative examination (gallbladder visualization) occurred in 63 patients; 18 (29%) had chronic cholecystitis and 45 (71%) were subsequently found to have nonbiliary disease. Three indeterminate studies (nonvisualization of both the gallbladder and gut) were obtained in patients with choledocholithiasis and chronic cholecystitis. In the evaluation of acute cholecystitis, the 99mTc-PIPIDA hepatobiliary scan was 100% sensitive and 94% specific.

  4. Hepatobiliary scanning with /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA in acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Mauro, M.A.; McCartney, W.H.; Melmed, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-five patients with clinically suspected acute cholecystitis underwent hepatobiliary scanning with /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA. A positive scan (nonvisualization of the gallbladder with visualization of the common bile duct and gut) was found in 29 patients; 25 of them (86%) had surgically proven acute cholecystitis and 4(14%) had chronic cholecystitis. Five of the 25 with acute cholecystitis had acalculous disease. A negative examination (gallbladder visualization) occurred in 63 patients; 18 (29%) had chronic cholecystitis and 45 (71%) were subsequently found to have nonbiliary disease. Three indeterminate studies (nonvisualization of both the gallbladder and gut) were obtained in patients with choledocholithiasis and chronic cholecystitis. In the evaluation of acute cholecystitis, the /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA hepatobiliary scan was 100% sensitive and 94% specific.

  5. Hepatobiliary scan with delayed gallbladder visualization in a case of acute appendicitis

    SciTech Connect

    Smathers, R.L.; Harman, P.K.; Wanebo, H.J.; Read, M.E.

    1982-05-01

    A 40-year-old woman presented with acute epigastric pain with vomiting. Within 24 hours, the pain spread to the right periumbilical region. /sup 99m/Tc disofenin hepatobiliary scan failed to demonstrate the gallbladder on a 60-minute view. The presumative diagnosis of acute cholecystitis was thought to be confirmed on this basis by the patient's physicians. However, a 75-minute view demonstrated filling of the gallbladder. In hepatobiliary scanning for acute abdominal pain, delayed views (2 to 24 hours) are recommended when the gallbladder is not visualized on the 60-minute view. If the gallbladder is visualized, cystic duct obstruction can be excluded and diagnoses such as pancreatitis, acalculous cholecystitis, and acute appendicitis should be investigated.

  6. Evaluation of focal defects on technetium-99m sulfur colloid scans with new hepatobiliary agents

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, B.K.; Pastakia, B.; Lieberman, L.M.

    1980-08-01

    In 3600 patients evaluated with technetium-99m sulfur colloid for metastatic liver disease, 40 had equivocal scans due to a solitary defect in the inferior margin of the right lobe. In these patients, the authors differentiated the gallbladder fossa from a metastatic focus using one of two new hepatobiliary agents: technetium-99m labeled pyridoxylideneglutamate and paraisopropylacetanilido iminodiacetic acid. The need for laparoscopic biopsy was obviated in a majority (78%) of the patients by identifying the gallbladder fossa.

  7. Mirizzi Syndrome in a Cirrhotic Patient After TIPS Resolved by Technetium99m Mebrofenin Hepatobiliary Scan

    PubMed Central

    Fierro-Fine, Amelia; Brown, Kyle E.

    2016-01-01

    Cholestatic pattern on the hepatic panel is common and can be caused by a broad array of etiologies. Although rare, with a prevalence as low as 0.06%, it is imperative to keep Mirizzi syndrome in the differential diagnosis when evaluating cholestasis. Due to the nonspecific presentation and inconsistent radiologic features, a high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose Mirizzi Syndrome. We present an unusual case of a 51-year-old man with worsening cholestatic laboratory tests and a normal ultrasound and abdominal computerized tomography. A technetium99m mebrofenin hepatobiliary acid scan suggested the diagnosis of Mirizzi syndrome that was later confirmed during an open cholecystectomy.

  8. Ultrasonography assessment of hepatobiliary abnormalities in 3359 subjects with Opisthorchis viverrini infection in endemic areas of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mairiang, Eimorn; Laha, Thewarach; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Thinkhamrop, Bandit; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Tesana, Smarn; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob

    2012-03-01

    A cross sectional study on hepatobiliary abnormalities in opisthorchiasis was performed in 8936 males and females aged from 20 to 60 years from 90 villages of Khon Kaen province, Northeast Thailand. All were stool-examined for Opisthorchis viverrini infection by standard quantitative formalin/ethyl acetate concentration technique. Of these, 3359 participants with stool egg positive underwent ultrasonography of the upper abdomen. The hepatobiliary abnormalities detected by ultrasound are described here. This study found a significantly higher frequency of advanced periductal fibrosis in persons with chronic opisthorchiasis (23.6%), particularly in males. Risks of the fibrosis included intensity of infection, and age younger than 30 years. Height of left lobe of the liver, cross-section of the gallbladder dimensions post fatty meal, sludge, and, interestingly, intrahepatic duct stones were significantly associated with the advanced periductal fibrosis. Eleven suspected cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cases were observed. This study emphasizes the current status of high O. viverrini infection rate and the existence of hepatobiliary abnormalities including suspected CCA in opisthorchiasis endemic areas of Thailand.

  9. Non-focal liver signal abnormalities on hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging: a review and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Alessandro; Borhani, Amir A; Heller, Matthew T; Yu, Robinson K; Tublin, Mitchell E

    2016-07-01

    Gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a linear, non-ionic paramagnetic MR contrast agent with combined extracellular and hepatobiliary properties commonly used for several liver indications. Although gadoxetate disodium is commonly used for detection and characterization of focal lesions, a spectrum of diffuse disease processes can affect the hepatobiliary phase of imaging (i.e., when contrast accumulates within the hepatocytes). Non-focal signal abnormalities during the hepatobiliary phase can be seen with multiple disease processes such as deposition disorders, infiltrating tumors, vascular diseases, and post-treatment changes. The purpose of this paper is to review the different processes which result in non-focal signal alteration during the hepatobiliary phase and to describe imaging patterns that may order a differential diagnosis and facilitate patient management. PMID:26907715

  10. Bile leakage after living donor liver transplantation demonstrated with hepatobiliary scan using 9mTc-PMT.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Akishige; Kubo, Shoji; Tanaka, Hiromu; Takemura, Shigekazu; Yamazaki, Keiichi; Hirohashi, Kazuhiro; Shiomi, Susumu

    2003-09-01

    Although it is recognized that hepatobiliary scan is of value in assessing postoperative complications of biliary surgery or cadaveric whole liver transplantation, there have been few reports regarding its usefulness following living donor liver transplantation. We performed living donor liver transplantation in a patient with biliary cirrhosis due to hepatolithiasis, using a right lobe graft from her sister. On the 15th postoperative day, bile discharge appeared from the operative wound. The leakage point could not be identified by computed tomography and cholangiography from the biliary drainage catheter. Hepatobiliary scan with Tc-99m Sn-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (99mTc-PMT) demonstrated biliary extravasation from the left side of the anastomosis of the hepatico-jejunostomy, indicating biliary leakage from the anastomosis. Conservative therapy was continued because the radioisotope flowed smoothly into the reconstructed jejunum and the biliary drainage catheter, and the leakage was stopped on the 63th postoperative day. Hepatobiliary scan is useful in determining the therapeutic plan as well as detection of bile leakage and identification of leakage points after living donor liver transplantation.

  11. The prevalence of hepatobiliary disease with normal gallbladder visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Silberstein, E.B.; Vasavada, P.J.

    1985-05-01

    The upper limit of normal time for gallbladder visualization employing Tc-99m disofenin has been set at 60 minutes by the manufacturer. In the authors' experience the great majority of normal gallbladders are seen by 30 minutes so the authors investigated the clinical correlates of gallbladder visualization between 30 and 60 minutes. Three hundred twenty-three consecutive patients were studied, with 133 showing no gallbladder visualization, 155 with visualization under 30 minutes (14 of these with cholelithiasis), 26 with visualization between 30-60 minutes, and 9 with more delayed visualization. Of the 26 with gallbladder seen between 30-60 minutes only 35% had a normal hepatobiliary system. Only the scans with elevated bilirubin or filling defects were read as abnormal. It is concluded that almost two-thirds of patients with gallbladder visualization first occurring between 30-60 minutes still have some hepatobiliary disorder.

  12. Abnormal /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99//sup m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  13. Abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans mistaken for common duct obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.S.; Witztum, K.; Greenspan, G.; Kan, M.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA scans were obtained in three patients with acute abdominal pain. The appearance of the scans suggested partial common duct obstruction. Two patients underwent surgery. One had acute appendicitis and the second had infarction of the distal ileum. In both cases, the gallbladder and biliary tract were normal. The third patient had been treated with morphine, which is known to increase biliary tract pressure and may cause contraction of the sphincter of Oddi. An ultrasound study of the gallbladder was normal and all symptoms resolved within 24 hours. Subsequently, three additional patients without biliary disease have been seen who had similar hepatobiliary scans. All three had received meperidine prior to the study. It is concluded that acute abdominal disease or the administration of morphine sulfate or meperidine can result in a scan pattern suggesting partial distal common duct obstruction in the absence of gallbladder or biliary tract disease.

  14. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, S.J.; Cunningham, D.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Gibellino, F.; Connellan, S.J.; Pride, N.B.

    1985-07-01

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established.

  15. Hepatobiliary Intervention in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Franchi-Abella, Stéphanie; Cahill, Anne Marie; Barnacle, Alex M.; Pariente, Danièle; Roebuck, Derek J.

    2013-08-02

    Various vascular and nonvascular hepatobiliary interventional radiology techniques are now commonly performed in children’s hospitals. Although the procedures are broadly similar to interventional practice in adults, there are important differences in indications and technical aspects. This review describes the indications, techniques, and results of liver biopsy, hepatic and portal venous interventions and biliary interventions in children.

  16. Thallium-technetium parathyroid scan. A useful noninvasive technique for localization of abnormal parathyroid tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Manni, A.; Basarab, R.M.; Plourde, P.V.; Koivunen, D.; Harrison, T.S.; Santen, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    We studied the usefulness of the thallium-technetium scan in 60 patients with suspected parathyroid disorders. The scan correctly localized abnormal parathyroid tissue in 82% of patients with surgically proved primary hyperparathyroidism due to a single adenoma and in 60% of patients operated on for primary hyperplasia. The scan was particularly useful in patients who had undergone previous neck explorations, since it successfully identified residual adenomatous or hyperplastic tissue in six of seven patients. False-positive images were consistently produced in all patients with coexisting thyroid disease. We conclude that the thallium-technetium scan is useful for localizing abnormal parathyroid tissue. We recommend its routine use in patients with persistent or recurrent hypercalcemia following neck exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism who have no evidence of thyroid disorders.

  17. Renal length discrepancy by ultrasound is a reliable predictor of an abnormal DMSA scan in children.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Mahmood R; Mackie, Fiona; Rosenberg, Andrew R; Kainer, Gad

    2008-01-01

    A renal length discrepancy (RLD) of more than 10 mm by ultrasound (US) is accepted as a potential indicator of an underlying renal pathology; however, there are few supporting data for this in children. Our objective was to determine a cutoff at which RLD on US is a reliable predictor of dimercaptosuccinate acid (DMSA) scan abnormality. We present data from 90 patients who had both renal US and a DMSA scan, as well as DMSA scan results compared with bipolar RLD by US. Positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were calculated for renal RLD from 6 to >10 mm. The left kidney was longer in 56%, whereas the right kidney was longer in 37%; their lengths were equal in 8%. For children at all ages, a left kidney longer than the right by >or=10 mm or a right kidney longer than the left by >or=7 mm gave a PPV for DMSA abnormality of 79% and 100%, respectively. In children older than 4 years, if the right kidney was longer by >or=7 mm or if the left kidney was longer by >or=10 mm, the PPVs for DMSA abnormality were 100% and 63%, respectively. In children younger than 4 years, when the right kidney was longer by >or=6 mm or the left was kidney longer by >or=10 mm, the PPV were 86% and 100%, respectively. Thus, children with a right kidney longer than the left by even <10 mm is a reliable predictor of an abnormal DMSA scan.

  18. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in 2014.

    PubMed

    Ziessman, Harvey A

    2014-06-01

    Cholescintigraphy with (99m)Tc-hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals has been an important, clinically useful diagnostic imaging study for almost 4 decades. It continues to be in much clinical demand; however, the indications, methodology, and interpretative criteria have evolved over the years. This review will emphasize state-of-the-art methodology and diagnostic criteria for various clinical indications, including acute cholecystitis, chronic acalculous gallbladder disease, high-grade and partial biliary obstruction, and the postcholecystectomy pain syndrome, including sphincter-of-Oddi dysfunction and biliary atresia. The review will also emphasize the use of diagnostic pharmacologic interventions, particularly sincalide. PMID:24744445

  19. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in 2014.

    PubMed

    Ziessman, Harvey A

    2014-12-01

    Cholescintigraphy with (99m)Tc-hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals has been an important, clinically useful diagnostic imaging study for almost 4 decades. It continues to be in much clinical demand; however, the indications, methodology, and interpretative criteria have evolved over the years. This review will emphasize state-of-the-art methodology and diagnostic criteria for various clinical indications, including acute cholecystitis, chronic acalculous gallbladder disease, high-grade and partial biliary obstruction, and the postcholecystectomy pain syndrome, including sphincter-of-Oddi dysfunction and biliary atresia. The review will also emphasize the use of diagnostic pharmacologic interventions, particularly sincalide. PMID:25472513

  20. Do thallium myocardial perfusion scan abnormalities predict survival in sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, E.L.; Caldwell, J.W. )

    1990-07-01

    Whereas the total mortality rate for sarcoidosis is 0.2 per 100,000, the prognosis, when the heart is involved, is very much worse. The authors used the difference in mortality rate to infer whether thallium 201 myocardial perfusion scan abnormalities correspond to myocardial sarcoid by making the simplifying assumption that if they do, then patients with abnormal scans will be found to have a death rate similar to patients with sarcoid heart disease. The authors therefore analyzed complete survival data on 52 sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms an average of eighty-nine months after they had been scanned as part of a protocol. By use of survival analysis (the Cox proportional hazards model), the only variable that was significantly associated with survival was age. The patients' scan pattern, treatment status, gender, and race were not significantly related to survival. The authors conclude that thallium myocardial perfusion scans cannot reliably be used to diagnose sarcoid heart disease in sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms.

  1. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis

    PubMed Central

    Khuroo, Mohammad S; Rather, Ajaz A; Khuroo, Naira S; Khuroo, Mehnaaz S

    2016-01-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis (HPA) was described as a clinical entity from Kashmir, India in 1985. HPA is caused by invasion and migration of nematode, Ascaris lumbricoides, in to the biliary tract and pancreatic duct. Patients present with biliary colic, cholangitis, cholecystitis, hepatic abscesses and acute pancreatitis. Ascarides traverse the ducts repeatedly, get trapped and die, leading to formation of hepatolithiasis. HPA is ubiquitous in endemic regions and in Kashmir, one such region, HPA is the etiological factor for 36.7%, 23%, 14.5% and 12.5% of all biliary diseases, acute pancreatitis, liver abscesses and biliary lithiasis respectively. Ultrasonography is an excellent diagnostic tool in visualizing worms in gut lumen and ductal system. The rational treatment for HPA is to give appropriate treatment for clinical syndromes along with effective anthelmintic therapy. Endotherapy in HPA is indicated if patients continue to have symptoms on medical therapy or when worms do not move out of ductal lumen by 3 wk or die within the ducts. The worms can be removed from the ductal system in most of the patients and such patients get regression of symptoms of hepatobiliary and pancreatic disease. PMID:27672273

  2. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Khuroo, Mohammad S; Rather, Ajaz A; Khuroo, Naira S; Khuroo, Mehnaaz S

    2016-09-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis (HPA) was described as a clinical entity from Kashmir, India in 1985. HPA is caused by invasion and migration of nematode, Ascaris lumbricoides, in to the biliary tract and pancreatic duct. Patients present with biliary colic, cholangitis, cholecystitis, hepatic abscesses and acute pancreatitis. Ascarides traverse the ducts repeatedly, get trapped and die, leading to formation of hepatolithiasis. HPA is ubiquitous in endemic regions and in Kashmir, one such region, HPA is the etiological factor for 36.7%, 23%, 14.5% and 12.5% of all biliary diseases, acute pancreatitis, liver abscesses and biliary lithiasis respectively. Ultrasonography is an excellent diagnostic tool in visualizing worms in gut lumen and ductal system. The rational treatment for HPA is to give appropriate treatment for clinical syndromes along with effective anthelmintic therapy. Endotherapy in HPA is indicated if patients continue to have symptoms on medical therapy or when worms do not move out of ductal lumen by 3 wk or die within the ducts. The worms can be removed from the ductal system in most of the patients and such patients get regression of symptoms of hepatobiliary and pancreatic disease. PMID:27672273

  3. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis

    PubMed Central

    Khuroo, Mohammad S; Rather, Ajaz A; Khuroo, Naira S; Khuroo, Mehnaaz S

    2016-01-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis (HPA) was described as a clinical entity from Kashmir, India in 1985. HPA is caused by invasion and migration of nematode, Ascaris lumbricoides, in to the biliary tract and pancreatic duct. Patients present with biliary colic, cholangitis, cholecystitis, hepatic abscesses and acute pancreatitis. Ascarides traverse the ducts repeatedly, get trapped and die, leading to formation of hepatolithiasis. HPA is ubiquitous in endemic regions and in Kashmir, one such region, HPA is the etiological factor for 36.7%, 23%, 14.5% and 12.5% of all biliary diseases, acute pancreatitis, liver abscesses and biliary lithiasis respectively. Ultrasonography is an excellent diagnostic tool in visualizing worms in gut lumen and ductal system. The rational treatment for HPA is to give appropriate treatment for clinical syndromes along with effective anthelmintic therapy. Endotherapy in HPA is indicated if patients continue to have symptoms on medical therapy or when worms do not move out of ductal lumen by 3 wk or die within the ducts. The worms can be removed from the ductal system in most of the patients and such patients get regression of symptoms of hepatobiliary and pancreatic disease.

  4. Patterns of pulmonary perfusion scans in normal subjects. IV. The prevalence of abnormal scans in smokers 30 to 49 years of age

    SciTech Connect

    Fedullo, P.F.; Kapitan, K.S.; Brewer, N.S.; Ashburn, W.L.; Hartman, M.T.; Moser, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    The usefulness of ventilation-perfusion scans in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is limited by the wide range of pulmonary diseases that are associated with abnormal scans, and by the largely undetermined prevalence of abnormal scans in persons without cardiopulmonary disease. In prior studies, we found perfusion defects to be rarely present in young persons and in older nonsmokers. To determine if normal older smokers have a higher prevalence of abnormal ventilation and perfusion scans, we performed six-view /sup 99m/Tc perfusion (Q) scans and /sup 133/Xe ventilation (V) scans in 40 subjects 30 to 49 yr of age who had no known cardiopulmonary disease. Each subject had undergone a history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, spirometry, and posteroanterior chest roentgenogram prior to scanning. All V and Q scans were interpreted blindly and independently by two experienced readers. No subject demonstrated a lobar or segmental defect on two views. One subject had a matched subsegmental defect, and one subject had delayed washout from a subsegmental area of the right upper lobe during V scanning, with a normal Q scan. We conclude that abnormal V and Q scans are uncommon among normal smokers 30 to 49 yr of age.

  5. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    Radionuclide - gallbladder; Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy: HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... small amount of morphine. This can help the radionuclide get into the gallbladder. The morphine may cause ...

  6. Interactive lung segmentation in abnormal human and animal chest CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P. Viergever, Max A.; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.; Bozovic, Gracijela; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Rikxoort, Eva M. van; Brown, Matthew S.; Jong, Pim A. de; Ginneken, Bram van

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Many medical image analysis systems require segmentation of the structures of interest as a first step. For scans with gross pathology, automatic segmentation methods may fail. The authors’ aim is to develop a versatile, fast, and reliable interactive system to segment anatomical structures. In this study, this system was used for segmenting lungs in challenging thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods: In volumetric thoracic CT scans, the chest is segmented and divided into 3D volumes of interest (VOIs), containing voxels with similar densities. These VOIs are automatically labeled as either lung tissue or nonlung tissue. The automatic labeling results can be corrected using an interactive or a supervised interactive approach. When using the supervised interactive system, the user is shown the classification results per slice, whereupon he/she can adjust incorrect labels. The system is retrained continuously, taking the corrections and approvals of the user into account. In this way, the system learns to make a better distinction between lung tissue and nonlung tissue. When using the interactive framework without supervised learning, the user corrects all incorrectly labeled VOIs manually. Both interactive segmentation tools were tested on 32 volumetric CT scans of pigs, mice and humans, containing pulmonary abnormalities. Results: On average, supervised interactive lung segmentation took under 9 min of user interaction. Algorithm computing time was 2 min on average, but can easily be reduced. On average, 2.0% of all VOIs in a scan had to be relabeled. Lung segmentation using the interactive segmentation method took on average 13 min and involved relabeling 3.0% of all VOIs on average. The resulting segmentations correspond well to manual delineations of eight axial slices per scan, with an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.933. Conclusions: The authors have developed two fast and reliable methods for interactive lung segmentation in

  7. Etiology of the obstructive pattern in hepatobiliary imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, K.S.; Marrangoni, A.G.; Turbiner, E.

    1984-04-01

    The records of all patients undergoing hepatobiliary imaging with technetion radioisotopes at our hospital from January 1980 to March 1983 were reviewed and 29 scans met the criteria for a pattern consistent with complete biliary tract obstruction. Biliary tract obstruction (due to choledocholithiasis, primary or secondary carcinoma involving the common bile duct, and pancreatitis) was documented in 24 of these patients. However, the remaining five patients had a patent common bile duct, and the etiologic factor was intrahepatic cholestasis secondary to sepsis in four and peritonitis in one. A classification of altered biliary dynamics in hepatobiliary imaging, which is based on the classification of jaundice, is proposed.

  8. Monolobar hepatobiliary fibropolycystic disease.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tadashi; Moriki, Toshiaki

    2011-03-01

    We herein report a case of monolobar hepatobiliary fibropolycystic disease. A 75-year-old woman presented with heartburn. Imaging modalities including US, CT, and MRI revealed marked atrophy and multiple biliary cysts of the hepatic left lobe. The hepatic right lobe was normal. ERCP and bile duct endoscopy revealed anomalous pancreaticobiliary union, choledochal dilation, dilation of left intrahepatic bile ducts, and small choledochal non-invasive adenocarcinoma. Polycystic kidney diseases were absent. The patient underwent pancreatico-duodenectomy and extended hepatic left lobectomy. Grossly, the hepatic left lobe was markedly atrophic, and studded with numerous biliary cysts. The left intrahepatic bile ducts were dilated (Caroli's disease) and the common bile duct showed type I choledochal dilation. The right hepatic lobe was normal. Histologically, the hepatic left lobe was replaced by fibroelastosis. The intrahepatic bile ducts showed ductal plate malformation such as irregular contours, invaginations, and protrusions. The numerous biliary cysts also showed ductal plate malformation. There were numerous persistent ductal plates and microhamartomas. Many hyalinized destructive biliary cysts and ductal plates were recognized. The liver parenchyma was scant and free of hepatocellular malformations. The portal veins showed old obliterative portal thrombosis. The right hepatic lobe was normal. Immunohistochemically, the biliary cells were positive for cytokeratin 7, 8, 18 and 19, and MUC6 and CD10, but negative for MUC2 and MUC5AC. The biliary cysts, persistent ductal plate, and microhamartomas were positive for fetal apomucin antigen MUC1. PMID:20512666

  9. Accuracy of Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy after Liver Transplantation and Liver Resection

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Hanns; Bechstein, Wolf O.; Grünwald, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Biliary complications are the most frequent complications after common liver surgeries. In this study, accuracy of hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) and impact of hyperbilirubinemia were evaluated. Methods. Between November 2007 and February 2016, 131 patients underwent hepatobiliary scintigraphy after having liver surgery. 39 patients with 42 scans after LTX (n = 13) or hepatic resection (n = 26) were evaluated in the study; 27 were male, with mean age 60 years. The subjects underwent hepatobiliary scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled Mebrofenin. The results were compared to ERCP as gold standard performed within one month after HBS. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV. We compared LTX patients to patients with other liver surgeries. Furthermore the influence of hyperbilirubinemia on HBS scans was evaluated. Results. HBS always provided the correct diagnosis in cases of bile leak in the liver-resected group (14/14). Overall diagnostic accuracy was 76% (19/25) in this group and 54% (7/13) in the LTX group. False negative (FN) diagnoses occurred more often among LTX patients (p = 0.011). Hyperbilirubinemia (>5 mg/dL) significantly influenced the excretion function of the liver, prolonging HBS's time-activity-curve (p = 0.001). Conclusions. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is a reliable tool to detect biliary complications, but reduced accuracy must be considered after LTX. PMID:27563464

  10. Accuracy of Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy after Liver Transplantation and Liver Resection.

    PubMed

    Eckenschwiller, Manuel; Ackermann, Hanns; Bechstein, Wolf O; Grünwald, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Biliary complications are the most frequent complications after common liver surgeries. In this study, accuracy of hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) and impact of hyperbilirubinemia were evaluated. Methods. Between November 2007 and February 2016, 131 patients underwent hepatobiliary scintigraphy after having liver surgery. 39 patients with 42 scans after LTX (n = 13) or hepatic resection (n = 26) were evaluated in the study; 27 were male, with mean age 60 years. The subjects underwent hepatobiliary scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled Mebrofenin. The results were compared to ERCP as gold standard performed within one month after HBS. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV. We compared LTX patients to patients with other liver surgeries. Furthermore the influence of hyperbilirubinemia on HBS scans was evaluated. Results. HBS always provided the correct diagnosis in cases of bile leak in the liver-resected group (14/14). Overall diagnostic accuracy was 76% (19/25) in this group and 54% (7/13) in the LTX group. False negative (FN) diagnoses occurred more often among LTX patients (p = 0.011). Hyperbilirubinemia (>5 mg/dL) significantly influenced the excretion function of the liver, prolonging HBS's time-activity-curve (p = 0.001). Conclusions. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is a reliable tool to detect biliary complications, but reduced accuracy must be considered after LTX. PMID:27563464

  11. Focal spinal abnormalities on bone scans in ankylosing spondylitis: a clue to the presence of fracture or pseudarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Resnick, D; Williamson, S; Alazraki, N

    1981-05-01

    Four cases of ankylosing spondylitis are presented in which radionuclide bone studies indicated focal abnormalities of the spine. In three patients, the area of abnormal nuclide uptake corresponded to a site of pseudarthrosis, and in the fourth an acute fracture was present. As such focal lesions on bone scans are unusual in cases of chronic ankylosing spondylitis in which a complication is not apparent, their presence can be a useful finding. PMID:6262000

  12. Neurologic, neuropsychologic, and computed cranial tomography scan abnormalities in 2- to 10-year survivors of small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B E; Becker, B; Goff, W B; Petronas, N; Krehbiel, M A; Makuch, R W; McKenna, G; Glatstein, E; Ihde, D C

    1985-12-01

    In order to evaluate the relationship between neurologic function and cranial irradiation, 20 patients treated on National Cancer Institute (NCI) small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) trials who were alive and free of cancer 2.4 to 10.6 years (median, 6.2) from the start of therapy were studied. All were tested with a neurologic history and examination, mental status examination, neuropsychologic testing, and review of serial computed cranial tomography (CCT) scans. Fifteen patients had been treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI), two patients with therapeutic cranial irradiation, and three received no cranial irradiation. All patients but one were ambulatory and none were institutionalized. Fifteen patients (75%) had neurologic complaints, 13 (65%) had abnormal neurologic examinations, 12 (60%) had abnormal mental status examinations, 13 (65%) had abnormal neuropsychologic testing, and 15 (75%) had abnormal CCT scans. Compared with those given low-dose maintenance chemotherapy during PCI using 200 to 300 rad per fraction, patients who were given high-dose induction chemotherapy during the time of cranial irradiation or large radiotherapy fractions (400 rad) were more likely to have abnormal mental status examinations (6/6 v 4/9) and abnormal neuropsychologic tests (6/6 v 4/9), but no major difference in CCT findings was present. CCT scans in the majority of cases (11/18) showed progressive ventricular dilatation or cerebral atrophy up to 8 years after stopping therapy. We conclude neurologic abnormalities are common in long-term survivors of SCLC, and may be more prominent in patients given high-dose chemotherapy during cranial irradiation or treated with large radiotherapy fractions. The CCT scan abnormalities are common and progressive years after prophylactic cranial irradiation and chemotherapy are stopped.

  13. Focal spinal abnormalities on bone scans in ankylosing spondylitis: a clue to the presence of fracture or pseudarthrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, D.; Williamson, S.; Alazraki, N.

    1981-05-01

    Four cases of ankylosing spondylitis are presented in which radionuclide bone studies indicated focal abnormalities of the spine. In three patients, the area of abnormal nuclide uptake corresponded to a site of pseudarthrosis, and in the fourth an acute fracture was present. As such focal lesions on bone scans are unusual in cases of chronic ankylosing spondylitis in which a complication is not apparent, their presence can be a useful finding.

  14. Hepatobiliary imaging in gallstone ileus

    SciTech Connect

    Bocobo, G.R.; Slavin, J.D. Jr.; Rao, H.; Aseltine, D. Jr.; Spencer, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Hepatobiliary imaging was performed in a woman who, at subsequent surgery, was found to have gallstone ileus due to a large gallstone obstructing the proximal jejunum. The triad of findings (failure of the radiopharmaceutical to pass beyond the point of obstruction, marked reflux into the stomach, and nonvisualization of the gallbladder) is nonspecific but, in the appropriate clinical setting, should suggest the possibility of gallstone ileus.

  15. Hepatic anomalous lobulation demonstrated by liver and hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, K.; Hoshi, H.; Jinnouchi, S.; Ono, S.; Kihara, Y.; Takeuchi, M.; Wakuta, Y.; Kakitsubata, Y.; Watanabe, K.

    1984-10-01

    The use of liver and hepatobiliary scintigraphy for evaluation of the hepatobiliary system in patients with hepatic disease is now widespread. In the present case, the usefulness of liver and hepatobiliary scintigraphy for the diagnosis of liver malformation is described.

  16. Hereditary Pancreatic and Hepatobiliary Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Ashraf; Kowdley, Gopal C.; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Cunningham, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary etiologies of pancreatic and hepatobiliary cancers are increasingly recognized. An estimated >10% of pancreatic and increasing number of hepatobiliary cancers are hereditary. The cumulative risk of hereditary pancreatic cancer ranges from measurable but negligible in cystic fibrosis to a sobering 70% in cases of hereditary pancreatitis. Candidates for pancreatic cancer surveillance are those with a risk pancreatic cancer estimated to be >10-fold that of the normal population. Screening for pancreatic cancer in high-risk individuals is typically performed by endoscopic ultrasound and should begin at least 10 years prior to the age of the youngest affected relative. Disease states known to be associated with increased risk of hepatocellular cancer include hereditary hemochromatosis, autoimmune hepatitis, porphyria, and α1-antitrypsin deficiency, with relative risks as high as 36-fold. Although much less is known about hereditary bile-duct cancers, Muir-Torre syndrome and bile salt export pump deficiency are diseases whose association with hereditary carcinogenesis is under investigation. PMID:22312493

  17. Suspected acute cholecystitis. Comparison of hepatobiliary scintigraphy versus ultrasonography

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, J.E.; Mirkes, S.H.; Fink-Bennett, D.M.; Bree, R.L.

    1982-08-01

    One hundred ninety-five patients with suspected acute cholecystitis (AC) underwent both hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) and static gray-scale ultrasonography (US) to assess the relative value of each imaging modality in this clinical setting. HBS was performed after the intravenous injection of 5 mCi /sup 99m/Tc iprofenin. Abnormal HBS indicative of AC visualized the common bile duct, but not the gallbladder, within 1 to 4 hours after tracer administration. Abnormal US indicative of AC demonstrated cholelithiasis and/or gallbladder wall edema. In this series, HBS surpassed US in sensitivity (98.3% versus 81.4%), specificity (90.2% versus 60.2%), predictive value of an abnormal test (91.4% versus 51.6%), and predictive value of a normal test (100% versus 92%), HBS should be the procedure of choice for the rapid detection of AC.

  18. Hepatobiliary

    MedlinePlus

    ... the examination table which slides in between the parallel gamma camera heads which are suspended over the ... this energy, and with the help of a computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure ...

  19. Serum bile acids in hepatobiliary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bouchier, I A; Pennington, C R

    1978-01-01

    We review the estimation of total and individual serum bile acids to detect the presence and nature of hepatobiliary disease. The different methods for measuring serum bile acids are discussed. PMID:355064

  20. Recent advances in 3D computed tomography techniques for simulation and navigation in hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Masafumi

    2014-04-01

    A few years ago it could take several hours to complete a 3D image using a 3D workstation. Thanks to advances in computer science, obtaining results of interest now requires only a few minutes. Many recent 3D workstations or multimedia computers are equipped with onboard 3D virtual patient modeling software, which enables patient-specific preoperative assessment and virtual planning, navigation, and tool positioning. Although medical 3D imaging can now be conducted using various modalities, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and ultrasonography (US) among others, the highest quality images are obtained using CT data, and CT images are now the most commonly used source of data for 3D simulation and navigation image. If the 2D source image is bad, no amount of 3D image manipulation in software will provide a quality 3D image. In this exhibition, the recent advances in CT imaging technique and 3D visualization of the hepatobiliary and pancreatic abnormalities are featured, including scan and image reconstruction technique, contrast-enhanced techniques, new application of advanced CT scan techniques, and new virtual reality simulation and navigation imaging.

  1. Liver cysts associated with polycystic kidney disease: Role of Tc-99m hepatobiliary imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Salam, M.; Keeffe, E.B. )

    1989-11-01

    A 42-year-old woman with multiple hepatic cysts associated with autosomal polycystic kidney disease was evaluated for abdominal discomfort and new liver test abnormalities following blind aspirations of her liver cysts. Tc-99m mebrofenin hepatobiliary imaging revealed a markedly enlarged liver with multiple photon deficient areas, focal retention of isotope in the left hepatic ductal system, no accumulation of radionuclide in cysts, and an unusual medial gallbladder position. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography confirmed all of these findings. Abdominal discomfort and liver biochemical abnormalities were attributed to cyst compression of nearby structures, including bile ducts. Hepatobiliary imaging is useful to exclude communication of bile ducts with hepatic cysts, to detect incidental abnormalities such as partial bile duct obstruction, and to distinguish the gallbladder from nearby hepatic cysts.

  2. Brain tissue- and region-specific abnormalities on volumetric MRI scans in 21 patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a heterogeneous human disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, and characterized by the primary findings of obesity, polydactyly, hypogonadism, and learning and behavioural problems. BBS mouse models have a neuroanatomical phenotype consisting of third and lateral ventriculomegaly, thinning of the cerebral cortex, and reduction in the size of the corpus striatum and hippocampus. These abnormalities raise the question of whether humans with BBS have a characteristic morphologic brain phenotype. Further, although behavioral, developmental, neurological and motor defects have been noted in patients with BBS, to date, there are limited reports of brain findings in BBS. The present study represents the largest systematic evaluation for the presence of structural brain malformations and/or progressive changes, which may contribute to these functional problems. Methods A case-control study of 21 patients, most aged 13-35 years, except for 2 patients aged 4 and 8 years, who were diagnosed with BBS by clinical criteria and genetic analysis of known BBS genes, and were evaluated by qualitative and volumetric brain MRI scans. Healthy controls were matched 3:1 by age, sex and race. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS language with SAS STAT procedures. Results All 21 patients with BBS were found to have statistically significant region- and tissue-specific patterns of brain abnormalities. There was 1) normal intracranial volume; 2) reduced white matter in all regions of the brain, but most in the occipital region; 3) preserved gray matter volume, with increased cerebral cortex volume in only the occipital lobe; 4) reduced gray matter in the subcortical regions of the brain, including the caudate, putamen and thalamus, but not in the cerebellum; and 5) increased cerebrospinal fluid volume. Conclusions There are distinct and characteristic abnormalities in tissue- and region- specific volumes of the brain in patients

  3. SCAN+

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Krebs, John Svoboda

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determine the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.

  4. SCAN+

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determinemore » the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.« less

  5. Congenital absence of the gallbladder: another cause of false-positive hepatobiliary image

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, C.Z.; Powers, T.A.; Sandler, M.P.; Partain, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Hepatobiliary imaging with the various technetium-labeled IDA compounds is more than 90% sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Causes of false-positive studies include chronic cholecystitis, cystic-duct obstruction by tumor, prolonged fasting, the nonfasting state, pancreatitis, alcoholism, parenteral hyperalimentation, and severe intercurrent illness. A case of congenital absence of the gallbladder is sumbitted as another cause of a false-positive scan.

  6. Hepatobiliary Tumors: Update on Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Kabbach, Ghassan; Assi, Hussein A; Bolotin, George; Schuster, Michael; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Tadros, Micheal

    2015-01-01

    Tumors of the liver and biliary tree, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, are the second leading cause of cancer related death worldwide and the sixth leading cause of cancer related death among men in developed countries. Recent developments in biomarkers and imaging modalities have enhanced early detection and accurate diagnosis of these highly fatal malignancies. These advances include serological testing, micro-ribonucleic acids, fluorescence in situ hybridization, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, and hepatobiliary-phase magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, there have been major developments in the surgical and nonsurgical management of these tumors, including expansion of the liver transplantation criteria, new locoregional treatments, and molecularly targeted therapies. In this article, we review various types of hepatobiliary tumors and discuss new developments in their diagnosis and management. PMID:26623263

  7. Abnormality in face scanning by children with autism spectrum disorder is limited to the eye region: evidence from multi-method analyses of eye tracking data.

    PubMed

    Yi, Li; Fan, Yuebo; Quinn, Paul C; Feng, Cong; Huang, Dan; Li, Jiao; Mao, Guoquan; Lee, Kang

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable controversy regarding whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children (TD) show different eye movement patterns when processing faces. We investigated ASD and age- and IQ-matched TD children's scanning of faces using a novel multi-method approach. We found that ASD children spent less time looking at the whole face generally. After controlling for this difference, ASD children's fixations of the other face parts, except for the eye region, and their scanning paths between face parts were comparable either to the age-matched or IQ-matched TD groups. In contrast, in the eye region, ASD children's scanning differed significantly from that of both TD groups: (a) ASD children fixated significantly less on the right eye (from the observer's view); (b) ASD children's fixations were more biased towards the left eye region; and (c) ASD children fixated below the left eye, whereas TD children fixated on the pupil region of the eye. Thus, ASD children do not have a general abnormality in face scanning. Rather, their abnormality is limited to the eye region, likely due to their strong tendency to avoid eye contact. PMID:23929830

  8. Hepatobiliary MRI: current concepts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Glockner, James F

    2007-04-01

    Evaluation of the liver and biliary system is a frequent indication for abdominal MRI. Hepatobiliary MRI comprises a set of noninvasive techniques that are usually very effective in answering most clinical questions. There are significant limitations, however, as well as considerable variation and disagreement regarding the optimal protocols for standard hepatic MRI and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP). This review discusses pulse sequences most often used in hepatic MRI and MRCP, examines a few sources of controversy in the current literature, and summarizes some recent and future developments in the field.

  9. Dissociation of reticuloendothelial cell and hepatocyte functions in alcoholic liver disease: a clinical study with a new Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary agent

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, B.K.; Weir, G.J. Jr.; Lieberman, L.M.

    1981-07-01

    Tc-99m-sulfur colloid scintigrams were abnormal in four patients with hepatic dysfunction due to chronic alcohol abuse. Minimal uptake of radiocolloid in the liver suggested local reticuloendothelial (RE) cell failure. Imaging with a new hepatobiliary agent, Tc-99m-PIPIDA, revealed rapid hepatic accumulation and excretion of radiotracer with adequate visualization of the organ. Scintigraphic findings in these patients indicated a dissociation of hepatocyte and RE cell functions. Demonstration of adequate hepatocyte function with severe RE failure in alcoholic liver disease using a Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary agent has not been previously reported.

  10. Histology Atlas of the Developing Mouse Hepatobiliary Hemolymphatic Vascular System with Emphasis on Embryonic Days 11.5-18.5 and Early Postnatal Development.

    PubMed

    Swartley, Olivia M; Foley, Julie F; Livingston, David P; Cullen, John M; Elmore, Susan A

    2016-07-01

    A critical event in embryo development is the proper formation of the vascular system, of which the hepatobiliary system plays a pivotal role. This has led researchers to use transgenic mice to identify the critical steps involved in developmental disorders associated with the hepatobiliary vascular system. Vascular development is dependent upon normal vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and the transformation of vessels into their adult counterparts. Any alteration in vascular development has the potential to cause deformities or embryonic death. Numerous publications describe specific stages of vascular development relating to various organs, but a single resource detailing the stage-by-stage development of the vasculature pertaining to the hepatobiliary system has not been available. This comprehensive histology atlas provides hematoxylin & eosin and immunohistochemical-stained sections of the developing mouse blood and lymphatic vasculature with emphasis on the hepatobiliary system between embryonic days (E) 11.5-18.5 and the early postnatal period. Additionally, this atlas includes a 3-dimensional video representation of the E18.5 mouse venous vasculature. One of the most noteworthy findings of this atlas is the identification of the portal sinus within the mouse, which has been erroneously misinterpreted as the ductus venosus in previous publications. Although the primary purpose of this atlas is to identify normal hepatobiliary vascular development, potential embryonic abnormalities are also described.

  11. [Endosonographic diagnostics of hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Starkov, Iu G; Solodinina, E N; Shishin, K V; Plotnikova, A S; Kobesova, T A; Dubova, E A

    2009-01-01

    Clinical use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) diagnostics of 550 patients with diseases of hepatobiliary and pancreas was analyzed. The procedure of the examination was thoroughly described. Ultrasound semiotics of the pancreas, papilla Vateri and bile ducts' lesions was defined. Accuracy of EUS in the diagnostics of solid pancreas tumors was 81,6%. Accuracy of the method in the diagnostics of the vessel invasion was 81,6%. EUS was considered to be leading in the diagnostics of papilla Vateri and duodenal tumors, its accuracy was up to 97,2%, which is much higher then other radiological and endoscopic methods. EUS was highly effective in diagnostics of choledocholithiasis and comprised 90,2%. The introduction of thin-needle biopsy, Doppler mapping and elastography in the EUS protocol permitted further increase of the accuracy and value of the method for the surgical practice.

  12. Minireview on laparoscopic hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tan-Tam, Clara; Chung, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    The first laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in the mid-1980s. Since then, laparoscopic surgery has continued to gain prominence in numerous fields, and has, in some fields, replaced open surgery as the preferred operative technique. The role of laparoscopy in staging cancer is controversial, with regards to gallbladder carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma, laparoscopy in conjunction with intraoperative ultrasound has prevented nontherapeutic operations, and facilitated therapeutic operations. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the preferred option in the management of gallbladder disease. Meta-analyses comparing laparoscopic to open distal pancreatectomy show that laparoscopic pancreatectomy is safe and efficacious in the management of benign and malignant disease, and have better patient outcomes. A pancreaticoduodenectomy is a more complex operation and the laparoscopic technique is not feasible for this operation at this time. Robotic assisted pancreaticoduodenectomy has been tried with limited success at this time, but with continuing advancement in this field, this operation would eventually be feasible. Liver resection remains to be the best management for hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and colorectal liver metastases. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have shown that laparoscopic liver resections result in patients with equal or less blood loss and shorter hospital stays, as compared to open surgery. With improving equipment and technique, and the incorporation of robotic surgery, minimally invasive liver resection operative times will improve and be more efficacious. With the incorporation of robotic surgery into hepatobiliary surgery, donor hepatectomies have also been completed with success. The management of benign and malignant disease with minimally invasive hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery is safe and efficacious. PMID:24634709

  13. Shared clonal cytogenetic abnormalities in aberrant mast cells and leukemic myeloid blasts detected by single nucleotide polymorphism microarray-based whole-genome scanning.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, John K; Shao, Lina; Bixby, Dale L; Ross, Charles W

    2016-04-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is characterized by a clonal proliferation of aberrant mast cells within extracutaneous sites. In a subset of SM cases, a second associated hematologic non-mast cell disease (AHNMD) is also present, usually of myeloid origin. Polymerase chain reaction and targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization studies have provided evidence that, in at least some cases, the aberrant mast cells are related clonally to the neoplastic cells of the AHNMD. In this work, a single nucleotide polymorphism microarray (SNP-A) was used to characterize the cytogenetics of the aberrant mast cells from a patient with acute myeloid leukemia and concomitant mast cell leukemia associated with a KIT D816A mutation. The results demonstrate the presence of shared cytogenetic abnormalities between the mast cells and myeloid blasts, as well as additional abnormalities within mast cells (copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity) not detectable by routine karyotypic analysis. To our knowledge, this work represents the first application of SNP-A whole-genome scanning to the detection of shared cytogenetic abnormalities between the two components of a case of SM-AHNMD. The findings provide additional evidence of a frequent clonal link between aberrant mast cells and cells of myeloid AHNMDs, and also highlight the importance of direct sequencing for identifying uncommon activating KIT mutations.

  14. Hepatobiliary kinetics after whole-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Durakovic, A.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study hepatobiliary kinetics after whole-body gamma irradiation. Two groups of nine male beagle dogs were irradiated with a single whole body dose of 4- and 8-Gy cobalt-60 photons. Each animal was injected with 2 mCi Tc-99m DISIDA and scintigraphic studies were obtained with a gamma camera with a parallel hole multipurpose collimator. The parameters studied included: peak activity of the liver and gall bladder and gall bladder and intestinal visualization from the time of Tc-99m DISIDA administration. Total and indirect bilirubin, LDH, SGOT, and SGPT determined as baseline studies before irradiation and at different time intervals after irradiation were not changed in irradiated animals. Whole body Co-60 irradiation with 4 and 8 Gy produced no significant changes in the Tc-99m DISIDA visualization of the gall bladder or in the peak activity in the gall bladder or the liver 1 and 7 days after irradiation. Intestinal visualization occurred significantly earlier in 8 Gy Co-60 irradiated animals on both day 1 and day 7 post irradiation, compared to baseline values where it was never observed before 195.0 minutes. Gall bladder emptying is significantly accelerated after 8 Gy but not after 4-Gy Co-60 gamma irradiation. These observations suggest that gamma irradiation stimulates gall bladder contractility without modifying intrahepatic biliary kinetics.

