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Sample records for abnormal hindlimb extension

  1. Increased serotonergic innervation of lumbosacral motoneurons of rolling mouse Nagoya in correlation with abnormal hindlimb extension.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Y; Sawada, K; Sakata-Haga, H; Jeong, Y-G; Fukui, Y

    2006-12-01

    Rolling Mouse Nagoya (RMN) carries a mutation in a gene encoding for alpha(1A) subunit of P/Q-type Ca(2+) channel (Ca(v)2.1). In addition to ataxia, this mutant mouse exhibits abnormal hindlimb extension, which is characterized by a sustained excessive tone of hindlimb extensor muscles. This study aimed to clarify whether serotonergic (5-HTergic) innervation of the spinal motoneurons was altered in RMN in relation to the abnormal hindlimb extension. The density of 5-HT immunoreactive fibres in the ventral horn of lumbar and sacral regions of spinal cord was significantly greater in RMN than in controls. Retrograde wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) labelling combined with 5-HT immunostaining revealed that the number of 5-HT immunoreactive terminals adjoining femoris quadriceps motoneurons was about 2.5-fold greater in RMN than in controls. Furthermore, 5-HT immunostaining in the lumbar cord ventral horn was examined in three other Ca(v)2.1 mutant mice (tottering, leaner and pogo) as to whether or not they showed the abnormal hindlimb extension. Among these mutants, the increased density of 5-HT immunoreactive fibres was observed in correlation with the presence of the abnormal hindlimb extension. The results suggest an increased 5-HTergic innervation of the lumbosacral motoneurons in correlation with the abnormal hindlimb extension in RMN and other Ca(v)2.1 mutant mice. As 5-HT is known to induce the sustained membrane depolarizations without continuous excitatory synaptic inputs (plateau potentials) in spinal motoneurons, the increased 5-HTergic innervation may cause the sustained excitation of hindlimb extensor motoneurons, resulting in the abnormal hindlimb extension.

  2. Hindlimb lameness and gait abnormalities in bitches with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Klainbart, S; Ranen, E; Glikman, G; Kelmer, E; Bdolah-Abram, T; Aroch, I

    2014-07-12

    The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of gait abnormalities and lameness (GAL) in bitches with pyometra, and their association with clinical and laboratory findings. The study included 79 bitches diagnosed with pyometra and 35 negative control intact bitches presented with other soft tissue surgical disorders. Dogs with a history of chronic lameness due to orthopaedic or neurological origin were excluded. A history of GAL was more frequent in the pyometra group (47 per cent) compared with the control group (20 per cent) (P=0.007). In the pyometra group, bitches presenting GAL had (P<0.04) higher frequencies of closed-cervix pyometra, anorexia and vomiting, as well as higher serum creatinine concentration and muscle enzymes activity, compared with those in without GAL. GAL signs resolved postovariohysterectomy in all but one bitch. The results suggest that GAL signs occur frequently in bitches with pyometra, especially in closed-cervix disease. Therefore, pyometra should be considered among the differential diagnoses when GAL occurs, especially when the clinical signs are non-specific and the reproductive history is unclear. PMID:24789856

  3. Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

  4. Hindlimb unloading rodent model: technical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in the mid-1970s, many laboratories around the world have used the rat hindlimb unloading model to simulate weightlessness and to study various aspects of musculoskeletal loading. In this model, the hindlimbs of rodents are elevated to produce a 30 degrees head-down tilt, which results in a cephalad fluid shift and avoids weightbearing by the hindquarters. Although several reviews have described scientific results obtained with this model, this is the first review to focus on the technical aspects of hindlimb unloading. This review includes a history of the technique, a brief comparison with spaceflight data, technical details, extension of the model to mice, and other important technical considerations (e.g., housing, room temperature, unloading angle, the potential need for multiple control groups, age, body weight, the use of the forelimb tissues as internal controls, and when to remove animals from experiments). This paper is intended as a reference for researchers, reviewers of manuscripts, and institutional animal care and use committees. Over 800 references, related to the hindlimb unloading model, can be accessed via the electronic version of this article.

  5. Hindlimb suspension reduces muscle regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Truong, Q.; Macius, A.; Schultz, E.

    1998-01-01

    Exposure of juvenile skeletal muscle to a weightless environment reduces growth and satellite cell mitotic activity. However, the effect of a weightless environment on the satellite cell population during muscle repair remains unknown. Muscle injury was induced in rat soleus muscles using the myotoxic snake venom, notexin. Rats were placed into hindlimb-suspended or weightbearing groups for 10 days following injury. Cellular proliferation during regeneration was evaluated using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Hindlimb suspension reduced (P < 0.05) regenerated muscle mass, regenerated myofiber diameter, uninjured muscle mass, and uninjured myofiber diameter compared to weightbearing rats. Hindlimb suspension reduced (P < 0.05) BrdU labeling in uninjured soleus muscles compared to weight-bearing muscles. However, hindlimb suspension did not abolish muscle regeneration because myofibers formed in the injured soleus muscles of hindlimb-suspended rats, and BrdU labeling was equivalent (P > 0.10) on myofiber segments isolated from the soleus muscles of hindlimb-suspended and weightbearing rats following injury. Thus, hindlimb suspension (weightlessness) does not suppress satellite cell mitotic activity in regenerating muscles before myofiber formation, but reduces growth of the newly formed myofibers.

  6. Use of a 10,600-nm CO2 Laser Mandibular Vestibular Extension in a Patient With a Chromosomal Abnormality.

    PubMed

    Levine, Robert; Vitruk, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Vestibuloplasty involves a series of surgical procedures designed to restore alveolar ridge height by lowering the muscles attached to the buccal, labial, and lingual aspects of the jaws. The technique is indicated in cases of insufficient vestibular depth that may result from atrophy of the alveolar ridge and/or high attachment of muscle or movable mucosa. This article focuses on a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser vestibular extension procedure performed in a patient with Klinefelter syndrome, which is caused by a chromosomal abnormality. The 10,600-nm CO2 laser is shown to offer several advantages over a conventional scalpel and other laser wavelengths for soft-tissue pre-prosthetic surgery, including vestibular extension. PMID:27608196

  7. Hindlimb movement modulates the activity of rostral fastigial nucleus neurons that process vestibular input

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Andrew A; Miller, Daniel J; Catanzaro, Michael F; Cotter, Lucy A; Yates, Bill J

    2015-01-01

    Integration of vestibular and proprioceptive afferent information within the central nervous system is a critical component of postural regulation. We recently demonstrated that labyrinthine and hindlimb signals converge onto vestibular nucleus neurons, such that hindlimb movement modulates the activity of these cells. However, it is unclear whether similar convergence of hindlimb and vestibular signals also occurs upstream from the vestibular nuclei, particularly in the rostral fastigial nucleus (rFN). We tested the hypothesis that rFN neurons have similar responses to hindlimb movement as vestibular nucleus neurons. Recordings were obtained from 53 rFN neurons that responded to hindlimb movement in decerebrate cats. In contrast to vestibular nucleus neurons, which commonly encoded the direction of hindlimb movement (81% of neurons), few rFN neurons (21%) that responded to leg movement encoded such information. Instead, most rFN neurons responded to both limb flexion and extension. Half of the rFN neurons whose activity was modulated by hindlimb movement received convergent vestibular inputs. These results show that rFN neurons receive somatosensory inputs from the hindlimb, and that a subset of rFN neurons integrates vestibular and hindlimb signals. Such rFN neurons likely perform computations that participate in maintenance of balance during upright stance and movement. Although vestibular nucleus neurons are interconnected with the rFN, the dissimilarity of responses of neurons sensitive to hindlimb movement in the two regions suggest that they play different roles in coordinating postural responses during locomotion and other movements which entail changes in limb position. PMID:25976518

  8. A simple hindlimb suspension apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, E.; Schultz, E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the assembly of a simple, inexpensive apparatus for application of the hindlimb suspension model to studies of the effects of unloading on mammalian physiology. Construction of a cage and suspension assembly is described using materials that can be obtained from most hardware stores. The design is kept simple for easy assembly and disassembly to facilitate cleaning and storage. The suspension assembly allows the animals full access to all portions of the floor area and provides an effective environment to study the effects of unloading.

  9. Neuronal control of turtle hindlimb motor rhythms.

    PubMed

    Stein, P S G

    2005-03-01

    The turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans, uses its hindlimb during the rhythmic motor behaviors of walking, swimming, and scratching. For some tasks, one or more motor strategies or forms may be produced, e.g., forward swimming or backpaddling. This review discusses experiments that reveal characteristics of the spinal neuronal networks producing these motor behaviors. Limb-movement studies show shared properties such as rhythmic alternation between hip flexion and hip extension, as well as variable properties such as the timing of knee extension in the cycle of hip movements. Motor-pattern studies show shared properties such as rhythmic alternation between hip flexor and hip extensor motor activities, as well as variable properties such as modifiable timing of knee extensor motor activity in the cycle of hip motor activity. Motor patterns also display variations such as the hip-extensor deletion of rostral scratching. Neuronal-network studies reveal mechanisms responsible for movement and motor-pattern properties. Some interneurons in the spinal cord have shared activities, e.g., each unit is active during more than one behavior, and have distinct characteristics, e.g., each unit is most excited during a specific behavior. Interneuronal recordings during variations support the concept of modular organization of central pattern generators in the spinal cord.

  10. The hindlimb unloading rat model: literature overview, technique update and comparison with space flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily; Globus, Ruth K.; Kaplansky, Alexander; Durnova, Galina

    2005-01-01

    The hindlimb unloading rodent model is used extensively to study the response of many physiological systems to certain aspects of space flight, as well as to disuse and recovery from disuse for Earth benefits. This chapter describes the evolution of hindlimb unloading, and is divided into three sections. The first section examines the characteristics of 1064 articles using or reviewing the hindlimb unloading model, published between 1976 and April 1, 2004. The characteristics include number of publications, journals, countries, major physiological systems, method modifications, species, gender, genetic strains and ages of rodents, experiment duration, and countermeasures. The second section provides a comparison of results between space flown and hindlimb unloading animals from the 14-day Cosmos 2044 mission. The final section describes modifications to hindlimb unloading required by different experimental paradigms and a method to protect the tail harness for long duration studies. Hindlimb unloading in rodents has enabled improved understanding of the responses of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, immune, renal, neural, metabolic, and reproductive systems to unloading and/or to reloading on Earth with implications for both long-duration human space flight and disuse on Earth.

  11. Genetic basis of hindlimb loss in a naturally occurring vertebrate model

    PubMed Central

    Don, Emily K.; de Jong-Curtain, Tanya A.; Doggett, Karen; Hall, Thomas E.; Heng, Benjamin; Badrock, Andrew P.; Winnick, Claire; Nicholson, Garth A.; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Currie, Peter D.; Hesselson, Daniel; Heath, Joan K.; Cole, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here we genetically characterise pelvic finless, a naturally occurring model of hindlimb loss in zebrafish that lacks pelvic fin structures, which are homologous to tetrapod hindlimbs, but displays no other abnormalities. Using a hybrid positional cloning and next generation sequencing approach, we identified mutations in the nuclear localisation signal (NLS) of T-box transcription factor 4 (Tbx4) that impair nuclear localisation of the protein, resulting in altered gene expression patterns during pelvic fin development and the failure of pelvic fin development. Using a TALEN-induced tbx4 knockout allele we confirm that mutations within the Tbx4 NLS (A78V; G79A) are sufficient to disrupt pelvic fin development. By combining histological, genetic, and cellular approaches we show that the hindlimb initiation gene tbx4 has an evolutionarily conserved, essential role in pelvic fin development. In addition, our novel viable model of hindlimb deficiency is likely to facilitate the elucidation of the detailed molecular mechanisms through which Tbx4 functions during pelvic fin and hindlimb development. PMID:26892237

  12. Murine Model of Hindlimb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Niiyama, Hiroshi; Huang, Ngan F.; Rollins, Mark D.; Cooke, John P.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects about 10 million individuals, and is also prevalent worldwide. Medical therapies for symptomatic relief are limited. Surgical or endovascular interventions are useful for some individuals, but long-term results are often disappointing. As a result, there is a need for developing new therapies to treat PAD. The murine hindlimb ischemia preparation is a model of PAD, and is useful for testing new therapies. When compared to other models of tissue ischemia such as coronary or cerebral artery ligation, femoral artery ligation provides for a simpler model of ischemic tissue. Other advantages of this model are the ease of access to the femoral artery and low mortality rate. In this video, we demonstrate the methodology for the murine model of unilateral hindimb ischemia. The specific materials and procedures for creating and evaluating the model will be described, including the assessment of limb perfusion by laser Doppler imaging. This protocol can also be utilized for the transplantation and non-invasive tracking of cells, which is demonstrated by Huang et al.1. PMID:19229179

  13. Functional anatomy of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Penny E; Corr, Sandra A; Payne-Davis, Rachel C; Clancy, Sinead N; Lane, Emily; Wilson, Alan M

    2011-04-01

    The cheetah is capable of a top speed of 29 ms(-1) compared to the maximum speed of 17 ms(-1) achieved by the racing greyhound. In this study of the hindlimb and in the accompanying paper on the forelimb we have quantified the musculoskeletal anatomy of the cheetah and greyhound and compared them to identify any differences that may account for this variation in their locomotor abilities. Specifically, bone length, mass and mid-shaft diameter were measured, along with muscle mass, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and moment arms to enable estimates of maximal isometric force, joint torques and joint rotational velocities to be calculated. Surprisingly the cheetahs had a smaller volume of hip extensor musculature than the greyhounds, and we therefore propose that the cheetah powers acceleration using its extensive back musculature. The cheetahs also had an extremely powerful psoas muscle which could help to resist the pitching moments around the hip associated with fast accelerations. The hindlimb bones were proportionally longer and heavier, enabling the cheetah to take longer strides and potentially resist higher peak limb forces. The cheetah therefore possesses several unique adaptations for high-speed locomotion and fast accelerations, when compared to the racing greyhound.

  14. Functional anatomy of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Penny E; Corr, Sandra A; Payne-Davis, Rachel C; Clancy, Sinead N; Lane, Emily; Wilson, Alan M

    2011-01-01

    The cheetah is capable of a top speed of 29 ms−1 compared to the maximum speed of 17 ms−1 achieved by the racing greyhound. In this study of the hindlimb and in the accompanying paper on the forelimb we have quantified the musculoskeletal anatomy of the cheetah and greyhound and compared them to identify any differences that may account for this variation in their locomotor abilities. Specifically, bone length, mass and mid-shaft diameter were measured, along with muscle mass, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and moment arms to enable estimates of maximal isometric force, joint torques and joint rotational velocities to be calculated. Surprisingly the cheetahs had a smaller volume of hip extensor musculature than the greyhounds, and we therefore propose that the cheetah powers acceleration using its extensive back musculature. The cheetahs also had an extremely powerful psoas muscle which could help to resist the pitching moments around the hip associated with fast accelerations. The hindlimb bones were proportionally longer and heavier, enabling the cheetah to take longer strides and potentially resist higher peak limb forces. The cheetah therefore possesses several unique adaptations for high-speed locomotion and fast accelerations, when compared to the racing greyhound. PMID:21062282

  15. A metabolic cage for the hindlimb suspended rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J.; Mulenburg, G. M.; Harper, J. S.; Skundberg, T. L.; Navidi, M.; Arnaud, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    Hindlimb suspension has been successfully used to simulate the effects of microgravity in rats. The cage and suspension system developed by E. R. Holton is designed to produce a headward shift of fluid and unload the hindlimbs in rodents, causing changes in bone and muscle similar to those in animals and humans exposed to spaceflight. While the Holton suspension system simulates many of the conditions observed in the spaceflight animal, it does not provide for the collection of urine and feces needed to monitor some metabolic activities. As a result, only limited information has been gathered on the nutritional status, and the gastrointestinal and renal function of animals using that model. Although commercial metabolic cages are available, they are usually cylindrical and require a centrally located suspension system and thus, do not readily permit movement of the rats. The limited floor space of commercial cages may affect comparisons with studies using the Holton model which has more than twice the living space of most commercially available cages. To take advantage of the extra living space and extensive data base that has been developed with the Holton model, Holton's cage was modified to make urine and fecal collections possible.

  16. Effects of Hindlimb Unweighting on Arterial Contractile Responses in Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Jia; Ren, Xin-Ling; Purdy, Ralph E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine if hindlimb unweighting in mice alters arterial contractile responses. Sixteen male C57B/6 mice and 16 male Chinese Kunming mice were divided into control and 3 weeks hindlimb unweighting groups, respectively. Using isolated arterial rings from different arteries of mouse, effects of 3 weeks hindlimb unweighting on arterial contractile responsiveness were examined in vitro. The results showed that, in arterial rings from both C57B/6 and Chinese Kunming mice, maximum isometric contractile tensions evoked by either KCl or phenylephrine were significantly lower in abdominal aortic, mesenteric arterial and femoral arterial rings from hindlimb unweighting, compared to control mice. However, the maximal contractile responses of common carotid rings to KCl and PE were not significantly different between control and hindlimb unweighting groups. The sensitivity (EC(sub 50)) of all arteries to KCl or PE showed no significant differences between control and hindlimb unweighting mice. These data indicated that 3 weeks hindlimb unweighting results in a reduced capacity of the arterial smooth muscle of the hindquarter to develop tension. In addition, the alterations in arterial contractile responses caused by hindlimb unweighting in mice are similar as those in rats. Our work suggested that hindlimb unweighting mouse model may be used as a model for the study of postflight cardiovascular deconditioning.

  17. Musculoskeletal Geometry, Muscle Architecture and Functional Specialisations of the Mouse Hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Charles, James P.; Cappellari, Ornella; Spence, Andrew J.; Hutchinson, John R.; Wells, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    Mice are one of the most commonly used laboratory animals, with an extensive array of disease models in existence, including for many neuromuscular diseases. The hindlimb is of particular interest due to several close muscle analogues/homologues to humans and other species. A detailed anatomical study describing the adult morphology is lacking, however. This study describes in detail the musculoskeletal geometry and skeletal muscle architecture of the mouse hindlimb and pelvis, determining the extent to which the muscles are adapted for their function, as inferred from their architecture. Using I2KI enhanced microCT scanning and digital segmentation, it was possible to identify 39 distinct muscles of the hindlimb and pelvis belonging to nine functional groups. The architecture of each of these muscles was determined through microdissections, revealing strong architectural specialisations between the functional groups. The hip extensors and hip adductors showed significantly stronger adaptations towards high contraction velocities and joint control relative to the distal functional groups, which exhibited larger physiological cross sectional areas and longer tendons, adaptations for high force output and elastic energy savings. These results suggest that a proximo-distal gradient in muscle architecture exists in the mouse hindlimb. Such a gradient has been purported to function in aiding locomotor stability and efficiency. The data presented here will be especially valuable to any research with a focus on the architecture or gross anatomy of the mouse hindlimb and pelvis musculature, but also of use to anyone interested in the functional significance of muscle design in relation to quadrupedal locomotion. PMID:27115354

  18. Identification of severe and extensive coronary artery disease by postexercise regional wall motion abnormalities in Tc-99m sestamibi gated single-photon emission computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Sharir, T; Bacher-Stier, C; Dhar, S; Lewin, H C; Miranda, R; Friedman, J D; Germano, G; Berman, D S

    2000-12-01

    Postexercise wall motion abnormality (WMA) in patients with normal resting myocardial perfusion may represent prolonged postischemic stunning, and may be related to the presence of severe angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD). This study assesses the diagnostic value of postexercise WMA by technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with normal resting perfusion. Ninety-nine patients underwent exercise gated Tc-99m sestamibi/resting thallium-201 SPECT and coronary angiography within 90 days of nuclear testing. All patients had normal perfusion at rest. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated an incremental value of wall motion and perfusion over perfusion data alone in identifying severe and extensive CAD. Sensitivity for identifying any severely stenosed coronary artery by WMA was significantly higher than by severe perfusion defect (78% vs 49%, p <0.0001). Overall specificities of severe perfusion defect and WMA were 91% and 85%, respectively (p = NS). Thus, postexercise WMA detected by gated Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT in patients with normal resting perfusion is a sensitive marker of severe and extensive CAD.

  19. Gait kinematic analysis evaluates hindlimb revascularization.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Amelia; Delgado, Alexandra; Escalante, Bruno; Santana, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral arterial occlusive disease is described as vascular disorders associated with ischemia and may be the result of an obstructive vascular process or a lost revascularization response. We have shown that gait locomotion analysis by video filming represents an integrative model for the evaluation of mechanisms involved in the process of ischemia-induced revascularization. However, analysis by this method can be subjective and perception errors may be occurring. We present the optimization of a quantifiable, noninvasive, reproducible method that analyzes ankle kinematics in rats using a two-dimensional digital video system. Gait dynamics were filmed in hindlimb ischemic rats with a high speed digital video camera. Images were collected and analyzed at 125 frames per second. An algorithm using interactive data language (IDL) was devised to assess different parameters. In ischemic rats, stride time and knee joint angle remained altered 10 days post-surgery compared with sham animals. Gait kinematics were outlined in a highly reliable way by this computational analysis and corroborated the notion of hindlimb movement recovery associated with the revascularization process.

  20. Dense distributed processing in a hindlimb scratch motor network.

    PubMed

    Guzulaitis, Robertas; Alaburda, Aidas; Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2014-08-01

    In reduced preparations, hindlimb movements can be generated by a minimal network of neurons in the limb innervating spinal segments. The network of neurons that generates real movements is less well delineated. In an ex vivo carapace-spinal cord preparation from adult turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans), we show that ventral horn interneurons in mid-thoracic spinal segments are functionally integrated in the hindlimb scratch network. First, mid-thoracic interneurons receive intense synaptic input during scratching and behave like neurons in the hindlimb enlargement. Second, some mid-thoracic interneurons activated during scratching project descending axons toward the hindlimb enlargement. Third, elimination of mid-thoracic segments leads to a weakening of scratch rhythmicity. We conclude that densely innervated interneurons in mid-thoracic segments contribute to hindlimb scratching and may be part of a distributed motor network that secures motor coherence.

  1. Comparison of the Physiology of the Spaceflight and Hindlimb Suspended Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Booth, F. W.

    1994-01-01

    The suspended rat has been used extensively as a simulation of the spaceflight animal. In suspension, hindlimbs are unloaded from the acceleration of gravity, much as they are in spaceflight. Comparisons of data from spaceflight (microgravity) and suspended (1G) rats have suggested that suspension my be an appropriate model, but no direct comparisons had been made between the spaceflight and suspended rat. Cosmos 2044 afforded the first opportunity to directly compare the effects of hindlimb suspension (HS) and spaceflight (SF) on a broad range of physiological and histological parameters. This paper reports on the comparison of skelton, skeletal muscle, heart, neural, pulmonary, kidney, liver, intestine, blood plasma, immune function, red blood cells, and endocrine and reproductive functions and systems.

  2. Abnormal ERD/ERS but unaffected BOLD response in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease during index extension: a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Visani, E; Minati, L; Canafoglia, L; Gilioli, I; Granvillano, A; Varotto, G; Aquino, D; Fazio, P; Bruzzone, M G; Franceschetti, S; Panzica, F

    2011-03-01

    Electrophysiological studies indicate that Unverricht-Lundborg's disease (ULD), the most common form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy in Europe, is characterized by the involvement of multiple cortical regions in degenerative changes that lead to enhanced excitation and deficient inhibition. We searched for the haemodynamic correlates of these effects using functional MRI (fMRI) of self-paced index extensions, a well-accepted task highlighting significant differences. EEG and fMRI were simultaneously acquired in 11 ULD patients and 16 controls, performing the index extensions individually (event-related task) as well as repetitively (block task). ERD/ERS analysis was performed for the EEG data in the alpha and beta bands. fMRI time-series were analyzed using the traditional general linear model, as well as with an assumption-free approach, and by means of cross-region correlations representing functional connectivity. In line with the existing literature, ULD patients had enhanced desynchronization in the alpha band and reduced post-movement synchronization in the beta band. By contrast, fMRI did not reveal any difference between the two groups; there were no activation intensity, latency or extent effects, no significant engagement of additional regions, and no changes to functional connectivity. We conclude that, so long as the patients are executing a task which does not induce obvious action myoclonus, the hypothesized abnormalities in pyramidal neuron and interneuron dynamics are relatively subtle, embodied in processes which are not metabolically-demanding and take place at a time-scale invisible to fMRI. PMID:21107673

  3. Brief communication: Three-dimensional motion analysis of hindlimb during brachiation in a white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar).

    PubMed

    Oka, Kenji; Hirasaki, Eishi; Hirokawa, Yohko; Nakano, Yoshihiko; Kumakura, Hiroo

    2010-08-01

    In brachiating gibbons, it is thought that there is little movement in the hindlimb joints and that lateral body movement is quite limited. These hypotheses are based on naked-eye observations, and no quantitative motion analyses of the hindlimbs have been reported. This study quantitatively describes the three-dimensional movements of the lower trunk and distal thigh during continuous-contact brachiation in a white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) to evaluate the roles of the trunk and hindlimb. The results revealed that the lower trunk moved both laterally and vertically. The lateral movement of the lower trunk resulted from the lateral inclination of the trunk by gravity. The vertical movement of the trunk was converted into forward velocity, indicating an exchange between potential and kinetic energy. We also observed flexion and extension of the hip, although the excursion was within a small range. In addition, the lateral movement of the hindlimb in thedirection opposite to that of trunk movement helped to reduce the lateral sway of the body. These results suggest that during continuous-contact brachiation a gibbon uses hip flexion and extension motions to increase the kinetic energy in the swing. In addition, fine motions of the hip may restrict the lateral sway of the center of body mass.

  4. Hindlimb unloading: rodent analog for microgravity.

    PubMed

    Globus, Ruth K; Morey-Holton, Emily

    2016-05-15

    The rodent hindlimb unloading (HU) model was developed in the 1980s to make it possible to study mechanisms, responses, and treatments for the adverse consequences of spaceflight. Decades before development of the HU model, weightlessness was predicted to yield deficits in the principal tissues responsible for structure and movement on Earth, primarily muscle and bone. Indeed, results from early spaceflight and HU experiments confirmed the expected sensitivity of the musculoskeletal system to gravity loading. Results from human and animal spaceflight and HU experiments show that nearly all organ systems and tissues studied display some measurable changes, albeit sometimes minor and of uncertain relevance to astronaut health. The focus of this review is to examine key HU results for various organ systems including those related to stress; the immune, cardiovascular, and nervous systems; vision changes; and wound healing. Analysis of the validity of the HU model is important given its potential value for both hypothesis testing and countermeasure development. PMID:26869711

  5. Hindlimb unloading elicits anhedonia and sympathovagal imbalance.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, Julia A; Grippo, Angela J; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-10-01

    The hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rat model elicits cardiovascular deconditioning and simulates the physiological adaptations to microgravity or prolonged bed rest in humans. Although psychological deficits have been documented following bed rest and spaceflight in humans, few studies have explored the psychological effects of cardiovascular deconditioning in animal models. Given the bidirectional link established between cardiac autonomic imbalance and psychological depression in both humans and in animal models, we hypothesized that hindlimb unloading would elicit an alteration in sympathovagal tone and behavioral indexes of psychological depression. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats confined to 14 days of HU displayed anhedonia (a core feature of human depression) compared with casted control (CC) animals evidenced by reduced sucrose preference (CC: 81 +/- 2.9% baseline vs. HU: 58 +/- 4.5% baseline) and reduced (rightward shift) operant responding for rewarding electrical brain stimulation (CC: 4.4 +/- 0.3 muA vs. 7.3 +/- 1.0 muA). Cardiac autonomic blockade revealed elevated sympathetic [CC: -54 +/- 14.1 change in (Delta) beats/min vs. HU: -118 +/- 7.6 Delta beats/min] and reduced parasympathetic (CC: 45 +/- 11.8 Delta beats/min vs. HU: 8 +/- 7.3 Delta beats/min) cardiac tone in HU rats. Heart rate variability was reduced (CC: 10 +/- 1.4 ms vs. HU: 7 +/- 0.7 ms), and spectral analysis of blood pressure indicated loss of total, low-, and high-frequency power, consistent with attenuated baroreflex function. These data indicate that cardiovascular deconditioning results in sympathovagal imbalance and behavioral signs consistent with psychological depression. These findings further elucidate the pathophysiological link between cardiovascular diseases and affective disorders.

  6. Apoptosis: a mechanism contributing to remodeling of skeletal muscle in response to hindlimb unweighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. L.; Linderman, J. K.; Roy, R. R.; Bigbee, A. J.; Grindeland, R. E.; Mukku, V.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1997-01-01

    The role of apoptosis in the elimination of myonuclei during hindlimb unloading-induced atrophy and the inhibition of apoptosis in the prevention of muscle atrophy were examined. The number of nuclei demonstrating double-stranded DNA fragmentation seen by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TDT) histochemical staining, an indicator of apoptosis, was significantly increased after 14 days of suspension. Double staining with TDT and antilaminin immunohistochemistry revealed that some TDT-positive nuclei were within the fiber lamina and were most likely myonuclei. The number of fibers containing morphologically abnormal nuclei was also significantly greater in suspended compared with control rats. Combined treatment with growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I (GH/ IGF-I) and resistance exercise attenuated the increase in TDT-positive nuclei (approximately 26%, P > 0.05) and significantly decreased the number of fibers with morphologically abnormal nuclei. The data suggest that 1) "programmed nuclear death" contributes to the elimination of myonuclei and/or satellite cells from atrophying fibers, and 2) GH/IGF-I administration plus muscle loading ameliorates the apoptosis associated with hindlimb unloading.

  7. Modulation of joint moments and work in the goat hindlimb with locomotor speed and surface grade

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Allison S.; Lee, David V.; Biewener, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Goats and other quadrupeds must modulate the work output of their muscles to accommodate the changing mechanical demands associated with locomotion in their natural environments. This study examined which hindlimb joint moments goats use to generate and absorb mechanical energy on level and sloped surfaces over a range of locomotor speeds. Ground reaction forces and the three-dimensional locations of joint markers were recorded as goats walked, trotted and galloped over 0, +15 and −15 deg sloped surfaces. Net joint moments, powers and work were estimated at the goats' hip, knee, ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints throughout the stance phase via inverse dynamics calculations. Differences in locomotor speed on the level, inclined and declined surfaces were characterized and accounted for by fitting regression equations to the joint moment, power and work data plotted versus non-dimensionalized speed. During level locomotion, the net work generated by moments at each of the hindlimb joints was small (less than 0.1 J kg−1 body mass) and did not vary substantially with gait or locomotor speed. During uphill running, by contrast, mechanical energy was generated at the hip, knee and ankle, and the net work at each of these joints increased dramatically with speed (P<0.05). The greatest increases in positive joint work occurred at the hip and ankle. During downhill running, mechanical energy was decreased in two main ways: goats generated larger knee extension moments in the first half of stance, absorbing energy as the knee flexed, and goats generated smaller ankle extension moments in the second half of stance, delivering less energy. The goats' hip extension moment in mid-stance was also diminished, contributing to the decrease in energy. These analyses offer new insight into quadrupedal locomotion, clarifying how the moments generated by hindlimb muscles modulate mechanical energy at different locomotor speeds and grades, as needed to accommodate the

  8. Forms of forward quadrupedal locomotion. III. A comparison of posture, hindlimb kinematics, and motor patterns for downslope and level walking.

    PubMed

    Smith, J L; Carlson-Kuhta, P; Trank, T V

    1998-04-01

    To gain further insight into the neural mechanisms for different forms of quadrupedal walking, data on postural orientation, hindlimb kinematics, and motor patterns were assessed for four grades of downslope walking, from 25% (14 degrees slope) to 100% (45 degrees), and compared with data from level and downslope walking at five grades (5-25%) on the treadmill (0.6 m/s). Kinematic data were obtained by digitizing ciné film, and electromyograms (EMGs) synchronized with kinematic records were taken from 13 different hindlimb muscles. At grades from 25 to 75%, cycle periods were similar, but at the steepest grade the cycle was shorter because of a reduced stance phase. Paw-contact sequences at all grades were consistent with lateral-sequence walking, but pace walking often occurred at the steepest grades. The cats crouched at the steeper grades, and crouching was associated with changes in fore- and hindlimb orientation that were consistent with increasing braking forces and decreasing propulsive forces during stance. The average ranges of motion at the hindlimb joints, except at the hip, were often different at the two steepest slopes. During swing, the range of knee- and ankle-joint flexion decreased, and the range and duration of extension increased at the ankle joint to lower the paw downward for contact. During stance the range of flexion during yield increased at the ankle joint, and the range of extension decreased at the knee and metatarsophalangeal joints. Downslope walking was also associated with EMG changes for several muscles. The hip extensors were not active during stance; instead, hip flexors were active, presumably to slow the rate of hip extension. Although ankle extensors were active during stance, their burst durations were truncated and centered around paw contact. Ankle flexors were active after midstance at the steeper slopes before the need to initiate swing, whereas flexor and extensor digit muscles were coactive throughout stance. Overall

  9. A hypomagnetic field aggravates bone loss induced by hindlimb unloading in rat femurs.

    PubMed

    Jia, Bin; Xie, Li; Zheng, Qi; Yang, Peng-fei; Zhang, Wei-ju; Ding, Chong; Qian, Ai-rong; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    A hypomagnetic field is an extremely weak magnetic field--it is considerably weaker than the geomagnetic field. In deep-space exploration missions, such as those involving extended stays on the moon and interplanetary travel, astronauts will experience abnormal space environments involving hypomagnetic fields and microgravity. It is known that microgravity in space causes bone loss, which results in decreased bone mineral density. However, it is unclear whether hypomagnetic fields affect the skeletal system. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the complex effects of a hypomagnetic field and microgravity on bone loss. To study the effects of hypomagnetic fields on the femoral characteristics of rats in simulated weightlessness, we established a rat model of hindlimb unloading that was exposed to a hypomagnetic field. We used a geomagnetic field-shielding chamber to generate a hypomagnetic field of <300 nT. The results show that hypomagnetic fields can exacerbate bone mineral density loss and alter femoral biomechanical characteristics in hindlimb-unloaded rats. The underlying mechanism might involve changes in biological rhythms and the concentrations of trace elements due to the hypomagnetic field, which would result in the generation of oxidative stress responses in the rat. Excessive levels of reactive oxygen species would stimulate osteoblasts to secrete receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and promote the maturation and activation of osteoclasts and thus eventually cause bone resorption.

  10. A Hypomagnetic Field Aggravates Bone Loss Induced by Hindlimb Unloading in Rat Femurs

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Bin; Xie, Li; Zheng, Qi; Yang, Peng-fei; Zhang, Wei-ju; Ding, Chong; Qian, Ai-rong; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    A hypomagnetic field is an extremely weak magnetic field—it is considerably weaker than the geomagnetic field. In deep-space exploration missions, such as those involving extended stays on the moon and interplanetary travel, astronauts will experience abnormal space environments involving hypomagnetic fields and microgravity. It is known that microgravity in space causes bone loss, which results in decreased bone mineral density. However, it is unclear whether hypomagnetic fields affect the skeletal system. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the complex effects of a hypomagnetic field and microgravity on bone loss. To study the effects of hypomagnetic fields on the femoral characteristics of rats in simulated weightlessness, we established a rat model of hindlimb unloading that was exposed to a hypomagnetic field. We used a geomagnetic field-shielding chamber to generate a hypomagnetic field of <300 nT. The results show that hypomagnetic fields can exacerbate bone mineral density loss and alter femoral biomechanical characteristics in hindlimb-unloaded rats. The underlying mechanism might involve changes in biological rhythms and the concentrations of trace elements due to the hypomagnetic field, which would result in the generation of oxidative stress responses in the rat. Excessive levels of reactive oxygen species would stimulate osteoblasts to secrete receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and promote the maturation and activation of osteoclasts and thus eventually cause bone resorption. PMID:25157571

  11. Pelvic and hindlimb musculature of Tyrannosaurus rex (Dinosauria: Theropoda).

    PubMed

    Carrano, Matthew T; Hutchinson, John R

    2002-09-01

    In this article, we develop a new reconstruction of the pelvic and hindlimb muscles of the large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex. Our new reconstruction relies primarily on direct examination of both extant and fossil turtles, lepidosaurs, and archosaurs. These observations are placed into a phylogenetic context and data from extant taxa are used to constrain inferences concerning the soft-tissue structures in T. rex. Using this extant phylogenetic bracket, we are able to offer well-supported inferences concerning most of the hindlimb musculature in this taxon. We also refrain from making any inferences for certain muscles where the resulting optimizations are ambiguous. This reconstruction differs from several previous attempts and we evaluate these discrepancies. In addition to providing a new and more detailed understanding of the hindlimb morphology of T. rex--the largest known terrestrial biped--this reconstruction also helps to clarify the sequence of character-state change along the line to extant birds.

  12. A model for nonexercising hindlimb muscles in exercising animals.

    PubMed

    Bonen, A; Blewett, C; McDermott, J C; Elder, G C

    1990-07-01

    Nonexercising muscles appear to be metabolically active during exercise. Animal models for this purpose have not been established. However, we have been able to teach animals to run on their forelimbs while their hindlimbs are suspended above the treadmill with no visible limb movement. To document that indeed this mode of exercise does not provoke additional muscle activity, we have compared the levels of neural activation of the soleus and plantaris muscles using a computer analysis of the electromyographic interference pattern, recorded from bipolar fine wire electrodes implanted across each muscle. Via computer analyses of the electromyographic interference patterns the frequencies and amplitudes of motor unit action potentials were obtained. The data were sampled during 20 s of every minute of observation. Comparisons were made in four conditions: (i) resting on the treadmill while bearing weight on the hindlimbs (normal rest), (ii) running on the treadmill (15 m/min, 8% grade) on all four limbs (normal exercise), (iii) resting while the hindlimbs were suspended in a harness above the treadmill (suspended rest), and (iv) exercising with the forelimbs (15 m/min, 8% grade) while the hindlimbs were suspended above the treadmill (suspended exercise). All four experimental conditions were carried out for 90 min each and were performed by each animal. The results clearly show that muscle activities (frequencies and amplitudes), when the hindlimbs are suspended above the treadmill, at rest or during exercise, are lower than the activities in these same muscles when the animals are at rest, supporting only their body weight. Activities in the same muscles during exercise were from 300 to 2000% greater than during hindlimb suspension.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Atrophy of the soleus muscle by hindlimb unweighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, Donald B.; Booth, Frank W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews data derived from the animal hindlimb unweighting model. The review presents the following information about the unweighted soleus muscle: electromyogram activity, the amount and type of protein lost, capillarization, oxidative capacity, glycolytic enzyme activities, fiber cross section, contractile properties, glucose uptake, sensitivity to insulin, the rates of protein synthesis and degradation, the glucocorticoid receptor numbers, the responses of specific mRNAs, and changes in metabolic concentrations. Data of all these studies show that the stress response of the animal to hindlimb suspension is transient and minimal in magnitude (though somewhat variable) and that, after one week of unweighting, the animal exhibits no chronic signs of stress.

  14. Hypoxia-induced sensitisation of TRPA1 in painful dysesthesia evoked by transient hindlimb ischemia/reperfusion in mice

    PubMed Central

    So, Kanako; Tei, Yuna; Zhao, Meng; Miyake, Takahito; Hiyama, Haruka; Shirakawa, Hisashi; Imai, Satoshi; Mori, Yasuo; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Matsubara, Kazuo; Kaneko, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Dysesthesia is an unpleasant abnormal sensation, which is often accompanied by peripheral neuropathy or vascular impairment. Here, we examined the roles of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in dysesthesia-like behaviours elicited by transient hindlimb ischemia (15–60 min) by tightly compressing the hindlimb, and reperfusion by releasing the ligature. The paw-withdrawal responses to tactile stimulation were reduced during ischemia and lasted for a while after reperfusion. Hindlimb ischemia/reperfusion elicited spontaneous licking of the ischemic hindpaw that peaked within 10 min. The licking was inhibited by reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, a TRPA1 antagonist, or TRPA1 deficiency, but not by TRPV1 deficiency. In human TRPA1-expressing cells as well as cultured mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons, the H2O2-evoked TRPA1 response was significantly increased by pretreatment with hypoxia (80 mmHg) for 30 min. This hypoxia-induced TRPA1 sensitisation to H2O2 was inhibited by overexpressing a catalytically-inactive mutant of prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) 2 or in a TRPA1 proline mutant resistant to PHDs. Consistent with these results, a PHD inhibitor increased H2O2-evoked nocifensive behaviours through TRPA1 activation. Our results suggest that transient hindlimb ischemia/reperfusion-evoked spontaneous licking, i.e. painful dysesthesia, is caused by ROS-evoked activation of TRPA1 sensitised by hypoxia through inhibiting PHD-mediated hydroxylation of a proline residue in TRPA1. PMID:26983498

  15. Muscle glucose uptake in the rat after suspension with single hindlimb weight bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, Craig S.; Woodman, Christopher R.; Fregosi, Ralph F.; Tipton, Charles M.

    1993-01-01

    An examination is conducted of the effect of nonweight-bearing conditions, and the systemic influences of simulated microgravity on rat hindlimb muscles. The results obtained suggest that the increases in hindlimb muscle glucose uptake and extracellular space associated with simulated microgravity persist with hindlimb weightbearing, despite the prevention of muscle atrophy. The mechanism (or mechanisms) responsible for these effects are currently unknown.

  16. Peripheral vascular responses to heat stress after hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looft-Wilson, Robin C.; Gisolfi, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether hindlimb suspension (which simulates the effects of microgravity) results in impaired hemodynamic responses to heat stress or alterations in mesenteric small artery sympathetic nerve innervation. METHODS: Over 28 d, 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats were hindlimb-suspended, and 13 control rats were housed in the same type of cage. After the treatment, mean arterial pressure (MAP), colonic temperature (Tcol), and superior mesenteric and iliac artery resistances (using Doppler flowmetry) were measured during heat stress [exposure to 42 degrees C until the endpoint of 80 mm Hg blood pressure was reached (75 +/- 9 min); endpoint Tcore = 43.6 +/- 0.2] while rats were anesthetized (sodium pentobarbital, 50 mg x kg(-1) BW). RESULTS: Hindlimb-suspended and control rats exhibited similar increases in Tcol, MAP, and superior mesenteric artery resistance, and similar decreases in iliac resistance during heat stress (endpoint was a fall in MAP below 80 mm Hg). Tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining indicated similar sympathetic nerve innervation in small mesenteric arteries from both groups. CONCLUSION: Hindlimb suspension does not alter the hemodynamic or thermoregulatory responses to heat stress in the anesthetized rat or mesenteric sympathetic nerve innervation, suggesting that this sympathetic pathway is intact.

  17. Forms of forward quadrupedal locomotion. II. A comparison of posture, hindlimb kinematics, and motor patterns for upslope and level walking.

    PubMed

    Carlson-Kuhta, P; Trank, T V; Smith, J L

    1998-04-01

    To gain insight into the neural mechanisms controlling different forms of quadrupedal walking of normal cats, data on postural orientation, hindlimb kinematics, and motor patterns of selected hindlimb muscles were assessed for four grades of upslope walking, from 25 to 100% (45 degrees incline), and compared with similar data for level treadmill walking (0.6 m/s). Kinematic data for the hip, knee, ankle, and metatarsophalangeal joints were obtained from digitizing ciné film that was synchronized with electromyographic (EMG) records from 13 different hindlimb muscles. Cycle periods, the structure of the step cycle, and paw-contact sequences were similar at all grades and typical of lateral-sequence walking. Also, a few half-bound and transverse gallop steps were assessed from trials at the 100% grade; these steps had shorter cycle periods than the walking steps and less of the cycle (68 vs. 56%) was devoted to stance. Each cat assumed a crouched posture at the steeper grades of upslope walking and stride length decreased, whereas the overall position of the stride shifted caudally with respect to the hip joint. At the steeper grades, the range and duration of swing-related flexion increased at all joints, the stance-phase yield was absent at the knee and ankle joints, and the range of stance-phase extension at knee and ankle joints increased. Patterns of muscle activity for upslope and level walking were similar with some notable exceptions. At the steeper grades, the EMG activity of muscles with swing-related activity, such as the digit flexor muscle, the flexor digitorum longus (FDL), and the knee flexor muscle, the semitendinosus (ST), was prolonged and continued well into midswing. The EMG activity of stance-related muscles also increased in amplitude with grade, and three muscles not active during the stance phase of level walking had stance activity that increased in amplitude and duration at the steepest grades; these muscles were the ST, FDL, and extensor

  18. Hindlimb unloading increases oxidative stress and disrupts antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawler, John M.; Song, Wook; Demaree, Scott R.; Bloomfield, S. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal muscle disuse with space-flight and ground-based models (e.g., hindlimb unloading) results in dramatic skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness. Pathological conditions that cause muscle wasting (i.e., heart failure, muscular dystrophy, sepsis, COPD, cancer) are characterized by elevated "oxidative stress," where antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed by oxidant production. However, the existence, cellular mechanisms, and ramifications of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle subjected to hindlimb unloading are poorly understood. Thus we examined the effects of hindlimb unloading on hindlimb muscle antioxidant enzymes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), nonenzymatic antioxidant scavenging capacity (ASC), total hydroperoxides, and dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) oxidation, a direct indicator of oxidative stress. Twelve 6 month old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups: 28 d of hindlimb unloading (n = 6) and controls (n = 6). Hindlimb unloading resulted in a small decrease in Mn-superoxide dismutase activity (10.1%) in the soleus muscle, while Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase increased 71.2%. In contrast, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, antioxidant enzymes that remove hydroperoxides, were significantly reduced in the soleus with hindlimb unloading by 54.5 and 16.1%, respectively. Hindlimb unloading also significantly reduced ASC. Hindlimb unloading increased soleus lipid hydroperoxide levels by 21.6% and hindlimb muscle DCFH-DA oxidation by 162.1%. These results indicate that hindlimb unloading results in a disruption of antioxidant status, elevation of hydroperoxides, and an increase in oxidative stress.

  19. Hindlimb movement in the cat induced by amplitude-modulated stimulation using extra-spinal electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Changfeng; Wang, Jicheng; Shen, Bing; Wang, Xianchun; Roppolo, James R.; de Groat, William C.

    2008-06-01

    Hindlimb movement in the cat induced by electrical stimulation with an amplitude-modulated waveform of the dorsal surface of the L5-S1 spinal cord or the L5-S1 dorsal/ventral roots was investigated before and after acute spinal cord transection at the T13-L1 level. Stimulation of the spinal cord or dorsal/ventral root at the same spinal segment induced similar movements including coordinated multi-joint flexion or extension. The induced movements changed from flexion to extension when the stimulation was moved from rostral (L5) to caudal (S1) spinal segments. Stimulation of a dorsal or ventral root on one side induced only ipsilateral hindlimb movement. However, stimulation on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord along the midline or across the spinal cord induced bilateral movements. The extension induced by stimulation of L7 dorsal root produced the largest ground reaction force that was strong enough to support body weight. Dorsal root stimulation induced a larger ground reaction force than ventral root stimulation and produced a more graded recruitment curve. Stepping at different speeds could be generated by combined stimulation of the rostral (L5) and the caudal (L6/L7) spinal segments with an appropriate timing between the different stimulation channels. Acute transection of the spinal cord did not change the responses indicating that the induced movements did not require the involvement of the supraspinal locomotor centers. The methods and the stimulation strategy developed in this study might be utilized to restore locomotor function after spinal cord injury.

  20. Forms of forward quadrupedal locomotion. I. A comparison of posture, hindlimb kinematics, and motor patterns for normal and crouched walking.

    PubMed

    Trank, T V; Chen, C; Smith, J L

    1996-10-01

    1. Posture, hindlimb kinematics, and activity patterns of selected hindlimb muscles were compared for normal and crouched treadmill walking (0.5-0.6 m/s) for eight cats. To elicit crouched walking in which the trunk and head were lowered, cats were encouraged to walk under a light-weight Plexiglas ceiling suspended 17-20 cm above the treadmill belt. Kinematic data were obtained from high-speed ciné film, and electromyograms (EMGs)-synchronized with the kinematic records-were taken from 11 hindlimb muscles. 2. The postures for the two forms of walking were distinctly different. During crouched walking, each cat lowered its entire body keeping its trunk horizontal to the treadmill belt. Also the head was lowered, with the top of the head in line with the dorsal surface of the trunk. Hip height, used as a measure for hindlimb crouch, was reduced by 30%, from an average height of 23 cm to an average height of 16 cm above the belt during the entire step cycle. 3. Average cycle periods (766 +/- 30 ms, mean +/- SD) and percentage of time devoted to swing (30%) and stance (70%) were similar for normal and crouched walking. The profiles of the hindlimb kinematics were also similar for the hip, knee, ankle, and metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints during the step cycle, but the timing of some of the motion reversal, as well as the ranges of motion during various phases, were different at some joints for the two forms of walking. 4. During the swing phase, the transition between the flexion and extension (F-E1 reversal) occurred later in the normalized swing phase at the hip, knee, and ankle joints, and the range of flexion was increased at each joint. With greater flexion at these joints, the anatomic axis of the hindlimb (measured from hip joint to toe) was decreased and the hind paw advanced in the narrow space between the abdomen and treadmill belt. At contact, the position of the paw was less anterior to the perpendicular reference line (hip joint marker to belt) and all

  1. Age effects on rat hindlimb muscle atrophy during suspension unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Joseph M.; Fell, Ronald D.; Geoghegan, Thomas E.; Ringel, Lisa C.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of hindlimb unloading on muscle mass and biochemical responses were examined and compared in adult (450-g) and juvenile (200-g) rats after 1, 7, or 14 days of whole-body suspension. Quantitatively and qualitatively the soleus, gastrocnemius, plantaris, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of the hindlimb exhibited a differential sensitivity to suspension and weightlessness unloading in both adults and juveniles. The red slow-twitch soleus exhibited the most pronounced atrophy under both conditions, with juvenile responses being greater than adult. In contrast, the fast-twitch EDL hypertrophied during suspension and atrophied during weightlessness, with no significant difference between adults and juveniles. Determination of biochemical parameters (total protein, RNA, and DNA) indicates a less rapid rate of response in adult muscles.

  2. An experimental model of ischemia in rabbit hindlimb.

    PubMed Central

    Hong, J. H.; Bahk, Y. W.; Suh, J. S.; Kwak, B. K.; Shim, H. J.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, H. S.; Moon, Y. H.; Kim, S. J.; Chung, J. W.; Park, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to establish an experimental model of ischemia for the investigation of new treatment modality of limb-threatening ischemia. We produced ischemia in the hindlimbs of 8 New Zealand white rabbits. Under general anesthesia, the left femoral artery was exposed, freed, and excised from distal external iliac artery to proximal popliteal and saphenous arteries. And then both hindlimbs were serially examined to assess the ischemia according to the time table until postoperative 6 weeks. We assessed clinical observation, blood pressure, radioisotopic perfusion scan, and angiography. Clinical ischemic changes of the operated feet were observed in 63%. The blood pressure of left calves was measurable on postoperative day 3 (p<0.05, vs preoperative day 2) and then gradually increased to reach a plateau in postoperative week 6. Radioisotopic arterial perfusion showed similar profiles as in blood pressure. Angiography of ischemic hindlimbs demonstrated a few collateral vessels arising from the internal iliac artery with the reconstitution of the posterior tibial artery in postoperative week 2. In postoperative week 6, collaterals remained the same in number. However, these became dilated and tortuous and showed reconstitution in distal hindleg. In conclusion, this is a reproducible, measurable, and economical animal model of hind limb ischemia. PMID:11641535

  3. Morphology and motion: hindlimb proportions and swing phase kinematics in terrestrially locomoting charadriiform birds.

    PubMed

    Kilbourne, Brandon M; Andrada, Emanuel; Fischer, Martin S; Nyakatura, John A

    2016-05-01

    Differing limb proportions in terms of length and mass, as well as differences in mass being concentrated proximally or distally, influence the limb's moment of inertia (MOI), which represents its resistance to being swung. Limb morphology - including limb segment proportions - thus probably has direct relevance for the metabolic cost of swinging the limb during locomotion. However, it remains largely unexplored how differences in limb proportions influence limb kinematics during swing phase. To test whether differences in limb proportions are associated with differences in swing phase kinematics, we collected hindlimb kinematic data from three species of charadriiform birds differing widely in their hindlimb proportions: lapwings, oystercatchers and avocets. Using these three species, we tested for differences in maximum joint flexion, maximum joint extension and range of motion (RoM), in addition to differences in maximum segment angular velocity and excursion. We found that the taxa with greater limb MOI - oystercatchers and avocets - flex their limbs more than lapwings. However, we found no consistent differences in joint extension and RoM among species. Likewise, we found no consistent differences in limb segment angular velocity and excursion, indicating that differences in limb inertia in these three avian species do not necessarily underlie the rate or extent of limb segment movements. The observed increased limb flexion among these taxa with distally heavy limbs resulted in reduced MOI of the limb when compared with a neutral pose. A trade-off between exerting force to actively flex the limb and potential savings by a reduction of MOI is skewed towards reducing the limb's MOI as a result of MOI being in part a function of the radius of gyration squared. Increased limb flexion is a likely means to lower the cost of swinging the limbs. PMID:26944500

  4. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Misexpression experiment of Tbx5 in axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) hindlimb blastema.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Takashi; Kominami, Rieko; Yasutaka, Satoru; Shinohara, Harumichi

    2013-01-01

    Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) have the ability to regenerate amputated limbs throughout their life span. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate how axolotls can specify limb type correctly during the regeneration process. We misexpressed Tbx5 in regenerating hindlimb blastema, and consequently a forelimb-like hindlimb regenerated from the hindlimb blastema. On the other hand, no change was observed in Tbx5-overexpressing forelimb blastema, and thus we considered that Tbx5 plays a key role in the specification of forelimb during the regeneration process of axolotl limbs. However, axolotls' fore- and hindlimbs have very similar structures except for the number of fingers, and it was very difficult to judge whether the forelimb-like regenerate was a true forelimb or merely a forelimb-like hindlimb. Therefore, in order to confirm our conclusion, we have to investigate other genes that are expressed differentially between fore- and hindlimbs in future experiments.

  6. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  7. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  8. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  9. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  10. Effects of hindlimb unloading on neuromuscular development of neonatal rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huckstorf, B. L.; Slocum, G. R.; Bain, J. L.; Reiser, P. M.; Sedlak, F. R.; Wong-Riley, M. T.; Riley, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    We hypothesized that hindlimb suspension unloading of 8-day-old neonatal rats would disrupt the normal development of muscle fiber types and the motor innervation of the antigravity (weightbearing) soleus muscles but not extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Five rats were suspended 4.5 h and returned 1.5 h to the dam for nursing on a 24 h cycle for 9 days. To control for isolation from the dam, the remaining five littermates were removed on the same schedule but not suspended. Another litter of 10 rats housed in the same room provided a vivarium control. Fibers were typed by myofibrillar ATPase histochemistry and immunostaining for embryonic, slow, fast IIA and fast IIB isomyosins. The percentage of multiple innervation and the complexity of singly-innervated motor terminal endings were assessed in silver/cholinesterase stained sections. Unique to the soleus, unloading accelerated production of fast IIA myosin, delayed expression of slow myosin and retarded increases in standardized muscle weight and fiber size. Loss of multiple innervation was not delayed. However, fewer than normal motor nerve endings achieved complexity. Suspended rats continued unloaded hindlimb movements. These findings suggest that motor neurons resolve multiple innervation through nerve impulse activity, whereas the postsynaptic element (muscle fiber) controls endplate size, which regulates motor terminal arborization. Unexpectedly, in the EDL of unloaded rats, transition from embryonic to fast myosin expression was retarded. Suspension-related foot drop, which stretches and chronically loads EDL, may have prevented fast fiber differentiation. These results demonstrate that neuromuscular development of both weightbearing and non-weightbearing muscles in rats is dependent upon and modulated by hindlimb loading.

  11. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  12. (-)-Epicatechin Attenuates Degradation of Mouse Oxidative Muscle Following Hindlimb Suspension.

    PubMed

    Lee, Icksoo; Hüttemann, Maik; Malek, Moh H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a 14-day hindlimb suspension (HS) with and without (-)-epicatechin supplementation to determine whether (-)-epicatechin treatment can attenuate the loss in muscle degradation, angiogenesis, and mitochondrial signaling in oxidative skeletal muscle. Adult mice were randomized into 3 groups: (a) control (C); (b) HS with vehicle (HS-V); and (c) HS with (-)-epicatechin (HS-(-)-Epi). Animals in the HS-(-)-Epi group received (-)-epicatechin (1.0 mg · kg(-1) of body mass) twice daily through oral gavage. For markers related to muscle degradation, the HS-V group had significantly higher protein expression compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. Moreover, protein expression for myosin heavy chain type I was significantly reduced by approximately 45% in the HS-V group compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. In addition, capillarity contact and capillary-to-fiber ratio were significantly higher in the HS-(-)-Epi group compared with the HS-V group. Furthermore, protein expression for thrombospondin-1 was significantly higher in HS-V group compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. Hindlimb suspension also significantly reduced protein expression for mitochondrial signaling compared with the control and HS-(-)-Epi groups. These findings suggest that (-)-epicatechin supplementation attenuates degradation in oxidative muscles after HS.

  13. Adaptation of the hindlimbs for climbing in bears.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Motoki; Endo, Hideki; Wiig, Oystein; Derocher, Andrew E; Tsubota, Toshio; Taru, Hajime; Yamamoto, Masako; Arishima, Kazuyoshi; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Kitamura, Nobuo; Yamada, Junzo

    2005-04-01

    The hindlimbs of the Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), the brown bear (Ursus arctos) and the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) have been anatomically and osteometrically studied. The Musculus tibialis cranialis of the Malayan sun bear and the giant panda possessed a well-developed rich fleshy portion until the distal end of the tibia. In the polar bear and the brown bear, however, the fleshy portion of the M. tibialis cranialis was not developed until the distal end of the tibia. The tendon of the M. tibialis cranialis inserting on the proximal end of the Ossa metatarsalia was shorter in the Malayan sun bear and the giant panda than in the polar bear and the brown bear. In the Malayan sun bear and the giant panda, moreover, the M. popliteus was attached more distally to the tibia than in the polar bear and the brown bear. The stable dorsiflexion and supination of the foot and the efficient pronation of the crus are important for skillful tree climbing. The present study suggests that the Malayan sun bear and the giant panda have hindlimbs especially adapted to tree climbing by the well-developed fleshy portion of the M. tibialis cranialis reaching the distal end of the tibia, its short tendon, and the M. popliteus inserting near the distal end of the tibia. PMID:15900701

  14. Methods for Acute and Subacute Murine Hindlimb Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Michael E; McCord, Timothy J; McClung, Joseph M; Kontos, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developed countries, and animal models that reliably reproduce the human disease are necessary to develop new therapies for this disease. The mouse hindlimb ischemia model has been widely used for this purpose, but the standard practice of inducing acute limb ischemia by ligation of the femoral artery can result in substantial tissue necrosis, compromising investigators' ability to study the vascular and skeletal muscle tissue responses to ischemia. An alternative approach to femoral artery ligation is the induction of gradual femoral artery occlusion through the use of ameroid constrictors. When placed around the femoral artery in the same or different locations as the sites of femoral artery ligation, these devices occlude the artery over 1 - 3 days, resulting in more gradual, subacute ischemia. This results in less substantial skeletal muscle tissue necrosis, which may more closely mimic the responses seen in human PAD. Because genetic background influences outcomes in both the acute and subacute ischemia models, consideration of the mouse strain being studied is important in choosing the best model. This paper describes the proper procedure and anatomical placement of ligatures or ameroid constrictors on the mouse femoral artery to induce subacute or acute hindlimb ischemia in the mouse. PMID:27403963

  15. The hindlimb myology of Milvago chimango (Polyborinae, Falconidae).

    PubMed

    Mosto, María Clelia; Carril, Julieta; Picasso, Mariana Beatriz Julieta

    2013-10-01

    We describe the hindlimb myology of Milvago chimango. This member of the Falconidae: Polyborinae is a generalist and opportunist that can jump and run down prey on the ground, unlike Falconinae that hunt birds in flight and kill them by striking with its talons. Due to differences in the locomotion habits between the subfamilies, we hypothesized differences in their hindlimb myology. Gross dissections showed that the myology of M. chimango is concordant with that described of other falconids, except for the following differences: the m. flexor cruris medialis has one belly with a longitudinal division; the m. iliotibialis lateralis does not have a connection with the m. iliofibularis; the m. fibularis longus is strongly aponeurotic; the m. tibialis cranialis lacks an accessory tendons and the m. flexor hallucis longus has one place of origin, instead of two. The presence of the m. flexor cruris lateralis can be distinguished as it has been described absent for the Falconidae. We associated its presence with the predominant terrestrial habit of the M. chimango. Each muscle dissected was weighed and the relationship between flexors and extensors at each joint was assessed. The extensor muscles predominated in all joints in M. chimango. Among the flexors, the m. flexor hallucis longus was the heaviest, which could be related to the importance of the use of its talons to obtain food.

  16. Methods for Acute and Subacute Murine Hindlimb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Michael E.; McCord, Timothy J.; McClung, Joseph M.; Kontos, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developed countries, and animal models that reliably reproduce the human disease are necessary to develop new therapies for this disease. The mouse hindlimb ischemia model has been widely used for this purpose, but the standard practice of inducing acute limb ischemia by ligation of the femoral artery can result in substantial tissue necrosis, compromising investigators' ability to study the vascular and skeletal muscle tissue responses to ischemia. An alternative approach to femoral artery ligation is the induction of gradual femoral artery occlusion through the use of ameroid constrictors. When placed around the femoral artery in the same or different locations as the sites of femoral artery ligation, these devices occlude the artery over 1-3 days, resulting in more gradual, subacute ischemia. This results in less substantial skeletal muscle tissue necrosis, which may more closely mimic the responses seen in human PAD. Because genetic background influences outcomes in both the acute and subacute ischemia models, consideration of the mouse strain being studied is important in choosing the best model. This paper describes the proper procedure and anatomical placement of ligatures or ameroid constrictors on the mouse femoral artery to induce subacute or acute hindlimb ischemia in the mouse. PMID:27403963

  17. Rat hindlimb muscle responses to suspension hypokinesia/hypodynamia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.; Deavers, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Hypokinetic/hyupodynamic (H/H) whole body suspension of rats eliminates hindlimb load bearing functions while permitting continued use of the forelimbs. Responses of hindlimb muscles were assessed in terms of absolute and relative weights during 1 and 2 weeks of H/H suspension. Muscle mass loss was in the order soleus greater than gastrocnemius equal to plantaris greater than extensor digitorum longus (EDL). The soleus, a postural antigravity muscle composed mainly of slow twitch fibers, was most sensitive, losing 35 and 45 percent of its weight during the first and second weeks, respectively. The gastrocnemius and plantaris showed losses during the first week but no significant loss during the second wee. The EDL showed little or no weight loss. During post suspension recovery all muscles showed a weight gain. H/H suspended rats failed to grow; following removal from suspension they gained weight linearly, comparable to controls. Products of muscle metabolism including urea, ammonia, and 3-methylhistidine increased in the urine during H/H suspension and were significantly reduced approaching control levels during recovery. This suspension model offers considerable promise for comparison with H/H responses during weightlessness.

