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Sample records for abnormal hormone levels

  1. Hormone levels

    MedlinePlus

    Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

  2. A structural abnormality associated with graded levels of thyroid hormone insufficiency: Dose dependent increases in heterotopia volume

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in ...

  3. Structural Abnormalities and Learning Impairments Induced by Low Level Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency: A Cross-Fostering Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Severe reductions in thyroid hormones (TH) during development alter brain structure and impair learning. Uncertainty surrounds both the impact oflower levels of TH disruption and the sensitivity of available metrics to detect neurodevelopmental deficits of this disruption. We ha...

  4. Serum bioactive and immunoreactive luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels in women with cycle abnormalities, with or without polycystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Fauser, B C; Pache, T D; Lamberts, S W; Hop, W C; de Jong, F H; Dahl, K D

    1991-10-01

    Serum steroid, gonadotropin, and alpha-subunit levels were assessed in 35 women with cycle abnormalities [11 with and 24 without polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) according to strict clinical and biochemical criteria] and 8 regularly cycling women in the early (cycle day 3 or 4) and mid (cycle day 7 or 8) follicular phase. LH and FSH levels were estimated using two immunological techniques [RIA and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)] and in vitro bioassays (BIO), using mouse Leydig cells and rat granulosa cells, respectively. In PCOD patients mean alpha-subunit, free androgen index [FAI; testosterone x 100/sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)], androstenedione, estrone, and estradiol (E2) were significantly elevated compared to levels in the early follicular phase of control cycles and non-PCOD patients. In addition, in PCOD patients mean IRMA-LH and RIA-LH levels were distinctly increased (2.8- to 3.6 fold, respectively; both comparisons, P less than 0.001) compared to control values, but in the same order of magnitude (1.3- to 1.4-fold increments) as that in non-PCOD patients. However, the median BIO-LH level in PCOD patients was 5.9-fold higher than that in non-PCOD patients and 4.0-fold higher than the BIO-LH in the early follicular phase of control women. Consequently, the median BIO/IRMA-LH ratio was 4.8-fold higher in PCOD patients compared to non-PCOD patients. In women with cycle abnormalities, individual BIO/IRMA-LH ratios correlated with BIO-LH (rs = 0.48), FAI (rs = 0.39), free estrogens (E2/SHBG ratios; rs = 0 0.47), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (rs = 0.60) concentrations. Mean IRMA-, RIA-, and BIO-FSH levels and BIO/IRMA-FSH ratios were not significantly different when various groups were compared. Although RIA- and IRMA-LH levels showed good correlation (rs = 0.88), RIA-LH levels were consistently higher, resulting in distinctly higher RIA-LH/FSH ratios (mean, 4.5) compared to IRMA-LH/FSH ratios (median, 1.8) in PCOD patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT

  5. Hormonal abnormalities of the pancreas and gut in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Adrian, T E; McKiernan, J; Johnstone, D I; Hiller, E J; Vyas, H; Sarson, D L; Bloom, S R

    1980-09-01

    We have investigated the effect of cystic fibrosis on alimentary hormones in 10 children by measuring the pancreatic and gut hormone rsponse to a milk drink. Plasma insulin and gastric inhibitory peptide were both significantly reduced (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005, respectively, at 15 min) in the patients with cystic fibrosis, compared with controls, even though the early glucose rise was greater in the former group (P < 0.05 at 15 min). Fasting levels of pancreatic polypeptide were significantly lower in the fibrocystic children (P < 0.01), and the normal response to milk was completely abolished in these patients (P < 0.001). Fasting plasma enteroglucagon concentrations were grossly abolished in the cystic fibrosis patients (P < 0.001) and these remained elevated throughout the test. No significant differences were seen in basal or postmilk responses of plasma glucagon, gastrin, secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, or motilin in cystic fibrosis. It would thus appear that the pancreatic polypeptide cell is more susceptible to the effects of the disease process than the beta or alpha cell in cystic fibrosis. Some aspects of the abnormalities in the gastrointestinal endocrine system were similar to those seen in celiac disease and tropical sprue and may, therefore, effect a similar hormonal response in these patients with cystic fibrosis to those with mucosal damage.

  6. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  7. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Hua Chiaho, E-mail: Chia-Ho.Hua@stjude.org; Wu Shengjie; Chemaitilly, Wassim

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6),more » who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.« less

  8. Predicting the probability of abnormal stimulated growth hormone response in children after radiotherapy for brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Hua, Chiaho; Wu, Shengjie; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Lukose, Renin C; Merchant, Thomas E

    2012-11-15

    To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n=72), low-grade glioma (n=28) or craniopharyngioma (n=6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test≥7 ng/mL. Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p<0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A structural abnormality associated with graded levels of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in the corpus callosum (CC), a heterotopia, in adult rats following hypothyroidism induced by the hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU). In this report we have investigated the dose- response relationships to administered dose of PTU, the magnitude of reductions in circulating TH, and the incidence and volume of the heterotopia in adult offspring of PTU-treated dams. Pregnant rat dams were administered 0, 1, 2, 3 or 10 ppm of PTU in the drinking water from gestational day 6 until pups were weaned on postnatal day 21 (PN2 1). Serum hormones in the dams were reduced in a dose-dependent manner, but at the lower dose levels (1, 2 and 3ppm) reductions were limited to T4 with no change in serum T3. At higher PTU concentrations, serum T3 was reduced in dams (1 Oppm) and pups on PN14 and 21 (3 and 10 ppm). All hormone levels returned to control levels in adulthood. On PN 130, female offspring were perfused with paraformaldehyde and sections prepared for immunohistochemistry for the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. All sections (40-45 50u through the hippocampus) were examined for the presence of a heterotopia in the CC. A dose-dependent increase in incidence and volume of heterotopic re

  10. Impaired leptin expression and abnormal response to fasting in corticotropin-releasing hormone-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Sakihara, Satoru; Widmaier, Eric P; Majzoub, Joseph A

    2004-07-01

    Leptin has been postulated to comprise part of an adipostat, whereby during states of excessive energy storage, elevated levels of the hormone prevent further weight gain by inhibiting appetite. A physiological role for leptin in this regard remains unclear because the presence of excessive food, and therefore the need to restrain overeating under natural conditions, is doubtful. We have previously shown that CRH-deficient (Crh(-/-)) mice have glucocorticoid insufficiency and lack the fasting-induced increase in glucocorticoid, a hormone important in stimulating leptin synthesis and secretion. We hypothesized that these mice might have low circulating leptin. Indeed, Crh(-/-) mice exhibited no diurnal variation of leptin, whereas normal littermates showed a clear rhythm, and their leptin levels were lower than their counterparts. A continuous peripheral CRH infusion to Crh(-/-) mice not only restored corticosterone levels, but it also increased leptin expression to normal. Surprisingly, 36 h of fasting elevated leptin levels in Crh(-/-) mice, rather than falling as in normal mice. This abnormal leptin change during fasting in Crh(-/-) mice was corrected by corticosterone replacement. Furthermore, Crh(-/-) mice lost less body weight during 24 h of fasting and ate less food during refeeding than normal littermates. Taken together, we conclude that glucocorticoid insufficiency in Crh(-/-) mice results in impaired leptin production as well as an abnormal increase in leptin during fasting, and propose that the fast-induced physiological reduction in leptin may play an important role to stimulate food intake during the recovery from fasting.

  11. Developmental abnormalities of the gonad and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators from contaminated and control lakes in Florida.