  15. Distant subcutaneous recurrence of a parathyroid carcinoma: abnormal uptakes in the (99m)Tc-sestamibi scan and (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Soo; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Lee, Soo Hyung; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, In Ju

    2014-05-01

    We report a rare case of distant subcutaneous parathyroid carcinoma recurrence. A 50-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of sustained hypercalcemia despite surgical removal of a parathyroid carcinoma. A focal uptake in the upper mediastinal area was detected in a (99m)Tc-sestamibi scan, and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging demonstrated a subcutaneous mass. She underwent tumor resection, and the pathological findings were consistent with a parathyroid carcinoma. The postoperative serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level remained within normal limits. However, a new palpable solitary mass was identified in the upper portion of the left breast 1 year postoperatively. Both a (99m)Tc-sestamibi scan and (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging revealed an abnormal lesion in the upper breast, and subsequent pathology reports confirmed parathyroid carcinoma metastasis. Serum PTH and calcium levels fell within normal ranges after tumor resection. Two subcutaneous recurrent lesions appeared likely due to tumor seeding during the previous endoscopic operation at a local hospital.

  16. THE METABOLOMIC WINDOW INTO HEPATOBILIARY DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Beyoğlu, Diren; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The emergent discipline of metabolomics has attracted considerable research effort in hepatology. Here we review the metabolomic data for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), hepatitis B and C, cholecystitis, cholestasis, liver transplantation and acute hepatotoxicity in animal models. A metabolomic window has permitted a view into the changing biochemistry occurring in the transitional phases between a healthy liver and hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma. Whether provoked by obesity and diabetes, alcohol use or oncogenic viruses, the liver develops a core metabolomic phenotype (CMP) that involves dysregulation of bile acid and phospholipid homeostasis. The CMP commences at the transition between the healthy liver (Phase 0) and NAFLD/NASH, ALD or viral hepatitis (Phase 1). This CMP is maintained in the presence or absence of cirrhosis (Phase 2) and whether or not either HCC or CCA (Phase 3) develop. Inflammatory signalling in the liver triggers the appearance of the CMP. Many other metabolomic markers distinguish between Phases 0, 1, 2 and 3. A metabolic remodelling in HCC has been described but metabolomic data from all four Phases demonstrate that the Warburg shift from mitochondrial respiration to cytosolic glycolysis foreshadows HCC and may occur as early as Phase 1. The metabolic remodelling also involves an upregulation of fatty acid β-oxidation, also beginning in Phase 1. The storage of triglycerides in fatty liver provides high energy-yielding substrates for Phases 2 and 3 of liver pathology. The metabolomic window into hepatobiliary disease sheds new light on the systems pathology of the liver. PMID:23714158

  17. [Hepatobiliary diseases in Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Kruis, W

    1987-02-01

    Hepatobiliary diseases are certainly not very frequent extraintestinal complications of chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases, however, they are an important prognostic factor. 2% of patients with ulcerative colitis develop liver cirrhosis but 10% of those die as a direct result of liver failure. Other associated severe hepatobiliary diseases include primary sclerosing cholangitis, carcinoma of the bile duct and amyloidosis. The present review attempts to divide the associated hepatobiliary diseases into three groups. 1. those that are the result of therapy. 2. those that are the result of the pathophysiological mechanisms of the underlying disease and 3. those of unknown etiological origin. This division might serve not only for a better understanding of the various mechanisms but should have some impact on therapeutic regimens.

  18. The enteric microbiome in hepatobiliary health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Tabibian, James H.; Varghese, Cyril; LaRusso, Nicholas F.; O'Hara, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence points to the contribution of the intestinal microbiome as a potentially key determinant in the initiation and/or progression of hepatobiliary disease. While current understanding of this dynamic is incomplete, exciting insights are continually being made and more are expected given the developments in molecular and high-throughput omics techniques. In this brief review, we provide a practical and updated synopsis of the interaction of the intestinal microbiome with the liver and its downstream impact on the initiation, progression and complications of hepatobiliary disease. PMID:26561779

  19. Gastrointestinal, Pancreatic, and Hepatobiliary Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Meghana Nitin; Freeman, Alvin Jay

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary disease is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in people with cystic fibrosis (CF), but significant involvement within gastrointestinal, pancreatic, and hepatobiliary systems occurs as well. As in the airways, defects in CFTR alter epithelial surface fluid, mucus viscosity, and pH, increasing risk of stasis through the various hollow epithelial-lined structures of the gastrointestinal tract. This exerts secondary influences that are responsible for most gastrointestinal, pancreatic, and hepatobiliary manifestations of CF. Understanding these gastrointestinal morbidities of CF is essential in understanding and treating CF as a multisystem disease process and improving overall patient care. PMID:27469182

  20. PIPIDA excretory scintigraphy in the diagnosis of hepatobiliary disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Pelot, D.; Berk, J.E.; Wistow, B.W.; Morton, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of hepatobiliary radionuclide imaging using /sup 99/mTC-labeled para-isopropyl acetanilido-iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99/mTc-PIPIDA) in patients with hepatobiliary disorders was assessed in 50 patients. Thirty of the study group were jaundiced; the remaining 20 had other clinical features suggestive of some hepatobiliary disorder. The findings using PIPIDA proved to be correct in 22 (73%) of the 30 jaundiced patients and in 18 (90%) of 20 patients without jaundice. There appears to be a close relationship between the diagnostic accuracy of the test and the level of serum bilirubin. Thus, the diagnosis indicated by the PIPIDA test was correct in 30 (88%) of 34 patients in whom the serum bilirubin was less than 5 mg./dl. but only in 10 (62%) of 16 patients whose serum bilirubin exceeded 5 mg./dl. It is concluded from these observations that: 1. PIPIDA is diagnostically useful in the evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders, especially when the serum bilirubin is less than 5 mg./dl. and 2. the accuracy of this test is not absolute and the findings are not always definitive.

  1. Ultrasound Imaging of the Hepatobiliary System and Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Larson, Martha Moon

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasound is an extremely valuable diagnostic modality for the diagnosis of hepatobiliary and pancreatic disease. Normal appearance and normal variations are important to understand to avoid misinterpretation. Although ultrasound can identify a lesion, cytology and histopathology are usually needed for a final diagnosis.

  2. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Housholder, D.F.; Hynes, H.E.; Dakhil, S.R.; Marymont, J.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Two patients receiving hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) required cholecystectomy for both acute and chronic cholecystitis with cholelithiasis suggesting chemical cholecystitis. To evaluate the incidence of gall bladder dysfunction in patients receiving HAIC, the authors performed hepatobiliary scintigraphy using Tc-99m DISIDA or PIPIDA on eight patients receiving HAIC through an indwelling hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid (trademark) pump. In 7 of 8 patients, there was non-visualization of the gall bladder throughout the hepatobiliary study. In the eighth patient, the gall bladder visualized at 2 hr. One patient with non-visualization of the gall bladder at 4 hr developed acute symptoms requiring cholecystectomy which showed acute and chronic cholecystitis with cholethiasis. There was prominent sclerosis which was thought to be due to chemical cholecystitis as well as cholelithiasis. In all 10 patients, no evidence of cholecystitis had been observed during the surgical placement of the hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid pump. The hepatobiliary scintigraphic finding of gall bladder dysfunction in all eight patients studied is most likely due to chemical cholecystitis from HAIC. This series suggests that chemical cholecystitis is common during HAIC and can be identified by hepatobiliary scintigraphy. The authors consider elective cholecystectomy during the operative placement of the hepatic artery catheter and Infusaid pump.

  3. An underlying role for hepatobiliary dysfunction in cyclosporine A nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Aleo, Michael D.

    2008-07-01

    Renal-derived cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLT), such as leukotrienes C{sub 4} (LTC{sub 4}) and D{sub 4} (LTD{sub 4}) are thought to mediate acute and chronic cyclosporine A (CSA) nephrotoxicity. However, whole-body cysLT elimination is regulated primarily by hepatobiliary excretion. Since CSA is known to alter hepatobiliary function, the effects of CSA on whole-body cysLT elimination were investigated in vivo, with respect to hepatobiliary and renal function. Male rats were anesthetized and cannulated (jugular vein, bile duct, and urinary bladder). A tracer dose of tritiated LTC{sub 4} ({sup 3}H-LTC{sub 4}) was administered systemically (i.v.) immediately following vehicle and then 90 min later after vehicle or CSA. In vehicle/vehicle controls, hepatobiliary {sup 3}H-cysLT elimination predominated over renal elimination without altering glomerular filtration rate (GFR), bile flow, and urine production. {sup 3}H-cysLT elimination kinetics were comparable between each 90 min collection period. In vehicle/CSA-treated rats, an acutely nephrotoxic dose of CSA (20 mg/kg, i.v.) reduced urine flow 74 {+-} 9% and caused a transient reduction in GFR, while total bile flow decreased 40 {+-} 13%. Hepatobiliary and renal {sup 3}H-cysLT elimination was also impaired 59 {+-} 5 and 61 {+-} 18%, respectively. In contrast, a non-nephrotoxic dose (2 mg/kg i.v.) increased renal {sup 3}H-cysLT elimination due to impaired hepatobiliary elimination without affecting GFR, bile flow or urine production. Both doses caused {sup 3}H-cysLT retention in hepatic and renal tissue. These findings demonstrate that CSA alters whole-body handling of cysLT by disrupting hepatobiliary cysLT elimination. This disruption leads to increased renal exposure to systemically derived cysLT and renal cysLT tissue retention. Renal exposure to and accumulation of systemically derived cysLT products may be underlying factors in CSA nephrotoxicity.

  4. Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activities in rheumatoid arthritis: hepatobiliary enzyme dissociation and relation to disease activity.

    PubMed Central

    Aida, S

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Hyperphosphatasaemia has been observed occasionally in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and it has been suggested that the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level is related to the activity of the disease. Therefore, the relationship between serum ALP and RA was studied. METHODS--The serum activities of hepatobiliary enzymes (ALP isoenzymes, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GTP), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)), immunoglobulins, RA haemagglutinin test (RAHA), C reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were observed in 288 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. RESULTS--Serum biliary ALP (ALP1) activity was detected in 31.6% of the patients. In patients positive for ALP1 the respective values of total ALP (ALPt) (p < 0.001), liver ALP (ALP2) (p < 0.001), bone ALP (ALP3) (p < 0.05), gamma-GTP (p < 0.001), LAP (p < 0.001), immunoglobulins IgG (p < 0.01), IgA (p < 0.01), and IgM (p < 0.01), RAHA (p < 0.001), CRP (p < 0.001), ESR (p < 0.001), and articular index (p < 0.001) were significantly higher than in patients who did not have ALP1. Significant Spearman's rank correlations (rs) were demonstrated between serum ALP2 level and the respective values of ALPt (rs = 0.9128, p < 0.001), ALP1 (rs = 0.4443, p < 0.001), ALP3 (rs = 0.5898, p < 0.001), gamma-GTP (rs = 0.2903, p < 0.001), LAP (rs = 0.3093, p < 0.001), IgA (rs = 0.2299, p < 0.01), IgM (rs = 0.1773, p < 0.05), RAHA (rs = 0.2420, p < 0.01), CRP (rs = 0.3532, p < 0.001), ESR (rs = 0.4006, p < 0.001). the articular index (rs = 0.4006, p < 0.001). However, no significant difference or correlation was noted for either AST or ALT. In many patients who showed abnormal hyperphosphatasaemia, hepatobiliary enzyme dissociation was observed: levels of ALPt (in 12.8%), ALP1 (in 31.6%), ALP2 (18.8%), gamma-GTP (in 4.3%), and LAP (in 19.3%) were abnormally high, but both AST and ALT were within normal limits. CONCLUSION

  5. A Study on Spectrum of Hepatobiliary Dysfunctions and Pattern of Liver Involvement in Dengue Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chattaraj, Sayan; Hajra, Adrija; Mukhopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Ganesan, Vijayan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The most common arthropod-borne viral (arboviral) disease in humans is dengue. It is transmitted by female Aedes mosquitoes. These mosquitoes are widely distributed in subtropical and tropical areas of the world. Study of dengue infection and its complications are rare from countries like India. Aim In this prospective observational cross-sectional study, we intended to assess the frequency and degree of hepatobiliary dysfunction in adult patients with dengue infection presenting to a tertiary-care medical facility. Materials and Methods The details of all patients with serologically proved dengue fever admitted to a tertiary care hospital in eastern India from July 2014 to June 2015 were prospectively reviewed. We collected data including routine blood count, Liver Function Test (LFT), Prothrombin Time (PT), Activated Partial Prothrombin Time (APTT), abdominal ultrasonography from 110 patients. Results The maximum number of cases were seen in the age group between 46 years and 61 years and of all cases 55.5% were male and 44.5% were female. Pain abdomen and vomiting were the commonest presenting complaints next to fever which was present in all the cases. Elevated liver enzymes, abnormal values of PT and APTT, thrombocytopenia were observed more commonly in Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS). Gall bladder wall thickening, thrombocytopenia were seen more commonly in both DSS and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF). Plasma leakage such as ascites and pleural effusion on USG were seen more frequently in patients with DHF (76.9% and 73.1%) followed by DSS (72% and 68%) and DF (33.9% and 32.2%). Conclusion Hepatobiliary derangement is seen more commonly in severe case of dengue infection. Early recognition of these parameters can also be used as a predictor for assessing the disease severity. PMID:27437266

  6. Phrygian cap simulating mass lesion in hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Smergel, E.M.; Maurer, A.H.

    1984-03-01

    Hepatobiliary imaging has been used to demonstrate that defects in the region of the gallbladder fossa in sulfur colloid studies correspond to normal gallbladder and not tumor. We report a case of delayed filling of a portion of the gallbladder due to a Phrygian cap anomaly. The case demonstrates that without delayed images incomplete filling of the gallbladder can be confused with a mass lesion in the liver.

  7. Results of hepatobiliary imaging using Tc-99m EHIDA

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, S.M.; Ahmed, R.; Rok

    1989-05-01

    Tc-99m labelled 2,6-diethylphenylcarbamoylmethyliminodiacetic acid (EHIDA) is a non-toxic radiopharmaceutical that was found to undergo rapid biliary excretion in a normal human, with accumulation of radioactivity in the gall bladder and intestine. Images in normal subjects and nonjaundiced patients showed rapid concentration of tracer by the liver and the passage of the same into the intestine within 15 to 40 minutes, with or without visualization of the gall bladder. In the jaundiced patient, the tracer blood clearance was delayed and urinary excretion was increased. Tc-99m EHIDA has been extensively investigated in 1634 patients to evaluate its performance in the diagnosis of hepatobiliary disorders.

  8. Classification Accuracy of Serum Apo A-I and S100B for the Diagnosis of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Prediction of Abnormal Initial Head Computed Tomography Scan

    PubMed Central

    Blyth, Brian J.; He, Hua; Mookerjee, Sohug; Jones, Courtney; Kiechle, Karin; Moynihan, Ryan; Wojcik, Susan M.; Grant, William D.; Secreti, LaLainia M.; Triner, Wayne; Moscati, Ronald; Leinhart, August; Ellis, George L.; Khan, Jawwad

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the current study was to determine the classification accuracy of serum S100B and apolipoprotein (apoA-I) for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and abnormal initial head computed tomography (CT) scan, and to identify ethnic, racial, age, and sex variation in classification accuracy. We performed a prospective, multi-centered study of 787 patients with mTBI who presented to the emergency department within 6 h of injury and 467 controls who presented to the outpatient laboratory for routine blood work. Serum was analyzed for S100B and apoA-I. The outcomes were disease status (mTBI or control) and initial head CT scan. At cutoff values defined by 90% of controls, the specificity for mTBI using S100B (0.899 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78–0.92]) was similar to that using apoA-I (0.902 [0.87–0.93]), and the sensitivity using S100B (0.252 [0.22–0.28]) was similar to that using apoA-I (0.249 [0.22–0.28]). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the combination of S100B and apoA-I (0.738, 95% CI: 0.71, 0.77), however, was significantly higher than the AUC for S100B alone (0.709, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.74, p=0.001) and higher than the AUC for apoA-I alone (0.645, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.68, p<0.0001). The AUC for prediction of abnormal initial head CT scan using S100B was 0.694 (95%CI: 0.62, 0.77) and not significant for apoA-I. At a S100B cutoff of <0.060 μg/L, the sensitivity for abnormal head CT was 98%, and 22.9% of CT scans could have been avoided. There was significant age and race-related variation in the accuracy of S100B for the diagnosis of mTBI. The combined use of serum S100B and apoA-I maximizes classification accuracy for mTBI, but only S100B is needed to classify abnormal head CT scan. Because of significant subgroup variation in classification accuracy, age and race need to be considered when using S100B to classify subjects for mTBI. PMID:23758329

  9. Enhancements in hepatobiliary imaging: the spectrum of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid usages in hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Channual, Stephanie; Pahwa, Anokh; Lu, David S; Raman, Steven S

    2016-09-01

    Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a unique hepatocyte-specific contrast agent approved for clinical use in the United States in 2008. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR has shown to improve detection and characterization of hepatic lesions. Gd-EOB-DTPA is now being routinely used in daily clinical practice worldwide. Therefore, it is important for radiologists to be familiar with the potential uses and pitfalls of Gd-EOB-DTPA, which extends beyond the assessment of focal hepatic lesions. The purpose of this article is to review the various usages of Gd-EOB-DTPA in hepatobiliary MR imaging. PMID:27225503

  10. IgG4-related hepatobiliary disease: an overview.

    PubMed

    Culver, Emma L; Chapman, Roger W

    2016-10-01

    IgG4-related hepatobiliary diseases are part of a multiorgan fibroinflammatory condition termed IgG4-related disease, and include IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) and IgG4-related hepatopathy. These diseases can present with biliary strictures and/or mass lesions, making them difficult to differentiate from primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) or other hepatobiliary malignancies. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical, biochemical, radiological and histological findings. However, a gold standard diagnostic test is lacking, warranting the identification of more specific disease markers. Novel assays - such as the serum IgG4:IgG1 ratio and IgG4:IgG RNA ratio (which distinguish IgG4-SC from PSC with high serum IgG4 levels), and plasmablast expansion to recognize IgG4-SC with normal serum IgG4 levels - require further validation. Steroids and other immunosuppressive therapies can lead to clinical and radiological improvement when given in the inflammatory phase of the disease, but evidence for the efficacy of treatment regimens is limited. Progressive fibrosclerotic disease, liver cirrhosis and an increased risk of malignancy are now recognized outcomes. Insights into the genetic and immunological features of the disease have increased over the past decade, with an emphasis on HLAs, T cells, circulating memory B cells and plasmablasts, chemokine-mediated trafficking, as well as the role of the innate immune system.

  11. Association between Helicobacter spp. infections and hepatobiliary malignancies: A review

    PubMed Central

    Segura-López, Fany Karina; Güitrón-Cantú, Alfredo; Torres, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hepatobiliary cancers are highly lethal cancers that comprise a spectrum of invasive carcinomas originating in the liver hepatocellular carcinoma, the bile ducts intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, the gallbladder and the ampulla of Vater (collectively known as biliary tract cancers). These tumors account for approximately 13% of all annual cancer-related deaths worldwide and for 10%-20% of deaths from hepatobiliary malignancies. Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating disease that displays a poor survival rate for which few therapeutic options are available. Population genetics, geographical and environmental factors, cholelithiasis, obesity, parity, and endemic infection with liver flukes have been identified as risk factors that influence the development of biliary tract tumors. Other important factors affecting the carcinogenesis of these tumors include chronic inflammation, obstruction of the bile ducts, and impaired bile flow. It has been suggested that CCA is caused by infection with Helicobacter species, such as Helicobacter bilis and Helicobacter hepaticus, in a manner that is similar to the reported role of Helicobacter pylori in distal gastric cancer. Due to the difficulty in culturing these Helicobacter species, molecular methods, such as polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, or immunologic assays have become the methods of choice for diagnosis. However, clinical studies of benign or malignant biliary tract diseases revealed remarkable variability in the methods and the findings, and the use of uniform and validated techniques is needed. PMID:25663761

  12. Current and future applications of in vitro magnetic resonance spectroscopy in hepatobiliary disease

    PubMed Central

    Cox, I Jane; Sharif, Amar; Cobbold, Jeremy FL; Thomas, Howard C; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows the study of cellular biochemistry and metabolism, both in the whole body in vivo and at higher magnetic field strengths in vitro. Since the technique is non-invasive and non-selective, magnetic resonance spectroscopy methodologies have been widely applied in biochemistry and medicine. In vitro magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of cells, body fluids and tissues have been used in medical biochemistry to investigate pathophysiological processes and more recently, the technique has been used by physicians to determine disease abnormalities in vivo. This highlighted topic illustrates the potential of in vitro magnetic resonance spectroscopy in studying the hepatobiliary system. The role of in vitro proton and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the study of malignant and non-malignant liver disease and bile composition studies are discussed, particularly with reference to correlative in vivo whole-body magnetic resonance spectroscopy applications. In summary, magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques can provide non-invasive biochemical information on disease severity and pointers to underlying pathophysiological processes. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy holds potential promise as a screening tool for disease biomarkers, as well as assessing therapeutic response. PMID:16937457

  13. Epigenetic mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hepatobiliary malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, James P

    2010-01-01

    Primary tumors of the liver and biliary tree are increasing in frequency and portend a miserable prognosis. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression has emerged as a fundamental aspect of cancer development and progression. The molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma involve a complex interplay of both genetic and epigenetic factors. Recent studies investigating the possible epigenetic mechanisms induced in the disease have shed new light on the molecular underpinnings of hepatobiliary cancers. In addition, epigenetic modifications of DNA in cancer and precancerous lesions offer hope and the promise of novel biomarkers for early cancer detection, prediction, prognosis and response to treatment. Furthermore, the reversal of epigenetic changes represents a potential target for novel therapeutic strategies and medication design. PMID:20556199

  14. Specific diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma by delayed hepatobiliary imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Y.; Nakano, S.; Ibuka, K.; Hashizume, T.; Noguchi, A.; Sasaki, Y.; Imaoka, S.; Fujita, M.; Kawamoto, S.; Kasugai, H.

    1986-01-15

    For assessment of the value of delayed hepatobiliary imaging with technetium 99m (/sup 99m/Tc)-(Sn)-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (/sup 99m/Tc-PMT) for specific diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, 88 patients with various malignant and benign liver diseases (49 with hepatocellular carcinoma, 4 with cholangiocellular carcinoma, 10 with metastatic liver carcinoma, 2 with liver cysts, 2 with liver hemangioma, 1 with liver abscess, 2 with intrahepatic lithiasis, 12 with liver cirrhosis, and 6 with chronic hepatitis) were studied. In 20 (41%) of the 49 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, greater uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-PMT by the tumor than by the surrounding liver tissue was seen in delayed hepatobiliary images, whereas in eight patients (16%), equilibrated uptake was seen. No increased uptake of the radioisotope by hepatic lesions was seen in 21 patients with localized liver diseases other than hepatoma. Moreover, in 18 patients with diffuse liver diseases, no focal accumulation of the radioisotope was seen in delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images. In addition, of 28 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in whom the serum alpha-fetoprotein level showed little or no increase, 12 showed increased uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-PMT by the tumor. In assessing delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images, however, it was necessary to consider following complications: accumulation of tracer in obstructed and dilated biliary trees; retention of radioactivity in nonneoplastic liver tissues; difficulties in evaluating /sup 99m/Tc-PMT uptake by small hepatic tumors; overlapping of radioactivity in the gut and gallbladder in delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images of tumors. This study indicates that delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images can be useful in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  15. [CHANGES OF CAROTID AND VERTEBRAL ARTERIES IN PATENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND HEPATOBILIARY PATHOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Polyakov, V Ya; Nikolaev, Yu A; Pegova, S V; Matsievskaya, T R; Obukhov, I V

    2016-01-01

    The study included 1172 patients (410 men and 762 women) at the mean age of 60.3 ± 10.4 years with grade I-II (stage I-II) arterial hypertension (AH) admitted to the clinic of Institute of Experimental Medicine. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the results of clinical and laboratory diagnostics. Group 1 (n = 525) included patients with AH and hepatobiliary system (HBS) diseases, group 2 (n = 647) patients with AH without HBS diseases. The patients group 1 had a thicker intima-media complex of carotid arteries, higher peak systolic bloodflow rate in the internal and vertebral carotid arteries, more pronounced coiling of internal carotid arteries than patients of group 2. Patients with AH and HBS diseases exhibited correlation between bloodflow rate in external carotid arteries and atherogenicity coefficient. Duplex scanning of neck vessels of in patients with AH without HBS diseases revealed peculiar changes of the intima-media thickness and hemodynamically significant changes of the blood flow in the internal carotid arteries that may be of prognostic value in this nosological syntropy and require the personified approach to diagnostics, treatment, and prevention of these conditions.

  16. Auxiliary liver transplantation in patients with fulminant hepatic failure: hepatobiliary scintigraphic follow-up.

    PubMed

    Buyck, D; Bonnin, F; Bernuau, J; Belghiti, J; Bok, B

    1997-02-01

    Auxiliary liver transplantation (ALT), retaining in place the liver of the recipient, has been proposed as an alternative to liver replacement in patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). Hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HS) has proved a unique tool for the separate assessment of graft and native liver function. Forty-eight HS scans were performed, following the injection of technetium-99m trimethyl-bromo-imino-diacetic acid, in six patients who underwent ALT for FHF. Quantitative parameters were derived from the time-activity curves of both the graft and the native liver. The function of the graft remained normal as long as the patients remained under immunosuppressive therapy (IST). The function of the native liver was almost completely absent in the 1st month in five patients, but it improved gradually in four of them. IST was then decreased in four patients and finally withdrawn in three. Spontaneous graft atrophy occurred in two patients and the graft was removed in two. All of the patients in whom IST was reduced had a normal global hepatic function and selective uptake (RU) >30% at that time. In ALT patients with FHF, HS can distinguish non-invasively the functional performance of both the donor and the recipient liver and its evolution with time.

  17. [CHANGES OF CAROTID AND VERTEBRAL ARTERIES IN PATENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND HEPATOBILIARY PATHOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Polyakov, V Ya; Nikolaev, Yu A; Pegova, S V; Matsievskaya, T R; Obukhov, I V

    2016-01-01

    The study included 1172 patients (410 men and 762 women) at the mean age of 60.3 ± 10.4 years with grade I-II (stage I-II) arterial hypertension (AH) admitted to the clinic of Institute of Experimental Medicine. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the results of clinical and laboratory diagnostics. Group 1 (n = 525) included patients with AH and hepatobiliary system (HBS) diseases, group 2 (n = 647) patients with AH without HBS diseases. The patients group 1 had a thicker intima-media complex of carotid arteries, higher peak systolic bloodflow rate in the internal and vertebral carotid arteries, more pronounced coiling of internal carotid arteries than patients of group 2. Patients with AH and HBS diseases exhibited correlation between bloodflow rate in external carotid arteries and atherogenicity coefficient. Duplex scanning of neck vessels of in patients with AH without HBS diseases revealed peculiar changes of the intima-media thickness and hemodynamically significant changes of the blood flow in the internal carotid arteries that may be of prognostic value in this nosological syntropy and require the personified approach to diagnostics, treatment, and prevention of these conditions. PMID:27172721

  18. Rapid Hepatobiliary Excretion of Micelle-Encapsulated/Radiolabeled Upconverting Nanoparticles as an Integrated Form

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyo Jung; Nam, Sang Hwan; Im, Hyung-Jun; Park, Ji-yong; Lee, Ji Youn; Yoo, Byeongjun; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Who Kim, Ji; Lee, Jae Sung; Jang, In-Jin; Cho, Joo-Youn; Hwang, Do Won; Suh, Yung Doug; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    In the field of nanomedicine, long term accumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) in the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) such as liver is the major hurdle in clinical translation. On the other hand, NPs could be excreted via hepatobiliary excretion pathway without overt tissue toxicity. Therefore, it is critical to develop NPs that show favorable excretion property. Herein, we demonstrated that micelle encapsulated 64Cu-labeled upconverting nanoparticles (micelle encapsulated 64Cu-NOTA-UCNPs) showed substantial hepatobiliary excretion by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) and also upconversion luminescence imaging (ULI). Ex vivo biodistribution study reinforced the imaging results by showing clearance of 84% of initial hepatic uptake in 72 hours. Hepatobiliary excretion of the UCNPs was also verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination. Micelle encapsulated 64Cu-NOTA-UCNPs could be an optimal bimodal imaging agent owing to quantifiability of 64Cu, ability of in vivo/ex vivo ULI and good hepatobiliary excretion property. PMID:26494465

  19. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis-sonographic pictorial essay on four pediatric cases with acute biliary colic.

    PubMed

    Lynser, Donboklang; Marbaniang, Evarisalin

    2016-04-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis occur due to migration of the round worm ascaris lumbricoides through the bile duct orifice finally reaching the common bile duct, main pancreatic duct, intrahepatic ducts or gallbladder. These resulted in acute epigastric and right hypochondriac region colicky pain. Ultrasound is the investigation of choice in hepatobiliary ascariasis. We present here sonographic images on four pediatric patients with acute biliary colic. PMID:26690772

  20. False-positive radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging following cystic duct stone removal

    SciTech Connect

    Zagoria, R.J.; Cowan, R.J.; Dyer, R.B.; Herrera, M.

    1989-03-01

    The authors report a case in which a radionuclide hepatobiliary image was falsely indicative of cystic duct obstruction in a patient with an indwelling cholecystostomy tube and an externalized gallbladder-duodenal stent. Cystic duct patency was demonstrated radiographically shortly before and after the radionuclide study. The authors recommend that cystic duct obstruction indicated by a radionuclide hepatobiliary image be confirmed by another means if a cholecystostomy tube is present, or if the patient recently has undergone percutaneous gallbladder or cystic duct manipulations.

  1. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Chronic Opisthorchis viverrini Infection and Associated Hepatobiliary Disease Is Associated with Iron Loaded M2-like Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sripa, Banchob

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Opisthorchis viverrini-induced hepatobiliary disease is associated with significant leukocyte infiltration, including activated macrophages; however, the polarization of infiltrating macrophages remains to be fully characterized. In this study, we characterized macrophage polarization and phenotype in chronic O. viverrini-induced hepatobiliary disease in humans and hamsters using gene expression and histochemical analysis. Chronic O. viverrini infection and associated hepatobiliary diseases were associated with iron loaded M2-like macrophages in both humans and hamsters. This study provides suggestive evidence that iron loaded M2-like macrophages promote hepatobiliary disease in chronic O. viverrini infection. PMID:25548425

  3. Hepatobiliary MR Imaging with Gadolinium Based Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Frydrychowicz, Alex; Lubner, Meghan G.; Brown, Jeffrey J.; Merkle, Elmar M.; Nagle, Scott K.; Rofsky, Neil M.; Reeder, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of gadolinium-based “hepatobiliary” contrast agents offers new opportunities for diagnostic MRI and has triggered a great interest for innovative imaging approaches to the liver and bile ducts. In this review article we will discuss the imaging properties of the two gadolinium-based hepatobiliary contrast agents currently available in the USA, gadobenate dimeglumine and gadoxetic acid, as well as important pharmacokinetic differences that affect their diagnostic performance. We will review potential applications, protocol optimization strategies, as well as diagnostic pitfalls. A variety of illustrative case examples will be used to demonstrate the role of these agents in detection and characterization of liver lesions as well as for imaging the biliary system. Changes in MR protocols geared towards optimizing workflow and imaging quality will also be discussed. It is our aim that the information provided in this article will facilitate the optimal utilization of these agents, and will stimulate the reader‘s pursuit of new applications for future benefit. PMID:22334493

  4. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  5. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  6. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  7. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  8. Cholecystokinin enhanced hepatobiliary scanning with ejection fraction calculation as an indicator of disease of the gallbladder

    SciTech Connect

    Zech, E.R.; Simmons, L.B.; Kendrick, R.R.; Soballe, P.W.; Olcese, J.A.; Goff, W.B. II; Lawrence, D.P.; DeWeese, R.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Chronic acalculous cholecystitis represents 5 to 20 per cent of electively treated diseases of the gallbladder. A 70 per cent success rate in relieving these patients of chronic pain was reported when surgical treatment was recommended based on symptoms alone. The cholecystokinin ejection fraction, which is a quantitative measure of emptying of the gallbladder, was 95 per cent accurate in predicting which patients would be relieved of symptoms by surgical treatment. In this study, we report our consecutive experience during a 20 month period with 83 patients.

  9. Early Experience with a Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Quality Improvement Program.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Derek; Edmiston, Rachel; Bijoor, Pooja; Deshpande, Rahul; de'Liguori Carino, Nicola; Ammori, Basil; Sherlock, David J

    2014-01-01

    This project aims to assess the impact of the introduction of a hepatobiliary and pancreatic (HPB) Quality Improvement Program (QIP) on postoperative complications following liver, biliary and pancreatic surgery. A prospective analysis of postoperative complications over a six month period was performed. Complications were analysed and graded according to internationally agreed definitions. Justification was sought and errors identified. Weekly meetings were performed to review each complication enabling an action plan to be created to prevent future recurrence. Rates were compared with previously audited and published results, using the chi-square test. A total of 326 procedures were performed over the six months including 30 pancreatectomies, 45 liver resections and 251 other procedures. 37 patients developed complications (11.3%) with 47 complications in total including two deaths. Using the ISGPS grading, eight complications were identified; two grade A, four grade B and two grade C. There were three grade A ISGLS complications and one grade B. 30 complications were justified as unavoidable, 16 as avoidable and one as indeterminate. Action plans included continued monitoring (n=41), formulation of new policy (n=3), individual counselling (n=4), educational offering (n=4). When compared with 2010 complication rates, 114 complications occurred in 233 liver operations during the baseline period, compared with 17 complications in 45 liver operations during the QIP period, OR=0.63 (95% CI: 0.33 to 1.22), p=0.17 and 86 complications occurred in 99 pancreatic resections during the baseline period, compared with 20 complications in 30 pancreatic resections during the QIP period OR=0.30 (95% CI: 0.12 to 0.79), p=0.01 The HPB QIP is a rigorous approach to grade every complication and death. A statistically significant reduction in pancreas related complications has already been obtained. Further work is required to determine the persistence and magnitude of this quality

  10. Systematic review of peri-operative nutritional support for patients undergoing hepatobiliary surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yin

    2015-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is prevalent among peri-operative patients undergoing hepatobiliary surgery and is an important prognostic factor. Both hepatobiliary disease and surgical trauma significantly affects body’s metabolism and environment. Therefore, it is very important for patients with liver diseases undergoing hepatobiliary surgery to receive essential nutritional support during peri-operative period. Methods We summarized our clinical experience and reviewed of related literature to find the way for implementing the appropriate nutritional strategy. Results We found after comprehensively evaluating nutrition status, function of liver and gastrointestinal tract, nutritional strategy would be selected correctly. In severe malnutrition, initiation of enteral nutrition (EN) and/or parenteral nutrition (PN) with essential or special formulae is often recommended. Especially nasojejunal feeding is indicated that early application can improve nutritional status and liver function, reduce complications and prolong survival. Conclusions The reasonable peri-operative nutritional support therapy can improve the effect of surgical treatment and promote the patients’ recovery. PMID:26605277

  11. Need for routine delayed radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging in patients with intercurrent disease

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Nelp, W.B.; Rudd, T.G.

    1984-06-01

    A retrospective review was made of all radionuclide hepatobiliary studies performed in a major trauma center over a 27-month period and correlated with the patients' clinical course. In a population of 42 patients (27 of whom were on total parenteral nutrition (TPN)) who had severe intercurrent illness (primarily trauma), and an additional 18 patients who had hepatocellular dysfunction, hepatobiliary imaging confirmed a patent cystic duct in 43 of 60 patients (72%). Of 17 patients who had nonvisualization of the gallbladder, four had surgically proved acute cholecystitis. The presence of gallstones, wall thickening, or sludge on sonograms did not correlate with cystic duct patency, and was not specific for acute cholecystitis. Though gallbladder function is compromised in the population with severe intercurrent disease, radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging is still valuable; it can confirm a patent systic duct in at least 72% of patients if routine imaging is continued for up to 24 hours.

  12. Multimodality imaging of hepato-biliary disorders in pregnancy: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Ong, Eugene M W; Drukteinis, Jennifer S; Peters, Hope E; Mortelé, Koenraad J

    2009-09-01

    Hepato-biliary disorders are rare complications of pregnancy, but they may be severe, with high fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Imaging is, therefore, essential in the rapid diagnosis of some of these conditions so that appropriate, life-saving treatment can be administered. This pictorial essay illustrates the multimodality imaging features of pregnancy-induced hepato-biliary disorders, such as acute fatty liver of pregnancy, preeclamsia and eclampsia, and HELLP syndrome, as well as those conditions which occur in pregnancy but are not unique to it, such as viral hepatitis, Budd-Chiari syndrome, focal hepatic lesions, biliary sludge, cholecystolithiasis, and choledocholithiasis. PMID:19225816

  13. Abnormal radioiodine uptake on post-therapy whole body scan and sodium/iodine symporter expression in a dermoid cyst of the ovary: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Campennì, Alfredo; Giovinazzo, Salvatore; Tuccari, Giovanni; Fogliani, Simone; Ruggeri, Rosaria M; Baldari, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    In patients affected by differentiated thyroid cancer, the whole-body scan (WBS) with 131-radioiodine, especially when performed after a therapeutic activity of 131I, represents a sensitive procedure for detecting thyroid remnant and/or metastatic disease. Nevertheless, a wide spectrum of potentially pitfalls has been reported. Herein we describe a 63-year-old woman affected by follicular thyroid cancer, who was accidentally found to have an abdominal mass at post-dose WBS (pWBS). pWBS showed abnormal radioiodine uptake in the upper mediastinum, consistent with lymph-node metastases, and a slight radioiodine uptake in an abdominal focal area. Computed tomography revealed an inhomogeneous mass in the pelvis, previously unrecognized. The lesion, surgically removed, was found to be a typical dermoid cyst of the ovary, without any evidence of thyroid tissue. By immunohistochemistry, a moderate expression of the sodium-iodine symporter (NIS) was demonstrated in the epithelial cells, suggesting a NIS-dependent uptake of radioiodine by the cyst. PMID:26331324

  14. Screening of newborn infants for cholestatic hepatobiliary disease with tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Imran; Logan, Stuart; Morris, Michael; Johnson, Andrew W; Wade, Angie M; Kelly, Deirdre; Clayton, Peter T

    1999-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of screening for cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and extrahepatic biliary atresia by using tandem mass spectrometry to measure conjugated bile acids in dried blood spots obtained from newborn infants at 7-10 days of age for the Guthrie test. Setting Three tertiary referral clinics and regional neonatal screening laboratories. Design Unused blood spots from the Guthrie test were retrieved for infants presenting with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and from the two cards stored on either side of each card from an index child. Concentrations of conjugated bile acids measured by tandem mass spectrometry in the two groups were compared. Main outcome measures Concentrations of glycodihydroxycholanoates, glycotrihydroxycholanoates, taurodihydroxycholanoates, and taurotrihydroxycholanoates. Receiver operator curves were plotted to determine which parameter (or combination of parameters) would best predict the cases of cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and extrahepatic biliary atresia. The sensitivity and specificity at a selection of cut off values for each bile acid species and for total bile acid concentrations for the detection of the two conditions were calculated. Results 218 children with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease were eligible for inclusion in the study. Two children without a final diagnosis and five who presented at <14 days of age were excluded. Usable blood spots were obtained from 177 index children and 708 comparison children. Mean concentrations of all four bile acid species were significantly raised in children with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease and extrahepatic biliary atresia compared with the unaffected children (P<0.0001). Of 177 children with cholestatic hepatobiliary disease, 104 (59%) had a total bile acid concentration >33 μmol/l (97.5th centile value for comparison group). Of the 61 with extrahepatic biliary atresia, 47 (77%) had total bile acid concentrations >33

  15. The role of Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging in primary biliary cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Shuke, N.; Kinuya, S.; Takayama, T.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess the presence of primary biliary cirrhosis, 15 patients at various histopathologic stages were studied by Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and/or Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging. In the earlier stages (I and II), seven of eight patients (88%) showed uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA. Of seven patients in the same stage, however, four (57%) showed no abnormality on Tc-99m colliod imaging. In three of these four negative patients (75%), uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA was noted. In the later stages (III and IV), all seven patients showed decreased clearance with or without delayed tracer appearance in the intestine and prominent hepatic retention on Tc-99m IDA imaging; with Tc-99m colloid imaging there was enlargement of the spleen and increased activity in the spleen and bone marrow. Thus, Tc-99m IDA imaging is considered to be more useful in revealing this functional disorder at the earlier stage of primary biliary cirrhosis and in evaluating progression from an earlier to a later stage of disease. Tc-99m colloid imaging also effectively evaluated progression.

  16. Anatomy of the Murine Hepatobiliary System: A Whole-Organ-Level Analysis Using a Transparency Method.

    PubMed

    Higashiyama, Hiroki; Sumitomo, Hiroyuki; Ozawa, Aisa; Igarashi, Hitomi; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Kanai, Yoshiakira

    2016-02-01

    The biliary tract is a well-branched ductal structure that exhibits great variation in morphology among vertebrates. Its function is maintained by complex constructions of blood vessels, nerves, and smooth muscles, the so-called hepatobiliary system. Although the mouse (Mus musculus) has been used as a model organism for humans, the morphology of its hepatobiliary system has not been well documented at the topographical level, mostly because of its small size and complexity. To reconcile this, we conducted whole-mount anatomical descriptions of the murine extrahepatic biliary tracts with related blood vessels, nerves, and smooth muscles using a recently developed transparentizing method, CUBIC. Several major differences from humans were found in mice: (1) among the biliary arteries, the arteria gastrica sinistra accessoria was commonly found, which rarely appears in humans; (2) the sphincter muscle in the choledochoduodenal junction is unseparated from the duodenal muscle; (3) the pancreatic duct opens to the bile duct without any sphincter muscles because of its distance from the duodenum. This state is identical to a human congenital malformation, an anomalous arrangement of pancreaticobiliary ducts. However, other parts of the murine hepatobiliary system (such as the branching patterns of the biliary tract, blood vessels, and nerves) presented the same patterns as humans and other mammals topologically. Thus, the mouse is useful as an experimental model for studying the human hepatobiliary system.

  17. Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging: nonvisualization of the gallbladder secondary to prolonged fasting

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, M.J.; Klingensmith, W.C. III; Kuni, C.C.

    1982-11-01

    Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging demonstrated nonvisualization of the gallbladder in four patients who were studied after fasting from 14 hr to 12 days. Two patients subsequently had normal gallbladders at autopsy, and two gave normal gallbladder visualization on repeat imaging studies after fasts of 2 to 3 hr. These findings suggest that prolonged fasting may be a cause for nonvisualization of a normal gallbladder.

  18. Cationic lipophilic complexes of /sup 99/ /SUP m/ Tc and their use for myocardial and hepatobiliary imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, E. A.; Glavan, K. A.

    1984-12-18

    A method of imaging organs with /sup 99/ /SUP m/ Tc radiopharmaceuticals, especially of hepatobiliary imaging and negative myocardial infarct imaging in a mammal which comprises administering to the mammal a hepatobiliary or myocardial imaging amount of a cationic lipophilic complex of Tc-99m and detecting the Tc-99m complex in the mammal. A method for the preparation of cationic lipophilic complexes of Tc-99m.

  19. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic imaging in children—techniques and an overview of non-neoplastic disease entities

    PubMed Central

    Robben, Simon G. F.; Blickman, Johan G.

    2010-01-01

    Imaging plays a major role in the diagnostic work-up of children with hepatobiliary or pancreatic diseases. It consists mainly of US, CT and MRI, with US and MRI being the preferred imaging modalities because of the lack of ionizing radiation. In this review the technique of US, CT and MRI in children will be addressed, followed by a comprehensive overview of the imaging characteristics of several hepatobiliary and pancreatic disease entities most common in the paediatric age group. PMID:20967540

  20. Unusual biliary scan appearance in a child with a transplanted liver with hepatic arterial thrombosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Porn, U; Howman-Giles, R; Shun, A; Dorney, S; Uren, R

    2000-02-01

    A 5-year-old girl with biliary atresia and a subsequent Kasai procedure is described. She had clinical symptoms suggestive of rejection after a recent orthotopic liver transplant A hepatobiliary scan showed partial hepatic infarction and a biloma in the infarcted area. PMID:10656644

  1. Unusual biliary scan appearance in a child with a transplanted liver with hepatic arterial thrombosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Porn, U; Howman-Giles, R; Shun, A; Dorney, S; Uren, R

    2000-02-01

    A 5-year-old girl with biliary atresia and a subsequent Kasai procedure is described. She had clinical symptoms suggestive of rejection after a recent orthotopic liver transplant A hepatobiliary scan showed partial hepatic infarction and a biloma in the infarcted area.

  2. Hepatobiliary and gallium imaging findings in gallbladder perforation: A case report and review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, E.; Chen, D.C.; Siegel, M.E.

    1989-02-01

    Gallbladder perforation is an unusual condition with a high mortality rate. Early detection with prompt surgical intervention can increase the survival rate. Hepatobiliary imaging using Technetium-99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid has been used for the diagnosis of gallbladder perforation. However, the results vary and are somewhat confusing. The authors report a case of gallbladder perforation with hepatobiliary imaging and an unusual gallium image; review the literature; and propose a classification of three different imaging patterns: (1) visualization of the gallbladder with bile leakage, (2) nonvisualization of the gallbladder with a photopenic fluid collection, and (3) nonvisualization of the gallbladder with bile leakage. These patterns may provide pathophysiologic information for the surgeon. 27 references.

  3. Effect of altered thyroid status on the transport of hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Pahuja, D.N.; Noronha, O.P.

    1985-10-01

    The effect of induced hypothyroidism (by feeding an antithyroid drug-propylthiouracil) on the transport and clearance of the routinely used hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals--radioiodinated iodine- T (131I) rose bengal and technetium-99m-N-(4-n-butylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetate, was studied in the rats. Hypothyroidism was associated with depressed growth and retarded clearance of these radiotracers from the in vivo system. Treatment of the hypothyroid rats with thyroxine (2-5 micrograms/100 g b.w. day) for 6 wk, restored these parameters towards normal values. These data suggest that delayed clearance of these hepatobiliary tracers could be related to reduced metabolic rate accompanied with the hypotonia and hypomotility of intestine normally observed in the hypothyroid state.

  4. Atlas of computed body tomography: normal and abnormal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, L.C.; Schapiro, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas contains comparative sections on normal and abnormal computed tomography of the neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, upper and lower limbs, fascia, and peritoneum. Also included is a subject index to aid in the identification of abnormal scans. (DLS)

  5. Cholelithiasis demonstrated on hepatobiliary scintigraphy as a photopenic defect within the inferior portion of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Yedinak, M.A.; Turnbull, G.L.; Spicer, M.J.; Brown, T.J.

    1984-11-01

    A 47-year-old man presented with the clinical findings of acute cholecystitis. During hepatobiliary scintigraphy using Tc-99m DISIDA, a persistent photopenic defect was noted within the inferior portion of the liver in the region of the gallbladder. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed large gallstones with acoustic shadowing within a normal-sized gallbladder. Eleven large gallstones were found within a normal-sized intrahepatic gallbladder at surgery.