  18. The combined effects of X-ray radiation and hindlimb suspension on bone loss.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan; Zhao, Xin; Li, Yi; Ji, Yinli; Zhang, Jiangyan; Wang, Jufang; Xie, Xiaodong; Zhou, Guangming

    2014-07-01

    Outer space is a complex environment with various phenomena that negatively affect bone metabolism, including microgravity and highly energized ionizing radiation. In the present study, we used four groups of male Wistar rats treated with or without four-week hindlimb suspension after 4 Gy of X-rays to test whether there is a combined effect for hindlimb suspension and X-ray radiation. We tested trabecular parameters and some cytokines of the bone as leading indicators of bone metabolism. The results showed that hindlimb suspension and X-ray radiation could cause a significant increase in bone loss. Hindlimb suspension caused a 56.6% bone loss (P = 0.036), while X-ray radiation caused a 30.7% (P = 0.041) bone loss when compared with the control group. The combined factors of hindlimb suspension and X-rays exerted a combined effect on bone mass, with a reduction of 64.8% (P = 0.003).

  19. Effect of hindlimb unloading on motor activity in adult rats: impact of prenatal stress.

    PubMed

    Canu, M H; Darnaudéry, M; Falempin, M; Maccari, S; Viltart, O

    2007-02-01

    Environmental changes that occur in daily life or, in particular, in situations like actual or simulated microgravity require neuronal adaptation of sensory and motor functions. Such conditions can exert long-lasting disturbances on an individual's adaptive ability. Additionally, prenatal stress also leads to behavioral and physiological abnormalities in adulthood. Therefore, the aims of the present study were (a) to evaluate in adult rats the behavioral motor adaptation that follows 14 days of exposure to simulated microgravity (hindlimb unloading) and (b) to determine whether restraint prenatal stress influences this motor adaptation. For this purpose, the authors assessed rats' motor reactivity to novelty, their skilled walking on a ladder, and their swimming performance. Results showed that unloading severely impaired motor activity and skilled walking. By contrast, it had no effect on swimming performance. Moreover, results demonstrated for the first time that restraint prenatal stress exacerbates the effects of unloading. These results are consistent with the role of a steady prenatal environment in allowing an adequate development and maturation of sensorimotor systems to generate adapted responses to environmental challenges during adulthood. PMID:17324062

  20. Review of spaceflight and hindlimb suspension unloading induced sarcomere damage and repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Thompson, J. L.; Krippendorf, B. B.; Slocum, G. R.

    1995-01-01

    Hindlimb suspension unloading (HSU) and spaceflight microgravity induce atrophy of the slow adductor longus muscle fibers which, following reloading, exhibit eccentric contraction (EC)-like lesions (abnormal widening of sarcomeres with A band disruption and excessively wavy, extracted Z lines). These lesions are similar morphologically to those produced in normal muscles after strenuous eccentric exercise. It appears that atrophic muscles exhibit increased susceptibility to eccentric damage because lesions are produced during nonstressful voluntary movements upon return to weightbearing. The EC-like lesions are absent in the unweighted conditions, but appear in HSU rats 15-60 minutes after reloading and in space-flown rates about 4 hrs after landing. By 12 hours, many EC-like lesioned sarcomeres are fully covered by longitudinal patches of Z line-like material which increases in density by 48 hours, producing the so-called "Z line streaming" morphology. In this case, Z line streaming is indicative of rapid repair of damaged sarcomeres rather than the onset of sarcomere breakdown. Immunoelectron microscopy is necessary to determine the composition of this dense material. By 9 days of reloading at 1 gravity, sarcomeres have regained normal structure, except for very rare persistence of faint Z patches. The morphological data indicate that Z patches serve at least two functions: 1) to permit contractile force to be transmitted across the damaged sarcomeres and 2) to provide a scaffold upon which sarcomeres are reconstructed in an active functional muscle.

  1. Endothelin-1 induces endothelial barrier failure in the cat hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Porter, L P; McNamee, J E; Wolf, M B

    1999-02-01

    Our purpose was to see whether endothelin- (ET) 1 could produce a change in the endothelial membrane barrier to protein in skeletal muscle. Previous studies in other tissues have suggested that ET-1 affects this barrier, but the measurement methods used could not exclude vascular protein extravasation due to microvascular pressure changes or the effects of changes in perfused capillary surface area. We measured the protein sieving coefficient, a specific measure of the permeability of the membrane to protein, in the isolated, perfused cat hindlimb preparation. The integral-mass balance method determined this coefficient from the changes in hematocrit and plasma protein concentration induced by a period of transvascular fluid filtration. The data clearly indicate that ET-1 produces a dose (1-20 nM) dependent increase in permeability indicative of barrier dysfunction. Hence, elevated ET levels may contribute to the perivascular edema, hemoconcentration, and impaired tissue perfusion found in systemic inflammatory response syndromes and related diseases. PMID:10030797

  2. Directional constraint of endpoint force emerges from hindlimb anatomy.

    PubMed

    Bunderson, Nathan E; McKay, J Lucas; Ting, Lena H; Burkholder, Thomas J

    2010-06-15

    Postural control requires the coordination of force production at the limb endpoints to apply an appropriate force to the body. Subjected to horizontal plane perturbations, quadruped limbs stereotypically produce force constrained along a line that passes near the center of mass. This phenomenon, referred to as the force constraint strategy, may reflect mechanical constraints on the limb or body, a specific neural control strategy or an interaction among neural controls and mechanical constraints. We used a neuromuscular model of the cat hindlimb to test the hypothesis that the anatomical constraints restrict the mechanical action of individual muscles during stance and constrain the response to perturbations to a line independent of perturbation direction. In a linearized neuromuscular model of the cat hindlimb, muscle lengthening directions were highly conserved across 10,000 different muscle activation patterns, each of which produced an identical, stance-like endpoint force. These lengthening directions were closely aligned with the sagittal plane and reveal an anatomical structure for directionally constrained force responses. Each of the 10,000 activation patterns was predicted to produce stable stance based on Lyapunov stability analysis. In forward simulations of the nonlinear, seven degree of freedom model under the action of 200 random muscle activation patterns, displacement of the endpoint from its equilibrium position produced restoring forces, which were also biased toward the sagittal plane. The single exception was an activation pattern based on minimum muscle stress optimization, which produced destabilizing force responses in some perturbation directions. The sagittal force constraint increased during simulations as the system shifted from an inertial response during the acceleration phase to a viscoelastic response as peak velocity was obtained. These results qualitatively match similar experimental observations and suggest that the force

  3. Quantitative changes of GABA-immunoreactive cells in the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14-day hindlimb unloading by tail suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Wu, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating quantitatively gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivity in the hindlimb representation of the rat somatosensory cortex after 14 days of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension. A reduction in the number of GABA-immunoreactive cells with respect to the control animals was observed in layer Va and Vb. GABA-containing terminals were also reduced in the same layers, particularly those terminals surrounding the soma and apical dendrites of pyramidal cells in layer Vb. On the basis of previous morphological and behavioral studies of the neuromuscular system of hindlimb-suspended animals, it is suggested that the unloading due to hindlimb suspension alters afferent signaling and feedback information from intramuscular receptors to the cerebral cortex due to modifications in the reflex organization of hindlimb muscle groups. We propose that the reduction in immunoreactivity of local circuit GABAergic neurons and terminals is an expression of changes in their modulatory activity to compensate for the alterations in the afferent information.

  4. The Hindlimb Unloading Rat Model: Literature Overview, Comparison with Spaceflight Data, and Technique Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily; Globus, Ruth K.; Kaplansky, Alexander; Durnova, Galina

    2004-01-01

    The hindlimb unloading (HU) rodent model is used extensively to study the response of many physiological systems to certain aspects of spaceflight, as well as to disuse and recovery from disuse for Earth benefits. This chapter describes the evolution of HU, and is divided into three sections. The first section examines the characteristics of 1063 articles using or reviewing the HU model, published between 1976 and April 1, 2004. The characteristics include number of publications, journals, countries, major physiological systems, method modifications, species, gender, genetic strains and ages of rodents, experiment duration, and countermeasures. The second section provides a comparison of results between space flown and Hu animals from the 14-day Cosmos 2044 mission. The final section describes modifications to HU required by different experimental paradigms and a method to protect the tail harness for long duration studies. HU in rodents has enabled improved understanding of the responses of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, immune, renal, neural, metabolic, and reproductive systems to unloading and/or to reloading on Earth with implications for both long-duration human spaceflight and disuse on Earth.

  5. Unexpected motor patterns for hindlimb muscles during slope walking in the cat.

    PubMed

    Smith, J L; Carlson-Kuhta, P

    1995-11-01

    1. Hindlimb kinematics and motor patterns were assessed from high-speed ciné film synchronized with electromyographic (EMG) data from cats trained to walk on a walkway placed at four grades (25, 50, 75, and 100%). 2. Flexor muscles of the hip (iliopsoas) and ankle (tibialis anterior) had similar activity patterns for the swing phase of up- and down-slope walking; both flexor muscles also had stance-related activity during down-slope walking and this was unexpected. Extensor muscles of the hip (anterior biceps femoris and anterior semimembranosus), knee [vastus lateralis (VL)], and ankle [lateral gastrocnemius (LG)] were active during the stance phase of up-slope walking. The VL and LG activity was reduced in duration during stance of down-slope walking and centered around paw contact. Hip extensors, however, were totally inactive during stance of down-slope walking, and this was not expected. 3. Flexor muscles at the hip and ankle (not extensor muscles) dominated the stance phase of down-slope walking, especially at the steeper slopes. This switch in motor patterns may be required to counterbalance external forces that produced extension at the hip and ankle joints during the stance phase of down-slope walking. Neural mechanisms for programming stance-related activity of flexor muscles are discussed.

  6. High-energy proton irradiation of C57Bl6 mice under hindlimb unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonca, Marc; Todd, Paul; Orschell, Christie; Chin-Sinex, Helen; Farr, Jonathan; Klein, Susan; Sokol, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Solar proton events (SPEs) pose substantial risk for crewmembers on deep space missions. It has been shown that low gravity and ionizing radiation both produce transient anemia and immunodeficiencies. We utilized the C57Bl/6 based hindlimb suspension model to investigate the consequences of hindlimb-unloading induced immune suppression on the sensitivity to whole body irradiation with modulated 208 MeV protons. Eight-week old C57Bl/6 female mice were conditioned by hindlimb-unloading. Serial CBC and hematocrit assays by HEMAVET were accumulated for the hindlimb-unloaded mice and parallel control animals subjected to identical conditions without unloading. One week of hindlimb-unloading resulted in a persistent, statistically significant 10% reduction in RBC count and a persistent, statistically significant 35% drop in lymphocyte count. This inhibition is consistent with published observations of low Earth orbit flown mice and with crewmember blood analyses. In our experiments the cell count suppression was sustained for the entire six-week period of observation and persisted for at least 7 days beyond the period of active hindlimb-unloading. C57Bl/6 mice were also irradiated with 208 MeV Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP) protons at the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility. We found that at 8.5 Gy hindlimb-unloaded mice were significantly more radiation sensitive with 35 lethalities out of 51 mice versus 15 out of 45 control (non-suspended) mice within 30 days of receiving 8.5 Gy of SOBP protons (p =0.001). Both control and hindlimb-unloaded stocktickerCBC analyses of 8.5 Gy proton irradiated and control mice by HEMAVET demonstrated severe reductions in WBC counts (Lymphocytes and PMNs) by day 2 post-irradiation, followed a week to ten days later by reductions in platelets, and then reductions in RBCs about 2 weeks post-irradiation. Recovery of all blood components commenced by three weeks post-irradiation. CBC analyses of 8

  7. Periodic weight support effects on rat soleus fibers after hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauschka, Edward O.; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    1988-01-01

    The morphological and histochemical properties of rat soleus muscles were investigated following one week of hindlimb suspension. Short-duration daily weight support activity is shown to ameliorate, but not prevent, soleus atrophy induced by hindlimb suspension. The results indicate that fiber cross-sectional area is more responsive to periodic weight support in dark than light ATPas fibers, and that muscle fiber atrophy need not be associated with a loss in succinate dehydrogenase activity.

  8. Denervation in Femoral Artery-Ligated Hindlimbs Diminishes Ischemic Recovery Primarily via Impaired Arteriogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yuansen; Liu, Ruiming; Wang, Huijin; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Shenming; Hu, Zuojun

    2016-01-01

    Aims Multiple factors regulate arteriogenesis. Peripheral nerves play a crucial role in vascular remodeling, but the function of peripheral nerves during arteriogenesis is obscure. Our study investigated the contribution of denervation to arteriogenesis during post-ischemic recovery from hindlimb femoral artery ligation. Methods and Results Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into four groups of normal control (NC), hindlimb ischemia (HI), hindlimb ischemia with denervation (HID) and hindlimb simple denervation (HD). Hindlimb ischemic recovery was assessed by clinical assessment and tibialis anterior muscle remodeling on day 28 post-surgery. Blood flow was determined by laser Doppler imaging on day 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 post-surgery. Collateral number of hindlimb was observed by angiography and gracilis muscles were tested by immunostaining on day 7 and 28 post-surgery. Angiogenesis was accessed by counting CD31 positive capillaries in tibialis anterior muscles on day 28 post-surgery. Group HID showed impaired ischemic recovery compared with the other 3 groups and impaired blood flow recovery compared with group HI on day 28 post-surgery. The collateral number and capillary density of group HID were lower than group HI. The collateral diameter of both group HID and group HI significantly increased compared with group NC. However, the lumen diameter was much narrower and the vessel wall was much thicker in group HID than group HI. We also demonstrated that the thickened neointima of collaterals in group HID comprised of smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. Conclusions Denervation of the ligated femoral artery in the hindlimb impairs ischemic recovery via impaired perfusion. The possible mechanisms of impaired perfusion are lower collateral number, lower capillary density and most likely narrower lumen, which damage ischemic recovery. This study illustrates the crucial role of peripheral nerves in arteriogenesis using a model combined ischemia with

  9. Muscle regeneration during hindlimb unloading results in a reduction in muscle size after reloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Pulvermacher, P. M.; Schultz, E.

    2001-01-01

    The hindlimb-unloading model was used to study the ability of muscle injured in a weightless environment to recover after reloading. Satellite cell mitotic activity and DNA unit size were determined in injured and intact soleus muscles from hindlimb-unloaded and age-matched weight-bearing rats at the conclusion of 28 days of hindlimb unloading, 2 wk after reloading, and 9 wk after reloading. The body weights of hindlimb-unloaded rats were significantly (P < 0.05) less than those of weight-bearing rats at the conclusion of hindlimb unloading, but they were the same (P > 0.05) as those of weight-bearing rats 2 and 9 wk after reloading. The soleus muscle weight, soleus muscle weight-to-body weight ratio, myofiber diameter, number of nuclei per millimeter, and DNA unit size were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller for the injured soleus muscles from hindlimb-unloaded rats than for the soleus muscles from weight-bearing rats at each recovery time. Satellite cell mitotic activity was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the injured soleus muscles from hindlimb-unloaded rats than from weight-bearing rats 2 wk after reloading, but it was the same (P > 0.05) as in the injured soleus muscles from weight-bearing rats 9 wk after reloading. The injured soleus muscles from hindlimb-unloaded rats failed to achieve weight-bearing muscle size 9 wk after reloading, because incomplete compensation for the decrease in myonuclear accretion and DNA unit size expansion occurred during the unloading period.

  10. Local GABA receptor blockade reveals hindlimb responses in the SI forelimb-stump representation of neonatally amputated rats.

    PubMed

    Pluto, Charles P; Lane, Richard D; Rhoades, Robert W

    2004-07-01

    In adult rats that sustained forelimb amputation on the day of birth, there are numerous multi-unit recording sites in the forelimb-stump representation of primary somatosensory cortex (SI) that also respond to cutaneous stimulation of the hindlimb when cortical receptors for GABA are blocked. These normally suppressed hindlimb inputs originate in the SI hindlimb representation and synapse in the dysgranular cortex before exciting SI forelimb-stump neurons. In our previous studies, GABA (A + B) receptor blockade was achieved by topically applying a bicuculline methiodide/saclofen solution (BMI/SAC) to the cortical surface. This treatment blocks receptors throughout SI and does not allow determination of where along the above circuit the GABA-mediated suppression of hindlimb information occurs. In this study, focal injections of BMI/SAC were delivered to three distinct cortical regions that are involved in the hindlimb-to-forelimb-stump pathway. Blocking GABA receptors in the SI hindlimb representation and in the dysgranular cortex was largely ineffective in revealing hindlimb inputs ( approximately 10% of hindlimb inputs were revealed in both cases). In contrast, when the blockade was targeted at forelimb-stump recording sites, >80% of hindlimb inputs were revealed. Thus GABAergic interneurons within the forelimb-stump representation suppress the expression of reorganized hindlimb inputs to the region. A circuit model incorporating these and previous observations is presented and discussed.

  11. The evolutionary history of the development of the pelvic fin/hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Don, Emily K; Currie, Peter D; Cole, Nicholas J

    2013-01-01

    The arms and legs of man are evolutionarily derived from the paired fins of primitive jawed fish. Few evolutionary changes have attracted as much attention as the origin of tetrapod limbs from the paired fins of ancestral fish. The hindlimbs of tetrapods are derived from the pelvic fins of ancestral fish. These evolutionary origins can be seen in the examination of shared gene and protein expression patterns during the development of pelvic fins and tetrapod hindlimbs. The pelvic fins of fish express key limb positioning, limb bud induction and limb outgrowth genes in a similar manner to that seen in hindlimb development of higher vertebrates. We are now at a point where many of the key players in the development of pelvic fins and vertebrate hindlimbs have been identified and we can now readily examine and compare mechanisms between species. This is yielding fascinating insights into how the developmental programme has altered during evolution and how that relates to anatomical change. The role of pelvic fins has also drastically changed over evolutionary history, from playing a minor role during swimming to developing into robust weight-bearing limbs. In addition, the pelvic fins/hindlimbs have been lost repeatedly in diverse species over evolutionary time. Here we review the evolution of pelvic fins and hindlimbs within the context of the changes in anatomical structure and the molecular mechanisms involved. PMID:22913749

  12. Increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection under hindlimb-unloading conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aviles, Hernan; Belay, Tesfaye; Fountain, Kimberly; Vance, Monique; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported that spaceflight conditions alter the immune system and resistance to infection [Belay T, Aviles H, Vance M, Fountain K, and Sonnenfeld G. J Allergy Clin Immunol 170: 262-268, 2002; Hankins WR and Ziegelschmid JF. In: Biomedical Results of Apollo. Washington, DC: NASA, 1975, p. 43-81. (NASA Spec. Rep. SP-368)]. Ground-based models, including the hindlimb-unloading model, have become important tools for increasing understanding of how spaceflight conditions can influence physiology. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of hindlimb unloading on the susceptibility of mice to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Hindlimb-unloaded and control mice were subcutaneously infected with 1 LD50 of P. aeruginosa. Survival, bacterial organ load, and antibody and corticosterone levels were compared among the groups. Hindlimb unloading had detrimental effects for infected mice. Animals in the hindlimb-unloaded group, compared with controls, 1). showed significantly increased mortality and reduced time to death, 2). had increased levels of corticosterone, and 3). were much less able to clear bacteria from the organs. These results suggest that hindlimb unloading may induce the production of corticosterone, which may play a critical role in the modulation of the immune system leading to increased susceptibility to P. aeruginosa infection.

  13. Increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection under hindlimb-unloading conditions.

    PubMed

    Aviles, Hernan; Belay, Tesfaye; Fountain, Kimberly; Vance, Monique; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2003-07-01

    It has been reported that spaceflight conditions alter the immune system and resistance to infection [Belay T, Aviles H, Vance M, Fountain K, and Sonnenfeld G. J Allergy Clin Immunol 170: 262-268, 2002; Hankins WR and Ziegelschmid JF. In: Biomedical Results of Apollo. Washington, DC: NASA, 1975, p. 43-81. (NASA Spec. Rep. SP-368)]. Ground-based models, including the hindlimb-unloading model, have become important tools for increasing understanding of how spaceflight conditions can influence physiology. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of hindlimb unloading on the susceptibility of mice to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Hindlimb-unloaded and control mice were subcutaneously infected with 1 LD50 of P. aeruginosa. Survival, bacterial organ load, and antibody and corticosterone levels were compared among the groups. Hindlimb unloading had detrimental effects for infected mice. Animals in the hindlimb-unloaded group, compared with controls, 1). showed significantly increased mortality and reduced time to death, 2). had increased levels of corticosterone, and 3). were much less able to clear bacteria from the organs. These results suggest that hindlimb unloading may induce the production of corticosterone, which may play a critical role in the modulation of the immune system leading to increased susceptibility to P. aeruginosa infection. PMID:12626488

  14. Different forms of impairment of the fore-hindlimb coordination after partial spinal lesions in cats.

    PubMed

    Górska, T; Bem, T; Majczyński, H; Zmysłowski, W

    1996-01-01

    Effects of large low thoracic (T10-T11) partial spinal lesions involving either the ventral quadrants of the spinal cord and, to a different extent the dorsolateral funiculi, or different extent of the lateral funiculi and/or the dorsal columns, on the fore-hindlimb coordination were examined in cats walking overground at moderate speeds. In both groups of operated cats, except those in which the lesion was essentially confined to dorsal columns, three different forms of impairment of fore-hindlimb coordination were observed, depending on the extent of lesion: (1) a change of locomotion towards pacing with preservation of the equality rhythms in the fore- and the hindlimbs; (2) episodes of fore- and hindlimb rhythm dissociation and (3) a permanent dissociation of the fore- and hindlimb rhythms. A comparison of the results obtained in these two groups of operated cats points to the more important role played by the lateral funiculi, than by other parts of the spinal white matter, in controlling the fore-hindlimb coordination in cats.

  15. Deoxypyridinoline in the Urine of Rats with Unloaded Hindlimbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Navidi, M.; Wren, J.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline (U-Dpd), a nonreducible collagen crosslink in bone released by osteoclastic activity, is thought to be an accurate marker of bone resorption. The role of increased resorption in the osteopenia of a space flight model which unloads the hindlimbs by suspending the tail is controversial. To assess skeletal resorption in the model we measured U-Dpd (Pyrilinks-D, Metro Biosystems, Inc.) in serial 24 hour urine specimens collected from 250 a (Y) and 450 a (M) male rats with unloaded hindlimbs for four weeks. Both groups of rats were fed AIN76 diets with calcium restricted to 0.2% in Y and to 0.1 % in M. Blood was obtained after 28 days for parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-D) and alkaline phosphatase (Alkptase). Basal U-Dpd was higher and more variable in Y than M (475+/-200 vs 67+/-9, nM/mM creatinine, p<.001). Repeated measures ANOVA in Y revealed decreases in U-Dpd, 36% in control (C) and 24% in unloaded (S) rats (p<.005). There was a nadir in YS on the 14th day not observed in YC (p<.05). U-Dpd in MC showed no change, but increased in MS by the 14th day and remained elevated. At the end of the experiment, body weights in both Y and M were less in S than C (337+/-16 vs 306+/-12g and 485+/-10 vs 461+/-6g, p=.002). Bill was inversely related to U-Dpd only in M (r=0.699, p=.024). PTH, similar in C and S in Y (52+/-15 vs 42+/-7pg/ml, NS) and M (68+/-13 vs 61+/-12, NS), was unrelated to U-Dpd. 1,25-D tended toward higher values in YC than YS (197+/-103 vs 119+/-30, NS) and correlated with U-Dpd (0.773, p=.015). Alkptase, 1.3 times higher in Y than M, was similar in C and S at the end of unloading. These findings indicate that bone resorption, as reflected by U-Dpd, is suppressed in young and stimulated in mature rats exposed to a space flight model. U-Dpd reflects reduced growth from the diet change in young control and experimental rats and loss of Bill in mature animals exposed to the space flight model, 2

  16. Calcium balance in mature male rats with unloaded hindlimbs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navidi, Meena; Evans, Juliann; Wolinsky, Ira; Arnaud, Sara B.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium balances, regulated by the calcium endocrine system, are negative during spaceflight but have not been reported in flight simulation models using fully mature small animals. METHODS: We conducted two calcium (Ca) balance studies in 6-mo-old male rats exposed to a model that unloads the hindlimbs (HU) for 4 wk. Control (C) and HU rats were fed diets with 0.5% Ca in the first and 0.1% Ca in the second study. Housing in metabolic cages enabled daily food and water intake measurements as well as collections of urine and fecal specimens. At necropsy, blood was obtained for measures of Ca-regulating hormones. RESULTS: Both C and HU rats adjusted to housing and diets with decreases in body weight and negative Ca balances during the first week of each experiment. Thereafter, averages of Ca balances were more negative in the unloaded rats than controls: -8.1 vs. -1.6 mg x d(-1) in rats fed 0.5% (p < 0.05). This difference was not due to urinary Ca excretion since it was lower in HU than C rats (1.27 +/- 0.51 mg x d(-1) vs. 2.35 +/- 0.82 mg x d(-1), p < 0.05). Fecal Ca in HU rats exceeded dietary Ca by 4-7%, Restricting dietary Ca to 0.1% was followed by an increase in serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-D) and greater intestinal Ca absorption than in rats fed 0.5% Ca. Ca balances in rats fed 0.1% Ca were also more negative in HU than C rats (-2.4 vs. -0.03 mg x d(-1), p < 0.05). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) was suppressed and 1,25-D increased in HU rats fed 0.5% Ca. C rats fed 0.1% Ca had increased PTH and 1,25-D was the same as in the HU group. CONCLUSION: After adaptation, Ca balances were more negative in mature male rats with unloaded hindlimbs than controls, an effect from increased secretion and loss of endogenous fecal Ca associated with increased 1,25-D in Ca-replete and Ca-restricted rats.

  17. Temporal extracellular matrix adaptations in ligament during wound healing and hindlimb unloading.

    PubMed

    Martinez, D A; Vailas, A C; Vanderby, R; Grindeland, R E

    2007-10-01

    Previous data from spaceflight studies indicate that injured muscle and bone heal slowly and abnormally compared with ground controls, strongly suggesting that ligaments or tendons may not repair optimally as well. Thus the objective of this study was to investigate the biochemical and molecular gene expression of the collagen extracellular matrix in response to medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury repair in hindlimb unloaded (HLU) rodents. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing (Amb-healing), and HLU-healing groups. Amb- and HLU-healing animals underwent bilateral surgical transection of their MCLs, whereas control animals were subjected to sham surgeries. All surgeries were performed under isoflurane anesthesia. After 3 wk or 7 wk of HLU, rats were euthanized and MCLs were surgically isolated and prepared for molecular or biochemical analyses. Hydroxyproline concentration and hydroxylysylpyridinoline collagen cross-link contents were measured by HPLC and showed a substantial decrement in surgical groups. MCL tissue cellularity, quantified by DNA content, remained significantly elevated in all HLU-healing groups vs. Amb-healing groups. MCL gene expression of collagen type I, collagen type III, collagen type V, fibronectin, decorin, biglycan, lysyl oxidase, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1, measured by real-time quantitative PCR, demonstrated differential expression in the HLU-healing groups compared with Amb-healing groups at both the 3- and 7-wk time points. Together, these data suggest that HLU affects dense fibrous connective tissue wound healing and confirms previous morphological and biomechanical data that HLU inhibits the ligament repair processes.

  18. Hindlimb myology of the monk parakeet (Aves, Psittaciformes).

    PubMed

    Carril, Julieta; Mosto, María C; Picasso, Mariana B J; Tambussi, Claudia P

    2014-07-01

    We studied the hindlimb myology of the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus). Like all parrots, it has zygodactyl feet enabling perching, climbing, hanging, moving easily among trees, and handling food. Muscles were described and weighed, and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of four flexors and one extensor was calculated. In comparison to other muscles, the M. tibialis cranialis and the M. fibularis brevis show increased development and high PCSA values, and therefore, large potential force production. Also, a large proportion of muscle mass was involved in flexing the digits. We hypothesize that these muscle traits are associated with the arboreal locomotion and food manipulation habits. In the monk parakeet, the M. extensor digitorum longus sends a branch to the hallux, and the connection between the M. flexor digitorum longus and the M. flexor hallucis longus is type I (Gadow's classification). We reaffirm the presence of the M. ambiens as a plesiomorphic condition that disappears in most members of the order. Among Psittaciformes, the M. fibularis brevis is stronger and the M. fibularis weaker in arboreal species than in basal terrestrial ones (e.g., Strigops).

  19. A Cretaceous terrestrial snake with robust hindlimbs and a sacrum.

    PubMed

    Apesteguía, Sebastián; Zaher, Hussam

    2006-04-20

    It has commonly been thought that snakes underwent progressive loss of their limbs by gradual diminution of their use. However, recent developmental and palaeontological discoveries suggest a more complex scenario of limb reduction, still poorly documented in the fossil record. Here we report a fossil snake with a sacrum supporting a pelvic girdle and robust, functional legs outside the ribcage. The new fossil, from the Upper Cretaceous period of Patagonia, fills an important gap in the evolutionary progression towards limblessness because other known fossil snakes with developed hindlimbs, the marine Haasiophis, Pachyrhachis and Eupodophis, lack a sacral region. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the new fossil is the most primitive (basal) snake known and that all other limbed fossil snakes are closer to the more advanced macrostomatan snakes, a group including boas, pythons and colubroids. The new fossil retains several features associated with a subterranean or surface dwelling life that are also present in primitive extant snake lineages, supporting the hypothesis of a terrestrial rather than marine origin of snakes.

  20. The growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Helmi, C; Cracraft, J

    1977-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles of the chicken relative to the functional-biomechanical demands of increasing body size. The biceps femoris, a bipennate non-postural muscle, grew relatively faster in terms of wet and dry weight than did the parallel-fibred adductor superficialis or the unipennate adductor profundus, both postural muscles. All three muscles exhibited positive allometry (relative to body weight) in muscle length but only biceps femoris and adductor profundus showed positive allometry in cross sectional area adductor superficialis having isometric growth in this parameter. In biceps femoris and adductor superficialis the lengths of the longest and shortest fasciculi grew at equal rates, whereas in adductor profundus the shortest fasciculi grew faster than the longest. We conclude that muscle weight alone is an insufficient indicator of changing function in growing muscle. Hence, growth studies should include other functionally relevant parameters such as cross sectional area, which is proportional to the force-producing capabilities of the muscle, or fibre (fasciculus) length, which is indicative of the absolute amount of stretching or shortening that is possible and of the contraction velocity.

  1. The growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles in the chicken.

    PubMed Central

    Helmi, C; Cracraft, J

    1977-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the growth patterns of three hindlimb muscles of the chicken relative to the functional-biomechanical demands of increasing body size. The biceps femoris, a bipennate non-postural muscle, grew relatively faster in terms of wet and dry weight than did the parallel-fibred adductor superficialis or the unipennate adductor profundus, both postural muscles. All three muscles exhibited positive allometry (relative to body weight) in muscle length but only biceps femoris and adductor profundus showed positive allometry in cross sectional area adductor superficialis having isometric growth in this parameter. In biceps femoris and adductor superficialis the lengths of the longest and shortest fasciculi grew at equal rates, whereas in adductor profundus the shortest fasciculi grew faster than the longest. We conclude that muscle weight alone is an insufficient indicator of changing function in growing muscle. Hence, growth studies should include other functionally relevant parameters such as cross sectional area, which is proportional to the force-producing capabilities of the muscle, or fibre (fasciculus) length, which is indicative of the absolute amount of stretching or shortening that is possible and of the contraction velocity. PMID:885779

  2. Developmental segregation of spinal networks driving axial- and hindlimb-based locomotion in metamorphosing Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Combes, D; Merrywest, S D; Simmers, J; Sillar, K T

    2004-08-15

    Amphibian metamorphosis includes a complete reorganization of an organism's locomotory system from axial-based swimming in larvae to limbed propulsion in the young adult. At critical stages during this behavioural switch, larval and adult motor systems operate in the same animal, commensurate with a gradual and dynamic reconfiguration of spinal locomotor circuitry. To study this plasticity, we have developed isolated preparations of the spinal cord and brainstem from pre- to post-metamorphic stages of the amphibian Xenopus laevis, in which spinal motor output patterns expressed spontaneously or in the presence of NMDA correlate with locomotor behaviour in the freely swimming animal. Extracellular ventral root recordings along the spinal cord of pre-metamorphic tadpoles revealed motor output corresponding to larval axial swimming, whereas postmetamorphic animals expressed motor patterns appropriate for bilaterally synchronous hindlimb flexion-extension kicks. However, in vitro recordings from metamorphic climax stages, with the tail and the limbs both functional, revealed two distinct motor patterns that could occur either independently or simultaneously, albeit at very different frequencies. Activity at 0.5-1 Hz in lumbar ventral roots corresponded to bipedal extension-flexion cycles, while the second, faster pattern (2-5 Hz) recorded from tail ventral roots corresponded to larval-like swimming. These data indicate that at intermediate stages during metamorphosis separate networks, one responsible for segmentally organized axial locomotion and another for more localized appendicular rhythm generation, coexist in the spinal cord and remain functional after isolation in vitro. These preparations now afford the opportunity to explore the cellular basis of locomotor network plasticity and reconfiguration necessary for behavioural changes during development.

  3. Biomedical analysis of rat body hair after hindlimb suspension for 14 days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Masahiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Ishioka, Noriaki; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Yamazaki, Takashi; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Niihori, Maki; Nakao, Reiko; Yamada, Shin; Mukai, Chiaki; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2012-04-01

    The levels of 26 minerals in rat body hair were analyzed in control and hindlimb-suspended Wistar Hannover rats (n=5 each). We quantified the levels of 22 minerals in this experiment. However, we were unable to measure the levels of 4 minerals (Be, V, Cd, and Hg) quantitatively because they were below the limit of detection. Of the 22 quantified, the levels of 19 minerals were not significantly different between control and hindlimb-suspended groups. The levels of 3 minerals (Pb, Cr, and Al) tended to be higher in the hindlimb-suspended group than in the control group; however, this difference was not significant. The concentrations of 3 other minerals (I, K, and Mg) were significantly different between the 2 groups. The iodine (I) level was 58.2% higher in the hindlimb-suspended group than in the control group (P<0.05). Potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) levels were 55.2% and 20.4% lower, respectively, in the experimental group (P<0.05 in both cases). These results indicate that a physiological change in mineral metabolism resulting from physical or mental stress, such as hindlimb suspension, is reflected in body hair. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. We believe that hindlimb suspension for 14 days can simulate the effects of an extremely severe environment, such as space flight, because the hindlimb suspension model elicits a rapid physiological change in skeletal muscle, bone, and fluid shift even in the short term. These results also suggest that we can detect various effects on the body by analyzing the human scalp hair shaft.

  4. Developmental basis for hind-limb loss in dolphins and origin of the cetacean bodyplan

    PubMed Central

    Thewissen, J. G. M.; Cohn, M. J.; Stevens, L. S.; Bajpai, S.; Heyning, J.; Horton, W. E.

    2006-01-01

    Among mammals, modern cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) are unusual in the absence of hind limbs. However, cetacean embryos do initiate hind-limb bud development. In dolphins, the bud arrests and degenerates around the fifth gestational week. Initial limb outgrowth in amniotes is maintained by two signaling centers, the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA). Our data indicate that the cetacean hind-limb bud forms an AER and that this structure expresses Fgf8 initially, but that neither the AER nor Fgf8 expression is maintained. Moreover, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which mediates the signaling activity of the ZPA, is absent from the dolphin hind-limb bud. We find that failure to establish a ZPA is associated with the absence of Hand2, an upstream regulator of Shh. Interpreting our results in the context of both the cetacean fossil record and the known functions of Shh suggests that reduction of Shh expression may have occurred ≈41 million years ago and led to the loss of distal limb elements. The total loss of Shh expression may account for the further loss of hind-limb elements that occurred near the origin of the modern suborders of cetaceans ≈34 million years ago. Integration of paleontological and developmental data suggests that hind-limb size was reduced by gradually operating microevolutionary changes. Long after locomotor function was totally lost, modulation of developmental control genes eliminated most of the hind-limb skeleton. Hence, macroevolutionary changes in gene expression did not drive the initial reduction in hind-limb size. PMID:16717186

  5. Organization of lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups innervating hindlimb, pelvic floor, and axial muscles in the cat.

    PubMed

    Vanderhorst, V G; Holstege, G

    1997-05-26

    In a study on descending pathways from the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) to hindlimb motoneurons (see accompanying paper), it appeared impossible, using data from the literature, to precisely determine which muscles were innervated by the motoneurons receiving the NRA fibers. This lack of data made it necessary to produce a detailed map of the lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups in the cat. Therefore, 50 different muscles or muscle compartments of hindlimb, pelvic floor and lower back were injected with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in 135 cases. The respective muscles were divided into ten groups: I, sartorius and iliopsoas; II, quadriceps; III, adductors; IV, hamstrings; V, gluteal and other proximal muscles of the hip; VI, posterior compartment of the distal hindlimb; VII, anterior compartment of the distal hindlimb; VIII, long flexors and intrinsic muscles of the foot; IX, pelvic floor muscles; and X, extensors of the lower back and tail. The L4-S2 segments were cut and incubated, and labeled motoneurons were counted and plotted. A new method was developed that made it possible, despite variations in size and segmental organization between the different cases, to compare the results of different cases. The results show that the spatial interrelationship between the hindlimb and pelvic floor lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups remains constant. This finding enabled the authors to compose an accurate overall map of the location of lumbosacral motoneuronal cell groups. The general distribution of the motoneuronal cell groups is also discussed in respect to their dorsoventral, mediolateral, and rostrocaudal position within the lumbosacral ventral horn. PMID:9136811

  6. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Repair and Hindlimb Transplant Model

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Damon S.; Wimmers, Eric G.; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Grahammer, Johanna; Christensen, Joani M.; Brat, Gabriel A.; Wu, Lehao W.; Sarhane, Karim A.; Lopez, Joseph; Wallner, Christoph; Furtmüller, Georg J.; Yuan, Nance; Pang, John; Sarkar, Kakali; Lee, W. P. Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the efficacy of local and intravenous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration to augment neuroregeneration in both a sciatic nerve cut-and-repair and rat hindlimb transplant model. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were harvested and purified from Brown-Norway (BN) rats. Sciatic nerve transections and repairs were performed in three groups of Lewis (LEW) rats: negative controls (n = 4), local MSCs (epineural) injection (n = 4), and systemic MSCs (intravenous) injection (n = 4). Syngeneic (LEW-LEW) (n = 4) and allogeneic (BN-LEW) (n = 4) hindlimb transplants were performed and assessed for neuroregeneration after local or systemic MSC treatment. Rats undergoing sciatic nerve cut-and-repair and treated with either local or systemic injection of MSCs had significant improvement in the speed of recovery of compound muscle action potential amplitudes and axon counts when compared with negative controls. Similarly, rats undergoing allogeneic hindlimb transplants treated with local injection of MSCs exhibited significantly increased axon counts. Similarly, systemic MSC treatment resulted in improved nerve regeneration following allogeneic hindlimb transplants. Systemic administration had a more pronounced effect on electromotor recovery while local injection was more effective at increasing fiber counts, suggesting different targets of action. Local and systemic MSC injections significantly improve the pace and degree of nerve regeneration after nerve injury and hindlimb transplantation. PMID:27510321

  7. Hindlimb motion during steady flight of the lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Jorn A; Ton, Daniel; Konow, Nicolai; Riskin, Daniel K; Breuer, Kenneth S; Swartz, Sharon M

    2014-01-01

    In bats, the wing membrane is anchored not only to the body and forelimb, but also to the hindlimb. This attachment configuration gives bats the potential to modulate wing shape by moving the hindlimb, such as by joint movement at the hip or knee. Such movements could modulate lift, drag, or the pitching moment. In this study we address: 1) how the ankle translates through space during the wingbeat cycle; 2) whether amplitude of ankle motion is dependent upon flight speed; 3) how tension in the wing membrane pulls the ankle; and 4) whether wing membrane tension is responsible for driving ankle motion. We flew five individuals of the lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis (Family: Pteropodidae), in a wind tunnel and documented kinematics of the forelimb, hip, ankle, and trailing edge of the wing membrane. Based on kinematic analysis of hindlimb and forelimb movements, we found that: 1) during downstroke, the ankle moved ventrally and during upstroke the ankle moved dorsally; 2) there was considerable variation in amplitude of ankle motion, but amplitude did not correlate significantly with flight speed; 3) during downstroke, tension generated by the wing membrane acted to pull the ankle dorsally, and during upstroke, the wing membrane pulled laterally when taut and dorsally when relatively slack; and 4) wing membrane tension generally opposed dorsoventral ankle motion. We conclude that during forward flight in C. brachyotis, wing membrane tension does not power hindlimb motion; instead, we propose that hindlimb movements arise from muscle activity and/or inertial effects.

  8. The combined effects of X-ray radiation and hindlimb suspension on bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dan; Zhao, Xin; Li, Yi; Ji, Yinli; Zhang, Jiangyan; Wang, Jufang; Xie, Xiaodong; Zhou, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    Outer space is a complex environment with various phenomena that negatively affect bone metabolism, including microgravity and highly energized ionizing radiation. In the present study, we used four groups of male Wistar rats treated with or without four-week hindlimb suspension after 4 Gy of X-rays to test whether there is a combined effect for hindlimb suspension and X-ray radiation. We tested trabecular parameters and some cytokines of the bone as leading indicators of bone metabolism. The results showed that hindlimb suspension and X-ray radiation could cause a significant increase in bone loss. Hindlimb suspension caused a 56.6% bone loss (P = 0.036), while X-ray radiation caused a 30.7% (P = 0.041) bone loss when compared with the control group. The combined factors of hindlimb suspension and X-rays exerted a combined effect on bone mass, with a reduction of 64.8% (P = 0.003). PMID:24699002

  9. Analysis of responses to kallidin, DABK, and DAK in feline hindlimb vascular bed.

    PubMed

    Santiago, J A; Garrison, E A; Champion, H C; Smith, R E; Del Rio, O; Kadowitz, P J

    1995-12-01

    Responses to kallidin, des-Arg9-bradykinin (DABK), and des-Arg10-kallidin (DAK) were investigated in the hindlimb vascular bed of the cat under constant-flow conditions. Injections of kallidin, DABK, and DAK into the hindlimb perfusion circuit produced dose-dependent vasodilator responses in the hindlimb vascular bed. Vasodilator responses to kallidin and bradykinin (BK) were similar in magnitude and time course, and both peptides were approximately 100-fold more potent than DABK or DAK. Responses to kallidin were decreased by the kinin B2 antagonist, HOE 140, whereas responses to DABK and DAK were reduced by des-Arg9[Leu8]BK, a kinin B1-receptor antagonist. N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) reduced vasodilator responses to kallidin, DABK, and DAK, whereas meclofenamate, atropine, and U-37883A, a vascular selective ATP-sensitive K+ (K+ATP) channel-blocking agent, did not alter responses to the three peptides. These data suggest that both kinin B1 and B2 receptors are normally present in the hindlimb vascular bed. These data also suggest that kinin B1 and B2 receptor-mediated vasodilator responses are mediated by the release of nitric oxide and that the activation of K+ATP channels or muscarinic receptors, or the release of vasodilator prostaglandins play little if any role in mediating responses to kallidin, DABK, or DAK in the hindlimb vascular bed of the cat.

  10. Medial prefrontal cortex acetylcholine injection-induced hypotension: the role of hindlimb vasodilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crippa, G. E.; Lewis, S. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Correa, F. M.

    2000-01-01

    The injection of acetylcholine (ACh) into the cingulate region of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) causes a marked fall in arterial blood pressure which is not accompanied by changes in heart rate. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hemodynamic basis for this stimulus-induced hypotension in Sprague-Dawley rats. The study was designed to determine whether a change in the vascular resistance of hindlimb, renal or mesenteric vascular beds contributes to the fall in arterial pressure in response to ACh injection into the cingulate cortex. Miniature pulsed-Doppler flow probes were used to measure changes in regional blood flow and vascular resistance. The results indicated that the hypotensive response was largely due to a consistent and marked vasodilation in the hindlimb vascular bed. On this basis, an additional experiment was then undertaken to determine the mechanisms that contribute to hindlimb vasodilation. The effect of interrupting the autonomic innervation of one leg on the hindlimb vasodilator response was tested. Unilateral transection of the lumbar sympathetic chain attenuated the cingulate ACh-induced vasodilation in the ipsilateral, but not in the contralateral hindlimb. These results suggest that the hypotensive response to cingulate cortex-ACh injection is caused by skeletal muscle vasodilation mediated by a sympathetic chain-related vasodilator system.

  11. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Nerve Regeneration in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Repair and Hindlimb Transplant Model.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Damon S; Wimmers, Eric G; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Grahammer, Johanna; Christensen, Joani M; Brat, Gabriel A; Wu, Lehao W; Sarhane, Karim A; Lopez, Joseph; Wallner, Christoph; Furtmüller, Georg J; Yuan, Nance; Pang, John; Sarkar, Kakali; Lee, W P Andrew; Brandacher, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the efficacy of local and intravenous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration to augment neuroregeneration in both a sciatic nerve cut-and-repair and rat hindlimb transplant model. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were harvested and purified from Brown-Norway (BN) rats. Sciatic nerve transections and repairs were performed in three groups of Lewis (LEW) rats: negative controls (n = 4), local MSCs (epineural) injection (n = 4), and systemic MSCs (intravenous) injection (n = 4). Syngeneic (LEW-LEW) (n = 4) and allogeneic (BN-LEW) (n = 4) hindlimb transplants were performed and assessed for neuroregeneration after local or systemic MSC treatment. Rats undergoing sciatic nerve cut-and-repair and treated with either local or systemic injection of MSCs had significant improvement in the speed of recovery of compound muscle action potential amplitudes and axon counts when compared with negative controls. Similarly, rats undergoing allogeneic hindlimb transplants treated with local injection of MSCs exhibited significantly increased axon counts. Similarly, systemic MSC treatment resulted in improved nerve regeneration following allogeneic hindlimb transplants. Systemic administration had a more pronounced effect on electromotor recovery while local injection was more effective at increasing fiber counts, suggesting different targets of action. Local and systemic MSC injections significantly improve the pace and degree of nerve regeneration after nerve injury and hindlimb transplantation. PMID:27510321

  12. Effects of isoproterenol infusion on the hindlimb metabolism of growing wether lambs.

    PubMed

    Brown, J; Crompton, L A; Lomax, M A

    1991-01-01

    The effect of a mixed beta 1/beta 2-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, on hindlimb metabolism was studied in growing wether lambs using arteriovenous difference and blood flow rate techniques. Isoproterenol (48 micrograms kg-1 d-1), or saline, was infused into a jugular vein of five wether lambs (30 to 35 kg) for five days and samples taken on the fifth day of treatment. Infusion of isoproterenol significantly increased blood flow, oxygen uptake and tyrosine uptake across the hindlimb. Hindlimb non-esterified fatty acid uptake was increased but not significantly (P = 0.11) and arterial growth hormone concentration was not altered by isoproterenol infusion. Results suggest that beta-adrenergic agonists promote lean tissue deposition by increased muscle blood flow rate and amino acid uptake.

  13. Effects of insulin and exercise on rat hindlimb muscles after simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, Craig S.; Balon, Thomas W.; Tipton, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of simulated microgravity on the insulin- and exercise-stimulated glucose uptake and metabolism in the hindlimb muscles of rats was investigated using three groups of rats suspended at 45 head-down tilt (SUS) for 14 days: (1) cage control, (2) exercising (treadmill running) control, and (3) rats subjected to suspension followed by exercise (SUS-E). It was found that the suspension of rats with hindlimbs non-weight bearing led to enhanced muscle responses to insulin and exercise, when these stimuli were applied separately. However, the insulin affect appeared to be impaired after exercise for the SUS-E rats, especially for the soleus muscle.

  14. Development of fore- and hindlimb muscles in GFP-transgenic axolotls: morphogenesis, the tetrapod bauplan, and new insights on the forelimb-hindlimb enigma.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Rui; Tanaka, Elly M

    2014-02-01

    The axolotl is becoming one of the most used model organisms in developmental and regenerative studies but no publication has described in detail the development of its forelimb and hindlimb muscles. We describe and illustrate the ontogeny of these muscles in transgenic axolotls that express GFP in muscle fibers and discuss our results and data previously obtained by us and by other authors about limb regeneration in axolotls and ontogeny in frogs and other tetrapods. Our observations and comparisons: (1) demonstrate radio-ulnar and ventro-dorsal morphogenetic gradients in the order of axolotl forelimb muscle formation and differentiation, while in axolotl hindlimb ontogeny there are only proximo-distal and tibio-fibular gradients; some of the axolotl gradients are therefore different from the ulno-radial/fibulo-tibial fore- and hindlimb and the dorso-ventral hindimb ontogenetic morphogenetic gradients seen in frogs and amniotes such as chickens; (2) provide a potential explanation for the usual presence, in both limbs of taxa from all major tetrapod groups, of more radial/tibial muscles than ulnar/fibular muscles; (3) support the "in-out" developmental mechanism of appendicular muscle formation; (4) offer new insights about the ancestral Bauplan of tetrapod limbs, including the striking similarity of the zeugopodial (forearm/leg) and autopodial (hand/foot) muscles of the two limbs and the ventro-dorsal symmetry of the zeugopodial muscles of a same limb; and (5) provide further evidence to corroborate the hypothesis that these similarities are due to derived homoplastic events that occurred during the fins-limbs transition and not due to forelimb-hindlimb serial homology. PMID:24302552

  15. Altered skeletal pattern of gene expression in response to spaceflight and hindlimb elevation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1994-01-01

    Spaceflight leads to osteopenia, in part by inhibiting bone formation. Using an animal model (hindlimb elevation) that simulates the weightlessness of spaceflight, we and others showed a reversible inhibition of bone formation and bone mineralization. In this study, we have measured the mRNA levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin in the tibiae of rats flown aboard National Aeronautics and Space Administration Shuttle Flight STS-54 and compared the results with those obtained from their ground-based controls and from the bones of hindlimb-elevated animals. Spaceflight and hindlimb elevation transiently increase the mRNA levels for IGF-I, IGF-IR, and alkaline phosphatase but decrease the mRNA levels for osteocalcin. The changes in osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase mRNA levels are consistent with a shift toward decreased maturation, whereas the rise in IGF-I and IGF-IR mRNA levels may indicate a compensatory response to the fall in bone formation. We conclude that skeletal unloading during spaceflight or hindlimb elevation resets the pattern of gene expression in the osteoblast, giving it a less mature profile.

  16. Decoding hindlimb movement for a brain machine interface after a complete spinal transection.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Anitha; Flint, Robert D; Knudsen, Eric; Moxon, Karen A

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypical locomotor movements can be made without input from the brain after a complete spinal transection. However, the restoration of functional gait requires descending modulation of spinal circuits to independently control the movement of each limb. To evaluate whether a brain-machine interface (BMI) could be used to regain conscious control over the hindlimb, rats were trained to press a pedal and the encoding of hindlimb movement was assessed using a BMI paradigm. Off-line, information encoded by neurons in the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex was assessed. Next neural population functions, or weighted representations of the neuronal activity, were used to replace the hindlimb movement as a trigger for reward in real-time (on-line decoding) in three conditions: while the animal could still press the pedal, after the pedal was removed and after a complete spinal transection. A novel representation of the motor program was learned when the animals used neural control to achieve water reward (e.g. more information was conveyed faster). After complete spinal transection, the ability of these neurons to convey information was reduced by more than 40%. However, this BMI representation was relearned over time despite a persistent reduction in the neuronal firing rate during the task. Therefore, neural control is a general feature of the motor cortex, not restricted to forelimb movements, and can be regained after spinal injury. PMID:23300606

  17. Differences in Age-Related Alterations in Muscle Contraction Properties in Rat Tongue and Hindlimb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Nadine P.; Ota, Fumikazu; Nagai, Hiromi; Russell, John A.; Leverson, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Because of differences in muscle architecture and biomechanics, the purpose of this study was to determine whether muscle contractile properties of rat hindlimb and tongue were differentially affected by aging. Method: Deep peroneal and hypoglossal nerves were stimulated in 6 young and 7 old Fischer 344-Brown Norway rats to allow…

  18. Hindlimb suspension diminishes femoral cross-sectional growth in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van der Meulen, M. C.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Carter, D. R.

    1995-01-01

    Growth, functional adaptation, and torsional strength were examined in the femora of 39-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to hindlimb suspension for 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks and were compared with measurements for age-matched control animals. Our goal was to understand the effect of reduced loading on the normal age-related changes in femoral properties during growth. The control animals exhibited growth-related increases in all geometric and torsional properties of the femur. The mean body mass and femoral length of the hindlimb-suspended rats were similar to those of the controls throughout the experiment. Over 4 weeks, the femoral cross-sectional and torsional measurements from the hindlimb-suspended rats demonstrated increases in comparison with the basal values (+33% cross-sectional area, +64% polar moment of inertia, +67% ultimate torque, and +181% torsional rigidity), but the age-matched controls showed significantly greater growth-related increases (+71% cross-sectional area, +136% polar moment of inertia, +127% ultimate torque, and +367% torsional rigidity). The differences in femoral structural strength between the hindlimb-suspended animals and the age-matched controls were attributable to differences in altered cross-sectional geometry.

  19. Vasoconstrictors alter oxygen, lactate, and glycerol metabolism in the perfused hindlimb of a rat kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Ye, J M; Edwards, S J; Rose, R W; Rattigan, S; Clark, M G; Colquhoun, E Q

    1995-05-01

    The Tasmanian bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) is a small marsupial rat kangaroo without detectable brown adipose tissue (BAT). The hindlimb was perfused with constant flow at 25 degrees C after cannulation under anesthesia of the femoral artery and vein to one hindlimb. Norepinephrine (NE, 25 nM-2.5 microM) and vasopressin (VP, 10 nM-0.1 microM) each increased perfusion pressure, oxygen consumption (VO2), and lactate and glycerol efflux of the perfused hindlimb. NE-mediated increases in VO2 and the efflux of lactate and glycerol were unaffected by propranolol (10 microM) but were completely blocked by the further addition of phentolamine (10 microM). In contrast, serotonin (5-HT; 0.1-2.5 microM) inhibited VO2 and inhibited lactate efflux. The changes induced by NE, VP, and 5-HT were all rapidly reversed by nitroprusside. These results suggest that resting thermogenesis in bettong hindlimb can be differentially controlled by the vasculature, which may also contribute to the induced VO2. This vascular control of skeletal muscle VO2 appears widespread in homeotherm evolution.

  20. Scale effects and morphological diversification in hindlimb segment mass proportions in neognath birds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In spite of considerable work on the linear proportions of limbs in amniotes, it remains unknown whether differences in scale effects between proximal and distal limb segments has the potential to influence locomotor costs in amniote lineages and how changes in the mass proportions of limbs have factored into amniote diversification. To broaden our understanding of how the mass proportions of limbs vary within amniote lineages, I collected data on hindlimb segment masses – thigh, shank, pes, tarsometatarsal segment, and digits – from 38 species of neognath birds, one of the most speciose amniote clades. I scaled each of these traits against measures of body size (body mass) and hindlimb size (hindlimb length) to test for departures from isometry. Additionally, I applied two parameters of trait evolution (Pagel’s λ and δ) to understand patterns of diversification in hindlimb segment mass in neognaths. Results All segment masses are positively allometric with body mass. Segment masses are isometric with hindlimb length. When examining scale effects in the neognath subclade Land Birds, segment masses were again positively allometric with body mass; however, shank, pedal, and tarsometatarsal segment masses were also positively allometric with hindlimb length. Methods of branch length scaling to detect phylogenetic signal (i.e., Pagel’s λ) and increasing or decreasing rates of trait change over time (i.e., Pagel’s δ) suffer from wide confidence intervals, likely due to small sample size and deep divergence times. Conclusions The scaling of segment masses appears to be more strongly related to the scaling of limb bone mass as opposed to length, and the scaling of hindlimb mass distribution is more a function of scale effects in limb posture than proximo-distal differences in the scaling of limb segment mass. Though negative allometry of segment masses appears to be precluded by the need for mechanically sound limbs, the positive allometry of

  1. Precocial hindlimbs and altricial forelimbs: partitioning ontogenetic strategies in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Dial, Terry R; Carrier, David R

    2012-11-01

    Precocial development, in which juveniles are relatively mature at hatching or birth, is more common among vertebrates than altricial development, and is likely to be the basal condition. Altricial development characterizes many birds and mammals and is generally viewed as an alternate strategy, promoting fast growth rates, short developmental periods and relatively poor locomotor performance prior to attaining adult size. Many aquatic birds such as Anseriformes (ducks, geese and swans), Charadriformes (gulls and terns) and Gruiformes (rails) undergo distinctive developmental trajectories, in that hatchlings are able to run and swim the day they hatch, yet they do not begin to fly until fully grown. We hypothesized that there should be tradeoffs in apportioning bone and muscle mass to the hindlimb and forelimb that could account for these patterns in locomotor behavior within the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Growth of the musculoskeletal system in the forelimbs and hindlimbs was measured and compared with maximal aquatic and terrestrial sprint speeds and aerial descent rates throughout the 2-month-long mallard ontogenetic period. At 30 days post hatching, when body mass is 50% of adult values, hindlimb muscle mass averages 90% and forelimb muscle mass averages 10% of adult values; similarly, bone growth (length and width) in the hindlimbs and forelimbs averages 90 and 60% of adult values, respectively. The attainment of mallard locomotor performance parallels the morphological maturation of forelimb and hindlimb morphometrics - hindlimb performance initiates just after hatching at a relatively high level (~50% adult values) and gradually improves throughout the first month of development, while forelimb performance is relatively non-existent at hatching (~10% adult values), experiencing delayed and dramatic improvement in function, and maturing at the time of fledging. This divergence in ontogenetic strategy between locomotor modules could allow developing

  2. Hindlimb Motion during Steady Flight of the Lesser Dog-Faced Fruit Bat, Cynopterus brachyotis

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, Jorn A.; Ton, Daniel; Konow, Nicolai; Riskin, Daniel K.; Breuer, Kenneth S.; Swartz, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    In bats, the wing membrane is anchored not only to the body and forelimb, but also to the hindlimb. This attachment configuration gives bats the potential to modulate wing shape by moving the hindlimb, such as by joint movement at the hip or knee. Such movements could modulate lift, drag, or the pitching moment. In this study we address: 1) how the ankle translates through space during the wingbeat cycle; 2) whether amplitude of ankle motion is dependent upon flight speed; 3) how tension in the wing membrane pulls the ankle; and 4) whether wing membrane tension is responsible for driving ankle motion. We flew five individuals of the lesser dog-faced fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis (Family: Pteropodidae), in a wind tunnel and documented kinematics of the forelimb, hip, ankle, and trailing edge of the wing membrane. Based on kinematic analysis of hindlimb and forelimb movements, we found that: 1) during downstroke, the ankle moved ventrally and during upstroke the ankle moved dorsally; 2) there was considerable variation in amplitude of ankle motion, but amplitude did not correlate significantly with flight speed; 3) during downstroke, tension generated by the wing membrane acted to pull the ankle dorsally, and during upstroke, the wing membrane pulled laterally when taut and dorsally when relatively slack; and 4) wing membrane tension generally opposed dorsoventral ankle motion. We conclude that during forward flight in C. brachyotis, wing membrane tension does not power hindlimb motion; instead, we propose that hindlimb movements arise from muscle activity and/or inertial effects. PMID:24858194

  3. Intracellular Ca2+ transients in mouse soleus muscle after hindlimb unloading and reloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingalls, C. P.; Warren, G. L.; Armstrong, R. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether altered intracellular Ca(2+) handling contributes to the specific force loss in the soleus muscle after unloading and/or subsequent reloading of mouse hindlimbs. Three groups of female ICR mice were studied: 1) unloaded mice (n = 11) that were hindlimb suspended for 14 days, 2) reloaded mice (n = 10) that were returned to their cages for 1 day after 14 days of hindlimb suspension, and 3) control mice (n = 10) that had normal cage activity. Maximum isometric tetanic force (P(o)) was determined in the soleus muscle from the left hindlimb, and resting free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), tetanic [Ca(2+)](i), and 4-chloro-m-cresol-induced [Ca(2+)](i) were measured in the contralateral soleus muscle by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Unloading and reloading increased resting [Ca(2+)](i) above control by 36% and 24%, respectively. Although unloading reduced P(o) and specific force by 58% and 24%, respectively, compared with control mice, there was no difference in tetanic [Ca(2+)](i). P(o), specific force, and tetanic [Ca(2+)](i) were reduced by 58%, 23%, and 23%, respectively, in the reloaded animals compared with control mice; however, tetanic [Ca(2+)](i) was not different between unloaded and reloaded mice. These data indicate that although hindlimb suspension results in disturbed intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, changes in tetanic [Ca(2+)](i) do not contribute to force deficits. Compared with unloading, 24 h of physiological reloading in the mouse do not result in further changes in maximal strength or tetanic [Ca(2+)](i).

  4. Reducing contralateral SI activity reveals hindlimb receptive fields in the SI forelimb-stump representation of neonatally amputated rats.

    PubMed

    Pluto, Charles P; Chiaia, Nicolas L; Rhoades, Robert W; Lane, Richard D

    2005-09-01

    In adult rats that sustained forelimb amputation on the day of birth, >30% of multiunit recording sites in the forelimb-stump representation of primary somatosensory cortex (SI) also respond to cutaneous hindlimb stimulation when cortical GABA(A+B) receptors are blocked (GRB). This study examined whether hindlimb receptive fields could also be revealed in forelimb-stump sites by reducing one known source of excitatory input to SI GABAergic neurons, the contralateral SI cortex. Corpus callosum projection neurons connect homotopic SI regions, making excitatory contacts onto pyramidal cells and interneurons. Thus in addition to providing monosynaptic excitation in SI, callosal fibers can produce disynaptic inhibition through excitatory synapses with inhibitory interneurons. Based on the latter of these connections, we hypothesized that inactivating the contralateral (intact) SI forelimb region would "unmask" normally suppressed hindlimb responses by reducing the activity of SI GABAergic neurons. The SI forelimb-stump representation was first mapped under normal conditions and then during GRB to identify stump/hindlimb responsive sites. After GRB had dissipated, the contralateral (intact) SI forelimb region was mapped and reversibly inactivated with injections of 4% lidocaine, and selected forelimb-stump sites were retested. Contralateral SI inactivation revealed hindlimb responses in approximately 60% of sites that were stump/hindlimb responsive during GRB. These findings indicate that activity in the contralateral SI contributes to the suppression of reorganized hindlimb receptive fields in neonatally amputated rats.

  5. Axon Regeneration Can Facilitate or Suppress Hindlimb Function after Olfactory Ensheathing Glia Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Takeoka, Aya; Jindrich, Devin L.; Muñoz-Quiles, Cintia; Zhong, Hui; van den Brand, Rubia; Pham, Daniel L.; Ziegler, Matthias D.; Ramón-Cueto, Almudena; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2011-01-01

    Reports based primarily on anatomical evidence suggest that olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) transplantation promotes axon regeneration across a complete spinal cord transection in adult rats. Based on functional, electrophysiological, and anatomical assessments, we found that OEG promoted axon regeneration across a complete spinal cord transection and that this regeneration altered motor responses over time. At 7 months after transection, 70% of OEG-treated rats showed motor-evoked potentials in hindlimb muscles after transcranial electric stimulation. Furthermore, a complete spinal cord retransection performed 8 months after injury demonstrated that this axon regeneration suppressed locomotor performance and decreased the hypersensitive hindlimb withdrawal response to mechanical stimulation. OEG transplantation alone promoted reorganization of lumbosacral locomotor networks and, when combined with long-term training, enhanced some stepping measures. These novel findings demonstrate that OEG promote regeneration of mature axons across a complete transection and reorganization of spinal circuitry, both of which contribute to sensorimotor function. PMID:21411671

  6. Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joints of a hindlimb in a heifer.