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, L J; Gross, T S; Masson, G R; Matter, J M; Percival, H F; Woodward, A R

    1994-01-01

    The reproductive development of alligators from a contaminated and a control lake in central Florida was examined. Lake Apopka is adjacent to an EPA Superfund site, listed due to an extensive spill of dicofol and DDT or its metabolites. These compounds can act as estrogens. Contaminants in the lake also have been derived from extensive agricultural activities around the lake that continue today and a sewage treatment facility associated with the city of Winter Garden, Florida. We examined the hypothesis that an estrogenic contaminant has caused the current failure in recruitment of alligators on Lake Apopka. Supporting data include the following: At 6 months of age, female alligators from Lake Apopka had plasma estradiol-17 beta concentrations almost two times greater than normal females from the control lake, Lake Woodruff. The Apopka females exhibited abnormal ovarian morphology with large numbers of polyovular follicles and polynuclear oocytes. Male juvenile alligators had significantly depressed plasma testosterone concentrations comparable to levels observed in normal Lake Woodruff females but more than three times lower than normal Lake Woodruff males. Additionally, males from Lake Apopka had poorly organized testes and abnormally small phalli. The differences between lakes and sexes in plasma hormone concentrations of juvenile alligators remain even after stimulation with luteinizing hormone. Our data suggest that the gonads of juveniles from Lake Apopka have been permanently modified in ovo, so that normal steroidogenesis is not possible, and thus normal sexual maturation is unlikely. Images p680-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 4. C Figure 4. D Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C PMID:7895709

  12. Abnormal patterns of pulsatile luteinizing hormone in women with luteal phase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Soules, M R; Steiner, R A; Clifton, D K; Bremner, W J

    1984-05-01

    Luteal phase deficiency is usually a problem of inadequate progesterone production associated with inadequate ovarian follicular development. The hypothesis that luteal phase deficiency results from an abnormal secretion pattern of luteinizing hormone (LH) was tested in these women. To this end, the early follicular LH secretion pattern in four women with luteal phase deficiency was characterized and compared with patterns in normal women. Blood samples were obtained through indwelling catheters every ten minutes for eight hours (10 AM to 6 PM), and plasma levels of LH and FSH were measured. Luteinizing hormone and FSH secretion profiles were analyzed for pulse frequency, amplitude, and mean plasma level. A significantly greater LH pulse frequency in women with luteal phase deficiency was observed when compared with the frequency in normal controls (luteal phase deficiency, 10.5 pulses/eight hours; normal, 5.2 pulses/eight hours; P less than or equal to .05). The mean FSH concentration was less in the women with luteal phase deficiency, but the level was not significant. These data suggest that the abnormal LH secretion pattern observed in women with luteal phase deficiency is responsible for their inadequate luteal phase progesterone secretion and their infertility.

  13. Hormonal and echocardiographic abnormalities in adult patients with sickle-cell anemia in Bahrain

    PubMed Central

    Garadah, Taysir S; Jaradat, Ahmed A; Alalawi, Mohammed E; Hassan, Adla B

    2016-01-01

    Background Adrenal, thyroid, and parathyroid gland hormonal changes are recognized in children with homozygous (HbSS) sickle-cell anemia (SCA), but are not clear in adult patients with SCA. Aim To assess the metabolic and endocrine abnormalities in adult patients with SCA and evaluate left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions compared with patients with no SCA and further study the relationship between serum levels of cortisol, free thyroxine (T4), and testosterone with serum ferritin. Materials and methods The study was conducted on 82 patients with adult HbSS SCA compared with a sex- and age-matched control group. The serum levels of cortisol, parathyroid hormone (PTH), testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and free T4 were compared. Blood levels of hemoglobin, reticulocyte count, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), calcium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), vitamin D3, and ferritin were also compared. Pulsed Doppler echo was performed to evaluate the LV mass, wall thickness, and cavity dimensions with diastolic filling velocities of early (E) and atria (A) waves. Biometric data were analyzed as mean ± standard deviation between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed between serum levels of ferritin as independent variable and testosterone, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Results A total of 82 adult patients with HbSS SCA were enrolled who had a mean age of 21±5.7 years, with 51 males (62%). Patients with SCA compared with the control group had significantly lower hemoglobin, body mass index, cortisol, vitamin D3, testosterone, and T4. Furthermore, there were significantly high levels of reticulocyte count, PTH, TSH, ferritin, LDH, ALP, and uric acid. The incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency was 7% and 4.8%, respectively, with hypogonadism 9.8% and vitamin D3 deficiency 61%. There were inverse relationships between ferritin as independent variable and serum levels of testosterone, T4, and cortisol

  14. Structural brain abnormalities in adolescent anorexia nervosa before and after weight recovery and associated hormonal changes.

    PubMed

    Mainz, Verena; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Fink, Gereon R; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms of structural brain abnormalities in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) remain poorly understood. In particular, little is known about the changes in and the recovery of gray matter (GM) volumes after weight gain and the relation to hormonal normalization in adolescent patients with AN. Nineteen female patients aged 12 to 17 years were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging at the time of admission to the hospital (T1) and after weight recovery (T2). Patients were compared with typically developing girls matched for age and intelligence quotient. Structural brain images were analyzed using a voxel-based morphometric approach. Circulating levels of cortisol and gonadotropins were assessed in blood samples. Compared with controls, patients with AN showed reduced GM in several brain regions along the cortical midline, reaching from the occipital cortex to the medial frontal areas. These GM reductions were mostly reversible at T1. Patients showed a GM increase from T1 to T2 along the cortical midline and in the occipital, temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. GM increases at T2 correlated inversely with cortisol levels at T1 and positively with weight gain at T2. The strongest associations between regional GM increase and weight gain were found in the cerebellum. In addition, increases in GM volumes at T2 in the thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala were associated with increases in follicle-stimulating hormone. Our data suggest that brain alterations in adolescents with acute AN are mostly reversible at T1 and that GM recovery in specific brain regions is associated with weight and hormonal normalization.

  15. Recurrent venous thromboembolism and abnormal uterine bleeding with anticoagulant and hormone therapy use

    PubMed Central

    Lensing, Anthonie W. A.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Levi, Marcel; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; van Bellen, Bonno; Bounameaux, Henri; Brighton, Timothy A.; Cohen, Alexander T.; Trajanovic, Mila; Gebel, Martin; Lam, Phuong; Wells, Philip S.; Prins, Martin H.

    2016-01-01

    Women receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) require adequate contraception because of the potential for fetal complications. It is unknown whether the use of hormonal therapy, especially those containing estrogens, is associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) during anticoagulation. Despite the absence of data, World Health Organization guidelines state that use of estrogen-containing contraceptives confers an “unacceptable health risk” during established anticoagulation for VTE. We compared the incidences of recurrent VTE and abnormal uterine bleeding with and without concomitant hormonal therapy in women aged <60 years who were receiving anticoagulation with rivaroxaban or enoxaparin/VKA for confirmed VTE. Incidence densities in percentage per year were computed for the on and off estrogen-containing or progestin-only therapy periods. Cox regression models were fitted, with hormonal therapy (on vs off) as a time-dependent variable to derive the hazard ratio (HR) for the effects on recurrent VTE and abnormal uterine bleeding. In total, 1888 women were included. VTE incidence densities on and off hormonal therapy were 3.7%/year and 4.7%/year (adjusted HR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-1.39), respectively, and were 3.7%/year and 3.8%/year, respectively, for estrogen-containing and progestin-only therapy. The adjusted HR for all abnormal uterine bleeding (on vs off hormonal therapy) was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.66-1.57). Abnormal uterine bleeding occurred more frequently with rivaroxaban than with enoxaparin/VKA (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.57-2.89). Hormonal therapy was not associated with an increased risk of recurrent VTE in women receiving therapeutic anticoagulation. The observed increased risk of abnormal uterine bleeding with rivaroxaban needs further exploration. PMID:26696010

  16. Recurrent venous thromboembolism and abnormal uterine bleeding with anticoagulant and hormone therapy use.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Ida; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Middeldorp, Saskia; Levi, Marcel; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; van Bellen, Bonno; Bounameaux, Henri; Brighton, Timothy A; Cohen, Alexander T; Trajanovic, Mila; Gebel, Martin; Lam, Phuong; Wells, Philip S; Prins, Martin H

    2016-03-17

    Women receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) require adequate contraception because of the potential for fetal complications. It is unknown whether the use of hormonal therapy, especially those containing estrogens, is associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) during anticoagulation. Despite the absence of data, World Health Organization guidelines state that use of estrogen-containing contraceptives confers an "unacceptable health risk" during established anticoagulation for VTE. We compared the incidences of recurrent VTE and abnormal uterine bleeding with and without concomitant hormonal therapy in women aged <60 years who were receiving anticoagulation with rivaroxaban or enoxaparin/VKA for confirmed VTE. Incidence densities in percentage per year were computed for the on and off estrogen-containing or progestin-only therapy periods. Cox regression models were fitted, with hormonal therapy (on vs off) as a time-dependent variable to derive the hazard ratio (HR) for the effects on recurrent VTE and abnormal uterine bleeding. In total, 1888 women were included. VTE incidence densities on and off hormonal therapy were 3.7%/year and 4.7%/year (adjusted HR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-1.39), respectively, and were 3.7%/year and 3.8%/year, respectively, for estrogen-containing and progestin-only therapy. The adjusted HR for all abnormal uterine bleeding (on vs off hormonal therapy) was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.66-1.57). Abnormal uterine bleeding occurred more frequently with rivaroxaban than with enoxaparin/VKA (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.57-2.89). Hormonal therapy was not associated with an increased risk of recurrent VTE in women receiving therapeutic anticoagulation. The observed increased risk of abnormal uterine bleeding with rivaroxaban needs further exploration. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. HormoneBase, a population-level database of steroid hormone levels across vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Vitousek, Maren N.; Johnson, Michele A.; Donald, Jeremy W.; Francis, Clinton D.; Fuxjager, Matthew J.; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Husak, Jerry F.; Kircher, Bonnie K.; Knapp, Rosemary; Martin, Lynn B.; Miller, Eliot T.; Schoenle, Laura A.; Uehling, Jennifer J.; Williams, Tony D.