  6. The need for routine delayed radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging in patients with intercurrent disease

    SciTech Connect

    Drane, W.E.; Nelp, W.B.; Rudd, T.G.

    1984-06-01

    A retrospective review was made of all radionuclide hepatobiliary studies performed in a major trauma center over a 27-month period and correlated with the patients' clinical course. In a population of 42 patients (27 of whom were on total parenteral nutrition (TPN)) who had severe intercurrent illness (primarily trauma), and an additional 18 patients who had hepatocellular dysfunction, hepatobiliary imaging confirmed a patent cystic duct in 43 of 60 patients (72%). Fourteen of these 43 patients (33%) had gallbladder visualization at later than one hour after radiotracer administration, and seven of these 14 required imaging from four to 24 hours. Of 17 patients who had nonvisualization of the gallbladder, four had surgically proved acute cholecystitis. Images of nine of the remaining 13 patients with gallbladder nonvisualization were not obtained for 24 hours. The presence of gallstones, wall thickening, or sludge on sonograms did not correlate with cystic duct patency, and was not specific for acute cholecystitis. Though gallbladder function is compromised in the population with severe intercurrent disease, radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging is still valuable; it can confirm a patent cystic duct in at least 72% of patients if routine imaging is continued for up to 24 hours.

  7. Histology atlas of the developing mouse hepatobiliary hemolymphatic vascular system with emphasis on embryonic days 11.5-18.5 and early postnatal development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A critical event in fetal development is the proper formation of the vascular system, of which the hepatobiliary system plays a pivotal role. This has lead pathologists and scientists to utilize transgenic mice to identify developmental disorders associated with the hepatobiliary vascular system. Va...

  8. Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chitty, L S

    1995-12-01

    Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities is increasingly becoming part of routine antenatal care in Europe and the UK. However, there has been very little formal evaluation of this practice. In this article reports of routine ultrasound screening are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages discussed. The majority of routine anomaly scanning is done in the second trimester but there may be a case for screening at other times in pregnancy and alternative anomaly screening policies are discussed. PMID:8710765

  9. Radiation-Induced Liver Damage: Correlation of Histopathology with Hepatobiliary Magnetic Resonance Imaging, a Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Seidensticker, Max; Burak, Miroslaw; Kalinski, Thomas; Garlipp, Benjamin; Koelble, Konrad; Wust, Peter; Antweiler, Kai; Seidensticker, Ricarda; Mohnike, Konrad; Pech, Maciej; Ricke, Jens

    2015-02-15

    PurposeRadiotherapy of liver malignancies shows promising results (radioembolization, stereotactic irradiation, interstitial brachytherapy). Regardless of the route of application, a certain amount of nontumorous liver parenchyma will be collaterally damaged by radiation. The functional reserve may be significantly reduced with an impact on further treatment planning. Monitoring of radiation-induced liver damage by imaging is neither established nor validated. We performed an analysis to correlate the histopathological presence of radiation-induced liver damage with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizing hepatobiliary contrast media (Gd-BOPTA).MethodsPatients undergoing local high-dose-rate brachytherapy for whom a follow-up hepatobiliary MRI within 120 days after radiotherapy as well as an evaluable liver biopsy from radiation-exposed liver tissue within 7 days before MRI were retrospectively identified. Planning computed tomography (CT)/dosimetry was merged to the CT-documentation of the liver biopsy and to the MRI. Presence/absence of radiation-induced liver damage (histopathology) and Gd-BOPTA uptake (MRI) as well as the dose applied during brachytherapy at the site of tissue sampling was determined.ResultsFourteen biopsies from eight patients were evaluated. In all cases with histopathological evidence of radiation-induced liver damage (n = 11), no uptake of Gd-BOPTA was seen. In the remaining three, cases no radiation-induced liver damage but Gd-BOPTA uptake was seen. Presence of radiation-induced liver damage and absence of Gd-BOPTA uptake was correlated with a former high-dose exposition.ConclusionsAbsence of hepatobiliary MRI contrast media uptake in radiation-exposed liver parenchyma may indicate radiation-induced liver damage. Confirmatory studies are warranted.

  10. [The chronobiological peculiarities of the hepatobiliary system function in chronic cholecystitis with dysfunction of the gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Poddubnaia, O A; Levitskiĭ, E F; Zamoshchina, T A

    2014-01-01

    Study of biological cycles in chronic cholecystitis with dysfunction of gallbladder has a great practical importance. The results of chronoanalysis testify a dominance of 24-hours cycle in structure of cycles of functional activity of organs of hepatobiliary system. The comparative analysis of trust intervals reveals the intensification of internal connections, expressed intensification of synchronization of cycles of functional activity of system and a breach of synchronism of central regulation and self-regulation, testifying overstrain of proper adaptive possibilities and unconcordance in system of regulation. This manifestations of desynchronization provokes development and progress of dysfunction of gallbladder and dysbalance of vegetative nervous system, that make worse the present disturbances. PMID:25911916

  11. Association between Liver Fluke Infection and Hepatobiliary Pathological Changes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jing; Jiang, Shi-chen; Peng, Hong-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide information about the role of liver fluke infection as a risk factor for hepatobiliary pathological changes and promote awareness among the people living in endemic areas, a systematic review and meta-analysis based on published studies was conducted to examine the association between liver fluke infection and hepatobiliary pathological changes. Methods Relevant original literature was searched in multiple literature databases, including PubMed, Cochrane, Clinical Evidence, Trip Database, Clinical Trials, Current Controlled Trials, Web of Science, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, and the Wanfang academic journal full-text database. Studies were selected based on strict screening with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Tests of heterogeneity, sensitivity and publication bias were performed with the Review Manager software, version 5.3, and meta-regression analyses were performed with the Stata software, version 11.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated and used to evaluate the risk of hepatobiliary pathological changes resulting from liver fluke infection. Linear trend analyses were conducted to determine the dose-response relationship using IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0. Result A total of 36 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Significant associations were found between liver fluke infection and cholangitis or cholecystitis (RR: 7.80, P<0.001; OR: 15.98, P<0.001), cholelithiasis (RR: 2.42, P = 0.03; OR: 4.96, P = 0.03), hepatocellular carcinoma (OR: 4.69, P<0.001) and cholangiocarcinoma (RR: 10.43, P<0.001; OR: 4.37, P<0.001). In addition, heavier infection was significantly associated with higher incidence of hepatobiliary pathological changes (P<0.05). However, cirrhosis was not significantly associated with liver fluke infection (RR: 3.50, P = 0.06; OR: 5.79, P = 0.08). The statistical

  12. Non invasive in vivo investigation of hepatobiliary structure and function in STII medaka (Oryzias latipes): methodology and applications

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, Ron C; Kullman, Seth W; Hinton, David E

    2008-01-01

    Background A novel transparent stock of medaka (Oryzias latipes; STII), recessive for all pigments found in chromatophores, permits transcutaneous imaging of internal organs and tissues in living individuals. Findings presented describe the development of methodologies for non invasive in vivo investigation in STII medaka, and the successful application of these methodologies to in vivo study of hepatobiliary structure, function, and xenobiotic response, in both 2 and 3 dimensions. Results Using brightfield, and widefield and confocal fluorescence microscopy, coupled with the in vivo application of fluorescent probes, structural and functional features of the hepatobiliary system, and xenobiotic induced toxicity, were imaged at the cellular level, with high resolution (< 1 μm), in living individuals. The findings presented demonstrate; (1) phenotypic response to xenobiotic exposure can be investigated/imaged in vivo with high resolution (< 1 μm), (2) hepatobiliary transport of solutes from blood to bile can be qualitatively and quantitatively studied/imaged in vivo, (3) hepatobiliary architecture in this lower vertebrate liver can be studied in 3 dimensions, and (4) non invasive in vivo imaging/description of hepatobiliary development in this model can be investigated. Conclusion The non-invasive in vivo methodologies described are a unique means by which to investigate biological structure, function and xenobiotic response with high resolution in STII medaka. In vivo methodologies also provide the future opportunity to integrate molecular mechanisms (e.g., genomic, proteomic) of disease and toxicity with phenotypic changes at the cellular and system levels of biological organization. While our focus has been the hepatobiliary system, other organ systems are equally amenable to in vivo study, and we consider the potential for discovery, within the context of in vivo investigation in STII medaka, as significant. PMID:18838008

  13. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid; Radioactive iodine uptake and scan test - thyroid; Nuclear scan - thyroid ... the test. Ask your provider or the radiology/nuclear medicine team performing the scan about taking precautions.

  14. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  15. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of cystic fibrosis: gastrointestinal, pancreatic, and hepatobiliary disease and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Alicia K.; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and hepatobiliary systems, are affected by cystic fibrosis (CF). Many of these changes begin early in life and are difficult to study in young CF patients. Recent development of novel CF animal models has expanded opportunities in the field to better understand CF pathogenesis and evaluate traditional and innovative therapeutics. In this review, we discuss manifestations of CF disease in gastrointestinal, pancreatic, and hepatobiliary systems of humans and animal models. We also compare the similarities and limitations of animal models and discuss future directions for modeling CF. PMID:25591863

  16. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of cystic fibrosis: gastrointestinal, pancreatic, and hepatobiliary disease and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Alicia K; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Meyerholz, David K

    2015-03-15

    Multiple organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and hepatobiliary systems, are affected by cystic fibrosis (CF). Many of these changes begin early in life and are difficult to study in young CF patients. Recent development of novel CF animal models has expanded opportunities in the field to better understand CF pathogenesis and evaluate traditional and innovative therapeutics. In this review, we discuss manifestations of CF disease in gastrointestinal, pancreatic, and hepatobiliary systems of humans and animal models. We also compare the similarities and limitations of animal models and discuss future directions for modeling CF.

  17. Radioisotope scanning in osseous sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc)-labeled pyrophosphate or diphosphonate compounds and gallium-67 citrate (/sup 67/Ga) are two radionuclide scanning agents that are in widespread use in clinical practice. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate is used extensively for bone scanning to detect metastatic bone disease, benign bone tumors, osteomyelitis, benign hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, and Paget's disease. Only two reports describe abnormal /sup 99m/Tc/ pyrophosphate bone scans in four patients with osseous sarcoidosis. Gallium-67 scans are used primarily to localize neoplastic or inflammatory lesions anywhere in the body. In recent years /sup 67/Ga scans have also been used to detect the presence of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis, but there are no reports describing abnormal uptake of gallium in patients with osseous sarcoidosis. This report describes experience with radioisotope scanning in two patients with osseous sarcoidosis.

  18. Surface charge-mediated rapid hepatobiliary excretion of mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Souris, Jeffrey S; Lee, Chia-Hung; Cheng, Shih-Hsun; Chen, Chin-Tu; Yang, Chung-Shi; Ho, Ja-an A; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Lo, Leu-Wei

    2010-07-01

    Nanoparticle-assisted drug delivery has been emerging as an active research area in recent years. The in vivo biodistribution of nanoparticle and its following mechanisms of biodegradation and/or excretion determine the feasibility and applicability of such a nano-delivery platform in the practical clinical translation. In this work we report the synthesis of the highly positive charge, near-infrared fluorescent mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) that demonstrate rapid hepatobiliary excretion, for use as traceable drug delivery platforms of high capacity. MSNs were incorporated with near-infrared fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) via covalent or ionic bonding, to derive comparable constructs of significantly different net surface charge. In vivo fluorescence imaging and subsequent inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy of harvested tissues, urine, and feces revealed markedly different uptake and elimination behaviors between the two conjugations; with more highly charged moieties (+34.4 mV at pH 7.4) being quickly excreted from the liver into the gastrointestinal tract, while less charged moieties (-17.6 mV at pH 7.4) remained sequestered within the liver. Taken together, these findings suggest that charge-dependent adsorption of serum proteins greatly facilitates the hepatobiliary excretion of silica nanoparticles, and that nanoparticle residence time in vivo can be regulated by manipulation of surface charge.

  19. Hepatobiliary transport of YM466, a novel factor Xa inhibitor, in rats.

    PubMed

    Mano, Yuji; Usui, Takashi; Kamimura, Hidetaka

    2006-01-01

    YM466, a novel factor Xa inhibitor, is a hydrophilic compound with a carboxylic acid moiety. Previous studies in rats have shown that YM466 does nor undergo metabolism but is excreted into the bile and urine in unchanged form. Thus, in this study, we investigated in vivo hepatobiliary transport, focusing in particular on multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2/Abcc2)-mediated transport. The hepatobiliary transport of YM466 was investigated after its systemic infusion into Sprague-Dawley rats (SDRs) and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBRs), which lack Mrp2. When the binding of YM466 in the plasma and liver was examined, the bile-to-plasma concentration ratio and the liver-to-plasma concentration ratio for the unbound concentration in SDRs amounted to 32.2 and 2.83, respectively, suggesting concentrated transport. The bile-to-liver concentration ratio for the unbound concentration in EHBRs was not lower than that found for SDRs. These findings suggest that YM466 is excreted from the plasma into the bile in a concentrated manner; however, Mrp2 does not play a major role in biliary excretion.

  20. Direct visualization of functional heterogeneity in hepatobiliary metabolism using 6-CFDA as model compound

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Ju; Li, Feng-Chieh; Lee, Yu-Yang; Tseng, Te-Yu; Chen, Wei-Liang; Hovhannisyan, Vladimir; Kang, Ning; Horton, Nicholas G.; Chiang, Shu-Jen; Xu, Chris; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatobiliary metabolism is one of the major functions of the liver. However, little is known of the relationship between the physiological location of the hepatocytes and their metabolic potential. By the combination of time-lapse multiphoton microscopy and first order kinetic constant image analysis, the hepatocellular metabolic rate of the model compound 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (6-CFDA) is quantified at the single cell level. We found that the mouse liver can be divided into three zones, each with distinct metabolic rate constants. The sinusoidal uptake coefficients k1 of Zones 1, 2, and 3 are respectively 0.239 ± 0.077, 0.295 ± 0.087, and 0.338 ± 0.133 min−1, the apical excreting coefficients k2 of Zones 1, 2, and 3 are 0.0117 ± 0.0052, 0.0175 ± 0.0052, and 0.0332 ± 0.0195 min−1, respectively. Our results show not only the existence of heterogeneities in hepatobiliary metabolism, but they also show that Zone 3 is the main area of metabolism. PMID:27699121

  1. Direct visualization of functional heterogeneity in hepatobiliary metabolism using 6-CFDA as model compound

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Ju; Li, Feng-Chieh; Lee, Yu-Yang; Tseng, Te-Yu; Chen, Wei-Liang; Hovhannisyan, Vladimir; Kang, Ning; Horton, Nicholas G.; Chiang, Shu-Jen; Xu, Chris; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatobiliary metabolism is one of the major functions of the liver. However, little is known of the relationship between the physiological location of the hepatocytes and their metabolic potential. By the combination of time-lapse multiphoton microscopy and first order kinetic constant image analysis, the hepatocellular metabolic rate of the model compound 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (6-CFDA) is quantified at the single cell level. We found that the mouse liver can be divided into three zones, each with distinct metabolic rate constants. The sinusoidal uptake coefficients k1 of Zones 1, 2, and 3 are respectively 0.239 ± 0.077, 0.295 ± 0.087, and 0.338 ± 0.133 min−1, the apical excreting coefficients k2 of Zones 1, 2, and 3 are 0.0117 ± 0.0052, 0.0175 ± 0.0052, and 0.0332 ± 0.0195 min−1, respectively. Our results show not only the existence of heterogeneities in hepatobiliary metabolism, but they also show that Zone 3 is the main area of metabolism.

  2. Histology atlas of the developing mouse hepatobiliary system with emphasis on embryonic days 9.5-18.5.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Laura Wilding; Foley, Julie F; Elmore, Susan A

    2010-10-01

    Animal model phenotyping, in utero exposure toxicity studies, and investigation into causes of embryonic, fetal, or perinatal deaths have required pathologists to recognize and diagnose developmental disorders in spontaneous and engineered mouse models of disease. In mammals, the liver is the main site of hematopoiesis during fetal development, has endocrine and exocrine functions important for maintaining homeostasis in fetal and adult life; and performs other functions including waste detoxification, production and removal of glucose, glycogen storage, triglyceride and fatty acid processing, and serum protein production. Due to its role in many critical functions, alterations in the size, morphology, or function(s) of the liver often lead to embryonic lethality. Many publications and websites describe individual aspects of hepatobiliary development at defined stages. However, no single resource provides a detailed histological evaluation of H&E-stained sections of the developing murine liver and biliary systems using high-magnification and high-resolution color images. The work herein provides a histology atlas of hepatobiliary development between embryonic days 9.5-18.5. Although the focus of this work is normal hepatobiliary development, common defects in liver development are also described as a reference for pathologists who may be asked to phenotype mice with congenital, inherited, or treatment-related hepatobiliary defects. Authors' note: All digital images can be viewed online at https://niehsimagesepl-inc.com with the username "ToxPathLiver" and the password "embryolivers."

  3. Indirect Fist Percussion of the Liver Is a More Sensitive Technique for Detecting Hepatobiliary Infections than Murphy's Sign

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Takeshi; Ishida, Eri

    2015-01-01

    Background. Murphy's sign and Charcot's triad are established clinical findings of acute cholecystitis and cholangitis, respectively, but both show low sensitivity and limited clinical application. We evaluated if indirect fist percussion of the liver improves the efficiency of diagnosing cholecystitis and cholangitis when used as a diagnostic adjunct. Methods. The presence/absence of right upper quadrant (RUQ) tenderness, Murphy's sign, and pain induced by indirect fist percussion of the liver was assessed, and the results were compared with the definite diagnosis based on ultrasound and additional examinations in patients aged over 18 who visited our outpatient clinic with suspected hepatobiliary diseases. Results. Four hundred and eight patients were investigated, and 40 had hepatobiliary infection (acute cholecystitis: 10, acute cholangitis: 28, liver abscess: 1, and hepatic cyst infection: 1). The sensitivity of indirect fist percussion of the liver for diagnosing hepatobiliary infection was 60%, being significantly higher than that of RUQ tenderness (33%) and Murphy's sign (30%), and its specificity was 85%. There was no significant improvement in sensitivity or diagnostic accuracy when Murphy's sign was combined with indirect fist percussion of the liver. Conclusion. Indirect fist percussion-induced liver pain is a useful clinical finding to diagnose hepatobiliary infection, with high-level sensitivity. PMID:26788057

  4. Multiorgan chronic inflammatory hepatobiliary pancreatic murine model deficient in tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provoke persistent/chronic multiorgan inflammatory response and to contribute to stones formation followed by fibrosis in hepatobiliary and pancreatic tissues. METHODS: Tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (TNFR1/R2) deficient mice reared in-house were given dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) twice within 10 d by oral gavage delivery. Sham control animals received vehicle treatment and naïve animals remained untreated throughout the study. Animals were monitored daily for symptoms of pain and discomfort. The abdominal and hindpaw hypersensitivity were assessed with von Frey microfilaments. Exploratory behaviors were recorded at the baseline, after initiation of treatment, and before study termination. Histopathological changes were examined postmortem in tissues. Collagen accumulation and fibrosis were confirmed with Sirius Red staining. RESULTS: Animals lost weight after oral administration of DBTC and developed persistent inflammatory abdominal and hindpaw hypersensitivity compared to sham-treated controls (P < 0.0001). These pain related secondary mechanical hypersensitivity responses increased more than 2-fold in DBTC-treated animals. The drastically diminished rearing and grooming rates persisted after DBTC administration throughout the study. Gross as well as micropathology at one month confirmed that animals treated with DBTC developed chronic hepatobiliary injuries evidenced with activation of stellate cells, multifocal necrosis, fatty degeneration of hepatocytes, periportal infiltration of inflammatory cells, and prominent biliary ductal dilation. The severity of hepatitis was scored 3.7 ± 0.2 (severe) in DBTC-treated animals vs score 0 (normal) in sham-treated animals. Fibrotic thickening was extensive around portal ducts, in hepatic parenchyma as well as in lobular pancreatic structures and confirmed with Sirius Red histopathology. In addition, pancreatic microarchitecture was presented with distortion of islets, and parenchyma, infiltration of

  5. Hepatobiliary Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Shaker, Yehia; Samy, Nervana; Ashour, Esmat

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an ancient parasitic disease that has afflicted Egyptians since the time of the pharaohs. The disease is caused by lodged schistosome eggs in the host liver, evoking an immune response and leading in some patients to the development of hepatic granuloma and fibrosis. Here, we review the epidemiology, immunopathogenesis, and clinical profile of schistosomiasis. This information may aid in the development of more efficacious treatments and improved disease prognosis. PMID:26357627

  6. Hepatobiliary Schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Yehia; Samy, Nervana; Ashour, Esmat

    2014-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is an ancient parasitic disease that has afflicted Egyptians since the time of the pharaohs. The disease is caused by lodged schistosome eggs in the host liver, evoking an immune response and leading in some patients to the development of hepatic granuloma and fibrosis. Here, we review the epidemiology, immunopathogenesis, and clinical profile of schistosomiasis. This information may aid in the development of more efficacious treatments and improved disease prognosis. PMID:26357627

  7. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    Liver gallium scan; Bony gallium scan ... You will get a radioactive material called gallium injected into your vein. The gallium travels through the bloodstream and collects in the bones and certain organs. Your health care provider will ...

  8. Bone scanning.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, L D; Bennett, L R

    1975-03-01

    Scanning is based on the uptake of a nuclide by the crystal lattice of bone and is related to bone blood flow. Cancer cells do not take up the tracer. Normally, the scan visualizes the highly vascular bones. Scans are useful and are indicated in metastatic bone disease, primary bone tumors, hematologic malignancies and some non-neoplastic diseases. The scan is more sensitive than x-ray in the detection of malignant diseases of the skeleton. PMID:1054210

  9. Localization of Persistent Enterocytozoon bieneusi Infection in Normal Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) to the Hepatobiliary Tree

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Keith G.; Carville, Angela; Hebert, Daniel; Chalifoux, Laura; Shvetz, Daniel; Lin, K. C.; Tzipori, S.; Lackner, Andrew A.

    1998-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common microsporidian parasite recognized in human patients with AIDS. Recently, we identified a virtually identical organism causing a spontaneous infection associated with hepatobiliary and intestinal disease in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques. To examine the natural history of the infection, we examined captive rhesus macaques for E. bieneusi by PCR, in situ hybridization, and cytochemical techniques. PCR performed on fecal DNA detected enterocytozoon infection in 22 (16.7%) of 131 normal rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), compared to 18 (33.8%) of 53 rhesus macaques experimentally inoculated with SIV. In normal rhesus macaques, persistence of infection was demonstrated for up to 262 days and was usually not associated with clinical signs. In six of seven normal rhesus animals, E. bieneusi was detected by PCR in bile obtained through percutaneous cholecystocentesis but not by in situ hybridization performed on endoscopic biopsies of duodenum and proximal jejunum. PMID:9666017

  10. [Hepatobiliary fascioliasis and echinococcosis/hydatidosis in domestic animals in Haiti].

    PubMed

    Blaise, J; Raccurt, C P

    2007-12-01

    In Haiti, hepatobiliary fascioliasis and hepatic hydatid cysts cause major economic losses among livestock. Surveys show high prevalence rates for bovine distomatosis caused by Fasciola hepatica (10.7% to 22.78%). Among small ruminants, the prevalence of distomatosis is low (sheep: 3.2%, goats: 0.9%) although Dicrocoelium dendriticum is found in 1.1% of sheep. Hepatic hydatidosis is more common among pigs (5.2%) and sheep (2.1%) than among goats (0.9%) and cattle (0.3%). In the case of dogs, 21% excrete egg-bearing segments in their faeces and 25% harbour Echinococcus granulosus in the small intestine. As a result of local dietary habits (consumption of raw cress), environmental pollution by animal faeces, poverty and poor standards of hygiene in Haiti, these flatworms pose serious health risks to the population, even though this is largely unknown at present.

  11. The enzymes of the hepatobiliary tract: a biochemical and clinical comparison.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G

    1974-01-01

    The "biliary tract" enzymes (leucine aminopeptidase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and 5'-nucleotidase) in serum reflect to varying degrees, obstruction, proliferation, inflammation and neoplasia involving the hepatobiliary duct system. Their use is directed towards two purposes: (1) as non-electrophoretic assays to evaluate the source of an elevated non-specific alkaline phosphatase and (2) to offer greater sensitivity and specificity for space-occuping lesions in the liver. In appropriate clinical states, any of the three enzymes offer these advantages and there is little to chose among them. Selection of the assay to use in the clinical laboratory then becomes based on non-clinical factors, i.e., technical ease, apparent substrate specifities, etc. With these additional factors and despite some shortcomings, our selection is leucine aminopeptidase.

  12. Evolution of the Cranial Computed Tomography Scan in Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective review of medical charts for 34 children with a diagnosis of child abuse, who had cranial computed tomography scans performed, revealed that some scans initially interpreted as normal were subsequently reinterpreted as abnormal, and some children's repeat scannings were interpreted as abnormal, modifying the medical and legal…

  13. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  14. Ruthenium-97 hepatobiliary agents for delayed studies of the bilary tract I: Ru-97 PIPIDA: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Schachner, E.R.; Gil, M.C.; Atkins, H.L.; Som, P.; Srivastava, S.C.; Badia, J.; Sacker, D.F.; Fairchild, R.G.; Richards, P.

    1981-04-01

    Failure of early diagnosis of biliary atresia results in the development of cirrhosis and death. Commonly used hepatobiliary agents are not ideal for follow-up studies because of their unfavorable physical properties or short half-life. The excellent physical properties of Ru-97 should overcome these limitations. Therefore, Ru-97 PIPIDA (N,..cap alpha..-(p-isopropyl acetanilide) iminoacetic acid) is being investigated as a potential hepatobiliary agent that would allow an improved diagnosis of the disease. Ruthenium-97 PIPIDA and Tc-99m PIPIDA showed similar blood clearance rates in dogs. Ru-97 PIPIDA scintigrams in dogs showed early uptake in liver and gallbladder and slow excretion through the gastrointestinal tract. Biodistribution studies were performed in normal rats and rats with biliary obstruction. The findings suggest that Ru-97 PIPIDA should be useful for delayed studies ( 1 to 3 days) of the biliary tract.

  15. Alcoholic hepatitis accelerates early hepatobiliary cancer by increasing stemness and miR-122-mediated HIF-1α activation

    PubMed Central

    Ambade, Aditya; Satishchandran, Abhishek; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops with advanced alcoholic liver disease and liver fibrosis. Using adult mice, we evaluate the effect of alcoholic steatohepatitis on early hepatobiliary carcinoma after initiation by diethyl-nitrosamine (DEN). Here we show that alcohol-fed DEN-injected mice have higher ALT and liver-to-body weight ratio compared to pair-fed DEN-injected mice. Alcohol feeding results in steatohepatitis indicated by increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and fibrotic genes. MRI and liver histology of alcohol+DEN mice shows hepatobiliary cysts, early hepatic neoplasia and increase in serum alpha-fetoprotein. Proliferation makers (BrdU, cyclin D1, p53) and cancer stem cell markers (CD133 and nanog) are significantly up-regulated in livers of alcohol-fed DEN-injected mice compared to controls. In livers with tumors, loss of miR-122 expression with a significant up-regulation of miR-122 target HIF-1α is seen. We conclude that alcoholic steatohepatitis accelerates hepatobiliary tumors with characteristic molecular features of HCC by up-regulating inflammation, cell proliferation, stemness, and miR-122 loss. PMID:26888602

  16. Hepatic Phospholipidosis Is Associated with Altered Hepatobiliary Function as Assessed by Gadoxetate Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lenhard, Stephen C; Lev, Mally; Webster, Lindsey O; Peterson, Richard A; Goulbourne, Christopher N; Miller, Richard T; Jucker, Beat M

    2016-01-01

    To determine if amiodarone induces hepatic phospholipidosis (PLD) sufficient to detect changes in hepatobiliary transporter function as assessed by gadoxetate dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), rats were orally dosed with vehicle (1% methyl cellulose) or amiodarone (300 mg/kg/day) for 7 consecutive days. Gadoxetate DCE-MRI occurred at baseline, day 7, and following a 2-week washout of amiodarone. At day 7, the gadoxetate washout rate was significantly decreased compared to the vehicle group. Blood chemistry analysis revealed no significant changes in liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT]/aspartate aminotransferase [AST]/alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), bilirubin, or bile acids between vehicle or amiodarone groups. Hepatic PLD was confirmed in all rats treated with amiodarone at day 7 by transmission electron microscopy. Following the 2-week washout, there was no ultrastructural evidence of hepatic PLD in rats and the gadoxetate washout rate returned to baseline levels. This is the first study to show the application of gadoxetate DCE-MRI to detect hepatobiliary functional changes associated with PLD and offer a potential new technique with clinical utility in patients suspected of having PLD. These results also suggest PLD itself has functional consequences on hepatobiliary function in the absence of biomarkers of toxicity, given the cause/effect relationship between PLD and function has not been fully established.

  17. Potential Pitfalls on the (99m)Tc-Mebrofenin Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy in a Patient with Biliary Atresia Splenic Malformation Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maestri Brittain, Jane; Borgwardt, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is an obliterative cholangiopathy affecting 1:10.000-14.000 of newborns. Infants with Biliary Atresia Splenic Malformation syndrome (BASM) are a subgroup of BA patients with additional congenital anomalies. Untreated the disease will result in fatal liver failure within the first years of life. Kasai portoenterostomy restores bile flow and delay the progressive liver damage thereby postponing liver transplantation. An early diagnosis is of most importance to ensure the effectiveness of the operation. The (99m)Tc-Mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy is part of the diagnostic strategy when an infant presents jaundice due to conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (>20 µmol/L total bilirubin of which 20% is conjugated) with its high sensitivity of 97%-100% in refuting BA. Rapid extraction of tracer by the liver and no visible tracer in the small bowl after 24 h is indicative of BA. Laparotomy with antegrade cholangiography is then performed giving the final diagnosis when the remains of the obliterated biliary tree are revealed in the case of BA. We present a case demonstrating some of the challenges of interpreting the (99m)Tc-Mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy in an infant with BASM and stress the importance that the (99m)Tc-Mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy is part of a spectrum of imaging modalities in diagnosing BA. PMID:26838802

  18. Comparative evaluation of intragastric bile acids and hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the diagnosis of duodenogastric reflux

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Teng-Fei; Yadav, Praveen K; Wu, Rui-Jin; Yu, Wei-Hua; Liu, Chang-Qin; Lin, Hui; Liu, Zhan-Ju

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic value of a combination of intragastric bile acids and hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the detection of duodenogastric reflux (DGR). METHODS: The study contained 99 patients with DGR and 70 healthy volunteers who made up the control group. The diagnosis was based on the combination of several objective arguments: a long history of gastric symptoms (i.e., nausea, epigastric pain, and/or bilious vomiting) poorly responsive to medical treatment, gastroesophageal reflux symptoms unresponsive to proton-pump inhibitors, gastritis on upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and/or at histology, presence of a bilious gastric lake at > 1 upper GI endoscopy, pathologic 24-h intragastric bile monitoring with the Bilitec device. Gastric juice was aspirated in the GI endoscopy and total bile acid (TBA), total bilirubin (TBIL) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) were tested in the clinical laboratory. Continuous data of gastric juice were compared between each group using the independent-samples Mann-Whitney U-test and their relationship was analysed by Spearman’s rank correlation test and Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis. Histopathology of DGR patients and 23 patients with chronic atrophic gastritis was compared by clinical pathologists. Using the Independent-samples Mann-Whitney U-test, DGR index (DGRi) was calculated in 28 patients of DGR group and 19 persons of control group who were subjected to hepatobiliary scintigraphy. Receiver operating characteristic curve was made to determine the sensitivity and specificity of these two methods in the diagnosis of DGR. RESULTS: The group of patients with DGR showed a statistically higher prevalence of epigastric pain in comparison with control group. There was no significant difference between the histology of gastric mucosa with atrophic gastritis and duodenogastric reflux. The bile acid levels of DGR patients were significantly higher than the control values (Z: TBA: -8.916, DBIL: -3.914, TBIL: -6.197, all

  19. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  1. Radionuclide bone scanning of osteosarcoma: falsely extended uptake patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.

    1982-07-01

    The pathologic specimens of 18 osteosarcomas of long bones were examined to correlate histologic abnormalities with abnormalities seen on preoperative /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate bone scans. Seven scans accurately represented the extent of the tumor. Eleven scans disclosed increased activity extending beyond the radiographic abnormalities. In eight of these, there was no occult tumor extension and in the other three, the scan activity did not accurately portray the skip metastases that were present. Therefore, these 11 scans demonstrated the falsely extended pattern of uptake beyond the true limits of the tumors. Pathologic slides were available for 10 of the 11 areas of bone that exhibited extended uptake. In two instances, there was no pathologic abnormality. In the other eight cases we found marrow hyperemia, medullary reactive bone, or periosteal new bone. This is the first description of these histologic abnormalities of medullary bone in areas of extended uptake on radionuclide bone scans.

  2. MRI Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from torn ...

  3. WBC scan

    MedlinePlus

    Leukocyte scan ... will be taken from one of your veins. White blood cells are separated from the rest of the blood ... 111. These cells are considered tagged. The tagged white blood cells are injected back into your body through a ...

  4. The roles of bile acids and sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling in the hepatobiliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Nagahashi, Masayuki; Yuza, Kizuki; Hirose, Yuki; Nakajima, Masato; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Hait, Nitai C; Hylemon, Phillip B; Zhou, Huiping; Takabe, Kazuaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2016-09-01

    Based on research carried out over the last decade, it has become increasingly evident that bile acids act not only as detergents, but also as important signaling molecules that exert various biological effects via activation of specific nuclear receptors and cell signaling pathways. Bile acids also regulate the expression of numerous genes encoding enzymes and proteins involved in the synthesis and metabolism of bile acids, glucose, fatty acids, and lipoproteins, as well as energy metabolism. Receptors activated by bile acids include, farnesoid X receptor α, pregnane X receptor, vitamin D receptor, and G protein-coupled receptors, TGR5, muscarinic receptor 2, and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR)2. The ligand of S1PR2, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), is a bioactive lipid mediator that regulates various physiological and pathophysiological cellular processes. We have recently reported that conjugated bile acids, via S1PR2, activate and upregulate nuclear sphingosine kinase 2, increase nuclear S1P, and induce genes encoding enzymes and transporters involved in lipid and sterol metabolism in the liver. Here, we discuss the role of bile acids and S1P signaling in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatobiliary diseases. PMID:27459945

  5. FDG-PET for hepatobiliary and pancreatic cancer: Advances and current limitations.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Koji

    2011-05-10

    In Japan, the use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for some malignant tumors came to be covered by the National Health Insurance in 2002. In 2010, the health insurance coverage was expanded to all types of malignant tumors. However, since PET examination requires a large amount of capital investment, facilities at which PET is available are still limited. On the other hand, PET equipment has rapidly been introduced in large hospitals and in the diagnostic imaging centers of major cities during the past few years. Although numerous middle-sized and small hospitals cannot afford to perform PET, physicians can refer their patients to facilities where PET is available. Therefore, it is essential for general physicians to gain accurate knowledge on PET, including the appropriate indications for PET, in order to select patients for referral to PET facilities. PET is not always a useful tool, especially for lesions of the pancreas and hepatobiliary system, which is the main topic of this review. The indications of PET for lesions in these organs vary depending on the purpose of the examination. In this article, we review the indications for PET (or PET/computed tomography [CT]) using FDG of the liver, biliary tract, and pancreas.

  6. Colorectal liver metastases: disappearing lesions in the era of Eovist hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Joseph W.; Fowler, Kathryn J.; Doyle, Maria B.; Saad, Nael E.; Linehan, David C.; Chapman, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatobiliary contrast enhanced MRI is known to be the most sensitive imaging modality for detection of colorectal hepatic metastasis. To date no study has investigated the rate of disappearing lesions with gadoxetic acid MR (Eovist/Primovist), or characterized the pathologic response of lesions which disappear on gadoxetic acid MR. Methods Retrospective review of hepatic resections for colorectal metastases between 01/2008 and 01/2014 was performed to evaluated the rate of disappearance of lesions on gadoxetic acid MR and the rate of complete pathologic response in the lesions that disappear. “Disappearing lesions” were lesions on baseline imaging that were not identifiable on pre-operative Eovist MRI. Complete pathologic response was defined as no viable tumor on pathology or by lack of recurrence within 1 year. Results In 23 patients, 200 colorectal metastases were identified on baseline imaging. On pre-operative Eovist MR 77 of the 200 lesions (38.5%) were “disappearing” lesions. At surgical pathology or 1 year follow-up imaging, 42 of 77 lesions (55%) demonstrated viable tumor (21) or recurrence (21). Thirty of 77 lesions (39%) were nonviable at pathology (10) or without evidence of recurrence at 1 year (20). 5 lesions were indeterminate. Discussion Despite disappearance on Eovist MR imaging (the most sensitive available imaging modality), 38.5% of all colorectal metastases disappeared and of those, 55% were viable. PMID:27017170

  7. Effect of ketamine, pentobarbital, and morphine on Tc-99m-DISIDA hepatobiliary kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Durakovic, A.; Dubois, A.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate hapatobiliary kinetics of Tc-99m-DISIDA in dogs after administration of anesthetic sedative or narcotic agents. Four groups of six male Beagle dogs were studied as a non-treated control group and after parenteral administration of ketamine (30 mg/kg IM), pentobarbital (25 mg/kg IV) or morphine (1 mg/kg IV). Each animal was injected with 4 mCi Tc-99m-DISIDA and hepatobiliary scintigraphic studies were obtained using a gamma camera with parallel hole multipurpose collimator and an A/sup 3/ MDS computer. The authors determined; peak activity of Tc-99m-DISIDA in the liver, visualization and peak activity of gallbladder, and intestinal visualization of Tc-99m-DISIDA. Total bilirubin, LDH, SGOT and SGPT were not modified significantly after any drug compared to control. The results showed that two commonly used anesthetics and sedatives (ketamine and pentobarbital) have dramatic and opposite effects on extrahepatic biliary kinetics. Furthermore, ketamine, but not pentobarbital, significantly accelerates intrahepatic biliary kinetics. Finally, as expected, morphine delayed extrahepatic biliary kinetics. Thus, studies of biliary kinetics should be interpreted with caution when measurements are made after administration of anesthetic, sedative or narcotic agents.

  8. Comparative cardiac effects of three hepatobiliary radiopharmacologicals in the dog: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Shani, J.; Sarel, O.; Rogel, S.; Weininger, J.; Lubin, E.

    1982-04-01

    Three hepatobiliary agents with an acetanilide-imidoacetic-acid moiety resembling that in lidocaine were investigated for their possible effects on contractility and conductivity in the heart and on arterial pressure and aortic blood flow. This was done in the light of lidocaine's numerous cardiac side effects. HIDA, BIDA, and DIPA, each with traces of decayed /sup 99m/Tc, were injected i.v. into anesthetized dogs with an A-V block, and their effects on the above parameters were followed until control levels were reestablished. Whereas lidocaine raises the diastolic threshold and prolongs the refractory period, the three agents tested do not prolong myocardial conductivity. Both HIDA and BIDA have an effect similar to that of lidocaine, but DIPA has no effect on the latter two parameters. Moreover, whereas lidocaine depressed myocardial contractility, blood pressure, and blood flow, HIDA has a less prominent effect on these parameters, and neither BIDA nor DIPA has any such effect. It is concluded that even though the effect of HIDA on the heart is milder than that of lidocaine, the effects of both BIDA and DIPA are even less pronounced, and they are less likely to cause cardiac side effects when similar doses are administered during nuclear medicine procedures.

  9. Comparative cardiac effects of three hepatobiliary radiopharmacologicals in the dog: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Shani, J.; Rogel, S.; Weininger, J.; Lubin, E.

    1982-04-01

    Three hepatobiliary agents with an acetanilide-imidoacetic-acid moiety resembling that in lidocaine were investigated for their possible effects on contractility and conductivity in the heart and on arterial pressure and aortic blood flow. This was done in the light of lidocaine's numerous cardiac side effects. HIDA, BIDA, and DIPA, each with traces of decayed Tc-99m, were injected i.v. into anesthetized dogs with an A-V block, and their effects on the above parameters were followed until control levels were reestablished. Wheras lidocaine raises the diastolic threshold and prolongs the refractory period, the three agents tested do not prolong myocardial conductivity. Both HIDA and BIDA have an effect similar to that of lidocaine, but DIPA has no effect on the latter two parameters. Moreover, whereas lidocaine depresses myocardial contractility, blood pressure, and blood flow, HIDA has a less prominent effect on these parameters, and neither BIDA nor DIPA has any such effect. It is concluded that even though the effect of HIDA on the heart is milder than that of lidocaine, the effects of both BIDA and DIPA are even less pronounced, and they are less likely to cause cardiac side effects when similar doses are administered during nuclear medicine procedures.

  10. Sensitivity of hepatobiliary imaging and real-time ultrasonography in the detection of acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fink-Bennett, D.; Freitas, J.E.; Ripley, S.D.; Bree, R.L.

    1985-08-01

    To determine the sensitivity of hepatobiliary imaging (HBI) and strict- and liberal-criteria real-time ultrasonography (RTUS), the authors retrospectively analyzed 100 cases of pathologically proved acute cholecystitis (AC). A positive HBI was one in which there was nonvisualization of the gallbladder up to four hours after the administration of technetium 99m-disofenin. In the absence of hypoalbuminemia, cirrhosis, or ascites, pathognomonic RTUS findings (strict criteria) for AC were wall edema and/or pericholecystic fluid. Findings indicative of AC (liberal criteria) included the demonstration of stones, a thick gallbladder wall, nonshadowing echoes, or the ultrasonographic Murphy's sign. Of the 100 cases of AC, 91 were calculous, and nine were acalculous. Four of 100 patients had associated choledocholithiasis. The sensitivities in detecting calculous AC were as follows: HBI, 97%; liberal-criteria RTUS, 86%; and strict-criteria RTUS, 24%. The sensitivities in detecting acalculous AC were as follows: HBI, 100%; liberal-criteria RTUS, 89%; and strict-criteria RTUS, 44%.

  11. Emergence of linezolid resistance in hepatobiliary infections caused by Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Niebel, Marc; Perera, M Thamara P R; Shah, Tahir; Marudanayagam, Ravi; Martin, Kate; Oppenheim, Beryl A; David, Miruna D

    2016-02-01

    Enterococcal infections are common in liver transplantation and hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) surgery. Linezolid is frequently used to treat not only vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), but also vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus (VSE) infections, and resistance can develop. This study evaluated all the Liver Unit patients who developed infections with linezolid-resistant Enterococcus (LRE) in order to elicit the association with prior linezolid usage, to explore possible risk factors for infection, and to better understand the epidemiology of these isolates in this patient group. Between 2010 and 2015, infections with LRE developed in 10 patients (8 following liver transplantation and 2 following HPB surgery) after 22-108 days of treatment. Selected pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated that 2 out of 10 patients were cocolonized with different strains and indicated that cross-transmission may have occurred. In conclusion, in this group of patients with complex hepatobiliary infections, the optimal antibiotic strategies for the treatment of Enterococcus faecium infections are not clearly defined, and there is a significant risk of emergence of resistance to linezolid in E. faecium after exposure to this agent in patients, especially in the presence of a deep source of infection on a background of hepatic artery insufficiency. Caution is needed when using prolonged courses of linezolid in this setting, and further studies are necessary to determine the optimum treatment.

  12. Excess body weight and obesity--the link with gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary cancer.

    PubMed

    Kant, Prashant; Hull, Mark A

    2011-04-01

    Excess body weight (EBW) is an independent risk factor for many human malignancies, including cancers throughout the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary tract from the esophagus to the colorectum. The relative risk of gastrointestinal cancer in obese individuals is approximately 1.5-2.0 times that for normal weight individuals, with organ-specific and gender-specific differences for specific cancers. The association between EBW and risk of premalignant stages of gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, such as colorectal adenoma and Barrett esophagus, is similar, implying a role for EBW during the early stages of carcinogenesis that could be relevant to preventative strategies. EBW also impacts negatively on gastrointestinal cancer outcomes. The mechanistic basis of the association between EBW and carcinogenesis remains incompletely understood. Postulated mechanisms include increased insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling and chronic inflammation (both linked to the metabolic syndrome), as well as signaling via adipokines, such as leptin. The role of obesity-related changes in the intestinal microbiome in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis deserves further attention. Whether weight loss leads to reduced future gastrointestinal and liver cancer risk has yet to be fully explored. There is some support for the idea that weight loss negatively regulates colorectal carcinogenesis. In addition, data suggest a reduction in risk of several cancers in the first 10 years after bariatric surgery.

  13. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  14. Hepatic perfusion abnormalities during CT angiography: Detection and interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Freeny, P.C.; Marks, W.M.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-seven perfusion abnormalities were detected in 17 of 50 patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the liver. All but one of the perfusion abnormalities occurred in patients with primary or metastatic liver tumors. Perfusion abnormalities were lobar in nine cases, segmental in 11, and subsegmental in seven; 14 were hypoperfusion and 13 were hyperperfusion abnormalities. The causes for the abnormalities included nonperfusion of a replaced hepatic artery (n = 11), cirrhosis and nodular regeneration (n = 3), altered hepatic hemodynamics (e.g., siphoning, laminar flow) caused by tumor (n = 7), contrast media washout from a nonperfused vessel (n = 1), compression of adjacent hepatic parenchyma (n = 1), and unknown (n = 4). Differentiation of perfusion abnormalities from tumor usually can be made by comparing the morphology of the known tumor with the suspected perfusion abnormality, changes of each on delayed CTA scans, and review of initial angiograms and other imaging studies.

  15. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  16. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  17. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  18. Preoperative nuclear scans in patients with melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Au, F.C.; Maier, W.P.; Malmud, L.S.; Goldman, L.I.; Clark, W.H. Jr.

    1984-05-15

    One hundred forty-one liver scans, 137 brain scans, and 112 bone scans were performed in 192 patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma. One liver scan was interpreted as abnormal; liver biopsy of that patient showed no metastasis. There were 11 suggestive liver scans; three of the patients with suggestive liver scans had negative liver biopsies. The remaining eight patients were followed from 4 to 6 years and none of those patients developed clinical evidence of hepatic metastases. All of the brain scans were normal. Five patients had suggestive bone scans and none of those patients had manifested symptoms of osseous metastases with a follow-up of 2 to 4.5 years. This study demonstrates that the use of preoperative liver, brain and bone scan in the evaluation of patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma is virtually unproductive.