    PubMed

    Muggli, E; Weidmann, E; Bruderer, A; Nuss, K

    2015-01-01

    A two-year-old Braunvieh heifer was presented with a traumatic luxation of the second phalanx of the medial digit and concurrent subluxation of the second phalanx of the lateral digit of the right hindlimb. Closed reduction of both luxations was possible. Surgical arthrodesis was achieved using one narrow 4.5 mm three-hole equine locking compression plate for each joint. Placement of the bone plates resulted in stable arthrodesis of both proximal interphalangeal joints of the right hindlimb but there was persistent residual lameness. The heifer delivered a healthy calf but was slaughtered eight months after surgery because of varus deformity of the contralateral limb. Radiographs taken post-mortem revealed pronounced periosteal reactions involving both proximal interphalangeal joints and only partial bony bridging of the joint spaces.

  7. Rostro-Caudal Inhibition of Hindlimb Movements in the Spinal Cord of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Caggiano, Vittorio; Sur, Mirganka; Bizzi, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory neurons in the adult mammalian spinal cord are known to locally modulate afferent feedback - from muscle proprioceptors and from skin receptors - to pattern motor activity for locomotion and postural control. Here, using optogenetic tools, we explored how the same population of inhibitory interneurons globally affects hindlimb movements in the spinal cord of both anesthetized and freely moving mice. Activation of inhibitory interneurons up to the middle/lower spinal cord i.e. T8–T9, were able to completely and globally suppress all ipsilateral hindlimb movements. Furthermore, the same population of interneurons - which inhibited movements - did not significantly change the sensory and proprioceptive information from the affected limbs to the cortex. These results suggest a rostro-caudal organization of inhibition in the spinal cord motor output without modulation of ascending sensory pathways. PMID:24963653

  8. Acute effects of hindlimb unweighting on satellite cells of growing skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Edward; Darr, Kevin C.; Macius, Allison

    1994-01-01

    The proliferative behavior of satellite cells in growing rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles was examined at short periods after initiation of hindlimb unweighting. Mitotic activity of satellite cells in both muscles decreased below weight-bearing control levels within 24 h of initiation of hindlimb unweighting. This satellite cell response was equal to or greater than 48 h before any atrophic morphological changes that take place in the muscles. Suppression of mitotic activity was most severe in the soleus muscle where continuous infusion of label demonstrated that virtually all mitotic activity was abolished between 3 and 5 days. The results of this study suggest that satellite cell mitotic activity is a sensitive indicator of primary atrophic changes occurring in growing myofibers and may be a predictor of future morphological changes.

  9. Effects of hypokinesia and hypodynamia upon protein turnover in hindlimb muscles of the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughna, Paul T.; Goldspink, David F.; Goldspink, Geoffrey

    1987-01-01

    Hypokinesia/hypodynamia was induced in the hindlimb muscles of the rat, using a suspension technique. This caused differing degrees of atrophy in different muscles. However, this atrophy was reduced in muscles held in a lenghthened position. The greatest degree of wasting was observed in the unstretched soleus, a slow postural muscle, where both Type 1 and Type 2a fibers atrophied to the same degree. However, wasting of the gastrocnemius muscle was associated with a reduction in the size of the Type 2b fibers. In both slow-postural and fast-phasic hindlimb muscles, atrophy was brought about by a reduction in the rate of protein synthesis in conjunction with an elevation in the rate of protein degradation. When inactive muscles were passively stretched, both protein synthesis and degradation were dramatically elevated. Even periods of stretch of as little as 0.5 h/d were found to significantly decrease atrophy in inactive muscles.

  10. Response of rat hindlimb muscles to 12 hours recovery from tail-cast suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Henriksen, E. J.; Jacob, S.; Cook, P.; Jaspers, S.

    1985-01-01

    Previous work has shown a number of biochemical changes which accompany atrophy or reduced muscle growth in hindlimb of tail-casted, suspended rats. These results clearly show that altered muscle growth was due to changes in protein turnover. Accordingly, the rise in soleus tyrosine following unloading reflects the more negative protein balance. Other major changes we found included slower synthesis of glutamine as indicated by lower ratios of glutamine/glutamate and reduced levels of aspartate which coincide with slower aspartate and ammonia metabolism in vitro. In conjunction with the study of SL-3 rats, which were subjected to 12 h of post-flight gravity, a study of the effects of 12 h eight bearing on metabolism of 6-day unloaded hindlimb muscles was carried out.

  11. Different patterns of fore-hindlimb coordination during overground locomotion in cats with ventral and lateral spinal lesions.

    PubMed

    Bem, T; Górska, T; Majczyński, H; Zmysłowski, W

    1995-01-01

    The effect of large, low thoracic (T10-T11), partial spinal lesions involving the ventral quadrants of the spinal cord and, to a different extent, the dorsolateral funiculi, on fore-hindlimb coordination was examined in cats walking overground at moderate speeds (40-100 cm/s). Three different forms of impairment of fore-hindlimb coordination depending on the extent of the lesions, were observed. Lesions sparing the dorsolateral or the ventral funiculus on one side preserved the equality of the fore- and hindlimb locomotor rhythms but changed the coupling between the movements of both girdles as compared to intact animals. Larger lesions in which, in addition to the ventral quadrants of the spinal cord, also major parts of the dorsolateral funiculi were destroyed elicited episodes of rhythm oscillations in both girdles, which appeared at the background of a small difference in these rhythms. Lesions destroying almost the whole spinal cord induced a permanent difference (about 200 ms) in the step cycle duration of the fore- and the hindlimbs. However, even in these animals some remnant form of fore-hindlimb coordination was found. The results suggest that dorsolateral funiculi play a major role in preserving the equality of rhythms in the fore- and the hindlimbs, while lesions of the ventral quadrants change the coupling between limbs.

  12. Effects of the hindlimb-unloading model of spaceflight conditions on resistance of mice to infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belay, Tesfaye; Aviles, Hernan; Vance, Monique; Fountain, Kimberly; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been well documented in several studies that many immunologic parameters are altered in experimental animals and human subjects who have flown in space. However, it is not fully known whether these immunologic changes could result in increased susceptibility to infection. Hindlimb (antiorthostatic) unloading of rodents has been used successfully to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight on physiologic systems. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hindlimb unloading on the outcome of Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in mice. METHODS: Hindlimb-unloaded, hindlimb-restrained, and control mice were intraperitoneally infected with one 50% lethal dose of K pneumoniae 2 days after suspension. Mortality and bacterial load in several organs were compared among the groups. RESULTS: Unloaded mice showed significantly increased mortality and reduced mean time to death compared with that seen in the control groups. Kinetics of bacterial growth with smaller infective doses revealed that control mice were able to clear bacteria from the organs after 30 hours. In contrast, unloaded mice had continued bacterial growth at the same time point. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that hindlimb unloading might enhance the dissemination of K pneumoniae, leading to increased mortality. The complex physiologic changes observed during hindlimb unloading, including stress, have a key role in the pathophysiology of this infection.

  13. An in vitro spinal cord-hindlimb preparation for studying behaviorally relevant rat locomotor function.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Heather Brant; Chang, Young-Hui; Hochman, Shawn

    2009-02-01

    Although the spinal cord contains the pattern-generating circuitry for producing locomotion, sensory feedback reinforces and refines the spatiotemporal features of motor output to match environmental demands. In vitro preparations, such as the isolated rodent spinal cord, offer many advantages for investigating locomotor circuitry, but they lack the natural afferent feedback provided by ongoing locomotor movements. We developed a novel preparation consisting of an isolated in vitro neonatal rat spinal cord oriented dorsal-up with intact hindlimbs free to step on a custom-built treadmill. This preparation combines the neural accessibility of in vitro preparations with the modulatory influence of sensory feedback from physiological hindlimb movement. Locomotion induced by N-methyl D-aspartate and serotonin showed kinematics similar to that of normal adult rat locomotion. Changing orientation and ground interaction (dorsal-up locomotion vs ventral-up air-stepping) resulted in significant kinematic and electromyographic changes that were comparable to those reported under similar mechanical conditions in vivo. We then used two mechanosensory perturbations to demonstrate the influence of sensory feedback on in vitro motor output patterns. First, swing assistive forces induced more regular, robust muscle activation patterns. Second, altering treadmill speed induced corresponding changes in stride frequency, confirming that changes in sensory feedback can alter stride timing in vitro. In summary, intact hindlimbs in vitro can generate behaviorally appropriate locomotor kinematics and responses to sensory perturbations. Future studies combining the neural and chemical accessibility of the in vitro spinal cord with the influence of behaviorally appropriate hindlimb movements will provide further insight into the operation of spinal motor pattern-generating circuits.

  14. Influence of Androgen Receptor in Vascular Cells on Reperfusion following Hindlimb Ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Hadoke, Patrick W. F.; Takov, Kaloyan; Korczak, Agnieszka; Denvir, Martin A.; Smith, Lee B.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Studies in global androgen receptor knockout (G-ARKO) and orchidectomised mice suggest that androgen accelerates reperfusion of the ischaemic hindlimb by stimulating angiogenesis. This investigation used novel, vascular cell-specific ARKO mice to address the hypothesis that the impaired hindlimb reperfusion in G-ARKO mice was due to loss of AR from cells in the vascular wall. Methods and Results Mice with selective deletion of AR (ARKO) from vascular smooth muscle cells (SM-ARKO), endothelial cells (VE-ARKO), or both (SM/VE-ARKO) were compared with wild type (WT) controls. Hindlimb ischaemia was induced in these mice by ligation and removal of the femoral artery. Post-operative reperfusion was reduced in SM-ARKO and SM/VE-ARKO mice. Immunohistochemistry indicated that this was accompanied by a reduced density of smooth muscle actin-positive vessels but no change in the density of isolectin B4-positive vessels in the gastrocnemius muscle. Deletion of AR from the endothelium (VE-ARKO) did not alter post-operative reperfusion or vessel density. In an ex vivo (aortic ring culture) model of angiogenesis, AR was not detected in vascular outgrowths and angiogenesis was not altered by vascular ARKO or by exposure to dihydrotestosterone (DHT 10−10–10-7M; 6 days). Conclusion These results suggest that loss of AR from vascular smooth muscle, but not from the endothelium, contributes to impaired reperfusion in the ischaemic hindlimb of G-ARKO. Impaired reperfusion was associated with reduced collateral formation rather than reduced angiogenesis. PMID:27159530

  15. Muscle moment arms and sensitivity analysis of a mouse hindlimb musculoskeletal model.

    PubMed

    Charles, James P; Cappellari, Ornella; Spence, Andrew J; Wells, Dominic J; Hutchinson, John R

    2016-10-01

    Musculoskeletal modelling has become a valuable tool with which to understand how neural, muscular, skeletal and other tissues are integrated to produce movement. Most musculoskeletal modelling work has to date focused on humans or their close relatives, with few examples of quadrupedal animal limb models. A musculoskeletal model of the mouse hindlimb could have broad utility for questions in medicine, genetics, locomotion and neuroscience. This is due to this species' position as a premier model of human disease, having an array of genetic tools for manipulation of the animal in vivo, and being a small quadruped, a category for which few models exist. Here, the methods used to develop the first three-dimensional (3D) model of a mouse hindlimb and pelvis are described. The model, which represents bones, joints and 39 musculotendon units, was created through a combination of previously gathered muscle architecture data from microdissections, contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning and digital segmentation. The model allowed muscle moment arms as well as muscle forces to be estimated for each musculotendon unit throughout a range of joint rotations. Moment arm analysis supported the reliability of musculotendon unit placement within the model, and comparison to a previously published rat hindlimb model further supported the model's reliability. A sensitivity analysis performed on both the force-generating parameters and muscle's attachment points of the model indicated that the maximal isometric muscle moment is generally most sensitive to changes in either tendon slack length or the coordinates of insertion, although the degree to which the moment is affected depends on several factors. This model represents the first step in the creation of a fully dynamic 3D computer model of the mouse hindlimb and pelvis that has application to neuromuscular disease, comparative biomechanics and the neuromechanical basis of movement. Capturing the morphology

  16. Hindlimb loading determines stepping quantity and quality following spinal cord transection.

    PubMed

    Timoszyk, Wojciech K; Nessler, Jeff A; Acosta, Cynthia; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie; Reinkensmeyer, David J; de Leon, Ray

    2005-07-19

    We compared the bipedal hindlimb stepping ability of untrained and trained (step-trained 6 min/day) spinal rats (mid-thoracic spinal cord transection at post-natal day 5) at different levels of body weight support on a treadmill over a 40-day period, starting at 69 days of age. A robotic device provided precise levels of body weight support and recorded hindlimb movement. We assessed stepping ability using: (1) step quantity determined from the measured hindlimb movement, (2) ordinal scales of paw placement, weight-bearing, and limb flexion, and (3) the lowest level of body weight support at which stepping was maintained. Stepping quantity and quality depended strongly on the level of support provided. Stepping ability improved with time, but only at the higher levels of weight-bearing, and independently of training. Increasing limb loading by gradually decreasing body weight support altered the spatiotemporal properties of the steps, resulting in an increase in step length and stance duration and a decrease in swing and step cycle duration. The rats progressively improved their ability to support more load before collapsing from a maximum of about 42 g ( approximately 25% of body weight) at Day 1 to 73 g ( approximately 35% of body weight) at Day 40. We conclude that the level of hindlimb loading provided to a spinally transected rat strongly influences the quantity and quality of stepping. Furthermore, the relationship between stepping ability and loading conditions changes with time after spinal cord transection and is unaltered by small amounts of step training. Finally, load-bearing failure point can be a quantitative measure of locomotor recovery following spinal cord injury, especially for severely impaired animals that cannot step unassisted.

  17. Investigation of frog abnormalities on national wildlife refuges in the Northeast U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaton-Poole, L.; Pinkney, A.E.; Green, D.E.; Sutherland, D.R.; Babbitt, K.J.; ,

    2003-01-01

    To address concerns about frog abnormalities, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service examined over 3,643 frogs and toads on National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. The objectives were to: 1) determine if certain refuges had sites where abnormalities were frequently observed; 2) evaluate if the prevalence of abnormalities at a site was consistent within a season and among years; and 3) investigate possible causes. Sampling was conducted from 1999 through 2001. A complete sample from a site consisted of ???50 metamorphs of one species. The prevalence of abnormalities ranged from 0 to 15% and fluctuated within season and among years. The most common external abnormalities were truncated limbs, and missing limbs, feet, and digits. Frogs with duplication of limb segments were rare (6). Based on radiographical examinations of 89 abnormal frogs, 55 had abnormalities due to trauma, 22 due to malformations, and 12 could not be classified. Metacercariae of the trematode Ribeiroia were detected in substantial numbers in two species from Iroquois NWR, with one specimen having supernumerary hindlimbs. We recommend continued sampling and integrated, causal evaluations on NWRs where the prevalence of abnormalities exceeds 5% or where the types of abnormalities warrant further study.

  18. Increased GABA(A) inhibition of the RVLM after hindlimb unloading in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, Julia A.; Heesch, Cheryl M.; Hasser, Eileen M.

    2002-01-01

    Attenuated baroreflex-mediated increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in hindlimb unloaded (HU) rats apparently are due to changes within the central nervous system. We hypothesized that GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is increased after hindlimb unloading. Responses to bilateral microinjection of the GABA(A) antagonist (-)-bicuculline methiodide (BIC) into the RVLM were examined before and during caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) inhibition in Inactin-anesthetized control and HU rats. Increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and RSNA in response to BIC in the RVLM were significantly enhanced in HU rats. Responses to bilateral CVLM blockade were not different. When remaining GABA(A) inhibition in the RVLM was blocked by BIC during CVLM inhibition, the additional increases in MAP and RSNA were significantly greater in HU rats. These data indicate that GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of RVLM neurons is augmented after hindlimb unloading. Effects of input from the CVLM were unaltered. Thus, after cardiovascular deconditioning in rodents, the attenuated increase in sympathetic nerve activity in response to hypotension is associated with greater GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of RVLM neurons originating at least in part from sources other than the CVLM.

  19. Planar Covariation of Hindlimb and Forelimb Elevation Angles during Terrestrial and Aquatic Locomotion of Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Catavitello, Giovanna; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The rich repertoire of locomotor behaviors in quadrupedal animals requires flexible inter-limb and inter-segmental coordination. Here we studied the kinematic coordination of different gaits (walk, trot, gallop, and swim) of six dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and, in particular, the planar covariation of limb segment elevation angles. The results showed significant variations in the relative duration of rearward limb movement, amplitude of angular motion, and inter-limb coordination, with gait patterns ranging from a lateral sequence of footfalls during walking to a diagonal sequence in swimming. Despite these differences, the planar law of inter-segmental coordination was maintained across different gaits in both forelimbs and hindlimbs. Notably, phase relationships and orientation of the covariation plane were highly limb specific, consistent with the functional differences in their neural control. Factor analysis of published muscle activity data also demonstrated differences in the characteristic timing of basic activation patterns of the forelimbs and hindlimbs. Overall, the results demonstrate that the planar covariation of inter-segmental coordination has emerged for both fore- and hindlimbs and all gaits, although in a limb-specific manner. PMID:26218076

  20. Dynamic Foot Stimulation Attenuates Soleus Muscle Atrophy Induced by Hindlimb Unloading in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyparos, Antonios; Feeback, Daniel L.; Layne, Charles S.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2004-01-01

    Unloading-induced myofiber atrophy is a phenomenon that occurs in the aging population, bed-ridden patients and astronauts. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not dynamic foot stimulation (DFS) applied to the plantar surface of the rat foot can serve as a countermeasure to the soleus muscle atrophy normally observed in hindlimb unloaded (HU) rats. Thirty mature adult (6-month-old) male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into ambulatory control (AMB), hindlimb unloaded alone (HU), or hindlimb unloaded with the application of DFS (HU+DFS) groups. A dynamic pattern of pressure was applied to the right foot of each HU animal using a specially fabricated boot containing an inflatable air bladder connected to a solenoid air pump controlled by a laptop computer. The anti-atrophic effects of DFS were quantified morphometrically in frozen cross-sections of soleus muscle stained using the metachromatic-ATPase fiber typing technique. Application of DFS during HU significantly counteracted the atrophic response observed in the soleus by preventing approximately 85% of the reduction in Type I myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA) observed during HU. However, DFS did not protect type II fibers of the soleus from HU-induced atrophy or any fiber type in the soleus muscle of the contralateral control leg of the DFS-treated HU animals. These results illustrate that the application of DFS to the rat foot is an effective countermeasure to soleus muscle atrophy induced by HU.

  1. Combined effects of botulinum toxin injection and hindlimb unloading on bone and muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ellman, Rachel; Grasso, Daniel J.; van Vliet, Miranda; Brooks, Daniel J.; Spatz, Jordan M.; Conlon, Christine; Bouxsein, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Bone receives mechanical stimulation from two primary sources, muscle contractions and external gravitational loading, but the relative contribution of each source to skeletal health is not fully understood. Understanding the most effective loading for maintaining bone health has important clinical implications for prescribing physical activity for the treatment or prevention of osteoporosis. Therefore, we investigated the relative effects of muscle paralysis and reduced gravitational loading on changes in muscle mass, bone mineral density and microarchitecture. Adult female C57Bl/6J mice (n=10/group) underwent one of the following: unilateral botulinum toxin (BTX) injection of the hindlimb, hindlimb unloading (HLU), both unilateral BTX injection and HLU, or no intervention. BTX and HLU each led to significant muscle and bone loss. The effect of BTX was diminished when combined with HLU, though generally the leg that received the combined intervention (HLU + BTX) had the most detrimental changes in bone and muscle. We found an indirect effect of BTX affecting the uninjected (contralateral) leg that led to significant decreases in bone mineral density and deficits in muscle mass and bone architecture relative to the untreated controls; the magnitude of this indirect BTX effect was comparable to the direct effect of BTX treatment and HLU. Thus, while it was difficult to definitively conclude whether muscle forces or external gravitational loading contribute more to bone maintenance, it appears that BTX-induced muscle paralysis is more detrimental to muscle and bone than hindlimb unloading. PMID:24240478

  2. Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation in the forelimb and hindlimb vasculatures of swine.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Sean C; Taylor, Jessica C; Bowles, Douglas K; Laughlin, M Harold

    2007-10-01

    Limb differences in endothelial function exist between arm and leg vasculatures of humans. The current investigation tested the hypothesis that forelimb and hindlimb vasorelaxation are similar in the absence of limb differences in blood pressure. Conduit arteries (brachials/femorals) and second order arterioles were harvested from 22 miniature Yucatan swine. In vitro assessment of vasorelaxation was determined by administering increasing doses of bradykinin (BK), acetylcholine (ACh), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The role of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways was assessed in conduit arteries but not resistance arterioles through L-NAME (300 microM) and INDO (5 microM) incubation, respectively. The relaxation responses to BK and ACh were similar in brachial and femoral arteries. SNP relaxation response was greater in the brachial compared to femoral arteries. There were also no significant differences in the relaxation responses of second order arterioles of the forelimb and hindlimb to BK, ACh, and SNP. Incubation of conduit arterial rings in L-NAME produced a greater reduction in BK and ACh relaxation in the brachial (approximately 25%) compared to femoral (approximately 13%) arterial rings. The current results of this investigation suggest that the forelimb and hindlimb vasculatures of swine have relatively similar vasorelaxation responses to both endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilators.

  3. Hindlimb unloading of growing rats: a model for predicting skeletal changes during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, E. R.; Globus, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    A model that uses hindlimb unloading of rats was developed to study the consequences of skeletal unloading and reloading as occurs during and following space flight. Studies using the model were initiated two decades ago and further developed at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Ames Research Center. The model mimics some aspects of exposure to microgravity by removing weightbearing loads from the hindquarters and producing a cephalic fluid shift. Unlike space flight, the forelimbs remain loaded in the model, providing a useful internal control to distinguish between the local and systemic effects of hindlimb unloading. Rats that are hindlimb unloaded by tail traction gain weight at the same rate as pairfed controls, and glucocorticoid levels are not different from controls, suggesting that systemic stress is minimal. Unloaded bones display reductions in cancellous osteoblast number, cancellous mineral apposition rate, trabecular bone volume, cortical periosteal mineralization rate, total bone mass, calcium content, and maturation of bone mineral relative to controls. Subsequent studies reveal that these changes also occur in rats exposed to space flight. In hindlimb unloaded rats, bone formation rates and masses of unloaded bones decline relative to controls, while loaded bones do not change despite a transient reduction in serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) concentrations. Studies using the model to evaluate potential countermeasures show that 1,25D, growth hormone, dietary calcium, alendronate, and muscle stimulation modify, but do not completely correct, the suppression of bone growth caused by unloading, whereas continuous infusion of transforming growth factor-beta2 or insulin-like growth factor-1 appears to protect against some of the bone changes caused by unloading. These results emphasize the importance of local as opposed to systemic factors in the skeletal response to unloading, and reveal the pivotal role that osteoblasts play in

  4. Islet1 regulates establishment of the posterior hindlimb field upstream of the Hand2-Shh morphoregulatory gene network in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Itou, Junji; Kawakami, Hiroko; Quach, Thu; Osterwalder, Marco; Evans, Sylvia M; Zeller, Rolf; Kawakami, Yasuhiko

    2012-05-01

    How divergent genetic systems regulate a common pathway during the development of two serial structures, forelimbs and hindlimbs, is not well understood. Specifically, HAND2 has been shown to regulate Shh directly to initiate its expression in the posterior margin of the limb mesenchyme. Although the Hand2-Shh morphoregulatory system operates in both the forelimb and hindlimb bud, a recent analysis suggested that its upstream regulation is different in the forelimb and hindlimb bud. A combination of all four Hox9 genes is required for Hand2 expression in the forelimb-forming region; however, it remains elusive what genetic system regulates the Hand2-Shh pathway in the hindlimb-forming region. By conditional inactivation of Islet1 in the hindlimb-forming region using the Hoxb6Cre transgene, we show that Islet1 is required for establishing the posterior hindlimb field, but not the forelimb field, upstream of the Hand2-Shh pathway. Inactivation of Islet1 caused the loss of posterior structures in the distal and proximal regions, specifically in the hindlimb. We found that Hand2 expression was downregulated in the hindlimb field and that Shh expression was severely impaired in the hindlimb bud. In the Hoxb6Cre; Islet1 mutant pelvis, the proximal element that is formed in a Shh-independent manner, displayed complementary defects in comparison with Pitx1(-/-) hindlimbs. This suggests that Islet1 and Pitx1 function in parallel during girdle development in hindlimbs, which is in contrast with the known requirement for Tbx5 in girdle development in forelimbs. Our studies have identified a role for Islet1 in hindlimb-specific development and have revealed Islet1 functions in two distinct processes: regulation upstream of the Hand2-Shh pathway and contributions to girdle development.

  5. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  6. Is salamander hindlimb regeneration similar to that of the forelimb? Anatomical and morphogenetic analysis of hindlimb muscle regeneration in GFP-transgenic axolotls as a basis for regenerative and developmental studies.

    PubMed

    Diogo, R; Murawala, P; Tanaka, E M

    2014-04-01

    The axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is one of the most used model organisms in developmental and regenerative studies because it is commonly said that it can reconstitute a normal and fully functional forelimb/hindlimb after amputation. However, there is not a publication that has described in detail the regeneration of the axolotl hindlimb muscles. Here we describe and illustrate, for the first time, the regeneration of the thigh, leg and foot muscles in transgenic axolotls that express green fluorescent protein in muscle fibers and compare our results with data obtained by us and by other authors about axolotl forelimb regeneration and about fore- and hindlimb ontogeny in axolotls, frogs and other tetrapods. Our observations and comparisons point out that: (1) there are no muscle anomalies in any regenerated axolotl hindlimbs, in clear contrast to our previous study of axolotl forelimb regeneration, where we found muscle anomalies in 43% of the regenerated forelimbs; (2) during axolotl hindlimb regeneration there is a proximo-distal and a tibio-fibular morphogenetic gradient in the order of muscle regeneration and differentiation, but not a ventro-dorsal gradient, whereas our previous studies showed that in axolotl forelimb muscle regeneration there are proximo-distal, radio-ulnar and ventro-dorsal morphogenetic gradients. We discuss the broader implications of these observations for regenerative, evolutionary, developmental and morphogenetic studies.

  7. Is salamander hindlimb regeneration similar to that of the forelimb? Anatomical and morphogenetic analysis of hindlimb muscle regeneration in GFP-transgenic axolotls as a basis for regenerative and developmental studies.

    PubMed

    Diogo, R; Murawala, P; Tanaka, E M

    2014-04-01

    The axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is one of the most used model organisms in developmental and regenerative studies because it is commonly said that it can reconstitute a normal and fully functional forelimb/hindlimb after amputation. However, there is not a publication that has described in detail the regeneration of the axolotl hindlimb muscles. Here we describe and illustrate, for the first time, the regeneration of the thigh, leg and foot muscles in transgenic axolotls that express green fluorescent protein in muscle fibers and compare our results with data obtained by us and by other authors about axolotl forelimb regeneration and about fore- and hindlimb ontogeny in axolotls, frogs and other tetrapods. Our observations and comparisons point out that: (1) there are no muscle anomalies in any regenerated axolotl hindlimbs, in clear contrast to our previous study of axolotl forelimb regeneration, where we found muscle anomalies in 43% of the regenerated forelimbs; (2) during axolotl hindlimb regeneration there is a proximo-distal and a tibio-fibular morphogenetic gradient in the order of muscle regeneration and differentiation, but not a ventro-dorsal gradient, whereas our previous studies showed that in axolotl forelimb muscle regeneration there are proximo-distal, radio-ulnar and ventro-dorsal morphogenetic gradients. We discuss the broader implications of these observations for regenerative, evolutionary, developmental and morphogenetic studies. PMID:24325444

  8. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  10. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6-8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts. PMID:27013781

  11. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6–8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts. PMID:27013781

  12. Time course changes in [Ca2+]i, force, and protein content in hindlimb-suspended mouse soleus muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingalls, C. P.; Wenke, J. C.; Armstrong, R. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to reduced gravitational forces during spaceflight is associated with significant reductions in skeletal muscle mass and strength. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that increases in resting cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) would precede reductions in protein content and maximal isometric tetanic force (Po) in mouse soleus muscle after initiation of hindlimb suspension. METHODS: Female ICR mice (n = 42) were hindlimb suspended for 1, 2, 3, 5, or 7 d; weight-matched mice were used as controls. Following the hindlimb suspension, the left soleus muscle was used to determine Po in vitro and the right soleus muscle was used to determine protein content and [Ca2+]i via confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: Compared with controls, [Ca2+]i was elevated by 38% at 2 d, and 117% at 7 d. Compared with controls, soleus muscle total and myofibrillar protein contents were reduced 27-29% and 30-34%, respectively, at 5-7 d after initiation of hindlimb suspension. Compared with controls, soleus muscle Po was decreased by 24% at 3 d, and 38% at 7 d. CONCLUSION: It appears that resting cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis is disturbed soon after the initiation of hindlimb suspension, and these elevations in [Ca2+]i may play a role in initiating soleus muscle atrophy.

  13. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6-8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts.

  14. Effects of hindlimb unloading and bisphosphonates on the serum proteome of rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongdong; Fleet, James C; Adamec, Jiri; Terry, Doris E; Zhang, Xiang; Kemeh, Settor; Davisson, V Jo; Weaver, Connie M

    2007-10-01

    Hindlimb unloading has been used as a model for bone loss associated with extended bed rest or space travel. However, this model also reduces muscle mass and influences other biological systems. To evaluate the impact of hindlimb unloading on bone and overall health, we applied 2-D gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-based proteomics to serum samples collected from 24 5-month-old female rats that were treated for 2 weeks under three conditions: control, hindlimb unloading (HU) and unloading plus bisphosphonate (HUA) (n=8/group). Prior to the intervention, rats were injected with 3H-tetracycline to label bone surfaces. At the end of the experiment bone, urine, and serum samples were collected. As expected, HU reduced femur aBMD and BMC and increased daily urinary 3H-tetracycline (a measure of bone resorption rate) and these effects were reversed by bisphosphonate. In addition, serum osteocalcin and TRAP5b were decreased in the HUA compared to control and HU. Abundant proteins, albumin, IgG and transferrin were removed from serum samples prior to 2-DE analysis (n=5 analytical replicates). Statistical analysis of spot intensities revealed 53 differentially expressed spots among the 3 groups. Cluster analysis shows that 30 spots reflect changes unique to the HU group (i.e. potential bone biomarkers), 6 unique to HUA (i.e. drug related), and 17 common to HU and HUA (e.g. potential mental stress or muscle loss markers). Spots were identified by LC-MS/MS after in-gel trypsin digestion and were found to relate to a variety of physiological functions.

  15. Long-term (6-wk) hindlimb suspension inhibits spermatogenesis in adult male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tash, Joseph S.; Johnson, Donald C.; Enders, George C.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station will allow extended habitation in space and long-term exposure to microgravity (microG). A concern is the impact of long-term microG exposure on the ability of species to reproduce. The model often used to simulate microG is rat hindlimb suspension (HLS), where the hindlimbs are elevated above the cage floor with a tail harness. Experiments described here are the first to examine the effect of long-term HLS on testicular function in adult male rats. Free-roaming (controls), animals with only the tail harnessed but hindlimbs in contact with the cage floor (TO), and HLS animals were tested for 6 wk. Cryptorchidism was prevented in TO and HLS animals by partial constriction of the inguinal canal with sutures. All parameters were compared at the end of the 6-wk experiment. Testicular weights and spermatogenesis were significantly reduced by HLS, such that no spermatogenic cells beyond round spermatids were present and epididymides were devoid of mature sperm. In many tubules, loss of all germ cells, except a few spermatogonia, resulting in histopathology similar to the Sertoli cell, was observed. Spermatogenesis appeared unaffected in control and TO animals. Sertoli and Leydig cell appearance, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and epididymal and seminal vesicle weight were unchanged by HLS. Cortisone was not elevated by HLS; thus stress may not be a factor. These results demonstrate that spermatogenesis is severely inhibited by long-term HLS, whereas testicular androgen production is not. These results have significant implications regarding serious effects of long-term exposure to microG on the reproductive capability of scrotal mammals, including humans.

  16. Stimulation of NTS A1 adenosine receptors evokes counteracting effects on hindlimb vasculature.

    PubMed

    McClure, Joseph M; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2005-12-01

    Our previous studies concluded that stimulation of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) A2a receptors evokes preferential hindlimb vasodilation mainly via inducing increases in preganglionic sympathetic nerve activity (pre-ASNA) directed to the adrenal medulla. This increase in pre-ASNA causes the release of epinephrine and subsequent activation of beta-adrenergic receptors that are preferentially located in the skeletal muscle vasculature. Selective activation of NTS A1 adenosine receptors evokes variable, mostly pressor effects and increases pre-ASNA, as well as lumbar sympathetic activity, which is directed to the hindlimb. These counteracting factors may have opposite effects on the hindlimb vasculature resulting in mixed vascular responses. Therefore, in chloralose-urethane-anesthetized rats, we evaluated the contribution of vasodilator versus vasoconstrictor effects of stimulation of NTS A1 receptors on the hindlimb vasculature. We compared the changes in iliac vascular conductance evoked by microinejctions into the NTS of the selective A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (330 pmol in 50 nl volume) in intact animals with the responses evoked after beta-adrenergic blockade, bilateral adrenalectomy, bilateral lumbar sympathectomy, and combined adrenalectomy + lumbar sympathectomy. In intact animals, stimulation of NTS A1 receptors evoked variable effects: increases and decreases in mean arterial pressure and iliac conductance with prevailing pressor and vasoconstrictor effects. Peripheral beta-adrenergic receptor blockade and bilateral adrenalectomy eliminated the depressor component of the responses, markedly potentiated iliac vasoconstriction, and tended to increase the pressor responses. Lumbar sympathectomy tended to decrease the pressor and vasoconstrictor responses. After bilateral adrenalectomy plus lumbar sympathectomy, a marked vasoconstriction in iliac vascular bed still persisted, suggesting that the vasoconstrictor component of the

  17. Back seat driving: hindlimb corticospinal neurons assume forelimb control following ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Michelle Louise; Bleul, Christiane; Zörner, Björn; Lindau, Nicolas Thomas; Mueggler, Thomas; Rudin, Markus; Schwab, Martin Ernst

    2012-11-01

    Whereas large injuries to the brain lead to considerable irreversible functional impairments, smaller strokes or traumatic lesions are often associated with good recovery. This recovery occurs spontaneously, and there is ample evidence from preclinical studies to suggest that adjacent undamaged areas (also known as peri-infarct regions) of the cortex 'take over' control of the disrupted functions. In rodents, sprouting of axons and dendrites has been observed in this region following stroke, while reduced inhibition from horizontal or callosal connections, or plastic changes in subcortical connections, could also occur. The exact mechanisms underlying functional recovery after small- to medium-sized strokes remain undetermined but are of utmost importance for understanding the human situation and for designing effective treatments and rehabilitation strategies. In the present study, we selectively destroyed large parts of the forelimb motor and premotor cortex of adult rats with an ischaemic injury. A behavioural test requiring highly skilled, cortically controlled forelimb movements showed that some animals recovered well from this lesion whereas others did not. To investigate the reasons behind these differences, we used anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques and intracortical microstimulation. Retrograde tracing from the cervical spinal cord showed a correlation between the number of cervically projecting corticospinal neurons present in the hindlimb sensory-motor cortex and good behavioural recovery. Anterograde tracing from the hindlimb sensory-motor cortex also showed a positive correlation between the degree of functional recovery and the sprouting of neurons from this region into the cervical spinal cord. Finally, intracortical microstimulation confirmed the positive correlation between rewiring of the hindlimb sensory-motor cortex and the degree of forelimb motor recovery. In conclusion, these experiments suggest that following stroke to the

  18. Insulin effect on amino acid uptake by unloaded rat hindlimb muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, S. R.; Tischler, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of insulin on the uptake of alpha-amino-isobutyric acid (AIB) by unloaded rat hindlimb muscles was investigated using soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from intact and adrenalectomized (ADX) rats that were tail-casted for six days. It was found that, at insulin levels above 0.00001 units/ml, the in vitro rate of AIB uptake by muscles from intact animals was stimulated more in the weight bearing muscles than in unloaded ones. In ADX animals, this differential response to insulin was abolished.

  19. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  20. Hindlimb Immobilization in a Wheelchair Alters Functional Recovery Following Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Caudle, Krista L.; Brown, Edward H.; Shum-Siu, Alice; Burke, Darlene A.; Magnuson, Trystan S. G.; Voor, Michael J.; Magnuson, David S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Locomotor training of rats with thoracic contusion spinal cord injuries can induce task-specific changes in stepping but rarely results in improved overground locomotion, possibly due to a ceiling effect. Thus, the authors hypothesize that incompletely injured rats maximally retrain themselves while moving about in their cages over the first few weeks postinjury. Objective To test the hypothesis using hindlimb immobilization after mild thoracic contusion spinal cord injury in adult female rats. A passive stretch protocol was included as an independent treatment. Methods Wheelchairs were used to hold the hindlimbs stationary in an extended position leaving the forelimbs free. The wheelchairs were used for 15 to 18 hours per day, 5 days per week for 8 weeks, beginning at 4 days postinjury. A 20-minute passive hindlimb stretch therapy was applied to half of the animals. Results Hindlimb locomotor function of the wheelchair group was not different from controls at 1 week postinjury but declined significantly over the next 4 weeks. Passive stretch had no influence on wheelchair animals but limited functional recovery of normally housed animals, preventing them from regaining forelimb–hindlimb coordination. Following 8 weeks of wheelchair immobilization and stretch therapy, only the wheelchair group displayed an improvement in function when returned to normal housing but retained significant deficits in stepping and coordination out to 16 weeks. Conclusion Hindlimb immobilization and passive stretch may hinder or conceal the normal course of functional recovery of spinal cord injured rats. These observations have implications for the management of acute clinical spinal cord injuries. PMID:21697451

  1. Effect of short-term microgravity and long-term hindlimb unloading on rat cardiac mass and function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.; Vasques, M.; Miller, T. A.; Wilkerson, M. K.; Delp, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that exposure to short-term microgravity or long-term hindlimb unloading induces cardiac atrophy in male Sprague-Dawley rats. For the microgravity study, rats were subdivided into four groups: preflight (PF, n = 12); flight (Fl, n = 7); flight cage simulation (Sim, n = 6), and vivarium control (Viv, n = 7). Animals in the Fl group were exposed to 7 days of microgravity during the Spacelab 3 mission. Animals in the hindlimb-unloading study were subdivided into three groups: control (Con, n = 20), 7-day hindlimb-unloaded (7HU, n = 10), and 28-day hindlimb-unloaded (28HU, n = 19). Heart mass was unchanged in adult animals exposed to 7 days of actual microgravity (PF 1.33 +/- 0.03 g; Fl 1.32 +/- 0.02 g; Sim 1.28 +/- 0.04 g; Viv 1.35 +/- 0.04 g). Similarly, heart mass was unaltered with hindlimb unloading (Con 1.40 +/- 0.04 g; 7HU 1.35 +/- 0.06 g; 28HU 1.42 +/- 0.03 g). Hindlimb unloading also had no effect on the peak rate of rise in left ventricular pressure, an estimate of myocardial contractility (Con 8,055 +/- 385 mmHg/s; 28HU 8,545 +/- 755 mmHg/s). These data suggest that cardiac atrophy does not occur after short-term exposure to microgravity and that neither short- nor long-term simulated microgravity alters cardiac mass or function.

  2. Effects of space flight conditions on the function of the immune system and catecholamine production simulated in a rodent model of hindlimb unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aviles, Hernan; Belay, Tesfaye; Vance, Monique; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    The rodent model of hindlimb unloading has been successfully used to simulate some of the effects of space flight conditions. Previous studies have indicated that mice exposed to hindlimb-unloading conditions have decreased resistance to infections compared to restrained and normally housed control mice. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the mechanisms involved in resistance to infection in this model by examining the effects of hindlimb unloading on the function of the immune system and its impact on the production of catecholamines. METHODS: Female Swiss Webster mice were hindlimb-unloaded during 48 h and the function of the immune system was assessed in spleen and peritoneal cells immediately after this period. In addition, the kinetics of catecholamine production was measured throughout the hindlimb-unloading period. RESULTS: The function of the immune system was significantly suppressed in the hindlimb-unloaded group compared to restrained and normally housed control mice. Levels of catecholamines were increased in the hindlimb-unloaded group and peaked at 12 h following the commencement of unloading. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that physiological responses of mice are altered early after hindlimb unloading and that catecholamines may play a critical role in the modulation of the immune system. These changes may affect the ability of mice to resist infections. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  4. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  5. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  6. How spinalized rats can walk: biomechanics, cortex and hindlimb muscle scaling – implications for rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Giszter, Simon F; Hockensmith, Greg; Ramakrishnan, Arun; Udoekwere, Ubong Ime

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal spinalized (NST) rats can achieve autonomous weight supported locomotion never seen after adult injury. Mechanisms that support function in NST rats include increased importance of cortical trunk control, and altered biomechanical control strategies for stance and locomotion. Hindlimbs are isolated from perturbations in quiet stance and act in opposition to forelimbs in locomotion in NST rats. Control of roll and yaw of the hindlimbs is crucial in their locomotion. The biomechanics of the hind limbs of NST rats are also likely crucial. We present new data showing the whole leg musculature scales proportional to normal rat musculature in NST rats, regardless of function. This scaling is a prerequisite for the NST rats to most effectively use pattern generation mechanisms and motor patterns that are similar to those present in intact rats. Pattern generation may be built into the lumbar spinal cord by evolution and matched to the limb biomechanics, so preserved muscle scaling may be essential to the NST function observed. PMID:20536943

  7. Effect of hindlimb unweighting on tissue blood flow in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. S.; Delp, M. D.; Fitts, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    This study characterized distribution of blood flow in the rat during hindlimb unweighting (HU), and post-HU standing and exercise. The relationship between reduced hindlimb blood flow and the previously observed elevation in anaerobic metabolism observed with contractile activity in the atrophied soleus muscle was examined (Witzmann et al., 1992). Blood flow was measured during unweighting, normal standing, and running on a treadmill (15 m/min), after 15 days of HU or cage control. For another group blood flow was measured during preexercise treadmill standing and treadmill running. During unweighting, PE standing, and running no difference in soleus blood flow was observed between groups. Muscles composed mainly of fast twitch glycolytic fibers received greater blood flow during chronic unweighting. With exercise blood flow to visceral organs was reduced in control animals, a similar change was not seen in 15 day HU rats. These changes suggest a reduction in the ability of the sympathetic nervous system to distribute cardiac output after chronic HU. A reduction in blood flow to the soleus during exercise was not observed after HU and so does not explain the increased dependence of the atrophied soleus on anerobic energy production during contractile activity.

  8. Myosin heavy chain composition of tiger (Panthera tigris) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, Jon-Philippe K; Roy, Roland R; Rugg, Stuart; Talmadge, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    Felids have a wide range of locomotor activity patterns and maximal running speeds, including the very fast cheetah (Acinonyx jubatas), the roaming tiger (Panthera tigris), and the relatively sedentary domestic cat (Felis catus). As previous studies have suggested a relationship between the amount and type of activity and the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition of a muscle, we assessed the MHC isoform composition of selected hindlimb muscles from these three felid species with differing activity regimens. Using gel electrophoresis, western blotting, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry with MHC isoform-specific antibodies, we compared the MHC composition in the tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius (MG), plantaris (Plt), and soleus muscles of the tiger, cheetah, and domestic cat. The soleus muscle was absent in the cheetah. At least one slow (type I) and three fast (types IIa, IIx, and IIb) MHC isoforms were present in the muscles of each felid. The tiger had a high combined percentage of the characteristically slower isoforms (MHCs I and IIa) in the MG (62%) and the Plt (86%), whereas these percentages were relatively low in the MG (44%) and Plt (55%) of the cheetah. In general, the MHC isoform characteristics of the hindlimb muscles matched the daily activity patterns of these felids: the tiger has daily demands for covering long distances, whereas the cheetah has requirements for speed and power.

  9. Hindlimb Stretching Alters Locomotor Function Post-Spinal Cord Injury in the Adult Rat

    PubMed Central

    Caudle, Krista L.; Atkinson, Darryn A.; Brown, Edward H.; Donaldson, Katie; Seibt, Erik; Chea, Tim; Smith, Erin; Chung, Karianne; Shum-Siu, Alice; Cron, Courtney C.; Magnuson, David S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stretching is a widely accepted standard-of-care therapy following spinal cord injury that has not been systematically studied in animal models. Objective To investigate the influence of a daily stretch-based physical therapy program on locomotor recovery in adult rats with moderate T9 contusive SCI. Methods A randomized treatment and control study of stretching in an animal model of acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Moderate spinal cord injuries were delivered with the NYU Impactor. Daily stretching (30 min./day, 5 days/wk for 8 wks) was provided by a team of animal handlers. Hindlimb function was assessed using the BBB Open Field Locomotor Scale and kinematically. Passive range-of-motion for each joint was determined weekly using a goniometer. Results Declines in hindlimb function during overground stepping were observed for the first 4 weeks. BBB scores improved weeks 5–10 but remained below the control group. Stretched animals had significant deficits in knee passive ROM starting at week 4 and for the duration of the study. Kinematic assessment showed decreased joint excursion during stepping that partially recovered beginning at week 5. Conclusion Stretch-based therapy significantly impaired functional recovery in adult rats with a moderate contusive SCI at T10. The negative impact on function was greatest acutely, but persisted even after the stretching ceased at 8 weeks post-injury. PMID:25106555

  10. Effect of Hindlimb Unweighting on Tissue Blood Flow in the Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. S.; Delp, M. D.; Fitts, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the distribution of blood flow in the rat during hindlimb unweighting (HU) and post-HU standing and exercise and examine whether the previously reported elevation in anaerobic metabolism observed with contractile activity in the atrophied soleus muscle was caused by a reduced hindlimb blood flow. After either 15 days of HU or cage control, blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres during unweighting, normal standing, and running on a treadmill (15 m/min). In another group of control and experimental animals, blood flow was measured during preexercise (PE) treadmill standing and treadmill running (15 m/min). Soleus muscle blood flow was not different between groups during unweighting, PE standing, and running at 15 m/min. Chronic unweighting resulted in the tendency for greater blood flow to muscles composed of predominantly fast-twitch glycolytic fibers. With exercise, blood flow to visceral organs was reduced compared with PE values in the control rats, whereas flow to visceral organs in 15-day HU animals was unaltered by exercise. These higher flows to the viscera and to muscles composed of predominantly fast-twitch glycolytic fibers suggest an apparent reduction in the ability of the sympathetic nervous system to distribute cardiac output after chronic HU. In conclusion, because 15 days of HU did not affect blood flow to the soleus during exercise, the increased dependence of the atrophied soleus on anerobic energy production during contractile activity cannot be explained by a reduced muscle blood flow.

  11. Hindlimb Motor Neurons Require Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase for Maintenance of Neuromuscular Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Flood, Dorothy G.; Reaume, Andrew G.; Gruner, John A.; Hoffman, Eric K.; Hirsch, James D.; Lin, Yin-Guo; Dorfman, Karen S.; Scott, Richard W.

    1999-01-01

    The role of oxidative damage in neurodegenerative disease was investigated in mice lacking cytoplasmic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), created by deletion of the SOD1 gene (SOD1−/−). SOD1−/− mice developed a chronic peripheral hindlimb axonopathy. Mild denervation of muscle was detected at 2 months, and behavioral and physiological motor deficits were present at 5–7 months of age. Ventral root axons were shrunken but were normal in number. The somatosensory system in SOD1−/− mice was mildly affected. SOD1−/− mice expressing Cu/Zn SOD only in brain and spinal cord were generated using transgenic mice expressing mouse SOD1 driven by the neuron-specific synapsin promoter. Neuron-specific expression of Cu/Zn SOD in SOD1−/− mice rescued motor neurons from the neuropathy. Therefore, Cu/Zn SOD is not required for normal motor neuron survival, but is necessary for the maintenance of normal neuromuscular junctions by hindlimb motor neurons. PMID:10433959

  12. The role of the polyol pathway in acute kidney injury caused by hindlimb ischaemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Yagihashi, Soroku; Mizukami, Hiroki; Ogasawara, Saori; Yamagishi, Shin-Ichiro; Nukada, Hitoshi; Kato, Noriaki; Hibi, Chihiro; Chung, Sookja; Chung, Stephen

    2010-04-01

    The polyol pathway, a collateral glycolytic process, previously considered to be active in high glucose milieu, has recently been proposed to play a crucial role in ischaemia/reperfusion tissue injury. In this study, we explored the role of the polyol pathway in acute kidney injury (AKI), a life-threatening condition, caused by hindlimb ischaemia, and determined if inhibition of the polyol pathway by aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor is beneficial for this serious disorder. Mice 8 weeks of age rendered hindlimb ischaemic for 3 h by the clipping of major supporting arteries revealed marked muscle necrosis with accumulation of sorbitol and fructose in ischaemic muscles. Serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), creatinine, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha as well as interleukin (IL)-6 were all elevated in these mice. Treatment with AR inhibitor (ARI) effectively suppressed muscle necrosis and accompanying inflammatory reactions and prevented renal failure. Similar to ARI-treated mice, AR-deficient mice were protected from severe ischaemic limb injury and renal failure, showing only modest muscle necrosis and significant suppression of serum markers of renal failure and inflammation. Thus, these findings suggest that the polyol pathway is implicated in AKI caused by ischaemic limb injury and that AR may be a potential therapeutic target for this condition. PMID:20112370

  13. A New Ischemic Model Using a Radiofrequency Wire Electrode in a Rabbit Hindlimb

    SciTech Connect

    Baik, Hye Won Kwak, Byung Kook; Shim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yang Soo; Lee, Jong Beom; Kim, Kun Sang

    2008-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to establish an ischemic rabbit hindlimb model using a radiofrequency (RF) wire electrode. We inserted a polytetrafluoroethylene-coated wire with a 2-cm exposed tip into the left superficial femoral artery of seven New Zealand white rabbits and performed RF ablation (RFA) while pulling the wire back. We assessed the clinical findings, angiography, computed tomography perfusion, and permeability surface until 6 weeks after RFA. The angiography demonstrated complete obstruction from the proximal external iliac artery to the distal superficial femoral artery and showed a gradual increment in the angiogenic score, which represents the degree of angiogenesis (r = 0.86, p < 0.0001). The left-to-right ratios of the computed tomography perfusion and permeability surface were significantly reduced after 4 days (p < 0.05), and then they gradually increased with time. We conclude that endovascular RFA using an RF wire electrode is a reproducible and measurable way to create an ischemic rabbit hindlimb model.

  14. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Cunping; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Jian; Li, Zian; Pang, Rongqing

    2016-01-01

    Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis. PMID:27651800

  15. Effects of Spaceflight and Hindlimb Suspension on the Posture and Gait of Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. A.; Corcoran, M.; Daunton, N. G.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1994-01-01

    Instability of posture and gait in astronauts following spaceflight (SF) is thought to result from muscle atrophy and from changes in sensory-motor integration in the CNS (central nervous system) that occur during adaptation to microgravity (micro-G). Individuals are thought to have developed, during SF, adaptive changes for the processing of proprioceptive, vestibular and visual sensory inputs with reduced weighting of gravity-based signals and increased weighting of visual and tactile cues. This sensory-motor rearrangement in the CNS apparently occurs to optimize neuromuscular system function for effective movement and postural control in micro-G. However, these adaptive changes are inappropriate for the 1 g environment and lead to disruptions in posture and gait on return to Earth. Few reports are available on the effects of SF on the motor behavior of animals. Rats studied following 18.5 - 19.5 days of SF in the COSMOS program were described as being ..'inert, apathetic, slow'.. and generally unstable. The hindlimbs of these rats were ..'thrust out from the body with fingers pulled apart and the shin unnaturally pronated'. On the 6th postflight day motor behavior was described as similar to that observed in preflight observations. Improved understanding of the mechanisms leading to these changes can be obtained in animal models through detailed analysis of neural and molecular mechanisms related to gait. To begin this process the posture and gait of rats were examined following exposure to either SF or hindlimb suspension (HLS), and during recovery from these conditions.

  16. Recovery of skeletal muscle after 3 mo of hindlimb immobilization in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, F. W.; Seider, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    During immobilization, skeletal muscle undergoes decreases in size and strength with concomitant atrophic and degenerative changes in slow-twitch muscle fibers. Currently there are no objective data in slow-twitch muscle demonstrating recovery of biochemical or physiological indices following termination of immobilization. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the soleus, a slow-twitch muscle, could recover normal biochemical or physiological levels following termination of immobilization. Adenosine triphosphate, glycogen, and protein concentration (mg/g wet wt) all significantly decreased following 90 days of hindlimb immobilization, but these three values returned to control levels by the 60th recovery day. Similarly, soleus muscle wet weight and protein content (mg protein/muscle) returned to control levels by the 14th recovery day. In contrast, maximal isometric tension did not return to normal until the 120th day. These results indicate that following muscular atrophy, which was achieved through 90 days of hindlimb immobilization, several biochemical and physiological values in skeletal muscle are recovered at various times after the end of immobilization.

  17. Maximal vasodilation does not eliminate the vascular waterfall in the canine hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Shrier, I; Magder, S

    1995-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that blood flow through skeletal muscle is regulated by changes in an arteriolar vascular waterfall [critical pressure (Pcrit)] and a proximal (arterial) resistance (Ra) element. To determine whether Pcrit still exists during maximal vasodilation, we pump perfused vascularly isolated canine hindlimbs. We set outflow pressure to zero and measured Pcrit, perfusion pressure (Pper), and regional elastic recoil pressure (Pcl; by a stop-flow technique) and calculated both Ra and venous resistance before and after maximal vasodilation with adenosine and nitroprusside. Pcrit was 56.4 +/- 5.1 mmHg before vasodilation and decreased to 11.0 +/- 0.6 mmHg after vasodilation, which was less than the downstream pressure in the venous compliant region (Pel). Therefore, Pcrit should not have affected flow at normal Pper levels under vasodilated conditions. However, we could still measure Pcrit because our technique allowed Pel to decline and Pcrit becomes apparent once Pel < Pcrit. With vasodilation, Ra decreased to < 8.1 +/- 2.6% and Rv decreased to 41 +/- 6% of control values. In contrast to the nonvasodilated vasculature, increases in venous pressure during maximal vasodilation caused immediate increases in Pper. This also suggests that the vascular waterfall is inactive under conditions of maximal vasodilation. We conclude that a small arteriolar Pcrit is still present in the maximally vasodilated hindlimb but is less than the downstream pressure and does not affect flow under these conditions.

  18. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Cunping; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Jian; Li, Zian; Pang, Rongqing

    2016-01-01

    Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis.

  19. Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Hindlimb Ischemia through Enhancing Angiogenesis in Tree Shrews.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cunping; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Jian; Ruan, Guangping; Li, Zian; Pang, Rongqing; Pan, Xinghua

    2016-01-01

    Hindlimb ischemia is still a clinical problem with high morbidity and mortality. Patients suffer from consequent rest pain, ulcers, cool limbs, and even amputation. Angiogenesis is a promising target for the treatment of ischemic limbs, providing extra blood for the ischemic region. In the present study, we investigated the role of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) in regulating angiogenesis and relieving hindlimb ischemia. UC-MSCs were isolated from the umbilical cord of tree shrews. Angiography results showed that UC-MSCs injection significantly promoted angiogenesis in tree shrews. Moreover, the ankle brachial index, transcutaneous oxygen pressure, blood perfusion, and capillary/muscle fiber ratio were all markedly increased by the application of UC-MSCs. In addition, the conditioned culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells using medium collected from UC-MSCs showed higher expression of angiogenic markers and improved migration ability. In short, the isolated UC-MSCs notably contributed to restoring blood supply and alleviating the symptoms of limb ischemia through enhancing angiogenesis. PMID:27651800

  20. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, R.N.

    AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION HAS LONG EMPHASIZED TECHNICAL ADVISORY SERVICE AT THE EXPENSE OF THE SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF FARM PRODUCTION AND FARM LIFE. ONLY IN TASMANIA HAS FARM MANAGEMENT BEEN STRESSED. DEMANDS FOR THE WHOLE-FARM APPROACH HAVE PRODUCED A TREND TOWARD GENERALISM FOR DISTRICT OFFICERS IN MOST STATES. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT,…

  1. Defective excitation-contraction coupling is partially responsible for impaired contractility in hindlimb muscles of Stac3 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Xiaofei; Doering, Jonathan; Grange, Robert W.; Jiang, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    The Stac3 gene is exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle, and Stac3 knockout is perinatal lethal in mice. Previous data from Stac3-deleted diaphragms indicated that Stac3-deleted skeletal muscle could not contract because of defective excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. In this study, we determined the contractility of Stac3-deleted hindlimb muscle. In response to frequent electrostimulation, Stac3-deleted hindlimb muscle contracted but the maximal tension generated was only 20% of that in control (wild type or heterozygous) muscle (P < 0.05). In response to high [K+], caffeine, and 4-chloro-m-cresol (4-CMC), the maximal tensions generated in Stac3-deleted muscle were 29% (P < 0.05), 58% (P = 0.08), and 55% (P < 0.05) of those in control muscle, respectively. In response to 4-CMC or caffeine, over 90% of myotubes formed from control myoblasts contracted, but only 60% of myotubes formed from Stac3-deleted myoblasts contracted (P = 0.05). However, in response to 4-CMC or caffeine, similar increases in intracellular calcium concentration were observed in Stac3-deleted and control myotubes. Gene expression and histological analyses revealed that Stac3-deleted hindlimb muscle contained more slow type-like fibers than control muscle. These data together confirm a critical role of STAC3 in EC coupling but also suggest that STAC3 may have additional functions in skeletal muscle, at least in the hindlimb muscle. PMID:27184118

  2. Osmotic drug delivery to ischemic hindlimbs and perfusion of vasculature with microfil for micro-computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaobing; Terry, Toya; Pan, Su; Yang, Zhongwei; Willerson, James T; Dixon, Richard A F; Liu, Qi

    2013-06-29

    Preclinical research in animal models of peripheral arterial disease plays a vital role in testing the efficacy of therapeutic agents designed to stimulate microcirculation. The choice of delivery method for these agents is important because the route of administration profoundly affects the bioactivity and efficacy of these agents(1,2). In this article, we demonstrate how to locally administer a substance in ischemic hindlimbs by using a catheterized osmotic pump. This pump can deliver a fixed volume of aqueous solution continuously for an allotted period of time. We also present our mouse model of unilateral hindlimb ischemia induced by ligation of the common femoral artery proximal to the origin of profunda femoris and epigastrica arteries in the left hindlimb. Lastly, we describe the in vivo cannulation and ligation of the infrarenal abdominal aorta and perfusion of the hindlimb vasculature with Microfil, a silicone radiopaque casting agent. Microfil can perfuse and fill the entire vascular bed (arterial and venous), and because we have ligated the major vascular conduit for exit, the agent can be retained in the vasculature for future ex vivo imaging with the use of small specimen micro-CT(3).

  3. Enhanced angiogenic effect of adipose-derived stromal cell spheroid with low-level light therapy in hindlimb ischemia mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, In-Su; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2014-02-01

    Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are attractive cell source for tissue engineering. However, one obstacle to this approach is that the transplanted ASC population can decline rapidly in the recipient tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on transplanted human ASCs (hASCs) spheroid in a hindlimb ischemia animal model. LLLT, hASCs spheroid and hASCs spheroid transplantation with LLLT (spheroid + LLLT) were applied to the ischemic hindlimbs in athymic mice. The survival, differentiation and secretion of vascular endothelial growth (VEGF) of spheroid ASCs were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The spheroid + LLLT group enhanced the tissue regeneration, including angiogenesis, compared with other groups. The spheroid contributed tissue regeneration via differentiation and secretion of growth factors. In the spheroid + LLLT group, the survival of spheroid hASCs was increased by the decreased apoptosis of spheroid hASCs in the ischemic hindlimb. The secretion of growth factors was stimulated in the spheroid + LLLT group compared with the ASCs group and spheroid group. These data suggest that LLLT is an effective biostimulator of spheroid hASCs in tissue regeneration that enhances the survival of ASCs and stimulates the secretion of growth factors in the ischemic hindlimb.

  4. A 3D analysis of fore- and hindlimb motion during overground and ladder walking: comparison of control and unloaded rats.

    PubMed

    Canu, Marie-Hélène; Garnier, Cyril

    2009-07-01

    During locomotion, muscles are controlled by a network of neurones located in the spinal cord and by supraspinal structures. Alterations in that neuromuscular system have a functional impact, in particular on locomotion. The hindlimb unloading (HU) model in rat has been commonly used to generate disuse since it suppresses the hindlimb loading and limits movements. In consequence, it induces plastic mechanisms in the muscle, the spinal cord and the sensorimotor cortex. The aim of this study was to assess the locomotion in HU rats in two conditions: (1) on a runway and (2) in a challenging situation involving the participation of supraspinal structures (ladder walking). For that purpose, the motor pattern has been investigated by means of 3D motion analysis of the right fore- and hindlimbs as well as electromyographic recording of the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles. The 3D motion results show that HU induces a support-dependent alteration of the kinematics: increased duration of step, stance and swing; increased ankle flexion during stance and hyperextension at toe-off; lower protraction during swing. The electromyographic results show that whatever the support, the flexor and extensor burst duration was longer in HU rats. In addition, results show that ladder exacerbates some effects of HU. As ladder walking is a situation which requires precision, it is suggested that the control of hindlimb movement by supraspinal structures is affected in HU rats. PMID:19393236

  5. Ladder beam and camera video recording system for evaluating forelimb and hindlimb deficits after sensorimotor cortex injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Soblosky, J S; Colgin, L L; Chorney-Lane, D; Davidson, J F; Carey, M E

    1997-12-30

    Hindlimb and forelimb deficits in rats caused by sensorimotor cortex lesions are frequently tested by using the narrow flat beam (hindlimb), the narrow pegged beam (hindlimb and forelimb) or the grid-walking (forelimb) tests. Although these are excellent tests, the narrow flat beam generates non-parametric data so that using more powerful parametric statistical analyses are prohibited. All these tests can be difficult to score if the rat is moving rapidly. Foot misplacements, especially on the grid-walking test, are indicative of an ongoing deficit, but have not been reliably and accurately described and quantified previously. In this paper we present an easy to construct and use horizontal ladder-beam with a camera system on rails which can be used to evaluate both hindlimb and forelimb deficits in a single test. By slow motion videotape playback we were able to quantify and demonstrate foot misplacements which go beyond the recovery period usually seen using more conventional measures (i.e. footslips and footfaults). This convenient system provides a rapid and reliable method for recording and evaluating rat performance on any type of beam and may be useful for measuring sensorimotor recovery following brain injury. PMID:9497003

  6. Contribution of Social Isolation, Restraint, and Hindlimb Unloading to Changes in Hemodynamic Parameters and Motion Activity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tsvirkun, Darya; Bourreau, Jennifer; Mieuset, Aurélie; Garo, Florian; Vinogradova, Olga; Larina, Irina; Navasiolava, Nastassia; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude; Custaud, Marc-Antoine

    2012-01-01

    The most accepted animal model for simulation of the physiological and morphological consequences of microgravity on the cardiovascular system is one of head-down hindlimb unloading. Experimental conditions surrounding this model include not only head-down tilting of rats, but also social and restraint stresses that have their own influences on cardiovascular system function. Here, we studied levels of spontaneous locomotor activity, blood pressure, and heart rate during 14 days under the following experimental conditions: cage control, social isolation in standard rat housing, social isolation in special cages for hindlimb unloading, horizontal attachment (restraint), and head-down hindlimb unloading. General activity and hemodynamic parameters were continuously monitored in conscious rats by telemetry. Heart rate and blood pressure were both evaluated during treadmill running to reveal cardiovascular deconditioning development as a result of unloading. The main findings of our work are that: social isolation and restraint induced persistent physical inactivity, while unloading in rats resulted in initial inactivity followed by normalization and increased locomotion after one week. Moreover, 14 days of hindlimb unloading showed significant elevation of blood pressure and slight elevation of heart rate. Hemodynamic changes in isolated and restrained rats largely reproduced the trends observed during unloading. Finally, we detected no augmentation of tachycardia during moderate exercise in rats after 14 days of unloading. Thus, we concluded that both social isolation and restraint, as an integral part of the model conditions, contribute essentially to cardiovascular reactions during head-down hindlimb unloading, compared to the little changes in the hydrostatic gradient. PMID:22768322

  7. Myoneural necrosis following high-frequency electrical stimulation of the cast-immobilized rabbit hindlimb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friden, J.; Lieber, R. L.; Myers, R. R.; Powell, H. C.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The morphological and physiological effects of 4 weeks of high-frequency electrical stimulation (1 h/day, 5 days/week) on cast-immobilized rabbit hindlimbs were investigated in the tibialis anterior muscle and peroneal nerve. In 2 out of 6 animals, high-frequency stimulation with immobilization caused muscle fiber death, internalization of muscle fiber nuclei, connective tissue proliferation, inflammatory response, altered fiber size distribution and variable staining intensities. The fast-twitch fibers were predominantly affected. Two of six peripheral nerves subjected to immobilization and stimulation showed severe damage. Tetanic forces were significantly reduced in the affected muscles. Therefore, the immobilization and high-frequency stimulation may be detrimental to myoneural structure and function and, thus, this combination of therapies should be applied conservatively.