    2018-01-01

    Hormones are central regulators of organismal function and flexibility that mediate a diversity of phenotypic traits from early development through senescence. Yet despite these important roles, basic questions about how and why hormone systems vary within and across species remain unanswered. Here we describe HormoneBase, a database of circulating steroid hormone levels and their variation across vertebrates. This database aims to provide all available data on the mean, variation, and range of plasma glucocorticoids (both baseline and stress-induced) and androgens in free-living and un-manipulated adult vertebrates. HormoneBase (www.HormoneBase.org) currently includes >6,580 entries from 476 species, reported in 648 publications from 1967 to 2015, and unpublished datasets. Entries are associated with data on the species and population, sex, year and month of study, geographic coordinates, life history stage, method and latency of hormone sampling, and analysis technique. This novel resource could be used for analyses of the function and evolution of hormone systems, and the relationships between hormonal variation and a variety of processes including phenotypic variation, fitness, and species distributions. PMID:29786693

  18. [Action of hormones at the molecular level].

    PubMed

    Korolkovas, A

    1973-03-01

    A review of the literature (the list of citations is available from the author on request) is given on the molecular pharmacology of steroid hormones and on efforts to isolate androgen, estrogen, and progestogen receptors with the object of understanding the mechanism of action at the cellular and molecular levels. Complementarity is the necessary factor for interaction between drug and chemoreceptor or the tension induced by proximity, as in the case of enzyme-substrate interaction. In reacting with a receptor, the drug molecule is seen as being, in general, in a state of least energy. Binding forces are the same as those operating in the interior of simple molecules. 2 factors are of special importance to the complex action of drug-receptor: the distribution of the electron charge in each and the molecular conformation of each. A number of examples illustrates this structure-activity relationship. For steroid hormones, 3 stereochemical aspects are significant for their molecular action: 1) binding sites (equatorial or axial), 2) the position of substituents, and 3) the form of cyclohexane (bound and most stable or free and thermodynamically less stable). The mode of action of steroid hormones is outlined, including a diagram of gene regulation and the function of operons and messenger RNA. Androgens, estrogens, and progestogens each owe their specific biological activity to interaction with a macromolecular receptor, such interaction presumably being due to complementarity between receptor and hormone surfaces. Several theories to account for this interaction are discussed and diagrammed.

  19. Acute Serum Hormone Levels: Characterization and Prognosis after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Emily H.; Niyonkuru, Christian; Ozawa, Haishin; Loucks, Tammy L.; Dobos, Julie A.; Brett, Christopher A.; Santarsieri, Martina; Dixon, C. Edward; Berga, Sarah L.; Fabio, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) studies report the neuroprotective effects of female sex steroids on multiple mechanisms of injury, with the clinical assumption that women have hormonally mediated neuroprotection because of the endogenous presence of these hormones. Other literature indicates that testosterone may exacerbate injury. Further, stress hormone abnormalities that accompany critical illness may both amplify or blunt sex steroid levels. To better understand the role of sex steroid exposure in mediating TBI, we 1) characterized temporal profiles of serum gonadal and stress hormones in a population with severe TBI during the acute phases of their injury; and 2) used a biological systems approach to evaluate these hormones as biomarkers predicting global outcome. The study population was 117 adults (28 women; 89 men) with severe TBI. Serum samples (n=536) were collected for 7 days post-TBI for cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Hormone data were linked with clinical data, including acute care mortality and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at 6 months. Hormone levels after TBI were compared to those in healthy controls (n=14). Group based trajectory analysis (TRAJ) was used to develop temporal hormone profiles that delineate distinct subpopulations in the cohort. Structural equations models were used to determine inter-relationships between hormones and outcomes within a multivariate model. Compared to controls, acute serum hormone levels were significantly altered after severe TBI. Changes in the post-TBI adrenal response and peripheral aromatization influenced hormone TRAJ profiles and contributed to the abnormalities, including increased estradiol in men and increased testosterone in women. In addition to older age and greater injury severity, increased estradiol and testosterone levels over time were associated with increased mortality and worse global

  20. Gonadotropin level abnormalities in women with cyclic mastalgia.

    PubMed

    Ecochard, R; Marret, H; Rabilloud, M; Boehringer, H; Mathieu, C; Guerin, J F

    2001-01-01

    Women with cyclic mastalgia seem to be at risk of fibrocystic breast disease and/or breast cancer. We studied the relationships between mastalgia and hormone levels throughout the menstrual cycle. Ostensibly healthy women were monitored during a sum of 326 cycles. A case-control study compared personal and hormonal variables of 30 women experiencing cyclic mastalgia with those of 77 women without this symptom. Except sleeping times, no significant differences were found in personal variables. Cyclic mastalgia and symptoms of fluid retention were slightly associated. Menses and the luteal phase were significantly longer in cases than in controls. Gonadotropin but not ovarian hormone levels were also significantly higher in cases throughout the cycle. Cyclic mastalgia is less related to symptoms of fluid retention or to ovarian hormone levels than to regularly high gonadotropin levels, specific inhibitors might thus be used to alleviate the symptom.

  1. High Prevalence of Chronic Pituitary and Target-Organ Hormone Abnormalities after Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Charles W.; Pagulayan, Kathleen F.; Petrie, Eric C.; Mayer, Cynthia L.; Colasurdo, Elizabeth A.; Shofer, Jane B.; Hart, Kim L.; Hoff, David; Tarabochia, Matthew A.; Peskind, Elaine R.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least 1 year after injury, in 25–50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI), an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least 1 year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and rehabilitation. PMID

  2. High prevalence of chronic pituitary and target-organ hormone abnormalities after blast-related mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Charles W; Pagulayan, Kathleen F; Petrie, Eric C; Mayer, Cynthia L; Colasurdo, Elizabeth A; Shofer, Jane B; Hart, Kim L; Hoff, David; Tarabochia, Matthew A; Peskind, Elaine R

    2012-01-01

    Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least 1 year after injury, in 25-50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI), an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least 1 year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and rehabilitation.

  3. Role of hormonal levels on hospital mortality for male patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hohl, Alexandre; Ronsoni, Marcelo Fernando; Debona, Rodrigo; Ben, Juliana; Schwarzbold, Marcelo Liborio; Diaz, Alexandre Paim; Thais, Maria Emília Rodrigues de Oliveira; Linhares, Marcelo Neves; Latini, Alexandra; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Pizzol, Felipe Dal; Walz, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Changes in hormone blood levels during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been described in the literature. The objective was to investigate the association among several hormones plasma levels in the acute phase of severe TBI and the hospital mortality rate of male patients. The independent association among plasma levels of TSH, LH, FSH, GH, free T4, cortisol, IGF-1 and total testosterone was measured 10 hours and 30 hours after severe TBI and the hospital mortality of 60 consecutive male patients was evaluated. At least one hormonal level abnormality was demonstrated in 3.6-73.1% of patients. The multiple logistic regressions showed a trend for an independent association among hospital mortality and normal or elevated LH levels measured at 10 hours (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 0.8-16.3, p = 0.08) and 30 hours (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 0.9-16.7, p = 0.06). Admission with abnormal pupils and a lower Glasgow Coma Score also were independently associated with hospital mortality. The hormonal changes are frequent in the acute phase of severe TBI. The hormones plasma levels, excepting the LH, are not highly consistent with the hospital mortality of male patients.