  19. Comparison of traditional methods with 3D computer models in the instruction of hepatobiliary anatomy.

    PubMed

    Keedy, Alexander W; Durack, Jeremy C; Sandhu, Parmbir; Chen, Eric M; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Breiman, Richard S

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether an interactive three-dimensional presentation depicting liver and biliary anatomy is more effective for teaching medical students than a traditional textbook format presentation of the same material. Forty-six medical students volunteered for participation in this study. Baseline demographic information, spatial ability, and knowledge of relevant anatomy were measured. Participants were randomized into two groups and presented with a computer-based interactive learning module comprised of animations and still images to highlight various anatomical structures (3D group), or a computer-based text document containing the same images and text without animation or interactive features (2D group). Following each teaching module, students completed a satisfaction survey and nine-item anatomic knowledge post-test. The 3D group scored higher on the post-test than the 2D group, with a mean score of 74% and 64%, respectively; however, when baseline differences in pretest scores were accounted for, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.33). Spatial ability did not statistically significantly correlate with post-test scores for the 3D group or the 2D group. In the post-test satisfaction survey the 3D group expressed a statistically significantly higher overall satisfaction rating compared to students in the 2D control group (4.5 versus 3.7 out of 5, P = 0.02). While the interactive 3D multimedia module received higher satisfaction ratings from students, it neither enhanced nor inhibited learning of complex hepatobiliary anatomy compared to an informationally equivalent traditional textbook style approach. .

  20. Hypoxia-induced changes in the expression of rat hepatobiliary transporter genes.

    PubMed

    Fouassier, Laura; Beaussier, Marc; Schiffer, Eduardo; Rey, Colette; Barbu, Véronique; Mergey, Martine; Wendum, Dominique; Callard, Patrice; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Lasnier, Elisabeth; Stieger, Bruno; Lienhart, André; Housset, Chantal

    2007-07-01

    Cholestatic disorders may arise from liver ischemia (e.g., in liver transplantation) through various mechanisms. We have examined the potential of hypoxia to induce changes in the expression of hepatobiliary transporter genes. In a model of arterial liver ischemia subsequent to complete arterial deprivation of the rat liver, the mRNA levels of VEGF, a hypoxia-inducible gene, were increased fivefold after 24 h. The pattern of VEGF-induced expression and ultrastructural changes, including swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum, indicated that hypoxia affected primarily cholangiocytes, but also hepatocytes, predominantly in the periportal area. Serum and bile analyses demonstrated liver dysfunction of cholestatic type with reduced bile acid biliary excretion. Fluorescence-labeled ursodeoxycholic acid used as a tracer displayed no regurgitation, eliminating bile leakage as a significant mechanism of cholestasis in this model. In liver tissue, a marked reduction in the mRNA levels of Na(+)-taurocholate-cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp), bile salt export protein (Bsep), and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) and an increase in those of Cftr were detected before bile duct proliferation occurred. In cultured hepatocytes, a nontoxic hypoxic treatment caused a decrease in the mRNA and protein expression of Ntcp, Bsep, and Mrp2 and in the mRNA levels of nuclear factors involved in the transactivation of these genes, i.e., HNF4alpha, RXRalpha, and FXR. In bile duct preparations, hypoxic treatment elicited an increase in Cftr transcripts, along with a rise in cAMP, a major regulator of Cftr expression and function. In conclusion, hypoxia triggers a downregulation of hepatocellular transporters, which may contribute to cholestasis, whereas Cftr, which drives secretion in cholangiocytes, is upregulated. PMID:17615179

  1. Survival of childhood polycystic kidney disease following renal transplantation: the impact of advanced hepatobiliary disease.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ira D; Ho, Martin; Hupertz, Vera; Avner, Ellis D

    2003-10-01

    Childhood PKD encompasses the diagnoses of AR and ADPKD, glomerulocystic disease, and syndromes such as tuberous sclerosis or Jeune's syndrome. Given the fact that a majority of PKD children with ESRD carry the diagnosis of ARPKD, natural history studies assessing the long-term prognosis of PKD patients following renal transplantation must focus on morbidity and mortality issues related to complications from congenital hepatic fibrosis. Using the NAPRTCS registry, we analyzed the patient and graft survival rates of 203 PKD patients and 7044 non-PKD patients undergoing renal transplantation between 1987 and 2001. Deceased PKD patients, all with a diagnosis of ARPKD, were further identified and characterized using a special questionnaire submitted to the principal investigators. Overall graft and patient survival rates were not significantly different between PKD and non-PKD patients. No differences in rates of acute rejection or time to first rejection were noted between PKD and non-PKD patients. The relative risk of living longer than 3 yr in the PKD patients was not significantly different from non-PKD patients (RR = 0.70, p = 0.28). Sepsis was identified as a likely factor in the cause of death in nine (64%) ARPKD patients and was comfirmed with a positive blood culture in four patients. Despite similar graft and patient survival rates among PKD and non-PKD children following renal transplantation, our results suggest that ARPKD transplant recipients appear to be at increased risk for sepsis that may be related to hepatic fibrosis and ascending cholangitis. The utility of early liver transplantation in ARPKD patients with significant hepatobiliary disease is discussed.

  2. Characterization of arsenic hepatobiliary transport using sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Roggenbeck, Barbara A; Carew, Michael W; Charrois, Gregory J; Douglas, Donna N; Kneteman, Norman M; Lu, Xiufen; Le, X Chris; Leslie, Elaine M

    2015-06-01

    Arsenic is a proven human carcinogen and is associated with a myriad of other adverse health effects. This metalloid is methylated in human liver to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) and eliminated predominantly in urine. Hepatic basolateral transport of arsenic species is ultimately critical for urinary elimination; however, these pathways are not fully elucidated in humans. A potentially important human hepatic basolateral transporter is the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4) that in vitro is a high-affinity transporter of DMA(V) and the diglutathione conjugate of MMA(III) [MMA(GS)(2)]. In rats, the related canalicular transporter Mrp2/Abcc2 is required for biliary excretion of arsenic as As(GS)(3) and MMA(GS)(2). The current study used sandwich cultured human hepatocytes (SCHH) as a physiological model of human arsenic hepatobiliary transport. Arsenic efflux was detected only across the basolateral membrane for 9 out of 14 SCHH preparations, 5 had both basolateral and canalicular efflux. Basolateral transport of arsenic was temperature- and GSH-dependent and inhibited by the MRP inhibitor MK-571. Canalicular efflux was completely lost after GSH depletion suggesting MRP2-dependence. Treatment of SCHH with As(III) (0.1-1 µM) dose-dependently increased MRP2 and MRP4 levels, but not MRP1, MRP6, or aquaglyceroporin 9. Treatment of SCHH with oltipraz (Nrf2 activator) increased MRP4 levels and basolateral efflux of arsenic. In contrast, oltipraz increased MRP2 levels without increasing biliary excretion. These results suggest arsenic basolateral transport prevails over biliary excretion and is mediated at least in part by MRPs, most likely including MRP4.

  3. Radiation-dose calculation for five /sup 99/mTc IDA hepatobiliary agents

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.H.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Bobba, V.R.; Kingston, E.; Turner, F.E.

    1982-11-01

    The radiation absorbed doses from five commercially available hepatobiliary agents--/sup 99m/Tc-tagged analogs of IDA (EIDA, PIPIDA, HIDA, PBIDA, DISIDA) have been calculated from biokinetic data in 41 normal subjects. Serial gamma images, with blood and urine samples, were obtained to calculate cumulated radioactivity in the source organs: blood, kidney, bladder, liver, gallbladder, and intestines. The critical organ was the gallbladder, with an absorbed-dose range of 690 to 780 mrad/mCl. Absorbed doses for other target organs were: upper large intestine 320 to 370 mrad/mCi, lower large intestine 210 to 240, small intestine 170 to 200, liver 65 (DISIDA) to 130 (PBIDA), ovaries 63 to 72, and urinary bladder wall 23 (PBIDA) to 36 (EIDA). The radiation absorbed dose was largely independent of changes in chemical structure except in (a) the liver, where absorbed dose varied by a factor of two in proportion to the rate of excretion of the IDA agent from the liver, and (b) the urinary bladder, where absorbed dose varied by a factor of 1.6 because of differences in rate of excretion. When the stimulus for gallbladder emptying is changed from whole-meal ingestion to cholecystokinin injection, the absorbed dose to the gallbladder increases to approximately 1 rad/mCi; if no gallbladder emptying is assumed, its absorbed dose increases to approximately 1.9 rad/mCi. In the absence of contraindication, the gallbladder absorbed dose may thus be decreased by inducing gallbladder emptying at the end of the imaging study.

  4. Radiation-dose calculation for five Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary agents

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.H.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Bobba, V.R.; Kingston, E.; Turner, F.E.

    1982-11-01

    The radiation absorbed doses from five commercially available hepatobiliary agents-Tc-99m-tagged analogs of IDA (EIDA, PIPIDA, HIDA, PBIDA, DISIDA*) have been calculated from biokinetic data in 41 normal subjects. Serial gamma images, with blood and urine samples, were obtained to calculate cumulated radioactivity in the source organs: blood, kidey, bladder, liver, gallbladder, and intestines. The critical organ was the gallbladder, with an absorbed-dose range of 690 to 780 mrad/mCi. Absorbed doses for other target organs were: upper large intestine 320 to 370 mrad/mCi, lower large intestine 210 to 240, small intestine 170 to 200, liver 65 (DISIDA) to 130 (PBIDA), ovaries 63 to 72, and urinary bladder wall 23 (PBIDA) to 36 (EIDA). The radiation absorbed dose was largely independent of changes in chemical structure except in (a) the liver, where absorbed dose varied by a factor of two in proportion to the rate of excretion of the IDA agent from the liver, and (b) the urinary bladder, where absorbed dose varied by a factor of 1.6 because of differences in rate of excretion. When the stimulus for gallbladder emptying is changed from whole-meal ingestion to cholecystokinin injection, the absorbed dose to the gallbladder increases to approx. 1 rad/mCi; if no gallbladder emptying is assumed, its absorbed dose increases to approx. 1.9 rad/mCi. In the absence of contraindication, the gallbladder absorbed dose may thus be decreased by inducing gallbladder emptying at the end of the imaging study.

  5. Interspecies variability in expression of hepatobiliary transporters across human, dog, monkey, and rat as determined by quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Prasad, Bhagwat; Salphati, Laurent; Chu, Xiaoyan; Gupta, Anshul; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Evers, Raymond; Unadkat, Jashvant D

    2015-03-01

    We quantified, by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, transporter protein expression of BSEP, MATE1, MRP3, MRP4, NTCP, and OCT1 in our human liver bank (n = 55) and determined the relationship between protein expression and sex, age and genotype. These data complement our previous work in the same liver bank where we quantified the protein expression of OATPs, BCRP, MDR1, and MRP2. In addition, we quantified and compared the interspecies differences in expression of the hepatobiliary transporters, corresponding to the above human transporters, in liver tissue and hepatocytes of male beagle dogs, cynomolgus monkeys, Sprague-Dawley rats, and Wistar rats. In all the species, the sinusoidal OATPs/Oatps were the most abundant hepatic transporters. However, there were notable interspecies differences in the relative abundance of the remaining transporters. For example, the next most abundant transporter in humans and monkeys was OCT1/Oct1, whereas it was Mrp2 and Ntcp in dogs/Wistar rats and Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively. In contrast, the protein expression of the efflux transporters BCRP/Bcrp, MDR1/Mdr1, MRP3/Mrp3, MRP4/Mrp4, and MATE1/Mate1 was much lower across all the species. For most transporters, the expression in the liver tissues was comparable to that in the unplated cryopreserved hepatocytes. These data on human liver transporter protein expression complete the picture of the expression of major human hepatobiliary transporters important in drug disposition and toxicity. In addition, the data on expression of the corresponding hepatobiliary transporters in preclinical species will be helpful in interpreting and extrapolating pharmacokinetic, pharmacological, and toxicological results from preclinical studies to humans.

  6. Radiogallium scan in P. carinii pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, K.L.; Bakshi, S.P.; Bender, M.A.

    1982-02-01

    A gallium scan performed on a patient with fever of unknown origin (FUO) revealed an abnormal uptake of radiotracer in the lungs despite negative chest roentgenographic examination and other routine diagnostic studies. Subsequent lung biopsy results confirmed the presence of Pneumocystis (P.) carinii infection. A repeat gallium scan obtained following appropriate antibiotic therapy was essentially normal. The importance of radiogallium scanning in an immunosuppressed patient with FUO is emphasized.

  7. Overcoming obstacles to establish a multidisciplinary team approach to hepatobiliary diseases: a working model in a Caribbean setting

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O; Johnson, Peter B; Shah, Sundeep; Roberts, Patrick; Arthurs, Milton; Murphy, Trevor; Bonadie, Kimon O; Crandon, Ivor W; Harding, Hyacinth E; Abu Hilal, Mohammed; Pearce, Neil W

    2014-01-01

    Introduction By providing a structured forum to exchange information and ideas, multidisciplinary team meetings improve working relationships, expedite investigations, promote evidence-based treatment, and ultimately improve clinical outcomes. Methods This discursive paper reports the introduction of a multidisciplinary team approach to manage hepatobiliary diseases in Jamaica, focusing on the challenges encountered and the methods used to overcome these obstacles. Conclusion Despite multiple challenges in resource-limited environments, a multidisciplinary team approach can be incorporated into clinical practice in developing nations. Policy makers should make it a priority to support clinical, operational, and governance aspects of the multidisciplinary teams. PMID:24920917

  8. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  9. Perineal scanning.

    PubMed

    Jeanty, P; d'Alton, M; Romero, R; Hobbins, J C

    1986-10-01

    Although various techniques have been described to aid in the ultrasound diagnosis of placenta previa and incompetent cervix, these maneuvers depend on the precise identification of the internal cervical os, a feat which is notoriously difficult to accomplish consistently. In an attempt to get a closer view of the cervix we tried another approach. This simple technique of perineal scanning has the potential to help considerably with these problems. PMID:3530265

  10. MRI findings in throwing shoulders: abnormalities in professional handball players.

    PubMed

    Jost, Bernhard; Zumstein, Matthias; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Zanetti, Marco; Gerber, Christian

    2005-05-01

    Shoulders of throwing athletes are highly stressed joints and likely to have more structural abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans. Prevalence and type of structural abnormalities, especially abnormalities of the rotator cuff tendons and the superolateral humeral head, and correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings with symptoms and clinical tests, are not well known. Throwing and nonthrowing (symptomatic and asymptomatic) shoulders of 30 fully competitive professional handball players and 20 dominant shoulders of randomly selected volunteers were evaluated for comparison clinically and with magnetic resonance imaging. An average of seven abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings was observed in the throwing shoulders; more than in the nonthrowing and the control shoulders. Although 93% of the throwing shoulders had abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings, only 37% were symptomatic. Partial rotator cuff tears and mainly superolateral osteochondral defects of the humeral head were identified as typical throwing lesions. Symptoms correlated poorly with abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans and findings from clinical tests. This suggests that the evaluation of an athlete's throwing shoulder should be done very thoroughly and should not be based mainly on abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans.

  11. Comparison of ultrasound and hepatobiliary imaging in the early detection of acute total common bile duct obstruction.

    PubMed

    Miller, D R; Egbert, R M; Braunstein, P

    1984-11-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 17 selected patients who underwent hepatobiliary imaging studies using technetium Tc 99m iprofenin that demonstrated acute complete common bile duct obstruction, and who also had a temporally related ultrasonographic study of the hepatobiliary tree. We compared the accuracy of the two methods in the detection of common duct obstruction. The average duration of symptoms was 2.9 days. Serum bilirubin levels averaged 3.3 mg/dL and the average alkaline phosphatase level was 336 mg/dL. The serum amylase level was elevated in only three patients. Ultrasonographic dilatation of the ductal structures was present in seven (41%) of 17 patients; 88% of the patients had other manifestations of gallbladder disease on ultrasonography--either cholelithiasis, dilatation of the gallbladder, or wall thickening. Of 15 patients who were operated on, 11 had stones impacted at the ampulla of Vater. There was a poor correlation of ultrasonographic ductal dilatation and operative findings of ductal dilatation. This study shows the superiority of nuclear imaging over ultrasonography in the early detection of acute, common bile duct obstruction.

  12. Measurement of gallbladder emptying sequentially using a single dose of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled hepatobiliary agent

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Bobba, V.R.; Kingston, E.; Turner, F.

    1982-10-01

    The gallbladder emptying response to a single large (20 ng/kg) and four equally divided sequential small (5 ng/kg each) doses of octapeptide of cholecystokinin at 20-min intervals was measured in a paired study in six normal subjects noninvasively and quantitatively by a nongeometric method using a gamma camera, computer, and /sup 99m/Tc labeled hepatobiliary agent. The gallbladder mean (+/- SD) ejection fraction after a single large dose (20 ng/kg) of octapeptide of cholecystokinin was 34 +/- 24% and after four sequential small (5 ng/kg each) doses was 42 +/- 14%, 45 +/- 28%, 37 +/- 22%, and 32 +/- 27%, respectively (p greater than 0.05). The results of this study indicate that the first part of the 5 ng/kg sequential octapeptide of cholecystokinin dose is as effective as the single 20-ng/kg dose. The gallbladder emptying requires continued presence of high levels of octapeptide of cholecystokinin in the serum closer to levels that initiate contraction and in the absence of which the gallbladder ceases to empty further despite the fact it has inherent capacity to do so. Each of four equal octapeptide of cholecystokinin doses given sequentially elicits, on the average, an equal degree of emptying response. The method has potential for application in the study of the pharmacological effects of drugs on the biliary dynamics using a single dose of /sup 99/mTc-labeled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceutical.

  13. Image-guided Treatment in the Hepatobiliary System: Role of Imaging in Treatment Planning and Posttreatment Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Surabhi; Kambadakone, Avinash; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Arellano, Ronald S; Gervais, Debra A; Sahani, Dushyant

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, image-guided targeted treatments such as percutaneous ablation, intra-arterial embolic therapies, and targeted radiation therapy have shown substantial promise in management of hepatobiliary malignancies. Imaging is integral to patient selection, treatment delivery, and assessment of treatment effectiveness. Preprocedural imaging is crucial and allows local tumor staging, evaluation of surrounding structures, and selection of suitable therapeutic options and strategies for treatment delivery. Postprocedural imaging is required to monitor therapeutic success, detect residual or recurrent disease, and identify procedure-related complications to guide appropriate future therapy. Technical innovations in cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, combined with advances in image postprocessing and new types of contrast agents, allow precise morphologic assessment and functional evaluation of hepatobiliary tumors. Advanced postprocessing techniques such as image fusion and volumetric assessment not only facilitate procedural planning and treatment delivery but also enhance posttreatment imaging surveillance. In addition, molecular imaging techniques such as fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET), PET/CT, and PET/MR imaging offer opportunities to evaluate various physiologic properties of tumors. PMID:26252365

  14. Levels of 8-OxodG Predict Hepatobiliary Pathology in Opisthorchis viverrini Endemic Settings in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saichua, Prasert; Yakovleva, Anna; Kamamia, Christine; Jariwala, Amar R; Sithithaworn, Jiraporn; Sripa, Banchob; Brindley, Paul J; Laha, Thewarach; Mairiang, Eimorn; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Khuntikeo, Narong; Mulvenna, Jason; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Bethony, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is distinct among helminth infections as it drives a chronic inflammatory response in the intrahepatic bile duct that progresses from advanced periductal fibrosis (APF) to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Extensive research shows that oxidative stress (OS) plays a critical role in the transition from chronic O. viverrini infection to CCA. OS also results in the excision of a modified DNA lesion (8-oxodG) into urine, the levels of which can be detected by immunoassay. Herein, we measured concentrations of urine 8-oxodG by immunoassay from the following four groups in the Khon Kaen Cancer Cohort study: (1) O. viverrini negative individuals, (2) O. viverrini positive individuals with no APF as determined by abdominal ultrasound, (3) O. viverrini positive individuals with APF as determined by abdominal ultrasound, and (4) O. viverrini induced cases of CCA. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the utility of creatinine-adjusted urinary 8-oxodG among these groups, along with demographic, behavioral, and immunological risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the predictive accuracy of urinary 8-oxodG for APF and CCA. Elevated concentrations of 8-oxodG in urine positively associated with APF and CCA in a strongly dose-dependent manner. Urinary 8-oxodG concentrations also accurately predicted whether an individual presented with APF or CCA compared to O. viverrini infected individuals without these pathologies. In conclusion, urinary 8-oxodG is a robust 'candidate' biomarker of the progression of APF and CCA from chronic opisthorchiasis, which is indicative of the critical role that OS plays in both of these advanced hepatobiliary pathologies. The findings also confirm our previous observations that severe liver pathology occurs early and asymptomatically in residents of O. viverrini endemic regions, where individuals are infected for years (often decades) with this food-borne pathogen. These

  15. Levels of 8-OxodG Predict Hepatobiliary Pathology in Opisthorchis viverrini Endemic Settings in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jariwala, Amar R.; Sithithaworn, Jiraporn; Sripa, Banchob; Brindley, Paul J.; Laha, Thewarach; Mairiang, Eimorn; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Khuntikeo, Narong; Mulvenna, Jason; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Bethony, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is distinct among helminth infections as it drives a chronic inflammatory response in the intrahepatic bile duct that progresses from advanced periductal fibrosis (APF) to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Extensive research shows that oxidative stress (OS) plays a critical role in the transition from chronic O. viverrini infection to CCA. OS also results in the excision of a modified DNA lesion (8-oxodG) into urine, the levels of which can be detected by immunoassay. Herein, we measured concentrations of urine 8-oxodG by immunoassay from the following four groups in the Khon Kaen Cancer Cohort study: (1) O. viverrini negative individuals, (2) O. viverrini positive individuals with no APF as determined by abdominal ultrasound, (3) O. viverrini positive individuals with APF as determined by abdominal ultrasound, and (4) O. viverrini induced cases of CCA. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the utility of creatinine-adjusted urinary 8-oxodG among these groups, along with demographic, behavioral, and immunological risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the predictive accuracy of urinary 8-oxodG for APF and CCA. Elevated concentrations of 8-oxodG in urine positively associated with APF and CCA in a strongly dose-dependent manner. Urinary 8-oxodG concentrations also accurately predicted whether an individual presented with APF or CCA compared to O. viverrini infected individuals without these pathologies. In conclusion, urinary 8-oxodG is a robust ‘candidate’ biomarker of the progression of APF and CCA from chronic opisthorchiasis, which is indicative of the critical role that OS plays in both of these advanced hepatobiliary pathologies. The findings also confirm our previous observations that severe liver pathology occurs early and asymptomatically in residents of O. viverrini endemic regions, where individuals are infected for years (often decades) with this food-borne pathogen. These

  16. Comparison of gadolinium Cy{sub 2}DOTA, a new hepatobiliary agent, and gadolinium HP-DO3A, an extracellular agent, in healthy liver and metastatic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M.

    1995-02-01

    A new gadolinium (Gd) chelate with preferential hepatobiliary uptake, Gd Cy{sub 2}DOTA, was compared in two animal species with Gd HP-DO3A (gadoteridol), a clinically approved contrast agent with extracellular distribution. Liver enhancement was evaluated for these two contrast agents using magnetic resonance imaging, whereas an experimental model of metastatic disease was used to evaluate the agents` efficacy for liver-lesion delineation. The two agents were compared in four healthy Rhesus monkeys (eight studies) and five New Zealand White rabbits with implanted VX-2 liver tumors (ten studies). The contrast dose was 0.1 mmol/kg, with the agents given in random order and at least 72 hours between contrast injections. Breathhold T1-weighted spin echo scans were obtained at 1.5 tesla (T) before and after contrast was administered. Postcontrast scans were obtained 1 to 90 minutes after injection in the monkeys and 1 to 240 minutes after injection in the rabbits. Prolonged hepatic enhancement, superior in degree to that with Gd HP-DO3A, was noted to both monkeys and rabbits after injection of Gd Cy{sub 2}DOTA. Two minutes after contrast, liver SI was 1.94 {+-} 0.05 with Gd Cy{sub 2}DOTA compared with 1.5 {+-} 0.05 with Gd HP-DO3A in monkeys. Sixty minutes after contrast, liver SI was 1.60 {+-} 0.09 compared with 1.20 {+-} 0.02. The difference between agents was significant at all times from 2 to 60 minutes after contrast injection (P < 0.01). Excretion of contrast into the gall bladder was observed in both animal species with Gd Cy{sub 2}DOTA but not with Gd HP-DO3A. The maximum improvement in lesion conspicuity (rabbit) occurred 45 minutes after injection of Gd Cy{sub 2}DOTA and 5 minutes after injection of Gd HP-DO3A. 22 refs., 12 figs.

  17. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  18. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for non-neoplastic conditions in the hepatobiliary and pancreatic regions: pearls and potential pitfalls in imaging interpretation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Suk; Kim, Dong Uk; Seo, Hyung Ii; Kim, Hyun Sung; Jo, Hong Jae; Kim, Tae Un

    2015-03-01

    Potentially, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) can assess the functional information on concerning the status of tissue cellularity, because increased cellularity is associated with impeded diffusion. DWI in the hepatobiliary and pancreatic regions has demonstrated the usefulness to detect malignant lesions and differentiate them from benign lesions. However, it has been shown more recently that there is some overlap in ADC values for benign and malignant neoplasms. Moreover, some non-neoplastic lesions in the hepatobiliary and pancreatic regions exhibit restricted diffusion on DWI, because of pus, inflammation, or high cellularity. Focal eosinophilic liver disease, hepatic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, granulomatous liver disease, acute cholecystitis, xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis, focal pancreatitis, or autoimmune pancreatitis frequently exhibit restricted diffusion on DWI, which may be confused with malignancy in the hepatobiliary and pancreatic regions. Thus, DWI should not be interpreted in isolation, but in conjunction with other conventional images, to avoid the diagnostic pitfalls of DWI. Nevertheless, the presence of diffusion restriction in the non-neoplastic lesions sometimes provides additional information regarding the diagnosis, in problematic patients where conventional images have yielded equivocal findings. DWI may help differentiate hepatic abscess from malignant necrotic tumors, gallbladder empyema from dense bile or sludge in the gallbladder, and pylephlebitis from bland thrombosis in the portal vein. Therefore, knowledge of DWI findings to conventional imaging findings of diffusion-restricted non-neoplastic conditions in the hepatobiliary and pancreatic regions helps establishing a correct diagnosis. PMID:25216848

  19. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  20. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  1. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  2. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  3. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  4. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mallapur, Avanti; Choudhury, B C

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research.

  5. [Consanguinity and congenital abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Marie; Vedsted-Jakobsen, Agnete

    2003-04-28

    Knowledge of consanguinity is relevant for employees in the Danish national health service, since about 7.5% of the Danish population has another ethnic background than Danish and the majority comes from cultures where consanguineous marriages are not unusual. In the literature it is found that consanguineous couples have a higher risk of having children with congenital malformations. The risk is increased by a factor 2 to 2 1/2. The average risk in Denmark is about 3%. Primarily, the autosomal recessive diseases are expressed in children with consanguineous parents. In order to advise and diagnose it is essential to clarify the consanguinity state. In case of pregnancy with consanguineous parents, we recommend: 1) Counselling to estimate the risk of foetal illness and information about possible examination possibilities. 2) An ultrasound scan at the gestational age of 11-14 weeks in order to measure nuchal translucency and an early malformation scan. 3) An ultrasound scan for malformations at the gestational age of 18-20 weeks. 4) An ultrasound scan especially in order to detect foetal heart malformations at the gestational age of 20-24 weeks.

  6. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  8. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  9. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  10. Focal electroencephalographic abnormalities and computerised tomography findings in children with seizures.

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, J; Appleton, R E; Carty, H; Beirne, M; Acomb, B A

    1993-01-01

    A persistent focal abnormality was observed in 157 (16%) electroencephalograms undertaken in 964 consecutive children with epileptic and non-epileptic seizures seen over one year. CT head scans were performed in 121 (77%) of the 157 children with a focus on the EEG; 26 (21%) showed an abnormality, and 21 (81%) of the abnormalities were localised. There was no difference in the proportion of abnormal scans associated with a delta or slow wave focus compared with a spike or sharp wave focus. An abnormal scan was uncommon after a single seizure. In only two patients (1.7% of all scans) did the findings on CT alter or greatly influence subsequent management. PMID:8482957

  11. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  12. Efficacy of Prothrombin Complex Concentrate Treatment in Patients with Liver Coagulopathy Who Underwent Various Invasive Hepatobiliary and Gastrointestinal Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Lesmana, Cosmas Rinaldi A.; Cahyadinata, Lidwina; Pakasi, Levina S.; Lesmana, Laurentius A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) containing prothrombin, factors VII, IX, and X, as well as the inhibitors protein C and S have been used as an emergent reversal for oral anticoagulation therapy. The use of PCCs in hepatobiliary disorder patients or patients with liver coagulopathy who need to undergo invasive procedures has not been well studied. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of PCC treatment in order to control or prevent bleeding complications in patients with liver coagulopathy who undergo various invasive procedures. Methods This was a prospective, open-label, non-randomized, before-and-after study in patients with hepatobiliary disorders who underwent invasive procedures accompanied by liver impairment and received PCC injection (Cofact®, Sanquin, The Netherlands). Patients with coagulopathy from various causes were recruited consecutively. Data collected were the episodes of bleeding, liver function test and the international normalized ratio (INR) before and after PCC therapy. The primary endpoint was INR change after treatment, while secondary endpoints included bleeding control and bleeding event after treatment. Results Thirty patients (17 men, 13 women) were enrolled. Patients’ mean age was 57.0 + 15.5 years. Liver cirrhosis was found in 14 patients (46.7%). The procedures consisted of liver biopsy, liver abscess aspiration, abdominal paracentesis, therapeutic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, abdominal surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. After treatment, 25 patients (83.3%) showed a decreased median INR (from 1.6 to 1.3) (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon's signed-rank test). Five patients failed to show INR reduction. No new bleeding event related to the invasive procedures was observed. Conclusion PCC treatment is effective to control and prevent bleeding complications in patients with liver coagulopathy who undergo invasive procedures. PMID:27482190

  13. Clinical outcomes for patients with liver-limited metastatic colorectal cancer: Arguing the case for specialist hepatobiliary multidisciplinary assessment.

    PubMed

    Thillai, K; Repana, D; Korantzis, I; Kane, P; Prachalias, A; Ross, P

    2016-09-01

    In patients with liver-limited metastatic colorectal cancer, hepatic resection can offer a significant survival benefit over systemic therapy alone. Specialist hepatobiliary multidisciplinary meetings are currently believed to provide the best forum to discuss the management for these patients. A retrospective analysis was undertaken of patients diagnosed with liver-limited metastatic colorectal cancer over 6 months within a cancer network in the United Kingdom. In addition, patients who were diagnosed but not referred to the hepatobiliary meeting were discussed within a virtual multi-disciplinary setting. Contributors were blinded and proposed management recorded. 159 newly diagnosed patients with liver-limited metastatic colorectal cancer were identified. 68 (43%) were referred at initial diagnosis and 38 (24%) referred following systemic treatment. 35 (51%) who were discussed at baseline underwent a subsequent hepatectomy or radiofrequency ablation, as did 18 (47%) patients referred after chemotherapy. Of the remaining 53 (33%) patients not referred, imaging was available for 31 (58%). Decisions regarding potential liver-directed therapy were discussed within a multi-disciplinary setting. 13 (42%) were identified as resectable or potentially resectable and 11 (36%) may have been suitable for a clinical trial. In reality, none of these 31 patients (100%) underwent surgery or ablation. Whilst the majority of patients with liver-limited metastatic colorectal cancer were referred appropriately, this study demonstrates that a significant number with potentially resectable disease are not being discussed at specialist meetings. A review of all diagnosed cases would ensure that an increased number of patients are offered hepatic resection or ablation. PMID:27174600

  14. Hepatoprotection in bile duct ligated mice mediated by darbepoetin-α is not caused by changes in hepatobiliary transporter expression

    PubMed Central

    Eipel, Christian; Menschikow, Elena; Sigal, Michael; Kuhla, Angela; Abshagen, Kerstin; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Darbepoetin-α (DPO), a long-acting erythropoietin analog, has been shown to protect the liver against cholestatic injury, to exert an antifibrotic effect, and to increase the survival time in a model of common bile duct ligation. Here we evaluate whether these tissue-protective effects are caused by DPO induced regulation of hepatobiliary transporters. Main methods: C57BL/6J mice underwent common bile duct ligation and were treated with either DPO or physiological saline. Time dependent (2, 5, 14, 28 days after bile duct ligation) protein expression of different hepatobiliary transporters which have been established to play an important role in hepatocellular (i) bile acid uptake, (ii) bile acid excretion, and (iii) retrograde bile acid efflux were assessed. mRNA and protein expression of Lhx2, an important negative regulator of hepatic stellate cell activation, was determined. Key findings: Saline treated cholestatic mice impress with increased mRNA expression of Lhx2 as a defense mechanism, while there is less need for such an upregulation in mice treated with DPO. Whereas Ntcp (slc10a1) protein expression is suppressed as early as 2 days after bile duct ligation to 40% in untreated animals, DPO treated mice exhibit decreased protein level not before day 5. Similarly, the steady decline of Mrp4 (abcc4) protein level during extrahepatic cholestasis in control treated animals does not occur upon DPO application. Significance: The collected data show that DPO affects expression of hepatobilliary transporters during obstructive cholestasis but do not provide sufficient evidence to demonstrate a direct correlation between this regulation and hepatoprotection by DPO. PMID:23236546

  15. Photodynamic effect of photosensitizer-loaded hollow silica nanoparticles for hepatobiliary malignancies: an in vitro and in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiaofeng; Xiong, Li; Wen, Yu; Liu, Zhongtao; Pei, Dongni; Huang, Yaxun; Miao, Xiongying

    2014-03-01

    Background and aims: Nanoparticles have been explored recently as an efficient delivery system for photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy. In this study, polyhematoporphyrin (C34H38N4NaO5,) was loaded into hollow silica nanoparticles (HSNP) by one-step wet chemical-based synthetic route. We evaluate the efficacy and safety of polyhematoporphyrin-loaded HSNP with hepatobiliary malignant cells and in vivo models. Methods: Human liver cancer, cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer cells were cultured with the HSNP and cellular viability was determined by MTT assay. Apoptotic and necrotic cells were measured by flow cytometry. Finally, we investigate its effect in vivo. Results: In MTT assay, the cell viability of QBC939, Huh-7, GBC-SD and HepG2 cells of the HSNP was 6.4+/-1.3%, 6.5+/-1.2%, 3.7+/-1.2% and 4.7+/-2.0%, respectively, which were significant different from that of free polyhematoporphyrin 62.4+/-4.7%, 62.5+/-6.0%, 33.4+/-6.5% and 44.3+/-1.9%. Flow cytometry demonstrated the laser-induced cell death with polyhematoporphyrin-loaded HSNP was much more severe. Similarly, in vivo results of each kind of cell revealed 14 days post-photoradiated, tumor sizes of the HSNP group were significantly smaller. Administration of the HSNP without illumination cannot cause killing effect both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Conclusions: HSNP is a desirable delivery system in photodynamic therapy for hepatobiliary malignacies, with improved aqueous solubility, stability and transport efficiency of photosensitizers.

  16. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Glass, J.P.; Geoffray, A.; Wallace, S.

    1984-11-01

    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise.

  17. Pelvic CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - pelvis; Computed axial tomography scan - pelvis; Computed tomography scan - pelvis; CT scan - pelvis ... creates detailed pictures of the body, including the pelvis and areas near the pelvis. The test may ...

  18. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... on film. Three-dimensional (3D) models of the leg can be created by adding the slices together. ...

  19. Abscess scan - radioactive

    MedlinePlus

    Radioactive abscess scan; Abscess scan; Indium Scan; Indium-labelled white blood cell scan ... the white blood cells are tagged with a radioactive substance called indium. The cells are then injected ...

  20. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  1. Technetium 99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scans in children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Laxer, R.M.; Allen, R.C.; Malleson, P.N.; Morrison, R.T.; Petty, R.E.

    1985-03-01

    Eleven children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy were investigated by technetium-labeled methylene diphosphonate bone scanning. Eight of 12 scans demonstrated abnormal findings, four showing diffusely decreased uptake and four diffusely increased uptake of the radionuclide in the affected site. Three scans showed normal findings initially, as did one previously abnormal scan when repeated in the asymptomatic patient 6 months later. Diffusely abnormal findings can be helpful in the diagnosis of childhood reflex neurovascular dystrophy, but a normal scan does not exclude the diagnosis.

  2. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  3. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  4. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  5. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  6. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  7. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  8. Abnormal grain growth in AISI 304L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Shirdel, M.; Mirzadeh, H.; Parsa, M.H.

    2014-11-15

    The microstructural evolution during abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in 304L stainless steel was studied in a wide range of annealing temperatures and times. At relatively low temperatures, the grain growth mode was identified as normal. However, at homologous temperatures between 0.65 (850 °C) and 0.7 (900 °C), the observed transition in grain growth mode from normal to abnormal, which was also evident from the bimodality in grain size distribution histograms, was detected to be caused by the dissolution/coarsening of carbides. The microstructural features such as dispersed carbides were characterized by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and microhardness. Continued annealing to a long time led to the completion of secondary recrystallization and the subsequent reappearance of normal growth mode. Another instance of abnormal grain growth was observed at homologous temperatures higher than 0.8, which may be attributed to the grain boundary faceting/defaceting phenomenon. It was also found that when the size of abnormal grains reached a critical value, their size will not change too much and the grain growth behavior becomes practically stagnant. - Highlights: • Abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in AISI 304L stainless steel • Exaggerated grain growth due to dissolution/coarsening of carbides • The enrichment of carbide particles by titanium • Abnormal grain growth due to grain boundary faceting at very high temperatures • The stagnancy of abnormal grain growth by annealing beyond a critical time.

  9. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  10. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  11. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  12. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

  13. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  14. Abnormal EEG and calcification of the pineal gland in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R; Kay, S R

    1992-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) studies of the brain in schizophrenic patients have demonstrated a variety of structural abnormalities. We reported recently an association between pineal calcification (PC) and cortical and prefrontal cortical atrophy, and third ventricular size on CT scan in chronic schizophrenic patients. These findings indicate that in schizophrenia PC is associated with the morphological brain abnormalities associated with the disease. If PC is, indeed, related to organic cerebral pathology, then one would expect a higher prevalence of pineal gland pathology among patients with electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities by comparison to those with a normal EEG. To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the prevalence of PC on CT scan in a sample of 52 neuroleptic-treated schizophrenic patients (29 men, 23 women, mean age: 51.3 years SD = 9.1), of whom 10 (19.2%) had an abnormal EEG. The prevalence of PC in patients with EEG abnormalities was significantly greater by comparison to those with a normal EEG (90.0% vs. 54.8%, X2 = 4.24, p < .05). Since both groups did not differ on any of the historical and demographic data, and since PC was unrelated to neuroleptic exposure, these findings suggest that in schizophrenia PC may be related to the disease process and that it may be a marker of subcortical pathology. PMID:1342008

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  16. Triple-phase bone image abnormalities in Lyme arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.J.; Dadparvar, S.; Slizofski, W.J.; Glab, L.B.; Burger, M. )

    1989-10-01

    Arthritis is a frequent manifestation of Lyme disease. Limited triple-phase Tc-99m MDP bone imaging of the wrists and hands with delayed whole-body images was performed in a patient with Lyme arthritis. This demonstrated abnormal joint uptake in the wrists and hands in all three phases, with increased activity seen in other affected joints on delayed whole-body images. These findings are nonspecific and have been previously described in a variety of rheumatologic conditions, but not in Lyme disease. Lyme disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of articular and periarticular bone scan abnormalities.

  17. Ophthalmologic abnormalities on FDG-PET/CT: a pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Muzaffar, Razi; Shousha, Mohamed A.; Sarajlic, Lejla

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Positron emission tomography (PET) using [18F]-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) diagnoses, stages, and restages many cancers and is often better than anatomic imaging alone. However, abnormalities within the orbit present a challenge in evaluation, mainly due to the subtle findings on PET/computed tomography (CT). In addition, this region is typically at the edge of the field of view for the standard base of skull to upper thigh FDG-PET/CT scans. The aim of this pictorial essay is to illustrate several subtle and apparent abnormalities within the orbit that can have a profound impact on patient management and follow-up. PMID:23524026

  18. I-123 Iofetamine SPECT scan in children with neurological disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Flamini, J.R.; Konkol, R.J.; Wells, R.G.; Sty, J.R. )

    1990-10-01

    I-123 Iofetamine (IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the brain in 42 patients (ages 14 days to 23 years) was compared with other localizing studies in children with neurological diseases. All had an EEG and at least one imaging study of the brain (computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or both). Seventy-eight percent of the patients had an EEG within 24-72 hours of the IMP-SPECT scan. Thirty-five (83%) had a history of seizures, and the remainder had other neurological conditions without a history of seizures. In most cases, a normal EEG reading with normal CT or MRI result predicted a normal SPECT study. When the EEG was abnormal the majority of the IMP-SPECT scans were abnormal and localized the abnormality to the same region. A comparison with CT and MRI showed that structural abnormalities involving the cortex were usually well demonstrated with IMP-SPECT imaging. Structural lesions confined to the white matter were generally not detectable with IMP-SPECT. In a few cases, SPECT scans revealed abnormalities in deep brain areas not identified by EEG. IMP-SPECT imaging is a valuable technique for the detection and localization of abnormal cerebral metabolic activity in children with seizure disorders. A correlation with CT or MRI is essential for proper interpretation of abnormalities detected with IMP SPECT imaging.

  19. Radionuclide bone scanning in giant cell tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nostrand, D.; Madewell, J.E.; McNiesh, L.M.; Kyle, R.W.; Sweet, D.

    1986-03-01

    Radionuclide bone scan findings are described and correlated with pathology in 23 patients with giant cell tumor (GCT) of the bone. The degree of radionuclide activity was markedly increased in 20 (87%), minimally increased in three (13%), and decreased in none of the patients. Of the 23 patients with increased radioactivity, the pattern was diffuse in 11 (48%) and doughnut in 12 (52%). Extended patterns of radioactivity were present in 19 of 22 patients; however, none were associated with true tumor extension. Bone scanning did not aid in the detection of GCT, was nonspecific, and did not differentiate benign from malignant GCT. Although radioactivity extended beyond the radiographic abnormality in the majority of patients, this was most likely secondary to other bony abnormalities or local and/or regional hyperemia, and caution should be taken in ascribing this extension to either tumor or metastasis.

  20. The enhanced value of combining conventional and 'omics' analyses in early assessment of drug-induced hepatobiliary injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun; Adler, Melanie; Amberg, Alexander; Brandenburg, Arnd; Callanan, John J.; Connor, Susan; Fountoulakis, Michael; Gmuender, Hans; Gruhler, Albrecht; Hodson, Mark; Matheis, Katja A.; McCarthy, Diane; Raschke, Marian; Riefke, Bjoern; Schmitt, Christina S.; Sieber, Max; Sposny, Alexandra; Suter, Laura; Sweatman, Brian

    2011-04-15

    The InnoMed PredTox consortium was formed to evaluate whether conventional preclinical safety assessment can be significantly enhanced by incorporation of molecular profiling ('omics') technologies. In short-term toxicological studies in rats, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics data were collected and analyzed in relation to routine clinical chemistry and histopathology. Four of the sixteen hepato- and/or nephrotoxicants given to rats for 1, 3, or 14 days at two dose levels induced similar histopathological effects. These were characterized by bile duct necrosis and hyperplasia and/or increased bilirubin and cholestasis, in addition to hepatocyte necrosis and regeneration, hepatocyte hypertrophy, and hepatic inflammation. Combined analysis of liver transcriptomics data from these studies revealed common gene expression changes which allowed the development of a potential sequence of events on a mechanistic level in accordance with classical endpoint observations. This included genes implicated in early stress responses, regenerative processes, inflammation with inflammatory cell immigration, fibrotic processes, and cholestasis encompassing deregulation of certain membrane transporters. Furthermore, a preliminary classification analysis using transcriptomics data suggested that prediction of cholestasis may be possible based on gene expression changes seen at earlier time-points. Targeted bile acid analysis, based on LC-MS metabonomics data demonstrating increased levels of conjugated or unconjugated bile acids in response to individual compounds, did not provide earlier detection of toxicity as compared to conventional parameters, but may allow distinction of different types of hepatobiliary toxicity. Overall, liver transcriptomics data delivered mechanistic and molecular details in addition to the classical endpoint observations which were further enhanced by targeted bile acid analysis using LC/MS metabonomics.

  1. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  2. [Pili annulati. A scanning electron microscopy study].

    PubMed

    Lalević-Vasić, B; Polić, D

    1988-01-01

    A case of ringed hair studied by light and electron microscopy is reported. The patient, a 20-year old girl, had been presenting with the hair abnormality since birth. At naked eye examination the hairs were dry, 6 to 7 cm long, and they showed dull and shining areas giving the scalp hair a scintillating appearance (fig. 1). Several samples of hair were taken and examined by light microscopy under white and polarized light. Hair shafts and cryo-fractured surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS. 1. Light microscopy. Lesions were found in every hair examined. There were abnormal, opaque and fusiform areas alternating with normal areas all along the hair shaft (fig. 2). The abnormal areas resulted from intracortical air-filled cavities. Fractures similar to those of trichorrhexis nodosa were found in the opaque areas of the distal parts of the hairs. 2. Scanning electron microscopy. A. Hair shaft surface. The abnormal areas showed a longitudinal, "curtain-like" folding of the cuticular cells which had punctiform depressions on their surface and worn free edges (fig. 4, 5, 6); trichorrhexis-type fractures were seen in the distal parts of the hair shafts (fig. 7, 8). Normal areas regularly presented with longitudinal, superficial, short and non-systematized depressions (fig. 9); the cuticular cells were worn, and there were places where the denuded cortex showed dissociated cortical fibres (fig. 10).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Frequency and patterns of abnormality detected by iodine-123 amine emission CT after cerebral infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Brott, T.G.; Gelfand, M.J.; Williams, C.C.; Spilker, J.A.; Hertzberg, V.S.

    1986-03-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 31 patients with cerebral infarction and 13 who had had transient ischemic attacks, using iodine-123-labeled N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxyl-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propanediamin e (I-123-HIPDM) as the radiopharmaceutical. SPECT scans were compared with computed tomographic (CT) scans. SPECT was as sensitive as CT in detecting cerebral infarction (94% vs. 84%). The abnormalities were larger on the SPECT scans than on the CT scans in 19 cases, equal in seven, and smaller in five (SPECT abnormalities greater than or equal to CT abnormalities in 86% of cases). Fifteen of 30 patients with hemispheric infarction had decreased perfusion (decreased uptake of I-123-HIPDM) to the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to the cerebral hemisphere involved by the infarction (crossed cerebellar diaschisis). Nine of these 15 patients had major motor deficits, while only one of the 15 without crossed cerebellar diaschisis had a major motor deficit.