  8. Effect of hindlimb unweighting on single soleus fiber maximal shortening velocity and ATPase activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. S.; Fitts, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of hindlimb unweighting (HU) for 1 to 3 wks on the shortening velocity of a soleus fiber, its ATPase content, and the relative contents of the slow and fast myosin was investigated by measuring fiber force, V(0), ATPase activity, and myosin content in SDS protein profiles of a single rat soleus fiber suspended between a motor arm and a transducer. It was found that HU induces a progressive increase in fiber V(0) that is likely caused, at least in part, by an increase in the fiber's myofibrillar ATPase activity. The HU-induced increases in V(0) and ATPase were associated with the presence of a greater percentage of fast type IIa fibers. However, a large population of fibers after 1, 2, and 3 wks of HU showed increases in V(0) and ATPase but displayed the same myosin protein profile on SDS gels as control fibers.

  9. Hindlimb suspension and SPE-like radiation impairs clearance of bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghong; Holmes, Veronica; Zhou, Yu; Ni, Houping; Sanzari, Jenine K; Kennedy, Ann R; Weissman, Drew

    2014-01-01

    A major risk of extended space travel is the combined effects of weightlessness and radiation exposure on the immune system. In this study, we used the hindlimb suspension model of microgravity that includes the other space stressors, situational and confinement stress and alterations in food intake, and solar particle event (SPE)-like radiation to measure the combined effects on the ability to control bacterial infections. A massive increase in morbidity and decrease in the ability to control bacterial growth was observed using 2 different types of bacteria delivered by systemic and pulmonary routes in 3 different strains of mice. These data suggest that an astronaut exposed to a strong SPE during extended space travel is at increased risk for the development of infections that could potentially be severe and interfere with mission success and astronaut health.

  10. Effect of hindlimb suspension and clenbuterol treatment on polyamine levels in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abukhalaf, Imad K.; von Deutsch, Daniel A.; Wineski, Lawrence E.; Silvestrov, Natalia A.; Abera, Saare A.; Sahlu, Sinafikish W.; Potter, David E.; Thierry-Palmer, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Polyamines are unbiquitous, naturally occurring small aliphatic, polycationic, endogenous compounds. They are involved in many cellular processes and may serve as secondary or tertiary messengers to hormonal regulation. The relationship of polyamines and skeletal muscle mass of adductor longus, extensor digitorum longus, and gastrocnemius under unloading (hindlimb suspension) conditions was investigated. Unloading significantly affected skeletal muscle polyamine levels in a fiber-type-specific fashion. Under loading conditions, clenbuterol treatment increased all polyamine levels, whereas under unloading conditions, only the spermidine levels were consistently increased. Unloading attenuated the anabolic effects of clenbuterol in predominately slow-twitch muscles (adductor longus), but had little impact on clenbuterol's action as a countermeasure in fast- twitch muscles such as the extensor digitorum longus. Spermidine appeared to be the primary polyamine involved in skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Hindlimb Suspension and SPE-Like Radiation Impairs Clearance of Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minghong; Holmes, Veronica; Zhou, Yu; Ni, Houping; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Kennedy, Ann R.; Weissman, Drew

    2014-01-01

    A major risk of extended space travel is the combined effects of weightlessness and radiation exposure on the immune system. In this study, we used the hindlimb suspension model of microgravity that includes the other space stressors, situational and confinement stress and alterations in food intake, and solar particle event (SPE)-like radiation to measure the combined effects on the ability to control bacterial infections. A massive increase in morbidity and decrease in the ability to control bacterial growth was observed using 2 different types of bacteria delivered by systemic and pulmonary routes in 3 different strains of mice. These data suggest that an astronaut exposed to a strong SPE during extended space travel is at increased risk for the development of infections that could potentially be severe and interfere with mission success and astronaut health. PMID:24454913

  12. Fatigability and blood flow in the rat gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus after hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. S.; Delp, M. D.; Fitts, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis that hindlimb suspension (HS) increases the fatigability of the soleus during intense contractile activity and that the increased fatigue is associated with a reduced muscle blood flow was tested using caged control rats and rats subjected to HS for 15 days. After 15 days, either the soleus or the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus (G-P-S) muscle group was stimulated in situ (10 min at 100 Hz, 100 ms trains at 120/min), and in the G-P-S preparation, blood flow was measured with radiolabeled microspheres before and at 2 min and 10 min after the start of contractile activity. The results indicate that 15 days of HS resulted in increased fatigability of the soleus, but the effect was not caused by a reduced muscle blood flow.

  13. [Changes of femur minerals and serum BGP in hindlimb unloaded rats during convalescence].

    PubMed

    Wan, Y M; Zhang, M F; Cui, W; Song, J P

    2000-08-01

    Objective. To observe bone mass changes during convalescence after simulated weightlessness. Method. 7-week-old rats were tail-suspended for 21 d then reloaded for 7 d and 21 d to recover, and measured serum BGP. Result. Tail suspension of rats for 21 d caused significant decrease of serum BGP and phosphorus as well as femur minerals. Serum BGP and femur minerals were still lower than control levels, but serum contents of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium increased significantly after reloading for 7 d. Femur minerals and serum BGP, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium returned to control levels after reloading for 21 d. Conclusion. The deficit in femur mineral induced by hindlimb unloading in rats can be restored by return to normal weight bearing, BGP can be used to monitor the case of its recovery.

  14. Effect of seven days of spaceflight on hindlimb muscle protein, RNA and DNA in adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of seven days of spaceflight on skeletal muscle (soleus, gastrocnemius, EDL) content of protein, RNA and DNA were determined in adult rats. Whereas total protein contents were reduced in parallel with muscle weights, myofibrillar protein appeared to be more affected. There were no significant changes in absolute DNA contents, but a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in DNA concentration (microgram/milligram) in soleus muscles from flight rats. Absolute RNA contents were significantly (P less than 0.025) decreased in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of flight rats, with RNA concentrations reduced 15-30 percent. These results agree with previous ground-based observations on the suspended rat with unloaded hindlimbs and support continued use of this model.

  15. Adaptation of bone and tendon to prolonged hindlimb suspension in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailas, Arthur C.; Deluna, Diane M.; Lewis, Lisa L.; Curwin, Sandra L.; Roy, Roland R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a sustained deprivation of ground reaction forces on mineralized and soft connective tissues was investigated in rats subjected to 28-d-long hind-limb suspension. The results of morphological and biochemical studies carried out on femurs and patellar tendons obtained from suspended and nonsuspended 110-d-old rats showed that prolonged suspension led to an increase of the minimum diameter of the femur middiaphysis (by 12 percent), without any significant alterations in cortical area, density, mineral and collagen concentrations, femur wet weight, length, and DNA and uronic acid concentrations. However, in the patellar tendons of suspended rats, the collagen and proteoglycan concentrations were 28 percent lower than in tendons obtained from nonsuspended animals. These results suggest that ground reaction forces are important for the maintenance of cortical bone and patellar tendon homeostasis during weight-bearing conditions.

  16. Effect of anabolic steroids on skeletal muscle mass during hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass of plantaris and soleus of a rats in hindlimb suspension, and on the isomyosin expression in these muscles, was investigated in young female rats divided into four groups: normal control (NC), normal steroid (NS), normal suspension (N-sus), and suspension steroid (sus-S). Steroid treatment of suspended animals (sus-S vs N-sus) was found to partially spare body weight and muscle weight, as well as myofibril content of plantaris (but not soleus), but did not modify the isomyosin pattern induced by suspension. In normal rats (NS vs NC), steroid treatment did enhance body weight and plantaris muscle weight; the treatment did not alter isomyosin expression in either muscle type.

  17. Atrophy and growth failure of rat hindlimb muscles in tail-cast suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, S. R.; Tischler, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study is related to an evaluation of a modified tail-cast suspension model as a means of identifying metabolic factors which control or are associated with muscle atrophy and growth failure. Two different control conditions (normal and tail-casted weight bearing) were studied to determine the appropriate control for tail-cast suspension. A description is presented of a model which is most useful for studying atrophy of hindlimb muscles under certain conditions. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were employed in the experiments. Attention is given to growth rate and urinary excretion of urea and ammonia in different types of rats, the relationship between body weight and skeletal muscle weight, and the relationship between animal body weight and rates of protein synthesis and protein degradation.

  18. Forelimb and hindlimb ground reaction forces of walking cats: assessment and comparison with walking dogs.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J; Maas, H; Doornenbal, A; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2014-10-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the potential of force plate analysis for describing the stride cycle of the cat. The secondary aim was to define differences in feline and canine locomotion based on force plate characteristics. Ground reaction forces of 24 healthy cats were measured and compared with ground reaction forces of 24 healthy dogs. Force-time waveforms in cats generated by force plate analysis were consistent, as reflected by intra-class correlation coefficients for peak vertical force, peak propulsive force and peak braking force (0.94-0.95, 0.85-0.89 and 0.89-0.90, respectively). Compared with dogs, cats had a higher peak vertical force during the propulsion phase (cat, 3.89 ± 0.19 N/kg; dog, 3.03 ± 0.16 N/kg), and a higher hindlimb propulsive force (cat, -1.08 ± 0.13 N/kg; dog, (-0.87 ± 0.13 N/kg) and hindlimb impulse (cat, -0.18 ± 0.03 N/kg; dog, -0.14 ± 0.02 N/kg). Force plate analysis is a valuable tool for the assessment of locomotion in cats, because it can be applied in the clinical setting and provides a non-invasive and objective measurement of locomotion characteristics with high repeatability in cats, as well as information about kinetic characteristics. Differences in force-time waveforms between cats and dogs can be explained by the more crouched position of cats during stance and their more compliant gait compared with dogs. Feline waveforms of the medio-lateral ground reaction forces also differ between cats and dogs and this can be explained by differences in paw supination-pronation.

  19. Effects of Microgravity On Oxidative and Antioxidant Enzymes In Mouse Hindlimb Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girten, B.; Hoopes, R.; Steele, M.; Morony, S.; Bateman, T. A.; Sun, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Gastrocnemius muscle of mice were analyzed in order to examine the effects of 12 days of microgravity on the oxidative enzyme climate synthase (CS) and the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). The female C57BL/6J mice utilized for this study were part of the Commercial Biomedical Testing Module (CBTM) payload that flew aboard STS-108. Mice were housed in Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMs) provided by NASA Ames. The flight (FLT) group and the ground control (CON) group each had 12 mice per group. The AEMs that held the CON group operated on a 48-hour delay from the FLT group and were located inside the Orbital Environmental Simulator (OES) at Kennedy Space Center. The temperature, CO2 and relative humidity inside the OES was regulated based on downlinked information from the shuttle middeck. Student T tests were used to compare groups and a p < 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Results indicated that CS levels for the FLT group were significantly lower than the CON group while the SOD levels were significantly higher. The CS FLT mean was 19% lower and the SOD FLT mean was 17% higher than the respective CON group means. Although these findings are among the first muscle enzyme values reported for mice from a shuttle mission, these results are similar to some results previously reported for rats exposed to microgravity or hindlimb suspension. The changes seen during the CBTM payload are reflective of the deconditioning that takes place with disuse of the hindlimbs and indicate that muscle enzyme changes induced by disuse deconditioning are similar in both rodent species.

  20. Response of arterial resistance and critical pressure to changes in perfusion pressure in canine hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Shrier, I; Magder, S

    1993-12-01

    The dynamic pressure-flow relationship in the canine hindlimb at normal arterial pressure is best explained by modeling a Starling resistor (critical pressure, Pcrit) at the level of the arterioles. Regulation of flow can therefore occur at the Starling resistor through changes in Pcrit or along the length of the vessel through changes in arterial resistance (Ra). We hypothesized that increasing perfusion pressure (Pper) would increase Pcrit due to the myogenic response but would decrease Ra because of flow-mediated vasodilation and passive effects. We pump-perfused vascularly isolated hindlimbs of anesthetized dogs and then measured Pcrit and calculated Ra over Pper range of 75-175 mmHg. When Pper was increased from 75 to 175 mmHg, Pcrit increased from 33 +/- 2 to 48 +/- 6 (means +/- SE) mmHg, whereas Ra decreased from 10.1 +/- 1.2 to 7.86 +/- 0.7 mmHg.min.100 g.ml-1 (P < 0.01). Thus the responses of Pcrit and Ra to an increase in Pper were dissociated. In a second part of the study, we lowered carotid sinus pressure to determine the effects of central factors on local autoregulation. A decrease in carotid sinus pressure increased Pcrit and Ra at each Pper (P < 0.05). We conclude that an increase in Pper causes the arterial vasculature to constrict at the level of the Starling resistor and dilate more proximally. The carotid baroreflex causes an increase in tone throughout the arterial vasculature but does not alter the local response to increases in Pper. PMID:8285232

  1. Far red/near infrared light treatment promotes femoral artery collateralization in the ischemic hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Nicole L; Ninomiya, James T; Warltier, David C; Weihrauch, Dorothée

    2013-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a crucial mediator of hindlimb collateralization and angiogenesis. Within tissues there are nitrosyl-heme proteins which have the potential to generate NO under conditions of hypoxia or low pH. Low level irradiation of blood and muscle with light in the far red/near infrared spectrum (670 nm, R/NIR) facilitates NO release. Therefore, we assessed the impact of red light exposure on the stimulation of femoral artery collateralization. Rabbits and mice underwent unilateral resection of the femoral artery and chronic R/NIR treatment. The direct NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME were also administered in the presence of R/NIR. DAF fluorescence assessed R/NIR changes in NO levels within endothelial cells. In vitro measures of R/NIR induced angiogenesis were assessed by endothelial cell proliferation and migration. R/NIR significantly increased collateral vessel number which could not be attenuated with L-NAME. R/NIR induced collateralization was abolished with c-PTIO. In vitro, NO production increased in endothelial cells with R/NIR exposure, and this finding was independent of NOS inhibition. Similarly R/NIR induced proliferation and tube formation in a NO dependent manner. Finally, nitrite supplementation accelerated R/NIR collateralization in wild type C57Bl/6 mice. In an eNOS deficient transgenic mouse model, R/NIR restores collateral development. In conclusion, R/NIR increases NO levels independent of NOS activity, and leads to the observed enhancement of hindlimb collateralization.

  2. Fatigability and Blood Flow in the Rat Gastrocnemius-Plantaris-Soleus after Hindlimb Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. S.; Delp, M. D.; Fitts, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that hindlimb suspension increases the fatigability of the soleus during intense contractile activity and determine whether the increased fatigue is associated with a reduced muscle blood flow. Cage-control (C) and 15-day hindlimb-suspended (HS) rats were anesthetized, and either the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus (G-P-S) muscle group or the soleus was stimulated (100 Hz, 100-ms trains at 120/min) for 10 min in situ. In the G-P-S preparation, blood flow was measured with radiolabeled microspheres before and at 2 and 10 min of contractile activity. The G-P-S fatigued markedly at this stimulation frequency, and the differences between C and HS animals were not significant until the 9th min of contractile activity. In contrast, the stimulation resulted in faster rates and significantly larger amounts of fatigue in the soleus from HS than from C animals. The atrophied soleus showed significant differences by I min of stimulation (C = 70 +/- 1% vs. HS = 57 +/- 2% of peak train force) and remained different at 10 min (C = 64 +/- 4% vs. HS = 45 +/- 2% peak train force). Relative blood flow to the soleus was similar between groups before and during contractile activity (rest: C = 20 +/- 3 vs. HS= 12 +/- 3; 2 min: C= 128 +/- 6 vs. HS = 118 +/- 4; 10 min: C = 123 +/- 11 vs. HS = 105 +/- 11 ml min(exp -1) 100 g(exp -1)). In conclusion, these results established that 15 days of HS increased the fatigability of the soleus, but the effect was not caused by a reduced muscle blood flow.

  3. Effects of hindlimb unweighting on the mechanical and structure properties of the rat abdominal aorta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, Anthony; Delp, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that hindlimb unweighting of rats, a model of microgravity, reduces evoked contractile tension of peripheral conduit arteries. It has been hypothesized that this diminished contractile tension is the result of alterations in the mechanical properties of these arteries (e.g., active and passive mechanics). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the reduced contractile force of the abdominal aorta from 2-wk hindlimb-unweighted (HU) rats results from a mechanical function deficit resulting from structural vascular alterations or material property changes. Aortas were isolated from control (C) and HU rats, and vasoconstrictor responses to norepinephrine (10(-9)-10(-4) M) and AVP (10(-9)-10(-5) M) were tested in vitro. In a second series of tests, the active and passive Cauchy stress-stretch relations were determined by incrementally increasing the uniaxial displacement of the aortic rings. Maximal Cauchy stress in response to norepinephrine and AVP were less in aortic rings from HU rats. The active Cauchy stress-stretch response indicated that, although maximum stress was lower in aortas from HU rats (C, 8.1 +/- 0.2 kPa; HU, 7.0 +/- 0.4 kPa), it was achieved at a similar hoop stretch. There were also no differences in the passive Cauchy stress-stretch response or the gross vascular morphology (e.g., medial cross-sectional area: C, 0.30 +/- 0.02 mm(2); HU, 0.32 +/- 0.01 mm(2)) between groups and no differences in resting or basal vascular tone at the displacement that elicits peak developed tension between groups (resting tension: C, 1.71 +/- 0.06 g; HU, 1.78 +/- 0.14 g). These results indicate that HU does not alter the functional mechanical properties of conduit arteries. However, the significantly lower active Cauchy stress of aortas from HU rats demonstrates a true contractile deficit in these arteries.

  4. Site- and compartment-specific changes in bone with hindlimb unloading in mature adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, S. A.; Allen, M. R.; Hogan, H. A.; Delp, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine site- and compartment-specific changes in bone induced by hindlimb unloading (HU) in the mature adult male rat (6 months old). Tibiae, femora, and humeri were removed after 14, 21, and 28 days of HU for determination of bone mineral density (BMD) and geometry by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), mechanical properties, and bone formation rate (BFR), and compared with baseline (0 day) and aging (28 day) controls. HU resulted in 20%-21% declines in cancellous BMD at the proximal tibia and femoral neck after 28 day HU vs. 0 day controls (CON). Cortical shell BMD at these sites was greater (by 4%-6%) in both 28 day HU and 28 day CON vs. 0 day CON animals, and nearly identical to that gain seen in the weight-bearing humerus. Mechanical properties at the proximal tibia exhibited a nonsignificant decline after HU vs. those of 0 day CON rats. At the femoral neck, a 10% decrement was noted in ultimate load in 28 day HU rats vs. 28 day CON animals. Middiaphyseal tibial bone increased slightly in density and area during HU; no differences in structural and material properties between 28 day HU and 28 day CON rats were noted. BFR at the tibial midshaft was significantly lower (by 90%) after 21 day HU vs. 0 day CON; this decline was maintained throughout 28 day HU. These results suggest there are compartment-specific differences in the mature adult skeletal response to hindlimb unloading, and that the major impact over 28 days of unloading is on cancellous bone sites. Given the sharp decline in BFR for midshaft cortical bone, it appears likely that deficits in BMD, area, or mechanical properties would develop with longer duration unloading.

  5. Stimulation of Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis in Hindlimb Suspended Rats by Resistance Exercise and Growth Hormone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linderman, Jon K.; Whittall, Justen B.; Gosselink, Kristin L.; Wang, Tommy J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Booth, Frank W.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ability of a single bout of resistance exercise alone or in combination with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) to stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis (Ks) in hindlimb suspended (HLS) adult female rats. Plantar flexor muscles were stimulated with resistance exercise, consisting of 10 repetitions of ladder climbing on a 1 m grid (85 deg.), carrying an additional 50% of their body weight attached to their tails. Saline or rhGH (1 mg/kg) was administered 30' prior to exercise, and Ks was determined with a constant infusion of H-3-Leucine at 15', 60', 180', and 360' following exercise. Three days of HLS depressed Ks is approx. equal to 65% and 30-40% in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, respectively (p is less than or equal to 0.05). Exercise increased soleus Ks in saline-treated rats 149% 60' following exercise (p less than or equal to 0.05), decaying to that of non-exercised animals during the next 5 hours. Relative to suspended, non-exercised rats rhGH + exercise increased soleus Ks 84%, 108%, and 72% at 15', 60' and 360' following exercise (p is less than or equal to 0.05). Gastrocnemius Ks was not significantly increased by exercise or the combination of rhGH and exercise up to 360' post-exercise. Results from this study indicate that resistance exercise stimulated Ks 60' post-exercise in the soleus of HLS rats, with no apparent effect of rhGH to enhance or prolong exercise-induced stimulation. Results suggests that exercise frequency may be important to maintenance of the slow-twitch soleus during non-weightbearing, but that the ability of resistance exercise to maintain myofibrillar protein content in the gastrocnemius of hindlimb suspended rats cannot be explained by acute stimulation of synthesis.

  6. Challenging the Surgical Rodent Hindlimb Ischemia Model with the Miniinterventional Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhen W.; Shi, Jing; Rhodes, John M.; Tsapakos, Michael J.; Simons, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop an interventional hindlimb ischemic model and compare its angiogenic effect versus surgical ligation (SL) and excision of the femoral artery in rats treated with transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells (MNCs) as an angiogenic stimulator. Materials and Methods Forty-eight Lewis rats randomly received interventional embolization (IE) with hydrogel wire or SL and excision of the right femoral artery. Rodents were intraarterially transplanted with 1.5 × 107 MNCs in 500 μL medium from 24 isogenic donor rats. Functional and structural recovery was evaluated by laser Doppler imaging (LDI), cytokine/chemokine assay, and histologic staining. Results In vivo microscopic images showed significantly dilated vasa vasorum around the embolized segment of the right femoral artery at 3 days compared with disorganized tissue structure in the SL group. However, the LDI index was significantly higher in the SL group at 3 days compared with the IE group. LDI did not significantly differ between the two groups at 2 weeks after transplantation. Cytokine assay showed higher levels of interleukin (IL)–1α and IL-18 in the SL group; the IE group had higher levels of interferon-γ, IL-6, IL-13, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Histologic examination demonstrated inflammatory infiltration near the incision within nerve fibers with dilated capillaries, showing nerve degeneration in the SL group. At 2 weeks, histologic analysis demonstrated massive scarring under the skin spreading into the musculature in the SL group. Conclusions A minimally invasive hindlimb ischemia model has been successfully developed that preserves tissue integrity and minimizes inflammation and confounding factors in the early stages of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis. PMID:21459613

  7. Effects of nifedipine on vascular waterfall and arterial resistance in canine hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Shrier, I; Magder, S

    1995-01-01

    Pressure-flow relations in the canine hindlimb can be well explained by a vascular waterfall at the arteriolar level. Under these conditions, P(art) = Pcrit + Q.Rart, where P(art) is the arterial pressure, Pcrit is the waterfall pressure, Q is regional flow, and Rart is the arterial resistance of the vessels upstream from the waterfall. To determine whether calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle affect Pcrit in addition to Rart, we pump perfused canine hindlimbs and measured both variables over a range of perfusion pressures (Pper) before and during the infusion of the calcium channel blocker nifedipine. Nifedipine significantly decreased Pcrit and Rart at each Pper. Increasing Pper under control conditions from 50 to 150 mmHg significantly increased Pcrit from 24.2 +/- 1.5 to 42.5 +/- 2.2 mmHg. During nifedipine infusion, increasing Pper from 25 to 100 mmHg also increased Pcrit from 14.5 +/- 1.5 to 20.2 +/- 1.9 mmHg, but the rate of increase was less. In contrast to the rise in Pcrit with increasing Pper, Rart significantly decreased from 10.7 +/- 1.1 to 8.1 +/- 1.2 mmHg.min.100 g.ml-1 before nifedipine infusion, and from 5.7 +/- 0.4 to 2.2 +/- 0.1 mmHg.min.100 g.ml-1 during nifedipine infusion. Venous resistance (Rven) significantly decreased with increases in Pper and during nifedipine infusion. The regional elastic recoil pressure (Pel, a measure of small venular pressure) increased with both an increase in Pper and nifedipine. These results suggest that nifedipine decreases Pcrit, Rart, and Rven and that at constant Pper nifedipine increases Pel.

  8. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  9. The Effects of Ligustrazine on the Ca2+ Concentration of Soleus and Gastrocnemius Muscle Fibers in Hindlimb Unloaded Rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yunfang; Goswami, Nandu; Du, Bei; Hu, Huanxin; Wu, Xue

    Background:Spaceflight or inactivity (bed rest, limb immobilization, hindlimb unloading) causes skeletal muscle atrophy. Recent studies show that an increase in protein degradation is an important mechanism for disuse atrophy. Furthermore, the calcium overload of disuse-atrophied muscle fiber has been shown to initiate the skeletal muscle proteolysis in disuse atrophy. Ligustrazine (tetramethylpyrazine, TMP), one of the important active ingredient extracted from Chuanxiong, has been shown by our group to increase muscle fiber cross-sectional area in atrophied soleus induced by 14 days hindlimb unloading. However, the underlying mechanisms of ligustrazine effects on disuse-atrophied muscle fibers remain unknown. Objective: We investigated the effects of ligustrazine on the cytoplasmic calcium overloading in soleus and gastrocnemius in 14 days hindlimb unloaded (HU) rats. Methods: Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for body mass and randomly assigned to three groups (n=8, each group): 1) synchronous control (CON); HU + intragastric water instillation (HU+W); HU + intragastric 60.0 mg kg-1 ligustrazine instillation (HU+Tmp). Laser scanning confocal microscope assessed the concentrations of cytoplasmic calcium ions. Spaceflight disuse atrophy was simulated by hindlimb unloading, provided by tail suspension. Results: 1) Compared with CON, the concentration of soleus intracellular calcium ion in HU+W and HU+Tmp increased 330% and 86% respectively(P<0.01). Compared with HU+W, the concentration of soleus intracellular calcium ion in HU+Tmp decreased by 130%(P<0.01). 2) Compared with CON, the concentration of gastrocnemius intracellular calcium ion in HU+W and HU+Tmp increased 189.8% and 32.1% respectively(P<0.01). Compared with HU+W, the concentration of gastrocnemius intracellular calcium ion in HU+Tmp decreased by 119.3% (P<0.01). Conclusion: After 14 days of hindlimb unloading, cytoplasmic calcium of soleus (slow-twitch muscle) and gastrocnemius (fast

  10. Programmed administration of parathyroid hormone increases bone formation and reduces bone loss in hindlimb-unloaded ovariectomized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Evans, G. L.; Cavolina, J. M.; Halloran, B.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1998-01-01

    Gonadal insufficiency and reduced mechanical usage are two important risk factors for osteoporosis. The beneficial effects of PTH therapy to reverse the estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in the laboratory rat are well known, but the influence of mechanical usage in this response has not been established. In this study, the effects of programed administration of PTH on cancellous bone volume and turnover at the proximal tibial metaphysis were determined in hindlimb-unloaded, ovariectomized (OVX), 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats. PTH was administered to weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats with osmotic pumps programed to deliver 20 microg human PTH (approximately 80 microg/kg x day) during a daily 1-h infusion for 7 days. Compared with sham-operated rats, OVX increased longitudinal and radial bone growth, increased indexes of cancellous bone turnover, and resulted in net resorption of cancellous bone. Hindlimb unloading of OVX rats decreased longitudinal and radial bone growth, decreased osteoblast number, increased osteoclast number, and resulted in a further decrease in cancellous bone volume compared with those in weight-bearing OVX rats. Programed administration of PTH had no effect on either radial or longitudinal bone growth in weight-bearing and hindlimb-unloaded OVX rats. PTH treatment had dramatic effects on selected cancellous bone measurements; PTH maintained cancellous bone volume in OVX weight-bearing rats and greatly reduced cancellous bone loss in OVX hindlimb-unloaded rats. In the latter animals, PTH treatment prevented the hindlimb unloading-induced reduction in trabecular thickness, but the hormone was ineffective in preventing either the increase in osteoclast number or the loss of trabecular plates. Importantly, PTH treatment increased the retention of a baseline flurochrome label, osteoblast number, and bone formation in the proximal tibial metaphysis regardless of the level of mechanical usage. These findings demonstrate that

  11. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  12. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  13. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  14. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  15. Alterations in Vasoreactivity of Femoral Artery Induced by Hindlimb Unweighting are Related to the Changes of Contractile Protein in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Jin; Ren, Xinling; Meng, Qinjun; Zhang, Lifan; Purdy, Ralph E.

    2005-01-01

    Responses of endothelium removed femoral arterial rings to vasoactive compounds were examined in vitro, and the expression of Myosin and Actin of femoral artery were observed by Western Blotting and Immunohistochemistry in hndlimb unweighting rats and control rats. The results showed that contractile responses of femoral arterial rings evoked by Phenylephrine, Endothelin-1, Vasopressin, KCl, Ca(2+) and Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 were decreased in hindlimb unweighting rats as compared with that of controls. But vasoddatory responses induced by SNPand cGMP were not different between groups. No significant differences have been found in expressions of Calponin, Myosin, Actin, and the ratio of MHC SM1/SM2 between the two groups, but expression of alpha-SM-Actin decreased in hindlimb unweighting rats. The data indicated that the diminished contractile responsiveness probably result from altered contractile apparatus, especially the contractile proteins.

  16. The effects of thermogenic agents on hindlimb oxygen consumption in the dog: ICI D7114 and noradrenaline.

    PubMed

    Gainer, J L; Briscoe, M G; Holloway, B R

    1993-01-15

    The thermogenic action of beta-adrenoceptor agonists may be due, in part, to increased metabolism in skeletal muscle. Previous results suggest that vasoconstriction is also necessary, and that the effect can be blocked by vasodilators. Both noradrenaline and the beta-3 agonist, ICI D7114, were studied using two dog hindlimb protocols. During constant perfusion conditions, ICI D7114 caused a significant increase in hindlimb oxygen consumption although it is a vasodilator. Noradrenaline resulted in a smaller rise in oxygen consumption, and produced a marked vasoconstriction. Both noradrenaline and ICI D7114 resulted in decreased oxygen consumption when the blood flow was allowed to vary in response to the drug treatment. The results suggest that changes in tissue oxygen consumption caused by beta-agonists are not related to vasomotion. PMID:8094057

  17. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  19. Three-dimensional hindlimb kinematics of water running in the plumed basilisk lizard (Basiliscus plumifrons).

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S Tonia

    2003-12-01

    Much of what is known about tetrapod locomotion is based upon movement over solid surfaces. Yet in the wild, animals are forced to move over substrates with widely varying properties. Basilisk lizards are unique in their ability to run across water from the time they hatch to adulthood. Previous studies have developed mechanical models or presented theoretical analyses of running across water, but no detailed kinematic descriptions of limb motion are currently available. The present study reports the first three-dimensional kinematic descriptions of plumed basilisk lizards (Basiliscus plumifrons) running across water, from hatchling (2.8 g) to adult (78 g) size range. Basilisks ran on a 4.6 m-long water track and were filmed with two synchronized high-speed cameras at 250 frames s(-1) and 1/1250 s shutter speed. All coordinates were transformed into three dimensions using direct linear transformation. Seventy-six kinematic variables and six morphological variables were measured or calculated to describe the motion of the hindlimb, but only 32 variables most relevant to kinematic motion are presented here. Kinematic variation among individuals was primarily related to size differences rather than sprint speed. Although basilisk lizards applied some of the same strategies to increase running velocity across water as other tetrapods do on land, their overall kinematics differ dramatically. The feet exhibit much greater medio-lateral excursions while running through water than do those of other lizards while running on land. Also, whereas the hindlimb kinematics of other lizards on land are typically symmetrical (i.e. limb excursions anterior to the hip are of similar magnitude to the limb excursions aft of the hip), basilisks running through water exhibit much greater excursions aft than they do anterior to the hip. Finally, ankle and knee flexion in early stance is a defining feature of a tetrapod step during terrestrial locomotion; yet this characteristic is missing

  20. Assessment of hindlimb locomotor strength in spinal cord transected rats through animal-robot contact force.

    PubMed

    Nessler, Jeff A; Moustafa-Bayoumi, Moustafa; Soto, Dalziel; Duhon, Jessica; Schmitt, Ryan

    2011-12-01

    Robotic locomotor training devices have gained popularity in recent years, yet little has been reported regarding contact forces experienced by the subject performing automated locomotor training, particularly in animal models of neurological injury. The purpose of this study was to develop a means for acquiring contact forces between a robotic device and a rodent model of spinal cord injury through instrumentation of a robotic gait training device (the rat stepper) with miniature force/torque sensors. Sensors were placed at each interface between the robot arm and animal's hindlimb and underneath the stepping surface of both hindpaws (four sensors total). Twenty four female, Sprague-Dawley rats received mid-thoracic spinal cord transections as neonates and were included in the study. Of these 24 animals, training began for 18 animals at 21 days of age and continued for four weeks at five min/day, five days/week. The remaining six animals were untrained. Animal-robot contact forces were acquired for trained animals weekly and untrained animals every two weeks while stepping in the robotic device with both 60 and 90% of their body weight supported (BWS). Animals that received training significantly increased the number of weight supported steps over the four week training period. Analysis of raw contact forces revealed significant increases in forward swing and ground reaction forces during this time, and multiple aspects of animal-robot contact forces were significantly correlated with weight bearing stepping. However, when contact forces were normalized to animal body weight, these increasing trends were no longer present. Comparison of trained and untrained animals revealed significant differences in normalized ground reaction forces (both horizontal and vertical) and normalized forward swing force. Finally, both forward swing and ground reaction forces were significantly reduced at 90% BWS when compared to the 60% condition. These results suggest that

  1. Hindlimb musculature of the largest living rodent Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Caviomorpha): Adaptations to semiaquatic and terrestrial styles of life.

    PubMed

    García-Esponda, César M; Candela, Adriana M

    2016-03-01

    The caviomorph species Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Cavioidea), or capybara, is the largest living rodent. This species is widely distributed, from northern South America to Uruguay and eastern Argentina, inhabiting in a wide variety of densely vegetated lowlands habitats in the proximity of water. Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris not only runs with agility, like other members of the Cavioidea, but it can also swim and dive easily. For these reasons, it has been classified as a cursorial as well as semiaquatic species. However, comprehensive anatomical descriptions of the osteology and myology of the capybara are not available in the literature and analyses on its swimming abilities are still required. We hypothesize that some of the characters of the hindlimb of H. hydrochaeris could reveal a unique morphological arrangement associated with swimming abilities. In this study, an anatomical description of the hindlimb musculature of H. hydrochaeris, and a discussion of the possible functional significance of the main muscles is provided. In addition, we explore the evolution of some myological and osteological characters of the capybara in the context of the cavioids. We concluded that most of the muscular and osteological features of the hindlimb of H. hydrochaeris are neither adaptations to a specialized cursoriality, nor major modifications for an aquatic mode of life. Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris share several features with other cavioids, being a generalized cursorial species in the context of this clade. However, it shows some adaptations of the hindlimb for enhancing propulsion through water, of which the most notable seems to be the shortening of the leg, short tendons of most muscles of the leg, and a well-developed soleus muscle. These adaptations to a semiaquatic mode of life could have been acquired during the most recent evolutionary history of the hydrochoerids.

  2. Expression of a hindlimb-determining factor Pitx1 in the forelimb of the lizard Pogona vitticeps during morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hunjan, Sumitha; McLean, Felicity; Mantziou, Georgia; Boysen, Katja; Parry, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    With over 9000 species, squamates, which include lizards and snakes, are the largest group of reptiles and second-largest order of vertebrates, spanning a vast array of appendicular skeletal morphology. As such, they provide a promising system for examining developmental and molecular processes underlying limb morphology. Using the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) as the primary study model, we examined limb morphometry throughout embryonic development and characterized the expression of three known developmental genes (GHR, Pitx1 and Shh) from early embryonic stage through to hatchling stage via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). In this study, all genes were found to be transcribed in both the forelimbs and hindlimbs of P. vitticeps. While the highest level of GHR expression occurred at the hatchling stage, Pitx1 and Shh expression was greatest earlier during embryogenesis, which coincides with the onset of the differentiation between forelimb and hindlimb length. We compared our finding of Pitx1 expression—a hindlimb-determining gene—in the forelimbs of P. vitticeps to that in a closely related Australian agamid lizard, Ctenophorus pictus, where we found Pitx1 expression to be more highly expressed in the hindlimb compared with the forelimb during early and late morphogenesis—a result consistent with that found across other tetrapods. Expression of Pitx1 in forelimbs has only rarely been documented, including via in situ hybridization in a chicken and a frog. Our findings from both RT-qPCR and IHC indicate that further research across a wider range of tetrapods is needed to more fully understand evolutionary variation in molecular processes underlying limb morphology. PMID:27784790

  3. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  4. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  5. The Louisville Swim Scale: A Novel Assessment of Hindlimb Function following Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebecca R.; Burke, Darlene A.; Baldini, Angela D.; Shum-Siu, Alice; Baltzley, Ryan; Bunger, Michelle; Magnuson, David S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of animal studies examining the recovery of function following spinal cord injury use the BBB Open-Field Locomotor Scale as a primary outcome measure. However, it is now well known that rehabilitation strategies can bring about significant improvements in hindlimb function in some animal models. Thus, improvements in walking following spinal cord injury in rats may be influenced by differences in activity levels and housing conditions during the first few weeks post-injury. Swimming is a natural form of locomotion that animals are not normally exposed to in the laboratory setting. We hypothesized that deficits in, and functional recovery of, swimming would accurately represent the locomotor capability of the nervous system in the absence of any retraining effects. To test this hypothesis, we have compared the recovery of walking and swimming in rats following a range of standardized spinal cord injuries and two different retraining strategies. In order to assess swimming, we developed a rating system we call the Louisville Swimming Scale (LSS) that evaluates three characteristics of swimming that are highly altered by spinal cord injury— namely, hindlimb movement, forelimb dependency, and body position. The data indicate that the LSS is a sensitive and reliable method of determining swimming ability and the improvement in hindlimb function after standardized contusion injury of the thoracic spinal cord. Furthermore, the data suggests that when used in conjunction with the BBB Open-field Locomotor Scale, the LSS assesses locomotor capabilities that are not influenced by a retraining effect. PMID:17115911

  6. High-resolution 3D volumetry versus conventional measuring techniques for the assessment of experimental lymphedema in the mouse hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Frueh, Florian S.; Körbel, Christina; Gassert, Laura; Müller, Andreas; Gousopoulos, Epameinondas; Lindenblatt, Nicole; Giovanoli, Pietro; Laschke, Matthias W.; Menger, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Secondary lymphedema is a common complication of cancer treatment characterized by chronic limb swelling with interstitial inflammation. The rodent hindlimb is a widely used model for the evaluation of novel lymphedema treatments. However, the assessment of limb volume in small animals is challenging. Recently, high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) imaging modalities have been introduced for rodent limb volumetry. In the present study we evaluated the validity of microcomputed tomography (μCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound in comparison to conventional measuring techniques. For this purpose, acute lymphedema was induced in the mouse hindlimb by a modified popliteal lymphadenectomy. The 4-week course of this type of lymphedema was first assessed in 6 animals. In additional 12 animals, limb volumes were analyzed by μCT, 9.4 T MRI and 30 MHz ultrasound as well as by planimetry, circumferential length and paw thickness measurements. Interobserver correlation was high for all modalities, in particular for μCT analysis (r = 0.975, p < 0.001). Importantly, caliper-measured paw thickness correlated well with μCT (r = 0.861), MRI (r = 0.821) and ultrasound (r = 0.800). Because the assessment of paw thickness represents a time- and cost-effective approach, it may be ideally suited for the quantification of rodent hindlimb lymphedema. PMID:27698469

  7. Augmentation of Neovascularizaiton in Hindlimb Ischemia by Combined Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells-Derived Endothelial and Mural Cells

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Jun K.; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Homma, Koichiro; Chao, Ting-Hsing; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Park, Kwijun; Oyamada, Naofumi; Sawada, Naoya; Taura, Daisuke; Fukunaga, Yasutomo; Tamura, Naohisa; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2008-01-01

    Background We demonstrated that mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells-derived vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGF-R2) positive cells could differentiate into both endothelial cells (EC) and mural cells (MC), and termed them as vascular progenitor cells (VPC). Recently, we have established a method to expand monkey and human ES cells-derived VPC with the proper differentiation stage in a large quantity. Here we investigated the therapeutic potential of human VPC-derived EC and MC for vascular regeneration. Methods and Results After the expansion of human VPC-derived vascular cells, we transplanted these cells to nude mice with hindlimb ischemia. The blood flow recovery and capillary density in ischemic hindlimbs were significantly improved in human VPC-derived EC-transplanted mice, compared to human peripheral and umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (pEPC and uEPC) transplanted mice. The combined transplantation of human VPC-derived EC and MC synergistically improved blood flow of ischemic hindlimbs remarkably, compared to the single cell transplantations. Transplanted VPC-derived vascular cells were effectively incorporated into host circulating vessels as EC and MC to maintain long-term vascular integrity. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the combined transplantation of human ES cells-derived EC and MC can be used as a new promising strategy for therapeutic vascular regeneration in patients with tissue ischemia. PMID:18301744

  8. Comparison of the effects of spaceflight and hindlimb-suspension on rat pituitary vasopressin and brainstem norepinephrine content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fareh, J.; Fagette, S.; Cottet-Emard, J. M.; Allevard, A. M.; Viso, M.; Gauquelin, G.; Gharib, C.

    1994-08-01

    To compare actual spaceflight to ground-based simulation (hindlimb-suspension), we measured the norepinephrine (NE) content in A1, A2, A5 and A6 (locus coeruleus) and the vasopressin content in the neurohypophysial system. The experimental period was of 9 days' duration. The NE content in the locus coeruleus decreased significantly in rats flown for 9 days (67 %,p<0.001), but showed no significant changes after hindlimb-suspension. These results demonstrated that suspended rats adapted better to weightlessness-simulation than flown rats to actual microgravity. In rats flown aboard SLS-1, the vasopressin content was significantly increased in the posterior pituitary (71 %,p<0.01), and was decreased in the hypothalamus (49 %, p<0.05). In 9-day suspended rats pituitary vasopressin levels were unchanged, while in the hypothalamus a significant decrease was noted (21 %, p<0.05). It was concluded that spaceflight changes in pituitary vasopressin levels and in the locus coeruleus NE content were consistent with a stress reaction, occurring during and/or after landing. These results confirmed that hindlimb-suspension model constitutes a valid and lesstressful ground-based simulation of microgravity in rats.

  9. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  10. Familial Precocious Fetal Abnormal Cortical Sulcation.

    PubMed

    Frassoni, Carolina; Avagliano, Laura; Inverardi, Francesca; Spaccini, Luigina; Parazzini, Cecilia; Rustico, Maria Angela; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Righini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The development of the human cerebral cortex is a complex and precisely programmed process by which alterations may lead to morphological and functional neurological abnormalities. We report familial cases of prenatally diagnosed abnormal brain, characterized by aberrant symmetrical mesial oversulcation of the parietooccipital lobes, in fetuses affected by abnormal skeletal features. Fetal brain anomalies were characterized by prenatal magnetic resonance imaging at 21 weeks of gestation and histologically evaluated at 22 weeks. Histological examination added relevant information showing some focal cortical areas of micropoligyria and heterotopic extension of the cortical plate into the marginal zone beneath the cortical surface. Genetic analysis of the fetuses excluded FGFR3 mutations known to be related to skeletal dysplasia and aberrant symmetrical oversulcation in other brain areas (temporal lobes). Hence, the present report suggests the existence of a class of rare syndromes of skeleton and brain development abnormality unrelated to FGFR3 mutations or related to other not described FGFR3 gene defects. Using magnetic resonance imaging, histopathology and molecular characterization we provide an example of a translational study of a rare and unreported brain congenital malformation. PMID:27177044

  11. Hindlimb muscle fibre size and glycogen stores in bank voles with increased aerobic exercise metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jaromin, Ewa; Wyszkowska, Julia; Labecka, Anna Maria; Sadowska, Edyta Teresa; Koteja, Paweł

    2016-02-01

    To test hypotheses concerning physiological factors limiting the rate of aerobic exercise metabolism, we used a unique experimental evolution model: lines of bank voles selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A) and unselected, control lines (C). We investigated putative adaptations that result in the increased performance of the hindlimb muscle (gastrocnemius joined with plantaris). The body mass-adjusted muscle mass was higher in A-lines (0.093 g) than in C-lines (0.083 g; P=0.01). However, selection did not affect mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area (P=0.34) or glycogen content assessed with a histochemical periodic acid-Schiff reaction (PAS; P=0.82). The results suggest that the increased aerobic performance is achieved by an increase of total muscle mass, without major qualitative changes in the muscle fibre architecture. However, such a conclusion should be treated with caution, because other modifications, such as increased density of capillaries or mitochondria, could occur. PMID:26685167

  12. Effect of hindlimb suspension on cardiovascular responses to sympathomimetics and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overton, J. Michael; Tipton, Charles M.

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether hindlimb suspension is associated with the development of cardiovascular deconditioning, male rats were studied before and after undergoing one of three treatment conditions for 9 days: (1) cage control (n = 15, CON), (2) horizontal suspension (n = 15, HOZ), and (3) head-down suspension (n = 18, HDS). Testing included lower body negative pressure administered during chloralose-urethan anesthesia and graded doses of sympathomimetic agents (norepinephrine, phenylephrine, and tyramine) administered to conscious unrestrained animals. Both HDS and HOZ were associated with a small decrease in the hypotensive response to lower body negative pressure. The HOZ group, but not the HDS group, exhibited augmented reflex tachycardia. Furthermore, both HDS and HOZ groups manifested reduced pressor responses to phenylephrine after treatment. These reductions were associated with significantly attenuated increases in mesenteric vascular resistance. However, baroreflex control of heart rate was not altered by the treatment conditions. Collectively, these results indicate that 9 days of HDS in rats does not elicit hemodynamic response patterns generally associated with cardiovascular deconditioning induced by hypogravic conditions.

  13. Exercise effects on the size and metabolic properties of soleus fibers in hindlimb-suspended rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Scot C.; Roy, Roland R.; West, Steve P.; Thomason, Don; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of four-week-long hind-limb suspension (HS) of rats on the size the soleus muscle fibers and the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in dark and light ATPase fibers were investigated together with the efficacy of an endurance exercise (EX) program (daily treadmill exercise for 1.5 h/day at 20 m/min and a 30-percent grade) in ameliorating HS-induced changes. It was found that, in comparison to age-matched controls, the soleus wet weight decreased by 69 and 30 percent in HS and HS-EX rats, respectively, and the percent of dark ATPase fibers increased from 10 percent in controls to 19 and 17 percent, respectively. The values of the integrated fiber activity (activity/min times muscle area) showed a net loss of SDH in both the light and dark ATPase fibers of HS rats, but only in the light ATPase fibers of the HS-EX rats, indicating that exercise ameliorated but did not prevent the muscle fiber atrophy induced by HS.

  14. Altered central nervous system processing of baroreceptor input following hindlimb unloading in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, J. A.; Schadt, J. C.; Hasser, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of cardiovascular deconditioning on central nervous system processing of baroreceptor afferent activity was evaluated following 14 days of hindlimb unloading (HU). Inactin-anesthetized rats were instrumented with catheters, renal sympathetic nerve electrodes, and aortic depressor nerve electrodes for measurement of mean arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and aortic depressor nerve activity (ADNA). Baroreceptor and baroreflex functions were assessed during infusion of phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Central processing of baroreceptor afferent input was evaluated by linear regression relating RSNA to ADNA. The maximum baroreflex-elicited increase in RSNA was significantly reduced in HU rats (122 +/- 3.8 vs. 144 +/- 4.9% of baseline RSNA), whereas ADNA was not altered. The slope (-0.18 +/- 0.04 vs. -0.40 +/- 0.04) and y-intercept (121 +/- 3.2 vs. 146 +/- 4.3) of the linear regression relating increases in efferent RSNA to decreases in afferent ADNA during hypotension were significantly reduced in HU rats. There were no differences during increases in arterial pressure. Results demonstrate that the attenuation in baroreflex-mediated increases in RSNA following HU is due to changes in central processing of baroreceptor afferent information rather than aortic baroreceptor function.

  15. Influence of 7 days of hindlimb suspension and intermittent weight support on rat muscle mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierotti, David J.; Roy, Roland R.; Flores, Vinicio; Edgerton, Reggie

    1990-01-01

    The effect of intermittent periods of weight support on a decrease in mass of the soleus (Sol) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles atrophied by hindlimb suspension (HS) was investigated in rats subjected to continuous HS for seven days or an HS plus intermittent (10 min every 6 hrs of slow walking on a treadmill) weight support (HS-WS). After 7 d HS, the Sol weight relative to body weight was 21 and 9 percent lower in Hs and HS-WS, respectively, than in control rats. Maximum tetanic tension/muscle mass ratio was significantly lower in HS than in controls; the HS-WS rats had values similar to controls, whereas the maximum tetanic tension/muscle weight was significantly elevated in HS-WS compared to controls. Contraction times were 25 percent faster in the Sol and unchanged in the MG of HS rats, indicating that a low-force short-duration exercise regime results in a significant functional recovery in the 'slow' Sol, whereas the 'fast' MG is less affected.

  16. Anatomy and relationships of Pachyrhachis problematicus, a primitive snake with hindlimbs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M. S. Y.

    1998-01-01

    The anatomy of Pachyrhachis problematicus, an elongate, limb-reduced squamate from the Upper Cretaceous of Israel, is described and evaluated in detail. Previously considered a snake-like 'lizard' of uncertain affinities, it is here shown to be the most primitive snake, and the sister-group to all other snakes. Pachyrhachis exhibits numerous derived characters uniting it with modern snakes (scolecophidians and alethinophidians): e.g. mobile premaxilla-maxilla articulation, braincase enclosed by frontals and parietals, sagittal parietal crest, absence of tympanic recess, single postdentary bone, over 140 presacral vertebrae, and complete loss of shoulder girdle and forelimb. However, it is more primitive than all modern snakes in retaining some strikingly primitive (lizard-like) features: presence of a jugal, squamosal, normal sacral attachment, and well-developed hindlimb composed of femur, tibia, fibula, and tarsals. Pachyrhachis provides additional support for the hypothesis that snakes are most closely related to Cretaceous marine lizards (mosasauroids). Almost all of the derived characters proposed to unite snakes and mosasauroids are highly developed in Pachyrhachis: the mobile mandibular symphysis, intramandibular joint, long and recurved pterygoid teeth, quadrate suspended by the supratemporal, loosely united pelvic elements (ilium, ischium, and pubis), and separate astragalus and calcaneum.

  17. Hindlimb unloading has a greater effect on cortical compared with cancellous bone in mature female rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Matthew R.; Bloomfield, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of 28 days of hindlimb unloading (HU) on the mature female rat skeleton. In vivo proximal tibia bone mineral density and geometry of HU and cage control (CC) rats were measured with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) on days 0 and 28. Postmortem pQCT, histomorphometry, and mechanical testing were performed on tibiae and femora. After 28 days, HU animals had significantly higher daily food consumption (+39%) and lower serum estradiol levels (-49%, P = 0.079) compared with CC. Proximal tibia bone mineral content and cortical bone area significantly declined over 28 days in HU animals (-4.0 and 4.8%, respectively), whereas total and cancellous bone mineral densities were unchanged. HU animals had lower cortical bone formation rates and mineralizing surface at tibial midshaft, whereas differences in similar properties were not detected in cancellous bone of the distal femur. These results suggest that cortical bone, rather than cancellous bone, is more prominently affected by unloading in skeletally mature retired breeder female rats.

  18. A Mathematical Model of Oxygen Transport in Skeletal Muscle During Hindlimb Unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Causey, Laura; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Weinbaum, Sheldon

    2014-01-01

    During hindlimb unloading (HU) dramatic fluid shifts occur within minutes of the suspension, leading to a less precise matching of blood flow to O2 demands of skeletal muscle. Vascular resistance directs blood away from certain muscles, such as the soleus (SOL). The muscle volume gradually reduces in these muscles so that eventually the relative blood flow returns to normal. It is generally believed that muscle volume change is not due to O2 depletion, but a consequence of disuse. However, the volume of the unloaded rat muscle declines over the course of weeks, whereas the redistribution of blood flow occurs immediately. Using a Krogh Cylinder Model, the distribution of O2 was predicted in two skeletal muscles: SOL and gastrocnemius (GAS). Effects of the muscle blood flow, volume, capillary density, and O2 uptake, are included to calculate the pO2 at rest and after 10 min and 15 days of unloading. The model predicts that 32 percent of the SOL muscle tissue has a pO2 1.25 mm Hg within 10 min, whereas the GAS maintains normal O2 levels, and that equilibrium is reached only as the SOL muscle cells degenerate. The results provide evidence that there is an inadequate O2 supply to the mitochondria in the SOL muscle after 10 min HU.

  19. Tramadol Alleviates Myocardial Injury Induced by Acute Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Asl, Adel Haghighi Khiabanian; Shahzamani, Mehran; Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Allahverdi, Amin; Khansari, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Background Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR) causes both remote organ and local injuries. Objective This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR. Methods Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham), Group II (IR), and Group III (IR + tramadol). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous) was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination. Results The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with Group II. Conclusion From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model. PMID:26039663

  20. Measurement of osmotic reflection coefficient for small molecules in cat hindlimbs.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M B; Watson, P D

    1989-01-01

    Capillary osmotic reflection coefficients (sigma) for NaCl, urea, sucrose, and raffinose were measured in the isolated, perfused cat hindlimb using the osmotic transient technique. sigma were determined from the ratio of the maximum rate of transcapillary absorption [delta Jv(max)] to the increase in the osmotic pressure (25-35 mosmol/kg H2O) in the arterial inflow (delta pi a) produced by adding one of the molecules to an albumin-electrolyte perfusate containing isoproterenol (greater than 10(-7) M). delta Jv (max) was determined from organ weight and delta pi a from perfusate osmolalities. For each molecule, the delta Jv(max)/delta pi a ratio increased monotonically with perfusate flow rates (Q) to Q greater than 100 ml.min-1.100 g-1. This ratio was independent of the size of the delta pi a. Apparent sigma values were calculated by dividing these ratios by the capillary hydraulic capacity determined in other studies. At low Q, apparent sigma was comparable to the approximately 0.1 values found by others in skeletal muscle. At the highest Q, apparent sigma for these molecules were at least 0.5. These data are consistent with at least 50% of transcapillary water flow moving through a water-exclusive pathway.

  1. Re-assessment of chronic radio-induced tissue damage in a rat hindlimb model

    PubMed Central

    PHULPIN, BÉRENGÈRE; DOLIVET, GILLES; MARIE, PIERRE-YVES; POUSSIER, SYLVAIN; GALLET, PATRICE; LEROUX, AGNÈS; GRAFF, PIERRE; GROUBACH, FREDERIQUE; BRAVETTI, PIERRE; MERLIN, JEAN-LOUIS; TRAN, NGUYEN

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy is successfully used to treat neoplastic lesions, but may adversely affect normal tissues within the irradiated volume. However, additional clinical and para-clinical data are required for a comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of this damage. We assessed a rat model using clinical records and medical imaging to gain a better understanding of irradiation-induced tissue damage. The hindlimbs of the rats in this model were irradiated with a single dose of 30 or 50 Gy. Sequential analysis was based on observation records of stage and planar scintigraphy. Additional radiography, radiohistology and histology studies were performed to detect histological alterations. All animals developed acute and late effects, with an increased severity after a dose of 50 Gy. The bone uptake of 99mTc-HDP was significantly decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Histologically, significant tissue damage was observed. After the 50 Gy irradiation, the animals developed lesions characteristic of osteoradionecrosis (ORN). Radiographic and histological studies provided evidence of lytic bone lesions. Our rat model developed tissue damage characteristic of radiation injury after a single 30 Gy irradiation and tissue degeneration similar to that which occurs during human ORN after a 50 Gy irradiation. The development of this animal model is an essential step in exploring the pathogenesis of irradiation-induced tissue damage, and may be used to test the efficacy of new treatments. PMID:22993575

  2. Hindlimb unloading induces a collagen isoform shift in the soleus muscle of the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, T. A.; Lesniewski, L. A.; Muller-Delp, J. M.; Majors, A. K.; Scalise, D.; Delp, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether hindlimb unloading (HU) alters the extracellular matrix of skeletal muscle, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 0 (n = 11), 1 (n = 11), 14 (n = 13), or 28 (n = 11) days of unloading. Remodeling of the soleus and plantaris muscles was examined biochemically for collagen abundance via measurement of hydroxyproline, and the percentage of cross-sectional area of collagen was determined histologically with picrosirius red staining. Total hydroxyproline content in the soleus and plantaris muscles was unaltered by HU at any time point. However, the relative proportions of type I collagen in the soleus muscle decreased relative to control (Con) with 14 and 28 days HU (Con 68 +/- 5%; 14 days HU 53 +/- 4%; 28 days HU 53 +/- 7%). Correspondingly, type III collagen increased in soleus muscle with 14 and 28 days HU (Con 32 +/- 5%; 14 days HU 47 +/- 4%; 28 days HU 48 +/- 7%). The proportion of type I muscle fibers in soleus muscle was diminished with HU (Con 96 +/- 2%; 14 days HU 86 +/- 1%; 28 days HU 83 +/- 1%), and the proportion of hybrid type I/IIB fibers increased (Con 0%; 14 days HU 8 +/- 2%; 28 days HU 14 +/- 2%). HU had no effect on the proportion of type I and III collagen or muscle fiber composition in plantaris muscle. The data demonstrate that HU induces a shift in the relative proportion of collagen isoform (type I to III) in the antigravity soleus muscle, which occurs concomitantly with a slow-to-fast myofiber transformation.

  3. Trans-illuminated laser speckle imaging of collateral artery blood flow in ischemic mouse hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Meisner, Joshua K.; Niu, Jacqueline; Sumer, Suna

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. The mouse ischemic hindlimb model is used widely for studying collateral artery growth (i.e., arteriogenesis) in response to increased shear stress. Nonetheless, precise measurements of regional shear stress changes along individual collateral arteries are lacking. Our goal is to develop and verify trans-illumination laser speckle flowmetry (LSF) for this purpose. Studies of defibrinated bovine blood flow through tubes embedded in tissue-mimicking phantoms indicate that trans-illumination LSF better maintains sensitivity with an increasing tissue depth when compared to epi-illumination, with an ∼50% reduction in the exponential decay of the speckle velocity signal. Applying trans-illuminated LSF to the gracilis muscle collateral artery network in vivo yields both improved sensitivity and reduced noise when compared to epi-illumination. Trans-illuminated LSF images reveal regional differences in collateral artery blood velocity after femoral artery ligation and are used to measure an ∼2-fold increase in the shear stress at the entrance regions to the muscle. We believe these represent the first direct measurements of regional shear stress changes in individual mouse collateral arteries. The ability to capture deeper vascular signals using a trans-illumination configuration for LSF may expand the current applications for LSF, which could have bearing on determining how shear stress magnitude and direction regulate arteriogenesis. PMID:24045691

  4. Glyoxalase-1 overexpression partially prevents diabetes-induced impaired arteriogenesis in a rat hindlimb ligation model.

    PubMed

    Brouwers, Olaf; Yu, Liang; Niessen, Petra; Slenter, Jos; Jaspers, Karolien; Wagenaar, Allard; Post, Mark; Miyata, Toshio; Backes, Walter; Stehouwer, Coen; Huijberts, Maya; Schalkwijk, Casper

    2016-08-01

    We hypothesize that diabetes-induced impaired collateral formation after a hindlimb ligation in rats is in part caused by intracellular glycation and that overexpression of glyoxalase-I (GLO-I), i.e. the major detoxifying enzyme for advanced-glycation-endproduct (AGE) precursors, can prevent this. Wild-type and GLO-I transgenic rats with or without diabetes (induced by 55 mg/kg streptozotocin) were subjected to ligation of the right femoral artery. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging showed a significantly decreased blood perfusion recovery after 6 days in the diabetic animals compared with control animals, without any effect of Glo1 overexpression. In vivo time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography at 7-Tesla showed a significant decrease in the number and volume of collaterals in the wild-type diabetic animals compared with the control animals. Glo1 overexpression partially prevented this decrease in the diabetic animals. Diabetes-induced impairment of arteriogenic adaptation can be partially rescued by overexpressing of GLO-I, indicating a role of AGEs in diabetes-induced impaired collateral formation.

  5. The effects of hindlimb unweighting on the capacitance of rat small mesenteric veins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, S. L.; Berkowitz, D. E.; Brooks-Asplund, E. M.; Shoukas, A. A.

    2000-01-01

    Microgravity is associated with an impaired cardiac output response to orthostatic stress. Mesenteric veins are critical in modulating cardiac filling through venoconstriction. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of simulated microgravity on the capacitance of rat mesenteric small veins. We constructed pressure-diameter relationships from vessels of 21-day hindlimb-unweighted (HLU) rats and control rats by changing the internal pressure and measuring the external diameter. Pressure-diameter relationships were obtained both before and after stimulation with norepinephrine (NE). The pressure-diameter curves of HLU vessels were shifted to larger diameters than control vessels. NE (10(-4) M) constricted veins from control animals such that the pressure-diameter relationship was significantly shifted downward (i.e., to smaller diameters at equal pressure). NE had no effect on vessels from HLU animals. These results indicate that, after HLU, unstressed vascular volume may be increased and can no longer decrease in response to sympathetic stimulation. This may partially underlie the mechanism leading to the exaggerated fall in cardiac output and stroke volume seen in astronauts during an orthostatic stress after exposure to microgravity.

  6. Testing the hindlimb-strength hypothesis: non-aerial locomotion by Chiroptera is not constrained by the dimensions of the femur or tibia.