  4. A cross-sectional study on the associations of insulin resistance with sex hormone, abnormal lipid metabolism in T2DM and IGT patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Xian, Tongzhang; Jia, Xiaofan; Zhang, Lina; Liu, Li; Man, Fuli; Zhang, Xianbo; Zhang, Jie; Pan, Qi; Guo, Lixin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a long-term metabolic disorder. It is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR), and relative impairment in insulin secretion. IR plays a major role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Many previous studies have investigated the relationship between estrogen, androgen, and obesity, but few focused on the relationship between sex hormones, abnormal lipid metabolism, and IR. The goal for the present study was to identify the association of IR with sex hormone, abnormal lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes, and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) patients. In total 13,400 participants were analyzed based on the results of the glucose tolerance test. Using a cross-sectional study, we showed the relationship between IR and the level of sex hormones among 3 different glucose tolerance states: normal control people, IGT, and T2DM patients. We also analyzed the relationship between IR and abnormal lipid metabolism. Significantly, luteinizing, progesterone, estradiol, prolactin, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels decreased in T2DM and IGT patients compared with those in normal control people. The association between IR and lipid metabolism disorders in T2DM and IGT patients was also observed. Our clinical findings may offer new insights into understanding the mechanism of metabolic disorders and in new therapeutic methods for the treatment of the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. PMID:28658166

  5. Genetic polymorphisms, hormone levels, and hot flashes in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Chrissy; Gallicchio, Lisa; Miller, Susan R; Langenberg, Patricia; Zacur, Howard; Flaws, Jodi A

    2007-06-20

    Hot flashes disrupt the lives of millions of women each year. Although hot flashes are a public health concern, little is known about risk factors that predispose women to hot flashes. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine whether sex steroid hormone levels and genetic polymorphisms in hormone biosynthesis and degradation enzymes are associated with the risk of hot flashes. In a cross-sectional study design, midlife women aged 45-54 years (n=639) were recruited from Baltimore and its surrounding counties. Participants completed a questionnaire and donated a blood sample for steroid hormone analysis and genotyping. The associations between genetic polymorphisms and hormone levels, as well as the associations between genetic polymorphisms, hormone levels, and hot flashes were examined using statistical models. A polymorphism in CYP1B1 was associated with lower dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and progesterone levels, while a polymorphism in CYP19 (aromatase) was associated with higher testosterone and DHEA-S levels. Lower progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels, lower free estradiol index, and a higher ratio of total androgens to total estrogens were associated with the experiencing of hot flashes. A polymorphism in CYP1B1 and a polymorphism in 3betaHSD were both associated with hot flashes. Some genetic polymorphisms may be associated with altered levels of hormones in midlife women. Further, selected genetic polymorphisms and altered hormone levels may be associated with the risk of hot flashes in midlife women.

  6. Adrenocortical Hormone Abnormalities in Men with Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrakov, Jordan; Joffe, Hylton V.; Soldin, Steven J.; Bolus, Roger; Buffington, C.A. Tony; Nickel, J Curtis

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To identify adrenocortical hormone abnormalities as indicators of endocrine dysfunction in CP/CPPS. Methods We simultaneously measured the serum concentrations of 12 steroids in CP/CPPS and control patients, using isotope dilution liquid chromatography followed by atmospheric pressure photospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry. Results Twenty-seven CP/CPPS patients and 29 age-matched asymptomatic healthy controls were evaluated. In the mineralocorticoid pathway, progesterone was significantly higher, whereas corticosterone and aldosterone concentrations were significantly lower, in CP/CPPS than in controls. In the glucocorticoid pathway, 11-deoxycortisol was significantly lower, and cortisol concentrations were not different between patients and controls. In the sex steroid pathway, androstenedione and testosterone concentrations were significantly higher in CP/CPPS than in controls. Estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations were not different between patients and controls. NIH-CPSI total and pain domain scores correlated positively with 17-hydroxyprogesterone and aldosterone (P<0.001) and negatively with cortisol concentrations (P<0.001). Conclusions Results suggest reduced activity of CYP21A2 (P450c21), the enzyme that converts progesterone to corticosterone, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol. Furthermore, these results provide insights into the biological basis of CP/CPPS. Follow-up studies should explore the possibility that CP/CPPS patients meet the diagnostic criteria for nonclassical CAH and if hormonal findings improve or worsen in parallel with symptom severity. PMID:18308097

  7. Relation of thyroid hormone abnormalities with subclinical inflammatory activity in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Moura Neto, Arnaldo; Parisi, Maria Candida Ribeiro; Alegre, Sarah Monte; Pavin, Elizabeth Joao; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Zantut-Wittmann, Denise Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). These thyroid hormone abnormalities have been associated with inflammatory activity in several conditions but this link remains unclear in DM. We assessed the influence of subclinical inflammation in TH metabolism in euthyroid diabetic patients. Cross-sectional study involving 258 subjects divided in 4 groups: 70 patients with T2DM and 55 patients with T1DM and two control groups of 70 and 63 non-diabetic individuals, respectively. Groups were paired by age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). We evaluated the association between clinical and hormonal variables [thyrotropin, reverse T3 (rT3), total and free thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3)] with the inflammation markers C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Serum T3 and free T3 were lower in patients with diabetes (all P < 0.001) compared to the control groups. Interleukin-6 showed positive correlations with rT3 in both groups (P < 0.05). IL-6 was independently associated to FT3/rT3 (B = -0.193; 95% CI -0.31; -0.076; P = 0.002) and FT4/rT3 (B = -0.107; 95% CI -0.207; -0.006; P = 0.039) in the T1DM group. In the T2DM group, SAA (B = 0.18; 95% CI 0.089; 0.271; P < 0.001) and hs-CRP (B = -0.069; 95% CI -0.132; -0.007; P = 0.03) predicted FT3 levels. SAA (B = -0.16; 95% CI -0.26; -0.061; P = 0.002) and IL6 (B = 0.123; 95% CI 0.005; 0.241; P = 0.041) were related to FT4/FT3. In DM, differences in TH levels compared to non-diabetic individuals were related to increased subclinical inflammatory activity and BMI. Altered deiodinase activity was probably involved. These findings were independent of sex, age, BMI, and HbA1c levels.

  8. Abnormalities of the axial and proximal appendicular skeleton in adults with Laron syndrome (growth hormone insensitivity).

    PubMed

    Kornreich, L; Konen, O; Schwarz, M; Siegel, Y; Horev, G; Hershkovitz, I; Laron, Z

    2008-02-01

    To investigate abnormalities in the skeleton (with the exclusion of the skull, cervical spine, hands and feet) in patients with Laron syndrome, who have an inborn growth hormone resistance and congenital insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. The study group was composed of 15 untreated patients with Laron syndrome (seven male and eight female) aged 21-68 years. Plain films of the axial and appendicular skeleton were evaluated retrospectively for abnormalities in structure and shape. The cortical width of the long bones was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively (in the upper humerus and mid-femur), and the cortical index was calculated and compared with published references. Measurements were taken of the mid-anteroposterior and cranio-caudal diameters of the vertebral body and spinous process at L3, the interpedicular distance at L1 and L5, and the sacral slope. Thoracic and lumbar osteophytes were graded on a 5-point scale. Values were compared with a control group of 20 healthy persons matched for age. The skeleton appeared small in all patients. No signs of osteopenia were visible. The cortex of the long bones appeared thick in the upper limbs in 11 patients and in the lower limbs in four. Compared with the reference values, the cortical width was thicker than average in the humerus and thinner in the femur. The vertebral diameters at L3 and the interpedicular distances at L1 and L5 were significantly smaller in the patients than in the control subjects (P<0.001); however, at L5 the canal was wider, relative to the vertebral body. The study group had a higher rate of anterior osteophytes in the lumbar spine than the controls had, and their osteophytes were also significantly larger. In the six patients for whom radiographs of the upper extremity in its entirety were available on one film, the ulna appeared to be rotated. In one 22-year-old man, multiple epiphyses were still open. Congenital IGF-1 deficiency leads to skeletal abnormalities

  9. Acid-base and hormonal abnormalities in dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Durocher, Lawren L; Hinchcliff, Kenneth W; DiBartola, Stephen P; Johnson, Susan E

    2008-05-01

    To examine acid-base and hormonal abnormalities in dogs with diabetes mellitus. Cross-sectional study. 48 dogs with diabetes mellitus and 17 healthy dogs. Blood was collected and serum ketone, glucose, lactate, electrolytes, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, nonesterified fatty acid, and triglyceride concentrations were measured. Indicators of acid-base status were calculated and compared between groups. Serum ketone and glucose concentrations were significantly higher in diabetic than in healthy dogs, but there was no difference in venous blood pH or base excess between groups. Anion gap and strong ion difference were significantly higher and strong ion gap and serum bicarbonate concentration were significantly lower in the diabetic dogs. There were significant linear relationships between measures of acid-base status and serum ketone concentration, but not between measures of acid-base status and serum lactate concentration. Serum insulin concentration did not differ significantly between groups, but diabetic dogs had a wider range of values. All diabetic dogs with a serum ketone concentration > 1,000 micromol/L had a serum insulin concentration < 5 microU/mL. There were strong relationships between serum ketone concentration and serum glucagon-insulin ratio, serum cortisol concentration, and plasma norepinephrine concentration. Serum beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration, expressed as a percentage of serum ketone concentration, decreased as serum ketone concentration increased. Results suggested that ketosis in diabetic dogs was related to the glucagon-insulin ratio with only low concentrations of insulin required to prevent ketosis. Acidosis in ketotic dogs was attributable largely to high serum ketone concentrations.