  4. Detection of abnormalities in tissues equivalent phantoms by multi-probe laser reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandian, P. S.; Kumaravel, M.; Singh, Megha

    2007-07-01

    The optical parameters of tissue-equivalent phantoms are determined by matching the normalized backscattering intensity (NBI) profiles iteratively with that obtained by Monte Carlo simulation procedure. Tissue equivalent optical phantoms (control and with abnormality) were prepared by mixing measured quantities of paraffin wax with wax colors. Abnormalities to be placed in the phantoms were prepared by controlling the absorption and scattering coefficients. The NBI profiles of the phantoms are obtained by an automatic non-contact scanning multi-probe laser reflectometer and are displayed as gray level images after processing. The NBI variations from the abnormality phantoms have distinct variations based on the optical characteristics of the abnormality embedded at various locations and depths. There is a considerable decrease or increase in the NBI variations for different detector probes based on the increase or decrease in absorption and scattering coefficients of abnormalities, respectively. From the profile of subtracted image the peak corresponds to the location of the abnormality and from the full width at half maximum the size of the abnormality is obtained. By further scanning of the image of the phantom with abnormality the depth of the embedded abnormality is obtained.

  5. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  6. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... 2016:chap 133. Radiologyinfo.org. Computed tomography (CT) - abdomen and pelvis. Updated June 16, 2016. www.radiologyinfo. ...

  7. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  8. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  9. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed.

  10. Bone scanning in patients with early breast carcinoma: should it be a routine staging procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.T.

    1981-02-01

    Bone scanning is a sensitive test for the detection of metastatic breast cancer, but not all abnormal findings on bone scan are diagnostic of skeletal metastasis. Recent studies have found a relatively low rate (less than or equal to 5%) of abnormal scans in patients with Stage I and II breast cancers, and only half of those with positive scans subsequently had documented bony metastasis. The overwhelming clinical experiences summarized here question the value of including bone scanning as part of the routine work-up of patients with early breast cancers.

  11. Value of gallium scans and lymphangiography in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the Waldeyer's ring

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, N.; Kondo, M.; Kubo, A.; Hashimoto, S.

    1986-12-15

    In 37 patients with seemingly localized non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the Waldeyer's ring (WR-NHL), lymphangiography (LAG) and/or gallium-67 scans (Ga-67 scans) were done. Before these procedures, 20 patients were diagnosed as Stage I, and 17 as Stage II. LAG was done for 30, and Ga-67 scans for 32, 25 of whom had both. Five patients (16%) were upstaged to Stage III or IV by Ga-67 scans. Only one (3%) had abnormal LAG findings, in whom Ga-67 scans also showed abnormal accumulation in the para-aortic region. Because of this low positive rate, LAG is not recommended for staging of WR-NHL.

  12. Scanning Seismic Intrusion Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Scanning seismic intrusion detector employs array of automatically or manually scanned sensors to determine approximate location of intruder. Automatic-scanning feature enables one operator to tend system of many sensors. Typical sensors used with new system are moving-coil seismic pickups. Detector finds uses in industrial security systems.

  13. Multipurpose binocular scanning apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, F. R.; Parker, G. L.

    1969-01-01

    Optical gimballing apparatus directs narrow fields of view throughout solid angle approaching 4 pi steradians. Image rotation produced by scanning can be eliminated or altered by gear trains directly linked to the scanning drive assembly. It provides the basis for a binocular scanning capability.

  14. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    MedlinePlus

    V/Q scan; Ventilation/perfusion scan; Lung ventilation/perfusion scan ... A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan is actually two tests. They may be done separately or together. During the perfusion scan, a health care ...

  15. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24 hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30 ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH.

  16. Line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carucci, John A.; Stevenson, Mary; Gareau, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We created a line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope as part of a new procedure: video assisted micrographic surgery (VAMS). The need for rapid pathological assessment of the tissue on the surface of skin excisions very large since there are 3.5 million new skin cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. The new design presented here is a confocal microscope without any scanning optics. Instead, a line is focused in space and the sample, which is flattened, is physically translated such that the line scans across its face in a direction perpendicular to the line its self. The line is 6mm long and the stage is capable of scanning 50 mm, hence the field of view is quite large. The theoretical diffraction-limited resolution is 0.7um lateral and 3.7um axial. However, in this preliminary report, we present initial results that are a factor of 5-7 poorer in resolution. The results are encouraging because they demonstrate that the linear array detector measures sufficient signal from fluorescently labeled tissue and also demonstrate the large field of view achievable with VAMS.

  17. Lung gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation in the lungs, most often due to sarcoidosis or a certain type of pneumonia. Normal Results ... up very little gallium. What Abnormal Results Mean Sarcoidosis Other respiratory infections, most often pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia ...

  18. Bone Scanning in the Adductor Insertion Avulsion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Madhuri Shimpi

    2013-01-01

    A thigh splint (adductor insertion avulsion syndrome) is a relatively uncommon diagnosis analogous to shin splints. This article reports a 19-year-old female patient NOT a regular athlete who presented with groin pain. Physical examination was non-specific; magnetic resonance imaging pelvis did not reveal any abnormality. Patient referred for whole body bone scan, especially to locate any abnormality in the spine. This study highlights the role of whole body bone scan in the evaluation of groin pain and importance of evaluation of whole lower extremity. PMID:25126001

  19. Abnormal thallium 201 scintigraphy during low-dose vasopressin infusions

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, R.; Kaplan, K.; Bines, A.; Spies, S.; Reed, M.T.; Lesch, M.

    1986-12-01

    Thallium 201 (/sup 201/Tl) myocardial scans were obtained in 16 patients just prior to the discontinuation of a vasopressin infusion (.1 to .2 units/min) administered for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Repeat scintigraphy was performed two to three hours after the vasopressin was stopped. Eleven of the 16 patients (69 percent) demonstrated areas of decreased myocardial /sup 201/Tl uptake that resolved after the infusion was stopped. Heart rate-blood pressure product was significantly lower at the time of the second scan. Autopsies were secured in three of 11 scan-positive patients: one had severe coronary artery obstruction, one nonsignificant disease, and another had normal coronary arteries. Vasopressin, even at low doses, can induce abnormalities in myocardial perfusion that are probably mediated by a direct effect on the coronary circulation. They are usually not detectable by routine monitoring techniques and conceivably form the basis for the cardiovascular morbidity associated with the use of this agent.

  20. [Transient abnormal Q-waves].

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Hoeck, H C; Sørensen, J A

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of transient abnormal Q-waves (TAQ) and a review of the literature. TAQ are defined as abnormal Q-waves, which disappear within ten days. They are most often seen in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) but are also seen in other conditions. Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia giving rise to reversible biochemical and ultrastructural myocardial changes, resulting in transient ECG changes, provide an accepted theory for the pathogenesis of TAO. Investigations have shown that the occurrence of exercise-induced TAQ may be a symptom of IHD. It is impossible to distinguish TAQ from Q-waves induced by myocardial infarction. Appearance of TAQ during exercise-testing frequently indicates IHD. PMID:2301045

  1. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  2. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Verges, B; Chavanet, P; Desgres, J; Kisterman, J P; Waldner, A; Vaillant, G; Portier, H; Brun, J M; Putelat, R

    The finding of endocrine gland lesions at pathological examination in AIDS and reports of several cases of endocrine disease in patients with this syndrome have prompted us to study endocrine functions in 63 patients (51 men, 12 women) with HIV-1 infection. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) classification system, 13 of these patients were stage CDC II, 27 stage CDC III and 23 stage CDC IV. We explored the adrenocortical function (ACTH, immediate tetracosactrin test) and the thyroid function (free T3 and T4 levels, TRH on TSH test) in all 63 patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (testosterone levels, LHRH test) and prolactin secretion (THR test) were explored in the 51 men. The results obtained showed early peripheral testicular insufficiency at stage CDC II and early pituitary gland abnormalities with hypersecretion of ACTH and prolactin also at stage CDC II. On the other hand, adrenocortical and pituitary abnormalities were not frequently found. The physiopathology of the endocrine abnormalities observed in HIV-1-infected patients remains unclear, but one may suspect that it involves interleukin-1 since this protein factor has recently been shown to stimulate the corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion and to act directly on the glycoprotein capsule of the virus (gp 120) whose structure is similar to that of some neurohormones.

  3. Evaluation of the Endothelin Receptor Antagonists Ambrisentan, Bosentan, Macitentan, and Sitaxsentan as Hepatobiliary Transporter Inhibitors and Substrates in Sandwich-Cultured Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lepist, Eve-Irene; Gillies, Hunter; Smith, William; Hao, Jia; Hubert, Cassandra; St. Claire, Robert L.; Brouwer, Kenneth R.; Ray, Adrian S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Inhibition of the transporter-mediated hepatobiliary elimination of bile salts is a putative mechanism for liver toxicity observed with some endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs). Methods Sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes were used to study the hepatobiliary distribution and accumulation of exogenous taurocholate, ERAs and endogenous bile acids. The molecular mechanisms for findings in hepatocytes or clinical observations were further explored using either vesicular assays (efflux transporters) or transfected cell-lines (uptake transporters). Inhibition constants (IC50) were measured for the human hepatobiliary transporters bile salt export pump (BSEP), sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) and OATP1B3. Results The ERAs showed dose-dependent reductions in exogenous taurocholate cellular accumulation in human hepatocytes, with macitentan having the greatest effect. Consistent with their effects on bile acids, the ERAs inhibited bile transporters. IC50 values for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 ranged from 2 µM for macitentan to 47 µM for ambrisentan. Macitentan and bosentan also inhibited NTCP with IC50 values of 10 and 36 µM, respectively. Similar to previously reported findings with sitaxsentan, BSEP inhibition was observed for bosentan and macitentan with IC50 values of 42 and 12 µM, respectively. In contrast, ambrisentan showed little or no inhibition of these transporters. Other transporters tested were weakly inhibited by the ERAs. Accumulation in hepatocytes was also a factor in the effects on bile transport. Macitentan demonstrated the greatest accumulation in human hepatocytes (∼100x) followed by sitaxsentan (∼40x), bosentan (∼20x) and ambrisentan (∼2x). Conclusions Significant differences in the inhibition of hepatic transporters were observed between the evaluated ERAs in

  4. Degradation of endogenous bacterial cell wall polymers by the muralytic enzyme mutanolysin prevents hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible rats with experimental intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, S N; Okoruwa, E E; Keku, J; Schwab, J H; Sartor, R B

    1992-01-01

    Jejunal self-filling blind loops with subsequent small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) induce hepatobiliary injury in genetically susceptible Lewis rats. Lesions consist of portal tract inflammation, bile duct proliferation, and destruction. To determine the pathogenesis of SBBO-induced hepatobiliary injury, we treated Lewis rats with SBBO by using several agents with different mechanisms of activity. Buffer treatment, ursodeoxycholic acid, prednisone, methotrexate, and cyclosporin A failed to prevent SBBO-induced injury as demonstrated by increased plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and elevated histology scores. However, hepatic injury was prevented by mutanolysin, a muralytic enzyme whose only known activity is to split the beta 1-4 N-acetylmuramyl-N-acetylglucosamine linkage of peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS), a bacterial cell wall polymer with potent inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties. Mutanolysin therapy started on the day blind loops were surgically created and continued for 8 wk significantly diminished AST (101 +/- 37 U/liter) and liver histology scores (2.2 +/- 2.7) compared to buffer-treated rats (228 +/- 146 U/liter, P < 0.05, 8.2 +/- 1.9, P < 0.001 respectively). Mutanolysin treatment started during the early phase of hepatic injury, 16-21 d after surgery, decreased AST in 7 of 11 rats from 142 +/- 80 to 103 +/- 24 U/liter contrasted to increased AST in 9 of 11 buffer-treated rats from 108 +/- 52 to 247 +/- 142 U/liter, P < 0.05. Mutanolysin did not change total bacterial numbers within the loop, eliminate Bacteroides sp., have in vitro antibiotic effects, or diminish mucosal PG-PS transport. However, mutanolysin treatment prevented elevation of plasma anti-PG antibodies and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) levels which occurred in buffer treated rats with SBBO and decreased TNF alpha production in isolated Kupffer cells stimulated in vitro with PG-PS. Based on the preventive and therapeutic activity of this highly specific

  5. Assessment of gallium-67 scanning in pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Israel, H.L.; Gushue, G.F.; Park, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Gallium-67 scans have been widely employed in patients with sarcoidosis as a means of indicating alveolitis and the need for corticosteroid therapy. Observation of 32 patients followed 3 or more years after gallium scans showed no correlation between findings and later course: of 10 patients with pulmonary uptake, 7 recovered with minor residuals; of 18 patients with mediastinal of extrathoracic uptake, 10 had persistent or progressive disease; of 4 patients with negative initial scans, 2 had later progression. The value of gallium-67 scans as an aid to diagnosis was studied in 40 patients with extrapulmonary sarcoidosis. In 12 patients, abnormal lacrimal, nodal, or pulmonary uptake aided in selection of biopsy sites. Gallium-67 scans and serum ACE levels were compared in 97 patients as indices of clinical activity. Abnormal gallium-67 uptake was observed in 96.3% of the tests in active disease, and ACE level elevation occurred in 56.3%. In 24 patients with inactive or recovered disease, abnormal gallium-67 uptake occurred in 62.5% and ACE level elevation in 37.5%. Gallium-67 scans have a limited but valuable role in the diagnosis and management of sarcoidosis.

  6. Nuclear medicine hepatobiliary imaging.

    PubMed

    Ziessman, Harvey A

    2010-02-01

    Nuclear medicine hepatobilary imaging (HIDA) is a time proven imaging methodology that uses radioactive drugs and specialized cameras to make imaging diagnoses based on physiology. HIDA radiopharmaceuticals are extracted by hepatocytes in the liver and cleared through the biliary system similar to bilirubin. The most common indication for HIDA imaging is acute cholecystitis, diagnosed by nonfilling of the gallbladder due to cystic duct obstruction. HIDA can detect high grade biliary obstruction prior to ductal dilatation; images reveal a persistent hepatogram without biliary clearance due to the high backpressure. HIDA also aids in the diagnosis of partial biliary obstruction due to stones, biliary stricture, and sphincter of Oddi obstruction. It can confirm biliary leakage postcholecystectomy and hepatic transplantation. Calculation of a gallbladder ejection fraction after cholecystokinin infusion is commonly used to diagnose chronic acalculous gallbladder disease. Diseased gallbladders do not contract. There are many other less common but valuable diagnostic indications for HIDA imaging. PMID:19879969

  7. Getting a CAT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  8. Optical Scanning Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hans

    The successful use of optical scanning at the University of the Pacific (UOP) indicates that such techniques can simplify a number of administrative data processing tasks. Optical scanning is regularly used at UOP to assist with data processing in the areas of admissions, registration and grade reporting and also has applications for other tasks…

  9. Multiline radar scan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, S.

    1977-01-01

    Scanning scheme is more efficient than conventional scanning. Originally designed for optical radar in space vehicles, scheme may also find uses in site-surveillance security systems and in other industrial applications. It should be particularly useful when system must run on battery energy, as would be case in power outages.

  10. Synergistic combination of clinical and imaging features predicts abnormal imaging patterns of pulmonary infections

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Ulas; Jaster-Miller, Kirsten; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    We designed and tested a novel hybrid statistical model that accepts radiologic image features and clinical variables, and integrates this information in order to automatically predict abnormalities in chest computed-tomography (CT) scans and identify potentially important infectious disease biomarkers. In 200 patients, 160 with various pulmonary infections and 40 healthy controls, we extracted 34 clinical variables from laboratory tests and 25 textural features from CT images. From the CT scans, pleural effusion (PE), linear opacity (or thickening) (LT), tree-in-bud (TIB), pulmonary nodules, ground glass opacity (GGO), and consolidation abnormality patterns were analyzed and predicted through clinical, textural (imaging), or combined attributes. The presence and severity of each abnormality pattern was validated by visual analysis of the CT scans. The proposed biomarker identification system included two important steps: (i) a coarse identification of an abnormal imaging pattern by adaptively selected features (AmRMR), and (ii) a fine selection of the most important features from the previous step, and assigning them as biomarkers, depending on the prediction accuracy. Selected biomarkers were used to classify normal and abnormal patterns by using a boosted decision tree (BDT) classifier. For all abnormal imaging patterns, an average prediction accuracy of 76.15% was obtained. Experimental results demonstrated that our proposed biomarker identification approach is promising and may advance the data processing in clinical pulmonary infection research and diagnostic techniques. PMID:23930819

  11. Structural abnormalities of common carp Cyprinus carpio spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Psenicka, Martin; Rodina, Marek; Flajshans, Martin; Kaspar, Vojtech; Linhart, Otomar

    2009-11-01

    Spermatozoa of common carp Cyprinus carpio are typically consist of a primitive head without acrosome, a midpiece with several mitochondria, a centriolar complex (proximal and distal centriole), and one flagellum. During an evaluation of the motility of common carp spermatozoa, we found spermatozoa with more than one flagellum and/or "double head" in three different individuals. This may be related to abnormal spermatogenesis. Ultrastructure and physiological parameters of spermatozoa were examined using light microscopy (dark field with stroboscopic illumination), transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. The recorded pictures and videos were evaluated using Olympus MicroImage software. All spermatozoa with more than one flagellum had a larger head and shorter flagella. They occasionally demonstrated several cytoplasmic channels separating the flagella from the midpiece. Each flagellum was based upon its own centriolar complex, with the connection of the flagellum to the head always at a constant angle. The flagella always consisted of nine peripheral pairs and one central doublet of microtubules. Sperm exhibited a relative DNA content similar to that found in sperm from normal males, with higher coefficients of variation. Although similar abnormalities have been found in livestock, where they were described as a defect in spermiogenesis, no comparable results have been reported in fish. The frequency at which these abnormalities occurs, the fertilization ability of males with defects in spermiogenesis, the influence of these abnormalities on progeny in terms of ploidy level, and the occurrence of deformities warrant further investigation.

  12. Predictors of Toxicity Associated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy to the Central Hepatobiliary Tract

    SciTech Connect

    Osmundson, Evan C.; Wu, Yufan; Luxton, Gary; Bazan, Jose G.; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To identify dosimetric predictors of hepatobiliary (HB) toxicity associated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver tumors. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 96 patients treated with SBRT for primary (53%) or metastatic (47%) liver tumors between March 2006 and November 2013. The central HB tract (cHBT) was defined by a 15-mm expansion of the portal vein from the splenic confluence to the first bifurcation of left and right portal veins. Patients were censored for toxicity upon local progression or additional liver-directed therapy. HB toxicities were graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. To compare different SBRT fractionations, doses were converted to biologically effective doses (BED) by using the standard linear quadratic model α/β = 10 (BED10). Results: Median follow-up was 12.7 months after SBRT. Median BED10 was 85.5 Gy (range: 37.5-151.2). The median number of fractions was 5 (range: 1-5), with 51 patients (53.1%) receiving 5 fractions and 29 patients (30.2%) receiving 3 fractions. In total, there were 23 (24.0%) grade 2+ and 18 (18.8%) grade 3+ HB toxicities. Nondosimetric factors predictive of grade 3+ HB toxicity included cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) histology (P<.0001), primary liver tumor (P=.0087), and biliary stent (P<.0001). Dosimetric parameters most predictive of grade 3+ HB toxicity were volume receiving above BED10 of 72 Gy (V{sub BED10}72) ≥ 21 cm{sup 3} (relative risk [RR]: 11.6, P<.0001), V{sub BED10}66 ≥ 24 cm{sup 3} (RR: 10.5, P<.0001), and mean BED10 (Dmean{sub BED10}) cHBT ≥14 Gy (RR: 9.2, P<.0001), with V{sub BED10}72 and V{sub BED10}66 corresponding to V40 and V37.7 for 5 fractions and V33.8 and V32.0 for 3 fractions, respectively. V{sub BED10}72 ≥ 21 cm{sup 3}, V{sub BED10}66 ≥ 24 cm{sup 3}, and Dmean{sub BED10} cHBT ≥14 Gy were consistently predictive of grade 3+ toxicity on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: V

  13. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

  14. [Erythrocyte membrane abnormalities - hereditary elliptocytosis].

    PubMed

    Kvezereli-Kopadze, M; Kvezereli-Kopadze, A; Mtvarelidze, Z; Bubuteishvili, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the 4 year old boy with Hereditary Elliptocitosis (HE). The diagnosis of this rare hemolytic anemia was based on detailed family history (positive in the 4-th generation), physical examination and Para-clinical data analyses. The vast majority of patients with HE are asymptomatic, severe forms are rare. The most important is examination of blood films, which is helpful to detect the morphology abnormalities of red cells. In case of HE a different approach is required. Positive family history and series of investigations should be conducted to determine the HE.

  15. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy.

  16. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  17. Beta-catenin-activated hepatocellular adenoma showing hyperintensity on hepatobiliary-phase gadoxetic-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and overexpression of OATP8.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Norihide; Matsui, Osamu; Kitao, Azusa; Kozaka, Kazuto; Gabata, Toshifumi; Sasaki, Motoko; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Murata, Kiyoshi; Tani, Toru

    2012-11-01

    We report a male case of beta-catenin-activated hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) focusing on findings of gadoxetic-acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) and discussing the molecular background and possible clinical significance. The patient was a 31-year-old man in whom computed tomography (CT) showed a large nodule of 14 cm in diameter in the right liver lobe. On dynamic contrast-enhanced CT, heterogeneous and slight to moderate enhancement was observed during the early phase, with washout in the late phase. Focal fat deposits and a scar-like portion in the lesion were also seen. Most of the lesion was slightly hyperintense compared with the background liver on the hepatobiliary phase of EOB-MRI. After operation, this patient was confirmed pathologically as having beta-catenin-activated HCA with a portion suggestive of malignant transformation. In addition, intense organic anion transporter polypeptide 8 expression was observed throughout the tumor by immunohistochemical staining.

  18. Preparation and biokinetic evaluation of various halogenated iminodiacetic acid-type compounds labeled with technetium-99m for hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the baboon (Papio ursinus) model.

    PubMed

    Dormehl, I C; Grobbelaar, C; van Wyk, A; Jacobs, L; Maree, M; Oliver, D

    1990-01-01

    In an evaluation of various 99mTc-labeled halogenated (F, Cl, Br, I) iminodiacetic acid (IDA) derivatives for hepatobiliary scintigraphy, it was found that, in the baboon model, none of these compounds performed as well as did disida. F-IDA was least effective, with the lowest biliary excretion and highest renal participation, but multihalogen substitution as in penta-F-IDA increased the biliary specificity and reduced urinary excretion to the extent that penta-F-IDA scored second to disida and even above I-IDA, with its high molecular weight. Surprising also was the relatively good performance of Cl-IDA compared to Br-IDA and I-IDA.

  19. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis: has the bone scan betrayed us. [/sup 99m/Tc-phosphate compounds; /sup 67/Ga-citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Handmaker, H.

    1980-06-01

    Technetium-99m bone scanning reveals a spectrum of findings in the diagnosis of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. Both cold and hot abnormalities are found. Gallium-67 citrate imaging is recommended when /sup 99m/Tc phosphate scans are inconclusive.

  20. Volumetric brain abnormalities in polysubstance use disorder patients

    PubMed Central

    Noyan, Cemal Onur; Kose, Samet; Nurmedov, Serdar; Metin, Baris; Darcin, Aslı Enez; Dilbaz, Nesrin

    2016-01-01

    Aim Polysubstance users represent the largest group of patients seeking treatment at addiction and rehabilitation clinics in Turkey. There is little knowledge about the structural brain abnormalities seen in polysubstance users. This study was conducted to examine the structural brain differences between polysubstance use disorder patients and healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry. Methods Forty-six male polysubstance use disorder patients in the early abstinence period and 30 healthy male controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed to examine gray matter (GM) abnormality differences. Results Polysubstance use disorder patients displayed significantly smaller GM volume in the thalamus, temporal pole, superior frontal gyrus, cerebellum, gyrus rectus, occipital lobe, anterior cingulate cortex, superior temporal gyrus, and postcentral gyrus. Conclusion A widespread and smaller GM volume has been found at different regions of the frontal, temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes, cerebellum, and anterior cingulate cortex in polysubstance users. PMID:27358566

  1. Kinetic constants of abnormal grain growth in nanocrystalline nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshin, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    The grain growth in nanocrystalline nickel with a purity of 99.5 at % during non-isothermal annealing was experimentally investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. Nanocrystalline nickel was prepared by electrodeposition and had an average grain size of approximately 20 nm. It was shown that, at a temperature corresponding to the calorimetric signal peak, abnormal grain growth occurs with the formation of a bimodal grain microstructure. Calorimeters signals were processed within the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami formalism. This made it possible to determine the exponent of the corresponding equation, the frequency factor, and the activation energy of the grain growth, which was found to be equal to the activation energy of the vacancy migration. The reasons for the abnormal grain growth in nanocrystalline nickel were discussed.

  2. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  3. Virtual slit scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fiolka, Reto; Stemmer, Andreas; Belyaev, Yury

    2007-12-01

    We present a novel slit scanning confocal microscope with a CCD camera image sensor and a virtual slit aperture for descanning that can be adjusted during post-processing. A very efficient data structure and mathematical criteria for aligning the virtual aperture guarantee the ease of use. We further introduce a method to reduce the anisotropic lateral resolution of slit scanning microscopes. System performance is evaluated against a spinning disk confocal microscope on identical specimens. The virtual slit scanning microscope works as the spinning disk type and outperforms on thick specimens. PMID:17891411

  4. Association Between Interstitial Lung Abnormalities and All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Rachel K.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Araki, Tetsuro; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Gao, Wei; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Dupuis, Josée; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Cho, Michael H.; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Coxson, Harvey O.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Ross, James C.; Harmouche, Rola; Estépar, Raúl San José; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Gudmundsson, Elías F.; Eiríksdottír, Gudny; Aspelund, Thor; Budoff, Matthew J.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Hokanson, John E.; Williams, Michelle C; Murchison, John T.; MacNee, William; Hoffmann, Udo; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Launer, Lenore J.; Harrris, Tamara B.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Silverman, Edwin K.; O’Connor, George T.; Washko, George R.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Hunninghake, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interstitial lung abnormalities have been associated with decreased six-minute walk distance, diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and total lung capacity; however to our knowledge, an association with mortality has not been previously investigated. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with increased mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, POPULATION Prospective cohort studies of 2633 participants from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (CT scans obtained 9/08–3/11), 5320 from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik (recruited 1/02–2/06), 2068 from COPDGene (recruited 11/07–4/10), and 1670 from the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE) (between 12/05–12/06). EXPOSURES Interstitial lung abnormality status as determined by chest CT evaluation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES All cause mortality over approximately 3 to 9 year median follow up time. Cause-of-death information was also examined in the AGES-Reykjavik cohort. RESULTS Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 177 (7%) of the participants from FHS, 378 (7%) from AGES-Reykjavik, 156 (8%) from COPDGene, and in 157 (9%) from ECLIPSE. Over median follow-up times of ~3–9 years there were more deaths (and a greater absolute rate of mortality) among those with interstitial lung abnormalities compared to those without interstitial lung abnormalities in each cohort; 7% compared to 1% in FHS (6% difference, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2%, 10%), 56% compared to 33% in AGES-Reykjavik (23% difference, 95% CI 18%, 28%), 16% compared to 11% in COPDGene (5% difference, 95% CI −1%, 11%) and 11% compared to 5% in ECLIPSE (6% difference, 95% CI 1%, 11%). After adjustment for covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with an increase in the risk of death in the FHS (HR=2.7, 95% CI, 1.1–65, P=0.030), AGES-Reykjavik (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.4, P<0.001), COPDGene (HR=1.8, 95% CI, 1.1, 2

  5. Gallium-67 scans of the chest in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J.; Garay, S.M.; Greene, J.B.; Tiu, S.; Banner, H.; McCauley, D.I.

    1987-07-01

    Eighty-six (/sup 67/Ga)citrate chest scans were performed in 71 adult patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Forty-five of these patients also had Kaposi's sarcoma. Only 29 of 57 abnormal scans were correlated with abnormal chest radiographs. Chest radiographs were negative for 27 scans and unavailable for one. Several scan patterns were seen. Diffusely increased lung uptake was seen most commonly with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, but also other infections and noninfectious inflammatory conditions. Focal uptake corresponding to regional lymph node groups occurred most often with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare but aslo with lymphoma. Localized intrapulmonary uptake was seen in bacterial pneumonias. Perihilar activity occurred in two cases. When chest radiographs were abnormal and /sup 67/Ga scans negative, the most common diagnosis was pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma.

  6. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  7. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  8. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  9. Pediatric CT Scans

    Cancer.gov

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  10. Fiber-Scanned Microdisplays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossman-Bosworth, Janet; Seibel, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Helmet- and head-mounted display systems, denoted fiber-scanned microdisplays, have been proposed to provide information in an "augmented reality" format (meaning that the information would be optically overlaid on the user's field of view).

  11. Brain PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) and computed tomography ( CT ) scans only reveal the structure of the ... a PET/CT. Alternative Names ... PT, Rijntjes M, Weiller C. Neuroimaging: Functional neuroimaging. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic ...

  12. The conical scan radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosch, T.; Hennings, D.

    1982-07-01

    A satellite-borne conical scan radiometer (CSR) is proposed, offering multiangular and multispectral measurements of Earth radiation fields, including the total radiances, which are not available from conventional radiometers. Advantages of the CSR for meteorological studies are discussed. In comparison to conventional cross track scanning instruments, the CSR is unique with respect to the selected picture element size which is kept constant by means of a specially shaped detector matrix at all scan angles. The conical scan mode offers the chance to improve angular sampling. Angular sampling gaps of previous satellite-borne radiometers can be interpolated and complemented by CSR data. Radiances are measured through 10 radiometric channels which are selected to study cloudiness, water vapor, ozone, surface albedo, ground and mean stratospheric temperature, and aerosols.

  13. Scanning Mueller polarimetric microscopy.

    PubMed

    Le Gratiet, Aymeric; Dubreuil, Matthieu; Rivet, Sylvain; Le Grand, Yann

    2016-09-15

    A full Mueller polarimeter was implemented on a commercial laser-scanning microscope. The new polarimetric microscope is based on high-speed polarization modulation by spectral coding using a wavelength-swept laser as a source. Calibration as well as estimation of the measurement errors of the device are reported. The acquisition of Mueller images at the speed of a scanning microscope is demonstrated for the first time. Mueller images of mineral and biological samples illustrate this new polarimetric microscopy. PMID:27628391

  14. Wide scanning spherical antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bing (Inventor); Stutzman, Warren L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel method for calculating the surface shapes for subreflectors in a suboptic assembly of a tri-reflector spherical antenna system is introduced, modeled from a generalization of Galindo-Israel's method of solving partial differential equations to correct for spherical aberration and provide uniform feed to aperture mapping. In a first embodiment, the suboptic assembly moves as a single unit to achieve scan while the main reflector remains stationary. A feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan thereby eliminating the need to oversize the main spherical reflector. In an alternate embodiment, both the main spherical reflector and the suboptic assembly are fixed. A flat mirror is used to create a virtual image of the suboptic assembly. Scan is achieved by rotating the mirror about the spherical center of the main reflector. The feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan.

  15. Spent fuel behavior under abnormal thermal transients during dry storage

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, D.; Landow, M.P.; Burian, R.J.; Pasupathi, V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of abnormally high temperatures on spent fuel behavior. Prior to testing, calculations using the CIRFI3 code were used to determine the steady-state fuel and cask component temperatures. The TRUMP code was used to determine transient heating rates under postulated abnormal events during which convection cooling of the cask surfaces was obstructed by a debris bed covering the cask. The peak rate of temperature rise during the first 6 h was calculated to be about 15/sup 0/C/h, followed by a rate of about 1/sup 0/C/h. A Turkey Point spent fuel rod segment was heated to approx. 800/sup 0/C. The segment deformed uniformly with an average strain of 17% at failure and a local strain of 60%. Pretest characterization of the spent fuel consisted of visual examination, profilometry, eddy-current examination, gamma scanning, fission gas collection, void volume measurement, fission gas analysis, hydrogen analysis of the cladding, burnup analysis, cladding metallography, and fuel ceramography. Post-test characterization showed that the failure was a pinhole cladding breach. The results of the tests showed that spent fuel temperatures in excess of 700/sup 0/C are required to produce a cladding breach in fuel rods pressurized to 500 psing (3.45 MPa) under postulated abnormal thermal transient cask conditions. The pinhole cladding breach that developed would be too small to compromise the confinement of spent fuel particles during an abnormal event or after normal cooling conditions are restored. This behavior is similar to that found in other slow ramp tests with irradiated and nonirradiated rod sections and nonirradiated whole rods under conditions that bracketed postulated abnormal heating rates. This similarity is attributed to annealing of the irradiation-strengthened Zircaloy cladding during heating. In both cases, the failure was a benign, ductile pinhole rupture.

  16. /sup 67/Ga citrate scanning and serum angiotensin converting enzyme levels in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.G.; Bekerman, C.; Sicilian, L.; Oparil, S.; Pinsky, S.M.; Szidon, J.P.

    1982-09-01

    /sup 67/Ga citrate scans and serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) levels were obtained in 54 patients with sarcoidosis and analyzed in relation to clinical manifestations. /sup 67/Ga scans were abnormal in 97% of patients with clinically active disease (n . 30) and in 71% of patients with inactive disease (n . 24). Serum ACE levels were abnormally high (2 standard deviations above the control mean) in 73% of patients with clinically active disease and in 54% of patients with inactive disease. Serum ACE levels correlated significantly with /sup 67/Ga uptake score (r..436; p less than .005). The frequency of abnormal /sup 67/Ga scans and elevated serum ACE levels suggests that inflammatory activity with little or no clinical expression is common in sarcoidosis. Abnormal /sup 67/Ga scans were highly sensitive (97%) but had poor specificity (29%) to clinical disease activity. The accuracy of negative prediction of clinical activity by normal scans (87%) was better than the accuracy of positive prediction of clinical activity by abnormal scans (63%). /sup 67/Ga scans can be used to support the clinical indentification of inactive sacoidosis.

  17. Gallium 67 citrate scanning and serum angiotensin converting enzyme levels in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.G.; Bekerman, C.; Sicilian, L.; Oparil, S.; Pinsky, S.M.; Szidon, J.P.

    1982-09-01

    Gallium 67 citrate scans and serum angiotension converting enzyme (ACE) levels were obtained in 54 patients with sarcoidosis and analyzed in relation to clinical manifestation. /sup 67/Ga scans were abnormal in 97% of patients with clinically active disease (n = 30) and in 71% of patients with inactive disease (n = 24). Serum ACE levels were abnormally high (2 standard deviations above the control mean) in 73% of patients with clinically active disease and in 54% of patients with inactive disease. Serum ACE levels correlated significantly with /sup 67/Ga uptake score (r = .436; p < .005). The frequency of abnormal /sup 67/Ga scans and elevated serum ACE levels suggests that inflammatory activity with little or no clinical expression is common in sarcoidosis. Abnormal /sup 67/Ga scans were highly sensitive (97%) but had poor specificity (29%) to clinical disease activity. The accuracy of negative prediction of clinical activity by normal scans (87%) was better than the accuracy of positive prediction of clinical activity by abnormal scans (63%). /sup 67/Ga scans can be used to support the clinical identification of inactive sarcoidosis.

  18. Patterns of pulmonary perfusion scans in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.M.; Moser, K.M.; Hartman, M.T.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    A vital factor conditioning the usage of the pulmonary perfusion (Q) scan in the evaluation of patients suspected of pulmonary embolism is the prevalence of abnormal Q scans in subjects free of cardiopulmonary disease. Because this prevalence has not been well defined, we performed Q scans in 80 nonsmoking subjects 18 to 29 yr of age having no known active cardiopulmonary disease. Each subject underwent a history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, spirometry, and PA chest roentgenogram, followed by a 6-view Q scan. Two subjects in whom a Q defect was suspected underwent a /sup 133/Xe equilibrium-washout ventilation (V) scan. All Q scans were interpreted blindly and independently by 2 experienced readers. Seventy-nine of the 80 Q scans were read as normal. No subject demonstrated a lobar or segmental defect. One of the 80 subjects, who had a mild pectus excavatum, had a left upper lobe subsegmental defect, which was not seen on the V scan. Based on the statistical analysis of these data, no more than 3.68% of normal nonsmoking persons in this age group may have a lobar or segmental Q scan defect and no more than 6.77% may have a subsegmental defect (with 95% confidence). Therefore, our study indicated that Q scan defects, particularly lobar or segmental, are rarely present among normal nonsmokers in this age group.

  19. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child.

  20. [Laser scanning in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Jean, B; Frohn, A; Thiel, H J

    1990-01-01

    The current state of the art for the major laser scanning methods, laser scanning ophthalmoscopy (LSO) and laser tomographic scanning (LTS) is discussed and the function principles are described. Experience with a prototype of each instrument from Rodenstock (LSO) and Heidelberg Instruments (LTS) is reported. LSO imaging of the cornea, vitreous, retina, and optic disc, as well as on-line processing is demonstrated with examples (nerve fibre colour coding and histograms). Measurement of the cornea, optic disc and retinal topography with LTS is also demonstrated with examples. An example of polarization optical imaging of the cornea's assumed interferometric "tension patterns" is shown. The current status and future possibilities of laser scanning, its expanded diagnostic potential with microperimetry, IR scanning angiography and polarization optic imaging and measurement (eg. nerve fibre thickness) is discussed extensively. The safety aspects of laser light exposure of the macula are also mentioned. Laser scanners as imaging and measuring sensors of unknown accuracy open a new area of possibly revolutionary diagnostic possibilities.

  1. Arterial abnormalities of the shoulder in athletes.

    PubMed

    Nuber, G W; McCarthy, W J; Yao, J S; Schafer, M F; Suker, J R

    1990-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the shoulder may be misinterpreted as one of the more familiar shoulder abnormalities by a treating physician. We are reporting on 13 athletes who were found to have symptoms related to compression of the subclavian or axillary artery or their tributaries. Nine were amateur or professional baseball pitchers. Severe arm fatigue or finger ischemia, secondary to embolization, were presenting symptoms. Arm fatigue was noted in all pitchers. After complete history and physical examination, including auscultation for bruits in functional positions, all athletes were evaluated by noninvasive tests (Doppler and Duplex scanning). Arteriography was performed with positional testing, recreating overhead activity, and complete radiographic visualization of the dye to the digital arteries. Two patients were found to have subclavian artery aneurysm. The remaining athletes were found to have compression of the subclavian artery beneath the anterior scalene muscle (five patients), the axillary artery beneath the pectoralis minor (two patients), both arterial segments (two patients), and one was found to have arterial compromise at the level of the humeral head. Branch artery compression was also noted. One pitcher occluded the posterior circumflex humeral artery with embolization to the digit. The two patients with subclavian aneurysms underwent saphenous vein bypass with cervical rib resection. All of the other athletes except one underwent resection of a 2 to 3 cm segment of the anterior scalene muscle or pectoralis minor muscles. All returned to their previous level of activity except one patient who developed impingement type symptoms and required acromioplasty. He is currently undergoing rehabilitation. Proper recognition of vascular compromise in the upper extremity of athletes is essential to avoid the catastropic complications of arterial thrombosis.

  2. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  3. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James M.; Leighton, James F.

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  4. Vector generator scan converter

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1990-04-17

    This patent describes high printing speeds for graphics data that are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  5. Phenotypic abnormalities: terminology and classification.

    PubMed

    Merks, Johannes H M; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Caron, Hubert N; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2003-12-15

    Clinical morphology has proved essential for the successful delineation of hundreds of syndromes and as a powerful instrument for detecting (candidate) genes (Gorlin et al. [2001]; Syndromes of the Head and Neck; Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1 p]. The major approach to reach this has been careful clinical evaluations of patients, focused on congenital anomalies. A similar careful physical examination performed in patients, who have been treated for childhood cancer, may allow detection of concurrent patterns of anomalies and provide clues for causative genes. In the past, several studies were performed describing the prevalence of anomalies in patients with cancer. However, in most studies, it was not possible to indicate the biologic relevance of the recorded anomalies, or to judge their relative importance. Are the detected anomalies common variants, and should they thus be regarded as normal, or are they minor anomalies or true abnormalities, indicating a possible developmental cause? Classification of items in the categories of common variants (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence >4%), minor anomalies (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence abnormal physical findings by a nomenclature for errors of morphogenesis detectable on surface examination, and secondly a uniform classification system. This should allow investigators to evaluate systematically the presence of patterns in phenotypic anomalies, in the general population, and in patients with various disorders, suspected to be a developmental anomaly. Also

  6. Are Dysregulated Inflammatory Responses to Commensal Bacteria Involved in the Pathogenesis of Hepatobiliary-Pancreatic Autoimmune Disease? An Analysis Using Mice Models of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Naoko; Haruta, Ikuko; Kikuchi, Ken; Shibata, Noriyuki; Yagi, Junji

    2011-01-01

    The etiopathogenesis of many autoimmune disorders has not been identified. The aim of this paper is to focus on the involvement of bacterial exposure in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), both of which are broadly categorized as autoimmune disorders involving hepatobiliary-pancreatic lesions. Avirulent and/or commensal bacteria, which may have important role(s) as initiating factors in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders such as PBC and AIP, will be emphasized. PMID:21991516

  7. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  8. Tomographic scanning imager.

    PubMed

    Hovland, Harald

    2009-07-01

    In tomographic scanning (TOSCA) imaging, light from a scene is focused onto a reticle mask using conical scan optics, and collected on a single element detector. Alternatively, one or several detectors replace the reticle. Tomographic processing techniques are then applied to the one-dimensional signal to reproduce a two-dimensional image. The TOSCA technique is presented in detail, including its mathematical foundations and some of its limitations. It is shown how TOSCA imaging can be used in a multispectral configuration, and compares well with more conventional alternatives both in simplicity and performance. Examples of image reconstruction using TOSCA techniques are shown. PMID:19582052

  9. Scanning computed confocal imager

    DOEpatents

    George, John S.

    2000-03-14

    There is provided a confocal imager comprising a light source emitting a light, with a light modulator in optical communication with the light source for varying the spatial and temporal pattern of the light. A beam splitter receives the scanned light and direct the scanned light onto a target and pass light reflected from the target to a video capturing device for receiving the reflected light and transferring a digital image of the reflected light to a computer for creating a virtual aperture and outputting the digital image. In a transmissive mode of operation the invention omits the beam splitter means and captures light passed through the target.

  10. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  11. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. PMID:22520483

  12. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  13. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  14. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon; Chemla, Daniel S.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Botkin, David

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  15. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  16. Environmental Scanning Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Min

    In response to the change in the provincial economy from natural-resource-based industries to service-oriented industries, Vancouver Community College (VCC) in British Columbia (BC) conducted an environmental scan of the social and economic trends in the college's service region that will most likely affect prospective students' educational and…

  17. THE 2016 ENVIRONMENTAL SCAN.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Gene

    2015-09-01

    Every year, the American Hospital Association compiles the Environmental Scan to provide hospital leaders with insight and information about market forces that are likely to affect the health care field. One common theme this year is the pace of change. PMID:26495611

  18. Teaching the SCANS Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills.

    SCANS (the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) provides definitions of the knowledge students and workers need for workplace success and methods for applying these principles in communities throughout the United States. This document contains six articles that give education and training practitioners practical suggestions for…

  19. Neonatal brain abnormalities and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years in children born very preterm.

    PubMed

    Omizzolo, Cristina; Scratch, Shannon E; Stargatt, Robyn; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Thompson, Deanne K; Lee, Katherine J; Cheong, Jeanie; Neil, Jeffrey; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Using prospective longitudinal data from 198 very preterm and 70 full term children, this study characterised the memory and learning abilities of very preterm children at 7 years of age in both verbal and visual domains. The relationship between the extent of brain abnormalities on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years of age in very preterm children was also investigated. Neonatal MRI scans were qualitatively assessed for global, white-matter, cortical grey-matter, deep grey-matter, and cerebellar abnormalities. Very preterm children performed less well on measures of immediate memory, working memory, long-term memory, and learning compared with term-born controls. Neonatal brain abnormalities, and in particular deep grey-matter abnormality, were associated with poorer memory and learning performance at 7 years in very preterm children. Findings support the importance of cerebral neonatal pathology for predicting later memory and learning function.

  20. Exploring the utility of axial lumbar MRI for automatic diagnosis of intervertebral disc abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subarna; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we explore the importance of axial lumbar MRI slices for automatic detection of abnormalities. In the past, only the sagittal views were taken into account for lumbar CAD systems, ignoring the fact that a radiologist scans through the axial slices as well, to confirm the diagnosis and quantify various abnormalities like herniation and stenosis. Hence, we present an automatic diagnosis system from axial slices using CNN(Convolutional Neural Network) for dynamic feature extraction and classification of normal and abnormal lumbar discs. We show 80:81% accuracy (with a specificity of 85:29% and sensitivity of 75:56%) on 86 cases (391 discs) using only an axial slice for each disc, which implies the usefulness of axial views for automatic lumbar abnormality diagnosis in conjunction with sagittal views.

  1. Soft-tissue abnormalities of the external auditory canal: Subject review of CT findings

    SciTech Connect

    Chakeres, D.W.; Kapila, A.; LaMasters, D.

    1985-07-01

    The authors review the normal anatomy and discuss characteristic findings of soft-tissue abnormalities of the external auditory canal (EAC). The indications for computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone have been significantly expanded with the inclusion of soft-tissue abnormalities of the external ear and the auditory canal. CT scans of 25 patients who had soft-tissue abnormalities of the EAC were reviewed. The clinical data were correlated with the radiographic findings. They conclude that CT is the best overall radiographic modality for evaluating the extent and character of soft-tissue abnormalities of the EAC. Significant clinical information that is helpful in patient management decisions is added by this technique.

  2. Myocardial metabolic, hemodynamic, and electrocardiographic significance of reversible thallium-201 abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, R.O. 3d.; Dilsizian, V.; O'Gara, P.T.; Udelson, J.E.; Schenke, W.H.; Quyyumi, A.; Fananapazir, L.; Bonow, R.O. )

    1991-05-01

    Exercise-induced abnormalities during thallium-201 scintigraphy that normalize at rest frequently occur in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, it is not known whether these abnormalities are indicative of myocardial ischemia. Fifty patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy underwent exercise {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy and, during the same week, measurement of myocardial lactate metabolism and hemodynamics during pacing stress. Thirty-seven patients (74%) had one or more {sup 201}Tl abnormalities that completely normalized after 3 hours of rest; 26 had regional myocardial {sup 201}Tl defects, and 26 had apparent left ventricular cavity dilatation with exercise, with 15 having coexistence of these abnormal findings. Of the 37 patients with reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities, 27 (73%) had metabolic evidence of myocardial ischemia during rapid atrial pacing compared with four of 13 patients (31%) with normal {sup 201}Tl scans (p less than 0.01). Eleven patients had apparent cavity dilatation as their only {sup 201}Tl abnormality; their mean postpacing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was significantly higher than that of the 13 patients with normal {sup 201}Tl studies (33 +/- 5 versus 21 +/- 10 mm Hg, p less than 0.001). There was no correlation between the angiographic presence of systolic septal or epicardial coronary arterial compression and the presence or distribution of {sup 201}Tl abnormalities. Patients with ischemic ST segment responses to exercise had an 80% prevalence rate of reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities and a 70% prevalence rate of pacing-induced ischemia. However, 69% of patients with nonischemic ST segment responses had reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities, and 55% had pacing-induced ischemia. Reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities during exercise stress are markers of myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and most likely identify relatively underperfused myocardium.