    PubMed

    Riskin, Daniel K; Bertram, John E A; Hermanson, John W

    2005-04-01

    In the evolution of flight bats appear to have suffered a trade-off; they have become poor crawlers relative to terrestrial mammals. Capable walking does occur in a few disparate taxa, including the vampire bats, but the vast majority of bats are able only to shuffle awkwardly along the ground, and the morphological bases of differences in crawling ability are not currently understood. One widely cited hypothesis suggests that the femora of most bats are too weak to withstand the compressive forces that occur during terrestrial locomotion, and that the vampire bats can walk because they possess more robust hindlimb skeletons. We tested a prediction of the hindlimb-strength hypothesis: that during locomotion, the forces produced by the hindlimbs of vampire bats should be larger than those produced by the legs of poorly crawling bats. Using force plates we compared the hindlimb forces produced by two species of vampire bats that walk well, Desmodus rotundus (N=8) and Diaemus youngi (N=2), to the hindlimb forces produced during over-ground shuffling by a similarly sized bat that is a poor walker (Pteronotus parnellii; N=6). Peak hindlimb forces produced by P. parnellii were larger (ANOVA; P<0.05; N=65) and more variable (93.5+/-36.6% body weight, mean +/- s.d.) than those of D. rotundus (69.3+/-8.1%) or D. youngi (75.0+/-6.2%). Interestingly, the vertical components of peak force were equivalent among species (P>0.6), indicating similar roles for support of body weight by the hindlimbs in the three species. We also used a simple engineering model of bending stress to evaluate the support capabilities of the hindlimb skeleton from the dimensions of 113 museum specimens in 50 species. We found that the hindlimb bones of vampires are not built to withstand larger forces than those of species that crawl poorly. Our results show that the legs of poorly crawling bats should be able to withstand the forces produced during coordinated crawling of the type used by the agile

  7. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  8. Dental and bone abnormalities in patients with familial polyposis coli.

    PubMed

    Carl, W; Herrera, L

    1987-01-01

    Dental and bone abnormalities of the maxilla and mandible are present in approximately 80% of patients with familial polyposis coli. The dental abnormalities include impacted teeth (other than third molars), supernumerary teeth, congenitally missing teeth, fused roots of first and second molars, and unusually long and tapered roots of posterior teeth. The bone lesions consist mostly of osteomas, either isolated or in clusters, in the maxilla and mandible or of exostoses with lateral and/or lingual extensions. Since dental and bone abnormalities are already present early in life there is a strong suggestion that they may be used as diagnostic features in the recognition of familial polyposis coli.

  9. Hindlimb unweighting does not alter vasoconstrictor responsiveness and nitric oxide-mediated inhibition of sympathetic vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Just, Timothy P; Jendzjowsky, Nicholas G; DeLorey, Darren S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We tested the hypothesis that physical inactivity would increase sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness and diminish NO-mediated inhibition of sympathetic vasoconstriction in resting and contracting skeletal muscle. Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 33) were randomly assigned to sedentary time control (S) or hindlimb unweighted (HU) groups for 21 days. Following the intervention, rats were anaesthetized and instrumented for measurement of arterial blood pressure and femoral artery blood flow and stimulation of the lumbar sympathetic chain. The percentage change of femoral vascular conductance (%FVC) in response to sympathetic chain stimulation delivered at 2 and 5 Hz was determined at rest and during triceps surae muscle contraction before (control) and after NO synthase blockade with l-NAME (5 mg kg i.v.). Sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness was not different (P > 0.05) in S and HU rats at rest (S, 2 Hz, −26 ± 8% and 5 Hz, −46 ± 12%; and HU, 2 Hz, −29 ± 9% and 5 Hz, −51 ± 10%) and during contraction (S, 2 Hz, −10 ± 7% and 5 Hz, −23 ± 11%; and HU, 2 Hz, −9 ± 5% and 5 Hz, −22 ± 7%). Nitric oxide synthase blockade caused a similar increase (P > 0.05) in sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in HU and S rats at rest (S, 2 Hz, −41 ± 7% and 5 Hz, −58 ± 8%; and HU, 2 Hz, −43 ± 6% and 5 Hz, −63 ± 8%) and during muscle contraction (S, 2 Hz, −15 ± 6% and 5 Hz, −31 ± 11%; and HU, 2 Hz, −12 ± 5% and 5 Hz, −29 ± 8%). Skeletal muscle NO synthase expression and ACh-mediated vasodilatation were also not different between HU and S rats. These data suggest that HU does not alter sympathetic vasoconstrictor responsiveness and NO-mediated inhibition of sympathetic vasoconstriction in resting and contracting skeletal muscle. Key points Physical inactivity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and may alter sympathetic nervous system control of vascular

  10. Vitamin E provides protection for bone in mature hindlimb unloaded male rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, B J; Lucas, E A; Turner, R T; Evans, G L; Lerner, M R; Brackett, D J; Stoecker, B J; Arjmandi, B H

    2005-04-01

    The deleterious effects of skeletal unloading on bone mass and strength may, in part, result from increased production of oxygen-derived free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), a free-radical scavenger with antiinflammatory properties, to protect against bone loss caused by skeletal unloading in mature male Sprague-Dawley rats. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used with either hindlimb unloading (HU) or normal loading (ambulatory; AMB), and low-dose (LD; 15 IU/kg diet), adequate-dose (AD; 75 IU/kg diet), or high-dose (HD; 500 IU/kg diet) vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate). To optimize the effects of vitamin E on bone, dietary treatments were initiated 9 weeks prior to unloading and continued during the 4-week unloading period, at which time animals were euthanized and blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum vitamin E was dose-dependently increased, confirming the vitamin E status of animals. The HD treatment improved oxidation parameters, as indicated by elevated serum ferric-reducing ability and a trend toward reducing tissue lipid peroxidation. Histomorphometric analysis of the distal femur revealed significant reductions in trabecular thickness (TbTh), double-labeled surface (dLS/BS), and rate of bone formation to bone volume (BFR/BV) due by HU. AMB animals on the HD diet and HU animals on the LD diet had reduced bone surface normalized to tissue volume (BS/TV) and trabecular number (TbN); however, the HD vitamin E protected against these changes in the HU animals. Our findings suggest that vitamin E supplementation provides modest bone protective effects during skeletal unloading.

  11. Impaired Axonal Na+ Current by Hindlimb Unloading: Implication for Disuse Neuromuscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Banzrai, Chimeglkham; Nodera, Hiroyuki; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Higashi, Saki; Okada, Ryo; Mori, Atsuko; Shimatani, Yoshimitsu; Osaki, Yusuke; Kaji, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the excitability changes in peripheral motor axons caused by hindlimb unloading (HLU), which is a model of disuse neuromuscular atrophy. HLU was performed in normal 8-week-old male mice by fixing the proximal tail by a clip connected to the top of the animal's cage for 3 weeks. Axonal excitability studies were performed by stimulating the sciatic nerve at the ankle and recording the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) from the foot. The amplitudes of the motor responses of the unloading group were 51% of the control amplitudes [2.2 ± 1.3 mV (HLU) vs. 4.3 ± 1.2 mV (Control), P = 0.03]. Multiple axonal excitability analysis showed that the unloading group had a smaller strength-duration time constant (SDTC) and late subexcitability (recovery cycle) than the controls [0.075 ± 0.01 (HLU) vs. 0.12 ± 0.01 (Control), P < 0.01; 5.4 ± 1.0 (HLU) vs. 10.0 ± 1.3 % (Control), P = 0.01, respectively]. Three weeks after releasing from HLU, the SDTC became comparable to the control range. Using a modeling study, the observed differences in the waveforms could be explained by reduced persistent Na+ currents along with parameters related to current leakage. Quantification of RNA of a SCA1A gene coding a voltage-gated Na+ channel tended to be decreased in the sciatic nerve in HLU. The present study suggested that axonal ion currents are altered in vivo by HLU. It is still undetermined whether the dysfunctional axonal ion currents have any pathogenicity on neuromuscular atrophy or are the results of neural plasticity by atrophy. PMID:26909041

  12. Hindlimb unloading-induced muscle atrophy and phenotype transition is attenuated in Smad3+/- mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. P.; Zhang, P.; Liu, S. H.; Wang, F.; Ge, X.; Wu, Y.; Fan, M.

    Currently it has been well defined that the microgravity-induced muscle disuse characterized by atrophy and slow-to-fast phenotype transition of the postural muscles such as soleus muscle but the basic mechanism underlying the atrophy and phenotype transition of soleus muscle is still unclear To investigate the developmental mechanisms of muscle atrophy and its phenotype transition under microgravity the soleus muscle of Smad3 and Smad3 - mice after 14 days hindlimb unloading was examined Using histology and immunohistochemistry assay we found that the soleus muscle volume and fiber number appeared a remarkable increases in Smad3 - mice compared to those in Smad3 control In addition Western blot analysis showed that the expression level of myosin heavy chain MHC -slow myofiber specific protein in soleus muscle was visibly higher in Smad3 - mice than in Smad3 mice In contrast the expression level of MHC-fast myofiber specific protein in soleus muscle was visibly lower in Smad3 - mice than in Smad3 mice Furthermore RT-PCR revealed that the expression of Smad3 and myogenic regulatory factor MRF mRNA was inversely regulated Finally we determined that either Smad3 mRNA or Smad3 protein were selectively distributed in quiescent satellite cells in vivo and in reserve cells in vitro Therefore our findings suggested that Smad3 might be a key transcriptional factor for soleus muscle atrophy and slow-to-fast phenotype transition of the slow muscle under microgravity In the future an agent that regulates Smad3 expression may be used to prevent

  13. Locomotor loading mechanics in the hindlimbs of tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae): comparative and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, K Megan; Butcher, Michael T; Shugart, S Katherine; Gander, Jennifer C; Blob, Richard W

    2011-08-01

    Skeletal elements are usually able to withstand several times their usual load before they yield, and this ratio is known as the bone's safety factor. Limited studies on amphibians and non-avian reptiles have shown that they have much higher limb bone safety factors than birds and mammals. It has been hypothesized that this difference is related to the difference in posture between upright birds and mammals and sprawling ectotherms; however, limb bone loading data from a wider range of sprawling species are needed in order to determine whether the higher safety factors seen in amphibians and non-avian reptiles are ancestral or derived conditions. Tegus (family Teiidae) are an ideal lineage with which to expand sampling of limb bone loading mechanics for sprawling taxa, particularly for lizards, because they are from a different clade than previously sampled iguanas and exhibit different foraging and locomotor habits (actively foraging carnivore versus burst-activity herbivore). We evaluated the mechanics of locomotor loading for the femur of the Argentine black and white tegu (Tupinambus merianae) using three-dimensional measurements of the ground reaction force and hindlimb kinematics, in vivo bone strains and femoral mechanical properties. Peak bending stresses experienced by the femur were low (tensile: 10.4 ± 1.1 MPa; compressive: -17.4 ± 0.9 MPa) and comparable to those in other reptiles, with moderate shear stresses and strains also present. Analyses of peak femoral stresses and strains led to estimated safety factor ranges of 8.8-18.6 in bending and 7.8-17.5 in torsion, both substantially higher than typical for birds and mammals but similar to other sprawling tetrapods. These results broaden the range of reptilian and amphibian taxa in which high femoral safety factors have been evaluated and further indicate a trend for the independent evolution of lower limb bone safety factors in endothermic taxa.

  14. The Effect of Hindlimb Suspension on the Reproductive System of Young Male Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet; Grindeland, R.; Baer, L.; Guran, G.; Fung, C.; Wade, C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Colonization of space requires the ability to reproduce in reduced gravity. Following spaceflight, astronauts and male rats exhibit decreased testosterone (T). This has important implications as T effects the testes and accessory sex glands. To our knowledge no studies have examined the effects of spaceflight on accessory sex glands. Due to the rarity of spaceflight opportunities, ground models have been used to simulate weightlessness. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term (21 d) weightlessness on the reproductive system of male rats. Weightlessness was simulated using the Morey-Holton hindlimb suspension (HLS) model. Age 10 week old, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing (209.0 +9.7g) were randomly assigned (n=10/group) to either HLS or ambulatory control. In HLS rats, testes mass was 33% lower (p<0.05) than ambulatory controls. However, HLS had no effect on prostate (0.65 +0.09g vs 0.69 +0.12g) or seminal vesicles (1.01 +0.35g vs 0.75 +0.22g) weights compared to controls. The absence of effects on plasma T in this study contrasts previous reports of reduced plasma T in HLS male rats. This discrepancy may have been due to the age of animal and timing of sampling. T levels vary dramatically during testes development as well as within normal diurnal cycles. In young HLS rats, testes weight was reduced but not plasma T. Subsequently there was no effect on accessory sex glands. However, this may not be the case in older rats. More studies using standardized methods are needed to gain a better understanding of male reproduction function and capability in weightlessness. Funding provided by NASA.

  15. Hindlimb unloading results in increased predisposition to cardiac arrhythmias and alters left ventricular connexin 43 expression

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Matthew K.; Welliver, Kathryn C.; Jepson, Amanda J.; Garnett, Emily R.

    2013-01-01

    Hindlimb unloading (HU) is a well-established animal model of cardiovascular deconditioning. Previous data indicate that HU results in cardiac sympathovagal imbalance. It is well established that cardiac sympathovagal imbalance increases the risk for developing cardiac arrhythmias. The cardiac gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) is predominately expressed in the left ventricle (LV) and ensures efficient cell-to-cell electrical coupling. In the current study we wanted to test the hypothesis that HU would result in increased predisposition to cardiac arrhythmias and alter the expression and/or phosphorylation of LV-Cx43. Electrocardiographic data using implantable telemetry were obtained over a 10- to 14-day HU or casted control (CC) condition and in response to a sympathetic stressor using isoproterenol administration and brief restraint. The arrhythmic burden was calculated using a modified scoring system to quantify spontaneous and provoked arrhythmias. In addition, Western blot analysis was used to measure LV-Cx43 expression in lysates probed with antibodies directed against the total and an unphosphorylated form of Cx43 in CC and HU rats. HU resulted in a significantly greater total arrhythmic burden during the sympathetic stressor with significantly more ventricular arrhythmias occurring. In addition, there was increased expression of total LV-Cx43 observed with no difference in the expression of unphosphorylated LV-Cx43. Specifically, the increased expression of LV-Cx43 was consistent with the phosphorylated form. These data taken together indicate that cardiovascular deconditioning produced through HU results in increased predisposition to cardiac arrhythmias and increased expression of phosphorylated LV-Cx43. PMID:23302960

  16. FES control of isometric forces in the rat hindlimb using many muscles.

    PubMed

    Jarc, Anthony M; Berniker, Max; Tresch, Matthew C

    2013-05-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) attempts to restore motor behaviors to paralyzed limbs by electrically stimulating nerves and/or muscles. This restoration of behavior requires specifying commands to a large number of muscles, each making an independent contribution to the ongoing behavior. Efforts to develop FES systems in humans have generally been limited to preprogrammed, fixed muscle activation patterns. The development and evaluation of more sophisticated FES control strategies is difficult to accomplish in humans, mainly because of the limited access of patients for FES experiments. Here, we developed an in vivo FES test platform using a rat model that is capable of using many muscles for control and that can therefore be used to evaluate potential strategies for developing flexible FES control strategies. We first validated this FES test platform by showing consistent force responses to repeated stimulation, monotonically increasing muscle recruitment with constant force directions, and linear summation of costimulated muscles. These results demonstrate that we are able to differentially control the activation of many muscles, despite the small size of the rat hindlimb. We then demonstrate the utility of this platform to test potential FES control strategies, using it to test our ability to effectively produce open-loop control of isometric forces. We show that we are able to use this preparation to produce a range of endpoint forces flexibly and with good accuracy. We suggest that this platform will aid in FES controller design, development, and evaluation, thus accelerating the development of effective FES applications for the restoration of movement in paralyzed patients.

  17. Force-velocity and power characteristics of rat soleus muscle fibers after hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. S.; Blaser, C. A.; Fitts, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of 1, 2, and 3 wk of hindlimb suspension (HS) on force-velocity and power characteristics of single rat soleus fibers were determined. After 1, 2, or 3 wk of HA, small fiber bundles were isolated, placed in skinning solution, and stored at -20 C until studied. Single fibers were isolated and placed between a motor arm and force transducer, functional properties were studied, and fiber protein content was subsequently analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Additional fibers were isolated from soleus of control after 1 and 3 wk of HS, and fiber type distribution and myosin light chain stoichiometry were determined from SDS-PAGE analysis. After 1 wk of HS, percent type I fibers declined from 82 to 74%, whereas hybrid fibers increased from 10 to 18%. Percent fast type II fibers increased from 8% in control and 1 wk of HS to 26% by 3 wk of HS. Most fibers showed an increased unloaded maximal shortening velocity (V sub O)), but myosin heavy chain remained entirely slow type I. The mechanism for increased V(sub O) is unknown. There was a progressive decrease in fiber diameter and peak force after 1, 2, and 3 wk of HS, respectively. One week of HS resulted in a shift of the force-velocity curve, and between 2 and 3 wk of HS the curve shifted further such that V(sub O) was higher than control at all relative loads less than 45% peak isometric force. Peak absolute power output of soleus fibers progressively decreased through 2 wk of HS but showed no further change at 3 wk. The results suggest that between 2 and 3 wk the HS-induced alterations in the force-velocity relationship act to maintain the power output of single soleus fibers despite a continued reduction in fiber force.

  18. Caveolae regulate vasoconstriction of conduit arteries to angiotensin II in hindlimb unweighted rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongchao; Bai, Yungang; Yu, Jinwen; Liu, Huan; Cheng, Yaoping; Liu, Yonghong; Xie, Xiaoping; Ma, Jin; Bao, Junxiang

    2015-10-15

    Weightlessness induces the functional remodelling of arteries, but the changes to angiotensin II (Ang II)-elicited vasoconstriction and the underlying mechanism have never been reported. Caveolae are invaginations of the cell membrane crucial for the contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells, so we investigated the adaptation of Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction to simulated weightlessness and the role of caveolae in it. The 4 week hindlimb unweighted (HU) rat was used to simulate the effects of weightlessness. Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction was measured by isometric force recording. The morphology of caveolae was examined by transmission electron microscope. The binding of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 ) and caveolin-1 (cav-1) was examined by coimmunoprecipitation and Western blot. We found that the maximal developing force (E(max)) of Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction was decreased in abdominal aorta by 30.6%, unchanged in thoracic aorta and increased in carotid artery by 17.9% after HU, while EC50 of the response was increased in all three arteries (P < 0.05). AT1 desensitization upon activation was significantly reduced by HU in all three arteries, as was the number of caveolae (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Ang II promoted the binding of AT1 and cav-1 significantly in control but not HU arteries. Both the number of caveolae and the binding of AT1 and cav-1 in HU arteries were restored by cholesterol pretreatment which also reinstated the change in EC50 as well as the level of AT1 desensitization. These results indicate that modified caveolae in vascular smooth muscle cells could interfere with the binding of AT1 and cav-1 mediating the adaptation of Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction to HU.

  19. Quantitative analysis of hindlimbs locomotion kinematics in spinalized rats treated with Tamoxifen plus treadmill exercise.

    PubMed

    Osuna-Carrasco, L P; López-Ruiz, J R; Mendizabal-Ruiz, E G; De la Torre-Valdovinos, B; Bañuelos-Pineda, J; Jiménez-Estrada, I; Dueñas-Jiménez, S H

    2016-10-01

    Locomotion recovery after a spinal cord injury (SCI) includes axon regeneration, myelin preservation and increased plasticity in propriospinal and descending spinal circuitries. The combined effects of tamoxifen and exercise after a SCI were analyzed in this study to determine whether the combination of both treatments induces the best outcome in locomotion recovery. In this study, the penetrating injury was provoked by a sharp projectile that penetrates through right dorsal and ventral portions of the T13-L1 spinal segments, affecting propriospinal and descending/ascending tracts. Intraperitoneal application of Tamoxifen and a treadmill exercise protocol, as rehabilitation therapies, separately or combined, were used. To evaluate the functional recovery, angular patterns of the hip, knee and ankle joints as well as the leg pendulum-like movement (PLM) were measured during the unrestricted gait of treated and untreated (UT) animals, previously and after the traumatic injury (15 and 30days post-injury (dpi)). A pattern (curve) comparison analysis was made by using a locally designed Matlab script that determines the Frechet dissimilarity. The SCI magnitude was assessed by qualitative and quantitative histological analysis of the injury site 30days after SCI. Our results showed that all treated groups had an improvement in hindlimbs kinematics compared to the UT group, which showed a poor gait locomotion recovery throughout the rehabilitation period. The group with the combined treatment (tamoxifen+exercise (TE)) presented the best outcome. In conclusion, tamoxifen and treadmill exercise treatments are complementary therapies for the functional recovery of gait locomotion in hemi-spinalized rats. PMID:27450566

  20. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Elrod, Clay; Hicks, Michelle

    2008-11-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered carnivore living in the temperate forests of the Himalayas and southern China. The phylogeny of the red panda has been the subject of much debate. Morphological and molecular studies have supported a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids, and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for Ailurus. The hindlimbs of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park were dissected. Red pandas retain a number of muscles lost in other carnivore groups, including muscles and tendons related to their robust and weight-bearing hallux. Three features, including a single-bellied m. sartorius, a proximal insertion for m. abductor digiti V, and an absent m. articularis coxae, are found in all terrestrial arctoids, including Ailurus. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and canids in lacking a caudal belly of m. semitendinosus, while they resemble procyonids and mustelids in the degree of fusion observed between mm. gluteus medius and piriformis. Furthermore, Ailurus and procyonids are characterized by numerous subdivisions within the adductor compartment, while red pandas and raccoons share a variable m. semimembranosus, composed of one, two, or three bellies. Lastly, a deep plantar muscle inserting onto the metatarsophalangeal joint of the hallux is described for Ailurus. This muscle has not been previously described and is given the name m. flexor hallucis profundus. Additional dissections of the forelimb and axial musculature of red pandas may shed further light on the phylogeny of this species. In addition, the muscle maps presented here offer a valuable resource for interpreting the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids.

  1. Hyperalgesia in an immobilized rat hindlimb: effect of treadmill exercise using non-immobilized limbs.

    PubMed

    Chuganji, Sayaka; Nakano, Jiro; Sekino, Yuki; Hamaue, Yohei; Sakamoto, Junya; Okita, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Cast immobilization of limbs causes hyperalgesia, which is a decline of the threshold of mechanical and thermal mechanical stimuli. The immobilization-induced hyperalgesia (IIH) can disturb rehabilitation and activities of daily living in patients with orthopedic disorders. However, it is unclear what therapeutic and preventive approaches can be used to alleviate IIH. Exercise that activates the descending pain modulatory system may be effective for IIH. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise during the immobilization period, using the non-immobilized limbs, on IIH. Thirty-six 8-week-old Wistar rats were randomly divided into (1) control, (2) immobilization (Im), and (3) immobilization and treadmill exercise (Im+Ex) groups. In the Im and Im+Ex groups, the right ankle joints of each rat were immobilized in full plantar flexion with a plaster cast for an 8-week period. In the Im+Ex group, treadmill exercise (15 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/week) was administered during the immobilization period while the right hindlimb was kept immobilized. Mechanical hyperalgesia was measured using von Frey filaments every week. To investigate possible activation of the descending pain modulatory system, beta-endorphin expression levels in hypothalamus and midbrain periaqueductal gray were analyzed. Although IIH clearly occurred in the Im group, the hyperalgesia was partially but significantly reduced in the Im+Ex group. Beta-endorphin, which is one of the endogenous opioids, was selectively increased in the hypothalamus and midbrain periaqueductal gray of the Im+Ex group. Our data suggest that treadmill running using the non-immobilized limbs reduces the amount of hyperalgesia induced in the immobilized limb even if it is not freed. This ameliorating effect might be due to the descending pain modulatory system being activated by upregulation of beta-endorphin in the brain. PMID:25304541

  2. Force-Velocity and Power Characteristics of Rat Soleus Muscle Fibers after Hindlimb Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. S.; Blaser, C. A.; Fitts, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of 1, 2, and 3 wk of Hindlimb Suspension (HS) on force-velocity and power characteristics of single rat soleus fibers were determined. After 1, 2, or 3 wk of HS, small fiber bundles were isolated, placed in skinning solution, and stored at -20 C until studied. Single fibers were isolated and placed between a motor arm and force transducer, functional properties were studied, and fiber protein content was subsequently analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Additional fibers were isolated from soleus of control and after 1 and 3 wk of HS, and fiber type distribution and myosin light chain stoichiometry were determined from SDS-PAGE analysis. After 1 wk of HS, percent type I fibers declined from 82 to 74%, whereas hybrid fibers increased from 10 to 18%. Percent fast type 11 fibers increased from 8% in control and 1 wk of HS to 26% by 3 wk of HS. Most fibers showed an increased unloaded maximal shortening velocity (V(sub 0)), but myosin heavy chain remained entirely slow type I. The mechanism for increased V(sub 0) is unknown. There was a progressive decrease in fiber diameter (14, 30, and 38%) and peak force (38, 56, and 63%) after 1, 2, and 3 wk of HS, respectively. One week of HS resulted in a shift of the force-velocity curve, and between 2 and 3 wk of HS the curve shifted further such that V(sub 0) was higher than control at all relative loads less than 45% peak isometric force. Peak absolute power output of soleus fibers progressively decreased through 2 wk of HS but showed no further change at 3 wk. The results suggest that between 2 and 3 wk the HS-induced alterations in the force-velocity relationship act to maintain the power output of single soleus fibers despite a continued reduction in fiber force.

  3. Impaired Axonal Na(+) Current by Hindlimb Unloading: Implication for Disuse Neuromuscular Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Banzrai, Chimeglkham; Nodera, Hiroyuki; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Higashi, Saki; Okada, Ryo; Mori, Atsuko; Shimatani, Yoshimitsu; Osaki, Yusuke; Kaji, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the excitability changes in peripheral motor axons caused by hindlimb unloading (HLU), which is a model of disuse neuromuscular atrophy. HLU was performed in normal 8-week-old male mice by fixing the proximal tail by a clip connected to the top of the animal's cage for 3 weeks. Axonal excitability studies were performed by stimulating the sciatic nerve at the ankle and recording the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) from the foot. The amplitudes of the motor responses of the unloading group were 51% of the control amplitudes [2.2 ± 1.3 mV (HLU) vs. 4.3 ± 1.2 mV (Control), P = 0.03]. Multiple axonal excitability analysis showed that the unloading group had a smaller strength-duration time constant (SDTC) and late subexcitability (recovery cycle) than the controls [0.075 ± 0.01 (HLU) vs. 0.12 ± 0.01 (Control), P < 0.01; 5.4 ± 1.0 (HLU) vs. 10.0 ± 1.3 % (Control), P = 0.01, respectively]. Three weeks after releasing from HLU, the SDTC became comparable to the control range. Using a modeling study, the observed differences in the waveforms could be explained by reduced persistent Na(+) currents along with parameters related to current leakage. Quantification of RNA of a SCA1A gene coding a voltage-gated Na(+) channel tended to be decreased in the sciatic nerve in HLU. The present study suggested that axonal ion currents are altered in vivo by HLU. It is still undetermined whether the dysfunctional axonal ion currents have any pathogenicity on neuromuscular atrophy or are the results of neural plasticity by atrophy. PMID:26909041

  4. Effects of diet and exposure to hindlimb suspension on estrous cycling in Sprague-Dawley rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Wade, Charles E.

    2004-01-01

    Various factors can disrupt the female reproductive cycle resulting in subfertility. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether physiological changes associated with exposure to hypogravity disrupt reproductive cycles. The hindlimb suspension (HLS) model was used to simulate the major physiological effects of hypogravity in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Also, to determine whether diet may influence reproductive results, rats were fed purified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G or chow diet. Rats (n = 9-11/group) subjected to HLS had lengthened estrous cycles due to prolonged diestrus, indicating hypoestrogenism. Interestingly, HLS rats fed AIN-93G but not chow diet had significantly reduced time spent in estrus and decreased plasma estradiol. Attenuation of hypoestrogenism in the chow-fed rats suggested that diet provided an exogenous source of estrogen. The mechanism involved in the disruption of estrous cycling remains to be determined. HLS increased urinary corticosterone (CORT) levels during the initial 4 days of HLS, suggesting that physiological responses to acute stress may be a potential mechanism in the disruption of estrous cycles. Higher basal urinary CORT was observed in rats fed chow vs. AIN-93G diet. HLS resulted in increased urinary CORT. However, two-way ANOVA indicated a significant HLS effect (P < 0.001) but no effect of HLS x diet effect on urinary CORT levels, suggesting that estrogenic activity associated with the chow diet did not enhance the stress response. The results of this study indicate that HLS, diet, and the combination of HLS and diet influence estrous cycling. This has important implications for future reproductive success in the hypogravity environment of space.

  5. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Elrod, Clay; Hicks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered carnivore living in the temperate forests of the Himalayas and southern China. The phylogeny of the red panda has been the subject of much debate. Morphological and molecular studies have supported a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids, and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for Ailurus. The hindlimbs of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park were dissected. Red pandas retain a number of muscles lost in other carnivore groups, including muscles and tendons related to their robust and weight-bearing hallux. Three features, including a single-bellied m. sartorius, a proximal insertion for m. abductor digiti V, and an absent m. articularis coxae, are found in all terrestrial arctoids, including Ailurus. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and canids in lacking a caudal belly of m. semitendinosus, while they resemble procyonids and mustelids in the degree of fusion observed between mm. gluteus medius and piriformis. Furthermore, Ailurus and procyonids are characterized by numerous subdivisions within the adductor compartment, while red pandas and raccoons share a variable m. semimembranosus, composed of one, two, or three bellies. Lastly, a deep plantar muscle inserting onto the metatarsophalangeal joint of the hallux is described for Ailurus. This muscle has not been previously described and is given the name m. flexor hallucis profundus. Additional dissections of the forelimb and axial musculature of red pandas may shed further light on the phylogeny of this species. In addition, the muscle maps presented here offer a valuable resource for interpreting the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids. PMID:19014366

  6. Hindlimb unweighting decreases endothelium-dependent dilation and eNOS expression in soleus not gastrocnemius

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, C. R.; Schrage, W. G.; Rush, J. W.; Ray, C. A.; Price, E. M.; Hasser, E. M.; Laughlin, M. H.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that hindlimb unweighting (HLU) decreases endothelium-dependent vasodilation and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) in arteries of skeletal muscle with reduced blood flow during HLU. Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) were exposed to HLU (n = 15) or control (n = 15) conditions for 14 days. ACh-induced dilation was assessed in muscle with reduced [soleus (Sol)] or unchanged [gastrocnemius (Gast)] blood flow during HLU. eNOS and SOD-1 expression were measured in feed arteries (FA) and in first-order (1A), second-order (2A), and third-order (3A) arterioles. Dilation to infusion of ACh in vivo was blunted in Sol but not Gast. In arteries of Sol muscle, HLU decreased eNOS mRNA and protein content. eNOS mRNA content was significantly less in Sol FA (35%), 1A arterioles (25%) and 2A arterioles (18%). eNOS protein content was less in Sol FA (64%) and 1A arterioles (65%) from HLU rats. In arteries of Gast, HLU did not decrease eNOS mRNA or protein. SOD-1 mRNA expression was less in Sol 2A arterioles (31%) and 3A arterioles (29%) of HLU rats. SOD-1 protein content was less in Sol FA (67%) but not arterioles. SOD-1 mRNA and protein content were not decreased in arteries from Gast. These data indicate that HLU decreases endothelium-dependent vasodilation, eNOS expression, and SOD-1 expression primarily in arteries of Sol muscle where blood flow is reduced during HLU.

  7. Hindlimb unloading results in increased predisposition to cardiac arrhythmias and alters left ventricular connexin 43 expression.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, Julia A; Henry, Matthew K; Welliver, Kathryn C; Jepson, Amanda J; Garnett, Emily R

    2013-03-01

    Hindlimb unloading (HU) is a well-established animal model of cardiovascular deconditioning. Previous data indicate that HU results in cardiac sympathovagal imbalance. It is well established that cardiac sympathovagal imbalance increases the risk for developing cardiac arrhythmias. The cardiac gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) is predominately expressed in the left ventricle (LV) and ensures efficient cell-to-cell electrical coupling. In the current study we wanted to test the hypothesis that HU would result in increased predisposition to cardiac arrhythmias and alter the expression and/or phosphorylation of LV-Cx43. Electrocardiographic data using implantable telemetry were obtained over a 10- to 14-day HU or casted control (CC) condition and in response to a sympathetic stressor using isoproterenol administration and brief restraint. The arrhythmic burden was calculated using a modified scoring system to quantify spontaneous and provoked arrhythmias. In addition, Western blot analysis was used to measure LV-Cx43 expression in lysates probed with antibodies directed against the total and an unphosphorylated form of Cx43 in CC and HU rats. HU resulted in a significantly greater total arrhythmic burden during the sympathetic stressor with significantly more ventricular arrhythmias occurring. In addition, there was increased expression of total LV-Cx43 observed with no difference in the expression of unphosphorylated LV-Cx43. Specifically, the increased expression of LV-Cx43 was consistent with the phosphorylated form. These data taken together indicate that cardiovascular deconditioning produced through HU results in increased predisposition to cardiac arrhythmias and increased expression of phosphorylated LV-Cx43.

  8. The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Rebecca E; Adrian, Brent; Elrod, Clay; Hicks, Michelle

    2008-11-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is an endangered carnivore living in the temperate forests of the Himalayas and southern China. The phylogeny of the red panda has been the subject of much debate. Morphological and molecular studies have supported a wide range of possible relationships, including close ties to procyonids, ursids, mustelids, and mephitids. This study provides additional morphological data, including muscle maps, for Ailurus. The hindlimbs of four cadavers from the National Zoological Park were dissected. Red pandas retain a number of muscles lost in other carnivore groups, including muscles and tendons related to their robust and weight-bearing hallux. Three features, including a single-bellied m. sartorius, a proximal insertion for m. abductor digiti V, and an absent m. articularis coxae, are found in all terrestrial arctoids, including Ailurus. In addition, red pandas are similar to ursids and canids in lacking a caudal belly of m. semitendinosus, while they resemble procyonids and mustelids in the degree of fusion observed between mm. gluteus medius and piriformis. Furthermore, Ailurus and procyonids are characterized by numerous subdivisions within the adductor compartment, while red pandas and raccoons share a variable m. semimembranosus, composed of one, two, or three bellies. Lastly, a deep plantar muscle inserting onto the metatarsophalangeal joint of the hallux is described for Ailurus. This muscle has not been previously described and is given the name m. flexor hallucis profundus. Additional dissections of the forelimb and axial musculature of red pandas may shed further light on the phylogeny of this species. In addition, the muscle maps presented here offer a valuable resource for interpreting the functional anatomy of fossil ailurids. PMID:19014366

  9. Tendon material properties vary and are interdependent among turkey hindlimb muscles

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Andrew; Konow, Nicolai; Miller, Samuel; Konow, Pernille P.; Roberts, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The material properties of a tendon affect its ability to store and return elastic energy, resist damage, provide mechanical feedback and amplify or attenuate muscle power. While the structural properties of a tendon are known to respond to a variety of stimuli, the extent to which material properties vary among individual muscles remains unclear. We studied the tendons of six different muscles in the hindlimb of Eastern wild turkeys to determine whether there was variation in elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength and resilience. A hydraulic testing machine was used to measure tendon force during quasi-static lengthening, and a stress–strain curve was constructed. There was substantial variation in tendon material properties among different muscles. Average elastic modulus differed significantly between some tendons, and values for the six different tendons varied nearly twofold, from 829±140 to 1479±106 MPa. Tendons were stretched to failure, and the stress at failure, or ultimate tensile stress, was taken as a lower-limit estimate of tendon strength. Breaking tests for four of the tendons revealed significant variation in ultimate tensile stress, ranging from 66.83±14.34 to 112.37±9.39 MPa. Resilience, or the fraction of energy returned in cyclic length changes was generally high, and one of the four tendons tested was significantly different in resilience from the other tendons (range: 90.65±0.83 to 94.02±0.71%). An analysis of correlation between material properties revealed a positive relationship between ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus (r2=0.79). Specifically, stiffer tendons were stronger, and we suggest that this correlation results from a constrained value of breaking strain, which did not vary significantly among tendons. This finding suggests an interdependence of material properties that may have a structural basis and may explain some adaptive responses observed in studies of tendon plasticity. PMID:22771746

  10. Effects of epimuscular myofascial force transmission on sarcomere length of passive muscles in the rat hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Tijs, Chris; van Dieën, Jaap H; Maas, Huub

    2015-01-01

    Results from imaging studies and finite element models suggest epimuscular myofascial effects on sarcomere lengths in series within muscle fibers. However, experimental evidence is lacking. We evaluated epimuscular myofascial effects on (1) muscle belly, fiber, and mean sarcomere length and (2) sarcomere length distribution within passive fibers of the rat tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SO) muscles. Hindlimbs (n = 24) were positioned in predefined knee (55°, 90°, 125°, 160°) and ankle (either 90° or 125°) angles, and fixed in a formaldehyde solution. Varying knee joint angle causes changes in muscle–tendon unit length of SO and TA’s synergists, but not of SO and TA. Whole fibers were taken from SO and TA and photographed along their length. Mean sarcomere length was assessed for the entire fiber and for the proximal, intermediate, and distal thirds (fiber segments) separately. Mean sarcomere length of the fiber was not affected by knee angle, neither for SO (mean: 2.44 ± 0.03 μm and 2.19 ± 0.05 μm for ankle angles of 90° and 125°, respectively) nor for TA (mean: 2.33 ± 0.05 μm and 2.51 ± 0.07 μm for ankle angle set to 90° and 125°, respectively). Only for TA, a significant interaction between knee angle and fiber segment was found, indicating changes in the distribution of lengths of in-series sarcomeres. Thus, while epimuscular myofascial force transmission did not cause mean sarcomere length changes within passive SO and TA, it did alter the length distribution of sarcomeres within passive TA. PMID:26537346

  11. Vitamin E provides protection for bone in mature hindlimb unloaded male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. J.; Lucas, E. A.; Turner, R. T.; Evans, G. L.; Lerner, M. R.; Brackett, D. J.; Stoecker, B. J.; Arjmandi, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    The deleterious effects of skeletal unloading on bone mass and strength may, in part, result from increased production of oxygen-derived free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), a free-radical scavenger with antiinflammatory properties, to protect against bone loss caused by skeletal unloading in mature male Sprague-Dawley rats. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used with either hindlimb unloading (HU) or normal loading (ambulatory; AMB), and low-dose (LD; 15 IU/kg diet), adequate-dose (AD; 75 IU/kg diet), or high-dose (HD; 500 IU/kg diet) vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate). To optimize the effects of vitamin E on bone, dietary treatments were initiated 9 weeks prior to unloading and continued during the 4-week unloading period, at which time animals were euthanized and blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum vitamin E was dose-dependently increased, confirming the vitamin E status of animals. The HD treatment improved oxidation parameters, as indicated by elevated serum ferric-reducing ability and a trend toward reducing tissue lipid peroxidation. Histomorphometric analysis of the distal femur revealed significant reductions in trabecular thickness (TbTh), double-labeled surface (dLS/BS), and rate of bone formation to bone volume (BFR/BV) due by HU. AMB animals on the HD diet and HU animals on the LD diet had reduced bone surface normalized to tissue volume (BS/TV) and trabecular number (TbN); however, the HD vitamin E protected against these changes in the HU animals. Our findings suggest that vitamin E supplementation provides modest bone protective effects during skeletal unloading.

  12. Tendon material properties vary and are interdependent among turkey hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Matson, Andrew; Konow, Nicolai; Miller, Samuel; Konow, Pernille P; Roberts, Thomas J

    2012-10-15

    The material properties of a tendon affect its ability to store and return elastic energy, resist damage, provide mechanical feedback and amplify or attenuate muscle power. While the structural properties of a tendon are known to respond to a variety of stimuli, the extent to which material properties vary among individual muscles remains unclear. We studied the tendons of six different muscles in the hindlimb of Eastern wild turkeys to determine whether there was variation in elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength and resilience. A hydraulic testing machine was used to measure tendon force during quasi-static lengthening, and a stress-strain curve was constructed. There was substantial variation in tendon material properties among different muscles. Average elastic modulus differed significantly between some tendons, and values for the six different tendons varied nearly twofold, from 829±140 to 1479±106 MPa. Tendons were stretched to failure, and the stress at failure, or ultimate tensile stress, was taken as a lower-limit estimate of tendon strength. Breaking tests for four of the tendons revealed significant variation in ultimate tensile stress, ranging from 66.83±14.34 to 112.37±9.39 MPa. Resilience, or the fraction of energy returned in cyclic length changes was generally high, and one of the four tendons tested was significantly different in resilience from the other tendons (range: 90.65±0.83 to 94.02±0.71%). An analysis of correlation between material properties revealed a positive relationship between ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus (r(2)=0.79). Specifically, stiffer tendons were stronger, and we suggest that this correlation results from a constrained value of breaking strain, which did not vary significantly among tendons. This finding suggests an interdependence of material properties that may have a structural basis and may explain some adaptive responses observed in studies of tendon plasticity. PMID:22771746

  13. FES control of isometric forces in the rat hindlimb using many muscles.

    PubMed

    Jarc, Anthony M; Berniker, Max; Tresch, Matthew C

    2013-05-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) attempts to restore motor behaviors to paralyzed limbs by electrically stimulating nerves and/or muscles. This restoration of behavior requires specifying commands to a large number of muscles, each making an independent contribution to the ongoing behavior. Efforts to develop FES systems in humans have generally been limited to preprogrammed, fixed muscle activation patterns. The development and evaluation of more sophisticated FES control strategies is difficult to accomplish in humans, mainly because of the limited access of patients for FES experiments. Here, we developed an in vivo FES test platform using a rat model that is capable of using many muscles for control and that can therefore be used to evaluate potential strategies for developing flexible FES control strategies. We first validated this FES test platform by showing consistent force responses to repeated stimulation, monotonically increasing muscle recruitment with constant force directions, and linear summation of costimulated muscles. These results demonstrate that we are able to differentially control the activation of many muscles, despite the small size of the rat hindlimb. We then demonstrate the utility of this platform to test potential FES control strategies, using it to test our ability to effectively produce open-loop control of isometric forces. We show that we are able to use this preparation to produce a range of endpoint forces flexibly and with good accuracy. We suggest that this platform will aid in FES controller design, development, and evaluation, thus accelerating the development of effective FES applications for the restoration of movement in paralyzed patients. PMID:23303688

  14. Effect of recovery mode following hind-limb suspension on soleus muscle composition in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNulty, A. L.; Otto, A. J.; Kasper, C. E.; Thomas, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different recovery modes from hind-limb suspension-induced hypodynamia on whole body and muscle (soleus) growth as well as soleus composition and size changes of different fiber types within this same muscle. Following 28 days of tail-suspension, rats were returned to their cages and sedentarily recovered (HS), or were exercised by running on a treadmill 5 days/wk, at progressively increasing workloads (HR) for one month. Sedentary and running control groups of animals (CS, CR) were also evaluated for comparative purposes. The exercise program, which was identical for CR and HR groups, had no effect on body wt., soleus wt., soleus muscle composition or fiber size in CR rats. Atrophied soleus muscle and reduced soleus wt./body wt. ratio (both 60% of control) had returned to control values by day 7 of recovery in both suspended groups despite the fact that whole body wt. gain was significantly reduced (p less than 0.05) in HR as compared to HS rats. Atrophied soleus Type I fiber mean cross-sectional area in both HR and HS groups demonstrated similar and significant (p less than 0.01) increases during recovery. Increases in Type IIa and IIc fiber area during this same period were significant only in the HR group. While the percentage area of muscle composed of Type I fibers increased in both hypodynamic groups during recovery, the reduction in area percentage of muscle made up of Type IIa fibers was again only significant in the HR group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  15. Modeled microgravity and hindlimb unloading sensitize osteoclast precursors to RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ritu; Pan, George; Dohm, Erik D; McDonald, Jay M

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical forces are essential to maintain skeletal integrity, and microgravity exposure leads to bone loss. The underlying molecular mechanisms leading to the changes in osteoblasts and osteoclast differentiation and function remain to be fully elucidated. Because of the infrequency of spaceflights and payload constraints, establishing in vitro and in vivo systems that mimic microgravity conditions becomes necessary. We have established a simulated microgravity (modeled microgravity, MMG) system to study the changes induced in osteoclast precursors. We observed that MMG, on its own, was unable to induce osteoclastogenesis of osteoclast precursors; however, 24 h of MMG activates osteoclastogenesis-related signaling molecules ERK, p38, PLCγ2, and NFATc1. Receptor activator of NFkB ligand (RANKL) (with or without M-CSF) stimulation for 3-4 days in gravity of cells that had been exposed to MMG for 24 h enhanced the formation of very large tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated (>30 nuclei) osteoclasts accompanied by an upregulation of the osteoclast marker genes TRAP and cathepsin K. To validate the in vitro system, we studied the hindlimb unloading (HLU) system using BALB/c mice and observed a decrease in BMD of femurs and a loss of 3D microstructure of both cortical and trabecular bone as determined by micro-CT. There was a marked stimulation of osteoclastogenesis as determined by the total number of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclasts formed and also an increase in RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis from precursors removed from the tibias of mice after 28 days of HLU. In contrast to earlier reported findings, we did not observe any histomorphometric changes in the bone formation parameters. Thus, the foregoing observations indicate that microgravity sensitizes osteoclast precursors for increased differentiation. The in vitro model system described here is potentially a valid system for testing drugs for preventing

  16. Choroidal responses in microgravity. (SLS-1, SLS-2 and hindlimb-suspension experiments).

    PubMed

    Gabrion, J; Herbute, S; Oliver, J; Maurel, D; Davet, J; Clavel, B; Gharib, C; Fareh, J; Fagette, S; Nguyen, B

    1995-01-01

    Fluid and electrolyte shifts occurring during human spaceflight have been reported and investigated at the level of blood, cardiovascular and renal responses. Very few data were available concerning the cerebral fluid and electrolyte adaptation to microgravity, even in animal models. It is the reason why we developed several studies focused on the effects of spaceflight (SLS-1 and SLS-2 programs, carried on NASA STS 40 and 56 missions, which were 9- and 14-day flights, respectively), on structural and functional features of choroid plexuses, organs which secrete 70-90% of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and which are involved in brain homeostasis. Rats flown aboard space shuttles were sacrificed either in space (SLS-2 experiment, on flight day 13) or 4-8 hours after landing (SLS-1 and SLS-2 experiments). Quantitative autoradiography performed by microdensitometry and image analysis, showed that lateral and third ventricle choroid plexuses from rats flown for SLS-1 experiment demonstrated an increased number (about x 2) of binding sites to natriuretic peptides (which are known to be involved in mechanisms regulating CSF production). Using electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry, we studied the cellular response of choroid plexuses, which produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in brain lateral, third and fourth ventricles. We demonstrated that spaceflight (SLS-2 experiment, inflight samples) induces changes in the choroidal cell structure (apical microvilli, kinocilia organization, vesicle accumulation) and protein distribution or expression (carbonic anhydrase II, water channels,...). These observations suggested a loss of choroidal cell polarity and a decrease in CSF secretion. Hindlimb-suspended rats displayed similar choroidal changes. All together, these results support the hypothesis of a modified CSF production in rats during long-term (9, 13 or 14 days) adaptations to microgravity.

  17. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  18. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  19. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  20. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  1. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  2. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  3. Up-regulation of ryanodine receptor expression increases the calcium-induced calcium release and spontaneous calcium signals in cerebral arteries from hindlimb unloaded rats.

    PubMed

    Morel, Jean-Luc; Dabertrand, Fabrice; Porte, Yves; Prevot, Anne; Macrez, Nathalie

    2014-08-01

    Microgravity induces a redistribution of blood volume. Consequently, astronauts' body pressure is modified so that the upright blood pressure gradient is abolished, thereby inducing a modification in cerebral blood pressure. This effect is mimicked in the hindlimb unloaded rat model. After a duration of 8 days of unloading, Ca2+ signals activated by depolarization and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate intracellular release were increased in cerebral arteries. In the presence of ryanodine and thapsigargin, the depolarization-induced Ca2+ signals remained increased in hindlimb suspended animals, indicating that Ca2+ influx and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release mechanism were both increased. Spontaneous Ca2+ waves and localized Ca2+ events were also investigated. Increases in both amplitude and frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ waves were measured in hindlimb suspension conditions. After pharmacological segregation of Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ sparklets, their kinetic parameters were characterized. Hindlimb suspension induced an increase in the frequencies of both Ca2+ localized events, suggesting an increase of excitability. Labeling with bodipy compounds suggested that voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptor expressions were increased. Finally, the expression of the ryanodine receptor subtype 1 (RyR1) was increased in hindlimb unloading conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that RyR1 expression and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels activity are the focal points of the regulation of Ca2+ signals activated by vasoconstriction in rat cerebral arteries with an increase of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx. PMID:24233561

  4. Modulation of spontaneous locomotor and respiratory drives to hindlimb motoneurons temporally related to sympathetic drives as revealed by Mayer waves

    PubMed Central

    Wienecke, Jacob; Enríquez Denton, Manuel; Stecina, Katinka; Kirkwood, Peter A.; Hultborn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated how the networks mediating respiratory and locomotor drives to lumbar motoneurons interact and how this interaction is modulated in relation to periodic variations in blood pressure (Mayer waves). Seven decerebrate cats, under neuromuscular blockade, were used to study central respiratory drive potentials (CRDPs, usually enhanced by added CO2) and spontaneously occurring locomotor drive potentials (LDPs) in hindlimb motoneurons, together with hindlimb and phrenic nerve discharges. In four of the cats both drives and their voltage-dependent amplification were absent or modest, but in the other three, one or other of these drives was common and the voltage-dependent amplification was frequently strong. Moreover, in these three cats the blood pressure showed marked periodic variation (Mayer waves), with a slow rate (periods 9–104 s, mean 39 ± 17 SD). Profound modulation, synchronized with the Mayer waves was seen in the occurrence and/or in the amplification of the CRDPs or LDPs. In one animal, where CRDPs were present in most cells and the amplification was strong, the CRDP consistently triggered sustained plateaux at one phase of the Mayer wave cycle. In the other two animals, LDPs were common, and the occurrence of the locomotor drive was gated by the Mayer wave cycle, sometimes in alternation with the respiratory drive. Other interactions between the two drives involved respiration providing leading events, including co-activation of flexors and extensors during post-inspiration or a locomotor drive gated or sometimes entrained by respiration. We conclude that the respiratory drive in hindlimb motoneurons is transmitted via elements of the locomotor central pattern generator. The rapid modulation related to Mayer waves suggests the existence of a more direct and specific descending modulatory control than has previously been demonstrated. PMID:25713515

  5. Response of amino acids in hindlimb muscles to recovery from hypogravity and unloading by tail-cast suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Henriksen, E. J.; Jacob, S.; Cook, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Concentrations of glutamine, glutamate, aspartate (+ asparagine) and alanine were compared in hindlimb muscles of SL-3 and ground control rats. Alanine was lower in the soleus of flown rats but not of suspended animals, with no response in other muscles except a slight increase in the unloaded plantaris. With recovery, alanine in the soleus was elevated. Since no differences in alanine metabolism were found by isolated muscle, changes in muscle alanine are probably due to altered body use of this amino acid leading to varied plasma levels.

  6. Topical treatment of acute hindlimb lymphedema of the rat using a troxerutin-phosphatidylcholine complex in liposomal-like microdispersion.

    PubMed

    Casley-Smith, J R; Casley-Smith, J R; Curri, S; Földi, M

    1993-03-01

    A new reversible complex between troxerutin and phosphatidylcholine (85-90mg/kg per day), in the form of a liposome-like water microdispersion, was topically applied to the rat thigh in an experimental counterpart of acute lymphedema. After four days there was 75% less hindlimb edema (mean decrease 40% of normal compared to control 10% of normal) in the treated compared with the untreated rats. These findings suggest that this drug preparation may be useful to minimize acute peripheral lymphedema in patients.

  7. Regulation of eIF2α phosphorylation in hindlimb-unloaded and STS-135 space-flown mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liming; Tanjung, Nancy; Swarnkar, Gaurav; Ledet, Eric; Yokota, Hiroki

    2012-09-01

    Various environmental stresses elevate the phosphorylation level of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) and induce transcriptional activation of a set of stress responsive genes such as activating transcription factors 3 and 6 (ATF3 and ATF6), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and Xbp1 (X-box binding protein 1). These stress sources include radiation, oxidation, and stress to the endoplasmic reticulum, and it is recently reported that unloading by hindlimb unloading is such a stress source. No studies, however, have examined the phosphorylation level of eIF2α (eIF2α-p) using skeletal samples that have experienced microgravity in space. In this study we addressed a question: Does a mouse tibia flown in space show altered levels of eIF2α-p? To address this question, we obtained STS-135 flown samples that were harvested 4-7 h after landing. The tibia and femur isolated from hindlimb unloaded mice were employed as non-flight controls. The effects of loading were also investigated in non- flight controls. Results indicate that the level of eIF2α-p of the non-flight controls was elevated during hindlimb unloading and reduced after being released from unloading. Second, the eIF2α-p level of space-flown samples was decreased, and mechanical loading to the tibia caused the reduction of the eIF2α-p level. Third, the mRNA levels of ATF3, ATF6, and CHOP were lowered in space-flown samples as well as in the non-flight samples 4-7 h after being released from unloading. Collectively, the results herein indicated that a release from hindlimb unloading and a return to normal weight environment from space provided a suppressive effect to eIF2α-linked stress responses and that a period of 2-4 h is sufficient to induce this suppressive outcome.

  8. Effect of caffeine and ethanolic extract of kolanut on glucose uptake in the canine hindlimb at rest and during contraction.

    PubMed

    Salahdeen, H M; Alada, A R A

    2009-06-01

    The study investigated the effects of caffeine and ethanolic extract of kolanut (EEK) on glucose uptake in the canine hindlimb at rest and during contraction. Thirty male anaesthetized mongrel dogs [11-13 kg] were divided into six groups [5 dogs/group] Caffeine [6 mg/kg], EEK [5 mg/kg], or normal saline [control] was administered intravenously to each group at rest. Arterial and venous blood samples were collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes after drug administration. Blood glucose was measured by glucose oxidase method. Arteriovenous [A-V] glucose difference was calculated and venous blood flow [VBF] was measured during the sampling period. Hindlimb glucose uptake [HGU] was calculated as the product of [A-V] glucose and blood flow. After sampling at rest, the experiments were repeated with the right femoral nerve stimulated using electrical stimulator at 5 Hz. At rest, A-V glucose increased significantly [P<0.05] from 4.2+/-0.2 mg/dl to 29.8+/-8.6, and 24.4+/-2.6 for caffeine and EEK respectively. VBF decreased to 2.0+/-0.9 and 6.0+/-0.6 ml/min for caffeine and EEK respectively. However, HGU significantly increased from 34.8+/-0.1 mg/min to 74.5+/-3.2 mg/min and 175.8+/-3.4 mg/min for caffeine and EEK, respectively. Contraction of the hindlimb muscle alone significantly increased the [A-V] glucose [68%], VBF [26%] and HGU [120%] when compared with the control. During contraction, [A-V] glucose increased from 4.3 +/-1.5 mg/dl to 35.6+/-3.0 mg/dl, and 27.0+/-2.2 mg/dl for caffeine and EEK respectively. VBF also increased from 8.4+/-0.3 ml/min to 12.8+/-0.3 ml/min for EEK. Although, contraction improves VBF [7.3+/-0.5 ml/min] to the hindlimb in response to caffeine, the value was significantly [P<0.05] lower than that of control [8.4+/-0.5 ml/min]. Contraction also significantly increased HGU from 35.8+/-3.6 mg/min to 249.0+/-3.3 and 286.72+/-2.0 mg/min for caffeine and EEK, respectively. The results showed that caffeine and EEK

  9. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  10. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  11. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  12. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

  13. Schizophrenia, abnormal connection, and brain evolution.

    PubMed

    Randall, P L

    1983-03-01

    Abnormalities of functional connection between specialized areas in the human brain may underlie the symptoms which constitute the schizophrenia syndrome. Callosal and intrahemispheric fibres may be equally involved. The clinical emergence of symptoms in the later stages of brain maturation may be dependent on myelination of these fibre groups, both of which have extended myelination cycles. Ontogenetically earlier variants of the same mechanism could theoretically result in dyslexia and the syndromes of Kanner and Gilles de la Tourette. As new and unique extensions of specialized function emerge within the evolving brain, biological trial and error of connection both within and between them may produce individuals possessing phylogenetically advanced abilities, or equally, others possessing a wide range of abnormalities including those which comprise the schizophrenia syndrome. A dormant phenotypic potential for schizophrenia may exist in individuals who never develop symptoms during the course of a lifetime though some of these may become clinically apparent under the influence of various precipitating factors. It is concluded that abnormal functional connection and its normal and "supernormal" counterparts may be natural, essential, and inevitable consequences of brain evolution, and that this may have been so throughout the history of vertebrate brain evolution.

  14. Irx1 and Irx2 Are Coordinately Expressed and Regulated by Retinoic Acid, TGFβ and FGF Signaling during Chick Hindlimb Development

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Hernández, Martha Elena; Bustamante, Marcia; Galván-Hernández, Claudio Iván; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The Iroquois homeobox (Irx) genes play a crucial role in the regionalization and patterning of tissues and organs during metazoan development. The Irx1 and Irx2 gene expression pattern during hindlimb development has been investigated in different species, but its regulation during hindlimb morphogenesis has not been explored yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression pattern of Irx1 and Irx2 as well as their regulation by important regulators of hindlimb development such as retinoic acid (RA), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling during chick hindlimb development. Irx1 and Irx2 were coordinately expressed in the interdigital tissue, digital primordia, joints and in the boundary between cartilage and non-cartilage tissue. Down-regulation of Irx1 and Irx2 expression at the interdigital tissue coincided with the onset of cell death. RA was found to down-regulate their expression by a bone morphogenetic protein-independent mechanism before any evidence of cell death. Furthermore, TGFβ protein regulated Irx1 and Irx2 in a stage-dependent manner at the interdigital tissue, it inhibited their expression when it was administered to the interdigital tissue at developing stages before their normal down-regulation. TGFβ administered to the interdigital tissue at developing stages after normal down-regulation of Irx1 and Irx2 evidenced that expression of these genes marked the boundary between cartilage tissue and non-cartilage tissue. It was also found that at early stages of hindlimb development FGF signaling inhibited the expression of Irx2. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that Irx1 and Irx2 are coordinately expressed and regulated during chick embryo hindlimb development as occurs in other species of vertebrates supporting the notion that the genomic architecture of Irx clusters is conserved in vertebrates. PMID:23505533

  15. The effect of abnormal cell proportion on specimen classifier performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, K. R.; White, B. S.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the results obtained from a cell classifier which is confronted with an abnormal/normal cell ratio which is different from the ratio assumed in the calibration of the classifier. False negative and false positive error rates are determined in advance for classifier operation, along with the necessary sample size in order to validate the predicted distributions. Changes are demonstrated to happen only regarding the false negative rate, where reductions in the abnormal cell rate below the expected rates would cause totally unreliable data. Substantial overproduction of abnormal cells would be quickly noticeable, while production rates beyond, but close to, the expected rates would only require more extensive sampling. Classifier systems for 10% proportions of abnormal cells are concluded to be possible, but difficulties are present with much lower rates

  16. An alternant method to the traditional NASA hindlimb unloading model in mice.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, J Andries; Crissey, Jacqueline M; Brown, Marybeth

    2011-03-10

    The Morey-Holton hindlimb unloading (HU) method is a widely accepted National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ground-based model for studying disuse-atrophy in rodents. Our study evaluated an alternant method to the gold-standard Morey-Holton HU tail-traction technique in mice. Fifty-four female mice (4-8 mo.) were HU for 14 days (n=34) or 28 days (n=20). Recovery from HU was assessed after 3 days of normal cage ambulation following HU (n=22). Aged matched mice (n=76) served as weight-bearing controls. Prior to HU a tail ring was formed with a 2-0 sterile surgical steel wire that was passed through the 5(th), 6(th), or 7(th) inter-vertebral disc space and shaped into a ring from which the mice were suspended. Vertebral location for the tail-ring was selected to appropriately balance animal body weight without interfering with defecation. We determined the success of this novel HU technique by assessing body weight before and after HU, degree of soleus atrophy, and adrenal mass following HU. Body weight of the mice prior to HU (24.3 ± 2.9g) did not significantly decline immediately after 14d of HU (22.7 ± 1.9g), 28d of HU (21.3 + 2.1g) or after 3 days recovery (24.0 ± 1.8g). Soleus muscle mass significantly declined (-39.1%, and -46.6%) following HU for 14 days and 28 days respectively (p<0.001). Following 3 days of recovery soleus mass significantly increased to 74% of control values. Adrenal weights of HU mice were not different compared to control mice. The success of our novel HU method is evidenced by the maintenance of animal body weight, comparable adrenal gland weights, and soleus atrophy following HU, corresponding to expected literature values. The primary advantages of this HU method include: 1) ease of tail examination during suspension; 2) decreased likelihood of cyanotic, inflamed, and/or necrotic tails frequently observed with tail-taping and HU; 3) no possibility of mice chewing the traction tape and coming out of the suspension

  17. Mechanical Stress and Antioxidant Protection in the Retina of Hindlimb Suspended Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Aziza; Theriot, Corey A.; Alway, Stephen E.; Zanello, Susana B.

    2012-01-01

    It has been postulated that hindlimb suspension (HS) causes a cephalad fluid shift in quadrupeds similar to that occurring to humans in microgravity. Therefore, HS may provide a suitable animal model in which to recapitulate the ocular changes observed in the human Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. This work reports preliminary results from a tissue sharing project using 34 week-old Brown Norway rats. Two different experiments compared normal posture controls and HS rats for 2 weeks and rats exposed to HS for 2 weeks but allowed to recover in normal posture for 2 additional weeks. The effects of two nutritional countermeasures, green tea extract (GT) and plant polyphenol resveratrol (Rv), were also evaluated. Green tea contains the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). qPCR gene expression analysis of selected targets was performed on RNA from isolated retinas, and histologic analysis was done on one fixed eye per rat. The transcription factor early growth response protein 1 (Egr1) was upregulated almost 2-fold in HS retinas relative to controls (P = 0.059), and its expression returned to control levels after 2 weeks of recovery in normal posture (P = 0.023). HS-induced upregulation of Egr1 was attenuated (but not significantly) in retinas from rats fed an antioxidant rich (GT extract) diet. In rats fed the GT-enriched diet, antioxidant enzymes were induced, evidenced by the upregulation of the gene heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) (P = 0.042) and the gene superoxide dismutase 2 (Sod2) (P = 0.0001). Egr1 is a stretch-activated transcription factor, and the Egr1 mechanosensitive response to HS may have been caused by a change in the translaminal pressure and/or mechanical deformation of the eye globe. The observed histologic measurements of the various retinal layers in the HS rats were lower in value than those of the control animal (n = 1), however insufficient data were available for statistical analysis. Aquaporin 4, a water

  18. Effect of Hindlimb Unweighting on Single Soleus Fiber Maximal Shortening Velocity and ATPase Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. S.; Fitts, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study characterizes the time course of change in single soleus muscle fiber size and function elicited by hindlimb un weighting (HU) and analyzes the extent to which varying durations of HU altered maximal velocity of shortening (V(sub o)), myofibrillar adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase), and relative content of slow and fast myosin in individual soleus fibers. After 1, 2, or 3 weeks of HU, soleus muscle bundles were prepared and stored in skinning solution at -20 C. Single fibers were isolated and mounted between a motor arm and a transducer, and fiber force, V(sub o), and ATPase activity were measured. Fiber myosin content was determined by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After 1, 2, and 3 weeks of HU, soleus fibers exhibited a progressive reduction in fiber diameter (16, 22, and 42%, respectively) and peak force (42, 48, and 7%, respectively). Peak specific tension was significantly reduced after 1 week of HU (18%) and showed no further change in 2-3 weeks of HU. During 1 and 3 wk of HU, fiber V(sub o) and ATPase showed a significant increase. By 3 week, V(sub o) had increased from 1.32 +/- 0.04 to 2.94 +/- 0.17 fiber lengths/s and fiber ATPase from 291 +/- 16 to 1064 +/- 128 micro-M min(sub -1) mm(sub -3). The percent fibers expressing fast myosin heavy chain increased from 4% to 29% by 3 week of HU, and V(sub o) and ATPase activity within a fiber were highly correlated. However, a large population of fibers after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of HU showed increases in V(sub o) and ATPase but displayed the same myosin protein profile on SDS gels as control fibers. The mechanism eliciting increased fiber V(sub o) and ATPase activity was not obvious but may have been due to increases in fast myosin that went undetected on SDS gels and/or other factors unrelated to the myosin filament.