  10. IHH Gene Mutations Causing Short Stature With Nonspecific Skeletal Abnormalities and Response to Growth Hormone Therapy.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Gabriela A; Funari, Mariana F A; Ferreira, Frederico M; Aza-Carmona, Miriam; Sentchordi-Montané, Lucia; Barraza-García, Jimena; Lerario, Antonio M; Yamamoto, Guilherme L; Naslavsky, Michel S; Duarte, Yeda A O; Bertola, Debora R; Heath, Karen E; Jorge, Alexander A L

    2018-02-01

    Genetic evaluation has been recognized as an important tool to elucidate the causes of growth disorders. To investigate the cause of short stature and to determine the phenotype of patients with IHH mutations, including the response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy. We studied 17 families with autosomal-dominant short stature by using whole exome sequencing and screened IHH defects in 290 patients with growth disorders. Molecular analyses were performed to evaluate the potential impact of N-terminal IHH variants. We identified 10 pathogenic or possibly pathogenic variants in IHH, an important regulator of endochondral ossification. Molecular analyses revealed a smaller potential energy of mutated IHH molecules. The allele frequency of rare, predicted to be deleterious IHH variants found in short-stature samples (1.6%) was higher than that observed in two control cohorts (0.017% and 0.08%; P < 0.001). Identified IHH variants segregate with short stature in a dominant inheritance pattern. Affected individuals typically manifest mild disproportional short stature with a frequent finding of shortening of the middle phalanx of the fifth finger. None of them have classic features of brachydactyly type A1, which was previously associated with IHH mutations. Five patients heterozygous for IHH variants had a good response to rhGH therapy. The mean change in height standard deviation score in 1 year was 0.6. Our study demonstrated the association of pathogenic variants in IHH with short stature with nonspecific skeletal abnormalities and established a frequent cause of growth disorder, with a preliminary good response to rhGH. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  11. Associations between pituitary imaging abnormalities and clinical and biochemical phenotypes in children with congenital growth hormone deficiency: data from an international observational study.

    PubMed

    Deal, Cheri; Hasselmann, Caroline; Pfäffle, Roland W; Zimmermann, Alan G; Quigley, Charmian A; Child, Christopher J; Shavrikova, Elena P; Cutler, Gordon B; Blum, Werner F

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to investigate the etiology of growth hormone deficiency (GHD). This study examined relationships between MRI findings and clinical/hormonal phenotypes in children with GHD in the observational Genetics and Neuroendocrinology of Short Stature International Study, GeNeSIS. Clinical presentation, hormonal status and first-year GH response were compared between patients with pituitary imaging abnormalities (n = 1,071), patients with mutations in genes involved in pituitary development/GH secretion (n = 120) and patients with idiopathic GHD (n = 7,039). Patients with hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities had more severe phenotypes than patients with idiopathic GHD. Additional hormonal deficiencies were found in 35% of patients with structural abnormalities (thyroid-stimulating hormone > adrenocorticotropic hormone > luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone > antidiuretic hormone), most frequently in patients with septo-optic dysplasia (SOD). Patients with the triad [ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP), pituitary aplasia/hypoplasia and stalk defects] had a more severe phenotype and better response to GH treatment than patients with isolated abnormalities. The sex ratio was approximately equal for patients with SOD, but there was a significantly higher proportion of males (approximately 70%) in the EPP, pituitary hypoplasia, stalk defects, and triad categories. This large, international database demonstrates the value of classification of GH-deficient patients by the presence and type of hypothalamic-pituitary imaging abnormalities. This information may assist family counseling and patient management. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Anti-mullerian hormon level and polycystic ovarian syndrome diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zadehmodarres, Shahrzad; Heidar, Zahra; Razzaghi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Leili; Soltanzadeh, Kaveh; Abed, Farhang

    2015-04-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy that accompanied with long term complications. The early diagnosis of this syndrome can prevent it. The aim was to determine the role of anti-mullerian hormon (AMH) in PCOS diagnosis and to find cut off level of it. In this cross sectional study, 117 women between 20-40 years old were participated in two groups: 60 PCOS women (based on Rotterdam criteria consensus) as the case group and 57 normal ovulatory women as the control group. In day 2-4 of cycle, transvaginal sonography was performed and serum hormonal level of AMH, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), testosterone, fasting blood sugar (FBS), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin (PRL) were measured in all of participants. For all of them score of hirsutism (base on Freeman-Galloway scoring) was determined. There were statistically significant in irregular pattern of menstruation, AMH and FSH level, and presence of hirsutism between two groups. But regarding mean of age, body mass index, plasma level of PRL, TSH, LH, Testosterone, FBS, and E2 differences were not significant. Construction by ROC curve present 3.15 ng/ml as AMH cut off with 70.37% sensitivity and 77.36% specificity in order to PCOS diagnosis. AMH with cut off level of 3.15 ng/ml with sensitivity 70.37% and specificity 77.36% could use for early diagnosis of PCOS patients.

  13. Abnormalities of Lipoprotein Levels in Liver Cirrhosis: Clinical Relevance.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Graziella; Spadaro, Luisa; Marchisello, Simona; Fede, Giuseppe; Purrello, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Progressive lipoprotein impairment occurs in liver cirrhosis and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The present review aims to summarize the current evidence regarding the prognostic value of lipoprotein abnormalities in liver cirrhosis and to address the need of a better prognostic stratification of patients, including lipoprotein profile assessment. Low levels of lipoproteins are usual in cirrhosis. Much evidence supports the prognostic role of hypolipidemia in cirrhotic patients. In particular, hypocholesterolemia represents an independent predictor of survival in cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, lipoprotein impairment is associated with several complications: infections, malnutrition, adrenal function, and spur cell anemia. Alterations of liver function are associated with modifications of circulating lipids. Decreased levels of lipoproteins significantly impact the survival of cirrhotic patients and play an important role in the pathogenesis of some cirrhosis-related complications.

  14. Night shift work and hormone levels in women.

    PubMed

    Davis, Scott; Mirick, Dana K; Chen, Chu; Stanczyk, Frank Z

    2012-04-01

    Night shift work may disrupt the normal nocturnal rise in melatonin, resulting in increased breast cancer risk, possibly through increased reproductive hormone levels. We investigated whether night shift work is associated with decreased levels of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, the primary metabolite of melatonin, and increased urinary reproductive hormone levels. Participants were 172 night shift and 151 day shift-working nurses, aged 20-49 years, with regular menstrual cycles. Urine samples were collected throughout work and sleep periods and assayed for 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and estrone conjugate (E1C). 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin levels were 62% lower and FSH and LH were 62% and 58% higher, respectively, in night shift-working women during daytime sleep than in day shift-working women during nighttime sleep (P ≤ 0.0001). Nighttime sleep on off-nights was associated with 42% lower 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels among the night shift workers, relative to the day shift workers (P < 0.0001); no significant differences in LH or FSH were observed. 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin levels during night work were approximately 69% lower and FSH and LH were 35% and 38% higher, compared with day shift workers during nighttime sleep. No differences in E1C levels between night and day shift workers were observed. Within night shift workers, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were lower and reproductive hormone levels were higher during daytime sleep and nighttime work, relative to nighttime sleep (P < 0.05). These results indicate that night shift workers have substantially reduced 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels during night work and daytime sleep and that levels remain low even when a night shift worker sleeps at night. Shift work could be an important risk factor for many other cancers in addition to breast cancer. ©2012 AACR.