  3. Quantification of abnormal intracranial pressure waves and isotope cisternography for diagnosis of occult communicating hydrocephalus

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoso, E.R.; Piatek, D.; Del Bigio, M.R.; Stambrook, M.; Sutherland, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Nineteen consecutive patients with suspected occult communicating hydrocephalus were investigated by means of clinical evaluation, neuropsychological testing, isotope cisternography, computed tomography scanning, and continuous intracranial pressure monitoring. Semi-quantitative grading systems were used in the evaluation of the clinical, neuropsychological, and cisternographic assessments. Clinical examination, neuropsychological testing, and computed tomography scanning were repeated 3 months after ventriculoperitoneal shunting. All patients showed abnormal intracranial pressure waves and all improved after shunting. There was close correlation between number, peak, and pulse pressures of B waves and the mean intracranial pressure. However, quantification of B waves by means of number, frequency, and amplitude did not help in predicting the degree of clinical improvement postshunting. The most sensitive predictor of favorable response to shunting was enlargement of the temporal horns on computed tomography scan. Furthermore, the size of temporal horns correlated with mean intracranial pressure. There was no correlation between abnormalities on isotope cisternography and clinical improvement.

  4. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  5. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  6. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  7. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  8. Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan? A lung ventilation/perfusion scan, or VQ scan, is a ... that measures air and blood flow in your lungs. A VQ scan most often is used to ...

  9. Skeletal Muscle Abnormalities in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Matsushima, Shouji; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Exercise capacity is lowered in patients with heart failure, which limits their daily activities and also reduces their quality of life. Furthermore, lowered exercise capacity has been well demonstrated to be closely related to the severity and prognosis of heart failure. Skeletal muscle abnormalities including abnormal energy metabolism, transition of myofibers from type I to type II, mitochondrial dysfunction, reduction in muscular strength, and muscle atrophy have been shown to play a central role in lowered exercise capacity. The skeletal muscle abnormalities can be classified into the following main types: 1) low endurance due to mitochondrial dysfunction; and 2) low muscle mass and muscle strength due to imbalance of protein synthesis and degradation. The molecular mechanisms of these skeletal muscle abnormalities have been studied mainly using animal models. The current review including our recent study will focus upon the skeletal muscle abnormalities in heart failure. PMID:26346520

  10. Indium 111-labeled white blood cell scans after vascular prosthetic reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Sedwitz, M.M.; Davies, R.J.; Pretorius, H.T.; Vasquez, T.E.

    1987-11-01

    The clinical value of indium 111-labeled white blood cell (WBC) scanning done after vascular graft procedures was investigated to differentiate noninfectious postoperative inflammation associated with graft incorporation from early prosthetic graft infection. Indium 111-labeled WBC scans were initially obtained in 30 patients before discharge from the hospital and during the subsequent follow-up period (334 days). Fourteen of 30 patients (47%) had normal predischarge scans that included all 10 patients who had grafts confined to the abdomen and 4 of 20 patients (20%) who had grafts arising or terminating at the femoral arteries (p less than 0.05). Sixteen of 30 patients (53%) discharged with abnormal initial indium 111 WBC scans underwent serial scanning until the scan normalized or a graft complication developed. All of the 16 patients had grafts involving the groin region. Abnormal indium 111 uptake in the femoral region continued for a mean 114 days without the development of prosthetic graft infections. The sensitivity of indium 111-labeled WBC scans for detecting wound complications was 100%, whereas the specificity was 50%. Thus, the accuracy of the test was only 53%. We conclude that (1) abnormal indium 111 WBC scans are common after graft operations involving the groin region but are unusual after vascular procedures confined to the abdomen, and (2) in the absence of clinical suspicion, the indium 111-labeled WBC scan does not reliably predict prosthetic graft infection because of the low specificity of the test in the early postoperative period.

  11. Scanning thermal plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Madding, R. P.; Green, T., III

    1975-01-01

    Over a three-year period 800 thermal line scans of power plant plumes were made by an airborne scanner, with ground truth measured concurrently at the plants. Computations using centered finite differences in the thermal scanning imagery show a lower bound in the horizontal temperature gradient in excess of 1.6 C/m. Gradients persist to 3 m below the surface. Vector plots of the velocity of thermal fronts are constructed by tracing the front motion in successive thermal images. A procedure is outlined for the two-point ground calibration of a thermal scanner from an equation describing the scanner signal and the voltage for two known temperatures. The modulation transfer function is then calculated by input of a thermal step function and application of digital time analysis techniques using Fast Fourier Transforms to the voltage output. Field calibration tests are discussed. Data accuracy is limited by the level of ground truth effort chosen.

  12. Fly-scan ptychography

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-01-01

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems. PMID:25766519

  13. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, Warren C.; Blau, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch.

  14. Fly-scan ptychography

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  15. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, W.C.; Blau, P.J.

    1994-11-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch. 2 figs.

  16. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability. PMID:20696933

  17. Scanning holographic lidar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a unique telescope for lidar using a holographic optical element (HOE) as the primary optic. The HOE diffracts 532 nm laser backscatter making a 43 deg angle with a normal to its surface to a focus located 130 cm along the normal. The field of view scans a circle as the HOE rotates about the normal. The detector assembly and baffling remain stationary, compared to conventional scanning lidars in which the entire telescope and detector assembly require steering, or which use a large flat steerable mirror in front of the telescope to do the pointing. The spectral bandpass of our HOE is 50 nm (FWHM). Light within that bandpass is spectrally dispersed at 0.6 nm/mm in the focal plane. An aperture stop reduces the bandpass of light reaching the detector from one direction to 1 nm while simultaneously reducing the field of view to 1 mrad. Wavelengths outside the 50 nm spectral bandpass pass undiffracted through HOE to be absorbed by a black backing. Thus, the HOE combines three functions into one optic: the scanning mirror, the focusing mirror, and a narrowband filter.

  18. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  19. [The efficacy of the combined rehabilitative treatment of the patients presenting with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diseases of the hepatobiliary system].

    PubMed

    Cherchinian, A S

    2012-01-01

    A total of 80 patients presenting with exogenous constitutional obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diseases of the hepatobiliary system (including chronic non-calculous cholecystitis and fatty hepatosis) were enrolled to participate in the present study. The basal treatment consisted of the adequate reducing diet, remedial gymnastics, massage, reflexo-acupuncture, the application of galvanic muds, and controlled intake of chofitol. It was supplemented with magnetic laser irradiation of selected abdominal regions, and electrical stimulation of femoral, dorsal, and abdominal muscles. It was shown that the combination of the above procedures and physical factors significantly improves the overall outcome of the treatment. The patients suffering intestinal dysbacteriosis were prescribed the intake of probiotic Nor Narine together with Jermuk mineral water; they were found to benefit from such treatment due to normalization of intestinal biocenosis and improvement of their general condition. The clinical and paraclinical data obtained in this study give evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of certain physical factors and especially their combination used for the medical rehabilitation of the patients presenting with constitutional obesity, metabolic syndrome, and digestive disorders. Moreover, the well-apparent positive results were documented from the combined treatment with magnetic laser radiation and therapeutic muds. PMID:23210358

  20. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 mediates resistance to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human hepatobiliary cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Ho-Bouldoires, Thanh Huong; Clapéron, Audrey; Mergey, Martine; Wendum, Dominique; Desbois-Mouthon, Christèle; Tahraoui, Sylvana; Fartoux, Laetitia; Chettouh, Hamza; Merabtene, Fatiha; Scatton, Olivier; Gaestel, Matthias; Praz, Françoise; Housset, Chantal; Fouassier, Laura

    2015-12-01

    The development and progression of liver cancer are characterized by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS-induced oxidative stress impairs cell proliferation and ultimately leads to cell death. Although liver cancer cells are especially resistant to oxidative stress, mechanisms of such resistance remain understudied. We identified the MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2)/heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) signaling pathway mediating defenses against oxidative stress. In addition to MK2 and Hsp27 overexpression in primary liver tumors compared to adjacent nontumorous tissues, the MK2/Hsp27 pathway is activated by hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in hepatobiliary cancer cells. MK2 inactivation or inhibition of MK2 or Hsp27 expression increases caspase-3 and PARP cleavage and DNA breaks and therefore cell death. Interestingly, MK2/Hsp27 inhibition decreases antioxidant defenses such as heme oxygenase 1 through downregulation of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2. Moreover, MK2/Hsp27 inhibition decreases both phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and expression of its ligand, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor. A new identified partner of MK2, the scaffold PDZ protein EBP50, could facilitate these effects through MK2/Hsp27 pathway regulation. These findings demonstrate that the MK2/Hsp27 pathway actively participates in resistance to oxidative stress and may contribute to liver cancer progression.

  1. Descreening of scanned images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurilin, Ilya V.; Safonov, Ilia V.; Lee, HoKeun; Kim, Sang Ho

    2010-01-01

    Screen or halftone pattern appears on the majority of images printed on electrophotographic and ink-jet printers as well as offset machines. When such halftoned image is scanned, a noisy effect called a Moiré pattern often appears on the image. There are plenty of methods proposed for descreening of images. Common way is adaptive smoothing of scanned images. However the descreening techniques face the following dilemma: deep screen reduction and restoration of contone images leads to blurring of sharp edges of text and other graphics primitives, on the other hand insufficient smoothing keeps screen in halftoned areas. We propose novel descreening algorithm that is primarily intended for preservation of sharpness and contrast of text edges and for restoration contone images from halftone ones accurately. Proposed technique for descreening of scanned images comprises five steps. The first step is decrease of edge transition slope length via local tone mapping with ordering; it is carried out before adaptive smoothing, and it allows better preservation of edges. Adaptive low-pass filter applies simplified idea of Non-Local Means filter for area classification; similarity is calculated between central block of window and different adjacent block that is selected randomly. If similarity is high then current pixel relates to flat region, otherwise pixel relates to edge region. For prevention of edges blurring, flat regions are smoothed stronger than edge regions. By random selection of blocks we avoid the computational overhead related to excessive directional edge detection. Final three stages include additional decrease of edge transition slope length using local tone mapping, increase of local contrast via modified unsharp mask filter, that uses bilateral filter with special edge-stop function for modest smoothing of edges, and global contrast stretching. These stages are intended to compensate decreasing of sharpness and contrast due to low-pass filtering, it allows

  2. Indium-111 WBC scan in acute toxic centrilobular hepatic necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.M.; Dhekne, R.D.; Moore, W.H. )

    1989-12-01

    In this case of prolonged fever and abnormal liver functions, dual tracer scintigraphy with In-111 WBCs and Tc-99m SC led to a biopsy-proven diagnosis of severe acute toxic hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis). Correlation of the Tc-99m SC scan findings with those previously reported for pseudotumors of the liver is discussed. A pseudonormal scan pattern is described for the In-111 WBC scintigraphy. Discordance between In-111 WBC and Tc-99m SC scintigraphy in this clinical setting should raise the possibility of hepatic necrosis as a diagnostic alternative to hepatic abscess.

  3. Bone scans and the timing of treatment for condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P D; Harris, K; Coghlan, K C; Altman, K

    1990-08-01

    Bone scintiscans comparing the uptake of technetium 99 in the normal and affected condyles of 10 patients with unilateral condylar hyperplasia were recorded at or after the time when overall growth had ceased. The scans of 6 patients demonstrated persisting increased growth activity at this time. In 2 of these cases where the abnormal condyles showed uptakes of 240% and 170% with respect to the normal side, the nature and timing of treatment were changed when the results of the scans were known. PMID:2120367

  4. Detection of abnormalities in febrile AIDS patients with In-111-labeled leukocyte and Ga-67 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Fineman, D.S.; Palestro, C.J.; Kim, C.K.; Needle, L.B.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Solomon, R.W.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1989-03-01

    Thirty-six patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who were febrile but without localizing signs, underwent indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy 24 hours after injection of labeled white blood cells (WBCs) and were restudied 48 hours after injection of gallium-67 citrate. Fifty-six abnormalities were identified as possible sources of the fever; 27 were confirmed with biopsy. Of these 27, 15 were identified only on In-111 WBC scans (including colitis, sinusitis, and focal bacterial pneumonia); six, only on Ga-67 scans (predominantly Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and lymphadenopathy); and six, on both studies (predominantly pulmonary lesions). In-111 WBC scanning revealed 21 of 27 abnormalities (78%) and gallium scanning, 12 of 27 (44%). If only one scintigraphic study has been performed, particularly with Ga-67, a significant number of lesions would not have been detected. The authors believe radionuclide evaluation of the febrile AIDS patient without localizing signs should begin with In-111 WBC scintigraphy. Gallium scanning may be used depending on results of In-111 WBC scans or if there is a high index of suspicion for P carinii pneumonia.

  5. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  6. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Radionuclide liver and bone scanning in the evaluation of patients with endometrial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Christie, J.H.; Garcia, J.F.; Baldwin, M.H.; Wicks, J.D.; Bartow, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    Staging bone scans or skeletal surveys were obtained of 97 patients with endometrial carcinoma. Of the 77 patients with Stage I or II disease, no metastases were identified at staging. Three patients in the entire series demonstrated bony metastases; all of these metastases were detectable by radionuclide bone scan and radiographic bone survey. Eighty-nine patients were examined with radionuclide liver/spleen scanning at the time of staging. Four of the 89 initial scans were interpreted as demonstrating hepatocellular disease, and all four patients had abnormal liver function studies. Only one patient demonstrated a possible hepatic metastasis at initial diagnosis. This patient also had abnormal liver function studies. Based on these results, bone surveys and radionuclide bone scans are not indicated as screening procedures in endometrial carcinoma. It is suggested that screening for liver metastases in patients with endometrial carcinoma is not warranted in patients with normal liver function studies.

  8. Empyema of the gallbladder detected by gallium scan and abdominal ultrasonography

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, O.M.; Kovac, A.; Plauche, W.E.

    1981-08-01

    A case history of patient with a abnormal gallium uptake and sonogram in the region of the gallbladder is described. The abnormality was interpreted as empyema of the gallbladder and later proven surgically. A liver-spleen scan was normal except for slight prominence of the hilar structures. Gallium citrate Ga-67 scans done at 24 and 48 hours showed a persistent area of increased tracer localization around the gallbladder with a central clear zone in the latter scan. Ultrasonography revealed poor definition and slight thickening of the gallbladder wall. Because of the lack of specificity of gallium scans, the combination of ultrasonic imaging and gallium uptake scans appears much superior in diagnostic efficiency than either of the two alone. The sequence of performing these two examinations does not seem to be critical though it was prefered that the scintigraphy precede the sonography.

  9. Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

  10. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approach to abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-age women Differential diagnosis of genital tract bleeding in women Postmenopausal uterine bleeding The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  11. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  12. Technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan. False-normal findings in elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaeffer, F.; Mikolich, D.J.; Mates, S.M.

    1987-11-01

    Hematogenous osteomyelitis is usually diagnosed by an abnormal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan in symptomatic patients who have positive blood cultures. False-normal 99mTc bone scans have been described recently in neonates with biopsy-proved osteomyelitis. This phenomenon seems to be extremely rare in adults. Two elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis had normal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scans when first evaluated. In both cases the bone scans became abnormal four to six weeks after onset of symptoms and two to four weeks after the initial normal results of the study. When suggested by the clinical picture, hematogenous osteomyelitis cannot be ruled out by a normal 99mTc bone scan at any age. Gallium scan, computed tomographic scan, or bone biopsy can be helpful in such cases.

  13. Free motion scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Sword, Charles K.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ultrasonic scanner system and method for the imaging of a part system, the scanner comprising: a probe assembly spaced apart from the surface of the part including at least two tracking signals for emitting radiation and a transmitter for emitting ultrasonic waves onto a surface in order to induce at least a portion of the waves to be reflected from the part, at least one detector for receiving the radiation wherein the detector is positioned to receive the radiation from the tracking signals, an analyzer for recognizing a three-dimensional location of the tracking signals based on the emitted radiation, a differential converter for generating an output signal representative of the waveform of the reflected waves, and a device such as a computer for relating said tracking signal location with the output signal and projecting an image of the resulting data. The scanner and method are particularly useful to acquire ultrasonic inspection data by scanning the probe over a complex part surface in an arbitrary scanning pattern.

  14. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Botkin, D.A. |

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  15. A-Scan Echoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    White, D. Naldrett

    1966-01-01

    The technique of A-scan echoencephalography is criticized in so far as it lacks objectivity and reproducibility. In the author's laboratory, the M-echo, being of higher amplitude than other intracranial echoes, is distinguished from other echoes by an averaging technique—a time exposure. Double transmission pulses indicate the theoretical position of echoes from the true mid-line and superimposition of far-side echoes ensures that the transducers are correctly aligned. The very considerable difficulties in identifying the anatomical structures giving rise to other echoes seen within the skull are outlined. They are largely due to variations in the reflected energy, depending upon the shape and orientation and position of the various interfaces with respect to the ultrasonic beam. Despite these difficulties and limitations, A-scan echoencephalography appears to have an important part to play as a simple, safe and quick form of neurological examination, if the technique can be made truly objective. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:5901162

  16. Electrocardiography series. Electrocardiographic T wave abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiqin; Teo, Swee Guan; Poh, Kian Keong

    2013-11-01

    The causes of abnormal T waves on electrocardiography are multiple and varied. Careful clinical history taking and physical examination are necessary for accurate identification of the cause of such abnormalities. Subsequent targeted specialised cardiac investigations, such as echocardiography or coronary angiography, may be of importance in the diagnosis of the underlying cardiac pathology. We present two cases of T wave inversions with markedly different aetiologies.

  17. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  18. Appropriately grown baby with multiple congenital abnormalities: a case report.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Devangi; Aladangady, Narendra

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a full-term baby girl (Baby A) born with multiple congenital abnormalities that were suggested by prenatal scans. The mother had declined further antenatal diagnostic testing. Postnatal chromosomal analyses revealed the karyotype of the baby to be trisomy 18. After detailed, compassionate discussions with the parents, it was decided to provide palliative care in the best interest of the baby, who died on day 15 of life. This case illustrates ethical difficulties in the care of neonates with congenital anomalies with poor prognoses, such as trisomy 18. Recommending palliative care and "do not resuscitate" orders to optimistic parents is extremely difficult and needs to be done in the most sensitive manner possible.

  19. Normal and abnormal US findings at the mastectomy site.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Mi; Park, Jeong Mi

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of a mastectomy site is more effective with ultrasonography (US) than with either mammography or chest computed tomography because abnormalities are usually small and close to the skin surface. US does not involve the use of ionizing radiation and has a multiplanar scanning capability. The technique is readily available and inexpensive, and it allows real-time monitoring of needle tip placement during biopsy of a lesion. Normal US anatomy of the chest wall after mastectomy usually consists of four layers: skin, subcutaneous fat, pectoral muscles, and rib and intercostal muscle. The axilla is changed in appearance after lymph node dissection, but it remains the same in patients who have undergone simple mastectomy. US can accurately depict benign and malignant conditions in the mastectomy site, including fluid collection, fibrosis, local recurrent tumor, and metastatic lymphadenopathy, and can enable accurate diagnosis based on findings at fine needle aspiration biopsy.

  20. Abnormal apocrine secretory cell mitochondria in a Huntington disease patient.

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulos, Christos; LeWitt, Peter; Hashimoto, Ken

    2012-12-15

    Over two decades, a 42-year old woman experienced the gradual onset of choreic involuntary movements, dystonia, and tics. Decreased caudate nucleus metabolism on 2-deoxyglucose PET scan and a heterozygous 49-CAG repeat expansion within the HTT gene established the diagnosis of HD, although no other family history was known. An axillary skin biopsy revealed a distinctive abnormality of mitochondria limited to the apocrine secretory cells on electron microscopy. All mitochondria were transformed into rounded structures with disrupted cristae and prominent myelin figures; many were enlarged up to 4 times the normal. Cytoplasm of apocrine secretory cells showed an abundance of lipid vacuoles, empty vesicles, and dense bodies. Biopsied skeletal muscle histology (light microscopy) was normal, as was a mitochondrial metabolism study. Biopsies from other HD patients have shown similar mitochondrial changes in cerebral neurons, muscle, fibroblasts, and lymphoblasts, adding to evidence for a systemic disturbance of mitochondria in HD.

  1. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Ping; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Minghao; von Deneen, Karen M; Liu, Yijun; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18) and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18) were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  2. Hemorheological abnormalities in lipoprotein lipase deficient mice with severe hypertriglyceridemia

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Tieqiang; Guo Jun; Li Hui; Huang Wei; Xian Xunde; Ross, Colin J.D.; Hayden, Michael R.; Wen Zongyao . E-mail: rheol@bjmu.edu.cn; Liu George . E-mail: vangeorgeliu@gmail.com

    2006-03-24

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a metabolic disturbance often seen in clinical practice. It is known to induce life-threatening acute pancreatitis, but its role in atherogenesis remains elusive. Hemorheological abnormality was thought to play an important role in pathogenesis of both pancreatitis and atherosclerosis. However, hemorheology in severe HTG was not well investigated. Recently, we established a severe HTG mouse model deficient in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in which severe HTG was observed to cause a significant increase in plasma viscosity. Disturbances of erythrocytes were also documented, including decreased deformability, electrophoresis rate, and membrane fluidity, and increased osmotic fragility. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that most erythrocytes of LPL deficient mice deformed with protrusions, irregular appearances or indistinct concaves. Analysis of erythrocyte membrane lipids showed decreased cholesterol (Ch) and phospholipid (PL) contents but unaltered Ch/PL ratio. The changes of membrane lipids may be partially responsible for the hemorheological and morphologic abnormalities of erythrocytes. This study indicated that severe HTG could lead to significant impairment of hemorheology and this model may be useful in delineating the role of severe HTG in the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemic pancreatitis and atherosclerosis.

  3. Quadrature wavelength scanning interferometry.

    PubMed

    Moschetti, Giuseppe; Forbes, Alistair; Leach, Richard K; Jiang, Xiang; O'Connor, Daniel

    2016-07-10

    A novel method to double the measurement range of wavelength scanning interferometery (WSI) is described. In WSI the measured optical path difference (OPD) is affected by a sign ambiguity, that is, from an interference signal it is not possible to distinguish whether the OPD is positive or negative. The sign ambiguity can be resolved by measuring an interference signal in quadrature. A method to obtain a quadrature interference signal for WSI is described, and a theoretical analysis of the advantages is reported. Simulations of the advantages of the technique and of signal errors due to nonideal quadrature are discussed. The analysis and simulation are supported by experimental measurements to show the improved performances. PMID:27409307

  4. Scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Shigeru; Bard, Allen J; Fan, Fu-Ren F; Mirkin, Michael V; Unwin, Patrick R

    2008-01-01

    This review describes work done in scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) since 2000 with an emphasis on new applications and important trends, such as nanometer-sized tips. SECM has been adapted to investigate charge transport across liquid/liquid interfaces and to probe charge transport in thin films and membranes. It has been used in biological systems like single cells to study ion transport in channels, as well as cellular and enzyme activity. It is also a powerful and useful tool for the evaluation of the electrocatalytic activities of different materials for useful reactions, such as oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation. SECM has also been used as an electrochemical tool for studies of the local properties and reactivity of a wide variety of materials, including metals, insulators, and semiconductors. Finally, SECM has been combined with several other nonelectrochemical techniques, such as atomic force microscopy, to enhance and complement the information available from SECM alone.

  5. Scanning quantum decoherence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Jared H.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.

    2009-12-01

    The use of qubits as sensitive nanoscale magnetometers has been studied theoretically and recently demonstrated experimentally. In this paper we propose a new concept, in which a scanning two-state quantum system is used to probe a sample through the subtle effects of decoherence. Mapping both the Hamiltonian and decoherence properties of a qubit simultaneously provides a unique image of the magnetic (or electric) field properties at the nanoscale. The resulting images are sensitive to the temporal as well as spatial variation in the fields created by the sample. As examples we theoretically study two applications; one from condensed matter physics, the other biophysics. The individual components required to realize the simplest version of this device (characterization and measurement of qubits, nanoscale positioning) have already been demonstrated experimentally.

  6. A scanning cavity microscope.

    PubMed

    Mader, Matthias; Reichel, Jakob; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hunger, David

    2015-01-01

    Imaging the optical properties of individual nanosystems beyond fluorescence can provide a wealth of information. However, the minute signals for absorption and dispersion are challenging to observe, and only specialized techniques requiring sophisticated noise rejection are available. Here we use signal enhancement in a high-finesse scanning optical microcavity to demonstrate ultra-sensitive imaging. Harnessing multiple interactions of probe light with a sample within an optical resonator, we achieve a 1,700-fold signal enhancement compared with diffraction-limited microscopy. We demonstrate quantitative imaging of the extinction cross-section of gold nanoparticles with a sensitivity less than 1 nm(2); we show a method to improve the spatial resolution potentially below the diffraction limit by using higher order cavity modes, and we present measurements of the birefringence and extinction contrast of gold nanorods. The demonstrated simultaneous enhancement of absorptive and dispersive signals promises intriguing potential for optical studies of nanomaterials, molecules and biological nanosystems. PMID:26105690

  7. Metrological scanning probe microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorozhovets, N.; Hausotte, T.; Manske, E.; Jäger, G.; Hofmann, N.

    2006-04-01

    Today's technological progress calls for metrologically accurate object measurement, positioning and scanning with nanometre precision and over large measuring ranges. In order to meet that requirement a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NPM machine) was developed at the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology of the Technische Universitaet Ilmenau. This device is capable of highly exact long-range positioning and measurement of objects with a resolution of less than 0.1 nm. Due to the structure of the machine many different probe systems can be installed, including scanning probe microscopes (SPMs). A few SPMs have outstanding metrological characteristics and many commercial microscopes only perform as image acquisition tools. Commercial SPMs use piezoelectric actuators in order to move either the sample or the probe. The position measurement sometimes results from the applied voltage to the piezoelectric actuators or from the strain gauge or capacitive displacement sensor data. This means that they suffer from hysteresis, creep, nonlinear characteristics and Abbe offsets. For an accurate measurement the position of the cantilever must be measured in addition to the torsion and bending. The best solution is a combined detection system with a single laser beam. This system has been realized with a special interferometer system, in which the measuring beam is focused on the cantilever backside using a lens. The reflected beam is split with a part being detected by a quadrant photo-diode and the other part being fed back into the interferometer for position measurement. The quadrant photo-diode is used to detect the cantilever torsion and bending.

  8. Rapid scanning mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Leckey, J.H.; Boeckmann, M.D.

    1996-11-25

    Mass spectrometers and residual gas analyzers (RGA) are used in a variety of applications for analysis of volatile and semi-volatile materials. Analysis is performed by detecting fragments of gas molecules, based on their mass to charge ratio, which are generated in the mass spectrometer. When used as a detector for a gas chromatograph, they function as a means to quantitatively identify isolated volatile species which have been separated from other species via the gas chromatograph. Vacuum Technology, Inc., (VTI) produces a magnetic sector mass spectrometer/RGA which is used in many industrial and laboratory environments. In order to increase the utility of this instrument, it is desirable to increase the mass scanning speed, thereby increasing the number of applications for which it is suited. This project performed the following three upgrades on the computer interface. (1) A new electrometer was designed and built to process the signal from the detector. This new electrometer is more sensitive, over 10 times faster, and over 100 times more stable than the electrometer it will replace. (2) The controller EPROM was reprogrammed with new firmware. This firmware acts as an operating system for the interface and is used to shuttle communications between the PC and the AEROVAC mass spectrometer. (3) The voltage regulator which causes the ion selector voltage to ramp to allow ions of selected mass to be sequentially detected was redesigned and prototyped. The redesigned voltage regulator can be ramped up or down more than 100 times faster than the existing regulator. These changes were incorporated into a prototype unit and preliminary performance testing conducted. Results indicated that scanning speed was significantly increased over the unmodified version.

  9. Inhibition of P-Glycoprotein and Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2 Regulates the Hepatobiliary Excretion and Plasma Exposure of Thienorphine and Its Glucuronide Conjugate

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling-Lei; Shen, Guo-Lin; Wang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Xiao, Wei-Bin; Yuan, Mei; Gong, Ze-Hui; Li, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Thienorphine (TNP) is a novel partial opioid agonist that has completed phase II clinical evaluation as a promising drug candidate for the treatment of opioid dependence. Previous studies have shown that TNP and its glucuronide conjugate (TNP-G) undergo significant bile excretion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of efflux transporters in regulating biliary excretion and plasma exposure of TNP and TNP-G. An ATPase assay suggested that TNP and TNP-G were substrates of P-gp and MRP2, respectively. The in vitro data from rat hepatocytes showed that bile excretion of TNP and TNP-G was regulated by the P-gp and MRP2 modulators. The accumulation of TNP and TNP-G in HepG2 cells significantly increased by the treatment of mdr1a or MRP2 siRNA for P-gp or MRP2 modulation. In intact rats, the bile excretion, and pharmacokinetic profiles of TNP and TNP-G were remarkably changed with tariquidar and probenecid pretreatment, respectively. Tariquidar increased the Cmax and AUC0-t and decreased MRT and T1/2 of TNP, whereas probenecid decreased the plasma exposure of TNP-G and increased its T1/2. Knockdown P-gp and MRP2 function using siRNA significantly increased the plasma exposure of TNP and TNP-G and reduced their mean retention time in mice. These results indicated the important roles of P-gp and MRP2 in hepatobiliary excretion and plasma exposure of TNP and TNP-G. Inhibition of the efflux transporters may affect the pharmacokinetics of TNP and result in a drug-drug interaction between TNP and the concomitant transporter inhibitor or inducer in clinic. PMID:27555820

  10. CD34(+) Liver Cancer Stem Cells Were Formed by Fusion of Hepatobiliary Stem/Progenitor Cells with Hematopoietic Precursor-Derived Myeloid Intermediates.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Changjun; Zhang, Yanling; Park, Su Cheol; Eun, Jong Ryeol; Nguyen, Ngoc Tue; Tschudy-Seney, Benjamin; Jung, Yong Jin; Theise, Neil D; Zern, Mark A; Duan, Yuyou

    2015-11-01

    A large number of cancer stem cells (CSCs) were identified and characterized; however, the origins and formation of CSCs remain elusive. In this study, we examined the origination of the newly identified CD34(+) liver CSC (LCSC). We found that CD34(+) LCSC coexpressed liver stem cell and myelomonocytic cell markers, showing a mixed phenotype, a combination of hepatobiliary stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and myelomonocytic cells. Moreover, human xenografts produced by CD34(+) LCSCs and the parental cells, which CD34(+) LCSC was isolated from, coexpressed liver cancer and myelomonocytic markers, also demonstrating mixed phenotypes. The xenografts and the parental cells secreted albumin demonstrating their hepatocyte origin and also expressed cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-6, IL-12A, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and CSF1] and chemokines (IL-8, CCL2, and CCL5). Expression of these cytokines and chemokines responded to the stimuli [interferon-γ (INF-γ), IL-4, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]. Furthermore, human xenografts and the parental cells phagocytized Escherichia coli. CD34(+) LCSC coexpressed CD45, demonstrating that its origin appears to be from a hematopoietic precursor. The percentage of cells positive for OV6, CD34, and CD31, presenting the markers of HSPC, hematopoietic, and myelomonocytic cells, increased under treatment of CD34(+) LCSC with a drug. Cytogenetic analysis showed that CD34(+) LCSC contained a greater number of chromosomes. HBV DNA integrations and mutations in CD34(+) LCSC and the parental cells were identical to those in the literature or the database. Thus, these results demonstrated that CD34(+) LCSCs were formed by fusion of HSPC with CD34(+) hematopoietic precursor-derived myeloid intermediates; it appears that this is the first report that human CSCs have been formed by the fusion. Therefore, it represents a significant step toward better understanding of the formation of human CSC and the diverse origins of liver

  11. Inhibition of P-Glycoprotein and Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2 Regulates the Hepatobiliary Excretion and Plasma Exposure of Thienorphine and Its Glucuronide Conjugate.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling-Lei; Shen, Guo-Lin; Wang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Xiao, Wei-Bin; Yuan, Mei; Gong, Ze-Hui; Li, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Thienorphine (TNP) is a novel partial opioid agonist that has completed phase II clinical evaluation as a promising drug candidate for the treatment of opioid dependence. Previous studies have shown that TNP and its glucuronide conjugate (TNP-G) undergo significant bile excretion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of efflux transporters in regulating biliary excretion and plasma exposure of TNP and TNP-G. An ATPase assay suggested that TNP and TNP-G were substrates of P-gp and MRP2, respectively. The in vitro data from rat hepatocytes showed that bile excretion of TNP and TNP-G was regulated by the P-gp and MRP2 modulators. The accumulation of TNP and TNP-G in HepG2 cells significantly increased by the treatment of mdr1a or MRP2 siRNA for P-gp or MRP2 modulation. In intact rats, the bile excretion, and pharmacokinetic profiles of TNP and TNP-G were remarkably changed with tariquidar and probenecid pretreatment, respectively. Tariquidar increased the Cmax and AUC0-t and decreased MRT and T1/2 of TNP, whereas probenecid decreased the plasma exposure of TNP-G and increased its T1/2. Knockdown P-gp and MRP2 function using siRNA significantly increased the plasma exposure of TNP and TNP-G and reduced their mean retention time in mice. These results indicated the important roles of P-gp and MRP2 in hepatobiliary excretion and plasma exposure of TNP and TNP-G. Inhibition of the efflux transporters may affect the pharmacokinetics of TNP and result in a drug-drug interaction between TNP and the concomitant transporter inhibitor or inducer in clinic. PMID:27555820

  12. A comparison of thermography, radioisotope scanning and clinical assessment of the knee joints in haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Forbes, C D; James, W; Prentice, C R; Greig, W R

    1975-01-01

    Thermography, radioactive scanning and clinical assessment of the knee joints of a series of patients with haemophilia or Christmas disease have been performed. A positive correlation was found between the abnormalities of the thermograms, radioactive scans and the clinical signs in acute haemarthrosis, but not in chronic haemophilic joint disease nor in patients without clinical joint disease. No correlation between the thermograms, radioactive scans and the number of previous joint bleeds was shown. Thermography and radionuclide scanning provide rapid means of quantifying changes within the haemophilic joint and may be useful in assessing treatment of haemophilic haemarthrosis.

  13. Neonatal White Matter Abnormalities an Important Predictor of Neurocognitive Outcome for Very Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Lianne J.; Clark, Caron A. C.; Bora, Samudragupta; Inder, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerebral white matter abnormalities on term MRI are a strong predictor of motor disability in children born very preterm. However, their contribution to cognitive impairment is less certain. Objective Examine relationships between the presence and severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities on neonatal MRI and a range of neurocognitive outcomes assessed at ages 4 and 6 years. Design/Methods The study sample consisted of a regionally representative cohort of 104 very preterm (≤32 weeks gestation) infants born from 1998–2000 and a comparison group of 107 full-term infants. At term equivalent, all preterm infants underwent a structural MRI scan that was analyzed qualitatively for the presence and severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities, including cysts, signal abnormalities, loss of white matter volume, ventriculomegaly, and corpus callosal thinning/myelination. At corrected ages 4 and 6 years, all children underwent a comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessment that included measures of general intellectual ability, language development, and executive functioning. Results At 4 and 6 years, very preterm children without cerebral white matter abnormalities showed no apparent neurocognitive impairments relative to their full-term peers on any of the domain specific measures of intelligence, language, and executive functioning. In contrast, children born very preterm with mild and moderate-to-severe white matter abnormalities were characterized by performance impairments across all measures and time points, with more severe cerebral abnormalities being associated with increased risks of cognitive impairment. These associations persisted after adjustment for gender, neonatal medical risk factors, and family social risk. Conclusions Findings highlight the importance of cerebral white matter connectivity for later intact cognitive functioning amongst children born very preterm. Preterm born children without cerebral white matter abnormalities on

  14. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Intracranial Abnormalities in Unprovoked Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Kathleen; Bennett, Jonathan; Conners, Gregory; Bailey, Pam; Callahan, James; Akman, Cigdem; Feldstein, Neil; Kriger, Joshua; Hauser, W. Allen; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prospective data are lacking to determine which children might benefit from prompt neuroimaging after unprovoked seizures. We aimed to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, relevant intracranial abnormalities in children with first, unprovoked seizures. METHODS: We conducted a 6-center prospective study in children aged >28 days to 18 years with seemingly unprovoked seizures. Emergency department (ED) clinicians documented clinical findings on a standardized form. Our main outcome was the presence of a clinically relevant intracranial abnormality on computed tomography (CT) or MRI, defined as those that might change management, either emergently, urgently, or nonurgently. RESULTS: We enrolled 475 of 625 (76%) eligible patients. Of 354 patients for whom cranial MRI or CT scans were obtained in the ED or within 4 months of the ED visit, 40 (11.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–14.6%) had clinically relevant intracranial abnormalities, with 3 (0.8%; 95% CI: 0.1–1.8%) having emergent/urgent abnormalities. On logistic regression analysis, a high-risk past medical history (adjusted odds ratio: 9.2; 95% CI: 2.4–35.7) and any focal aspect to the seizure (odds ratio: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2–5.3) were independently associated with clinically relevant abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically relevant intracranial abnormalities occur in 11% of children with first, unprovoked seizures. Emergent/urgent abnormalities, however, occur in <1%, suggesting that most children do not require neuroimaging in the ED. Findings on patient history and physical examination identify patients at higher risk of relevant abnormalities. PMID:26195538

  15. Scan mirrors relay for high resolution laser scanning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, David

    2014-09-01

    Two dimensional beam deflection is often required in medical laser scanning systems such as OCT or confocal microscopy. Commonly two linear galvo mirrors are used for performance in terms of their large apertures and scan angles. The galvo mirrors are placed at the vicinity of entrance pupil of the scan lens with a "displacement distance" separating them. This distance limits the scan fields and/or reduces the effective aperture of the scan lens. Another option is to use a beam or pupil relay, and image one galvo mirror onto the other. However, beam (or pupil) relays are notoriously complicated, expensive and can add significant aberrations. This paper discusses a simple, all reflective, diffraction limited, color corrected, beam relay, capable of large scan angles and large deflecting mirrors. The design is based on a unique combination of an Offner configuration with a Schmidt aspheric corrector. The design is highly corrected up to large scan mirrors and large scan angles down to milliwaves of aberrations. It allows significantly larger scan field and or scan lenses with higher numerical aperture as compared with scanners using galvos separated by the displacement distance. While this relay is of exceptionally high performance, it has one element located where the beam is focused which may present a problem for high power lasers. Thus modifications of the above design are introduced where the beam is focused in mid air thus making it usable for high power systems such including laser marking and fabrication systems.

  16. Contralateral subtraction technique for detection of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scintigrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu, Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    We developed a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for assisting radiologists in the detection of asymmetric abnormalities on a single whole-body bone scintigram by applying a contralateral subtraction (CS) technique. Twenty whole-body bone scans including 107 abnormal lesions in anterior and/or posterior images (the number of lesions per case ranged from 1 to 16, mean 5.4) were used in this study. In our scheme, the original bone scan image was flipped horizontally to provide a mirror image. The mirror image was first rotated and shifted globally to match the original image approximately, and then was nonlinearly warped by use of an elastic matching technique in order to match the original image accurately. We applied a nonlinear lookup table to convert the difference in pixel values between the original and the warped images to new pixel values for a CS image, in order to enhance dark shadows at the locations of abnormal lesions where uptake of radioisotope was asymmetrically high, and to suppress light shadows of the lesions on the contralateral side. In addition, we applied a CAD scheme for the detection of asymmetric abnormalities by use of rule-based tests and sequential application of artificial neural networks with 25 image features extracted from the original and CS images. The performance of the CAD scheme, which was evaluated by a leave-one-case-out method, indicated an average sensitivity of 80.4 % with 3.8 false positives per case. This CAD scheme with the contralateral subtraction technique has the potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic accuracy and could be used for computerized identification of asymmetric abnormalities on whole-body bone scans.

  17. Chromosomal abnormalities in the newborn period.

    PubMed

    Seashore, M R

    1993-10-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities account for a significant percentage of congenital malformations in the neonate. While some of the syndromes can be suspected on clinical grounds, the clinician will need to have a high index of suspicion based on the presence of multiple abnormalities that cannot be accounted for by other causes. Chromosome analysis should be performed promptly in these cases. Cultured lymphocytes are the standard preparation at present. However, new non-isotopic hybridization techniques are becoming available that allow analysis of interphase cells, and these may become more widely used as clinical experience with them is gained. Prognosis can usually be better defined once the chromosome analysis is complete. The information acquired may also be used to provide risk estimates for chromosomal abnormalities in future pregnancies of the parents of the affected infant and for other relatives. Empathetic counseling of the parents and family must be provided once the diagnosis is known. It must take into account the knowledge the chromosome analysis provides, be respectful of the parent's need for support, and be accurate as to prognosis of the condition diagnosed. When Down syndrome and Turner syndrome have been diagnosed, care must be taken to emphasize the positive aspects of the prognosis. When a chromosomal abnormality with an extremely poor prognosis is identified, support for withdrawal of medical intervention must be sensitively provided. The diagnosis and care of an infant with a chromosomal abnormality will challenge all of the pediatrician's diagnostic, therapeutic, and communication skills.

  18. Dysmorphometrics: the modelling of morphological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of typical morphological variations using quantitative, morphometric descriptors has always interested biologists in general. However, unusual examples of form, such as abnormalities are often encountered in biomedical sciences. Despite the long history of morphometrics, the means to identify and quantify such unusual form differences remains limited. Methods A theoretical concept, called dysmorphometrics, is introduced augmenting current geometric morphometrics with a focus on identifying and modelling form abnormalities. Dysmorphometrics applies the paradigm of detecting form differences as outliers compared to an appropriate norm. To achieve this, the likelihood formulation of landmark superimpositions is extended with outlier processes explicitly introducing a latent variable coding for abnormalities. A tractable solution to this augmented superimposition problem is obtained using Expectation-Maximization. The topography of detected abnormalities is encoded in a dysmorphogram. Results We demonstrate the use of dysmorphometrics to measure abrupt changes in time, asymmetry and discordancy in a set of human faces presenting with facial abnormalities. Conclusion The results clearly illustrate the unique power to reveal unusual form differences given only normative data with clear applications in both biomedical practice & research. PMID:22309623

  19. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  20. [Abnormalities of the penis in boys].

    PubMed

    Peycelon, M; Parmentier, B; Raquillet, C; Boubnova, J; Chouikh, T; Grosos, C; Honart, J-F; Pichon, A; Auber, F; Larroquet, M; Audry, G

    2012-12-01

    Abnormalities of the male genitalia have increased in the last 2 decades in numerous developed countries and remain a frequent reason of consultation in pediatric surgery. The diagnostic spectrum is wide, and surgeons should pay particular attention to these abnormalities because of their potential psychological effect. Anatomically, these abnormalities can affect one of three parts of the penis. First, the foreskin may not be fully retracted. This is normal at birth and can be caused by prepuce adherents that can continue until adolescence. Today, true phimosis is treated with topical corticoids from the age of 3 years. If medical treatment fails, a surgical procedure is required. Second, the urethra can be affected by hypospadia, which is the most frequent abnormality of the urethra. It is associated with ectopic urethral meatus, hypoplastic foreskin, and penis curvature. Its pathogenic background is not clearly understood. Surgery options differ according to the type of hypospadia and according to the surgeon's experience. It is sometimes hard to deal with, especially in a perineal form, where genetic and hormonal studies are recommended. These interventions can lead to complications ranging from stenosis to fistula. Therefore, parents have to be informed of the benefits and risks of the surgical procedures. Epispadias is rare but more serious because of the increasing risk of urinary incontinence. Finally, abnormalities of the corpora cavernosa - often associated with hypospadias - can include penis curvature and micropenis, for which an endocrinological analysis is essential. PMID:23121902

  1. Earth observing scanning polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travis, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Climate forcing by tropospheric aerosols is receiving increased attention because of the realization that the climate effects may be large, while our knowledge of global aerosol characteristics and temporal changes is very poor. Tropospheric aerosols cause a direct radiative forcing due simply to their scattering and absorption of solar radiation, as well as an indirect effect as cloud condensation nuclei which can modify the shortwave reflectivity of clouds. Sulfate aerosols tend to increase planetary albedo through both the direct and indirect effects; a cooling due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols has been estimated of order 1 W/sq m, noting that this is similar in magnitude to the present anthropogenic greenhouse gas warming. Other aerosols, including those from biomass burning and wind-blown desert dust are also of potential climatic importance. At present, the only global monitoring of tropospheric aerosols is a NOAA operational product, aerosol optical thickness, obtained using channel-1 (0.58-0.68 mu m) radiances from the AVHRR. With this single channel radiance data, one must use an approach which is based on the inferred excess of reflected radiance owing to scattering by the aerosols over that expected from theoretical calculations. This approach is suited only for situations where the surface has a low albedo that is well known a priori. Thus, the NOAA operational product is restricted to coverage over the ocean at AVHRR scan angles well away from sun glint, and aerosol changes are subject to confusion with changes caused by either optically thin or subpixel clouds. Because optically thin aerosols have only a small effect on the radiance, accurate measurements for optical thickness less than 0.1 (which is a typical background level) are precluded. Moreover, some of the largest and most important aerosol changes are expected over land. The Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter (EOSP) instrument, based upon design heritage and analysis techniques

  2. Skeletal blood flow: implications for bone-scan interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Charkes, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    The dispersion of the skeleton throughout the body and its complex vascular anatomy require indirect methods for the measurement of skeletal blood flow. The results of one such method, compartmental analysis of skeletal tracer kinetics, are presented. The assumptions underlying the models were tested in animals and found to be in agreement with experimental observations. Based upon the models and the experimental results, inferences concerning bone-scan interpretation can be drawn: decreased cardiac output produces low-contrast (technically poor) scans; decreased skeletal flow produces photon-deficient lesions; increase of cardiac output or of generalized systemic blood flow is undetectable 1 to 2 h after dose; increased local skeletal blood flow results from disturbance of the bone microvasculature and can occur from neurologic (sympatholytic) disorders or in association with focal abnormalities that also incite the formation of reactive bone (e.g., metastasis, fracture, etc.). Mathematical solutions of tracer kinetic data thus become relevant to bone-scan interpretation.

  3. Comparison of bone scan and radiograph sensitivity in the detection of steroid-induced ischemic necrosis of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.J.; Alderson, P.O.; Zizic, T.M.; Hungerford, D.S.; Densereaux, J.Y.; Gober, A.; Wagner, H.N.