  19. Acupuncture ameliorated skeletal muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb suspension in mice.

    PubMed

    Onda, Akiko; Jiao, Qibin; Nagano, Yasuharu; Akimoto, Takayuki; Miyamoto, Toshikazu; Minamisawa, Susumu; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2011-07-01

    Preventing skeletal muscle atrophy is critical for maintaining quality of life, but it is often a challenging goal for the elderly and patients with severe conditions. We hypothesized that acupuncture in place of exercise training is an alternative non-pharmacological intervention that can help to prevent muscle atrophy. To elucidate the effects of acupuncture on skeletal muscle atrophy caused by hindlimb suspension (HS), we performed acupuncture on mice according to two different methods: acupuncture with electrical stimulation (EA: electroacupuncture) and without electrical stimulation (MA: manual acupuncture). A needle was retained in the gastrocnemius muscle for 30 min every day for 2 weeks in the EA and MA groups. In the EA group, 30 min of repetitive electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 1 ms pulse width, 6.5 mA intensity) was also applied. HS significantly reduced muscle mass and the cross-sectional area of the soleus muscles. This HS-induced reduction was significantly improved in the EA group, although the level of improvement remained insufficient when compared with the control group. We found that the mRNA expression levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF1, which play a principal role in muscle-specific degradation as E3 ubiquitin ligases, were significantly increased in the HS group compared to the control group. EA and MA reduced the HS-induced upregulation of atrogin-1 (p<0.01 in EA and MA) and MuRF1 (p<0.01 in EA) mRNAs. We also found that the expression levels of PI3K, Akt1, TRPV4, adenosine A1 receptor, myostatin, and SIRT1 mRNAs tended to be increased by HS. EA and MA further increased the HS-induced upregulation of Akt1 (p<0.05 in MA) and TRPV4 (p<0.05 in MA) mRNAs. We concluded that acupuncture partially prevented skeletal muscle atrophy. This effect might be due to an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation.

  20. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  1. Comparison of hindlimb unloading and partial weight suspension models for spaceflight-type condition induced effects on white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S; Sanzari, Jenine K; Wagner, Erika B; Mick, Rosemarie; Kennedy, Ann R

    2012-01-01

    Animal models are frequently used to assist in the determination of the long- and short-term effects of space flight. The space environment, including microgravity, can impact many physiological and immunological system parameters. It has been found that ground based models of microgravity produce changes in white blood cell counts, which negatively affects immunologic function. As part of the Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR), we compared the acute effects on white blood cell parameters induced by the more traditionally used animal model of hindlimb unloading (HU) with a recently developed reduced weightbearing analog known as partial weight suspension (PWS). Female ICR mice were either hindlimb unloaded or placed in the PWS system at 16% quadrupedal weightbearing for 4 h, 1, 2, 7 or 10 days, at which point complete blood counts were obtained. Control animals (jacketed and non-jacketed) were exposed to identical conditions without reduced weightbearing. Results indicate that significant changes in total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts were observed within the first 2 days of exposure to each system. These differences in blood cell counts normalized by day 7 in both systems. The results of these studies indicate that there are some statistically significant changes observed in the blood cell counts for animals exposed to both the PWS and HU simulated microgravity systems.

  2. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter

    PubMed Central

    MORI, Kent; SUZUKI, Satoshi; KOYABU, Daisuke; KIMURA, Junpei; HAN, Sung-Yong; ENDO, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids. PMID:25715875

  3. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids.

  4. Growth hormone/IGF-I and/or resistive exercise maintains myonuclear number in hindlimb unweighted muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. L.; Linderman, J. K.; Roy, R. R.; Grindeland, R. E.; Mukku, V.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study of rats, we examined the role, during 2 wk of hindlimb suspension, of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I (GH/IGF-I) administration and/or brief bouts of resistance exercise in ameliorating the loss of myonuclei in fibers of the soleus muscle that express type I myosin heavy chain. Hindlimb suspension resulted in a significant decrease in mean soleus wet weight that was attenuated either by exercise alone or by exercise plus GH/IGF-I treatment but was not attenuated by hormonal treatment alone. Both mean myonuclear number and mean fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) of fibers expressing type I myosin heavy chain decreased after 2 wk of suspension compared with control (134 vs. 162 myonuclei/mm and 917 vs. 2,076 micron2, respectively). Neither GH/IGF-I treatment nor exercise alone affected myonuclear number or fiber CSA, but the combination of exercise and growth-factor treatment attenuated the decrease in both variables. A significant correlation was found between mean myonuclear number and mean CSA across all groups. Thus GH/IGF-I administration and brief bouts of muscle loading had an interactive effect in attenuating the loss of myonuclei induced by chronic unloading.

  5. Comparison of hindlimb unloading and partial weight suspension models for spaceflight-type condition induced effects on white blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jolaine M.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wagner, Erika B.; Mick, Rosemarie; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    Animal models are frequently used to assist in the determination of the long- and short-term effects of space flight. The space environment, including microgravity, can impact many physiological and immunological system parameters. It has been found that ground based models of microgravity produce changes in white blood cell counts, which negatively affects immunologic function. As part of the Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR), we compared the acute effects on white blood cell parameters induced by the more traditionally used animal model of hindlimb unloading (HU) with a recently developed reduced weightbearing analog known as partial weight suspension (PWS). Female ICR mice were either hindlimb unloaded or placed in the PWS system at 16% quadrupedal weightbearing for 4 h, 1, 2, 7 or 10 days, at which point complete blood counts were obtained. Control animals (jacketed and non-jacketed) were exposed to identical conditions without reduced weightbearing. Results indicate that significant changes in total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts were observed within the first 2 days of exposure to each system. These differences in blood cell counts normalized by day 7 in both systems. The results of these studies indicate that there are some statistically significant changes observed in the blood cell counts for animals exposed to both the PWS and HU simulated microgravity systems.

  6. Comparative functional anatomy of hindlimb muscles and bones with reference to aquatic adaptation of the sea otter.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kent; Suzuki, Satoshi; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kimura, Junpei; Han, Sung-Yong; Endo, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Although the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a complete aquatic species, spending its entire life in the ocean, it has been considered morphologically to be a semi-aquatic animal. This study aimed to clarify the unique hindlimb morphology and functional adaptations of E. lutris in comparison to other Mustelidae species. We compared muscle mass and bone measurements of five Mustelidae species: the sea otter, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra), American mink (Neovison vison), Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi) and Siberian weasel (M. sibirica). In comparison with the other 4 species, E. lutris possessed significantly larger gluteus, popliteus and peroneus muscles, but smaller adductor and ischiopubic muscles. The popliteus muscle may act as a medial rotator of the crus, and the peroneus muscle may act as an abductor of the fifth toe and/or the pronator of the foot. The bundles of the gluteus superficialis muscle of E. lutris were fused with those of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and gluteofemoralis muscles, and they may play a role in femur abduction. These results suggest that E. lutris uses the abducted femur, medially rotated crus, eversion of the ankle and abducted fifth digit or extended interdigital web as a powerful propulsion generator. Therefore, we conclude that E. lutris is a complete aquatic animal, possessing differences in the proportions of the hindlimb muscles compared with those in other semi-aquatic and terrestrial mustelids. PMID:25715875

  7. Application of a Rat Hindlimb Model: A Prediction of Force Spaces Reachable Through Stimulation of Nerve Fascicles

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Will L.; Jindrich, Devin L.; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R.

    2011-01-01

    A device to generate standing or locomotion through chronically placed electrodes has not been fully developed due in part to limitations of clinical experimentation and the high number of muscle activation inputs of the leg. We investigated the feasibility of functional electrical stimulation paradigms that minimize the input dimensions for controlling the limbs by stimulating at nerve fascicles, utilizing a model of the rat hindlimb which combined previously collected morphological data with muscle physiological parameters presented herein. As validation of the model we investigated the suitability of a lumped-parameter model for prediction of muscle activation during dynamic tasks. Using the validated model we found that the space of forces producible through activation of muscle groups sharing common nerve fascicles was nonlinearly dependent on the number of discrete muscle groups that could be individually activated (equivalently, the neuroanatomical level of activation). Seven commonly innervated muscle groups were sufficient to produce 78% of the force space producible through individual activation of the 42 modeled hindlimb muscles. This novel, neuroanatomically derived reduction in input dimension emphasizes the potential to simplify controllers for functional electrical stimulation to improve functional recovery after a neuromuscular injury. PMID:21244999

  8. Expression of IGF-I and Protein Degradation Markers During Hindlimb Unloading and Growth Hormone Administration in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinsoo, T. A.; Turtikova, O. V.; Shenkman, B. S.

    2013-02-01

    It is known that hindlimb unloading or spaceflight produce atrophy and a number of phenotypic alterations in skeletal muscles. Many of these processes are triggered by the axis growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I. However growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) expression relationship in rodent models of gravitational unloading is weakly investigated. We supposed the IGF-I is involved in regulation of protein turnover. In this study we examined the IGF-I expression by RT-PCR assay in the rat soleus, tibialis anterior and liver after 3 day of hindlimb suspension with growth hormone administration. Simultaneously were studied expression levels of MuRF-1 and MAFbx/atrogin as a key markers of intracellular proteolysis. We demonstrated that GH administration did not prevent IGF-I expression decreasing under the conditions of simulated weightlessness. It was concluded there are separate mechanisms of action of GH and IGF-I on protein metabolism in skeletal muscles. Gravitational unloading activate proteolysis independently of growth hormone activity.

  9. Robot applied stance loading increases hindlimb muscle mass and stepping kinetics in a rat model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Nessler, Jeff A; Moustafa-Bayoumi, Moustafa; Soto, Dalziel; Duhon, Jessica E; Schmitt, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury (SCI) reduced limb usage typically results in muscle atrophy. While robotic locomotor training has been shown to improve several aspects of stepping ability following SCI, little is known regarding the effects of automated training on the preservation of muscle function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two robotic locomotor training algorithms on hindlimb strength and muscle mass in a rat model of SCI. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats received a mid-thoracic spinal cord transection at 5 days of age, and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control (no training), standard robotic training, and robotic training with a downward force applied to the shank during the stance phase of gait. Training occurred 5 days/week for 5 min/day, and animals received 90% body weight support for all sessions. Following 4 weeks of training, vertical and propulsive ground reaction force during stepping and en vitro mass of two plantarflexor muscles were significantly increased for all of the trained animals when compared to the untrained control group. Post hoc analysis revealed that standard robotic training did not appear to increase ground reaction force and muscle mass to the same extent as the loaded condition. These results indicate that automated robotic training helps to preserve hindlimb muscle function in rats following SCI. Further, the addition of a plantarflexion stance load appears to promote greater increases in muscle mass and stepping kinetics.

  10. Impaired energetic metabolism after central leptin signaling leads to massive appendicular bone loss in hindlimb-suspended rats.

    PubMed

    Martin, Aline; David, Valentin; Vico, Laurence; Thomas, Thierry

    2008-12-01

    We previously showed in rats that the leptin effects on bone were dose dependent. Positive effects were observed when serum leptin concentration was in a physiological range. In contrast, important increases in serum leptin levels led to negative effects on bone formation similar to those reported after intracerebroventricular leptin administration in mice. To clarify whether leptin effects on bone depend on administration route and/or animal model, female rats were hindlimb unloaded or not and treated either with intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin or vehicle for 14 days. By increasing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leptin concentration, intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin significantly reduced food intake and consequently body weight, abdominal fat, and lean mass of the animals. Leptin infusion inhibited bone elongation over the 14 days and blunted cortical bone thickening at the femoral diaphysis site. Interestingly, leptin effects were site dependent in the cancellous bone envelopes, because tibia metaphysis BMD was lower and lumbar spine BMD was higher under intracerebroventricular leptin. Treated groups showed reduced bone remodeling independently of hindlimb unloading. Multiple downstream pathways were implicated in the mediation of these negative leptin effects on bone including not only stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system but also a decrease in somatotropic axis activity. Therefore, the intracerebroventricular leptin-induced bone loss could be largely related to the concurrent alteration of energetic and metabolic status. In summary, our study supports the hypothesis of a concentration-dependent balance between peripheral and central control of leptin on bone.

  11. Comparison of hindlimb unloading and partial weight suspension models for spaceflight-type condition induced effects on white blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Wagner, Erika B.; Mick, Rosemarie; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models are frequently used to assist in the determination of the long- and short-term effects of space flight. The space environment, including microgravity, can impact many physiological and immunological system parameters. It has been found that ground based models of microgravity produce changes in white blood cell counts, which negatively affects immunologic function. As part of the Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR), we compared the acute effects on white blood cell parameters induced by the more traditionally used animal model of hindlimb unloading (HU) with a recently developed reduced weightbearing analog known as partial weight suspension (PWS). Female ICR mice were either hindlimb unloaded or placed in the PWS system at 16% quadrupedal weightbearing for 4 h, 1, 2, 7 or 10 days, at which point complete blood counts were obtained. Control animals (jacketed and non-jacketed) were exposed to identical conditions without reduced weightbearing. Results indicate that significant changes in total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil counts were observed within the first 2 days of exposure to each system. These differences in blood cell counts normalized by day 7 in both systems. The results of these studies indicate that there are some statistically significant changes observed in the blood cell counts for animals exposed to both the PWS and HU simulated microgravity systems. PMID:23766550

  12. NG-nitro-L-arginine and phenylephrine have similar effects on the vascular waterfall in the canine hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Shrier, I; Magder, S

    1995-02-01

    Hindlimb pressure-flow relationships are well characterized by modeling a vascular waterfall at the arteriolar level. Under these conditions, Q = (Pper - Pcrit)/Rart, where Q is blood flow, Pper is perfusion pressure, Pcrit is waterfall pressure, and Rart is the resistance upstream from the waterfall. To determine the effects of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) on Pcrit, Rart, and venous resistance (Rv), we varied Pper in the canine hindlimb between 100 and 200 mmHg before and after NG-nitro-L-arginine infusion (L-NNA, an inhibitor of EDRF synthesis). Before L-NNA, Pcrit increased with increasing Pper. After L-NNA, Pcrit was higher at each Pper, and the increase in Pcrit with increases in Pper was greater than under control conditions. In contrast to Pcrit, Rart decreased with increasing Pper before L-NNA. After L-NNA, Rart was higher at each Pper and no longer decreased with increasing Pper. Rv was not affected by Pper under control conditions but decreased with increasing Pper after L-NNA. The pressure in the small venules at each Pper decreased after L-NNA. In a second group of animals, we infused phenylephrine to control for increased tone produced by L-NNA. Results were similar to those seen with L-NNA. In conclusion, blocking EDRF synthesis increases both Pcrit and Rart, but the same response was also obtained with phenylephrine.

  13. Passive hind-limb cycling improves cardiac function and reduces cardiovascular disease risk in experimental spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    West, Christopher R; Crawford, Mark A; Poormasjedi-Meibod, Malihe-Sadat; Currie, Katharine D; Fallavollita, Andre; Yuen, Violet; McNeill, John H; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes altered autonomic control and severe physical deconditioning that converge to drive maladaptive cardiac remodelling. We used a clinically relevant experimental model to investigate the cardio-metabolic responses to SCI and to establish whether passive hind-limb cycling elicits a cardio-protective effect. Initially, 21 male Wistar rats were evenly assigned to three groups: uninjured control (CON), T3 complete SCI (SCI) or T3 complete SCI plus passive hind-limb cycling (SCI-EX; 2 × 30 min day−1, 5 days week−1 for 4 weeks beginning 6 days post-SCI). On day 32, cardio-metabolic function was assessed using in vivo echocardiography, ex vivo working heart assessments, cardiac histology/molecular biology and blood lipid profiles. Twelve additional rats (n = 6 SCI and n = 6 SCI-EX) underwent in vivo echocardiography and basal haemodynamic assessments pre-SCI and at days 7, 14 and 32 post-SCI to track temporal cardiovascular changes. Compared with CON, SCI exhibited a rapid and sustained reduction in left ventricular dimensions and function that ultimately manifested as reduced contractility, increased myocardial collagen deposition and an up-regulation of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Smad3) mRNA. For SCI-EX, the initial reduction in left ventricular dimensions and function at day 7 post-SCI was completely reversed by day 32 post-SCI, and there were no differences in myocardial contractility between SCI-EX and CON. Collagen deposition was similar between SCI-EX and CON. TGFβ1 and Smad3 were down-regulated in SCI-EX. Blood lipid profiles were improved in SCI-EX versus SCI. We provide compelling novel evidence that passive hind-limb cycling prevents cardiac dysfunction and reduces cardiovascular disease risk in experimental SCI. PMID:24535438

  14. Remodeling the Dendritic Spines in the Hindlimb Representation of the Sensory Cortex after Spinal Cord Hemisection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kexue; Zhang, Jinhui; Zhou, Yanmei; Chen, Chao; Li, Wei; Ma, Lei; Zhang, Licheng; Zhao, Jingxin; Gan, Wenbiao; Zhang, Lihai; Tang, Peifu

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can induce remodeling of multiple levels of the cerebral cortex system especially in the sensory cortex. The aim of this study was to assess, in vivo and bilaterally, the remodeling of dendritic spines in the hindlimb representation of the sensory cortex after spinal cord hemisection. Thy1-YFP transgenic mice were randomly divided into the control group and the SCI group, and the spinal vertebral plates (T11-T12) of all mice were excised. Next, the left hemisphere of the spinal cord (T12) was hemisected in the SCI group. The hindlimb representations of the sensory cortex in both groups were imaged bilaterally on the day before (0d), and three days (3d), two weeks (2w), and one month (1m) after the SCI. The rates of stable, newly formed, and eliminated spines were calculated by comparing images of individual dendritic spine in the same areas at different time points. In comparison to the control group, the rate of newly formed spines in the contralateral sensory cortex of the SCI group increased at three days and two weeks after injury. The rates of eliminated spines in the bilateral sensory cortices increased and the rate of stable spines in the bilateral cortices declined at two weeks and one month. From three days to two weeks, the stable rates of bilaterally stable spines in the SCI group decreased. In comparison to the control group and contralateral cortex in the SCI group, the re-emerging rate of eliminated spines in ipsilateral cortex of the SCI group decreased significantly. The stable rates of newly formed spines in bilateral cortices of the SCI group decreased from two weeks to one month. We found that the remodeling in the hindlimb representation of the sensory cortex after spinal cord hemisection occurred bilaterally. This remodeling included eliminating spines and forming new spines, as well as changing the reorganized regions of the brain cortex after the SCI over time. Soon after the SCI, the cortex was remodeled by

  15. A Comparative Molecular Analysis of Developing Mouse Forelimbs and Hindlimbs Using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Margulies, Elliott H.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Innis, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of differentially expressed genes is a powerful approach to elucidate the genetic mechanisms underlying the morphological and evolutionary diversity among serially homologous structures, both within the same organism (e.g., hand vs. foot) and between different species (e.g., hand vs. wing). In the developing embryo, limb-specific expression of Pitx1, Tbx4, and Tbx5 regulates the determination of limb identity. However, numerous lines of evidence, including the fact that these three genes encode transcription factors, indicate that additional genes are involved in the Pitx1-Tbx hierarchy. To examine the molecular distinctions coded for by these factors, and to identify novel genes involved in the determination of limb identity, we have used Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) to generate comprehensive gene expression profiles from intact, developing mouse forelimbs and hindlimbs. To minimize the extraction of erroneous SAGE tags from low-quality sequence data, we used a new algorithm to extract tags from phred-analyzed sequence data and obtained 68,406 and 68,450 SAGE tags from forelimb and hindlimb SAGE libraries, respectively. We also developed an improved method for determining the identity of SAGE tags that increases the specificity of and provides additional information about the confidence of the tag-UniGene cluster match. The most differentially expressed gene between our SAGE libraries was Pitx1. The differential expression of Tbx4, Tbx5, and several limb-specific Hox genes was also detected; however, their abundances in the SAGE libraries were low. Because numerous other tags were differentially expressed at this low level, we performed a ‘virtual‘ subtraction with 362,344 tags from six additional nonlimb SAGE libraries to further refine this set of candidate genes. This subtraction reduced the number of candidate genes by 74%, yet preserved the previously identified regulators of limb identity. This study presents the gene expression

  16. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  17. The Effect of Cromakalim on the Hindlimb Vascular Bed of the Male Rat: Do Glybenclamide and/or Nitric Oxide Modulate the Vasodilation?

    PubMed

    Jahr, Jonathan S.; Feng, Chang Jian; Wang, Junke; Holton, Ronald; Cheng, David Y.

    1994-06-01

    Cromakalim, a benzopyran derivative, is a member of a novel class of antihypertensive agents that increase membrane K(+) conductance through ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. The effects of glybenclamide and N(omega)-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis from L-arginine were investigated on the vasodilator response to cromakalim in the hindlimb vascular bed in the male rat, as well as the combination glybenclamide and L-NAME. Thirty male Sprague--Dawley rats (350--450 g) were studied. Cromakalim in three doses (10, 30, 100 &mgr;g) injected into the hindlimb through a catheter induced a significant dose-dependent decrease in both mean arterial pressure (MAP) and hindlimb perfusion pressure (HPP). These responses were significantly modified by either glybenclamide or L-NAME. The role of a combination of glybenclamide and L-NAME on the vasodilator responses to cromakalim, acetylcholine, and nitroglycerin were also investigated. Three doses of either acetylcholine, nitroglycerin, or cromakalim caused dose-dependent reduction in HPP of the rats. The responses to acetylcholine were significantly blocked by L-NAME, but the responses to nitroglycerin were not. The vasodilation induced by cromakalim was not only partly blocked by glybenclamide but also by L-NAME. This blockade was significantly augmented when both glybenclamide and L-NAME were infused. These results suggest that nitric oxide may play an important role in regulating hindlimb vascular tone under physiologic conditions. The data also suggest that nitric oxide may be an additional mediator for cromakalim vasodilation as well as K(APT)(+) channel activation in the hindlimb vascular bed of the male rat. PMID:11835061

  18. Residual gait abnormalities in surgically treated spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Shelokov, A; Haideri, N; Roach, J

    1993-11-01

    The authors retrospectively studied seven patients who had in situ fusion as adolescents for high-grade (IV, V) spondylolisthesis unresponsive to more conservative means. All patients achieved solid bony union; their pain was relieved; and hamstring spasm had resolved. The authors sought to determine whether crouch gait or any other abnormalities could be demonstrated in patients exhibiting clinical parameters of success. Each patient underwent gait analysis, radiographic analysis, and a physical examination. Four of seven patients demonstrated slight degrees of forward trunk lean during varying phases of gait accompanied by increased hip flexion. One patient demonstrated increased trunk extension accompanied by limited hip flexion. Two patients were essentially normal. The authors were unable to quantify residual crouch in these patients with solidly fused high-grade spondylolisthesis.

  19. Native fluorescence characterization of human liver abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Madhuri, S.; Aruna, Prakasa R.; Suchitra, S.; Srinivasan, T. G.

    1999-05-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of intrinsic biomolecules has been extensively used in biology and medicine for the past several decades. In the present study, we report the native fluorescence characteristics of blood plasma from normal human subjects and patients with different liver abnormalities such as hepatitis, leptospirosis, jaundice, cirrhosis and liver cell failure. Native fluorescence spectra of blood plasma -- acetone extract were measured at 405 nm excitation. The average spectrum of normal blood plasma has a prominent emission peak around 464 nm whereas in the case of liver diseased subjects, the primary peak is red shifted with respect to normal. In addition, liver diseased cases show distinct secondary emission peak around 615 nm, which may be attributed to the presence of endogenous porphyrins. The red shift of the prominent emission peak with respect to normal is found to be maximum for hepatitis and minimum for cirrhosis whereas the secondary emission peak around 615 nm was found to be more prominent in the case of cirrhosis than the rest. The ratio parameter I465/I615 is found to be statistically significant (p less than 0.001) in discriminating liver abnormalities from normal.

  20. Effect of Solar Particle Event Radiation and Hindlimb Suspension on Gastrointestinal Tract Bacterial Translocation and Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Ni, Houping; Li, Minghong; Sanzari, Jenine K.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R.; Weissman, Drew

    2012-01-01

    The environmental conditions that could lead to an increased risk for the development of an infection during prolonged space flight include: microgravity, stress, radiation, disturbance of circadian rhythms, and altered nutritional intake. A large body of literature exists on the impairment of the immune system by space flight. With the advent of missions outside the Earth's magnetic field, the increased risk of adverse effects due to exposure to radiation from a solar particle event (SPE) needs to be considered. Using models of reduced gravity and SPE radiation, we identify that either 2 Gy of radiation or hindlimb suspension alone leads to activation of the innate immune system and the two together are synergistic. The mechanism for the transient systemic immune activation is a reduced ability of the GI tract to contain bacterial products. The identification of mechanisms responsible for immune dysfunction during extended space missions will allow the development of specific countermeasures. PMID:23028522

  1. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  2. Skeletal muscle myostatin mRNA expression is fiber-type specific and increases during hindlimb unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, C. J.; Booth, F. W.; Gordon, S. E.

    1999-01-01

    Transgenic mice lacking a functional myostatin (MSTN) gene demonstrate greater skeletal muscle mass resulting from muscle fiber hypertrophy and hyperplasia (McPherron, A. C., A. M. Lawler, and S. -J. Lee. Nature 387: 83-90, 1997). Therefore, we hypothesized that, in normal mice, MSTN may act as a negative regulator of muscle mass. Specifically, we hypothesized that the predominately slow (type I) soleus muscle, which demonstrates greater atrophy than the fast (type II) gastrocnemius-plantaris complex (Gast/PLT), would show more elevation in MSTN mRNA abundance during hindlimb unloading (HU). Surprisingly, MSTN mRNA was not detectable in weight-bearing or HU soleus muscle, which atrophied 42% by the 7th day of HU in female ICR mice. In contrast, MSTN mRNA was present in weight-bearing Gast/PLT muscle and was significantly elevated (67%) at 1 day but not at 3 or 7 days of HU. However, the Gast/PLT muscle had only atrophied 17% by the 7th day of HU. Because the soleus is composed only of type I and IIa fibers, whereas the Gast/PLT expresses type IId/x and IIb in addition to type I and IIa, it was necessary to perform a more careful analysis of the relationship between MSTN mRNA levels and myosin heavy-chain (MHC) isoform expression (as a marker of fiber type). A significant correlation (r = 0.725, P < 0. 0005) was noted between the percentage of MHC isoform IIb expression and MSTN mRNA abundance in several muscles of the mouse hindlimb. These results indicate that MSTN expression is not strongly associated with muscle atrophy induced by HU; however, it is strongly associated with MHC isoform IIb expression in normal muscle.

  3. Hindlimb Muscle Morphology and Function in a New Atrophy Model Combining Spinal Cord Injury and Cast Immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fan; Keener, Jonathon E.; Vohra, Ravneet; Lim, Wootaek; Ruhella, Arjun; Bose, Prodip; Daniels, Michael; Walter, Glenn, A.; Thompson, Floyd; Vandenborne, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) animal models are used to study loss of muscle function and mass. However, parallels to the human condition typically have been confounded by spontaneous recovery observed within the first few post-injury weeks, partly because of free cage activity. We implemented a new rat model combining SCI with cast immobilization (IMM) to more closely reproduce the unloading conditions experienced by SCI patients. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to monitor hindlimb muscles' cross-sectional area (CSA) after SCI, IMM alone, SCI combined with IMM (SCI+IMM), and in controls (CTR) over a period of 21 days. Soleus muscle tetanic force was measured in situ on day 21, and hindlimb muscles were harvested for histology. IMM alone produced a decrease in triceps surae CSA to 63.9±4.9% of baseline values within 14 days. In SCI, CSA decreased to 75.0±10.5% after 7 days, and recovered to 77.9±10.7% by day 21. SCI+IMM showed the greatest amount of atrophy (56.9±9.9% on day 21). In all groups, muscle mass and soleus tetanic force decreased in parallel, such that specific force was maintained. Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus fiber size decreased in all groups, particularly in SCI+IMM. We observed a significant degree of asymmetry in muscle CSA in SCI but not IMM. This effect increased between day 7 and 21 in SCI, but also in SCI+IMM, suggesting a minor dependence on muscle activity. SCI+IMM offers a clinically relevant model of SCI to investigate the mechanistic basis for skeletal muscle adaptations after SCI and develop therapeutic approaches. PMID:22985272

  4. Hindlimb heating increases vascular access of large molecules to murine tibial growth plates measured by in vivo multiphoton imaging

    PubMed Central

    Efaw, Morgan L.; Williams, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in understanding the molecular regulation of longitudinal growth have led to development of novel drug therapies for growth plate disorders. Despite progress, a major unmet challenge is delivering therapeutic agents to avascular-cartilage plates. Dense extracellular matrix and lack of penetrating blood vessels create a semipermeable “barrier,” which hinders molecular transport at the vascular-cartilage interface. To overcome this obstacle, we used a hindlimb heating model to manipulate bone circulation in 5-wk-old female mice (n = 22). Temperatures represented a physiological range of normal human knee joints. We used in vivo multiphoton microscopy to quantify temperature-enhanced delivery of large molecules into tibial growth plates. We tested the hypothesis that increasing hindlimb temperature from 22°C to 34°C increases vascular access of large systemic molecules, modeled using 10, 40, and 70 kDa dextrans that approximate sizes of physiological regulators. Vascular access was quantified by vessel diameter, velocity, and dextran leakage from subperichondrial plexus vessels and accumulation in growth plate cartilage. Growth plate entry of 10 kDa dextrans increased >150% at 34°C. Entry of 40 and 70 kDa dextrans increased <50%, suggesting a size-dependent temperature enhancement. Total dextran levels in the plexus increased at 34°C, but relative leakage out of vessels was not temperature dependent. Blood velocity and vessel diameter increased 118% and 31%, respectively, at 34°C. These results demonstrate that heat enhances vascular carrying capacity and bioavailability of large molecules around growth plates, suggesting that temperature could be a noninvasive strategy for modulating delivery of therapeutics to impaired growth plates of children. PMID:24371019

  5. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  6. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed.

  7. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24 hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30 ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH.

  8. University of Wisconsin - Extension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Academic Affairs From the Provost Scholarship Governance Advancing Innovation Reimagining UW-Extension Awards Provost Staff Jobs Available ... extension , business and entrepreneurship , and broadcast and media innovations . Content on this page requires a newer version ...

  9. Abnormal folate metabolism in foetuses affected by neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Dunlevy, Louisa P E; Chitty, Lyn S; Burren, Katie A; Doudney, Kit; Stojilkovic-Mikic, Taita; Stanier, Philip; Scott, Rosemary; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2007-04-01

    Folic acid supplementation can prevent many cases of neural tube defects (NTDs), whereas suboptimal maternal folate status is a risk factor, suggesting that folate metabolism is a key determinant of susceptibility to NTDs. Despite extensive genetic analysis of folate cycle enzymes, and quantification of metabolites in maternal blood, neither the protective mechanism nor the relationship between maternal folate status and susceptibility are understood in most cases. In order to investigate potential abnormalities in folate metabolism in the embryo itself, we derived primary fibroblastic cell lines from foetuses affected by NTDs and subjected them to the dU suppression test, a sensitive metabolic test of folate metabolism. Significantly, a subset of NTD cases exhibited low scores in this test, indicative of abnormalities in folate cycling that may be causally linked to the defect. Susceptibility to NTDs may be increased by suppression of the methylation cycle, which is interlinked with the folate cycle. However, reduced efficacy in the dU suppression test was not associated with altered abundance of the methylation cycle intermediates, s-adenosylmethionine and s-adenosylhomocysteine, suggesting that a methylation cycle defect is unlikely to be responsible for the observed abnormality of folate metabolism. Genotyping of samples for known polymorphisms in genes encoding folate-associated enzymes did not reveal any correlation between specific genotypes and the observed abnormalities in folate metabolism. These data suggest that as yet unrecognized genetic variants result in embryonic abnormalities of folate cycling that may be causally related to NTDs. PMID:17438019

  10. Cooled artery extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An artery vapor trap. A heat pipe artery is constructed with an extension protruding from the evaporator end of the heat pipe beyond the active area of the evaporator. The vapor migrates into the artery extension because of gravity or liquid displacement, and cooling the extension condenses the vapor to liquid, thus preventing vapor lock in the working portion of the artery by removing vapor from within the active artery. The condensed liquid is then transported back to the evaporator by the capillary action of the artery extension itself or by wick located within the extension.

  11. Pseudo Algebraically Closed Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bary-Soroker, Lior

    2009-07-01

    This PhD deals with the notion of pseudo algebraically closed (PAC) extensions of fields. It develops a group-theoretic machinery, based on a generalization of embedding problems, to study these extensions. Perhaps the main result is that although there are many PAC extensions, the Galois closure of a proper PAC extension is separably closed. The dissertation also contains the following subjects. The group theoretical counterpart of pseudo algebraically closed extensions, the so-called projective pairs. Applications to seemingly unrelated subjects, e.g., an analog of Dirichlet's theorem about primes in arithmetic progression for polynomial rings in one variable over infinite fields.

  12. [Transient abnormal Q-waves].

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Hoeck, H C; Sørensen, J A

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of transient abnormal Q-waves (TAQ) and a review of the literature. TAQ are defined as abnormal Q-waves, which disappear within ten days. They are most often seen in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) but are also seen in other conditions. Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia giving rise to reversible biochemical and ultrastructural myocardial changes, resulting in transient ECG changes, provide an accepted theory for the pathogenesis of TAO. Investigations have shown that the occurrence of exercise-induced TAQ may be a symptom of IHD. It is impossible to distinguish TAQ from Q-waves induced by myocardial infarction. Appearance of TAQ during exercise-testing frequently indicates IHD. PMID:2301045

  13. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  14. Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chitty, L S

    1995-12-01

    Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities is increasingly becoming part of routine antenatal care in Europe and the UK. However, there has been very little formal evaluation of this practice. In this article reports of routine ultrasound screening are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages discussed. The majority of routine anomaly scanning is done in the second trimester but there may be a case for screening at other times in pregnancy and alternative anomaly screening policies are discussed. PMID:8710765

  15. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Verges, B; Chavanet, P; Desgres, J; Kisterman, J P; Waldner, A; Vaillant, G; Portier, H; Brun, J M; Putelat, R

    The finding of endocrine gland lesions at pathological examination in AIDS and reports of several cases of endocrine disease in patients with this syndrome have prompted us to study endocrine functions in 63 patients (51 men, 12 women) with HIV-1 infection. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) classification system, 13 of these patients were stage CDC II, 27 stage CDC III and 23 stage CDC IV. We explored the adrenocortical function (ACTH, immediate tetracosactrin test) and the thyroid function (free T3 and T4 levels, TRH on TSH test) in all 63 patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (testosterone levels, LHRH test) and prolactin secretion (THR test) were explored in the 51 men. The results obtained showed early peripheral testicular insufficiency at stage CDC II and early pituitary gland abnormalities with hypersecretion of ACTH and prolactin also at stage CDC II. On the other hand, adrenocortical and pituitary abnormalities were not frequently found. The physiopathology of the endocrine abnormalities observed in HIV-1-infected patients remains unclear, but one may suspect that it involves interleukin-1 since this protein factor has recently been shown to stimulate the corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion and to act directly on the glycoprotein capsule of the virus (gp 120) whose structure is similar to that of some neurohormones.

  16. Chronic Exercise Training Down-Regulates TNF-α and Atrogin-1/MAFbx in Mouse Gastrocnemius Muscle Atrophy Induced by Hindlimb Unloading.

    PubMed

    Al-Nassan, Saad; Fujita, Naoto; Kondo, Hiroyo; Murakami, Shinichiro; Fujino, Hidemi

    2012-12-26

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic moderate-intensity training in order to prevent muscle atrophy with a focus on TNF-α and atrogin-1/MAFbx as main proteolytic indicators. Hindlimb unloading model of mice received treadmill running exercise for 1 hr per day during hindlimb unloading period of 6 weeks. The gastrocnemius muscle mass, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in the muscle fiber were higher in the exercised group, while TNF-α and atrogin-1/MAFbx mRNA expressions were significantly lower. Results in the present study showed that chronic exercise could prevent over expression of TNF-α and atrogin-1/MAFbx in the atrophied skeletal muscle, providing further support to the effects of chronic exercise training on muscle atrophy.

  17. Chronic hindlimb suspension unloading markedly decreases turnover rates of skeletal and cardiac muscle proteins and adipose tissue triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Bederman, Ilya R; Lai, Nicola; Shuster, Jeffrey; Henderson, Leigh; Ewart, Steven; Cabrera, Marco E

    2015-07-01

    We previously showed that a single bolus of "doubly-labeled" water ((2)H2 (18)O) can be used to simultaneously determine energy expenditure and turnover rates (synthesis and degradation) of tissue-specific lipids and proteins by modeling labeling patterns of protein-bound alanine and triglyceride-bound glycerol (Bederman IR, Dufner DA, Alexander JC, Previs SF. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 290: E1048-E1056, 2006). Using this novel method, we quantified changes in the whole body and tissue-specific energy balance in a rat model of simulated "microgravity" induced by hindlimb suspension unloading (HSU). After chronic HSU (3 wk), rats exhibited marked atrophy of skeletal and cardiac muscles and significant decrease in adipose tissue mass. For example, soleus muscle mass progressively decreased 11, 43, and 52%. We found similar energy expenditure between control (90 ± 3 kcal · kg(-1)· day(-1)) and hindlimb suspended (81 ± 6 kcal/kg day) animals. By comparing food intake (∼ 112 kcal · kg(-1) · day(-1)) and expenditure, we found that animals maintained positive calorie balance proportional to their body weight. From multicompartmental fitting of (2)H-labeling patterns, we found significantly (P < 0.005) decreased rates of synthesis (percent decrease from control: cardiac, 25.5%; soleus, 70.3%; extensor digitorum longus, 44.9%; gastrocnemius, 52.5%; and adipose tissue, 39.5%) and rates of degradation (muscles: cardiac, 9.7%; soleus, 52.0%; extensor digitorum longus, 27.8%; gastrocnemius, 37.4%; and adipose tissue, 50.2%). Overall, HSU affected growth of young rats by decreasing the turnover rates of proteins in skeletal and cardiac muscles and adipose tissue triglycerides. Specifically, we found that synthesis rates of skeletal and cardiac muscle proteins were affected to a much greater degree compared with the decrease in degradation rates, resulting in large negative balance and significant tissue loss. In contrast, we found a small decrease in adipose tissue

  18. Inducing hindlimb locomotor recovery in adult rat after complete thoracic spinal cord section using repeated treadmill training with perineal stimulation only

    PubMed Central

    Alluin, Olivier; Delivet-Mongrain, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Although a complete thoracic spinal cord section in various mammals induces paralysis of voluntary movements, the spinal lumbosacral circuitry below the lesion retains its ability to generate hindlimb locomotion. This important capacity may contribute to the overall locomotor recovery after partial spinal cord injury (SCI). In rats, it is usually triggered by pharmacological and/or electrical stimulation of the cord while a robot sustains the animals in an upright posture. In the present study we daily trained a group of adult spinal (T7) rats to walk with the hindlimbs for 10 wk (10 min/day for 5 days/wk), using only perineal stimulation. Kinematic analysis and terminal electromyographic recordings revealed a strong effect of training on the reexpression of hindlimb locomotion. Indeed, trained animals gradually improved their locomotion while untrained animals worsened throughout the post-SCI period. Kinematic parameters such as averaged and instant swing phase velocity, step cycle variability, foot drag duration, off period duration, and relationship between the swing features returned to normal values only in trained animals. The present results clearly demonstrate that treadmill training alone, in a normal horizontal posture, elicited by noninvasive perineal stimulation is sufficient to induce a persistent hindlimb locomotor recovery without the need for more complex strategies. This provides a baseline level that should be clearly surpassed if additional locomotor-enabling procedures are added. Moreover, it has a clinical value since intrinsic spinal reorganization induced by training should contribute to improve locomotor recovery together with afferent feedback and supraspinal modifications in patients with incomplete SCI. PMID:26203108

  19. Segmental distribution of the motor neuron columns that supply the rat hindlimb: A muscle/motor neuron tract-tracing analysis targeting the motor end plates.

    PubMed

    Mohan, R; Tosolini, A P; Morris, R

    2015-10-29

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) that disrupts input from higher brain centers to the lumbar region of the spinal cord results in paraplegia, one of the most debilitating conditions affecting locomotion. Non-human primates have long been considered to be the most appropriate animal to model lower limb dysfunction. More recently, however, there has been a wealth of scientific information gathered in the rat regarding the central control of locomotion. Moreover, rodent models of SCI at lumbar levels have been widely used to validate therapeutic scenarios aimed at the restoration of locomotor activities. Despite the growing use of the rat as a model of locomotor dysfunction, knowledge regarding the anatomical relationship between spinal cord motor neurons and the hindlimb muscles that they innervate is incomplete. Previous studies performed in our laboratory have shown the details of the muscle/motor neuron topographical relationship for the mouse forelimb and hindlimb as well as for the rat forelimb. The present analysis aims to characterize the segmental distribution of the motor neuron pools that innervate the muscles of the rat hindlimb, hence completing this series of studies. The location of the motor end plate (MEP) regions on the main muscles of the rat hindlimb was first revealed with acetylcholinesterase histochemistry. For each muscle under scrutiny, injections of Fluoro-Gold were then performed along the length of the MEP region. Targeting the MEPs gave rise to columns of motor neurons that span more spinal cord segments than previously reported. The importance of this study is discussed in terms of its application to gene therapy for SCI. PMID:26304758

  20. Ultrasound-induced microbubble destruction promotes targeted delivery of adipose-derived stem cells to improve hind-limb ischemia of diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Ye; Xie, Xiaoyun; Gao, Yuan; Gu, Guojun; Wang, Peijun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether ultrasound-induced microbubble destruction was able to promote targeted delivery of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to improve hind-limb ischemia of diabetic mice. Ischemia was induced in the lower limb of db/db mice which were then randomly divided into 5 groups: PBS group, Sham group, ultrasound + microbubble group (US+MB), US+MB+ASCs group and ASCs group. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound perfusion imaging showed the ratio of blood flow in ischemic hind-limb to that in contralateral limb increased over time in five groups. A significant enhancement in US+MB+ASCs group was observed compared with US+MB group (P<0.01). Immunofluorescence microscopy of hind-limb muscle showed the microvessel density (microvessels/skeletal muscle fibers) and arteriolar density in US+MB+ASCs group were higher than in US+MB group, and significantly higher than in other control groups (P<0.01). Masson staining indicated the degree of muscle fibrosis in US+MB+ASCs group was lower than in US+MB. 3 and 7 days after therapy, ELISA and RT-PCR showed the expression of VEGF, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and SDF-1 in US+MB+ASCs group was higher than in US+MB group, and dramatically increased as compared to other groups (P<0.01). 3 and 7 days after therapy, Western blot assay showed the protein expression of P-P13K, P-AKT, VEGF, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and SDF-1 in US+MB+ASCs group was higher than US+MB group (P<0.01). The bioeffects of ultrasound-induced microbubble cavitation is able to up-regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may improve the targeted delivery, adhesion and paracrine of ASCs, attenuating the hind-limb ischemia in diabetic mice. PMID:27398142

  1. Effects of 4-Week Hindlimb Unweighting with and without 1H/Day Standing on Myogenic-Tone and Vasoconstrictor Responses of Mesenteric Arteries in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Le-Jian; Bao, Jun-Xiang; Bai, Yun-Gang; Zhang, Li-Fan; Ma, Jin

    2008-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of 4-week hindlimd unweighting (HU) with and without 1h/day standing (STD) on myotonic-tone and vasoconstrictor responses of rats mesenteric resistance arteries. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4-week hindlimb-unweighting to simulate cardiovascular deconditioning due to microgravity, 1h/day standing as the countermeasure. The diameter of isolated mesenteric resistance artery (diameter from 180-220μm) were recorded with Pressure myograph system in both Physiology salt solution (Da) and calcium-free Physiology salt solution (Dp), the myogenic-tone were obtained from (Dp-Da)/Dp*100%. The responses of these arteries to vasoconstrictors Phenylephrine were also detected. Results showed that 1) The myogenic tone of arteries was significantly attenuated by 4-week hindlimb-unweighting in HU group compared to control (CON) group(P<0.05); With 1h/day standing, the attenuated myogenic tone was recovered completely (P<0.05). 2) The vasoconstrictor responses of arteries to PE was decreased by 4-week hindlimb unweighting, and 1h/day standing can also prevent the attenuation (P<0.05). These results indicated that the myogenic tone and vasoconstrictor responses of rats mesenteric arteries were significantly attenuated by 4-week hindlimb-unweighting, 1h/d standing can prevent the attenuation completely, which could give us a better understanding of the underlying mechanism of orthostatic-intolerance post-flight and can also provide us new countermeasures to avoid it.

  2. Ultrasound-induced microbubble destruction promotes targeted delivery of adipose-derived stem cells to improve hind-limb ischemia of diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ye; Xie, Xiaoyun; Gao, Yuan; Gu, Guojun; Wang, Peijun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether ultrasound-induced microbubble destruction was able to promote targeted delivery of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to improve hind-limb ischemia of diabetic mice. Ischemia was induced in the lower limb of db/db mice which were then randomly divided into 5 groups: PBS group, Sham group, ultrasound + microbubble group (US+MB), US+MB+ASCs group and ASCs group. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound perfusion imaging showed the ratio of blood flow in ischemic hind-limb to that in contralateral limb increased over time in five groups. A significant enhancement in US+MB+ASCs group was observed compared with US+MB group (P<0.01). Immunofluorescence microscopy of hind-limb muscle showed the microvessel density (microvessels/skeletal muscle fibers) and arteriolar density in US+MB+ASCs group were higher than in US+MB group, and significantly higher than in other control groups (P<0.01). Masson staining indicated the degree of muscle fibrosis in US+MB+ASCs group was lower than in US+MB. 3 and 7 days after therapy, ELISA and RT-PCR showed the expression of VEGF, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and SDF-1 in US+MB+ASCs group was higher than in US+MB group, and dramatically increased as compared to other groups (P<0.01). 3 and 7 days after therapy, Western blot assay showed the protein expression of P-P13K, P-AKT, VEGF, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and SDF-1 in US+MB+ASCs group was higher than US+MB group (P<0.01). The bioeffects of ultrasound-induced microbubble cavitation is able to up-regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may improve the targeted delivery, adhesion and paracrine of ASCs, attenuating the hind-limb ischemia in diabetic mice. PMID:27398142

  3. Propofol injection combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation better improves electrophysiological function in the hindlimb of rats with spinal cord injury than monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Xin; Sun, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Mei; Hou, Xiao-Hua; Hong, Jun; Zhou, Ya-Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Yong

    2015-04-01

    The repair effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on nervous system damage are not satisfactory. Propofol has been shown to protect against spinal cord injury. Therefore, this study sought to explore the therapeutic effects of their combination on spinal cord injury. Rat models of spinal cord injury were established using the weight drop method. Rats were subjected to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation via tail vein injection and/or propofol injection via tail vein using an infusion pump. Four weeks after cell transplantation and/or propofol treatment, the cavity within the spinal cord was reduced. The numbers of PKH-26-positive cells and horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers apparently increased in the spinal cord. Latencies of somatosensory evoked potentials and motor evoked potentials in the hindlimb were noticeably shortened, amplitude was increased and hindlimb motor function was obviously improved. Moreover, the combined effects were better than cell transplantation or propofol injection alone. The above data suggest that the combination of propofol injection and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation can effectively improve hindlimb electrophysiological function, promote the recovery of motor funtion, and play a neuroprotective role in spinal cord injury in rats.

  4. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-10-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  5. Intra-specific variability of hindlimb length in the palmate newt: an indicator of population isolation induced by habitat fragmentation?

    PubMed

    Trochet, Audrey; Le Chevalier, Hugo; Baillat, Boris; Barthe, Laurent; Pottier, Gilles; Calvez, Olivier; Ribéron, Alexandre; Blanchet, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the main drivers of global amphibian decline. Anthropogenic landscape elements can act as barriers, hindering the dispersal that is essential for maintaining gene flow between populations. Dispersal ability can be influenced by locomotor performance, which in turn can depend on morphological traits, such as hindlimb length (HLL) in amphibians. Here, we tested relationships between HLL and environmental variables--road types, forests and agricultural lands--among 35 sub-populations of palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus) in southwestern France. We expected roads to select for short-legged newts due to a higher mortality of more mobile individuals (long-legged newts) when crossing roads. Accordingly, short-legged newts were found in the vicinity of roads, whereas long-legged newts were found closer to forests and in ponds close geographically to another water body. HLL in newts was hence influenced by habitat types in a heterogeneous landscape, and could therefore be used as an indicator of population isolation in a meta-population system. PMID:27122009

  6. The mechanical actions of muscles predict the direction of muscle activation during postural perturbations in the cat hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Honeycutt, Claire F; Nichols, T Richard

    2014-03-01

    Humans and cats respond to balance challenges, delivered via horizontal support surface perturbations, with directionally selective muscle recruitment and constrained ground reaction forces. It has been suggested that this postural strategy arises from an interaction of limb biomechanics and proprioceptive networks in the spinal cord. A critical experimental validation of this hypothesis is to test the prediction that the principal directions of muscular activation oppose the directions responding muscles exert their forces on the environment. Therefore, our objective was to quantify the endpoint forces of a diverse set of cat hindlimb muscles and compare them with the directionally sensitive muscle activation patterns generated in the intact and decerebrate cat. We hypothesized that muscles are activated based on their mechanical advantage. Our primary expectation was that the principal direction of muscle activation during postural perturbations will be directed oppositely (180°) from the muscle endpoint ground reaction force. We found that muscle activation during postural perturbations was indeed directed oppositely to the endpoint reaction forces of that muscle. These observations indicate that muscle recruitment during balance challenges is driven, at least in part, by limb architecture. This suggests that sensory sources that provide feedback about the mechanical environment of the limb are likely important to appropriate and effective responses during balance challenges. Finally, we extended the analysis to three dimensions and different stance widths, laying the groundwork for a more comprehensive study of postural regulation than was possible with measurements confined to the horizontal plane and a single stance configuration.

  7. The adaptational strategies of the hindlimb muscles in the Tenrecidae species including the aquatic web-footed tenrec (Limnogale mergulus).

    PubMed

    Endo, Hideki; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Rakotondraparany, Felix; Sasaki, Motoki; Hasegawa, Masami

    2006-07-01

    The hindlimb muscles in four species of Tenrecidae (Oryzoryctinae: Talazac long-tailed tenrec and web-footed tenrec, Tenrecinae: lesser hedgehog tenrec, and streaked tenrec), were examined macroscopically. The weight ratios of the muscles to the body in the oryzoryctinid species are larger than those in Tenrecinae, since the Oryzoryctinae species have an obviously smaller body from the evolutionary point of view. It can be primarily pointed out that the adaptation of the body size is different between the two subfamilies, and secondarily, that functional adaptation to locomotion is complete within each subfamily. The weight data and the morphological findings demonstrate that the web-footed tenrec possesses an extraordinary large M. semimembranosus in comparison to the Talazac long-tailed tenrec in their weight ratios. This muscle may act as a strong flexor motor in the knee joint during the aquatic locomotion of the web-footed tenrec. Since the other muscles of the web-footed tenrec are similar to those of the Talazac long-tailed tenrec regards weight ratio data, we think that the web-footed tenrec may have derived from a terrestrial ancestor such as the long-tailed tenrecs. In Tenrecinae the streaked tenrec is equipped with larger Mm. adductores, M. semimembranosus and M. triceps surae than the lesser hedgehog tenrec. This species is adapted to fossorial life derived from non-specialized ancestors within the evolutionary lines of the spiny tenrecs.

  8. RIP2-mediated LKB1 deletion causes axon degeneration in the spinal cord and hind-limb paralysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gao; Reynolds, Richard; Leclerc, Isabelle; Rutter, Guy A

    2011-03-01

    Axon degeneration is observed in neurodegenerative diseases and neuroinflammatory disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. The molecular basis of this process remains largely unknown. Here, we show that mice deleted for the tumour suppressor LKB1 (also called STK11) in the spinal cord, some parts of the brain and in the endocrine pancreas (βLKB1KO mice) develop hind-limb dysfunction and axon degeneration at about 7 weeks. Demyelination and macrophage infiltration are observed in the white matter of these mice, predominantly in the bilateral and anterior funiculi of the thoracic segment of the spinal cord, suggesting damage to the ascending sensory signalling pathway owing to LKB1 deletion in the brain. Microtubule structures were also affected in the degenerated foci, with diminished neurofilament and tubulin expression. Deletion of both PRKAA1 genes, whose products AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 are also downstream targets of LKB1, with the same strategy was without effect. We thus define LKB1 as an intrinsic suppressor of axon degeneration and a possible target for strategies that can reverse this process. PMID:21135058

  9. Endothelial-Specific EphA4 Negatively Regulates Native Pial Collateral Formation and Re-Perfusion following Hindlimb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Okyere, Benjamin; Giridhar, Kaavya; Hazy, Amanda; Chen, Miao; Keimig, David; Bielitz, Robert C.; Xie, Hehuang; He, Jia-Qiang; Huckle, William R.; Theus, Michelle H.

    2016-01-01

    Leptomeningeal anastomoses play a critical role in regulating vascular re-perfusion following obstruction, however, the mechanisms regulating their development remains under investingation. Our current findings indicate that EphA4 receptor is a novel negative regulator of collaterogenesis. We demonstrate that EphA4 is highly expressed on pial arteriole collaterals at post-natal day (P) 1 and 7, then significantly reduced by P21. Endothelial cell (EC)-specific loss of EphA4, EphA4f/f/Tie2::Cre (KO), resulted in an increase in the density but not diameter of pial collaterals compared to WT mice. ECs isolated from KO mice displayed a 3-fold increase in proliferation, enhanced migration, tube formation and elevated levels of phospho(p)-Akt compared to WT ECs. Attenuating p-Akt, using LY294002, reduced the proliferative and migration effects in the KO ECs. RNAseq analysis also revealed altered expression patterns for genes that regulate cell proliferation, vascular development, extracellular matrix and immune-mediate responses, namely MCP-1, MMP2 and angiopoietin-1. Lastly, we show that induction of hindlimb ischemia resulted in accelerated re-perfusion, collateral remodeling and reduced tissue necrosis in the absence of EC-specific EphA4 compared to WT mice. These findings demonstrate a novel role for EphA4 in the early development of the pial collateral network and suggests a role in regulating vascular remodeling after obstruction. PMID:27467069

  10. Prostacyclin-producing human mesenchymal cells target H19 lncRNA to augment endogenous progenitor function in hindlimb ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yuxiao; Yang, Zhongwei; Terry, Toya; Pan, Su; Woodside, Darren G.; Wang, Jingxiong; Ruan, Kehe; Willerson, James T.; Dixon, Richard A. F.; Liu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Promoting the paracrine effects of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) therapy may contribute to improvements in patient outcomes. Here we develop an innovative strategy to enhance the paracrine effects of hMSCs. In a mouse hindlimb ischaemia model, we examine the effects of hMSCs in which a novel triple-catalytic enzyme is introduced to stably produce prostacyclin (PGI2-hMSCs). We show that PGI2-hMSCs facilitate perfusion recovery and enhance running capability as compared with control hMSCs or iloprost (a stable PGI2 analogue). Transplanted PGI2-hMSCs do not incorporate long term into host tissue, but rather they mediate host regeneration and muscle mass gain in a paracrine manner. Mechanistically, this involves long noncoding RNA H19 in promoting PGI2-hMSC-associated survival and proliferation of host progenitor cells under hypoxic conditions. Together, our data reveal the novel ability of PGI2-hMSCs to stimulate host regenerative processes and improve physical function by regulating long noncoding RNA in resident progenitor cells. PMID:27080438

  11. Endothelial-Specific EphA4 Negatively Regulates Native Pial Collateral Formation and Re-Perfusion following Hindlimb Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Okyere, Benjamin; Giridhar, Kaavya; Hazy, Amanda; Chen, Miao; Keimig, David; Bielitz, Robert C; Xie, Hehuang; He, Jia-Qiang; Huckle, William R; Theus, Michelle H

    2016-01-01

    Leptomeningeal anastomoses play a critical role in regulating vascular re-perfusion following obstruction, however, the mechanisms regulating their development remains under investingation. Our current findings indicate that EphA4 receptor is a novel negative regulator of collaterogenesis. We demonstrate that EphA4 is highly expressed on pial arteriole collaterals at post-natal day (P) 1 and 7, then significantly reduced by P21. Endothelial cell (EC)-specific loss of EphA4, EphA4f/f/Tie2::Cre (KO), resulted in an increase in the density but not diameter of pial collaterals compared to WT mice. ECs isolated from KO mice displayed a 3-fold increase in proliferation, enhanced migration, tube formation and elevated levels of phospho(p)-Akt compared to WT ECs. Attenuating p-Akt, using LY294002, reduced the proliferative and migration effects in the KO ECs. RNAseq analysis also revealed altered expression patterns for genes that regulate cell proliferation, vascular development, extracellular matrix and immune-mediate responses, namely MCP-1, MMP2 and angiopoietin-1. Lastly, we show that induction of hindlimb ischemia resulted in accelerated re-perfusion, collateral remodeling and reduced tissue necrosis in the absence of EC-specific EphA4 compared to WT mice. These findings demonstrate a novel role for EphA4 in the early development of the pial collateral network and suggests a role in regulating vascular remodeling after obstruction. PMID:27467069

  12. A 3D analysis of fore- and hindlimb motion during locomotion: comparison of overground and ladder walking in rats.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Cyril; Falempin, Maurice; Canu, Marie-Hélène

    2008-01-10

    The locomotor pattern, generated by the central pattern generator, is under the dependence of descending and peripheral pathways. The afferent feedback from peripheral receptors allows the animal to correct for disturbances that occur during walking, while supraspinal structures are important for locomotion in demanding situations such as ladder walking. Such walking, by regards to the control needed for accuracy of movements, is now widely used for description of consequences of nervous system dysfunction on motor performance. It is important to have a good knowledge of the changes in kinematic parameters according to walking conditions, since it might reflect different neural mechanisms. The aim of this work was to perform a 3D kinematic analysis of both hind- and forelimb during overground and ladder walking, to study qualitative and quantitative locomotor characteristics in different modes of locomotion. The analysis was performed on 5 rats. Movements of the right hind- and forelimb were evaluated using a 3D optical analyser, and EMG of the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles was synchronously recorded. Results indicate that kinematic and electromyographic characteristics of locomotion are dependent on the type of support. Changes were more obvious for hindlimb than for forelimb. Velocity, stride length and tibialis anterior burst duration were lower on ladder than on runway. In addition, during ladder walking, a protraction was noticed, rats bring their feet more rostral at the end of the swing phase. All these changes constitute an adaptive strategy to allow a better tactile activity with forelimbs and to avoid foot misplacement. PMID:17764759

  13. Widespread Epigenetic Abnormalities Suggest a Broad DNA Methylation Erasure Defect in Abnormal Human Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Siegmund, Kimberly; Yang, Allen; Laird, Peter W.; Sokol, Rebecca Z.

    2007-01-01

    Background Male-factor infertility is a common condition, and etiology is unknown for a high proportion of cases. Abnormal epigenetic programming of the germline is proposed as a possible mechanism compromising spermatogenesis of some men currently diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. During germ cell maturation and gametogenesis, cells of the germ line undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming. This process involves widespread erasure of somatic-like patterns of DNA methylation followed by establishment of sex-specific patterns by de novo DNA methylation. Incomplete reprogramming of the male germ line could, in theory, result in both altered sperm DNA methylation and compromised spermatogenesis. Methodology/Principal Finding We determined concentration, motility and morphology of sperm in semen samples collected by male members of couples attending an infertility clinic. Using MethyLight and Illumina assays we measured methylation of DNA isolated from purified sperm from the same samples. Methylation at numerous sequences was elevated in DNA from poor quality sperm. Conclusions This is the first report of a broad epigenetic defect associated with abnormal semen parameters. Our results suggest that the underlying mechanism for these epigenetic changes may be improper erasure of DNA methylation during epigenetic reprogramming of the male germ line. PMID:18074014

  14. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

  15. [Erythrocyte membrane abnormalities - hereditary elliptocytosis].

    PubMed

    Kvezereli-Kopadze, M; Kvezereli-Kopadze, A; Mtvarelidze, Z; Bubuteishvili, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the 4 year old boy with Hereditary Elliptocitosis (HE). The diagnosis of this rare hemolytic anemia was based on detailed family history (positive in the 4-th generation), physical examination and Para-clinical data analyses. The vast majority of patients with HE are asymptomatic, severe forms are rare. The most important is examination of blood films, which is helpful to detect the morphology abnormalities of red cells. In case of HE a different approach is required. Positive family history and series of investigations should be conducted to determine the HE.

  16. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy.