  15. Associations between dietary acrylamide intake and plasma sex hormone levels

    PubMed Central

    Hogervorst, Janneke G.; Fortner, Renee T.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Hankinson, Susan E.; Wilson, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rodent carcinogen acrylamide was discovered in 2002 in commonly consumed foods. Epidemiological studies have observed positive associations between acrylamide intake and endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer risks, which suggests that acrylamide may have sex-hormonal effects. Methods We cross-sectionally investigated the relationship between acrylamide intake and plasma levels of sex hormones and SHBG among 687 postmenopausal and 1300 premenopausal controls from nested case-control studies within the Nurses’ Health Studies. Results There were no associations between acrylamide and sex hormones or SHBG among premenopausal women overall or among never-smokers. Among normal-weight premenopausal women, acrylamide intake was statistically significantly positively associated with luteal total and free estradiol levels. Among postmenopausal women overall and among never-smokers, acrylamide was borderline statistically significantly associated with lower estrone sulfate levels but not with other estrogens, androgens, prolactin or SHBG. Among normal weight women, (borderline) statistically significant inverse associations were noted for estrone, free estradiol, estrone sulfate, DHEA, and prolactin, while statistically significant positive associations for testosterone and androstenedione were observed among overweight women. Conclusions Overall, this study did not show conclusive associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that would lend unequivocal biological plausibility to the observed increased risks of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer. The association between acrylamide and sex hormones may differ by menopausal and overweight status. We recommend other studies investigate the relationship between acrylamide and sex hormones in women, specifically using acrylamide biomarkers. Impact The present study showed some interesting associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that urgently need confirmation. PMID:23983241

  16. [Pediatric reference intervals : retrospective study on thyroid hormone levels].

    PubMed

    Ladang, A; Vranken, L; Luyckx, F; Lebrethon, M-C; Cavalier, E

    2017-01-01

    Defining reference range is an essential tool for diagnostic. Age and sexe influences on thyroid hormone levels have been already discussed. In this study, we are defining a new pediatric reference range for TSH, FT3 and FT4 for Cobas C6000 analyzer. To do so, we have taken in account 0 to 18 year old outclinic patients. During the first year of life, thyroid hormone levels change dramatically before getting stabilized around 3 years old. We also compared our results to those obtained in a Canadian large-scale prospective study (the CALIPER initiative).

  17. Thyroid, cortisol and growth hormone levels in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Udenze, Ifeoma Christiana; Olowoselu, Olusola Festus; Egbuagha, Ephraim Uchenna; Oshodi, Temitope Adewunmi

    2017-01-01

    The similarities in presentation of cortisol excess, growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome suggest that subtle abnormalities of these endocrine hormones may play a causal role in the development of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of cortisol, thyroid and growth hormones in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome and determine the relationship between levels of these hormones and components of the syndrome. This was a case control study conducted at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Participants were fifty adult men and women with the metabolic syndrome, and fifty, age and sex matched males and females without the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the NCEP-ATPIII criteria. Written Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Socio demographic and clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Venous blood was collected after an over-night fast. The Ethics committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Comparison of continuous variables was done using the Student's t test. Correlation analysis was employed to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Triiodotyronine (T3) was significantly decreased (p<0.001) and thyroxine (T4 ) significantly increased ( p<0.001) in metabolic syndrome compared to healthy controls. T3 correlated positively and significantly with waist circumference (p=0.004), glucose (p= 0.002), total cholesterol ( p=0.001) and LDL- cholesterol ( p<0.001 ) and negatively with body mass index ( p<0.001 )and triglyceride ( p=0.026). T4 had a negative significant correlation with waist circumference (p=0.004). Cortisol and growth hormone levels were similar in metabolic syndrome and controls. Cortisol however had a positive significant correlation with waist/hip ratio (p<0.001) while growth hormone correlated positively with

  18. Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone Levels in Ground Based Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, B. O.

    1972-01-01

    Baseline values of immunoreactive ACTH were established in the normal healthy adult. Normal levels of ACTH secretion were determined for both the male and the female in circulating plasma and serum. The data obtained in these studies are particularly significant in that the sampling was carefully controlled; only healthy employed individuals of both sexes were tested in a routine work situation that would not be considered conducive to stress. It has been found that alterations in the classically described circadian rhythm of ACTH secretion can occur when activities (such as work/rest cycles) are imposed on the individual studied. These changes can be demonstrated even when there is no appreciable change noted in the rhythm of hydrocortisone secretion.

  19. The relationship between environmental exposures and hormonal abnormalities in pregnant women: An epidemiological study in Yazd, Iran.

    PubMed

    Askari, Sahar Ghale; Khatbasreh, Masomeh; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hassan; Eslami, Hadi; Taghavi, Mahmoud; Shahrokhi, Samira; Andishmand, Sodeh

    2018-06-01

    The process of industrialization and lifestyle changes have gradually exposed human ‎societies to a larger number of environmental risk factors, which may cause hormonalabnormalities and congenital anomalies. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship ‎between environmental factors and hormonal abnormalities among pregnant women in Yazd, ‎Iran. A hundred participants were randomly selected from among a group of pregnant women. According to the screening tests (AFP, free β-‎HCG, uE3, PAPP-A, and inhibin-A) performed at the genome clinic in Yazd in 2016, the risk of Down Syndrome (DS) was sufficiently high in this group of pregnant women from which the participants were selected. A ‎questionnaire was used to collect data on the degree of the participants' exposure to pesticides ‎at home, use of canned and fast foods, and consumption of greenhouse fruits. The collected data were ‎analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis Test. The mean of Multiple of Median (MoM) for inhibin-A was significantly higher among pregnant ‎women who often or always used pesticides at home (p=0.047). The mean MoM ‎for free β-HCG was significantly higher among pregnant women who often or always used canned ‎foods (p=0.024). Finally, the mean MoM for uE3 (1.85±1.30) was significantly higher among ‎pregnant women who never consumed greenhouse fruits (p=0.003). It can be concluded that it is possible to reduce environmental exposures affecting hormonal abnormalities among pregnant women by improving nutritional patterns, minimizing the use of pesticides at home, and reducing the intake of canned foods and greenhouse fruits. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of thyroid function abnormalities on reproductive hormones during menstrual cycle in premenopausal HIV infected females at NAUTH, Nnewi, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Emelumadu, Obiageli Fidelia; Igwegbe, Anthony Osita; Monago, Ifeoma Nwamaka; Ilika, Amobi Linus

    2017-01-01

    Background This was a prospective study designed to evaluate the impact of thyroid function abnormalities on reproductive hormones during menstrual cycle in HIV infected females at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, South-East Nigeria. Methods The study randomly recruited 35 Symptomatic HIV infected females and 35 Symptomatic HIV infected females on antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for not less than six weeks from an HIV clinic and 40 apparently heathy control females among the hospital staff of NAUTH Nnewi. They were all premenopausal females with regular menstrual cycle and aged between 15–45 years. Blood samples were collected at follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle for assay of Thyroid indices (FT3, FT4 and TSH) and Reproductive indices (FSH, LH, Estrogen, Progesterone, Prolactin and Testosterone) using ELISA method. Results The result showed significantly higher FSH and LH but significantly lower progesterone (prog) and estrogen (E2) in the test females compared to control females at both phases of menstrual cycle (P<0.05). There was significantly lower FT3 but significantly higher TSH value in Symptomatic HIV females (P<0.05). FSH, LH and TSH values were significantly lowered while prog and FT3 were significantly higher in Symptomatic HIV on ART compared to Symptomatic HIV females (P<0.05). FT3, FT4, Prog and E2 were inversely correlated while FSH and LH were positively correlated with duration of HIV infection in HIV females (P<0.05 respectively). There was a direct correlation between CD4+ count and FT3 while inverse correlation was found between CD4+ count and TSH levels (P<0.05). Discussion The present study demonstrated hypothyroidism with a significant degree of primary hypogonadism in Symptomatic HIV infected females at both follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle which tends to normalize on treatments. PMID:28723963

  1. Abnormal glucose levels found in transportation accidents : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-06-01

    Purpose. The Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Aviation Medicine (OAM) is responsible for the certification of pilots with diabetic conditions. Therefore, it is essential for OAM to monitor pilots involved in fatal accidents for abnormal gl...