    1983-04-01

    A prospective study of bone scanning for detection of ischemic necrosis of bone (INB) was performed in 36 patients (97% female, age range 16-36 yrs.) with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). Since the hips, knees, and shoulders are usually affected by INB in patients with SLE, 300 K converging collimator images of these joints were obtained on film and in digital format 2 to 3 hours after the injection of 20 mCi (740 MBq) of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate. All patients underwent radiography of the joints, and 10 had intraosseous pressure determinations in the marrow space of affected joints (n . 31) for independent assessment of INB. Scans showed abnormally increased joint activity in 28 of the 36 patients. A total of 97 joints showed abnormalities, 19% in the hips, 34% in the knees, and 47% in the shoulders. Twenty-four of 27 joints with elevated bone marrow pressure (BMP) had abnormal scans (sensitivity . 89%), and scans were abnormal in 2 of 4 joints with normal pressures (specificity . 50%). The positive predictive value of the scans compared with BMP measurements was 92% (24/26). Eleven of 27 joints with abnormal BMP had abnormal radiographs, a sensitivity of 41%.

  4. Comparison of bone scan and radiograph sensitivity in the detection of steroid-induced ischemic necrosis of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.J.; Alderson, P.O.; Zizic, T.M.; Hungerford, D.S.; Densereaux, J.Y.; Gober, A.; Wagner, H.N.

    1983-04-01

    A prospective study of bone scanning for detection of ischemic necrosis of bone (INB) was performed in 36 patients (97% female, age range 16-36 yrs.) with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). Since the hips, knees, and shoulders are usually affected by INB in patients with SLE, 300 K converging collimator images of these joints were obtained on film and in digital format 2 to 3 hours after the injection of 20 mCi (740 MBq) of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate. All patients underwent radiography of the joints, and 10 had intraosseous pressure determinations in the marrow space of affected joints (n=31) for independent assessment of INB. Scans showed abnormally increased joint activity in 28 of the 36 patients. A total of 97 joints showed abnormalities, 19% in the hips, 34% in the knees, and 47% in the shoulders. Twenty-four of 27 joints with elevated bone marrow pressure (BMP) had abnormal scans (sensitivity = 89%), and scans were abnormal in 2 of 4 joints with normal pressures (specificity = 50%). The positive predicitive value of the scans compared with BMP measurements was 92% (24/26). Eleven of 27 joints with abnormal BMP had abnormal radiographs, a sensitivity of 41%.

  5. Non-coronary abnormalities of the left heart: CT angiography findings.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Ersin; Kafadar, Cahit; Tutar, Süleyman; Bozlar, Uğur; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is most commonly performed for the evaluation of the coronary arteries; however, non-coronary cardiac pathologies are frequently detected on these scans. In cases where magnetic resonance imaging cannot be used, cardiac CT can serve as the first-line imaging modality to evaluate many non-coronary cardiac pathologies. In this article, we discuss congenital non-coronary abnormalities of the left heart and their cardiac CT imaging features. PMID:27609435

  6. Clinical manifestations in children and adolescents with corpus callosum abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Margari, Lucia; Palumbi, Roberto; Campa, Maria Gloria; Operto, Francesca Felicia; Buttiglione, Maura; Craig, Francesco; Matricardi, Sara; Verrotti, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Corpus callosum abnormality (CCA) outcomes are quite unpredictable and variable, from asymptomatic forms to mild or severe neurodevelopment disorders. The aim of this study was to examine clinical outcomes in CCA patients. The study included 61 children and adolescents in whom brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed CCA, isolated or associated to other central nervous system lesions. All patients underwent anamnesis, physical and neurological examination, routine laboratory tests, electroencephalogram (EEG), and MRI scans. In all participants, the intelligence quotient (IQ) was determined. We divided the participants into two subgroups: the first subgroup included patients with an isolated CCA, and the second subgroup included patients with CCA associated with extra-callosal brain lesions (complex CCA). We found that CCA were associated with elevated frequency to intellectual disability (ID), other neurodevelopment disorders, epilepsy, and isolated EEG anomalies. Mild ID (p = 0.003) was more frequent in the isolated subgroup, while epilepsy (p = 0.036) and pre-perinatal risk factors (p = 0.023) were more frequent in the complex CCA subgroup. Although the role of the CC in the interhemispheric communication is known, neurological and neurodevelopment outcomes of CCA are extremely variable and unpredictable. The presence of extra-callosal brain anomalies is one of the major prognostic factor, and probably, they have an important impact on the clinical outcome.

  7. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Nels W.

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  8. GPR scan assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Abbas M.; Salah, Hany; Massoud, Usama; Fouad, Mona; Abdel-Hafez, Mahmoud

    2015-06-01

    Mekaad Radwan monument is situated in the neighborhood of Bab Zuweila in the historical Cairo, Egypt. It was constructed at the middle XVII century (1635 AD). The building has a rectangle shape plan (13 × 6 m) with the longitudinal sides approximately WNW-ESE. It comprises three storages namely; the ground floor; the opened floor (RADWAN Bench) and the living floor with a total elevation of 15 m above the street level. The building suffers from severe deterioration phenomena with patterns of damage which have occurred over time. These deterioration and damages could be attributed to foundation problems, subsoil water and also to the earthquake that affected the entire Greater Cairo area in October 1992. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) scan was accomplished against the walls of the opened floor (RADWAN Bench) to evaluate the hazard impact on the walls textures and integrity. The results showed an anomalous feature through the southern wall of RADWAN Bench. A mathematical model has been simulated to confirm the obtained anomaly and the model response exhibited a good matching with the outlined anomaly.

  9. Laser Scanning Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Pozarowski, Piotr; Holden, Elena; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Summary The laser scanning cytometer (LSC) is the microscope-based cytofluorometer that offers a plethora of analytical capabilities. Multilaser-excited fluorescence emitted from individual cells is measured at several wavelength ranges, rapidly (up to 5000 cells/min), with high sensitivity and accuracy. The following applications of LSC are reviewed: (1) identification of cells that differ in degree of chromatin condensation (e.g., mitotic or apoptotic cells or lymphocytes vs granulocytes vs monocytes); (2) detection of translocation between cytoplasm vs nucleus or nucleoplasm vs nucleolus of regulatory molecules such as NF- κB, p53, or Bax; (3) semiautomatic scoring of micronuclei in mutagenicity assays; (4) analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization; (5) enumeration and morphometry of nucleoli; (6) analysis of phenotype of progeny of individual cells in clonogenicity assay; (7) cell immunophenotyping; (8) visual examination, imaging, or sequential analysis of the cells measured earlier upon their relocation, using different probes; (9) in situ enzyme kinetics and other time-resolved processes; (10) analysis of tissue section architecture; (11) application for hypocellular samples (needle aspirate, spinal fluid, etc.); (12) other clinical applications. Advantages and limitations of LSC are discussed and compared with flow cytometry. PMID:16719355

  10. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy.

  11. Laparoscopy for resolving Müllerian abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Motashaw, N D; Dastur, A; Vaidya, R A; Aloorkar, M

    1978-07-01

    One hundred thirty-five patients with various müllerian abnormalities underwent laparoscopy. At a glance the precise malformation was diagnosed correctly: 44 patients revealed a complete absence of the müllerian system; 35 were found to have a transverse ridge across the pelvis, the lateral ends of which were well developed; 33 patients had rudimentary uteri; 7, a median müllerian nodule; 5 belonged to the group with the testicular feminization syndrome; 4 were classified as having a bicornuate uterus; 3 had unicornuate uteri; and 3, septate uteri. One rare variety of müllerian abnormality is also described. Laparoscopy was found to be invaluable in the diagnosis of müllerian abnormalities.

  12. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24054776

  13. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  14. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  15. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

  16. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  17. Endocrine Abnormalities in Townes–Brocks Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Cara; Hong-McAtee, Irene; Hall, Bryan; Hartsfield, James; Rutherford, Andrew; Bonilla, Tracy; Bay, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Townes–Brocks syndrome is a recognizable variable pattern of malformation caused by mutations to the SALL1 gene located on chromosome 16q12.1. Only three known cases of Townes–Brocks syndrome with proven SALL1 gene mutation and concurrent endocrine abnormalities have been previously documented to our knowledge [Kohlhase et al., 1999; Botzenhart et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2010]. We report on two unrelated patients with Townes–Brocks syndrome who share an identical SALL1 mutation (c.3414_3415delAT), who also have endocrine abnormalities. Patient 1 appears to be the first known case of growth hormone deficiency, and Patient 2 extends the number of documented mutation cases with hypothyroidism to four. We suspect endocrine abnormalities, particularly treatable deficiencies, may be an underappreciated component to Townes–Brocks syndrome. PMID:23894113

  18. Echocardiographic abnormalities in the mucopolysaccharide storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Gross, D M; Williams, J C; Caprioli, C; Dominguez, B; Howell, R R

    1988-01-01

    The mucopolysaccharide storage diseases express themselves clinically with a wide variety of abnormalities, including growth and mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities, clouded corneas, nerve compression syndromes, upper airway obstruction and cardiovascular involvement, to name the most common. In most cases the cause of early death is cardiorespiratory failure secondary to cardiovascular involvement and upper airway obstruction. The findings of cardiac ultrasound examination in 29 children, adolescents and young adults are presented. In addition to the previously well-described abnormalities of the mitral and aortic valves in several types of mucopolysaccharide storage disease, we report patchy involvement in some cases, 3 instances of asymmetric septal hypertrophy not previously reported in mucopolysaccharide storage diseases, cardiac involvement in half of our patients with Sanfilippo syndrome and a lack of age-related severity of cardiac involvement even within the specific syndromes. PMID:3122547

  19. Visual perceptual abnormalities: hallucinations and illusions.

    PubMed

    Norton, J W; Corbett, J J

    2000-01-01

    Visual perceptual abnormalities may be caused by diverse etiologies which span the fields of psychiatry and neurology. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of visual perceptual abnormalities from both a neurological and a psychiatric perspective. Psychiatric etiologies include mania, depression, substance dependence, and schizophrenia. Common neurological causes include migraine, epilepsy, delirium, dementia, tumor, and stroke. The phenomena of palinopsia, oscillopsia, dysmetropsia, and polyopia among others are also reviewed. A systematic approach to the many causes of illusions and hallucinations may help to achieve an accurate diagnosis, and a more focused evaluation and treatment plan for patients who develop visual perceptual abnormalities. This article provides the practicing neurologist with a practical understanding and approach to patients with these clinical symptoms.

  20. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  1. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  2. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs.

    PubMed

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

  3. Computer-enhanced thallium scintigrams in asymptomatic men with abnormal exercise tests

    SciTech Connect

    Uhl, G.S.; Kay, T.N.; Hickman, J.R. Jr.

    1981-12-01

    The use of treadmill testing in asymptomatic patients and those with an atypical chest pain syndrome is increasing, yet the proportion of false positive stress electrocardiograms increases as the prevalence of disease decreases. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of computer-enhanced thallium perfusion scintigraphy in this subgroup of patients, multigated thallium scans were obtained after peak exercise and 3 or 4 hours after exercise and the raw images enhanced by a computer before interpretations were made. The patient group consisted of 191 asymptomatic U.S. Air force aircrewmen who had an abnormal exercise electrocardiogram. Of these, 135 had normal coronary angiographic findings, 15 had subcritical coronary stenosis (less than 50 percent diameter narrowing) and 41 had significant coronary artery disease. Use of computer enhancement resulted in only four false positive and two false negative scintigrams. The small subgroup with subcritical coronary disease had equivocal results on thallium scintigraphy, 10 men having abnormal scans and 5 showing no defects. The clinical significance of such subcritical disease in unclear, but it can be detected with thallium scintigraphy. Thallium scintigrams that have been enhanced by readily available computer techniques are an accurate diagnostic tool even in asymptomatic patients with an easily interpretable abnormal maximal stress electrocardiogram. Thallium scans can be effectively used in counseling asymptomatic patients on the likelihood of their having coronary artery disease.

  4. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  5. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  6. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  7. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research. PMID:26460794

  8. Predictive value of myocardial radioisotope scanning in animals treated with doxorubicin

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, S.J.; Wilson, G.A.; Sutherland, R.; Schenk, E.; Chacko, A.K.; Durakovic, A.; Bennett, J.M.

    1980-06-01

    Thirty-four New Zealand white rabbit were treated with doxorubicin and imaged weekly with Tc-99m pyrophosphate to define the value of abnormal myocardial images in predicting doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity. Increased myocardial uptake was detected in most animals on sustained treatment with doxorubicin. A greater proportion of the heart was involved with doxorubicin-related histologic changes in animals with strongly positive myocardial images than in treated animals with moderately positive or normal scans. The myocardial images returned to normal levels 2-6 wk after doxorubicin was discontinued. Five of seven rabbits that received doxorubicin after they had three moderately positive myocardial scans, died from congestive heart failure. Three rabbits whose doxorubicin was discontinued because of scan findings, survived for 6 wk or more before dying from renal failure. The three rabbits who received the highest total dose of doxorubicin died of renal failure without developing abnormal myocardial scans.

  9. Stochastic scanning multiphoton multifocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jureller, Justin E; Kim, Hee Y; Scherer, Norbert F

    2006-04-17

    Multiparticle tracking with scanning confocal and multiphoton fluorescence imaging is increasingly important for elucidating biological function, as in the transport of intracellular cargo-carrying vesicles. We demonstrate a simple rapid-sampling stochastic scanning multifocal multiphoton microscopy (SS-MMM) fluorescence imaging technique that enables multiparticle tracking without specialized hardware at rates 1,000 times greater than conventional single point raster scanning. Stochastic scanning of a diffractive optic generated 10x10 hexagonal array of foci with a white noise driven galvanometer yields a scan pattern that is random yet space-filling. SS-MMM creates a more uniformly sampled image with fewer spatio-temporal artifacts than obtained by conventional or multibeam raster scanning. SS-MMM is verified by simulation and experimentally demonstrated by tracking microsphere diffusion in solution. PMID:19516485

  10. The bone scan.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Arnold I; Koshy, June; Morey, Jose; Lin, Cheryl; DiPoce, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Bone imaging continues to be the second greatest-volume nuclear imaging procedure, offering the advantage of total body examination, low cost, and high sensitivity. Its power rests in the physiological uptake and pathophysiologic behavior of 99m technetium (99m-Tc) diphosphonates. The diagnostic utility, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of 99m-Tc bone imaging for benign conditions and tumors was established when only planar imaging was available. Currently, nearly all bone scans are performed as a planar study (whole-body, 3-phase, or regional), with the radiologist often adding single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Here we review many current indications for planar bone imaging, highlighting indications in which the planar data are often diagnostically sufficient, although diagnosis may be enhanced by SPECT. (18)F sodium fluoride positron emission tomography (PET) is also re-emerging as a bone agent, and had been considered interchangeable with 99m-Tc diphosphonates in the past. In addition to SPECT, new imaging modalities, including (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose, PET/CT, CT, magnetic resonance, and SPECT/CT, have been developed and can aid in evaluating benign and malignant bone disease. Because (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose is taken up by tumor cells and Tc diphosphonates are taken up in osteoblastic activity or osteoblastic healing reaction, both modalities are complementary. CT and magnetic resonance may supplement, but do not replace, bone imaging, which often detects pathology before anatomic changes are appreciated. We also stress the importance of dose reduction by reducing the dose of 99m-Tc diphosphonates and avoiding unnecessary CT acquisitions. In addition, we describe an approach to image interpretation that emphasizes communication with referring colleagues and correlation with appropriate history to significantly improve our impact on patient care.

  11. [Differential diagnosis of reduced uptake images revealed by bone scan: about a case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Bahadi, Nisrine; Biyi, Abdelhamid; Oueriagli, Salah Nabih; Doudouh, Abderrahim

    2016-01-01

    If increased uptake during bone scan usually bring to light many bone pathologies, reduced uptakes are a rare occurrence and they require careful analysis to avoid erroneous interpretations. We report the case of a 17-year old admitted with diffuse bone pain, hypercalcemia and thrombopenia. Bone scan showed areas of low uptakes. Bone marrow tests allowed the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This case report aims to discuss the main differential diagnoses based on such bone scan abnormalities. PMID:27642484

  12. The advantage of coronal scanning in cerebral computed angiotomography for diagnosis of moyamoya disease

    SciTech Connect

    Asari, S.; Satoh, T.; Sakurai, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Sadamoto, K.

    1982-12-01

    The advantage of coronal scanning in cerebral computed angiotomography for diagnosis of and screening for moyamoya disease is demonstrated. Characteristic features on the coronal CT scan include (a) attenuation of and difficulty in following the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries and carotid fork and (b) abnormal ''nebula-like'' high-density areas consisting of irregular, tortuous, or patchy vessels arising in the basal cisterns and extending to the basal ganglia.

  13. Chest CT abnormalities and quality of life: relationship in adult cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kilcoyne, Aoife; Lavelle, Lisa P.; McCarthy, Colin J.; McEvoy, Sinead H.; Fleming, Hannah; Gallagher, Annika; Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm; McKone, Edward; Gallagher, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the relationship between lung parenchymal abnormalities on chest CT and health-related quality of life in adult cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods The chest CT scans of 101 consecutive CF adults (mean age 27.8±7.9, 64 males) were prospectively scored by two blinded radiologists in consensus using a modified Bhalla score. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the revised Quittner Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ-R). Multiple regressions were performed with each of the CFQ-R domains and all clinical and imaging findings to assess independent correlations. Results There were 18 inpatients and 83 outpatients. For the cohort of inpatients, CT abnormalities were significantly (P<0.005 for all) associated with Respiratory Symptoms (Air Trapping), and also with Social Functioning (Consolidation) and Role Functioning (Consolidation). For outpatients, CT abnormalities were significantly (P<0.005 for all) associated with Respiratory Symptoms (Consolidation) and also with Physical Functioning (Consolidation), Vitality (Consolidation, Severity of Bronchiectasis), Eating Problems (airway wall thickening), Treatment Burden (Total CT Score), Body Image (Severity of Bronchiectasis) and Role Functioning (Tree-in-bud nodules). Consolidation was the commonest independent CT predictor for both inpatients (predictor for 2 domains) and outpatients (predictor in 3 domains). Several chest CT abnormalities excluded traditional measures such as FEV1 and BMI from the majority of CFQ-R domains. Conclusions Chest CT abnormalities are significantly associated with quality of life measures in adult CF, independent of clinical or spirometric measurements. PMID:27047946

  14. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  15. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  16. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  17. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  18. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  19. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  20. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  1. Pathways to abnormal revenge and forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2013-02-01

    The target article’s important point is easily misunderstood to claim that all revenge is adaptive. Revenge and forgiveness can overstretch (or understretch) the bounds of utility due to misperceptions, minimization of costly errors, a breakdown within our evolved revenge systems, or natural genetic and developmental variation. Together, these factors can compound to produce highly abnormal instances of revenge and forgiveness. PMID:23211704

  2. Abnormal Saccadic Eye Movements in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, C.; Verbaten, M. N.; Cuperus, J. M.; Camfferman, G.; van Engeland, H.

    1998-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements, generated during a visual oddball task, were compared for 10 autistic children, 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 10 dyslexic children, and 10 typically developing children. Several abnormal patterns of saccades were found in the autistic group. (DB)

  3. Familial Precocious Fetal Abnormal Cortical Sulcation.

    PubMed

    Frassoni, Carolina; Avagliano, Laura; Inverardi, Francesca; Spaccini, Luigina; Parazzini, Cecilia; Rustico, Maria Angela; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Righini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The development of the human cerebral cortex is a complex and precisely programmed process by which alterations may lead to morphological and functional neurological abnormalities. We report familial cases of prenatally diagnosed abnormal brain, characterized by aberrant symmetrical mesial oversulcation of the parietooccipital lobes, in fetuses affected by abnormal skeletal features. Fetal brain anomalies were characterized by prenatal magnetic resonance imaging at 21 weeks of gestation and histologically evaluated at 22 weeks. Histological examination added relevant information showing some focal cortical areas of micropoligyria and heterotopic extension of the cortical plate into the marginal zone beneath the cortical surface. Genetic analysis of the fetuses excluded FGFR3 mutations known to be related to skeletal dysplasia and aberrant symmetrical oversulcation in other brain areas (temporal lobes). Hence, the present report suggests the existence of a class of rare syndromes of skeleton and brain development abnormality unrelated to FGFR3 mutations or related to other not described FGFR3 gene defects. Using magnetic resonance imaging, histopathology and molecular characterization we provide an example of a translational study of a rare and unreported brain congenital malformation. PMID:27177044

  4. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... LEEP) —A thin wire loop that carries an electric current is used to remove abnormal areas of the ... the cervix using a thin wire loop and electric energy. Pap ... this document sets forth current information and opinions related to women’s health. The ...

  5. Pancreatic abnormalities and AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    Teare, J P; Daly, C A; Rodgers, C; Padley, S P; Coker, R J; Main, J; Harris, J R; Scullion, D; Bray, G P; Summerfield, J A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Biliary tract abnormalities are well recognised in AIDS, most frequently related to opportunistic infection with Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, and cytomegalovirus. We noted a high frequency of pancreatic abnormalities associated with biliary tract disease. To define these further we reviewed the clinical and radiological features in these patients. METHODS: Notes and radiographs were available from two centres for 83 HIV positive patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the investigation of cholestatic liver function tests or abdominal pain. RESULTS: 56 patients had AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis (ARSC); 86% of these patients had epigastric or right upper quadrant pain and 52% had hepatomegaly. Of the patients with ARSC, 10 had papillary stenosis alone, 11 had intra- and extrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis alone, and 35 had a combination of the two. Ampullary biopsies performed in 24 patients confirmed an opportunistic infection in 16. In 15 patients, intraluminal polyps were noted on the cholangiogram. Pancreatograms were available in 34 of the 45 patients with papillary stenosis, in which 29 (81%) had associated pancreatic duct dilatation, often with associated features of chronic pancreatitis. In the remaining 27 patients, final diagnoses included drug induced liver disease, acalculous cholecystitis, gall bladder empyema, chronic B virus hepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic abnormalities are commonly seen with ARSC and may be responsible for some of the pain not relieved by biliary sphincterotomy. The most frequent radiographic biliary abnormality is papillary stenosis combined with ductal sclerosis. Images PMID:9389948

  6. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  7. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  8. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  9. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  10. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal…

  11. Ultrasonography of gallbladder abnormalities due to schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joachim; Azoulay, Daniel; Dong, Yi; Holtfreter, Martha C; Akpata, Robert; Calderaro, Julien; El-Scheich, Tarik; Breuer, Matthias; Neumayr, Andreas; Hatz, Christoph; Kircheis, Gerald; Botelho, Monica C; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-08-01

    After malaria, schistosomiasis remains the most important tropical parasitic disease in large parts of the world. Schistosomiasis has recently re-emerged in Southern Europe. Intestinal schistosomiasis is caused by most Schistosoma (S.) spp. pathogenic to humans and leads to chronic inflammation and fibrosis of the colon as well as to liver fibrosis. Gallbladder abnormalities usually occur in patients with advanced hepatic portal fibrosis due to Schistosoma mansoni infection. Occasionally, gallbladder abnormalities have been seen also in children and occurring without associated overt liver abnormalities.The specific S. mansoni-induced gallbladder abnormalities detectable by ultrasound include typical hyperechogenic wall thickening with external gallbladder wall protuberances. The luminal wall surface is smooth. The condition is usually clinically silent although some cases of symptomatic cholecystitis have been described. The ultrasonographic Murphy response is negative. Gallbladder contractility is impaired but sludge and calculi occur rarely. Contrary to other trematodes such as liver flukes, S. mansoni does not obstruct the biliary tract. Advanced gallbladder fibrosis is unlikely to reverse after therapy.

  12. Evaluation of Oatp and Mrp2 activities in hepatobiliary excretion using newly developed positron emission tomography tracer [11C]dehydropravastatin in rats.

    PubMed

    Shingaki, Tomotaka; Takashima, Tadayuki; Ijuin, Ryosuke; Zhang, Xuan; Onoue, Tomohiro; Katayama, Yumiko; Okauchi, Takashi; Hayashinaka, Emi; Cui, Yilong; Wada, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Masaaki; Maeda, Kazuya; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-10-01

    We developed a pravastatin derivative, sodium (3R,5R)-3,5-dihydroxy-7-((1S,2S,6S,8S)-6-hydroxy-2-methyl-8-((1-[(11)C]-(E)-2-methyl-but-2-enoyl)oxy)-1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydronaphthalen-1-yl)heptanoate ([(11)C]DPV), as a positron emission tomography (PET) probe for noninvasive measurement of hepatobiliary transport, and conducted pharmacokinetic analysis in rats as a feasibility study for future clinical study. Transport activities of DPV in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes and rodent multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (rMrp2; human, MRP2)-expressing membrane vesicles were similar to those of pravastatin. Rifampicin diminished the uptake of DPV and pravastatin by the hepatocytes, with similar inhibition potency. [(11)C]DPV underwent biotransformation to produce at least two metabolites in rat, but metabolism of [(11)C]DPV occurred negligibly in human hepatocytes during a 90-minute incubation. After intravenous injection, [(11)C]DPV was mainly distributed to the liver and kidneys, where the tissue uptake clearances (CLuptake,liver and CLuptake,kidney) were blood-flow-limited (73.6 ± 4.8 and 24.6 ± 0.6 ml/min per kilogram, respectively). Systemic elimination of [(11)C]DPV was delayed in rifampicin-treated rat and an Mrp2-deficient mutant rat, Eisai hyperbilirubinemic mutant rat (EHBR). Rifampicin treatment decreased both CLuptake,liver and CLuptake,kidney of [(11)C]DPV by 30% (P < 0.05), whereas these parameters were unchanged in EHBR. Meanwhile, the canalicular efflux clearance (CLint,bile) of [(11)C]DPV, which was 12.2 ± 1.5 ml/min per kilogram in the control rat, decreased by 60% and 89% in rifampicin-treated rat and EHBR (P < 0.05), respectively. These results indicate that [(11)C]DPV is taken up into the liver by organic anion-transporting polypeptides (rodent, Oatps; human, OATP) and excreted into bile by Mrp2 in rat, and that rifampicin may inhibit Mrp2 as well as Oatps, and consequently increase systemic exposure of [(11)C]DPV. PET using [(11)C]DPV is

  13. Nuclear Medicine Scans for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the possible complications? For the most part, nuclear scans are safe tests. The doses of radiation are very small, and the radionuclides have a ... else should I know about these tests? The radiation exposure from a nuclear scan comes from the radionuclides used – the scanner ...

  14. Role of bone and liver scans in surveying patients with breast cancer for metastatic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.M.; Wright, D.J.

    1987-10-01

    The objective of this study is to correlate the presence of bone and liver metastases in patients with breast cancer with respect to the results of bone and liver scans, axillary nodal status, and serum alkaline phosphatase levels. One hundred ninety-seven patients with breast cancer treated by modified radical mastectomy between the years 1978 and 1981 were studied. Fifty-nine (30%) of the total group had distant metastases during the course of observation of 60 to 96 months; of 35 patients in whom bone metastases developed, 30 had normal preoperative bone scan results. Of 21 patients who had liver metastases, 19 had normal preoperative liver scans. Nineteen (70%) of the 27 patients with abnormal bone scans had normal alkaline phosphatase levels. Seven (63%) of the 11 patients who had abnormal liver scans had a normal alkaline phosphatase. The study supports the concept that preoperative bone and liver scans are ineffective indicators of metastatic involvement. Selection of patients for screening by bone and liver scans according to alkaline phosphatase determinations was not supported by this study. The appropriate use of bone scans for screening in patients with breast carcinoma is suggested as a follow-up device in patients with positive lymph nodes.

  15. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J.; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup −7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  16. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M J; Ling, D C; Chi, C C; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-01

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10(-7) T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO3 thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K. PMID:25173276

  17. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M J; Ling, D C; Chi, C C; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-01

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10(-7) T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO3 thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  18. Large aperture scanning airborne lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J.; Bindschadler, R.; Boers, R.; Bufton, J. L.; Clem, D.; Garvin, J.; Melfi, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    A large aperture scanning airborne lidar facility is being developed to provide important new capabilities for airborne lidar sensor systems. The proposed scanning mechanism allows for a large aperture telescope (25 in. diameter) in front of an elliptical flat (25 x 36 in.) turning mirror positioned at a 45 degree angle with respect to the telescope optical axis. The lidar scanning capability will provide opportunities for acquiring new data sets for atmospheric, earth resources, and oceans communities. This completed facility will also make available the opportunity to acquire simulated EOS lidar data on a near global basis. The design and construction of this unique scanning mechanism presents exciting technological challenges of maintaining the turning mirror optical flatness during scanning while exposed to extreme temperatures, ambient pressures, aircraft vibrations, etc.

  19. Ferroelectric Switching by the Grounded Scanning Probe Microscopy Tip

    DOE PAGES

    Ievlev, Anton V.; Morozovska, A. N.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-06-19

    The process of polarization reversal by the tip of scanning probe microscope was intensively studied for last two decades. Number of the abnormal switching phenomena was reported by the scientific groups worldwide. In particularly it was experimentally and theoretically shown that slow dynamics of the surface screening controls kinetics of the ferroelectric switching, backswitching and relaxation and presence of the charges carriers on the sample surface and in the sample bulk significantly change polarization reversal dynamics. Here we experimentally demonstrated practical possibility of the history dependent polarization reversal by the grounded SPM tip. This phenomenon was attributed to induction ofmore » the slowly dissipating charges into the surface of the grounded tip that enables polarization reversal under the action of the produced electric field. Analytical and numerical electrostatic calculations allow additional insight into nontrivial abnormal switching phenomena reported earlier.« less

  20. Ferroelectric Switching by the Grounded Scanning Probe Microscopy Tip

    SciTech Connect

    Ievlev, Anton V.; Morozovska, A. N.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-06-19

    The process of polarization reversal by the tip of scanning probe microscope was intensively studied for last two decades. Number of the abnormal switching phenomena was reported by the scientific groups worldwide. In particularly it was experimentally and theoretically shown that slow dynamics of the surface screening controls kinetics of the ferroelectric switching, backswitching and relaxation and presence of the charges carriers on the sample surface and in the sample bulk significantly change polarization reversal dynamics. Here we experimentally demonstrated practical possibility of the history dependent polarization reversal by the grounded SPM tip. This phenomenon was attributed to induction of the slowly dissipating charges into the surface of the grounded tip that enables polarization reversal under the action of the produced electric field. Analytical and numerical electrostatic calculations allow additional insight into nontrivial abnormal switching phenomena reported earlier.

  1. Dental Abnormalities Caused by Novel Compound Heterozygous CTSK Mutations.

    PubMed

    Xue, Y; Wang, L; Xia, D; Li, Q; Gao, S; Dong, M; Cai, T; Shi, S; He, L; Hu, K; Mao, T; Duan, X

    2015-05-01

    Cathepsin K (CTSK) is an important protease responsible for degrading type I collagen, osteopontin, and other bone matrix proteins. The mutations in the CTSK gene can cause pycnodysostosis (OMIM 265800), a rare autosomal recessive bone dysplasia. Patients with pycnodysostosis have been reported to present specific dental abnormalities; however, whether these dental abnormalities are related to dysfunctional CTSK has never been reported. Here we investigated the histologic changes of cementum and alveolar bone in a pycnodysostosis patient, caused by novel compound heterozygous mutations in the CTSK gene (c.87 G>A p.W29X and c.848 A>G p.Y283C). The most impressive manifestations in tooth were extensive periradicular high-density clumps with unclear periodontal space by orthopantomography examination and micro-computed tomography scanning analysis. Hematoxylin/eosin and toluidine blue staining and atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the cementum became significantly thickened, softened, and full of cementocytes. The disorganized bone structure was the main character of alveolar bone. The p.W29X mutation may represent the loss-of-function allele with an earlier termination codon in the precursor CTSK polypeptide. Residue Y283 is highly conserved among papain-like cysteine proteases. Three-dimensional structure modeling analysis found that the loss of the hydroxybenzene residue in the Y283C mutation would interrupt the hydrogen network and possibly affect the self-cleavage of the CTSK enzyme. Furthermore, p.Y283C mutation did not affect the mRNA and protein levels of overexpressed CTSK in COS-7 system but did reduce CTSK enzyme activity. In conclusion, the histologic and ultrastructural changes of cementum and alveolar bone might be affected by CTSK mutation via reduction of its enzyme activity (clinical trial registration: ChiCTR-TNC-10000876).

  2. Serial computed tomography scanning in acute pancreatitis: a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    London, N J; Neoptolemos, J P; Lavelle, J; Bailey, I; James, D

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and two patients with acute pancreatitis had abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans within 72 hours of admission, at one week and at six weeks. Twenty eight attacks were clinically severe, 74 clinically mild. Ninety three (91%) admission scans, 85 (84%) one week scans, and 52 (51%) six week scans were abnormal. The aetiology of the pancreatitis could be inferred from 28 (27%) of admission scans, the CT sign of fatty liver having a sensitivity of 21% and specificity of 100% for alcoholic aetiology. The sensitivity of CT for gall stone aetiology was 34%, specificity 100%. The pancreatic size indices (max anteroposterior measurement of head x max anteroposterior measurement of body) of those patients with severe attacks were significantly greater than those with mild attacks on admission, at one week and at six weeks (p less than 0.004). Fourteen pseudocysts were detected by CT, five (36%) of which were clinically apparent. The pseudocyst size indices (max anteroposterior x max transverse measurement) of the pseudocysts which were clinically apparent were significantly greater than those which were not apparent (p less than 0.01) and only those pseudocysts with a size index greater than or equal to 15 cm2 required treatment. PMID:2651228

  3. Semi-automatic classification of textures in thoracic CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P.; de Jong, Pim A.; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.; Wittenberg, Rianne; Tiehuis, Audrey M.; Gietema, Hester A.; Grutters, Jan C.; Viergever, Max A.; van Ginneken, Bram

    2016-08-01

    The textural patterns in the lung parenchyma, as visible on computed tomography (CT) scans, are essential to make a correct diagnosis in interstitial lung disease. We developed one automatic and two interactive protocols for classification of normal and seven types of abnormal lung textures. Lungs were segmented and subdivided into volumes of interest (VOIs) with homogeneous texture using a clustering approach. In the automatic protocol, VOIs were classified automatically by an extra-trees classifier that was trained using annotations of VOIs from other CT scans. In the interactive protocols, an observer iteratively trained an extra-trees classifier to distinguish the different textures, by correcting mistakes the classifier makes in a slice-by-slice manner. The difference between the two interactive methods was whether or not training data from previously annotated scans was used in classification of the first slice. The protocols were compared in terms of the percentages of VOIs that observers needed to relabel. Validation experiments were carried out using software that simulated observer behavior. In the automatic classification protocol, observers needed to relabel on average 58% of the VOIs. During interactive annotation without the use of previous training data, the average percentage of relabeled VOIs decreased from 64% for the first slice to 13% for the second half of the scan. Overall, 21% of the VOIs were relabeled. When previous training data was available, the average overall percentage of VOIs requiring relabeling was 20%, decreasing from 56% in the first slice to 13% in the second half of the scan.

  4. Frequency, prognosis and surgical treatment of structural abnormalities seen with magnetic resonance imaging in childhood epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Mathern, Gary W.; Bronen, Richard A.; Fulbright, Robert K.; DiMario, Francis; Testa, Francine M.; Levy, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of lesions identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), along with the use of pre-surgical evaluations and surgery in childhood-onset epilepsy patients has not previously been described. In a prospectively identified community-based cohort of children enrolled from 1993 to 1997, we examined (i) the frequency of lesions identified by MRI; (ii) clinical factors associated with ‘positive’ MRI scans; and (iii) the utilization of comprehensive epilepsy evaluations and neurosurgery. Of the original cohort of 613 children, 518 (85%) had usable MRI scans. Eighty-two (16%) had MRI abnormalities potentially relevant to epilepsy (‘positive’ scans). Idiopathic epilepsy syndromes were identified in 162 (31%) of whom 3% had positive scans. The remainder had non-idiopathic epilepsy syndromes of which 22% had positive MRI findings. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified non-idiopathic epilepsy and abnormal motor-sensory (neurological) examinations as predictors of a positive MRI scan. Of the non-idiopathic patients with normal neurological exams and who were not pharmacoresistant, 10% had positive MRI scans, including four patients with gliomas. Evaluations at comprehensive epilepsy centres occurred in 54 pharmacoresistant cases. To date 5% of the imaged cohort or 8% of non-idiopathic epilepsy patients have undergone surgical procedures (including vagal nerve stimulator implantation) to treat their epilepsy (n = 22) or for tumours (n = 6) without being drug resistant. Applying our findings to the general population of children in the USA, we estimate that there will be 127/1 000 000 new cases per year of pharmacoresistant epilepsy, and 52/1 000 000 childhood-onset epilepsy patients undergoing epilepsy evaluations. In addition, approximately 27/1 000 000 will have an epilepsy-related surgical procedure. These findings support recommendations for the use of MRI in evaluating newly diagnosed paediatric epilepsy patients, especially with non

  5. Pediatric minor head trauma: do cranial CT scans change the therapeutic approach?

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Felipe P; Montoro, Roberto; Oliveira, Renan; Loures, Gabriela; Flessak, Luana; Gross, Roberta; Donnabella, Camille; Puchnick, Andrea; Suzuki, Lisa; Regacini, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: 1) To verify clinical signs correlated with appropriate cranial computed tomography scan indications and changes in the therapeutic approach in pediatric minor head trauma scenarios. 2) To estimate the radiation exposure of computed tomography scans with low dose protocols in the context of trauma and the additional associated risk. METHODS: Investigators reviewed the medical records of all children with minor head trauma, which was defined as a Glasgow coma scale ≥13 at the time of admission to the emergency room, who underwent computed tomography scans during the years of 2013 and 2014. A change in the therapeutic approach was defined as a neurosurgical intervention performed within 30 days, hospitalization, >12 hours of observation, or neuro-specialist evaluation. RESULTS: Of the 1006 children evaluated, 101 showed some abnormality on head computed tomography scans, including 49 who were hospitalized, 16 who remained under observation and 36 who were dismissed. No patient underwent neurosurgery. No statistically significant relationship was observed between patient age, time between trauma and admission, or signs/symptoms related to trauma and abnormal imaging results. A statistically significant relationship between abnormal image results and a fall higher than 1.0 meter was observed (p=0.044). The mean effective dose was 2.0 mSv (0.1 to 6.8 mSv), corresponding to an estimated additional cancer risk of 0.05%. CONCLUSION: A computed tomography scan after minor head injury in pediatric patients did not show clinically relevant abnormalities that could lead to neurosurgical indications. Patients who fell more than 1.0 m were more likely to have changes in imaging tests, although these changes did not require neurosurgical intervention; therefore, the use of computed tomography scans may be questioned in this group. The results support the trend of more careful indications for cranial computed tomography scans for children with minor head trauma. PMID

  6. Abnormalities in signaling pathways in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Brosius, Frank C; Khoury, Charbel C; Buller, Carolyn L; Chen, Sheldon

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by a plethora of signaling abnormalities that together ultimately result in the clinical and pathologic hallmarks of DN, namely progressive albuminuria followed by a gradual decline in glomerular filtration rate leading to kidney failure, and accompanied by podocyte loss, progressive glomerular sclerosis and, ultimately, progressive tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Over the past few years, the general understanding of the abnormalities in signaling pathways that lead to DN has expanded considerably. In this review, some of the important pathways that appear to be involved in driving this process are discussed, with special emphasis on newer findings and insights. Newer concepts regarding signaling changes in bradykinin, mTOR, JAK/STAT, MCP-1, VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, activated protein C and other pathways are discussed. PMID:20224802

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. [Psychiatric manifestations due to abnormal glucocorticoid levels].

    PubMed

    Lommerse, K M; Dijkstra, F N; Boeke, A J P; Eekhoff, E M W; Jacobs, G E

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case presentation describes the disease trajectory in two patients who presented with psychiatric symptoms as a result of abnormal serum glucocorticoid levels. One case involves a 58-year-old man with hypercortisolism, the other case concerns a 55-year-old woman with hypocortisolism. In both cases there was a considerable diagnostic delay in recognizing the underlying adrenal gland pathology. Abnormal glucocorticoid levels, caused by endocrine disorders, often results in psychiatric symptoms. Delay in diagnosis may have adverse consequences. Hyper- or hypocortisolism should be considered in patients who present with an atypical presentation of psychiatric symptoms. Moreover, the absence of specific physical signs or symptoms at first presentation in such patients does not exclude an underlying endocrinological cause. Therefore, physical and psychiatric reassessment of such patients should be considered at regular intervals. PMID:27507414

  9. Lie algebroids and optimal control: abnormality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero-Liñán, M.; de Diego, D. Martín; Muñoz-Lecanda, M. C.

    2009-05-01

    Candidates to be solutions to optimal control problems, called extremals, are found using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle [9]. This Principle gives necessary conditions for optimality and, under suitable assumptions, starts a presymplectic constraint algorithm in the sense given in [3]. This procedure, first considered in optimal control theory in [6], can be adapted to characterize the different kinds of extremals [1]. In this paper, we describe the constraints given by the algorithm for the so-called abnormal extremals for optimal control problems defined on Lie algebroids [4, 7, 8]. The peculiarity of the abnormal extremals is their independence on the cost function to characterize them. In particular, we are interested in how useful the geometry provided by the Lie algebroid is to study the constraints obtained in the optimal control problems for affine connection control systems. These systems model the motion of different types of mechanical systems such as rigid bodies, nonholonomic systems and robotic arms [2].

  10. Re-scan confocal microscopy: scanning twice for better resolution.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Giulia M R; Breedijk, Ronald M P; Brandt, Rick A J; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H C; de Jong, Babette E; Timmermans, Wendy; Azar, Leila Nahidi; Hoebe, Ron A; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik M M

    2013-01-01

    We present a new super-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), based on standard confocal microscopy extended with an optical (re-scanning) unit that projects the image directly on a CCD-camera. This new microscope has improved lateral resolution and strongly improved sensitivity while maintaining the sectioning capability of a standard confocal microscope. This simple technology is typically useful for biological applications where the combination high-resolution and high-sensitivity is required.

  11. Practice and Educational Gaps in Abnormal Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Tasneem F; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2016-07-01

    Dyschromia refers to abnormal pigmentation and is one of the most common diagnoses in dermatology. However, there are many educational and practice gaps in this area, specifically in melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and vitiligo. This article aims to review the gold standard of care for these conditions as well as highlight common educational and practice gaps in these areas. Finally, possible solutions to these gaps are addressed. PMID:27363886

  12. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2013-02-08

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  13. CT of trauma to the abnormal kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Rhyner, P.; Federle, M.P.; Jeffrey, R.B.

    1984-04-01

    Traumatic injuries to already abnormal kidneys are difficult to assess by excretory urography and clinical evaluation. Bleeding and urinary extravasation may accompany minor trauma; conversely, underlying tumors, perirenal hemorrhage, and extravasation may be missed on urography. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in eight cases including three neoplasms, one adult polycystic disease, one simple renal cyst, two hydronephrotic kidneys, and one horseshoe kidney. CT provided specific and clinically useful information in each case that was not apparent on excretory urography.

  14. Ocular abnormalities in thin basement membrane disease

    PubMed Central

    Colville, D.; Savige, J.; Branley, P.; Wilson, D.

    1997-01-01

    AIM/BACKGROUND—Alport syndrome is an X linked disease that results in renal failure, deafness, and ocular abnormalities including a dot and fleck retinopathy and anterior lenticonus. The ultrastructural appearance of the glomerular basement membrane in thin basement membrane disease (TBMD) resembles that seen in some patients with Alport syndrome, and in some cases this disease is inherited too. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with TBMD have any ocular abnormalities.
METHODS—The eyes of 17 unrelated individuals with TBMD were studied by slit-lamp, including biomicroscopic fundus examination with a 78 D lens, by direct ophthalmoscopy, and by fundal photographs. The findings were compared with those in patients with IgA glomerulonephritis or Alport syndrome, and in normals.
RESULTS—No patient with TBMD had a dot and fleck retinopathy or anterior lenticonus. A corneal dystrophy (n = 2) or pigmentation (n = 1), and retinal pigment epithelial clumping and maculopathy (n = 1) were noted. Corneal, lens, and retinal dots were found in five (29%), three (18%), and 16 (94%) patients, respectively, but these were also demonstrated in individuals with other renal diseases and in normal individuals.
CONCLUSIONS—The dot and fleck retinopathy and anterior lenticonus typical of Alport syndrome do not occur in TBMD. The protein abnormality and genetic defect in TBMD are not known, but the lack of ocular lesions suggests that the abnormal protein in this disease is more sparsely distributed or less important in the basement membranes of the eye than of the kidney. Alternatively, the protein may be less affected by the mutations responsible for TBMD.

 PMID:9227202

  15. Varenicline and Abnormal Sleep Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015

  16. Abnormal dynamics of language in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Massoud; Kuskowski, Michael; Gundel, Jeanette

    2014-05-30

    Language could be conceptualized as a dynamic system that includes multiple interactive levels (sub-lexical, lexical, sentence, and discourse) and components (phonology, semantics, and syntax). In schizophrenia, abnormalities are observed at all language elements (levels and components) but the dynamic between these elements remains unclear. We hypothesize that the dynamics between language elements in schizophrenia is abnormal and explore how this dynamic is altered. We, first, investigated language elements with comparable procedures in patients and healthy controls. Second, using measures of reaction time, we performed multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the inter-relationships among language elements and the effect of group on these relationships. Patients significantly differed from controls with respect to sub-lexical/lexical, lexical/sentence, and sentence/discourse regression coefficients. The intercepts of the regression slopes increased in the same order above (from lower to higher levels) in patients but not in controls. Regression coefficients between syntax and both sentence level and discourse level semantics did not differentiate patients from controls. This study indicates that the dynamics between language elements is abnormal in schizophrenia. In patients, top-down flow of linguistic information might be reduced, and the relationship between phonology and semantics but not between syntax and semantics appears to be altered.

  17. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process. PMID:27271632

  18. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Daniel L.; Pedrazas, Nicholas A.; Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2013-11-01

    A new abnormal grain growth phenomenon that occurs only during continuous plastic straining, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed in molybdenum (Mo) at elevated temperature. DAGG was produced in two commercial-purity molybdenum sheets and in a commercial-purity molybdenum wire. Single crystals, centimeters in length, were created in these materials through the DAGG process. DAGG was observed only at temperatures of 1713 K (1440 °C) and above and occurred across the range of strain rates investigated, ~10-5 to 10-4 s-1. DAGG initiates only after a critical plastic strain, which decreases with increasing temperature but is insensitive to strain rate. Following initiation of an abnormal grain, the rate of boundary migration during DAGG is on the order of 10 mm/min. This rapid growth provides a convenient means of producing large single crystals in the solid state. When significant normal grain growth occurs prior to DAGG, island grains result. DAGG was observed in sheet materials with two very different primary recrystallization textures. DAGG grains in Mo favor boundary growth along the tensile axis in a <110> direction, preferentially producing single crystals with orientations from an approximately <110> fiber family of orientations. A mechanism of boundary unpinning is proposed to explain the dependence of boundary migration on plastic straining during DAGG.