  17. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  18. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  19. Abnormal Movement Preparation in Task-Specific Focal Hand Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Scheef, Lukas; Bewersdorff, Malte; Schild, Hans H.; Klockgether, Thomas; Boecker, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral studies in primary dystonia suggest abnormalities during movement preparation, but this crucial phase preceding movement onset has not yet been studied specifically with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To identify abnormalities in brain activation during movement preparation, we used event-related fMRI to analyze behaviorally unimpaired sequential finger movements in 18 patients with task-specific focal hand dystonia (FHD) and 18 healthy subjects. Patients and controls executed self-initiated or externally cued prelearnt four-digit sequential movements using either right or left hands. In FHD patients, motor performance of the sequential finger task was not associated with task-related dystonic posturing and their activation levels during motor execution were highly comparable with controls. On the other hand reduced activation was observed during movement preparation in the FHD patients in left premotor cortex / precentral gyrus for all conditions, and for self-initiation additionally in supplementary motor area, left mid-insula and anterior putamen, independent of effector side. Findings argue for abnormalities of early stages of motor control in FHD, manifesting during movement preparation. Since deficits map to regions involved in the coding of motor programs, we propose that task-specific dystonia is characterized by abnormalities during recruitment of motor programs: these do not manifest at the behavioral level during simple automated movements, however, errors in motor programs of complex movements established by extensive practice (a core feature of FHD), trigger the inappropriate movement patterns observed in task-specific dystonia. PMID:24167610

  20. Marfan syndrome: abnormal alpha 2 chain in type I collagen.

    PubMed Central

    Byers, P H; Siegel, R C; Peterson, K E; Rowe, D W; Holbrook, K A; Smith, L T; Chang, Y H; Fu, J C

    1981-01-01

    Cells in culture from a woman with a variety of the Marfan syndrome produce two species of the alpha 2 chains of type I collagen. One alpha 2 chain appears normal; the abnormal chain has a higher apparent molecular weight than normal and migrates more slowly during electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gels. A similar change in electrophoretic behavior is seen in the prepro alpha 2 chain and the pN alpha 2 chain (which contains the amino-terminal extension). Asymmetric cleavage of the pepsin-treated procollagens with a fibroblast collagenase locates the abnormal segment amino terminal to the cleavage site, and analysis of cyanogen bromide peptides of collagenase cleavage peptides and of whole collagens indicates that the abnormal segment is in either the alpha 2CB3 peptide or the short segment of alpha 2CB5 amino terminal to the collagenase site of the altered alpha 2 chain. The higher apparent molecular weight is consistent with the insertion of a small peptide fragment of approximately 20 amino acids. This alteration in chain size has marked effects on crosslinking because collagen from the patient's skin was 5-10 times more extractable in nondenaturing solvents than that from control skins. Although the abnormal chain was not found in several other individuals with the Marfan syndrome, these findings suggest that the phenotype may be the expression of a variety of primary structure alterations in the chains of type I collagen that interfere with normal crosslink formation. Images PMID:6950413

  1. Forelimb contractures and abnormal tendon collagen fibrillogenesis in fibulin-4 null mice.

    PubMed

    Markova, Dessislava Z; Pan, Te-Cheng; Zhang, Rui-Zhu; Zhang, Guiyun; Sasaki, Takako; Arita, Machiko; Birk, David E; Chu, Mon-Li

    2016-06-01

    Fibulin-4 is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein essential for elastic fiber formation. Mice deficient in fibulin-4 die perinatally because of severe pulmonary and vascular defects associated with the lack of intact elastic fibers. Patients with fibulin-4 mutations demonstrate similar defects, and a significant number die shortly after birth or in early childhood from cardiopulmonary failure. The patients also demonstrate skeletal and other systemic connective tissue abnormalities, including joint laxity and flexion contractures of the wrist. A fibulin-4 null mouse strain was generated and used to analyze the roles of fibulin-4 in tendon fibrillogenesis. This mouse model displayed bilateral forelimb contractures, in addition to pulmonary and cardiovascular defects. The forelimb and hindlimb tendons exhibited disruption in collagen fibrillogenesis in the absence of fibulin-4 as analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Fewer fibrils were assembled, and fibrils were disorganized compared with wild-type controls. The organization of developing tenocytes and compartmentalization of the extracellular space was also disrupted. Fibulin-4 was co-localized with fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2 in limb tendons by using immunofluorescence microscopy. Thus, fibulin-4 seems to play a role in regulating tendon collagen fibrillogenesis, in addition to its essential function in elastogenesis. PMID:26711913

  2. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child.

  3. The Effect of Feeding Purified versus Chow Diet on Bone Changes Produced by Hindlimb Suspension of Female Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet; Arnaud, Sara B.; Grindeland, Richard; Wade, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Spaceflight simulation studies use chow diets while spaceflight studies use a semi-purified &et. To determine whether the differences in these diets would affect the changes in unweighted bone, we compared the effects of purified vs chow diet on bone parameters, urinary calcium, plasma estradiol, and urinary corticosterone (CORT) in sexually mature female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats fed purified AIN-93G or chow diet were kept ambulatory (AMB) or subjected to a spaceflight simulation model of unweighted hindlimbs (HLS) for 38 days. Body mass of treatment groups was similar although food intake and caloric density of the diets differed. Both HLS diet groups showed similar decreases in bone mineral content and mechanical strength in unweighted femurs compared to AMB (p<0.05). However, femur length was lower (p<0.05) in the chow-fed than AIN-93G fed groups. Urinary calcium excretion was greater in chow than AIN-93G fed rats, consistent with the higher level of calcium in the diet. Plasma estradiol was lower in HLS than in AMB fed AIN-93G, but similar in HLS and AMB chow fed groups. Femur mineral content was related to plasma estradiol (r(sup 2) =0.91, p<0.00l). Urinary CORT excretion was increased during initial HLS and elevated in HLS/chow-fed rats. Diets did not appear to affect the osteopenia induced by unweighting, but effects on bone growth, calcium excretion, plasma estradiol and urinary CORT do not support the view that these diets can by used interchangeably in bone studies.

  4. Motoneuronal and muscle synergies involved in cat hindlimb control during fictive and real locomotion: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Markin, Sergey N; Lemay, Michel A; Prilutsky, Boris I; Rybak, Ilya A

    2012-04-01

    We compared the activity profiles and synergies of spinal motoneurons recorded during fictive locomotion evoked in immobilized decerebrate cat preparations by midbrain stimulation to the activity profiles and synergies of the corresponding hindlimb muscles obtained during forward level walking in cats. The fictive locomotion data were collected in the Spinal Cord Research Centre, University of Manitoba, and provided by Dr. David McCrea; the real locomotion data were obtained in the laboratories of M. A. Lemay and B. I. Prilutsky. Scatterplot representation and minimum spanning tree clustering algorithm were used to identify the possible motoneuronal and muscle synergies operating during both fictive and real locomotion. We found a close similarity between the activity profiles and synergies of motoneurons innervating one-joint muscles during fictive locomotion and the profiles and synergies of the corresponding muscles during real locomotion. However, the activity patterns of proximal nerves controlling two-joint muscles, such as posterior biceps and semitendinosus (PBSt) and rectus femoris (RF), were not uniform in fictive locomotion preparations and differed from the activity profiles of the corresponding two-joint muscles recorded during forward level walking. Moreover, the activity profiles of these nerves and the corresponding muscles were unique and could not be included in the synergies identified in fictive and real locomotion. We suggest that afferent feedback is involved in the regulation of locomotion via motoneuronal synergies controlled by the spinal central pattern generator (CPG) but may also directly affect the activity of motoneuronal pools serving two-joint muscles (e.g., PBSt and RF). These findings provide important insights into the organization of the spinal CPG in mammals, the motoneuronal and muscle synergies engaged during locomotion, and their afferent control.

  5. Effects of Hindlimb Unweighting on MBP and GDNF Expression and Morphology in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Ren, Ning-Tao; Zhou, Fang-Qiang; Li, Jie; Lei, Wei; Liu, Ning; Bi, Long; Wu, Zi-Xiang; Zhang, Ran; Zhang, Yong-Gang; Cui, Geng

    2016-09-01

    With the development of technology and space exploration, studies on long-duration space flights have shown that microgravity induces damage to multiple organs, including the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, very little is known about the effects of long-term microgravity on DRG neurons. This study investigated the effects of microgravity on lumbar 5 (L5) DRG neurons in rats using the hindlimb unweighting (HU) model. Male (M) and female (F) Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into M- and F-control (CON) groups and M- and F-HU groups, respectively (n = 10). At the end of HU treatment for 4 weeks, morphological changes were detected. Myelin basic protein (MBP) and degenerated myelin basic protein (dgen-MBP) expressions were analyzed by immunofluorescence and western blot assays. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) protein and mRNA expressions were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry, western blot, and RT-PCR analysis, respectively. Compared with the corresponding CON groups, the HU groups exhibited slightly loose junctions between DRG neurons, some separated ganglion cells and satellite cells, and lightly stained Nissl bodies that were of smaller size and had a scattered distribution. High levels of dgen-MBP and low MBP expressions were appeared and GDNF expressions were significantly decreased in both HU groups. Changes were more pronounced in the F-HU group than in the M-HU group. In conclusion, HU treatment induced damage of L5 DRG neurons, which was correlated with decreased total MBP protein expression, increased dgen-MBP expression, and reduced GDNF protein and mRNA expression. Importantly, these changes were more severe in F-HU rats compared with M-HU rats. PMID:27230884

  6. Dorsal midbrain syndrome associated with persistent neck extension: Clinical and diagnostic imaging findings in 2 dogs

    PubMed Central

    Canal, Sara; Baroni, Massimo; Falzone, Cristian; De Benedictis, Giulia M.; Bernardini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Two young dogs were evaluated for an acute onset of abnormal head posture and eye movement. Neurological examination was characterized mostly by permanent neck extension, abnormalities of pupils, and eye movement. A mesencephalic mass lesion was detected on magnetic resonance imaging in both cases. Neurophysiological pathways likely responsible for this peculiar clinical presentation are discussed. PMID:26663922

  7. Dorsal midbrain syndrome associated with persistent neck extension: Clinical and diagnostic imaging findings in 2 dogs.

    PubMed

    Canal, Sara; Baroni, Massimo; Falzone, Cristian; De Benedictis, Giulia M; Bernardini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Two young dogs were evaluated for an acute onset of abnormal head posture and eye movement. Neurological examination was characterized mostly by permanent neck extension, abnormalities of pupils, and eye movement. A mesencephalic mass lesion was detected on magnetic resonance imaging in both cases. Neurophysiological pathways likely responsible for this peculiar clinical presentation are discussed.

  8. Phenotypic abnormalities: terminology and classification.

    PubMed

    Merks, Johannes H M; van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Caron, Hubert N; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2003-12-15

    Clinical morphology has proved essential for the successful delineation of hundreds of syndromes and as a powerful instrument for detecting (candidate) genes (Gorlin et al. [2001]; Syndromes of the Head and Neck; Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1 p]. The major approach to reach this has been careful clinical evaluations of patients, focused on congenital anomalies. A similar careful physical examination performed in patients, who have been treated for childhood cancer, may allow detection of concurrent patterns of anomalies and provide clues for causative genes. In the past, several studies were performed describing the prevalence of anomalies in patients with cancer. However, in most studies, it was not possible to indicate the biologic relevance of the recorded anomalies, or to judge their relative importance. Are the detected anomalies common variants, and should they thus be regarded as normal, or are they minor anomalies or true abnormalities, indicating a possible developmental cause? Classification of items in the categories of common variants (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence >4%), minor anomalies (disturbances of phenogenesis with a prevalence abnormal physical findings by a nomenclature for errors of morphogenesis detectable on surface examination, and secondly a uniform classification system. This should allow investigators to evaluate systematically the presence of patterns in phenotypic anomalies, in the general population, and in patients with various disorders, suspected to be a developmental anomaly. Also

  9. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and pentoxifylline on remote lung injury in a rat model of hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Takhtfooladi, Hamed Ashrafzadeh; Hesaraki, Saeed; Razmara, Foad; Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Hajizadeh, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and pentoxifylline in a model of remote organ injury after hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats, the lungs being the remote organ system. Methods : Thirty-five male Wistar rats were assigned to one of five conditions (n = 7/group), as follows: sham operation (control group); hind-limb ischemia, induced by clamping the left femoral artery, for 2 h, followed by 24 h of reperfusion (I/R group); and hind-limb ischemia, as above, followed by intraperitoneal injection (prior to reperfusion) of 150 mg/kg of NAC (I/R+NAC group), 40 mg/kg of pentoxifylline (I/R+PTX group), or both (I/R+NAC+PTX group). At the end of the trial, lung tissues were removed for histological analysis and assessment of oxidative stress. Results : In comparison with the rats in the other groups, those in the I/R group showed lower superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels, together with higher malondialdehyde levels and lung injury scores (p < 0.05 for all). Interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration of the lungs was also markedly greater in the I/R group than in the other groups. In addition, I/R group rats showed various signs of interstitial edema and hemorrhage. In the I/R+NAC, I/R+PTX, and I/R+NAC+PTX groups, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione levels, malondialdehyde levels, and lung injury scores were preserved (p < 0.05 for all). The differences between the administration of NAC or pentoxifylline alone and the administration of the two together were not significant for any of those parameters (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusions : Our results suggest that NAC and pentoxifylline both protect lung tissue from the effects of skeletal muscle I/R. However, their combined use does not appear to increase the level of that protection. PMID:26982035

  10. Forelimb EMG-based trigger to control an electronic spinal bridge to enable hindlimb stepping after a complete spinal cord lesion in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A complete spinal cord transection results in loss of all supraspinal motor control below the level of the injury. The neural circuitry in the lumbosacral spinal cord, however, can generate locomotor patterns in the hindlimbs of rats and cats with the aid of motor training, epidural stimulation and/or administration of monoaminergic agonists. We hypothesized that there are patterns of EMG signals from the forelimbs during quadrupedal locomotion that uniquely represent a signal for the “intent” to step with the hindlimbs. These observations led us to determine whether this type of “indirect” volitional control of stepping can be achieved after a complete spinal cord injury. The objective of this study was to develop an electronic bridge across the lesion of the spinal cord to facilitate hindlimb stepping after a complete mid-thoracic spinal cord injury in adult rats. Methods We developed an electronic spinal bridge that can detect specific patterns of EMG activity from the forelimb muscles to initiate electrical-enabling motor control (eEmc) of the lumbosacral spinal cord to enable quadrupedal stepping after a complete spinal cord transection in rats. A moving window detection algorithm was implemented in a small microprocessor to detect biceps brachii EMG activity bilaterally that then was used to initiate and terminate epidural stimulation in the lumbosacral spinal cord. We found dominant frequencies of 180–220 Hz in the EMG of the forelimb muscles during active periods, whereas these frequencies were between 0–10 Hz when the muscles were inactive. Results and conclusions Once the algorithm was validated to represent kinematically appropriate quadrupedal stepping, we observed that the algorithm could reliably detect, initiate, and facilitate stepping under different pharmacological conditions and at various treadmill speeds. PMID:22691460

  11. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Sarah; Heath, Rebecca; Shah, Mamta

    2012-01-01

    Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options. PMID:23162241

  12. Radiologic atlas of pulmonary abnormalities in children

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, E.B.; Wagner, M.L.; Dutton, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    This book is an atlas about thoracic abnormalities in infants and children. The authors include computed tomographic, digital subtraction angiographic, ultrasonographic, and a few magnetic resonance (MR) images. They recognize and discuss how changes in the medical treatment of premature infants and the management of infection and pediatric tumors have altered some of the appearances and considerations in these diseases. Oriented toward all aspects of pulmonary abnormalities, the book starts with radiographic techniques and then discusses the normal chest, the newborn, infections, tumors, and pulmonary vascular diseases. There is comprehensive treatment of mediastinal abnormalities and a discussion of airway abnormalities.

  13. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. PMID:22520483

  14. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel

    2012-07-01

    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease.

  15. The XXXXY Sex Chromosome Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M. L.; Carr, D. H.; Pozsonyi, J.; Wilson, R. A.; Dunn, H. G.; Jacobson, T. S.; Miller, J. R.; Chown, B.

    1962-01-01

    The most common sex chromosome complex in sex chromatin-positive males with Klinefelter's syndrome is XXY. When the complex is XXYY or XXXY, the clinical findings do not seem to differ materially from those seen in XXY subjects, although more patients with these intersexual chromosome complements need to be studied to establish possible phenotypical expressions of the chromosomal variants. Two male children with an XXXXY sex chromosome abnormality are described. The data obtained from the study of these cases and five others described in the literature suggest that the XXXXY patient is likely to have congenital defects not usually seen in the common form of the Klinefelter syndrome. These include a triad of (1) skeletal anomalies (including radioulnar synostosis), (2) hypogenitalism (hypoplasia of penis and scrotum, incomplete descent of testes and defective prepubertal development of seminiferous tubules), and (3) greater risk of severe mental deficiency. That the conclusions are based on data from a small number of patients is emphasized, together with the need for a cytogenetic survey of a large control or unselected population. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:13969480

  16. An Analysis of the Extension Worker's Knowledge of Extension Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonecipher, Charles Leroy

    Forty-four employees of the General Extension Division of the Nebraska Agricultural Extension Service and 119 Agricultural Extension employees of the University of Nebraska comprised the population of this study comparing personnel's knowledge of Agricultural Extension and General Extension programs and differences in knowledge of programs…

  17. Abnormal treating pressures in MHF treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Medlin, W.L.; Fitch, J.L.

    1983-10-01

    Abnormal treating pressures are observed during massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF) treatments in the Mesa Verde formation of the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Data from three widely separated wells and in several zones per well all show a pressure increase during MHF treatments which the authors call ''pressure growth''. This pressure growth is at least semi-permanent. The elevated instantaneous shut-in pressures do not return to initial values over periods of several days. The magnitude of this pressure growth is highly variable. When its value is less than about 2300 psi the MHF treatments are usually completed and results are obtained which are within normal expectations. When its value exceeds 2300 psi, sandout occurs and the fracture length estimated from production data is much less than that calculated using crack propagation models. Temperature logs indicate little or only modest vertical extension of the fractures above the perforations. These data, along with sandouts, point to a large increase in width of the fractures in response to pressure growth. One possible cause of pressure growth is fracture branching. A multiplicity of branches could produce a plastic-like effect. Laboratory measurements have ruled out plasticity as the cause. The stress-strain behavior of the rock is similar to that of rocks where no pressure growth occurs. Pressure growth seems to be dependent on both pumping rate and fluid viscosity. Thus, there is some hope for its mitigation through treatment design. Also, pressure growth appears to correlate negatively with pay zone quality. This suggests that the phenomenon can be exploited as a fluid diversion technique.

  18. Mobile Applications for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  19. Today's Youth: Extension's Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Russell D.

    1970-01-01

    The challenge to Extension youth work today is programing to deal with political and value issues in a way appealing to the small group who want to make things happen" without losing the majority, who let things happen" or wonder what happened. (EB)

  20. Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surajlal, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

  1. Effects of spinal cord injury and hindlimb immobilization on sublesional and supralesional bones in young growing rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Da; Zhao, Chang-Qing; Li, Hai; Jiang, Sheng-Dan; Jiang, Lei-Sheng; Dai, Li-Yang

    2008-07-01

    Both spinal cord injury (SCI) and hindlimb cast immobilization (HCI) cause reduction in maturation-related bone gain in young rats, but the effects of the two interventions on bone pathophysiology may be different. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of SCI and HCI on the sublesional/supralesional bones and bone turnover indicators in young rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats (six-week-old) were randomized into four groups, with ten rats in each group. The groups were classified as follows: base-line control, age-matched intact control, HCI, and SCI groups. Bone tissues, blood, and urine samples were studied at 4 weeks after treatments. The tibial dry weights and ash weights in SCI were remarkably reduced by 7.5% (dry weights) and 8.2% (ash weights) compared with HCI. SCI rats showed lower areal bone mineral density in the proximal tibiae compared with HCI rats (- 14%). Cortical thickness and cortical area of the tibial midshaft in SCI were lower than HCI (- 23%, - 33% respectively). The bone surface/bone volume, trabecular separation, trabecular number, connectivity of the trabecular network, and structure model index of the proximal tibiae were remarkably different between SCI and HCI groups. In SCI tibiae, the mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate, and surface-based bone formation rate were significantly higher than HCI groups (12%, 47%, and 29% respectively). In the compression test, the ultimate load, the energy of ultimate load, and Young's modulus of the proximal tibiae in SCI rats were significantly lower than HCI rats. The serum levels of osteocalcin and the urinary levels of deoxypyridinoline in SCI were higher than those in HCI. There were no significant changes in supralesional bones between SCI and HCI rats. SCI results in a rapid bone loss with more deterioration of trabecular microstructure and cortical bone geometric structure in sublesional bones. High bone turnover rate and low biomechanics strength were found in tibiae

  2. Muscle fibre type distribution of the thoracolumbar and hindlimb regions of horses: relating fibre type and functional role

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the majority of equine muscles have a mixed fibre type distribution indicative of diverse functional roles, the predominance of a fibre type can indicate the primary function of a muscle. The deep epaxial musculature has an important role in core spinal stability in humans, reflected as a predominantly muscle fibre type (MFT) I or postural fibre type. The fibre type of the deep epaxial musculature has not been determined in horses. The objective of the study was to determine the MFT distribution in selected muscles of thoracolumbar and hindlimb region of horses. This included deep epaxial and hypaxial muscles that were hypothesised to have a postural stabilising role. A second objective was to examine differences in MFT distribution between horses bred for endurance (Arabian) and sprinting (Quarter horse). Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from selected thoracolumbar and hind limb muscles of 5 Quarter horses, 4 Arabians, and 2 Thoroughbreds. The myosin heavy chain distribution was determined by gel electrophoresis. Mann–Whitney rank test was used to compare the proportional MFT and differences between breeds. Results Mm. sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis and diaphragm had the highest proportion of MFT-I. The remaining deep epaxial muscles and the hypaxial muscle m. psoas minor had approximately equal MFT I and II proportions. Mm. psoas major, iliocostalis, longissimus dorsi and the hind limb muscles contained mostly MFT-IIX. The fibre type distribution was similar between Arabians and Quarter horses, although Quarter horses had more MFT-IIX fibres in psoas major (P = 0.02) while Arabians had more MFT-I fibres in m. longissimus dorsi (P = 0.03). Conclusions The fibre type distribution of the deep epaxial muscles, mm psoas minor and diaphragm varied from approximately equal MFT-I and II proportions to predominantly MFT-I suggesting a postural stabilising role possibly important in core spinal stability. In contrast the fibre type

  3. Moderate-intensity rotating magnetic fields do not affect bone quality and bone remodeling in hindlimb suspended rats.

    PubMed

    Jing, Da; Cai, Jing; Wu, Yan; Shen, Guanghao; Zhai, Mingming; Tong, Shichao; Xu, Qiaoling; Xie, Kangning; Wu, Xiaoming; Tang, Chi; Xu, Xinmin; Liu, Juan; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Maogang; Luo, Erping

    2014-01-01

    Abundant evidence has substantiated the positive effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) and static magnetic fields (SMF) on inhibiting osteopenia and promoting fracture healing. However, the osteogenic potential of rotating magnetic fields (RMF), another common electromagnetic application modality, remains poorly characterized thus far, although numerous commercial RMF treatment devices have been available on the market. Herein the impacts of RMF on osteoporotic bone microarchitecture, bone strength and bone metabolism were systematically investigated in hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rats. Thirty two 3-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the Control (n = 10), HU (n = 10) and HU with RMF exposure (HU+RMF, n = 12) groups. Rats in the HU+RMF group were subjected to daily 2-hour exposure to moderate-intensity RMF (ranging from 0.60 T to 0.38 T) at 7 Hz for 4 weeks. HU caused significant decreases in body mass and soleus muscle mass of rats, which were not obviously altered by RMF. Three-point bending test showed that the mechanical properties of femurs in HU rats, including maximum load, stiffness, energy absorption and elastic modulus were not markedly affected by RMF. µCT analysis demonstrated that 4-week RMF did not significantly prevent HU-induced deterioration of femoral trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture. Serum biochemical analysis showed that RMF did not significantly change HU-induced decrease in serum bone formation markers and increase in bone resorption markers. Bone histomorphometric analysis further confirmed that RMF showed no impacts on bone remodeling in HU rats, as evidenced by unchanged mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, osteoblast numbers and osteoclast numbers in cancellous bone. Together, our findings reveal that RMF do not significantly affect bone microstructure, bone mechanical strength and bone remodeling in HU-induced disuse osteoporotic rats. Our study indicates potentially

  4. Mechanisms of flow and ACh-induced dilation in rat soleus arterioles are altered by hindlimb unweighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, William G.; Woodman, Christopher R.; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that endothelium-dependent dilation (flow-induced dilation and ACh-induced dilation) in rat soleus muscle arterioles is impaired by hindlimb unweighting (HLU). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (approximately 300 g) were exposed to HLU or weight-bearing control (Con) conditions for 14 days. Soleus first-order (1A) and second-order (2A) arterioles were isolated, cannulated, and exposed to step increases in luminal flow at constant pressure. Flow-induced dilation was not impaired by HLU in 1A or 2A arterioles. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (Indo; 50 microM) did not alter flow-induced dilation in 1As or 2As. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA; 300 microM) reduced flow-induced dilation by 65-70% in Con and HLU 1As. In contrast, L-NNA abolished flow-induced dilation in 2As from Con rats but had no effect in HLU 2As. Combined treatment with L-NNA + Indo reduced tone in 1As and 2As from Con rats, but flow-induced dilation in the presence of L-NNA + Indo was not different from responses without inhibitors in either Con or HLU 1As or 2As. HLU also did not impair ACh-induced dilation (10(-9)-10(-4) M) in soleus 2As. L-NNA reduced ACh-induced dilation by approximately 40% in Con 2As but abolished dilation in HLU 2As. Indo did not alter ACh-induced dilation in Con or HLU 2As, whereas combined treatment with L-NNA + Indo abolished ACh-induced dilation in 2As from both groups. We conclude that flow-induced dilation (1As and 2As) was preserved after 2 wk HLU, but HLU decreased the contribution of NOS in mediating flow-induced dilation and increased the contribution of a NOS- and cyclooxygenase-independent mechanism (possibly endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor). In soleus 2As, ACh-induced dilation was preserved after 2-wk HLU but the contribution of NOS in mediating ACh-induced dilation was increased.

  5. Pulsed electromagnetic fields partially preserve bone mass, microarchitecture, and strength by promoting bone formation in hindlimb-suspended rats.

    PubMed

    Jing, Da; Cai, Jing; Wu, Yan; Shen, Guanghao; Li, Feijiang; Xu, Qiaoling; Xie, Kangning; Tang, Chi; Liu, Juan; Guo, Wei; Wu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Maogang; Luo, Erping

    2014-10-01

    A large body of evidence indicates that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), as a safe and noninvasive method, could promote in vivo and in vitro osteogenesis. Thus far, the effects and underlying mechanisms of PEMF on disuse osteopenia and/or osteoporosis remain poorly understood. Herein, the efficiency of PEMF on osteoporotic bone microarchitecture, bone strength, and bone metabolism, together with its associated signaling pathway mechanism, was systematically investigated in hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rats. Thirty young mature (3-month-old), male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally assigned to control, HU, and HU + PEMF groups. The HU + PEMF group was subjected to daily 2-hour PEMF exposure at 15 Hz, 2.4 mT. After 4 weeks, micro-computed tomography (µCT) results showed that PEMF ameliorated the deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture. Three-point bending test showed that PEMF mitigated HU-induced reduction in femoral mechanical properties, including maximum load, stiffness, and elastic modulus. Moreover, PEMF increased serum bone formation markers, including osteocalcin (OC) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP); nevertheless, PEMF exerted minor inhibitory effects on bone resorption markers, including C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-I) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAcP5b). Bone histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that PEMF increased mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and osteoblast numbers in cancellous bone, but PEMF caused no obvious changes on osteoclast numbers. Real-time PCR showed that PEMF promoted tibial gene expressions of Wnt1, LRP5, β-catenin, OPG, and OC, but did not alter RANKL, RANK, or Sost mRNA levels. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of PEMF on disuse-induced osteopenia were further confirmed in 8-month-old mature adult HU rats. Together, these results demonstrate that PEMF alleviated disuse-induced bone loss by promoting skeletal anabolic activities

  6. Proportion of fatigue-resistant motor units in hindlimb muscles of cat and their relation to axonal conduction velocity.

    PubMed Central

    Emonet-Dénand, F; Hunt, C C; Petit, J; Pollin, B

    1988-01-01

    1. A study of motor units to hindlimb muscles of cat has been made, with as complete a sample as possible of the motor axons to an individual muscle. In single experiments as much as 95% of the motor supply to a muscle has been examined. 2. The following muscles have been studied: peroneus brevis, peroneus tertius, peroneus longus, plantaris, gastrocnemius medialis, soleus, tenuissimus and lumbricalis superficialis. 3. Units were identified as slow resistant (S), fast resistant (FR), fast fatigable (FF) and fast intermediate (FI). The proportion of various motor unit types differs from one muscle to another. There is also some variation in the proportions to a given muscle from one animal to another. With the exceptions of soleus, which is entirely slow resistant, and gastrocnemius, which has relatively fewer resistant units, most muscles contain 60% or more of resistant (S and FR) units. 4. The conduction velocity ranges of FF, FR and FI units overlapped. There was little overlap between the conduction velocity ranges of these F units and of S units. 5. In individual experiments there was a strong and significant positive correlation between the logarithm of maximal tetanic tension and axonal conduction velocity in S and in S+FR units. In terms of contractile response the total fatigue-resistant population appeared to be a continuum. The correlation coefficient between maximal tetanic tension and conduction velocity was also high in the totality of units of all types, although within the FF group there appeared to be little or no correlation. In pooled data there was much more scatter and these relations were less clear. This resulted largely from differences in the ranges of axonal conduction velocity for a given motor unit type from one animal to another. 6. There was a highly significant negative correlation between isometric twitch contraction time and axonal conduction velocity in individual experiments. This relationship could also be seen, but less clearly

  7. Patterns of fusimotor activity during locomotion in the decerebrate cat deduced from recordings from hindlimb muscle spindles.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A; Durbaba, R; Ellaway, P H; Rawlinson, S

    2000-02-01

    1. Recordings have been made from multiple single muscle spindle afferents from medial gastrocnemius (MG) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of one hindlimb in decerebrate cats, together with ankle rotation and EMG signals, during treadmill locomotion. Whilst the other three limbs walked freely, the experimental limb was denervated except for the nerves to MG and TA and secured so that it could rotate only at the ankle joint, without any external load. Each afferent was characterised by succinylcholine testing with regard to its intrafusal fibre contacts. Active movements were recorded and then replayed through a servo mechanism to reproduce the muscle length changes passively after using a barbiturate to suppress gamma-motor firing. 2. The difference in secondary afferent firing obtained by subtracting the discharge during passive movements from that during active movements was taken to represent the profile of static fusimotor activity. This indicated an increase before the onset of movement followed by a strongly modulated discharge in parallel with muscle shortening during locomotion. The pattern of static firing matched the pattern of unloaded muscle shortening very closely in the case of TA and with some phase advance in the case of MG. The same effects were observed in primary afferents. 3. Primary afferents with bag1 (b1) contacts in addition showed higher firing frequencies during muscle lengthening in active than in passive movements. This indicated increased dynamic fusimotor firing during active locomotion. There was no evidence as to whether this fluctuated during the movement cycles. 4. When the mean active minus passive difference profile of firing in bag2-chain (b2c) type primary afferents was subtracted from that for b1b2c afferents, the difference was dominated by a peak centred on the moment of maximum lengthening velocity (v). 5. The component of the active minus passive difference firing due to b1 fibre contacts could be modelled by f(t) = av

  8. The effect of purified compared with nonpurified diet on bone changes induced by hindlimb suspension of female rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Arnaud, Sara B.; Grindeland, Richard; Wade, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bone changes induced by unloading in rats fed different diets, because space flight studies use a semipurified diet, whereas space flight simulation studies typically use nonpurified diets. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN) 93G diet or a standard nonpurified diet and kept ambulatory or subjected to unloading by hindlimb suspension (HLS) for 38 days. Bone mineral content (BMC), mechanical strength, and factors related to the diet that affect bone (i.e., urinary calcium excretion, estradiol, and corticosterone) were measured. Average food intakes (grams per day) differed for diets, but caloric intake (kilocalories per day) and the final body masses of treatment groups were similar. The HLS-induced decrease in femoral BMC was not statistically different for rats fed a nonpurified diet (-8.6%) compared with a purified AIN-93G diet (-11.4%). The HLS-induced decrease in femoral mechanical strength was not statistically different for rats fed a nonpurified diet (-24%) compared with a purified AIN-93G diet (-31%). However, bone lengths were decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed a nonpurified diet compared with a purified diet. Plasma estradiol levels were lower (P < 0.05) in the HLS/AIN-93G group but similar in the HLS and ambulatory rats fed a nonpurified diet. Plasma estradiol was related to femoral BMC (r = 0.85, P < 0.01). Urinary calcium excretion was higher (P < 0.05) in rats fed a nonpurified diet than those fed a purified AIN-93G diet, which is consistent with the higher level of calcium in the nonpurified diet. Urinary corticosterone levels were higher (P < 0.05) in rats fed a nonpurified diet than rats fed the AIN-93G diet. Although the osteopenia induced by unloading was similar in both diet groups, there were differences in longitudinal bone growth, calcium excretion, plasma estradiol levels, and urinary corticosterone levels. Results indicate that the type of standard

  9. Immune Abnormalities in Patients with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Reed P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of 31 autistic patients (3-28 years old) has revealed several immune-system abnormalities, including decreased numbers of T lymphocytes and an altered ratio of helper-to-suppressor T cells. Immune-system abnormalities may be directly related to underlying biologic processes of autism or an indirect reflection of the actual pathologic…

  10. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  11. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  12. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo*

    PubMed Central

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. Objective We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. Methods This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Results Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study. PMID:27579738

  13. Skeletal Muscle Abnormalities in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Matsushima, Shouji; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Exercise capacity is lowered in patients with heart failure, which limits their daily activities and also reduces their quality of life. Furthermore, lowered exercise capacity has been well demonstrated to be closely related to the severity and prognosis of heart failure. Skeletal muscle abnormalities including abnormal energy metabolism, transition of myofibers from type I to type II, mitochondrial dysfunction, reduction in muscular strength, and muscle atrophy have been shown to play a central role in lowered exercise capacity. The skeletal muscle abnormalities can be classified into the following main types: 1) low endurance due to mitochondrial dysfunction; and 2) low muscle mass and muscle strength due to imbalance of protein synthesis and degradation. The molecular mechanisms of these skeletal muscle abnormalities have been studied mainly using animal models. The current review including our recent study will focus upon the skeletal muscle abnormalities in heart failure. PMID:26346520

  14. Genetically modified human placenta‑derived mesenchymal stem cells with FGF‑2 and PDGF‑BB enhance neovascularization in a model of hindlimb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tao; He, Sisi; Su, Chao; Chen, Xiancheng; Zhang, Dongmei; Wan, Yang; Ye, Tinghong; Shen, Guobo; Wang, Yongsheng; Shi, Huashan; Yang, Li; Wei, Yuquan

    2015-10-01

    Ischemic diseases represent a challenging worldwide health burden. The current study investigated the therapeutic potential of genetically modified human placenta‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPDMSCs) with basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and platelet‑derived growth factor‑BB (PDGF‑BB) genes in hindlimb ischemia. Mesenchymal stem cells obtained from human term placenta were transfected ex vivo with adenoviral bicistronic vectors carrying the FGF2 and PDGF‑BB genes (Ad‑F‑P). Unilateral hindlimb ischemia was surgically induced by excision of the right femoral artery in New Zealand White rabbits. Ad‑F‑P genetically modified hPDMSCs, Ad‑null (control vector)‑modified hPDMSCs, unmodified hPDMSCs or media were intramuscularly implanted into the ischemic limbs 7 days subsequent to the induction of ischemia. Four weeks after cell therapy, angiographic analysis revealed significantly increased collateral vessel formation in the Ad‑F‑P‑hPDMSC group compared with the control group. Histological examination revealed markedly increased capillary and arteriole density in the Ad‑F‑P‑hPDMSC group. The xenografted hPDMSCs survived in the ischemic tissue for at least 4 weeks subsequent to cell therapy. The current study demonstrated that the combination of hPDMSC therapy with FGF2 and PDGF‑BB gene therapy effectively induced collateral vessel formation and angiogenesis, suggesting a novel strategy for therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:26239842

  15. Genetically modified human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells with FGF-2 and PDGF-BB enhance neovascularization in a model of hindlimb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    YIN, TAO; HE, SISI; SU, CHAO; CHEN, XIANCHENG; ZHANG, DONGMEI; WAN, YANG; YE, TINGHONG; SHEN, GUOBO; WANG, YONGSHENG; SHI, HUASHAN; YANG, LI; WEI, YUQUAN

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic diseases represent a challenging worldwide health burden. The current study investigated the therapeutic potential of genetically modified human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPDMSCs) with basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) genes in hindlimb ischemia. Mesenchymal stem cells obtained from human term placenta were transfected ex vivo with adenoviral bicistronic vectors carrying the FGF2 and PDGF-BB genes (Ad-F-P). Unilateral hindlimb ischemia was surgically induced by excision of the right femoral artery in New Zealand White rabbits. Ad-F-P genetically modified hPDMSCs, Ad-null (control vector)-modified hPDMSCs, unmodified hPDMSCs or media were intramuscularly implanted into the ischemic limbs 7 days subsequent to the induction of ischemia. Four weeks after cell therapy, angiographic analysis revealed significantly increased collateral vessel formation in the Ad-F-P-hPDMSC group compared with the control group. Histological examination revealed markedly increased capillary and arteriole density in the Ad-F-P-hPDMSC group. The xenografted hPDMSCs survived in the ischemic tissue for at least 4 weeks subsequent to cell therapy. The current study demonstrated that the combination of hPDMSC therapy with FGF2 and PDGF-BB gene therapy effectively induced collateral vessel formation and angiogenesis, suggesting a novel strategy for therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:26239842

  16. Knockdown of Ephrin-A5 Expression by 40% Does not Affect Motor Axon Growth or Migration into the Chick Hindlimb

    PubMed Central

    Winning, Robert S.; Krull, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    Bidirectional signaling between Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their cell-surface protein signals, the ephrins, comprises one mechanism for guiding motor axons to their proper targets. During projection of motor axons from the lateral motor column (LMC) motor neurons of the spinal cord to the hindlimb muscles in chick embryos, ephrin-A5 has been shown to be expressed in the LMC motor axons until they reach the base of the limb bud and initiate sorting into their presumptive dorsal and ventral nerve trunks, at which point expression is extinguished. We tested the hypothesis that this dynamic pattern of ephrin-A5 expression in LMC motor axons is important for the growth and guidance of the axons to, and into, the hindlimb by knocking down endogenous ephrin-A5 expression in the motor neurons and their axons. No perturbation of LMC motor axon projections was observed in response to this treatment, suggesting that ephrin-A5 is not needed for LMC motor axon growth or guidance. PMID:22272077

  17. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  18. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Agricultural Extension: Who Uses It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Michael; Lasley, Paul

    1979-01-01

    A Missouri study conducted to determine agricultural extension usage patterns found that heavy users of extension publications tended to be younger farmers, those with a relatively large amount of land, and pork producers. Extension meetings were a less frequent source of information than either publications or county extension office visits. (LRA)

  20. LIMB demonstration project extension

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-21

    The purpose of the DOE limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension is to extend the data base on LIMB technology and to expand DOE's list of Clean Coal Technologies by demonstrating the Coolside process as part of the project. The main objectives of this project are: to demonstrate the general applicability of LIMB technology by testing 3 coals and 4 sorbents (total of 12 coal/sorbent combinations) at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant; and to demonstrate that Coolside is a viable technology for improving precipitator performance and reducing sulfur dioxide emissions while acceptable operability is maintained. Progress is reported. 3 figs.

  1. Four families with immunodeficiency and chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Candy, D C; Hayward, A R; Hughes, D T; Layward, L; Soothill, J F

    1979-01-01

    Six children, with severe deficiency of some or all of the immunoglobulins and minor somatic abnormalities, had chromosomal abnormalities: (1) 45,XY,t(13q/18q), (2) 46,XY,21ps +, (3) two brothers 46,XY (inv. 7) (4) 45,X,t(11p/10p)/46X,iXq,t(11p/10p) and, (5) in addendum, 45,XX,-18;46,XX, r18. The chromosome abnormalities were detected in B- as well as T-lymphocytes (as evidenced by using both PHA- and PWM-stimulated cultures) in all probands, but one was mosaic in PHA culture, although all his PWM-stimulated cells were abnormal. Chromosomal variants were also detected in relatives of three and immunodeficiency in relatives of two. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:314782

  2. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approach to abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-age women Differential diagnosis of genital tract bleeding in women Postmenopausal uterine bleeding The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  3. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... The outer ear or "pinna" forms when the baby is growing in the mother's womb. The growth of this ear part ...

  4. Electrocardiography series. Electrocardiographic T wave abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiqin; Teo, Swee Guan; Poh, Kian Keong

    2013-11-01

    The causes of abnormal T waves on electrocardiography are multiple and varied. Careful clinical history taking and physical examination are necessary for accurate identification of the cause of such abnormalities. Subsequent targeted specialised cardiac investigations, such as echocardiography or coronary angiography, may be of importance in the diagnosis of the underlying cardiac pathology. We present two cases of T wave inversions with markedly different aetiologies.

  5. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Mohamed; Boraie, Maher

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1%) individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8%) at the second screening, (P <0.001). Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8%) adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1%) individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6%) individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3%) individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5%) individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6%) of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6%) individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1%) of them. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9%) of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6%) of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8%) individuals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8%) individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01) and (P <0.001), respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  6. The effect of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on the recovery of bladder and hindlimb function after spinal cord contusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells are widely used for transplantation into the injured spinal cord in vivo model and for safety, many human clinical trials are continuing to promote improvements of motor and sensory functions after spinal cord injury. Yet the exact mechanism for these improvements remains undefined. Neurogenic bladder following spinal cord injury is the main problem decreasing the quality of life for patients with spinal cord injury, but there are no clear data using stem cell transplantation for the improvement of neurogenic bladder for in vivo studies and the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to delineate the effect of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) transplantation on the restoration of neurogenic bladder and impaired hindlimb function after spinal cord contusion of rats and the relationship between neurotrophic factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and bladder and hindlimb functions. Results Modified moderate contusion injury were performed on the thoracic spinal cord of Sprague-Dawley rats using MASCIS impactor and hMSCs, human fibroblasts or phosphate-buffered saline were transplanted into injured spinal cord 9 days after injury for hMSC and two control groups respectively. Ladder test showed more rapid restoration of hindlimb function in hMSC group than in control group, but Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score and coupling score were not different significantly among hMSC and two control groups. Neurogenic bladder was not improved in either group. ED1 positive macrophages were significantly reduced in hMSC group than in two control groups, but ELISA and RT-PCR studies revealed BDNF and NT-3 levels in spinal cord and bladder were not different among hMSC and two control groups regardless the experimental duration. Conclusion hMSC transplantation was effective in reducing inflammatory reaction after spinal cord contusion of rats but not sufficient to recover locomotor and bladder

  7. Extensive nonadditivity of privacy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A

    2009-09-18

    Quantum information theory establishes the ultimate limits on communication and cryptography in terms of channel capacities for various types of information. The private capacity is particularly important because it quantifies achievable rates of quantum key distribution. We study the power of quantum channels with limited private capacity, focusing on channels that dephase in random bases. These display extensive nonadditivity of private capacity: a channel with 2logd input qubits that has a private capacity less than 2, but when used together with a second channel with zero private capacity, the joint capacity jumps to (1/2)logd. In contrast to earlier work which found nonadditivity vanishing as a fraction of input size or conditional on unproven mathematical assumptions, this provides a natural setting manifesting nonadditivity of privacy of the strongest possible sort. PMID:19792417

  8. Overlap extension PCR cloning.

    PubMed

    Bryksin, Anton; Matsumura, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Rising demand for recombinant proteins has motivated the development of efficient and reliable cloning methods. Here we show how a beginner can clone virtually any DNA insert into a plasmid of choice without the use of restriction endonucleases or T4 DNA ligase. Chimeric primers encoding plasmid sequence at the 5' ends and insert sequence at the 3' ends are designed and synthesized. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is utilized to amplify the desired insert by PCR. The double-stranded product is subsequently employed as a pair of mega-primers in a PCR-like reaction with circular plasmids. The original plasmids are then destroyed in restriction digests with Dpn I. The product of the overlap extension PCR is used to transform competent Escherichia coli cells. Phusion(®) DNA polymerase is used for both the amplification and fusion reactions, so both steps can be monitored and optimized in the same way. PMID:23996437

  9. Non-extensive radiobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.

    2011-03-14

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation and conditions. Here we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. A generalization of the exponential, the logarithm and the product to a non-extensive framework, provides a simple formula for the survival fraction corresponding to the application of several radiation doses on a living tissue. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature, also providing a new interpretation of some of the parameters introduced anew. It is also shown how the presented formalism may have direct application in radiotherapy treatment optimization through the definition of the potential effect difference, simply calculated between the tumour and the surrounding tissue.

  10. Non-extensive radiobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotolongo-Grau, O.; Rodriguez-Perez, D.; Antoranz, J. C.; Sotolongo-Costa, O.

    2011-03-01

    The expression of survival factors for radiation damaged cells is based on probabilistic assumptions and experimentally fitted for each tumor, radiation and conditions. Here we show how the simplest of these radiobiological models can be derived from the maximum entropy principle of the classical Boltzmann-Gibbs expression. We extend this derivation using the Tsallis entropy and a cutoff hypothesis, motivated by clinical observations. A generalization of the exponential, the logarithm and the product to a non-extensive framework, provides a simple formula for the survival fraction corresponding to the application of several radiation doses on a living tissue. The obtained expression shows a remarkable agreement with the experimental data found in the literature, also providing a new interpretation of some of the parameters introduced anew. It is also shown how the presented formalism may have direct application in radiotherapy treatment optimization through the definition of the potential effect difference, simply calculated between the tumour and the surrounding tissue.

  11. Effect of oral OPC-28326, a selective femoral arterial vasodilator, on hindlimb subcutaneous tissue temperature in conscious dogs under buprenorphine sedation.

    PubMed

    Orito, Kensuke; Imaizumi, Takashi; Yoshida, Kenji; Kishi, Masami; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Mori, Toyoki

    2002-01-01

    In dogs, rectal temperature was decreased to about 36 degrees C at 2 to 2.5 h after sedation with buprenorphine (0.3 mg/body, i.m.), and hindlimb subcutaneous tissue temperature (T(SC)) in the thigh decreased in a similar manner. T(SC) in the dorsum of the foot showed a greater decrease than that in the thigh. OPC-28326 (4-(N-methyl-2-phenylethylamino)-1-(3,5-dimethyl-4-propionyl-aminobenzoyl) piperidine hydrochloride monohydrate) at doses of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg, p.o. inhibited the buprenorphine-induced decrease in T(SC) in the dorsum dose-dependently, but had little effect on that in the thigh or rectal temperature. In conclusion, T(SC) in the extremities were more sensitive to core temperature and peripheral circulation.

  12. Turning an Extension Aide into an Extension Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda; Dormody, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    For any organization to remain sustainable, a renewable source of faculty and staff needs to be available. The Extension Internship Program for Juniors and Seniors in High School is a new tool for recruiting and developing new Extension agents. Students get "hands on" experience working in an Extension office and earn college credit while in high…

  13. Combined, but not individual, blockade of ASIC3, P2X, and EP4 receptors attenuates the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Stone, Audrey J; Copp, Steven W; Kim, Joyce S; Kaufman, Marc P

    2015-12-01

    In healthy humans, tests of the hypothesis that lactic acid, PGE2, or ATP plays a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex proved controversial. The findings in humans resembled ours in decerebrate rats that individual blockade of the receptors to lactic acid, PGE2, and ATP had only small effects on the exercise pressor reflex provided that the muscles were freely perfused. This similarity between humans and rats prompted us to test the hypothesis that in rats with freely perfused muscles combined receptor blockade is required to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex. We first compared the reflex before and after injecting either PPADS (10 mg/kg), a P2X receptor antagonist, APETx2 (100 μg/kg), an activating acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC) channel antagonist, or L161982 (2 μg/kg), an EP4 receptor antagonist, into the arterial supply of the hindlimb of decerebrated rats. We then examined the effects of combined blockade of P2X receptors, ASIC3 channels, and EP4 receptors on the exercise pressor reflex using the same doses, intra-arterial route, and time course of antagonist injections as those used for individual blockade. We found that neither PPADS (n = 5), APETx2 (n = 6), nor L161982 (n = 6) attenuated the reflex. In contrast, combined blockade of these receptors (n = 7) attenuated the peak (↓27%, P < 0.019) and integrated (↓48%, P < 0.004) pressor components of the reflex. Combined blockade injected intravenously had no effect on the reflex. We conclude that combined blockade of P2X receptors, ASIC3 channels, and EP4 receptors on the endings of thin fiber muscle afferents is required to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused hindlimbs.

  14. Hindlimb Skeletal Muscle Function and Skeletal Quality and Strength in +/G610C Mice With and Without Weight-Bearing Exercise.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Youngjae; Carleton, Stephanie M; Gentry, Bettina A; Yao, Xiaomei; Ferreira, J Andries; Salamango, Daniel J; Weis, MaryAnn; Oestreich, Arin K; Williams, Ashlee M; McCray, Marcus G; Eyre, David R; Brown, Marybeth; Wang, Yong; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2015-10-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous heritable connective tissue disorder associated with reduced bone mineral density and skeletal fragility. Bone is inherently mechanosensitive, with bone strength being proportional to muscle mass and strength. Physically active healthy children accrue more bone than inactive children. Children with type I OI exhibit decreased exercise capacity and muscle strength compared with healthy peers. It is unknown whether this muscle weakness reflects decreased physical activity or a muscle pathology. In this study, we used heterozygous G610C OI model mice (+/G610C), which model both the genotype and phenotype of a large Amish OI kindred, to evaluate hindlimb muscle function and physical activity levels before evaluating the ability of +/G610C mice to undergo a treadmill exercise regimen. We found +/G610C mice hindlimb muscles do not exhibit compromised muscle function, and their activity levels were not reduced relative to wild-type mice. The +/G610C mice were also able to complete an 8-week treadmill regimen. Biomechanical integrity of control and exercised wild-type and +/G610C femora were analyzed by torsional loading to failure. The greatest skeletal gains in response to exercise were observed in stiffness and the shear modulus of elasticity with alterations in collagen content. Analysis of tibial cortical bone by Raman spectroscopy demonstrated similar crystallinity and mineral/matrix ratios regardless of sex, exercise, and genotype. Together, these findings demonstrate +/G610C OI mice have equivalent muscle function, activity levels, and ability to complete a weight-bearing exercise regimen as wild-type mice. The +/G610C mice exhibited increased femoral stiffness and decreased hydroxyproline with exercise, whereas other biomechanical parameters remain unaffected, suggesting a more rigorous exercise regimen or another exercise modality may be required to improve bone quality of OI mice.

  15. Combined, but not individual, blockade of ASIC3, P2X, and EP4 receptors attenuates the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused hindlimb muscles.

    PubMed

    Stone, Audrey J; Copp, Steven W; Kim, Joyce S; Kaufman, Marc P

    2015-12-01

    In healthy humans, tests of the hypothesis that lactic acid, PGE2, or ATP plays a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex proved controversial. The findings in humans resembled ours in decerebrate rats that individual blockade of the receptors to lactic acid, PGE2, and ATP had only small effects on the exercise pressor reflex provided that the muscles were freely perfused. This similarity between humans and rats prompted us to test the hypothesis that in rats with freely perfused muscles combined receptor blockade is required to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex. We first compared the reflex before and after injecting either PPADS (10 mg/kg), a P2X receptor antagonist, APETx2 (100 μg/kg), an activating acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC) channel antagonist, or L161982 (2 μg/kg), an EP4 receptor antagonist, into the arterial supply of the hindlimb of decerebrated rats. We then examined the effects of combined blockade of P2X receptors, ASIC3 channels, and EP4 receptors on the exercise pressor reflex using the same doses, intra-arterial route, and time course of antagonist injections as those used for individual blockade. We found that neither PPADS (n = 5), APETx2 (n = 6), nor L161982 (n = 6) attenuated the reflex. In contrast, combined blockade of these receptors (n = 7) attenuated the peak (↓27%, P < 0.019) and integrated (↓48%, P < 0.004) pressor components of the reflex. Combined blockade injected intravenously had no effect on the reflex. We conclude that combined blockade of P2X receptors, ASIC3 channels, and EP4 receptors on the endings of thin fiber muscle afferents is required to attenuate the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused hindlimbs. PMID:26472871

  16. Differential skeletal responses of hindlimb unloaded rats on a vitamin D-deficient diet to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analog, seocalcitol (EB1089)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Allen, Matthew R.; Gaddy, Dana; Bloomfield, Susan A.; Smith, Carolyn L.; Weigel, Nancy L.

    2004-01-01

    Conditions of disuse in bed rest patients, as well as microgravity experienced by astronauts are accompanied by reduced mechanical loading, reduced calcium absorption, and lower serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25-D), the active metabolite of vitamin D, all contributing to bone loss. To determine whether 1,25-D or a less calcemic analog, Seocalcitol or EB1089 (1 alpha,25-dihydroxy-22,24-diene-24,26,27-trihomovitamin D3) can alleviate bone loss in a rat hindlimb unloading model of disuse osteopenia, mature male rats originally on a vitamin D replete diet containing 1.01% calcium were transferred to a vitamin D-deficient diet containing 0.48% calcium and then tail suspended and treated for 28 days with vehicle, 0.05 microg/kg 1,25-D, or 0.05 microg/kg EB1089. The vitamin D-deficient diet caused a substantial decrease in bone mineral density (-8%), which may be compounded by hindlimb unloading (-10%). Exogenous 1,25-D not only prevented the bone loss but also increased the bone mineral density to greater than the baseline level (+7%). EB1089 was less effective in preventing bone loss. Analysis of site and cell-specific effects of 1,25-D and EB1089 revealed that 1,25-D was more active than EB1089 in the intestine, the site of calcium absorption, and in inducing osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption whereas EB1089 was more effective in inducing osteoblast differentiation. These studies suggest that elevating circulating 1,25-D levels presumably increasing calcium absorption can counteract bone loss induced by disuse or microgravity with its associated reductions in circulating 1,25-D and decreased calcium absorption.

  17. Controlled release of thymosin beta 4 using a collagen-chitosan sponge scaffold augments cutaneous wound healing and increases angiogenesis in diabetic rats with hindlimb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ti, Dongdong; Hao, Haojie; Xia, Lei; Tong, Chuan; Liu, Jiejie; Dong, Liang; Xu, Shenjun; Zhao, Yali; Liu, Huiling; Fu, Xiaobing; Han, Weidong

    2015-02-01

    It is important to establish an efficient vascularization for the long-term acceptance of bioengineered skin equivalents treating the cutaneous wounds of diabetic rats with hindlimb ischemia. This study investigates the possible use of a collagen-chitosan sponge scaffold encapsulated with thymosin beta 4 (CCSS-eTβ4), an angiogenic factor, to accelerate cutaneous wound healing in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with hindlimb ischemia. CCSSs-eTβ4 was fabricated using a freeze-drying method. The scaffolds were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, swelling and degradation assays, mechanical properties, and scaffolds of 50:50 collagen-chitosan were selected and applied. The controlled release of Tβ4 from the scaffolds elicited localized and prolonged effects over 12 days, as shown by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In vivo, CCSSs-eTβ4 improved diabetic cutaneous wound healing, with faster wound reepithelialization, better dermal reorganization, and higher wound vascularization. Furthermore, CCSSs-eTβ4 downregulated inflammatory genes and upregulated angiogenic genes in the wound tissue. Significant increases in CD31-positive endothelial cells and new vessel density were also observed. In vitro, Tβ4 increased the migratory and proliferative activity of high glucose (HG)-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Meanwhile, we found that Tβ4 could promote HG-treated HUVECs migration and improve angiogenesis by activation of the VEGF/AKT pathway. Overall, these findings demonstrated the promising potential of CCSSs-eTβ4 to promote more effective wound healing and suggest its possible application for diabetic cutaneous wound treatment. PMID:25204972

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities in the newborn period.

    PubMed

    Seashore, M R

    1993-10-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities account for a significant percentage of congenital malformations in the neonate. While some of the syndromes can be suspected on clinical grounds, the clinician will need to have a high index of suspicion based on the presence of multiple abnormalities that cannot be accounted for by other causes. Chromosome analysis should be performed promptly in these cases. Cultured lymphocytes are the standard preparation at present. However, new non-isotopic hybridization techniques are becoming available that allow analysis of interphase cells, and these may become more widely used as clinical experience with them is gained. Prognosis can usually be better defined once the chromosome analysis is complete. The information acquired may also be used to provide risk estimates for chromosomal abnormalities in future pregnancies of the parents of the affected infant and for other relatives. Empathetic counseling of the parents and family must be provided once the diagnosis is known. It must take into account the knowledge the chromosome analysis provides, be respectful of the parent's need for support, and be accurate as to prognosis of the condition diagnosed. When Down syndrome and Turner syndrome have been diagnosed, care must be taken to emphasize the positive aspects of the prognosis. When a chromosomal abnormality with an extremely poor prognosis is identified, support for withdrawal of medical intervention must be sensitively provided. The diagnosis and care of an infant with a chromosomal abnormality will challenge all of the pediatrician's diagnostic, therapeutic, and communication skills.

  19. Dysmorphometrics: the modelling of morphological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of typical morphological variations using quantitative, morphometric descriptors has always interested biologists in general. However, unusual examples of form, such as abnormalities are often encountered in biomedical sciences. Despite the long history of morphometrics, the means to identify and quantify such unusual form differences remains limited. Methods A theoretical concept, called dysmorphometrics, is introduced augmenting current geometric morphometrics with a focus on identifying and modelling form abnormalities. Dysmorphometrics applies the paradigm of detecting form differences as outliers compared to an appropriate norm. To achieve this, the likelihood formulation of landmark superimpositions is extended with outlier processes explicitly introducing a latent variable coding for abnormalities. A tractable solution to this augmented superimposition problem is obtained using Expectation-Maximization. The topography of detected abnormalities is encoded in a dysmorphogram. Results We demonstrate the use of dysmorphometrics to measure abrupt changes in time, asymmetry and discordancy in a set of human faces presenting with facial abnormalities. Conclusion The results clearly illustrate the unique power to reveal unusual form differences given only normative data with clear applications in both biomedical practice & research. PMID:22309623

  20. Abnormal Magnetic Field Effects on Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Wang, Hongfeng; He, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    We report abnormal magnetic field effects on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (MFEECL) based on triplet emission from the Ru(bpy)3Cl2-TPrA electrochemical system: the appearance of MFEECL after magnetic field ceases. In early studies the normal MFEECL have been observed from electrochemical systems during the application of magnetic field. Here, the abnormal MFEECL suggest that the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes may become magnetized in magnetic field and experience a long magnetic relaxation after removing magnetic field. Our analysis indicates that the magnetic relaxation can gradually increase the density of charge-transfer complexes within reaction region due to decayed magnetic interactions, leading to a positive component in the abnormal MFEECL. On the other hand, the magnetic relaxation facilitates an inverse conversion from triplets to singlets within charge-transfer complexes. The inverse triplet --> singlet conversion reduces the density of triplet light-emitting states through charge-transfer complexes and gives rise to a negative component in the abnormal MFEECL. The combination of positive and negative components can essentially lead to a non-monotonic profile in the abnormal MFEECL after ceasing magnetic field. Nevertheless, our experimental studies may reveal un-usual magnetic behaviors with long magnetic relaxation from the activated charge-transfer [Ru(bpy)33+ … TPrA•] complexes in solution at room temperature.

  1. [Abnormalities of the penis in boys].

    PubMed

    Peycelon, M; Parmentier, B; Raquillet, C; Boubnova, J; Chouikh, T; Grosos, C; Honart, J-F; Pichon, A; Auber, F; Larroquet, M; Audry, G

    2012-12-01

    Abnormalities of the male genitalia have increased in the last 2 decades in numerous developed countries and remain a frequent reason of consultation in pediatric surgery. The diagnostic spectrum is wide, and surgeons should pay particular attention to these abnormalities because of their potential psychological effect. Anatomically, these abnormalities can affect one of three parts of the penis. First, the foreskin may not be fully retracted. This is normal at birth and can be caused by prepuce adherents that can continue until adolescence. Today, true phimosis is treated with topical corticoids from the age of 3 years. If medical treatment fails, a surgical procedure is required. Second, the urethra can be affected by hypospadia, which is the most frequent abnormality of the urethra. It is associated with ectopic urethral meatus, hypoplastic foreskin, and penis curvature. Its pathogenic background is not clearly understood. Surgery options differ according to the type of hypospadia and according to the surgeon's experience. It is sometimes hard to deal with, especially in a perineal form, where genetic and hormonal studies are recommended. These interventions can lead to complications ranging from stenosis to fistula. Therefore, parents have to be informed of the benefits and risks of the surgical procedures. Epispadias is rare but more serious because of the increasing risk of urinary incontinence. Finally, abnormalities of the corpora cavernosa - often associated with hypospadias - can include penis curvature and micropenis, for which an endocrinological analysis is essential. PMID:23121902

  2. The BGAN extension programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  3. Privatising Agricultural Extension: Caveat Emptor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, A. D.; Lamers, J. P. A.; Ficarelli, P. P.; Hoffmann, V.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses forces promoting privatization of agricultural extension. Discusses experiences of privatization and commercialization of extension and related problems in various countries, particularly developing countries. Suggests that the state will continue to play an important role in agricultural extension in many countries and that…

  4. Systemic hormonal and physiological abnormalities in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Cameron, O G; Nesse, R M

    1988-01-01

    Among the studies of systemic hormonal and physiological abnormalities associated with anxiety disorders, the most consistent and extensive findings suggest (a) peripheral adrenergic hyperactivity (including increases in norepinephrine but not epinephrine) and functional dysregulation, (b) increased incidence of mitral valve prolapse in panic patients, and (c) normal suppressibility of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortical endocrine system with dexamethasone in panic patients. Other less-certain findings include (a) increased circulating concentrations of plasma ACTH and/or cortisol, and prolactin, in panic patients, (b) increased platelet monoamine oxidase activity in generalized anxiety and/or panic patients, (c) decreased gonadal axis activity in some anxious individuals, (d) decreased nighttime melatonin plasma concentrations in panic patients, and (e) peripheral alpha 2 and beta-adrenoreceptor down-regulation, with normal serotonin binding parameters. These findings, taken together, provide tentative support for dysfunction in adrenergic and GABAergic central nervous system mechanisms in people with anxiety disorders. Abnormal anxiety and normal stress both show evidence of adrenergic hyperactivity; however, there appear to be differences in hormonal profiles, especially the apparent lack of increase of epinephrine during panic attacks, as well as differences in the reactivity of the system, and in the "trigger" mechanisms which determine when the response occurs.

  5. Is ankle contracture after stroke due to abnormal intermuscular force transmission?

    PubMed

    Diong, Joanna; Herbert, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Contracture after stroke could be due to abnormal mechanical interactions between muscles. This study examined if ankle plantarflexor muscle contracture after stroke is due to abnormal force transmission between the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Muscle fascicle lengths were measured from ultrasound images of soleus muscles in five subjects with stroke and ankle contracture and six able-bodied subjects. Changes in soleus fascicle length or pennation during passive knee extension at fixed ankle angle were assumed to indicate intermuscular force transmission. Changes in soleus fascicle length or pennation were adjusted for changes in ankle motion. Subjects with stroke had significant ankle contracture. After adjustment for ankle motion, 9 of 11 subjects demonstrated small changes in soleus fascicle length with knee extension, suggestive of intermuscular force transmission. However, the small changes in fascicle length may have been artifacts caused by movement of the ultrasound transducers. There were no systematic differences in change in fascicle length (median between-group difference adjusting for ankle motion = -0.01, 95% CI -0.26-0.08 mm/degree of knee extension) or pennation (-0.05, 95% CI -0.15-0.07 degree/ degree of knee extension). This suggests ankle contractures after stroke were not due to abnormal (systematically increased or decreased) intermuscular force transmission between the gastrocnemius and soleus.

  6. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy.

  7. Laparoscopy for resolving Müllerian abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Motashaw, N D; Dastur, A; Vaidya, R A; Aloorkar, M

    1978-07-01

    One hundred thirty-five patients with various müllerian abnormalities underwent laparoscopy. At a glance the precise malformation was diagnosed correctly: 44 patients revealed a complete absence of the müllerian system; 35 were found to have a transverse ridge across the pelvis, the lateral ends of which were well developed; 33 patients had rudimentary uteri; 7, a median müllerian nodule; 5 belonged to the group with the testicular feminization syndrome; 4 were classified as having a bicornuate uterus; 3 had unicornuate uteri; and 3, septate uteri. One rare variety of müllerian abnormality is also described. Laparoscopy was found to be invaluable in the diagnosis of müllerian abnormalities.