  2. Hot flushes and reproductive hormone levels during the menopausal transition.

    PubMed

    Dhanoya, Tanveer; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Muttukrishna, Shanthi; Begum, Khurshida; Sharmeen, Taniya; Kasim, Adetayo; Chowdhury, Osul; Bentley, Gillian R

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests that hot flushes are associated with fluctuating levels of oestradiol (E2) during menopause, as well as changes in the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and inhibin B. The relationship between hot flushes and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is unknown. To examine specific hormone levels and ethnic differences in relation to hot flushes. Data were drawn from 108 women aged 40-59 years. There were three groups of participants: European women in London, UK; Bangladeshi women in Sylhet, Bangladesh; and Bangladeshi women who had migrated to London as adults. Symptom information was collected via questionnaires. Serum blood samples were collected to detect inhibin B, AMH, FSH, and E2. AMH and FSH were significantly associated with the experience of hot flushes in the past 2 weeks. Inhibin B and E2 were not associated with hot flushes. Body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and education level were associated with both the occurrence and the frequency hot flushes. Menopausal status was also associated with the frequency of hot flushes. Relationships between AMH, FSH and symptoms are indicative of women's progress through the menopausal transition. The influence of BMI and education suggest that lifestyle changes may contribute to the management of symptoms. This merits further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CARDIAC STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ABNORMALITIES IN FEMALES WITH UNTREATED HYPOPITUITARISM DUE TO SHEEHAN SYNDROME: RESPONSE TO HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY.

    PubMed

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Ramzan, Mahroosa; Allai, Mohd Sultan; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Data on cardiac abnormalities in females with untreated hypopituitarism are limited. We investigated echocardiographic abnormalities in females with untreated hypopituitarism and their response to treatment. Twenty-three females with treatment-naïve hypopituitarism and 30 matched healthy controls were evaluated for cardiac structure and function. Echocardiographic evaluation was done at presentation and after achieving a euthyroid and eucortisol state. Fourteen (61%) patients had mitral regurgitation, and 11 (48%) had pericardial effusion as against none among controls. Indices of left ventricular (LV) size like LV end diastolic dimension (LVEDD; 44.5 ± 3.5 mm in cases vs. 47.6 ± 3.8 mm in controls, P = .004), and LV diastolic volume (LVEDV; 91.8 ± 18.0 mL versus 106.5 ± 20.4 mL, P = .009) were significantly lower in the SS group compared with controls. LV mass (LVM) was 70.8 ± 19.2 g in cases and 108.0 ± 33.2 g in controls (P = .02). Similarly, indices of LV systolic function like stroke volume (SV; 59.1 ± 12.0 mL in cases and 74.4 ± 15.8 mL in controls; P = .000), ejection fraction (EF; 64.3 ± 6.2 % in cases against 69.9 ± 9.2 % in controls; P = .03), and fractional shortening (FS; 34.9 ± 4.7% versus 40.1 ± 4.4%, P = .000) were significantly decreased in patients compared with controls. Cardiac abnormalities normalized with restoration of a euthyroid and eucortisol state. Pericardial effusion, mitral regurgitation, and diminished LVM are common in females with untreated hypopituitarism. ACTH = adrenocorticotrophic hormone BMI = body mass index DT = deceleration time EDV = end-diastolic volume EF = ejection fraction FS = fractional shortening GH = growth hormone IGF-1 = insulin growth factor-1 ITT = insulin tolerance test IVSd = interventricular septal diameter LH = luteinizing hormone LV = left ventricular LVEDD = LV end diastolic dimension LVEDV = LV end diastolic volume LVM = LV mass MRI = magnetic resonance imaging MVP = mitral value prolapse PPH

  4. Thyroid hormone levels in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, W W; Kaptein, E M

    1989-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and thyroid gland cytomegalovirus inclusions have been described in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC). We evaluated 80 patients with AIDS or ARC for the frequency of hypothalamic-pituitary or thyroid gland failure and altered serum thyroid hormone levels due to nonthyroidal disorders. One patient had subclinical hypothyroidism. Of these patients, 60% had low free triiodothyronine (T3) index values and 4% had low free thyroxine (T4) indexes; none of the latter had hypothalamic-pituitary or thyroid gland failure, since all serum cortisol values were greater than or equal to 552 nmol per liter (greater than or equal to 20 micrograms per dl) and all thyrotropin levels were less than or equal to 3 mU per liter (less than or equal to 3 microU per ml), respectively. Those who died had lower total T4 and T3, free T3 index, and albumin levels than those discharged from hospital. Serum total T4 and T3 levels correlated with albumin levels and total T3 with serum sodium levels. Serum total T3 levels best predicted the outcome of the hospital stay (accuracy = 82%). Thus, abnormal serum thyroid hormone levels in AIDS or ARC patients are most frequently due to nonthyroidal disorders, but hypothalamic-pituitary or thyroid gland failure may occur. PMID:2618039

  5. Elevated levels of circulating thyroid hormone do not cause the medical sequelae of hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Tammas; Denmark, Lawrence; Lieberman, Daniel Z

    2016-11-03

    Clinicians have been reluctant to use high dose thyroid (HDT) to treat affective disorders because high circulating levels of thyroid hormone have traditionally been equated with hyperthyroidism, and understood as the cause of the medical sequelae of hyperthyroidism, such as osteoporosis and cardiac abnormalities. This conclusion is not supported by (HDT) research. A literature review of research related to the morbidity and mortality of HDT treatment was performed. There exists a large body of research involving the use of HDT treatment to prevent the recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer and to treat affective disorders. A review of this literature finds a lack of support for HDT as a cause of osteoporosis, nor is there support for an increase in morbidity or mortality associated with HDT. This finding contrasts with the well-established morbidity and mortality associated with Graves' disease, thyroiditis, and other endogenous forms of hyperthyroidism. The lack of evidence that exogenous HDT causes osteoporosis, cardiac abnormalities or increases mortality compared with the significant morbidity and mortality of hyperthyroidism requires an alternative cause for the medical sequelae of hyperthyroidism. One possibility is an autoimmune mechanism. High circulating levels of thyroid hormone is not the cause of the sequela of hyperthyroidism. The reluctance to using high dose thyroid is unwarranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  7. Vitamin D metabolites and bioactive parathyroid hormone levels during Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Schnoes, Heinrich K.; Deluca, Hector F.; Phelps, Mary E.; Klein, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of an 8-day space flight (Spacelab mission 2) on plasma levels of the vitamin D and parathyroid hormones is investigated experimentally in four crew members. The results are presented in tables and graphs and briefly characterized. Parathyroid hormone levels remained normal throughout the flight, whereas vitamin D hormone levels increased significantly on day 1 but returned to normal by day 7.

  8. The impact of blood glucose levels on stimulated adrenocorticotropin hormone and growth hormone release in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Jakobsdóttir, S; Twisk, J W R; Drent, M L

    2009-12-01

    In studies investigating the influence of glucose levels on the pituitary function the methods used have been variable and mainly focused on the change in function as a reaction to unphysiological low or high blood glucose levels. In the present study the impact of physiological and elevated blood glucose levels on adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and growth hormone release are investigated. The euglycaemic and hyperglycaemic clamp techniques were used to reach stable levels of 4, 8 and 12 mmol/l blood glucose levels. After a stabilization phase of 2 h, a corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) or a growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) stimulation test was performed. Seven and eight healthy male volunteers, belonging to two groups, participated in this study. The area under the curve (AUC), peak values and time to peak of ACTH, cortisol and growth hormone were calculated to evaluate the response to the CRH and GHRH stimulation test. The peak values of ACTH, cortisol and growth hormone seemed to be the highest during the 4 mmol/l clamp sessions, compared with the 8 and 12 mmol/l clamps, although the differences were not statistically significant when analysed for every subject individually. The AUC and time to peak measurements were comparable during the three clamp procedures. The pituitary reaction on CRH and GHRH was not significantly changed by various blood glucose levels. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Neonatal thyroid hormone levels in association with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lyall, Kristen; Anderson, Meredith; Kharrazi, Martin; Windham, Gayle C

    2017-04-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical in early neurodevelopment, but few studies have examined whether neonatal TH levels influence risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study linked California neonatal screening data with live birth and Department of Developmental Services records to examine newborn TH levels in relation to ASD. Thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured in newborn bloodspots as part of routine screening, in 1996 and 2002, respectively. Mean levels of T4 and TSH were compared between ASD cases and non-cases. Four hundred forty-seven thousand, fifty-nine screened, singleton births from 1996 and 446,424 from 2002 were examined, including 4,818 ASD cases. Binomial regression, using categories of T4 and TSH percentiles was used to calculate crude and adjusted risk ratios (RR). Covariates included maternal and child factors, gestational age, and age at blood draw. No significant associations were found with TSH levels and ASD in crude or adjusted analyses. ASD cases had significantly lower mean T4 levels than non-cases, but this association was no longer significant in adjusted analyses (RR in individuals in lowest 5th percentile of T4 levels = 1.13, 95% 0.93-1.37). However, this association appeared stronger in certain subgroup analyses, particularly among neonates with blood draw ≥48 hr from birth (RR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.08, 2.60), when TH levels become more stable. Thus, results from this large, population-based study did not suggest strong associations between neonatal TH and ASD, but certain subgroups of newborns with the lowest T4 levels may have modestly increased ASD risk. Autism Res 2016. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 585-592. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Serum leptin levels, hormone levels, and hot flashes in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Carolyn; Cochran, Chrissy J; Gallicchio, Lisa; Miller, Susan R; Flaws, Jodi A; Zacur, Howard