  19. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven R.; Nikolajsen, Lone; Finnerup, Nanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent postsurgical pain is a well-recognized problem after a number of common surgical procedures, such as amputation, thoracotomy, and inguinal hernia repair. Less is known about persistent pain after cosmetic surgical procedures. We, therefore, decided to study the incidence and characteristics of persistent pain after abdominoplasty, which is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgical procedures. Methods: In September 2014, a link to a web-based questionnaire was mailed to 217 patients who had undergone abdominoplasty between 2006 and 2014 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. Results: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire. Fourteen patients (8.2%) reported pain within the past 7 days related to the abdominoplasty. Abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common and reported by 138 patients (81%). Sensory hypersensitivity was associated with the presence of persistent pain. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 149 (88%) patients. The majority of patients reported improvement on all physical and psychological factors. Patients with pain were more often disappointed with the surgery and unwilling to recommend the surgery. Conclusions: Overall, patients were satisfied with the procedure, although abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common. However, there is a risk of developing persistent neuropathic pain after abdominoplasty, and patients should be informed about this before surgery. PMID:26893986

  20. Schizophrenia, abnormal connection, and brain evolution.

    PubMed

    Randall, P L

    1983-03-01

    Abnormalities of functional connection between specialized areas in the human brain may underlie the symptoms which constitute the schizophrenia syndrome. Callosal and intrahemispheric fibres may be equally involved. The clinical emergence of symptoms in the later stages of brain maturation may be dependent on myelination of these fibre groups, both of which have extended myelination cycles. Ontogenetically earlier variants of the same mechanism could theoretically result in dyslexia and the syndromes of Kanner and Gilles de la Tourette. As new and unique extensions of specialized function emerge within the evolving brain, biological trial and error of connection both within and between them may produce individuals possessing phylogenetically advanced abilities, or equally, others possessing a wide range of abnormalities including those which comprise the schizophrenia syndrome. A dormant phenotypic potential for schizophrenia may exist in individuals who never develop symptoms during the course of a lifetime though some of these may become clinically apparent under the influence of various precipitating factors. It is concluded that abnormal functional connection and its normal and "supernormal" counterparts may be natural, essential, and inevitable consequences of brain evolution, and that this may have been so throughout the history of vertebrate brain evolution.

  1. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

  2. Chemical induction of sperm abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wyrobek, A J; Bruce, W R

    1975-01-01

    The sperm of (C57BL X C3H)F1 mice were examined 1, 4, and 10 weeks after a subacute treatment with one of 25 chemicals at two or more dose levels. The fraction of sperm that were abnormal in shape was elevated above control values of 1.2-3.4% for methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, griseofulvin, benzo[a]pyrene, METEPA [tris(2-methyl-l-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide], THIO-TEPA [tris(l-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide], mitomycin C, myleran, vinblastine sulphate, hydroxyurea, 3-methylcholanthrene, colchicine, actinomycin D, imuran, cyclophosphamide, 5-iododeoxyuridine, dichlorvos, aminopterin, and trimethylphosphate. Dimethylnitrosamine, urethane, DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, caffeine, and calcium cyclamate did not induce elevated levels of sperm abnormalities. The results suggest that sperm abnormalities might provide a rapid inexpensive mammalian screen for agents that lead to errors in the differentiation of spermatogenic stem cells in vivo and thus indicate agents which might prove to be mutagenic, teratogenic, or carcinogenic. Images PMID:1060122

  3. Abnormal Asymmetry of Brain Connectivity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ribolsi, Michele; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown a significant reduction of leftward asymmetry in some key white-matter tracts in SCZ. In this paper, we review the studies that investigated both structural brain asymmetry and asymmetry of functional connectivity in healthy subjects and SCZ. From an analysis of the existing literature on this topic, we can hypothesize an overall generally attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in SCZ compared to healthy controls. Such attenuated asymmetry increases with the duration of the disease and correlates with psychotic symptoms. Finally, we hypothesize that structural deficits across the corpus callosum may contribute to the abnormal asymmetry of intra-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia. PMID:25566030

  4. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.; Brown, G.

    2015-10-01

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annual energy production. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation when arc scans are used for wind resource assessment.

  5. Experimental tomographic scanning (TOSCA) imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovland, H.

    2014-06-01

    The tomographic scanner (TOSCA) detects signals using line detectors scanning a scene at regularly distributed angles. These line scan signals are then processed to reconstruct 2-dimensional images. In the simplest form, a 1-axis rotating conical scan optics scans across a simple patterned reticle, the signal collection being done with a single pixel detector. Experimental mono- and multispectral cameras using this approach are demonstrated under varying illumination conditions. Of particular interest is the TOSCA system's ability to handle and compensate for light sources modulated with a frequency higher than that of the frame rate. We also demonstrate for the first time a TOSCA imager operating in the infrared region. The device is put together using 3D-printed key parts and low cost optical components, leading to a very economical infrared camera.

  6. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Kuhl, David E.; Edwards, Roy Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three-dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program.

  7. Scans as primitive parallel operations

    SciTech Connect

    Blelloch, G.E. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1989-11-01

    In most parallel random access machine (PRAM) models, memory references are assumed to take unit time. In practice, and in theory, certain scan operations, also known as prefix computations, can execute in no more time than these parallel memory references. This paper outlines an extensive study of the effect of including, in the PRAM models, such scan operations as unit-time primitives. The study concludes that the primitives improve the asymptotic running time of many algorithms by an O(log n) factor greatly simplify the description of many algorithms, and are significantly easier to implement than memory references. The authors argue that the algorithm designer should feel free to use these operations as if they were as cheap as a memory reference. This paper describes five algorithms that clearly illustrate how the scan primitives can be used in algorithm design. These all run on an EREW PRAM with the addition of two scan primitives.

  8. Eddy current scanning at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Boffo, C.; Bauer, P.; Foley, M.; Brinkmann, A.; Ozelis, J.; /Jefferson Lab

    2005-07-01

    In the framework of SRF cavity development, Fermilab is creating the infrastructure needed for the characterization of the material used in the cavity fabrication. An important step in the characterization of ''as received'' niobium sheets is the eddy current scanning. Eddy current scanning is a non-destructive technique first adopted and further developed by DESY with the purpose of checking the cavity material for sub-surface defects and inclusions. Fermilab has received and further upgraded a commercial eddy current scanner previously used for the SNS project. The upgrading process included developing new filtering software. This scanner is now used daily to scan the niobium sheets for the Fermilab third harmonic and transverse deflecting cavities. This paper gives a status report on the scanning results obtained so far, including a discussion of the typology of signals being detected. We also report on the efforts to calibrate this scanner, a work conducted in collaboration with DESY.

  9. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  10. Comparison of diagnostic accuracy, time dependency, and prognostic impact of abnormal Q waves, combined electrocardiographic criteria, and ST segment abnormalities in right ventricular infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Zehender, M; Kasper, W; Kauder, E; Schönthaler, M; Olschewski, M; Just, H

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the diagnostic and prognostic impact of abnormal Q waves in comparison to or in combination with ST segment abnormalities in the right precordial and inferior leads as indicators of right ventricular infarction during the acute phase of inferior myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Prospective study of a consecutive series of 200 patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction with and without right ventricular infarction. SETTING--Department of internal medicine, university clinic. RESULTS--Right ventricular infarction was diagnosed in 106 (57%) out of 187 patients from the results of coronary angiography, technetium pyrophosphate scanning, and measurement of haemodynamic variables or at necropsy, or both. In the acute phase of inferior infarction ST segment elevation > or = 0.1 mV in any of the right precordial leads V4-6R was the most reliable criterion for right ventricular infarction (sensitivity, 89%; specificity, 83%). Abnormal Q waves in the right precordial leads, the most specific criterion (91%) for right ventricular infarction, were superior to ST segment elevation in patients admitted > 12 hours after the onset of symptoms. Both ST segment elevation in leads V4-6R (increase in in hospital mortality, 6.2-times; P < 0.001; major complications, 2.3-times; P < 0.01) and abnormal Q waves (2.3-times, P < 0.05; 1.8-times, P < 0.05) on admission were highly predictive of a worse outcome during the in hospital period. In the presence of inferior myocardial infarction previously proposed combined electrocardiographic criteria were not better diagnostically or prognostically than ST segment abnormalities and abnormal Q waves alone. CONCLUSIONS--During the first 24 hours of inferior myocardial infarction ST segment elevation and abnormal Q waves derived from the right precordial leads are complementary rather than competitive criteria for reliably diagnosing right ventricular infarction, both indicating a worse in hospital course for the

  11. Evaluation of bone-marrow scanning with technetium-99m sulfur colloid in pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, A R; Oseas, R S; Wellman, H N; Doerr, D R; Baehner, R L

    1979-05-01

    Eighty-six technetium-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) bone-marrow scans in 56 pediatric oncology patients were reviewed. The distribution of the sulfur colloid was similar to that in adult bone marrow in normal children older than 10 yr, and involved progressively more marrow of the extremities in normal children under 10 years of age. After irradiation or chemotherapy there was an extension of the Tc-SC to peripheral marrow sites. There was also diminished uptake of the tracer in sites corresponding to irradiated areas. In most patients there was recovery of these defects by 6 mo after completion of therapy. Tumor replacement of the marrow was reflected in the scans, and the extent of the scan defect paralleled the course of the disease. In four patients, despite normal bone scans and radiographs, marrow-scan abnormalities due to tumor replacement were present and confirmed by needle aspiration and/or biopsy. In two other patients, the marrow-scan abnormality preceded radiographic and histologic evidence of tumor metastasis. Two patients who responded clinically showed persistent defects; biopsy in one revealed fibrosis. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid bone-marrow scanning appears to be a sensitive monitor of marrow alteration caused by metastases, irradiation damage, or tissue fibrosis in children receiving treatment for cancer.

  12. Bone scanning in the adductor insertion avulsion syndrome ("thigh splints").

    PubMed

    Charkes, N D; Siddhivarn, N; Schneck, C D

    1987-12-01

    Shin splints is a defined clinical entity resulting from extreme tension on muscles inserting on the tibia, resulting in periosteal elevation which is detectable by bone scanning. The clinical equivalent in the thigh has been described. We found scintigraphic changes in the femurs of seven short, female, basic trainees at the Fort Dix Army base, most of whom were referred for stress fractures elsewhere in the lower extremities. The scan findings were generally noted in the upper or mid femurs, always involved the anteromedial cortex, and were bilateral in five of the seven subjects. The abnormalities were linear and suggested periosteal elevation, and did not have the typical appearance of stress fracture. Since the findings correspond to the insertion of one or more adductor muscle groups, the descriptive term "adductor insertion avulsion syndrome" or "thigh splints" is proposed for this entity.

  13. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Pryor, Sara C.; Brown, Gareth.

    2016-04-01

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annual energy production prediction. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation.

  14. [An abnormal colour of a haemodialysis filter].

    PubMed

    Oomen-Korpershoek, H W

    2016-01-01

    In a 76-year-old man, the filter of the dialyser turned yellow instead of pink after haemodialysis. He had no complaints, but physical examination revealed mild jaundice and his serum bilirubin was elevated. A CT scan of the abdomen showed a pancreatic neoplasm. Discoloration of a filter of the dialyser might thus be a first sign of painless icterus. PMID:27378265

  15. Down's Syndrome and Leukemia: Mechanism of Additional Chromosomal Abnormalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Goh, Kong-oo

    1978-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities, some appearing in a stepwise clonal evoluation, were found in five Down's syndrome patients (35 weeks to 12 years old), four with acute leukemia and one with abnormal regulation of leukopoiesis. (Author/SBH)

  16. Chromosomal abnormalities as a cause of recurrent abortions in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Dahtory, Faeza Abdel Mogib

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 4%-8% of couples with recurrent abortion, at least one of the partners has chromosomal abnormality. Most spontaneous miscarriages which happen in the first and second trimesters are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. These chromosomal abnormalities may be either numerical or structural. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cytogenetic study was done for 73 Egyptian couples who presented with recurrent abortion at Genetic Unit of Children Hospital, Mansoura University. RESULTS: We found that the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was not significantly different from that reported worldwide. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 9 (6.1%) of 73 couples. Seven of chromosomal abnormalities were structural and two of them were numerical. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that 6.1% of the couples with recurrent abortion had chromosomal abnormalities, with no other abnormalities. We suggest that it is necessary to perform cytogenetic in vestigation for couples who have recurrent abortion. PMID:22090718

  17. Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

  18. Fetal MR Imaging of Gastrointestinal Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Furey, Elizabeth A; Bailey, April A; Twickler, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an increasing and valuable role in antenatal diagnosis and perinatal management of fetal gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. Advances in MR imaging data acquisition and use of motion-insensitive techniques have established MR imaging as an important adjunct to obstetric ultrasonography (US) for fetal diagnosis. In this regard, MR imaging provides high diagnostic accuracy for antenatal diagnosis of common and uncommon GI pathologic conditions. In the setting of fetal GI disease, T1-weighted images demonstrate the amount and distribution of meconium, which is crucial to the diagnostic capability of fetal MR imaging. Specifically, knowledge of the T1 signal intensity characteristics of fetal meconium, the normal pattern of meconium with advancing gestational age, and the expected caliber of small and large bowel in the fetus is key to diagnosis of abnormalities of the GI tract. Use of ultrafast T2-weighted sequences for evaluation of the expected location and morphology of fluid-containing structures, including the stomach and small bowel, in the fetal abdomen further aids in diagnostic confidence. Uncommonly encountered fetal GI pathologic conditions, especially cloacal dysmorphology, may demonstrate characteristic MR imaging patterns, which may add additional information to that from fetal US, allowing improved fetal and neonatal management. This article discusses common indications for fetal MR imaging of the GI tract, imaging protocols for fetal GI MR imaging, the normal appearance of the fetal GI tract with advancing gestational age, and the imaging appearances of common fetal GI abnormalities, as well as uncommon fetal GI conditions with characteristic appearances. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27163598

  19. Radiological abnormalities in electric-arc welders.

    PubMed Central

    Attfield, M D; Ross, D S

    1978-01-01

    Chest radiographs of 661 British electric-arc welders have been examined by three film readers experienced in the radiology of pneumoconiosis. About 7% of the welders showed signs of small rounded opacities of category 0/1 or greater. No definite evidence of large opacities (Progressive Massive Fibrosis) was seen. The prevalence of chest abnormalities other than pneumoconiosis was 7%. A clear association between prevalence of small rounded opacities of category 0/1 or greater and years of exposure to fumes was established, although few signs of severe grades of simple pneumoconiosis were seen. PMID:656335

  20. Environmental Scanning and the Information Manager.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsome, James; McInerney, Claire

    1990-01-01

    Discusses nine components of an environmental scanning model: selecting the scanning team; selecting resources to scan; choosing criteria for scanning; scanning the resources; identifying signals of new issues; selecting key events/issues; monitoring and analyzing events/issues; disseminating information; and deciding on appropriate organizational…

  1. Electronic scanning of 2-channel monopulse patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1970-01-01

    Scanning method involves separation of scanning capability into two independent degrees of freedom. One degree of freedom corresponds to azimuthal scanning and other to elevation scanning on spiral coordinate axes. Scanning of both prime-feed and mirrored patterns is accomplished with reduction of mechanical vibration damage to large antennas.

  2. Index finger abnormalities in Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Day, Ruth; Fryer, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is an X linked recessive overgrowth disorder in which digital abnormalities are a well-described aspect of the phenotype. We report a case with marked index finger hypoplasia and a congenital abnormality of the proximal phalanx and review the literature detailing index finger abnormalities in this condition.

  3. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  4. 42 CFR 37.54 - Notification of abnormal radiographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings... shape or size, tuberculosis, cancer, complicated pneumoconiosis, and any other significant abnormal... in accordance with section 203 of the Act (see 30 CFR part 90). Positive findings with regard...

  5. A method for in vivo detection of abnormal subepidermal tissues based on dielectric properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Liu, Peiguo; Dong, Xiuzhen; Zhou, Dongming; Shi, Xuetao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a convenient and noninvasive scanning imaging method using microwave frequency band for abnormal subepidermal tissues detection is proposed in the aim to improve diagnosis and prognosis in clinical environments. This method is based on the reflective detection technology with coaxial probe that is used to measure the dielectric properties of tissues. An improved equivalent circuit and simulated annealing algorithm (SA) were used in this work to analyze the dielectric properties of tissues. Computational simulations incorporating a simplified model of subcutaneous hemorrhage described in this work were used to evaluate this method. The dielectric properties data of tissues in the model of simulation is derived from the literature. The simulation results demonstrated the potential of this method to detect abnormal subepidermal tissues conveniently and expose them in the image accurately. PMID:25227057

  6. Computer-enhanced thallium scintigrams in asymptomatic men with abnormal exercise tests

    SciTech Connect

    Uhl, G.S.; Kay, T.N.; Hickman, J.R., Jr.

    1981-12-01

    The usefulness of computer-enhanced thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in excluding the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in asymptomatic patients showing abnormal exercise electrocardiograms is evaluated. Multigated thallium scans were obtained immediately following and 3 or 4 hours after maximal exercise testing in 191 consecutive asymptomatic Air Force aircrew members who had shown abnormal exercise electrocardiograms and who were due to undergo coronary angiography. Computer enhancement of the raw images is found to lead to four false positive and two false negative scintigrams as revealed by angiographic results, while the group of 15 with subcritical coronary disease exhibited equivocal results. Results reveal that enhanced thallium scintigrams are an accurate diagnostics tool in detecting myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic patients and may be used in counseling asymptomatic patients on their likelihood of having coronary artery disease.

  7. Mining association rules between abnormal health examination results and outpatient medical records.

    PubMed

    Chao Huang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Currently, interpretation of health examination reports relies primarily on the physician's own experience. If health screening data could be integrated with outpatient medical records to uncover correlations between disease and abnormal test results, the physician could benefit from having additional reference resources for medical examination report interpretation and clinic diagnosis. This study used the medical database of a regional hospital in Taiwan to illustrate how association rules can be found between abnormal health examination results and outpatient illnesses. The rules can help to build up a disease-prevention knowledge database that assists healthcare providers in follow-up treatment and prevention. Furthermore, this study proposes a new algorithm, the data cutting and sorting method, or DCSM, in place of the traditional Apriori algorithm. DCSM significantly improves the mining performance of Apriori by reducing the time to scan health examination and outpatient medical records, both of which are databases of immense sizes.

  8. Indium-granulocyte scanning in the painful prosthetic joint

    SciTech Connect

    Pring, D.J.; Henderson, R.G.; Keshavarzian, A.; Rivett, A.G.; Krausz, T.; Coombs, R.R.; Lavender, J.P.

    1986-07-01

    The value of indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning to determine the presence of infection was assessed in 50 prosthetic joints (41 of which were painful) in 40 patients. Granulocytes were obtained from the patients' blood and labeled in plasma with indium 111 tropolonate. Abnormal accumulation of indium 111 in the region of the prosthesis was noted. Proven infection occurred in 11 prostheses, and all of the infections were detected by indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning. Nineteen were not infected (including nine asymptomatic controls) and only two produced false-positive scans. This represents a specificity of 89.5%, sensitivity of 100%, and overall accuracy of 93.2%. These results compare favorably with plain radiography. There was no radiologic evidence of infection in three of the infected prostheses, and 10 of the noninfected prostheses had some radiologic features that suggested sepsis. We conclude that indium-granulocyte scanning can reliably detect or exclude infection in painful prosthetic joints and should prove useful in clinical management.

  9. Automatic classification of DMSA scans using an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Wright, J W; Duguid, R; McKiddie, F; Staff, R T

    2014-04-01

    DMSA imaging is carried out in nuclear medicine to assess the level of functional renal tissue in patients. This study investigated the use of an artificial neural network to perform diagnostic classification of these scans. Using the radiological report as the gold standard, the network was trained to classify DMSA scans as positive or negative for defects using a representative sample of 257 previously reported images. The trained network was then independently tested using a further 193 scans and achieved a binary classification accuracy of 95.9%. The performance of the network was compared with three qualified expert observers who were asked to grade each scan in the 193 image testing set on a six point defect scale, from 'definitely normal' to 'definitely abnormal'. A receiver operating characteristic analysis comparison between a consensus operator, generated from the scores of the three expert observers, and the network revealed a statistically significant increase (α < 0.05) in performance between the network and operators. A further result from this work was that when suitably optimized, a negative predictive value of 100% for renal defects was achieved by the network, while still managing to identify 93% of the negative cases in the dataset. These results are encouraging for application of such a network as a screening tool or quality assurance assistant in clinical practice.

  10. Abnormal appearances: inspection, display and the clinic.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, Katie; Atkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We provide an examination of the field of dysmorphology, a clinical speciality that in its current form combines a long history of inspection and display with the identification and representation of associated underlying molecular changes. The recognition and description of abnormal appearances is thus increasingly accompanied by genetic and other molecular investigations. Our analysis draws on our long-term ethnographic engagement with a UK clinical genetics service and the work of two clinical genetics teams within a regional teaching hospital. We document the intersection of genetic science with clinical work to suggest that while molecular testing often identifies the genetic basis for unusual appearances and abnormal development, it does not fully supplant clinical apperception and interpretation. The two modes of knowledge--the clinical and the biomedical--co-exist in the work and the discourse of dysmorphology practice. The contemporary dysmorphology clinic thus encapsulates the epistemological systems of modern medicine, grounded in the clinical gaze and on the classificatory systems of classic nosology. Within such a system of clinical knowledge, the 'monstrous' does not escape the boundaries of knowledge. Monstrous appearances are accommodated and domesticated within the classificatory systems of normal medicine.

  11. Fertilization potential of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology.

    PubMed

    Nikolettos, N; Küpker, W; Demirel, C; Schöpper, B; Blasig, C; Sturm, R; Felberbaum, R; Bauer, O; Diedrich, K; Al-Hasani, S

    1999-09-01

    One of the best discriminators for the fertilization potential of human spermatozoa is sperm morphology. The problem in the assessment of the sperm morphological characteristics is their pleiomorphism. Examination of spermatozoa with the light microscope can provide only limited information on their internal structure. More detailed examination of sperm structure using electron microscopy can reveal major, often unsuspected ultrastructural abnormalities. Results and cut-off values for sperm analysis depend on the criteria for normal morphology. World Health Organization recommendations provide a classification suitable for clinical practice. Clinically reliable cut-off limits for normal sperm morphology according to strict Tygerberg criteria were suggested to be 4% in in-vitro fertilization procedures. Patients with severe sperm head abnormalities have a lower chance of establishing successful pregnancies, even though fertilization may be achieved. The outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection is not related to any of the standard semen parameters or to sperm morphology. Sperm decondensation defects and DNA anomalies may be underlying factors for the unrecognized derangements of the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa, regardless of sperm morphology. Centrosome dysfunction may also represent a class of sperm defects that cannot be overcome simply by the insertion of a spermatozoon into the ooplasm. In this article an overview on the composition and ultrastructure of spermatozoa is presented, while emphasizing sperm ultrastructural and sperm DNA anomalies and their effects on fertilization.

  12. Small Airway Dysfunction and Abnormal Exercise Responses

    PubMed Central

    Petsonk, Edward L.; Stansbury, Robert C.; Beeckman-Wagner, Lu-Ann; Long, Joshua L.; Wang, Mei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Coal mine dust exposure can cause symptoms and loss of lung function from multiple mechanisms, but the roles of each disease process are not fully understood. Objectives We investigated the implications of small airway dysfunction for exercise physiology among a group of workers exposed to coal mine dust. Methods Twenty coal miners performed spirometry, first breathing air and then helium-oxygen, single-breath diffusing capacity, and computerized chest tomography, and then completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Measurements and Main Results Six participants meeting criteria for small airway dysfunction were compared with 14 coal miners who did not. At submaximal workload, miners with small airway dysfunction used a higher proportion of their maximum voluntary ventilation and had higher ventilatory equivalents for both O2 and CO2. Regression modeling indicated that inefficient ventilation was significantly related to small airway dysfunction but not to FEV1 or diffusing capacity. At the end of exercise, miners with small airway dysfunction had 27% lower O2 consumption. Conclusions Small airway abnormalities may be associated with important inefficiency of exercise ventilation. In dust-exposed individuals with only mild abnormalities on resting lung function tests or chest radiographs, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be important in defining causes of exercise intolerance. PMID:27073987

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with cyclopia and synophthalmia.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, R O

    1977-01-01

    At the present time, essentially all known facts concerning cyclopia are consistent with some chromosomal disease, including clinical features of the pregnancy (fetal wastage, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal age factor, complications of pregnancy), the generalized developmental abnormalities, specific ocular dysgenesis, by the high incidence of chromosomal abnormality already demonstrated, and the possibility of error in those cases of cyclopia with normal chromosomes. Even if chromosomal aberrations represent only one group of several different etiologic factors leading to cyclopia, at the present time chromosomal errors would seem to be the most common cause of cyclopia now recognized. Further studies will establish or disprove a chromosomal error in those instances which are now considered to be the result of an environmental factor alone or those with apparent familial patterns of inheritance. This apparent diverse origin of cyclopia can be clarified if future cyclopic specimens are carefully investigated. The evaluation should include a careful gross and microscopic examination of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of at least two cyclopic tissues. Then the presence or absence of multiple causative factors can be better evaluated. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 1 F FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B PMID:418547

  14. Karyotypic abnormalities in tumours of the pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, G.; Johansson, B.; Pandis, N.; Mandahl, N.; Bak-Jensen, E.; Andrén-Sandberg, A.; Mitelman, F.; Heim, S.

    1993-01-01

    Short-term cultures from 20 pancreatic tumours, three endocrine and 17 exocrine, were cytogenetically analysed. All three endocrine tumours had a normal chromosome complement. Clonal chromosome aberrations were detected in 13 of the 17 exocrine tumours: simple karyotypic changes were found in five carcinomas and numerous numerical and/or structural changes in eight. When the present findings and those previously reported by our group were viewed in conjunction, the most common numerical imbalances among the 22 karyotypically abnormal pancreatic carcinomas thus available for evaluation turned out to be, in order of falling frequency, -18, -Y, +20, +7, +11 and -12. Imbalances brought about by structural changes most frequently affected chromosomes 1 (losses in 1p but especially gains of 1q), 8 (in particular 8q gains but also 8p losses), and 17 (mostly 17q gain but also loss of 17p). Chromosomal bands 1p32, 1q10, 6q21, 7p22, 8p21, 8q11, 14p11, 15q10-11, and 17q11 were the most common breakpoint sites affected by the structural rearrangements. Abnormal karyotypes were detected more frequently in poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas than in moderately and well differentiated tumours. Images Figure 1 PMID:8494707

  15. Native fluorescence characterization of human liver abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Madhuri, S.; Aruna, Prakasa R.; Suchitra, S.; Srinivasan, T. G.

    1999-05-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of intrinsic biomolecules has been extensively used in biology and medicine for the past several decades. In the present study, we report the native fluorescence characteristics of blood plasma from normal human subjects and patients with different liver abnormalities such as hepatitis, leptospirosis, jaundice, cirrhosis and liver cell failure. Native fluorescence spectra of blood plasma -- acetone extract were measured at 405 nm excitation. The average spectrum of normal blood plasma has a prominent emission peak around 464 nm whereas in the case of liver diseased subjects, the primary peak is red shifted with respect to normal. In addition, liver diseased cases show distinct secondary emission peak around 615 nm, which may be attributed to the presence of endogenous porphyrins. The red shift of the prominent emission peak with respect to normal is found to be maximum for hepatitis and minimum for cirrhosis whereas the secondary emission peak around 615 nm was found to be more prominent in the case of cirrhosis than the rest. The ratio parameter I465/I615 is found to be statistically significant (p less than 0.001) in discriminating liver abnormalities from normal.

  16. Scanning laser polarimetry - a review.

    PubMed

    Da Pozzo, Stefano; Marchesan, Roberta; Ravalico, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Retinal ganglion cells and their axons represent the selective target of the disease. When visual function is still intact on standard automated perimetry and optic disc appearance is suspicious, an early diagnosis may be supported by the identification of a retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) defect in the peripapillary area. At present days, computer-based, real-time imaging of the peripapillary RNFL is available through instruments of easy use and with high levels of accuracy and reproducibility. Scanning laser polarimetry is performed by a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope with an integrated polarimeter (GDx-VCC). There is a considerable amount of scientific evidence about the role of this imaging technique for glaucoma diagnosis. The aim of this review is to describe the principles of operation, the examination procedure, the clinical role, the results of main diagnostic studies and the future development of the software for the scanning laser polarimetry. PMID:19138311

  17. Scanning Terahertz Heterodyne Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter; Dengler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging systems are now at an early stage of development. In a basic scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging system, (see Figure 1) two far-infrared lasers generate beams denoted the local-oscillator (LO) and signal that differ in frequency by an amount, denoted the intermediate frequency (IF), chosen to suit the application. The LO beam is sent directly to a mixer as one of two inputs. The signal beam is focused to a spot on or in the specimen. After transmission through or reflection from the specimen, the beams are focused to a spot on a terahertz mixer, which extracts the IF outputs. The specimen is mounted on a translation stage, by means of which the focal spot is scanned across the specimen to build up an image.

  18. Spiral scan peripheral nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    King, K F; Schaefer, D J

    2000-07-01

    Time-varying magnetic fields induce electric fields that can cause physiological stimulation. Stimulation has been empirically characterized as a function of dB/dt and duration based on experiments using trapezoidal and sinusoidal gradient waveforms with constant ramp time, amplitude, and direction. For two-dimensional (2D) spiral scans, the readout gradient waveforms are frequency- and amplitude-modulated sinusoids on two orthogonal axes in quadrature. The readout gradient waveform therefore rotates with amplitude and angular velocity that are generally not constant. It does not automatically follow that spiral stimulation thresholds can be predicted using available stimulation models. We scanned 18 normal volunteers with a 2D spiral scan and measured global thresholds for axial, sagittal, and coronal planes. We concluded that the stimulation model evaluated accurately predicts slew rate-limited spiral mean stimulation thresholds, if the effective ramp time is chosen to be the half-period at the end of the spiral readout.

  19. A novel digital scanning microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Hong-Chou; Yu, Hsing-Cheng; Cheng, Kuen-Chiuan; Lee, Yuan-Chin; Ju, Jau-Jiu

    2011-06-01

    A novel digital scanning microscope (DSM) for observing cellular fluorescent micro-images is proposed and manufactured in this study. DSM applied in the biomedical field has been designed based on a concept of fast access time of an optical pick-up head (PUH) in optical disc devices; hence, DSM has been developed based on a blue-ray PUH module with a triaxial scanning actuator (TSA) system. High-resolution and high-speed scanning is effectively realized by TSA system instead of utilizing high-precision transpose stage mechanism. In consequent, a PUH module can work with a time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) module and serve as DSM for detecting fluorescent signals on samples.

  20. What Is a Nuclear Heart Scan?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Nuclear Heart Scan? A nuclear heart scan is a test that provides important ... use it to create pictures of your heart. Nuclear heart scans are used for three main purposes: ...

  1. Spin scan imaging at Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, K. F.

    1973-01-01

    The general feasibility of spin scan imaging from spinning platforms in outer planet orbiters was investigated. The study was limited to consideration of a typical orbiter mission to Jupiter with an orbit designed to provide repetitive close approaches to the Galilean satellites. Discussed are: (1) data requirements for imaging experiments at Jupiter and its satellites; (2) spin scan camera and baseline camera selection; and (3) operational considerations bearing on imager performance. A physical camera model including relationships identifying the supporting requirements was developed and used to determine the characteristics of the baseline camera.

  2. Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT)

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Poorya; Sung, Yongjin; Choi, Youngwoon; Lue, Niyom; Yaqoob, Zahid; So, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an interferometric optical microscope that provides three-dimensional refractive index map of a specimen by scanning the color of three illumination beams. Our design of the interferometer allows for simultaneous measurement of the scattered fields (both amplitude and phase) of such a complex input beam. By obviating the need for mechanical scanning of the illumination beam or detection objective lens; the proposed method can increase the speed of the optical tomography by orders of magnitude. We demonstrate our method using polystyrene beads of known refractive index value and live cells. PMID:26367632

  3. Conically scanned holographic lidar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An optical scanning device utilizing a source of optical energy such as laser light backscattered from the earth's atmosphere or transmitted outward as in a lidar, a rotating holographic optical element having an axis of rotation perpendicular to the plane of its substrate, and having a stationary focus which may or may not be located on its axis of rotation, with the holographic optical element diffracting the source of optical energy at an angle to its rotation axis enabling a conical scanning area and a motor for supporting and rotating the rotating holographic optical element, is described.

  4. Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Poorya; Sung, Yongjin; Choi, Youngwoon; Lue, Niyom; Yaqoob, Zahid; So, Peter

    2015-07-27

    We have developed an interferometric optical microscope that provides three-dimensional refractive index map of a specimen by scanning the color of three illumination beams. Our design of the interferometer allows for simultaneous measurement of the scattered fields (both amplitude and phase) of such a complex input beam. By obviating the need for mechanical scanning of the illumination beam or detection objective lens; the proposed method can increase the speed of the optical tomography by orders of magnitude. We demonstrate our method using polystyrene beads of known refractive index value and live cells. PMID:26367632

  5. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hui; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Pryor, Sara C.; Brown, Gareth.

    2016-04-13

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annualmore » energy production prediction. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation.« less

  6. Lung texture in serial thoracic CT scans: correlation with radiologist-defined severity of acute changes following radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunliffe, Alexandra R.; Armato, Samuel G., III; Straus, Christopher; Malik, Renuka; Al-Hallaq, Hania A.

    2014-09-01

    This study examines the correlation between the radiologist-defined severity of normal tissue damage following radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer treatment and a set of mathematical descriptors of computed tomography (CT) scan texture (‘texture features’). A pre-therapy CT scan and a post-therapy CT scan were retrospectively collected under IRB approval for each of the 25 patients who underwent definitive RT (median dose: 66 Gy). Sixty regions of interest (ROIs) were automatically identified in the non-cancerous lung tissue of each post-therapy scan. A radiologist compared post-therapy scan ROIs with pre-therapy scans and categorized each as containing no abnormality, mild abnormality, moderate abnormality, or severe abnormality. Twenty texture features that characterize gray-level intensity, region morphology, and gray-level distribution were calculated in post-therapy scan ROIs and compared with anatomically matched ROIs in the pre-therapy scan. Linear regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used to compare the percent feature value change (ΔFV) between ROIs at each category of visible radiation damage. Most ROIs contained no (65%) or mild abnormality (30%). ROIs with moderate (3%) or severe (2%) abnormalities were observed in 9 patients. For 19 of 20 features, ΔFV was significantly different among severity levels. For 12 features, significant differences were observed at every level. Compared with regions with no abnormalities, ΔFV for these 12 features increased, on average, by 1.5%, 12%, and 30%, respectively, for mild, moderate, and severe abnormalitites. Area under the ROC curve was largest when comparing ΔFV in the highest severity level with the remaining three categories (mean AUC across features: 0.84). In conclusion, 19 features that characterized the severity of radiologic changes from pre-therapy scans were identified. These features may be used in future studies to quantify acute normal lung tissue damage

  7. Abnormal temporal difference reward-learning signals in major depression.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Waiter, G; Ahearn, T; Milders, M; Reid, I; Steele, J D

    2008-08-01

    Anhedonia is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), long thought to be associated with reduced dopaminergic function. However, most antidepressants do not act directly on the dopamine system and all antidepressants have a delayed full therapeutic effect. Recently, it has been proposed that antidepressants fail to alter dopamine function in antidepressant unresponsive MDD. There is compelling evidence that dopamine neurons code a specific phasic (short duration) reward-learning signal, described by temporal difference (TD) theory. There is no current evidence for other neurons coding a TD reward-learning signal, although such evidence may be found in time. The neuronal substrates of the TD signal were not explored in this study. Phasic signals are believed to have quite different properties to tonic (long duration) signals. No studies have investigated phasic reward-learning signals in MDD. Therefore, adults with MDD receiving long-term antidepressant medication, and comparison controls both unmedicated and acutely medicated with the antidepressant citalopram, were scanned using fMRI during a reward-learning task. Three hypotheses were tested: first, patients with MDD have blunted TD reward-learning signals; second, controls given an antidepressant acutely have blunted TD reward-learning signals; third, the extent of alteration in TD signals in major depression correlates with illness severity ratings. The results supported the hypotheses. Patients with MDD had significantly reduced reward-learning signals in many non-brainstem regions: ventral striatum (VS), rostral and dorsal anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex (RC), midbrain and hippocampus. However, the TD signal was increased in the brainstem of patients. As predicted, acute antidepressant administration to controls was associated with a blunted TD signal, and the brainstem TD signal was not increased by acute citalopram administration. In a number of regions, the magnitude of the abnormal

  8. Abnormal temporal difference reward-learning signals in major depression.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Waiter, G; Ahearn, T; Milders, M; Reid, I; Steele, J D

    2008-08-01

    Anhedonia is a core symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD), long thought to be associated with reduced dopaminergic function. However, most antidepressants do not act directly on the dopamine system and all antidepressants have a delayed full therapeutic effect. Recently, it has been proposed that antidepressants fail to alter dopamine function in antidepressant unresponsive MDD. There is compelling evidence that dopamine neurons code a specific phasic (short duration) reward-learning signal, described by temporal difference (TD) theory. There is no current evidence for other neurons coding a TD reward-learning signal, although such evidence may be found in time. The neuronal substrates of the TD signal were not explored in this study. Phasic signals are believed to have quite different properties to tonic (long duration) signals. No studies have investigated phasic reward-learning signals in MDD. Therefore, adults with MDD receiving long-term antidepressant medication, and comparison controls both unmedicated and acutely medicated with the antidepressant citalopram, were scanned using fMRI during a reward-learning task. Three hypotheses were tested: first, patients with MDD have blunted TD reward-learning signals; second, controls given an antidepressant acutely have blunted TD reward-learning signals; third, the extent of alteration in TD signals in major depression correlates with illness severity ratings. The results supported the hypotheses. Patients with MDD had significantly reduced reward-learning signals in many non-brainstem regions: ventral striatum (VS), rostral and dorsal anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex (RC), midbrain and hippocampus. However, the TD signal was increased in the brainstem of patients. As predicted, acute antidepressant administration to controls was associated with a blunted TD signal, and the brainstem TD signal was not increased by acute citalopram administration. In a number of regions, the magnitude of the abnormal

  9. Infrared Scanning For Electrical Maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbath, Steven E.

    1983-03-01

    Given the technological age that we have now entered, the purpose of this paper is to relate how infrared scanning can be used for an electrical preventative maintenance program. An infrared scanner is able to produce an image because objects give off infrared radiation in relationship to their temperature. Most electrical problems will show up as an increase in temperature, thereby making the infrared scanner a useful preventative maintenance tool. Because of the sensitivity of most of the scanners, .1 to .2 of a degree, virtually all electrical problems can be pinpointed long before they become a costly failure. One of the early uses of infrared scanning was to check the power company's electrical distribution system. Most of this was performed via aircraft or truck mounted scanning devices which necessitated its semi-permanent mounting. With the advent of small hand held infrared imagers, along with more portability of the larger systems, infrared scanning has gained more popularity in checking electrical distribution systems. But the distribution systems are now a scaled down model, mainly the in-plant electrical systems. By in-plant, I mean any distribution of electricity; once it leaves the power company's grid. This can be in a hospital, retail outlet, warehouse or manufacturing facility.

  10. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    DOEpatents

    Li, Yun-Zhong; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Andres, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  11. Technical aspects of CT scanning.

    PubMed

    Maravilla, K R; Pastel, M S

    1978-01-01

    The advent of computed tomography (CT) has initiated a technological revolution which continues to the present time. A brief review of basic principles of CT scanning is presented, and the evolution of modern CT scanner systems is traced. Some early indications of future trends are also presented.

  12. Environmental Scanning, Vancouver Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Min

    This 1994 environmental scanning report from Vancouver Community College (VCC) reviews the expected effects of the separation of VCC into a new Vancouver Community College and Langara College (LC). The report examines the projected service area student-intake capacity; student characteristics; population growth trends; other postsecondary…

  13. Improvement of CAT scanned images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, E., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Digital enhancement procedure improves definition of images. Tomogram is generated from large number of X-ray beams. Beams are collimated and small in diameter. Scanning device passes beams sequentially through human subject at many different angles. Battery of transducers opposite subject senses attenuated signals. Signals are transmitted to computer where they are used in construction of image on transverse plane through body.

  14. Line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Ustun, Teoman E.; Bigelow, Chad E.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Webb, Robert H.

    2006-07-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) is a powerful imaging tool with specialized applications limited to research and ophthalmology clinics due in part to instrument size, cost, and complexity. Conversely, low-cost retinal imaging devices have limited capabilities in screening, detection, and diagnosis of diseases. To fill the niche between these two, a hand-held, nonmydriatic line-scanning laser ophthalmoscope (LSLO) is designed, constructed, and tested on normal human subjects. The LSLO has only one moving part and uses a novel optical approach to produce wide-field confocal fundus images. Imaging modes include multiwavelength illumination and live stereoscopic imaging with a split aperture. Image processing and display functions are controlled with two stacked prototype compact printed circuit boards. With near shot-noise limited performance, the digital LSLO camera requires low illumination power (<500 µW) at near-infrared wavelengths. The line-scanning principle of operation is examined in comparison to SLO and other imaging modes. The line-scanning approach produces high-contrast confocal images with nearly the same performance as a flying-spot SLO. The LSLO may significantly enhance SLO utility for routine use by ophthalmologists, optometrists, general practitioners, and also emergency medical personnel and technicians in the field for retinal disease detection and other diverse applications.

  15. A CAT scan for cells

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a team of scientists from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the University of California, San Francisco used Berkeley Lab's National Center for X-ray Tomography to capture the changes that occur when Candida albicans is exposed to a new and promising antifungal therapy. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/12/10/cat-scan-cells/

  16. Molecular investigation of a dicentric 13;17 chromosome found in a 21-week gestation fetus with multiple congenital abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Cockwell, A E; Maloney, V K; Thomas, N S; Smith, E L; Gonda, P; Bass, P; Crolla, J A

    2006-01-01

    We report a 21-week gestation fetus terminated because of multiple congenital abnormalities seen on ultrasound scan, including ventriculomegaly, possible clefting of the hard palate, cervical hemivertebrae, micrognathia, abnormal heart, horseshoe kidney and a 2-vessel umbilical cord. On cytogenetic examination, the fetus was found to have a male karyotype with 45 chromosomes with a dicentric chromosome, which appeared to consist of the long arms of chromosomes 13 and 17. Molecular genetic investigations and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) unexpectedly showed that the derivative chromosome contained two interstitial blocks of chromosome 17 short arm sequences, totalling approximately 7 Mb, between the two centromeres. This effectively made the fetus monosomic for approximately 15 Mb of 17p without the concurrent trisomy for another chromosome normally seen following malsegregation of reciprocal translocations. It also illustrates the complexity involved in the formation of some structurally abnormal chromosomes, which can only be resolved by detailed molecular investigations.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities in patients with neoplastic meningitis. An evaluation using /sup 111/In-DTPA ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, S.A.; Trump, D.L.; Chen, D.C.; Thompson, G.; Camargo, E.E.

    1982-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics were evaluated by /sup 111/In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 111/In-DTPA) ventriculography in 27 patients with neoplastic meningitis. Nineteen patients (70 percent) had evidence of cerebrospinal fluid flow disturbances. These occurred as ventricular outlet obstructions, abnormalities of flow in the spinal canal, or flow distrubances over the cortical convexities. Tumor histology, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, myelograms, and computerized axial tomographic scans were not sufficient to predict cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns. These data indicate that cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities are common in patients with neoplastic meningitis and that /sup 111/In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging is useful in characterizing these abnormalities. This technique provides insight into the distribution of intraventricularly administered chemotherapy and may provide explanations for treatment failure and drug-induced neurotoxicity in patients with neoplastic meningitis.

  18. Radionuclide bone scanning in neuroblastoma: skeletal metastases and primary tumor localization of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP

    SciTech Connect

    Podrasky, A.E.; Stark, D.D.; Hattner, R.S.; Gooding, C.A.; Moss, A.A.

    1983-09-01

    Of 42 radionuclide bone scans in 35 children with neuroblastoma, 21 were abnormal for the presence of skeletal metastases. Of the 21 abnormal scans, 16 were corroborated by positive bone-marrow biopsy or clinical data. The false-negative and false-positive rates for bone scanning were 4.8% and 9.5%, respectively. Calcification of the primary tumor was seen on pretreatment computed tomographic (CT) scans in 24 (89%) of 27 cases, while only 13 (48%) of 27 were detectable by plain radiographs. Uptake of /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphate /sup 99m/Tc-MDP) by the primary tumor occurred in 20 of 27 cases, but correlation between tumor uptake and calcification was not statistically significant. All children with markedly elevated urinary vanillylmandelic acid exhibited primary tumor uptake. Survival was not affected independently by primary tumor uptake.

  19. Residual gait abnormalities in surgically treated spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Shelokov, A; Haideri, N; Roach, J

    1993-11-01

    The authors retrospectively studied seven patients who had in situ fusion as adolescents for high-grade (IV, V) spondylolisthesis unresponsive to more conservative means. All patients achieved solid bony union; their pain was relieved; and hamstring spasm had resolved. The authors sought to determine whether crouch gait or any other abnormalities could be demonstrated in patients exhibiting clinical parameters of success. Each patient underwent gait analysis, radiographic analysis, and a physical examination. Four of seven patients demonstrated slight degrees of forward trunk lean during varying phases of gait accompanied by increased hip flexion. One patient demonstrated increased trunk extension accompanied by limited hip flexion. Two patients were essentially normal. The authors were unable to quantify residual crouch in these patients with solidly fused high-grade spondylolisthesis.

  20. Computed tomography of the abnormal thymus

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, R.L.; Lee, J.K.T.; Sagel, S.S.; Levitt, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) should be the imaging method of choice following plain chest radiographs when a suspected thymic abnormality requires further evaluation. Based upon a six-year experience, including the evaluation of 25 patients with thymic pathology, CT was found useful in suggesting or excluding a diagnosis of thymoma and in distinguishing thymic hyperplasis from thymoma in patients with myasthenia gravis. The thickness of the thymic lobes determined by CT was found to be a more accurate indicator of infiltrative disease (thymic hyperplasia and lymphoma) than the width. CT was helpful in differentiating benign thymic cysts from solid tumors, and in defining the extent of a thymic neoplasms. On occasion, CT may suggest the specific histologic nature of a thymic lesion.