  8. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. PMID:24054776

  9. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  10. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    Grain growth in alumina is strongly affected by the impurities present in the material. Certain impurity elements are known to have characteristic effects on abnormal grain growth in alumina. Specialty alumina powders contain multiple impurity species including MgO, CaO, SiO2, and Na 2O. In this work, sintered samples made from alumina powders containing various amounts of the impurities in question were characterized by their grain size and aspect ratio distributions. Multiple quantitative methods were used to characterize and classify samples with varying microstructures. The grain size distributions were used to partition the grain size population into subpopulations depending on the observed deviation from normal behavior. Using both grain size and aspect ratio a new visual representation for a microstructure was introduced called a morphology frequency map that gives a fingerprint for the material. The number of subpopulations within a sample and the shape of the distribution on the morphology map provided the basis for a classification scheme for different types of microstructures. Also using the two parameters a series of five metrics were calculated that describe the character of the abnormal grains in the sample, these were called abnormal character values. The abnormal character values describe the fraction of grains that are considered abnormal, the average magnitude of abnormality (including both grain size and aspect ratio), the average size, and variance in size. The final metric is the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio for the entire population of grains. The abnormal character values give a sense of how different from "normal" the sample is, given the assumption that a normal sample has a lognormal distribution of grain size and a Gaussian distribution of aspect ratios. In the second part of the work the quantified measures of abnormality were correlated with processing parameters such as composition and heat treatment conditions. A

  11. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs

    PubMed Central

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia. PMID:24174905

  12. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  13. Endocrine Abnormalities in Townes–Brocks Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Cara; Hong-McAtee, Irene; Hall, Bryan; Hartsfield, James; Rutherford, Andrew; Bonilla, Tracy; Bay, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Townes–Brocks syndrome is a recognizable variable pattern of malformation caused by mutations to the SALL1 gene located on chromosome 16q12.1. Only three known cases of Townes–Brocks syndrome with proven SALL1 gene mutation and concurrent endocrine abnormalities have been previously documented to our knowledge [Kohlhase et al., 1999; Botzenhart et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2010]. We report on two unrelated patients with Townes–Brocks syndrome who share an identical SALL1 mutation (c.3414_3415delAT), who also have endocrine abnormalities. Patient 1 appears to be the first known case of growth hormone deficiency, and Patient 2 extends the number of documented mutation cases with hypothyroidism to four. We suspect endocrine abnormalities, particularly treatable deficiencies, may be an underappreciated component to Townes–Brocks syndrome. PMID:23894113

  14. Echocardiographic abnormalities in the mucopolysaccharide storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Gross, D M; Williams, J C; Caprioli, C; Dominguez, B; Howell, R R

    1988-01-01

    The mucopolysaccharide storage diseases express themselves clinically with a wide variety of abnormalities, including growth and mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities, clouded corneas, nerve compression syndromes, upper airway obstruction and cardiovascular involvement, to name the most common. In most cases the cause of early death is cardiorespiratory failure secondary to cardiovascular involvement and upper airway obstruction. The findings of cardiac ultrasound examination in 29 children, adolescents and young adults are presented. In addition to the previously well-described abnormalities of the mitral and aortic valves in several types of mucopolysaccharide storage disease, we report patchy involvement in some cases, 3 instances of asymmetric septal hypertrophy not previously reported in mucopolysaccharide storage diseases, cardiac involvement in half of our patients with Sanfilippo syndrome and a lack of age-related severity of cardiac involvement even within the specific syndromes. PMID:3122547

  15. Visual perceptual abnormalities: hallucinations and illusions.

    PubMed

    Norton, J W; Corbett, J J

    2000-01-01

    Visual perceptual abnormalities may be caused by diverse etiologies which span the fields of psychiatry and neurology. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of visual perceptual abnormalities from both a neurological and a psychiatric perspective. Psychiatric etiologies include mania, depression, substance dependence, and schizophrenia. Common neurological causes include migraine, epilepsy, delirium, dementia, tumor, and stroke. The phenomena of palinopsia, oscillopsia, dysmetropsia, and polyopia among others are also reviewed. A systematic approach to the many causes of illusions and hallucinations may help to achieve an accurate diagnosis, and a more focused evaluation and treatment plan for patients who develop visual perceptual abnormalities. This article provides the practicing neurologist with a practical understanding and approach to patients with these clinical symptoms.

  16. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  17. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  18. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs.

    PubMed

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

  19. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  20. Hemorheological abnormalities in human arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-05-01

    Blood rheology is impaired in hypertensive patients. The alteration involves blood and plasma viscosity, and the erythrocyte behaviour is often abnormal. The hemorheological pattern appears to be related to some pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension and to organ damage, in particular left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Abnormalities have been observed in erythrocyte membrane fluidity, explored by fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance. This may be relevant for red cell flow in microvessels and oxygen delivery to tissues. Although blood viscosity is not a direct target of antihypertensive therapy, the rheological properties of blood play a role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension and its vascular complications.

  1. Normal and abnormal human vestibular ocular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1986-01-01

    The major motivation of this research is to understand the role the vestibular system plays in sensorimotor interactions which result in spatial disorientation and motion sickness. A second goal was to explore the range of abnormality as it is reflected in quantitative measures of vestibular reflex responses. The results of a study of vestibular reflex measurements in normal subjects and preliminary results in abnormal subjects are presented in this report. Statistical methods were used to define the range of normal responses, and determine age related changes in function.

  2. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research. PMID:26460794

  3. Developmental abnormalities of the gonad and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators from contaminated and control lakes in Florida.

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, L J; Gross, T S; Masson, G R; Matter, J M; Percival, H F; Woodward, A R

    1994-01-01

    The reproductive development of alligators from a contaminated and a control lake in central Florida was examined. Lake Apopka is adjacent to an EPA Superfund site, listed due to an extensive spill of dicofol and DDT or its metabolites. These compounds can act as estrogens. Contaminants in the lake also have been derived from extensive agricultural activities around the lake that continue today and a sewage treatment facility associated with the city of Winter Garden, Florida. We examined the hypothesis that an estrogenic contaminant has caused the current failure in recruitment of alligators on Lake Apopka. Supporting data include the following: At 6 months of age, female alligators from Lake Apopka had plasma estradiol-17 beta concentrations almost two times greater than normal females from the control lake, Lake Woodruff. The Apopka females exhibited abnormal ovarian morphology with large numbers of polyovular follicles and polynuclear oocytes. Male juvenile alligators had significantly depressed plasma testosterone concentrations comparable to levels observed in normal Lake Woodruff females but more than three times lower than normal Lake Woodruff males. Additionally, males from Lake Apopka had poorly organized testes and abnormally small phalli. The differences between lakes and sexes in plasma hormone concentrations of juvenile alligators remain even after stimulation with luteinizing hormone. Our data suggest that the gonads of juveniles from Lake Apopka have been permanently modified in ovo, so that normal steroidogenesis is not possible, and thus normal sexual maturation is unlikely. Images p680-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 4. C Figure 4. D Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C PMID:7895709

  4. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  5. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  6. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  7. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  8. Abnormally high formation pressures, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Shah, S.H.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormally high formation pressures in the Potwar Plateau of north-central Pakistan are major obstacles to oil and gas exploration. Severe drilling problems associated with high pressures have, in some cases, prevented adequate evaluation of reservoirs and significantly increased drilling costs. Previous investigations of abnormal pressure in the Potwar Plateau have only identified abnormal pressures in Neogene rocks. We have identified two distinct pressure regimes in this Himalayan foreland fold and thrust belt basin: one in Neogene rocks and another in pre-Neogene rocks. Pore pressures in Neogene rocks are as high as lithostatic and are interpreted to be due to tectonic compression and compaction disequilibrium associated with high rates of sedimentation. Pore pressure gradients in pre-Neogene rocks are generally less than those in Neogene rocks, commonly ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 psi/ft (11.3 to 15.8 kPa/m) and are most likely due to a combination of tectonic compression and hydrocarbon generation. The top of abnormally high pressure is highly variable and doesn't appear to be related to any specific lithologic seal. Consequently, attempts to predict the depth to the top of overpressure prior to drilling are precluded.

  9. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  10. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  11. Pathways to abnormal revenge and forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Pat

    2013-02-01

    The target article’s important point is easily misunderstood to claim that all revenge is adaptive. Revenge and forgiveness can overstretch (or understretch) the bounds of utility due to misperceptions, minimization of costly errors, a breakdown within our evolved revenge systems, or natural genetic and developmental variation. Together, these factors can compound to produce highly abnormal instances of revenge and forgiveness. PMID:23211704

  12. Abnormal Saccadic Eye Movements in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, C.; Verbaten, M. N.; Cuperus, J. M.; Camfferman, G.; van Engeland, H.

    1998-01-01

    The saccadic eye movements, generated during a visual oddball task, were compared for 10 autistic children, 10 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 10 dyslexic children, and 10 typically developing children. Several abnormal patterns of saccades were found in the autistic group. (DB)

  13. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mallapur, Avanti; Choudhury, B C

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research.

  14. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... LEEP) —A thin wire loop that carries an electric current is used to remove abnormal areas of the ... the cervix using a thin wire loop and electric energy. Pap ... this document sets forth current information and opinions related to women’s health. The ...

  15. Pancreatic abnormalities and AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed Central

    Teare, J P; Daly, C A; Rodgers, C; Padley, S P; Coker, R J; Main, J; Harris, J R; Scullion, D; Bray, G P; Summerfield, J A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Biliary tract abnormalities are well recognised in AIDS, most frequently related to opportunistic infection with Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, and cytomegalovirus. We noted a high frequency of pancreatic abnormalities associated with biliary tract disease. To define these further we reviewed the clinical and radiological features in these patients. METHODS: Notes and radiographs were available from two centres for 83 HIV positive patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for the investigation of cholestatic liver function tests or abdominal pain. RESULTS: 56 patients had AIDS related sclerosing cholangitis (ARSC); 86% of these patients had epigastric or right upper quadrant pain and 52% had hepatomegaly. Of the patients with ARSC, 10 had papillary stenosis alone, 11 had intra- and extrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis alone, and 35 had a combination of the two. Ampullary biopsies performed in 24 patients confirmed an opportunistic infection in 16. In 15 patients, intraluminal polyps were noted on the cholangiogram. Pancreatograms were available in 34 of the 45 patients with papillary stenosis, in which 29 (81%) had associated pancreatic duct dilatation, often with associated features of chronic pancreatitis. In the remaining 27 patients, final diagnoses included drug induced liver disease, acalculous cholecystitis, gall bladder empyema, chronic B virus hepatitis, and alcoholic liver disease. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic abnormalities are commonly seen with ARSC and may be responsible for some of the pain not relieved by biliary sphincterotomy. The most frequent radiographic biliary abnormality is papillary stenosis combined with ductal sclerosis. Images PMID:9389948

  16. Sensory Abnormalities in Autism: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall Lars; Holm, Anette; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Lotta Hoglund; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Hedvall, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Sensory abnormalities were assessed in a population-based group of 208 20-54-month-old children, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and referred to a specialized habilitation centre for early intervention. The children were subgrouped based upon degree of autistic symptoms and cognitive level by a research team at the centre. Parents…

  17. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  18. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso M.; Lorenzen, Marina Boff; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES). METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%). Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%), abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%), prominent occiput (52%), posteriorly rotated (46%) and low set ears (44%), and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%). Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%), orofacial clefts (12%), preauricular tags (10%), facial palsy (4%), encephalocele (4%), absence of external auditory canal (2%) and asymmetric face (2%). One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature. PMID:24142310

  19. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  20. Abnormal Web Usage Control by Proxy Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hsiang-Fu; Tseng, Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Approaches to designing a proxy server with Web usage control and to making the proxy server effective on local area networks are proposed to prevent abnormal Web access and to prioritize Web usage. A system is implemented to demonstrate the approaches. The implementation reveals that the proposed approaches are effective, such that the abnormal…

  1. Ultrasonography of gallbladder abnormalities due to schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joachim; Azoulay, Daniel; Dong, Yi; Holtfreter, Martha C; Akpata, Robert; Calderaro, Julien; El-Scheich, Tarik; Breuer, Matthias; Neumayr, Andreas; Hatz, Christoph; Kircheis, Gerald; Botelho, Monica C; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2016-08-01

    After malaria, schistosomiasis remains the most important tropical parasitic disease in large parts of the world. Schistosomiasis has recently re-emerged in Southern Europe. Intestinal schistosomiasis is caused by most Schistosoma (S.) spp. pathogenic to humans and leads to chronic inflammation and fibrosis of the colon as well as to liver fibrosis. Gallbladder abnormalities usually occur in patients with advanced hepatic portal fibrosis due to Schistosoma mansoni infection. Occasionally, gallbladder abnormalities have been seen also in children and occurring without associated overt liver abnormalities.The specific S. mansoni-induced gallbladder abnormalities detectable by ultrasound include typical hyperechogenic wall thickening with external gallbladder wall protuberances. The luminal wall surface is smooth. The condition is usually clinically silent although some cases of symptomatic cholecystitis have been described. The ultrasonographic Murphy response is negative. Gallbladder contractility is impaired but sludge and calculi occur rarely. Contrary to other trematodes such as liver flukes, S. mansoni does not obstruct the biliary tract. Advanced gallbladder fibrosis is unlikely to reverse after therapy.

  2. Extension education and the role of university extension departments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Michael B.

    1994-03-01

    The categorisation by Yesufu is important in delineating the several functions and orientations through which extension education can be effected. Extension education as a catalyst in the field of development education is an imperative for all universities and other allied institutions, whether technological, agricultural, liberal or conventionally oriented. Towards this end, appropriately trained extension education personnel are a necessity. Extension departments have peculiar and unique problems due to their dual orientation. The need, therefore, arises for special attention and consideration in the areas of funding, organisational scheduling, and human and infrastructural resources.

  3. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  4. Reversible abnormalities of the Hering Breuer reflex in acrylamide neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Satchell, P

    1985-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Hering Breuer reflex was compared in anaesthetised rabbits before, during and after the induction of acrylamide neuropathy, and was measured as the tracheal pressure which produced 30 seconds of apnoea. After four weeks of acrylamide (400 mg/kg total dose) there was ataxia and the conduction velocity of hindlimb motor nerves was significantly reduced. At this time there was a marked and reproducible reduction in the sensitivity of the Hering Breuer reflex. The ataxia resolved within a month of stopping acrylamide administration. Three months after the cessation of acrylamide the sensitivity of the Hering Breuer reflex had increased significantly but had not returned to normal. PMID:2993526

  5. Characterization and differentiation of normal and abnormal semen samples using micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zufang; Chen, Xiwen; Chen, Jinhua; Li, Yongzeng; Lei, Jinping; Chen, Rong

    2012-12-01

    Growth in the percentage of male infertility has caused extensive concerns. The fast and reliable method is urgently required for diagnosis of semen samples. In our study, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to characterize and differentiate the normal and abnormal semen samples based on the differences of their specific Raman spectra which originated from biochemical components. Our preliminary results demonstrate that micro-Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis methods has the potential of being used to detect and differentiate semen samples.

  6. 35. WEST END ELEVATION, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. WEST END ELEVATION, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE AND COAL HOUSES, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, JANUARY 1908, SHEET NO. 7. Aperture card 6498-7. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 34. PLAN, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. PLAN, PROPOSED EXTENSION OF COAL HOUSE, EXTENSIONS OF ENGINE AND COAL HOUSES, DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWARAGE WORKS, JANUARY 1909, SHEET NO. 11. Aperture card 6498-11. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. Welding torch gas cup extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a gas shielded electric arc welding torch having a detachable gas cup extension which may be of any desired configuration or length. The gas cup extension assembly is mounted on a standard electric welding torch gas cup to enable welding in areas with limited access. The gas cup assembly has an upper tubular insert that fits within the gas cup such that its lower portion protrudes thereform and has a lower tubular extension that is screwed into the lower portion. The extension has a rim to define the outer perimeter of the seat edge about its entrance opening so a gasket may be placed to effect an airtight seal between the gas cup and extension. The tubular extension may be made of metal or cermaic material that can be machined. The novelty lies in the use of an extension assembly for a standard gas cup of an electric arc welding torch which extension assembly is detachable permitting the use of a number of extensions which may be of different configurations and materials and yet fit the standard gas cup.

  9. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  10. The protective effects of Chinese herb-Taikong Yangxin Prescription on the atrophic remodeling of cardiac muscle in rats induced by hindlimb unloading through activating Akt/GSK-3beta signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yuan; Min, Yuan; Jianfeng, Zhang; Zhili, Li; Huijuan, Wang; Desheng, Wang; Yinghui, Li; Yongzhi, Li; Shizhong, Jiang

    Objective To test the hypothesis that traditional Chinese herb-TaiKong Yangxin Prescrip-tion can activate the Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway and alleviate the atrophic remodeling of cardiac muscle in rats induced by hindlimb unloading. Methods The physiological effects of simulated microgravity was induced by 7d hindlimb unloading in rats. TaiKong Yangxin Pre-scription was given daily by gastric irrigation as countermeasure against effects of simulated microgravity. The frozen sections of left ventricular cardiac muscles were stained by FITC la-beled lectin and visualized by laser scanning confocal microscopy, the cross section areas(CSA) of cardiomyocytes were calculated by IPP6.0 Image software. The protein expression of TnI, phosphorylation level of Akt and GSK-3β were measured by Western blot. Results Simulated microgravity decreased the CSA of cardiomyocytes and protein expression of TnI in left ven-tricular cardiac muscles, inhibited the phosphorylation level of Akt at serine 473 and GSK-3β at serine 9. The traditional Chinese herb-TaiKong Yangxin Prescription alleviated the atrophic remodeling of cardiac muscles, reversed the declined protein expression of TnI and phosphoryla-tion levels of Akt at serine 473 and GSK-3β at serine 9 in hindlimb-unloading rats. Conclusion The traditional Chinese herb-TaiKong Yangxin Prescription has significant countermeasure effects on the atrophic remodeling of cardiac muscle induced by hindlimb unloading in rats, in which activating Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway plays an important role.(Funded by Advanced space medico-engineering research project of China, grant NO. 2005SY5206005 and SJ200801)

  11. Three weeks of murine hindlimb unloading induces shifts from B to T and from th to tc splenic lymphocytes in absence of stress and differentially reduces cell-specific mitogenic responses.

    PubMed

    Gaignier, Fanny; Schenten, Véronique; De Carvalho Bittencourt, Marcelo; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Legrand-Frossi, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Extended space missions are known to induce stress and immune dysregulation. Hindlimb unloading is a ground-based model used to reproduce most spaceflight conditions. The aim of this study was to better characterize the consequences of prolonged exposure to hindlimb unloading on murine splenic lymphocyte sub-populations. To ensure that the observed changes were not due to tail restraint but to the antiorthostatic position, three groups of mice were used: control (C), orthostatic restrained (R) and hindlimb unloaded (HU). After 21 days of exposure, no difference in serum corticosterone levels nor in thymus and spleen weights were observed between HU mice and their counterparts, revealing a low state of stress. Interestingly, flow cytometric analyses showed that B cells were drastically reduced in HU mouse spleens by 59% and, while the T cells number did not change, the Th/Tc ratio was decreased. Finally, the use of a fluorescent dye monitoring lymphoproliferation demonstrated that lymphocyte response to mitogen was reduced in Th and Tc populations and to a greater extent in B cells. Thus, we showed for the first time that, even if restraint has its own effects on the animals and their splenic lymphocytes, the prolonged antiorthostatic position leads, despite the absence of stress, to an inversion of the B/T ratio in the spleen. Furthermore, the lymphoproliferative response was impaired with a strong impact on B cells. Altogether, these results suggest that B cells are more affected by hindlimb unloading than T cells which may explain the high susceptibility to pathogens, such as gram-negative bacteria, described in animal models and astronauts. PMID:24664102

  12. Noninvasive detection of fetal subchromosomal abnormalities by semiconductor sequencing of maternal plasma DNA.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ai-hua; Peng, Chun-fang; Zhao, Xin; Caughey, Bennett A; Yang, Jie-xia; Liu, Jian; Huang, Wei-wei; Liu, Chang; Luo, Dong-hong; Liu, Hai-liang; Chen, Yang-yi; Wu, Jing; Hou, Rui; Zhang, Mindy; Ai, Michael; Zheng, Lianghong; Xue, Rachel Q; Mai, Ming-qin; Guo, Fang-fang; Qi, Yi-ming; Wang, Dong-mei; Krawczyk, Michal; Zhang, Daniel; Wang, Yu-nan; Huang, Quan-fei; Karin, Michael; Zhang, Kang

    2015-11-24

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using sequencing of fetal cell-free DNA from maternal plasma has enabled accurate prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidy and become increasingly accepted in clinical practice. We investigated whether NIPT using semiconductor sequencing platform (SSP) could reliably detect subchromosomal deletions/duplications in women carrying high-risk fetuses. We first showed that increasing concentration of abnormal DNA and sequencing depth improved detection. Subsequently, we analyzed plasma from 1,456 pregnant women to develop a method for estimating fetal DNA concentration based on the size distribution of DNA fragments. Finally, we collected plasma from 1,476 pregnant women with fetal structural abnormalities detected on ultrasound who also underwent an invasive diagnostic procedure. We used SSP of maternal plasma DNA to detect subchromosomal abnormalities and validated our results with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). With 3.5 million reads, SSP detected 56 of 78 (71.8%) subchromosomal abnormalities detected by aCGH. With increased sequencing depth up to 10 million reads and restriction of the size of abnormalities to more than 1 Mb, sensitivity improved to 69 of 73 (94.5%). Of 55 false-positive samples, 35 were caused by deletions/duplications present in maternal DNA, indicating the necessity of a validation test to exclude maternal karyotype abnormalities. This study shows that detection of fetal subchromosomal abnormalities is a viable extension of NIPT based on SSP. Although we focused on the application of cell-free DNA sequencing for NIPT, we believe that this method has broader applications for genetic diagnosis, such as analysis of circulating tumor DNA for detection of cancer. PMID:26554006

  13. Noninvasive detection of fetal subchromosomal abnormalities by semiconductor sequencing of maternal plasma DNA.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ai-hua; Peng, Chun-fang; Zhao, Xin; Caughey, Bennett A; Yang, Jie-xia; Liu, Jian; Huang, Wei-wei; Liu, Chang; Luo, Dong-hong; Liu, Hai-liang; Chen, Yang-yi; Wu, Jing; Hou, Rui; Zhang, Mindy; Ai, Michael; Zheng, Lianghong; Xue, Rachel Q; Mai, Ming-qin; Guo, Fang-fang; Qi, Yi-ming; Wang, Dong-mei; Krawczyk, Michal; Zhang, Daniel; Wang, Yu-nan; Huang, Quan-fei; Karin, Michael; Zhang, Kang

    2015-11-24

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using sequencing of fetal cell-free DNA from maternal plasma has enabled accurate prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidy and become increasingly accepted in clinical practice. We investigated whether NIPT using semiconductor sequencing platform (SSP) could reliably detect subchromosomal deletions/duplications in women carrying high-risk fetuses. We first showed that increasing concentration of abnormal DNA and sequencing depth improved detection. Subsequently, we analyzed plasma from 1,456 pregnant women to develop a method for estimating fetal DNA concentration based on the size distribution of DNA fragments. Finally, we collected plasma from 1,476 pregnant women with fetal structural abnormalities detected on ultrasound who also underwent an invasive diagnostic procedure. We used SSP of maternal plasma DNA to detect subchromosomal abnormalities and validated our results with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). With 3.5 million reads, SSP detected 56 of 78 (71.8%) subchromosomal abnormalities detected by aCGH. With increased sequencing depth up to 10 million reads and restriction of the size of abnormalities to more than 1 Mb, sensitivity improved to 69 of 73 (94.5%). Of 55 false-positive samples, 35 were caused by deletions/duplications present in maternal DNA, indicating the necessity of a validation test to exclude maternal karyotype abnormalities. This study shows that detection of fetal subchromosomal abnormalities is a viable extension of NIPT based on SSP. Although we focused on the application of cell-free DNA sequencing for NIPT, we believe that this method has broader applications for genetic diagnosis, such as analysis of circulating tumor DNA for detection of cancer.

  14. Noninvasive detection of fetal subchromosomal abnormalities by semiconductor sequencing of maternal plasma DNA

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ai-hua; Peng, Chun-fang; Zhao, Xin; Caughey, Bennett A.; Yang, Jie-xia; Liu, Jian; Huang, Wei-wei; Liu, Chang; Luo, Dong-hong; Liu, Hai-liang; Chen, Yang-yi; Wu, Jing; Hou, Rui; Zhang, Mindy; Ai, Michael; Zheng, Lianghong; Xue, Rachel Q.; Mai, Ming-qin; Guo, Fang-fang; Qi, Yi-ming; Wang, Dong-mei; Krawczyk, Michal; Zhang, Daniel; Wang, Yu-nan; Huang, Quan-fei; Karin, Michael; Zhang, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using sequencing of fetal cell-free DNA from maternal plasma has enabled accurate prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidy and become increasingly accepted in clinical practice. We investigated whether NIPT using semiconductor sequencing platform (SSP) could reliably detect subchromosomal deletions/duplications in women carrying high-risk fetuses. We first showed that increasing concentration of abnormal DNA and sequencing depth improved detection. Subsequently, we analyzed plasma from 1,456 pregnant women to develop a method for estimating fetal DNA concentration based on the size distribution of DNA fragments. Finally, we collected plasma from 1,476 pregnant women with fetal structural abnormalities detected on ultrasound who also underwent an invasive diagnostic procedure. We used SSP of maternal plasma DNA to detect subchromosomal abnormalities and validated our results with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). With 3.5 million reads, SSP detected 56 of 78 (71.8%) subchromosomal abnormalities detected by aCGH. With increased sequencing depth up to 10 million reads and restriction of the size of abnormalities to more than 1 Mb, sensitivity improved to 69 of 73 (94.5%). Of 55 false-positive samples, 35 were caused by deletions/duplications present in maternal DNA, indicating the necessity of a validation test to exclude maternal karyotype abnormalities. This study shows that detection of fetal subchromosomal abnormalities is a viable extension of NIPT based on SSP. Although we focused on the application of cell-free DNA sequencing for NIPT, we believe that this method has broader applications for genetic diagnosis, such as analysis of circulating tumor DNA for detection of cancer. PMID:26554006

  15. Abnormalities in signaling pathways in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Brosius, Frank C; Khoury, Charbel C; Buller, Carolyn L; Chen, Sheldon

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by a plethora of signaling abnormalities that together ultimately result in the clinical and pathologic hallmarks of DN, namely progressive albuminuria followed by a gradual decline in glomerular filtration rate leading to kidney failure, and accompanied by podocyte loss, progressive glomerular sclerosis and, ultimately, progressive tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Over the past few years, the general understanding of the abnormalities in signaling pathways that lead to DN has expanded considerably. In this review, some of the important pathways that appear to be involved in driving this process are discussed, with special emphasis on newer findings and insights. Newer concepts regarding signaling changes in bradykinin, mTOR, JAK/STAT, MCP-1, VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, activated protein C and other pathways are discussed. PMID:20224802

  16. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. [Psychiatric manifestations due to abnormal glucocorticoid levels].

    PubMed

    Lommerse, K M; Dijkstra, F N; Boeke, A J P; Eekhoff, E M W; Jacobs, G E

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case presentation describes the disease trajectory in two patients who presented with psychiatric symptoms as a result of abnormal serum glucocorticoid levels. One case involves a 58-year-old man with hypercortisolism, the other case concerns a 55-year-old woman with hypocortisolism. In both cases there was a considerable diagnostic delay in recognizing the underlying adrenal gland pathology. Abnormal glucocorticoid levels, caused by endocrine disorders, often results in psychiatric symptoms. Delay in diagnosis may have adverse consequences. Hyper- or hypocortisolism should be considered in patients who present with an atypical presentation of psychiatric symptoms. Moreover, the absence of specific physical signs or symptoms at first presentation in such patients does not exclude an underlying endocrinological cause. Therefore, physical and psychiatric reassessment of such patients should be considered at regular intervals. PMID:27507414

  18. Lie algebroids and optimal control: abnormality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero-Liñán, M.; de Diego, D. Martín; Muñoz-Lecanda, M. C.

    2009-05-01

    Candidates to be solutions to optimal control problems, called extremals, are found using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle [9]. This Principle gives necessary conditions for optimality and, under suitable assumptions, starts a presymplectic constraint algorithm in the sense given in [3]. This procedure, first considered in optimal control theory in [6], can be adapted to characterize the different kinds of extremals [1]. In this paper, we describe the constraints given by the algorithm for the so-called abnormal extremals for optimal control problems defined on Lie algebroids [4, 7, 8]. The peculiarity of the abnormal extremals is their independence on the cost function to characterize them. In particular, we are interested in how useful the geometry provided by the Lie algebroid is to study the constraints obtained in the optimal control problems for affine connection control systems. These systems model the motion of different types of mechanical systems such as rigid bodies, nonholonomic systems and robotic arms [2].

  19. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  20. GNU Fortran Cray Pointer Extension

    2005-07-27

    The gfortran compiler is a Fortran front end to the GNU Compiler Collection. The Cray Pointer extension adds to this existing compiler support for Cray-style integer pointers. This non-standard but widely used extension adds the functionality of C-like pointers to the Fortran language.

  1. Cooperative Extension: A Historical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert A.

    1970-01-01

    The early goals of the Extension Service were to increase agricultural productivity and maintain a rural way of life. Extension has been unable to fulfill both goals; increasing agricultural production has led to the liquidation of the rural way of life and to the development of corporate farms. (DM)

  2. Energy Crisis vs. Extension Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liles, Harold R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses what steps were taken by the Cooperative Extension Service in Oklahoma, after the energy crisis began, to help landowners make better decisions regarding oil and gas leases. Oklahoma's Extension educational efforts in mineral rights management have been successful because they met the needs of the people. (EM)

  3. Extensive Reading Coursebooks in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renandya, Willy A.; Hu, Guangwei; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a principle-based evaluation of eight dedicated extensive reading coursebooks published in mainland China and used in many universities across the country. The aim is to determine the extent to which these coursebooks reflect a core set of nine second language acquisition and extensive reading principles. Our analysis shows…

  4. Extension and the Practicing Veterinarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerholz, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    In order for Extension programs of veterinary medicine to succeed, good relationships are needed among university veterinarians, practicing local veterinarians, county Extension agents and the clientele. This author attempts to define some roles and relationships and offer some suggestions for the improvement of relationships to increase…

  5. Practice and Educational Gaps in Abnormal Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Tasneem F; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2016-07-01

    Dyschromia refers to abnormal pigmentation and is one of the most common diagnoses in dermatology. However, there are many educational and practice gaps in this area, specifically in melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and vitiligo. This article aims to review the gold standard of care for these conditions as well as highlight common educational and practice gaps in these areas. Finally, possible solutions to these gaps are addressed. PMID:27363886

  6. Binocular combination in abnormal binocular vision.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2013-02-08

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination in humans with abnormal binocular visual experience early in life. In the first experiment we presented the two eyes with equal but opposite phase shifted sine waves and measured the perceived phase of the cyclopean sine wave. Normal observers have balanced vision between the two eyes when the two eyes' images have equal contrast (i.e., both eyes contribute equally to the perceived image and perceived phase = 0°). However, in observers with strabismus and/or amblyopia, balanced vision requires a higher contrast image in the nondominant eye (NDE) than the dominant eye (DE). This asymmetry between the two eyes is larger than predicted from the contrast sensitivities or monocular perceived contrast of the two eyes and is dependent on contrast and spatial frequency: more asymmetric with higher contrast and/or spatial frequency. Our results also revealed a surprising NDE-to-DE enhancement in some of our abnormal observers. This enhancement is not evident in normal vision because it is normally masked by interocular suppression. However, in these abnormal observers the NDE-to-DE suppression was weak or absent. In the second experiment, we used the identical stimuli to measure the perceived contrast of a cyclopean grating by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to the DE. These measures provide strong constraints for model fitting. We found asymmetric interocular interactions in binocular contrast perception, which was dependent on both contrast and spatial frequency in the same way as in phase perception. By introducing asymmetric parameters to the modified Ding-Sperling model including interocular contrast gain enhancement, we succeeded in accounting for both binocular combined phase and contrast simultaneously. Adding binocular contrast gain control to the modified Ding-Sperling model enabled us to predict the results of dichoptic and binocular contrast discrimination experiments

  7. CT of trauma to the abnormal kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Rhyner, P.; Federle, M.P.; Jeffrey, R.B.

    1984-04-01

    Traumatic injuries to already abnormal kidneys are difficult to assess by excretory urography and clinical evaluation. Bleeding and urinary extravasation may accompany minor trauma; conversely, underlying tumors, perirenal hemorrhage, and extravasation may be missed on urography. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in eight cases including three neoplasms, one adult polycystic disease, one simple renal cyst, two hydronephrotic kidneys, and one horseshoe kidney. CT provided specific and clinically useful information in each case that was not apparent on excretory urography.

  8. Ocular abnormalities in thin basement membrane disease

    PubMed Central

    Colville, D.; Savige, J.; Branley, P.; Wilson, D.

    1997-01-01

    AIM/BACKGROUND—Alport syndrome is an X linked disease that results in renal failure, deafness, and ocular abnormalities including a dot and fleck retinopathy and anterior lenticonus. The ultrastructural appearance of the glomerular basement membrane in thin basement membrane disease (TBMD) resembles that seen in some patients with Alport syndrome, and in some cases this disease is inherited too. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with TBMD have any ocular abnormalities.
METHODS—The eyes of 17 unrelated individuals with TBMD were studied by slit-lamp, including biomicroscopic fundus examination with a 78 D lens, by direct ophthalmoscopy, and by fundal photographs. The findings were compared with those in patients with IgA glomerulonephritis or Alport syndrome, and in normals.
RESULTS—No patient with TBMD had a dot and fleck retinopathy or anterior lenticonus. A corneal dystrophy (n = 2) or pigmentation (n = 1), and retinal pigment epithelial clumping and maculopathy (n = 1) were noted. Corneal, lens, and retinal dots were found in five (29%), three (18%), and 16 (94%) patients, respectively, but these were also demonstrated in individuals with other renal diseases and in normal individuals.
CONCLUSIONS—The dot and fleck retinopathy and anterior lenticonus typical of Alport syndrome do not occur in TBMD. The protein abnormality and genetic defect in TBMD are not known, but the lack of ocular lesions suggests that the abnormal protein in this disease is more sparsely distributed or less important in the basement membranes of the eye than of the kidney. Alternatively, the protein may be less affected by the mutations responsible for TBMD.

 PMID:9227202

  9. Varenicline and Abnormal Sleep Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015

  10. Abnormal dynamics of language in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Massoud; Kuskowski, Michael; Gundel, Jeanette

    2014-05-30

    Language could be conceptualized as a dynamic system that includes multiple interactive levels (sub-lexical, lexical, sentence, and discourse) and components (phonology, semantics, and syntax). In schizophrenia, abnormalities are observed at all language elements (levels and components) but the dynamic between these elements remains unclear. We hypothesize that the dynamics between language elements in schizophrenia is abnormal and explore how this dynamic is altered. We, first, investigated language elements with comparable procedures in patients and healthy controls. Second, using measures of reaction time, we performed multiple linear regression analyses to evaluate the inter-relationships among language elements and the effect of group on these relationships. Patients significantly differed from controls with respect to sub-lexical/lexical, lexical/sentence, and sentence/discourse regression coefficients. The intercepts of the regression slopes increased in the same order above (from lower to higher levels) in patients but not in controls. Regression coefficients between syntax and both sentence level and discourse level semantics did not differentiate patients from controls. This study indicates that the dynamics between language elements is abnormal in schizophrenia. In patients, top-down flow of linguistic information might be reduced, and the relationship between phonology and semantics but not between syntax and semantics appears to be altered.

  11. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process. PMID:27271632

  12. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Daniel L.; Pedrazas, Nicholas A.; Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2013-11-01

    A new abnormal grain growth phenomenon that occurs only during continuous plastic straining, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed in molybdenum (Mo) at elevated temperature. DAGG was produced in two commercial-purity molybdenum sheets and in a commercial-purity molybdenum wire. Single crystals, centimeters in length, were created in these materials through the DAGG process. DAGG was observed only at temperatures of 1713 K (1440 °C) and above and occurred across the range of strain rates investigated, ~10-5 to 10-4 s-1. DAGG initiates only after a critical plastic strain, which decreases with increasing temperature but is insensitive to strain rate. Following initiation of an abnormal grain, the rate of boundary migration during DAGG is on the order of 10 mm/min. This rapid growth provides a convenient means of producing large single crystals in the solid state. When significant normal grain growth occurs prior to DAGG, island grains result. DAGG was observed in sheet materials with two very different primary recrystallization textures. DAGG grains in Mo favor boundary growth along the tensile axis in a <110> direction, preferentially producing single crystals with orientations from an approximately <110> fiber family of orientations. A mechanism of boundary unpinning is proposed to explain the dependence of boundary migration on plastic straining during DAGG.

  13. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven R.; Nikolajsen, Lone; Finnerup, Nanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Persistent postsurgical pain is a well-recognized problem after a number of common surgical procedures, such as amputation, thoracotomy, and inguinal hernia repair. Less is known about persistent pain after cosmetic surgical procedures. We, therefore, decided to study the incidence and characteristics of persistent pain after abdominoplasty, which is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgical procedures. Methods: In September 2014, a link to a web-based questionnaire was mailed to 217 patients who had undergone abdominoplasty between 2006 and 2014 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. Results: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire. Fourteen patients (8.2%) reported pain within the past 7 days related to the abdominoplasty. Abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common and reported by 138 patients (81%). Sensory hypersensitivity was associated with the presence of persistent pain. Satisfaction with the procedure was reported by 149 (88%) patients. The majority of patients reported improvement on all physical and psychological factors. Patients with pain were more often disappointed with the surgery and unwilling to recommend the surgery. Conclusions: Overall, patients were satisfied with the procedure, although abnormal abdominal skin sensation was common. However, there is a risk of developing persistent neuropathic pain after abdominoplasty, and patients should be informed about this before surgery. PMID:26893986

  14. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

  15. Chemical induction of sperm abnormalities in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wyrobek, A J; Bruce, W R

    1975-01-01

    The sperm of (C57BL X C3H)F1 mice were examined 1, 4, and 10 weeks after a subacute treatment with one of 25 chemicals at two or more dose levels. The fraction of sperm that were abnormal in shape was elevated above control values of 1.2-3.4% for methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, griseofulvin, benzo[a]pyrene, METEPA [tris(2-methyl-l-aziridinyl)phosphine oxide], THIO-TEPA [tris(l-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide], mitomycin C, myleran, vinblastine sulphate, hydroxyurea, 3-methylcholanthrene, colchicine, actinomycin D, imuran, cyclophosphamide, 5-iododeoxyuridine, dichlorvos, aminopterin, and trimethylphosphate. Dimethylnitrosamine, urethane, DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, caffeine, and calcium cyclamate did not induce elevated levels of sperm abnormalities. The results suggest that sperm abnormalities might provide a rapid inexpensive mammalian screen for agents that lead to errors in the differentiation of spermatogenic stem cells in vivo and thus indicate agents which might prove to be mutagenic, teratogenic, or carcinogenic. Images PMID:1060122

  16. Abnormal Asymmetry of Brain Connectivity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ribolsi, Michele; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Siracusano, Alberto; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a growing body of data has revealed that beyond a dysfunction of connectivity among different brain areas in schizophrenia patients (SCZ), there is also an abnormal asymmetry of functional connectivity compared with healthy subjects. The loss of the cerebral torque and the abnormalities of gyrification, with an increased or more complex cortical folding in the right hemisphere may provide an anatomical basis for such aberrant connectivity in SCZ. Furthermore, diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown a significant reduction of leftward asymmetry in some key white-matter tracts in SCZ. In this paper, we review the studies that investigated both structural brain asymmetry and asymmetry of functional connectivity in healthy subjects and SCZ. From an analysis of the existing literature on this topic, we can hypothesize an overall generally attenuated asymmetry of functional connectivity in SCZ compared to healthy controls. Such attenuated asymmetry increases with the duration of the disease and correlates with psychotic symptoms. Finally, we hypothesize that structural deficits across the corpus callosum may contribute to the abnormal asymmetry of intra-hemispheric connectivity in schizophrenia. PMID:25566030

  17. A Two-Year Participatory Intervention Project with Owners to Reduce Lameness and Limb Abnormalities in Working Horses in Jaipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Reix, Christine E.; Dikshit, Amit K.; Hockenhull, Jo; Parker, Richard M. A.; Banerjee, Anindo; Burn, Charlotte C.; Pritchard, Joy C.; Whay, Helen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Participatory methods are increasingly used in international human development, but scientific evaluation of their efficacy versus a control group is rare. Working horses support families in impoverished communities. Lameness and limb abnormalities are highly prevalent in these animals and a cause for welfare concern. We aimed to stimulate and evaluate improvements in lameness and limb abnormalities in horses whose owners took part in a 2-year participatory intervention project to reduce lameness (PI) versus a control group (C) in Jaipur, India. Methodology/Principal Findings In total, 439 owners of 862 horses participated in the study. PI group owners from 21 communities were encouraged to meet regularly to discuss management and work practices influencing lameness and poor welfare and to track their own progress in improving these. Lameness examinations (41 parameters) were conducted at the start of the study (Baseline), and after 1 year and 2 years. Results were compared with control horses from a further 21 communities outside the intervention. Of the 149 horses assessed on all three occasions, PI horses showed significantly (P<0.05) greater improvement than C horses in 20 parameters, most notably overall lameness score, measures of sole pain and range of movement on limb flexion. Control horses showed slight but significantly greater improvements in four parameters, including frog quality in fore and hindlimbs. Conclusions/Significance This participatory intervention succeeded in improving lameness and some limb abnormalities in working horses, by encouraging changes in management and work practices which were feasible within owners’ socioeconomic and environmental constraints. Demonstration of the potentially sustainable improvements achieved here should encourage further development of participatory intervention approaches to benefit humans and animals in other contexts. PMID:25898014

  18. Neurofilament light polypeptide gene N98S mutation in mice leads to neurofilament network abnormalities and a Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 2E phenotype.

    PubMed

    Adebola, Adijat A; Di Castri, Theo; He, Chui-Zhen; Salvatierra, Laura A; Zhao, Jian; Brown, Kristy; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Worman, Howard J; Liem, Ronald K H

    2015-04-15

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most commonly inherited neurological disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 2500 people worldwide. Patients suffer from degeneration of the peripheral nerves that control sensory information of the foot/leg and hand/arm. Multiple mutations in the neurofilament light polypeptide gene, NEFL, cause CMT2E. Previous studies in transfected cells showed that expression of disease-associated neurofilament light chain variants results in abnormal intermediate filament networks associated with defects in axonal transport. We have now generated knock-in mice with two different point mutations in Nefl: P8R that has been reported in multiple families with variable age of onset and N98S that has been described as an early-onset, sporadic mutation in multiple individuals. Nefl(P8R/+) and Nefl(P8R/P8R) mice were indistinguishable from Nefl(+/+) in terms of behavioral phenotype. In contrast, Nefl(N98S/+) mice had a noticeable tremor, and most animals showed a hindlimb clasping phenotype. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed multiple inclusions in the cell bodies and proximal axons of spinal cord neurons, disorganized processes in the cerebellum and abnormal processes in the cerebral cortex and pons. Abnormal processes were observed as early as post-natal day 7. Electron microscopic analysis of sciatic nerves showed a reduction in the number of neurofilaments, an increase in the number of microtubules and a decrease in the axonal diameters. The Nefl(N98S/+) mice provide an excellent model to study the pathogenesis of CMT2E and should prove useful for testing potential therapies.

  19. Interactive 3D Analysis of Blood Vessel Trees and Collateral Vessel Volumes in Magnetic Resonance Angiograms in the Mouse Ischemic Hindlimb Model.

    PubMed

    Marks, Peter C; Preda, Marilena; Henderson, Terry; Liaw, Lucy; Lindner, Volkhard; Friesel, Robert E; Pinz, Ilka M

    2013-10-31

    The quantitative analysis of blood vessel volumes from magnetic resonance angiograms (MRA) or μCT images is difficult and time-consuming. This fact, when combined with a study that involves multiple scans of multiple subjects, can represent a significant portion of research time. In order to enhance analysis options and to provide an automated and fast analysis method, we developed a software plugin for the ImageJ and Fiji image processing frameworks that enables the quick and reproducible volume quantification of blood vessel segments. The novel plugin named Volume Calculator (VolCal), accepts any binary (thresholded) image and produces a three-dimensional schematic representation of the vasculature that can be directly manipulated by the investigator. Using MRAs of the mouse hindlimb ischemia model, we demonstrate quick and reproducible blood vessel volume calculations with 95 - 98% accuracy. In clinical settings this software may enhance image interpretation and the speed of data analysis and thus enhance intervention decisions for example in peripheral vascular disease or aneurysms. In summary, we provide a novel, fast and interactive quantification of blood vessel volumes for single blood vessels or sets of vessel segments with particular focus on collateral formation after an ischemic insult. PMID:24563682

  20. Hindlimb-unloading suppresses B cell population in the bone marrow and peripheral circulation associated with OPN expression in circulating blood cells.

    PubMed

    Ezura, Yoichi; Nagata, Junji; Nagao, Masashi; Hemmi, Hiroaki; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Rittling, Susan; Denhardt, David T; Noda, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Rodent hindlimb unloading (HU) by tail-suspension is a model to investigate disuse-induced bone loss in vivo. Previously, we have shown that osteopontin (OPN, also known as Spp1) is required for unloading-induced bone loss. However, how unloading affects OPN expression in the body is not fully understood. Here, we examined OPN expression in peripheral blood of mice subjected to HU. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that OPN expression is increased in circulating peripheral blood cells. This HU-induced increase in OPN mRNA expression was specific in circulating peripheral blood cells, as OPN was not increased in the blood cells in bone marrow. HU-induced enhancement in OPN expression in peripheral blood cells was associated with an increase in the fraction of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells in the peripheral blood. In contrast, HU decreased the fraction size of B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. We further examined if B-lymphogenesis is affected in the mice deficient for osteopontin subjected to HU. In bone marrow, HU decreased the population of the B-lymphocyte lineage cells significantly, whereas it did not alter the population of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. HU also increased the cells in T-lymphocyte lineage in bone marrow. Interestingly, these changes were observed similarly both in OPN-deficient and wild-type mice. These results indicate for the first time that HU increases OPN expression in circulating cells and suppresses bone marrow B-lymphogenesis.

  1. An automated computerized methodology for the segmentation of in vivo acquired DSA images: application in the New Zealand hindlimb ischemia model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagadis, G. C.; Diamantopoulos, A.; Samaras, N.; Daskalakis, A.; Spyridonos, P.; Katsanos, K.; Karnabatidis, D.; Sourgiadaki, E.; Cavouras, D.; Siablis, D.; Nikiforidis, G. C.

    2009-05-01

    In-vivo dynamic visualization and accurate quantification of vascular networks is a prerequisite of crucial importance in both therapeutic angiogenesis and tumor anti-angiogenesis studies. A user independent computerized tool was developed, for the automated segmentation and quantitative assessment of in-vivo acquired DSA images. Automatic vessel assessment was performed employing the concept of image structural tensor. Initially, vasculature was estimated according to the largest eigenvalue of the structural tensor. The resulted eigenvalue matrix was treated as gray-matrix from which the vessels were gradually segmented and then categorized in three main sub-groups; large, medium and small-size vessels. The histogram percentiles, corresponding to 85%, 65% and 47% of prime eigenvalue gray-matrix were optimally found to give the thresholds T1, T2 and T3 respectively, for extracting vessels of different size. The proposed methodology was tested on a series of DSA images in both normal rabbits (group A) and in rabbits with experimental induced chronic hindlimb ischemia (group B). As a result an automated computerized tool was developed to process images without any user intervention in either experimental or clinical studies. Specifically, a higher total vascular area and length were calculated in group B compared to group A (p=0.0242 and p=0.0322 respectively), which is in accordance to the fact that significantly more collateral arteries are developed during the physiological response to the stimuli of ischemia.

  2. Polymer-DNA Nanoparticle-Induced CXCR4 Overexpression Improves Stem Cell Engraftment and Tissue Regeneration in a Mouse Hindlimb Ischemia Model

    PubMed Central

    Deveza, Lorenzo; Choi, Jeffrey; Lee, Jerry; Huang, Ngan; Cooke, John; Yang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease affects nearly 202 million individuals worldwide, sometimes leading to non-healing ulcers or limb amputations in severe cases. Genetically modified stem cells offer potential advantages for therapeutically inducing angiogenesis via augmented paracrine release mechanisms and tuned dynamic responses to environmental stimuli at disease sites. Here, we report the application of nanoparticle-induced CXCR4-overexpressing stem cells in a mouse hindlimb ischemia model. We found that CXCR4 overexpression improved stem cell survival, modulated inflammation in situ, and accelerated blood reperfusion. These effects, unexpectedly, led to complete limb salvage and skeletal muscle repair, markedly outperforming the efficacy of the conventional angiogenic factor control, VEGF. Importantly, assessment of CXCR4-overexpressing stem cells in vitro revealed that CXCR4 overexpression induced changes in paracrine signaling of stem cells, promoting a therapeutically desirable pro-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory phenotype. These results suggest that nanoparticle-induced CXCR4 overexpression may promote favorable phenotypic changes and therapeutic efficacy of stem cells in response to the ischemic environment. PMID:27279910

  3. Cortical and subcortical lesions impair skilled walking in the ladder rung walking test: a new task to evaluate fore- and hindlimb stepping, placing, and co-ordination.

    PubMed

    Metz, Gerlinde A; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2002-04-15

    The ladder rung walking test is a new task to assess skilled walking and measure both forelimb and hindlimb placing, stepping, and inter-limb co-ordination. Rats spontaneously walk from a starting location to a goal along a horizontal ladder. The spacing between the rungs of the ladder is variable and can be changed to prevent the animal from learning either the absolute or relative location of the rungs. The testing procedure requires minimal training and allows detailed quantitative and qualitative analysis using video recording. The utility of the test is described with postoperative data obtained from animals with unilateral neocortical strokes produced by pial stripping over the motor cortex, neonatal and adult unilateral corticospinal tract lesions produced by tract section at the pyramids, and unilateral dopamine depletions produced by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the nigrostriatal bundle. In addition, a group of aged rats was examined. Deficits in limb placing, stepping and co-ordination displayed by the animals demonstrate that this test can discriminate between lesions of the motor system or age-associated impairments. The test is useful for assessing loss and recovery of function due to brain or spinal cord injury, the effectiveness of treatment therapies, as well as compensatory processes through which animals adapt to nervous system injury. PMID:11992668

  4. Drug-induced rotation intensity in unilateral dopamine-depleted rats is not correlated with end point or qualitative measures of forelimb or hindlimb motor performance.

    PubMed

    Metz, G A; Whishaw, I Q

    2002-01-01

    The pharmacological induction of rotational (circling) behavior is widely used to assess the effects of lesions to the dopaminergic system and the success of treatment strategies in rat models of Parkinson's disease. While the number of rotations under apomorphine, L-DOPA and amphetamine is related to the extent of dopamine depletion after unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine system, the relationship of the intensity of rotational behavior to the degree of impairment in motor behavior is unclear. The present study examined this question by correlating rotational behavior and motor abilities in a rat analogue for Parkinson's disease produced by unilateral nigrostriatal bundle lesion with 6-hydroxydopamine. Ipsiversive and contraversive rotation was measured in the rats following systemic administration of low and high doses of apomorphine, the dopamine precursor L-DOPA, and amphetamine. The motor assessment included end point and qualitative measures of fore- and hindlimbs assessed in a skilled reaching task and a skilled ladder rung walking task. The intensity of drug-induced rotation did not correlate with the measures of motor performance. We conclude that independence of rotational behavior and motor performance argues that both the assessment of 6-hydroxydopamine behavioral deficits and potential treatments for the functional deficits require comprehensive assessment, including both measures of rotation and motor behavior. PMID:11983318

  5. Hypoxia pretreatment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded in a collagen-chitosan sponge scaffold promotes skin wound healing in diabetic rats with hindlimb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chuan; Hao, Haojie; Xia, Lei; Liu, Jiejie; Ti, Dongdong; Dong, Liang; Hou, Qian; Song, Haijing; Liu, Huiling; Zhao, Yali; Fu, Xiaobing; Han, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have properties that make them promising for the treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds. The major challenge is ensuring an efficient, safe, and painless delivery of BM-MSCs. Tissue-engineered skin substitutes have considerable benefits in skin damage resulting from chronic nonhealing wounds. Here, we have constructed a three-dimensional biomimetic scaffold known as collagen-chitosan sponge scaffolds (CCSS) using the cross-linking and freeze-drying method. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that CCSS had an interconnected network pore configuration about 100 μm and exhibited a suitable swelling ratio for maintaining morphological stability and appropriate biodegradability to improve biostability using swelling and degradation assays. Furthermore, BM-MSCs were seeded in CCSS using the two-step seeding method to construct tissue-engineered skin substitutes. In addition, in this three-dimensional biomimetic CCSS, BM-MSCs secreted their own collagen and maintain favorable survival ability and viability. Importantly, BM-MSCs exhibited a significant upregulated expression of proangiogenesis factors, including HIF-1α, VEGF, and PDGF following hypoxia pretreatment. In vivo, hypoxia pretreatment of the skin substitute observably accelerated wound closure via the reduction of inflammation and enhanced angiogenesis in diabetic rats with hindlimb ischemia. Thus, hypoxia pretreatment of the skin substitutes can serve as ideal bioengineering skin substitutes to promote optimal diabetic skin wound healing. PMID:26463737

  6. Dental Abnormalities Caused by Novel Compound Heterozygous CTSK Mutations.

    PubMed

    Xue, Y; Wang, L; Xia, D; Li, Q; Gao, S; Dong, M; Cai, T; Shi, S; He, L; Hu, K; Mao, T; Duan, X

    2015-05-01

    Cathepsin K (CTSK) is an important protease responsible for degrading type I collagen, osteopontin, and other bone matrix proteins. The mutations in the CTSK gene can cause pycnodysostosis (OMIM 265800), a rare autosomal recessive bone dysplasia. Patients with pycnodysostosis have been reported to present specific dental abnormalities; however, whether these dental abnormalities are related to dysfunctional CTSK has never been reported. Here we investigated the histologic changes of cementum and alveolar bone in a pycnodysostosis patient, caused by novel compound heterozygous mutations in the CTSK gene (c.87 G>A p.W29X and c.848 A>G p.Y283C). The most impressive manifestations in tooth were extensive periradicular high-density clumps with unclear periodontal space by orthopantomography examination and micro-computed tomography scanning analysis. Hematoxylin/eosin and toluidine blue staining and atomic force microscopy analysis showed that the cementum became significantly thickened, softened, and full of cementocytes. The disorganized bone structure was the main character of alveolar bone. The p.W29X mutation may represent the loss-of-function allele with an earlier termination codon in the precursor CTSK polypeptide. Residue Y283 is highly conserved among papain-like cysteine proteases. Three-dimensional structure modeling analysis found that the loss of the hydroxybenzene residue in the Y283C mutation would interrupt the hydrogen network and possibly affect the self-cleavage of the CTSK enzyme. Furthermore, p.Y283C mutation did not affect the mRNA and protein levels of overexpressed CTSK in COS-7 system but did reduce CTSK enzyme activity. In conclusion, the histologic and ultrastructural changes of cementum and alveolar bone might be affected by CTSK mutation via reduction of its enzyme activity (clinical trial registration: ChiCTR-TNC-10000876).

  7. Convergent extension analysis in mouse whole embryo culture

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Sophie E.; Massa, Valentina; Savery, Dawn; Greene, Nicholas D. E.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations have been identified in a non-canonical Wnt signalling cascade (the planar cell polarity pathway) in several mouse genetic models of severe neural tube defects. In each of these models, neurulation fails to be initiated at the 3-4 somite stage, leading to an almost entirely open neural tube (termed craniorachischisis). Studies in whole embryo culture have identified a defect in the morphogenetic process of convergent extension during gastrulation, preceding the onset of neural tube closure. The principal defect is a failure of midline extension, both in the neural plate and axial mesoderm. This leads to an abnormally wide neural plate in which the elevating neural folds are too far apart to achieve closure. In this chapter, we provide details of several experimental methods that can be used to evaluate convergent extension in cultured mouse embryos. We describe analytical methods that can reveal the abnormalities that characterise neurulation-stage embryos with defective planar cell polarity signalling, in particular the loop-tail (Lp; Vangl2) mutant. PMID:22218898

  8. Down's Syndrome and Leukemia: Mechanism of Additional Chromosomal Abnormalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Goh, Kong-oo

    1978-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities, some appearing in a stepwise clonal evoluation, were found in five Down's syndrome patients (35 weeks to 12 years old), four with acute leukemia and one with abnormal regulation of leukopoiesis. (Author/SBH)

  9. Chromosomal abnormalities as a cause of recurrent abortions in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Dahtory, Faeza Abdel Mogib

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 4%-8% of couples with recurrent abortion, at least one of the partners has chromosomal abnormality. Most spontaneous miscarriages which happen in the first and second trimesters are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. These chromosomal abnormalities may be either numerical or structural. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cytogenetic study was done for 73 Egyptian couples who presented with recurrent abortion at Genetic Unit of Children Hospital, Mansoura University. RESULTS: We found that the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was not significantly different from that reported worldwide. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 9 (6.1%) of 73 couples. Seven of chromosomal abnormalities were structural and two of them were numerical. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that 6.1% of the couples with recurrent abortion had chromosomal abnormalities, with no other abnormalities. We suggest that it is necessary to perform cytogenetic in vestigation for couples who have recurrent abortion. PMID:22090718

  10. Atlas of computed body tomography: normal and abnormal anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, L.C.; Schapiro, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas contains comparative sections on normal and abnormal computed tomography of the neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, upper and lower limbs, fascia, and peritoneum. Also included is a subject index to aid in the identification of abnormal scans. (DLS)

  11. Extension Russian: A Few Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Irene J.

    1974-01-01

    Presents observations on the teaching of Russian in an evening extension course and four teaching techniques which involve variety in lesson planning, flexibility in presentation, a relaxed atmosphere and encouragement. (LG)

  12. Video 6 of 6: Extensions

    NASA Video Gallery

    Find out ways to modify and enrich this challenge to make it more suitable for the ability level of your students. These customizations also could be used as extensions to the existing challenge. D...

  13. Boiler-turbine life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Natzkov, S.; Nikolov, M.

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  14. Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

  15. Fetal MR Imaging of Gastrointestinal Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Furey, Elizabeth A; Bailey, April A; Twickler, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    Fetal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an increasing and valuable role in antenatal diagnosis and perinatal management of fetal gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. Advances in MR imaging data acquisition and use of motion-insensitive techniques have established MR imaging as an important adjunct to obstetric ultrasonography (US) for fetal diagnosis. In this regard, MR imaging provides high diagnostic accuracy for antenatal diagnosis of common and uncommon GI pathologic conditions. In the setting of fetal GI disease, T1-weighted images demonstrate the amount and distribution of meconium, which is crucial to the diagnostic capability of fetal MR imaging. Specifically, knowledge of the T1 signal intensity characteristics of fetal meconium, the normal pattern of meconium with advancing gestational age, and the expected caliber of small and large bowel in the fetus is key to diagnosis of abnormalities of the GI tract. Use of ultrafast T2-weighted sequences for evaluation of the expected location and morphology of fluid-containing structures, including the stomach and small bowel, in the fetal abdomen further aids in diagnostic confidence. Uncommonly encountered fetal GI pathologic conditions, especially cloacal dysmorphology, may demonstrate characteristic MR imaging patterns, which may add additional information to that from fetal US, allowing improved fetal and neonatal management. This article discusses common indications for fetal MR imaging of the GI tract, imaging protocols for fetal GI MR imaging, the normal appearance of the fetal GI tract with advancing gestational age, and the imaging appearances of common fetal GI abnormalities, as well as uncommon fetal GI conditions with characteristic appearances. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27163598

  16. Cranial computed tomographic abnormalities in leptomeningeal metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.; Glass, J.P.; Geoffray, A.; Wallace, S.

    1984-11-01

    Sixty-four (57.6%) of 111 cancer patients with cerebrospinal fluid cytology positive for malignant cells had cranial computed tomographic (CT) scans within 2 weeks before or after a lumbar puncture. Twenty-two (34.3%) of the 64 had abnormal CT findings indicative of leptomeningeal metastasis. Thirteen (59.6%) of these 22 patients had associated parenchymal metastases. Recognition of leptomeningeal disease may alter the management of patients with parenchymal metastases. Communicating hydrocephalus in cancer patients should be considered to be related to leptomeningeal metastasis until proven otherwise.

  17. Radiological abnormalities in electric-arc welders.

    PubMed Central

    Attfield, M D; Ross, D S

    1978-01-01

    Chest radiographs of 661 British electric-arc welders have been examined by three film readers experienced in the radiology of pneumoconiosis. About 7% of the welders showed signs of small rounded opacities of category 0/1 or greater. No definite evidence of large opacities (Progressive Massive Fibrosis) was seen. The prevalence of chest abnormalities other than pneumoconiosis was 7%. A clear association between prevalence of small rounded opacities of category 0/1 or greater and years of exposure to fumes was established, although few signs of severe grades of simple pneumoconiosis were seen. PMID:656335

  18. Abnormal Motor Phenotype at Adult Stages in Mice Lacking Type 2 Deiodinase

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Andrés, David; Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Montero-Pedrazuela, Ana; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones have a key role in both the developing and adult central nervous system and skeletal muscle. The thyroid gland produces mainly thyroxine (T4) but the intracellular concentrations of 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3; the transcriptionally active hormone) in the central nervous system and skeletal muscle are modulated by the activity of type 2 deiodinase (D2). To date no neurological syndrome has been associated with mutations in the DIO2 gene and previous studies in young and juvenile D2-knockout mice (D2KO) did not find gross neurological alterations, possibly due to compensatory mechanisms. Aim This study aims to analyze the motor phenotype of 3-and-6-month-old D2KO mice to evaluate the role of D2 on the motor system at adult stages in which compensatory mechanisms could have failed. Results Motor abilities were explored by validated tests. In the footprint test, D2KO showed an altered global gait pattern (mice walked slower, with shorter strides and with a hindlimb wider base of support than wild-type mice). No differences were detected in the balance beam test. However, a reduced latency to fall was found in the rotarod, coat-hanger and four limb hanging wire tests indicating impairment on coordination and prehensile reflex and a reduction of muscle strength. In histological analyses of cerebellum and skeletal muscle, D2KO mice did not present gross structural abnormalities. Thyroid hormones levels and deiodinases activities were also determined. In D2KO mice, despite euthyroid T3 and high T4 plasma levels, T3 levels were significantly reduced in cerebral cortex (48% reduction) and skeletal muscle (33% reduction), but not in the cerebellum where other deiodinase (type 1) is expressed. Conclusions The motor alterations observed in D2KO mice indicate an important role for D2 in T3 availability to maintain motor function and muscle strength. Our results suggest a possible implication of D2 in motor disorders. PMID:25083788

  19. Index finger abnormalities in Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Day, Ruth; Fryer, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is an X linked recessive overgrowth disorder in which digital abnormalities are a well-described aspect of the phenotype. We report a case with marked index finger hypoplasia and a congenital abnormality of the proximal phalanx and review the literature detailing index finger abnormalities in this condition.

  20. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)