    2010-08-01

    To examine the associations between serum leptin levels, sex steroid hormone levels, and hot flashes in normal weight and obese midlife women. Cross-sectional study. University clinic. 201 Caucasian, nonsmoking women aged 45 to 54 years with a body mass index of <25 kg/m2 or >or=30 kg/m2. Questionnaire, fasting blood samples. Serum leptin and sex steroid hormone levels. Correlation and regression models were performed to examine associations between leptin levels, hormone levels, and hot flashes. Leptin levels were associated with BMI, with "ever experiencing hot flashes" (questionnaire), with hot flashes within the last 30 days, and with duration of hot flashes (>1 year, P=.03). Leptin was positively correlated with testosterone, free testosterone index, and free estrogen index and inversely associated with levels of sex hormone-binding globulin. In women with a body mass index>or=30 kg/m2, leptin levels no longer correlated with testosterone levels. Serum leptin levels are associated with the occurrence and duration of hot flashes in midlife women; however, no correlation was found between leptin and serum estradiol. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of prothrombotic blood abnormalities on risk of deep vein thrombosis in users of hormone replacement therapy: a prospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Douketis, Jim D; Julian, Jim A; Crowther, Mark A; Kearon, Clive; Bates, Shannon M; Barone, Marisa; Piovella, Franco; Middeldorp, Saskia; Prandoni, Paolo; Johnston, Marilyn; Costantini, Lorrie; Ginsberg, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the effect of prothrombotic blood abnormalities on the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We studied postmenopausal women with suspected DVT in whom HRT use and prothrombotic blood abnormalities were sought. Cases had unprovoked DVT and controls had no DVT and without DVT risk factors. The risk of DVT was determined in women with and without prothrombotic abnormalities. A total of 510 postmenopausal women with suspected DVT were assessed; 57 cases and 283 controls were identified. Compared to HRT, nonusers without the factor V Leiden mutation, the risk of DVT was increased in estrogen-progestin HRT users (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-8.6) and in nonusers with the factor V Leiden mutation (OR, 5.3; 1.9-15.4) and appears multiplied in users of estrogen-progestin HRT with the factor V Leiden mutation (OR, 17.1; 3.7-78). Compared to HRT, nonusers with normal factor VIII, the risk of DVT was increased in estrogen-progestin HRT users with normal factor VIII (OR, 2.8; 1.0-7.9) and in HRT nonusers with the highest factor VIII quartile (OR, 6.0; 2.1-17), and appears to be multiplied in women who are users of estrogen-progestin HRT with the highest factor VIII quartile (OR, 17.0; 3.6-80). In postmenopausal women who are estrogen-progestin HRT users, the presence of the factor V Leiden mutation or an elevated factor VIII level appears to have a multiplicative effect on their overall risk of DVT, increasing it 17-fold compared to women without these blood abnormalities who are HRT nonusers.

  12. CD36 Modulates Fasting and Preabsorptive Hormone and Bile Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Shibao, Cyndya A; Celedonio, Jorge E; Tamboli, Robyn; Sidani, Reem; Love-Gregory, Latisha; Pietka, Terri; Xiong, Yanhua; Wei, Yan; Abumrad, Naji N; Abumrad, Nada A; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2018-05-01

    Abnormal fatty acid (FA) metabolism contributes to diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The FA receptor CD36 has been linked to risk of metabolic syndrome. In rodents CD36 regulates various aspects of fat metabolism, but whether it has similar actions in humans is unknown. We examined the impact of a coding single-nucleotide polymorphism in CD36 on postprandial hormone and bile acid (BA) responses. To examine whether the minor allele (G) of coding CD36 variant rs3211938 (G/T), which reduces CD36 level by ∼50%, influences hormonal responses to a high-fat meal (HFM). Obese African American (AA) women carriers of the G allele of rs3211938 (G/T) and weight-matched noncarriers (T/T) were studied before and after a HFM. Two-center study. Obese AA women. HFM. Early preabsorptive responses (10 minutes) and extended excursions in plasma hormones [C-peptide, insulin, incretins, ghrelin fibroblast growth factor (FGF)19, FGF21], BAs, and serum lipoproteins (chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoprotein) were determined. At fasting, G-allele carriers had significantly reduced cholesterol and glycodeoxycholic acid and consistent but nonsignificant reductions of serum lipoproteins. Levels of GLP-1 and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) were reduced 60% to 70% and those of total BAs were 1.8-fold higher. After the meal, G-allele carriers displayed attenuated early (-10 to 10 minute) responses in insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, gastric inhibitory peptide, and PP. BAs exhibited divergent trends in G allele carriers vs noncarriers concomitant with differential FGF19 responses. CD36 plays an important role in the preabsorptive hormone and BA responses that coordinate brain and gut regulation of energy metabolism.

  13. [Gigantism with low serum level of growth hormone: a case report].

    PubMed

    Ran, X; Zhang, L; Xiong, P; Zhao, T; Tong, N; Li, X

    2001-12-01

    Gigantism with low or normal basal concentrations of growth hormone (GH) is a rare condition, possibly due to abnormal GH secretory patterns, enhanced tissue sensitivity to GH, or the existence of an unidentified growth promoting factor. Here we report an 11 year-old female case of gigantism with a normal pituitary gland. Her height was 181 cm, body weight 77 kg, and bone age 11.1 years. Her basal serum GH levels were lower than 1 ng/ml. The levels of T3, T4, FT3, FT4, TSH, E2, LH, FSH, PRL, PTC and ACTH were normal. Serum GH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia or arginine stimulation tests was blunted. In this case, non-pulsatile GH secretion and enhanced tissue sensitivity to GH may induce hypersecretion of IGF-1 and the existence of an unidentified growth promoting factor or biologically active anti-GH receptor antibodies may cause clinical gigantism.

  14. Serum Testosterone Levels in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonist Therapy.

    PubMed

    Morote, Juan; Comas, Inma; Planas, Jacques; Maldonado, Xavier; Celma, Ana; Placer, José; Ferrer, Roser; Carles, Joan; Regis, Lucas

    2018-04-01

    Serum testosterone measurement is recommended to assess the efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and to diagnose castration resistance in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Currently, the accepted castrate level of serum testosterone is 50 ng/dL. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC MSMS) is the appropriate method to measure testosterone, especially at low levels. However, worldwide, chemiluminescent assays (CLIAs) are used in clinical laboratories, despite their lack of accuracy and reproducibility, because they are automatable, fast, sensitive, and inexpensive. We compared serum testosterone levels measured using LC MSMS and CLIAs in 126 patients with PCa undergoing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist therapy. The median serum testosterone level was 14.0 ng/dL (range, 2.0-67.0 ng/dL) with LC MSMS and 31.9 ng/dL (range, 10.0-91.6 ng/dL) with CLIA (P < .001). The serum testosterone levels, measured using LC MSMS, were < 20 ng/dL in 83 patients (65.9%), 20 to 50 ng/dL in 40 (31.7%), and > 50 ng/dL in 3 patients (2.4%). These ranges were found in 34 (27%), 72 (57.1%), and 20 (15.9%) patients when testosterone was measured using CLIA (P < .001). The castrate level of serum testosterone using LC MSMS and CLIA was 39.8 ng/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 37.1-43.4 ng/dL) and 66.5 ng/dL (95% CI, 62.3-71.2 ng/dL), respectively. We found that CLIA overestimated the testosterone levels in PCa patients undergoing LHRH agonist therapy. Thus, the castration level was incorrectly considered inadequate with CLIA in almost 15% of patients. The true castration level of serum testosterone using an appropriate method is < 50 ng/dL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Concurrent and Predictive Relations between Hormone Levels and Social-Emotional Functioning in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nottelmann, Editha D.; And Others

    Hormone levels and changes in hormone levels were evaluated three times across a 1-year period as concurrent and predictive correlates of the socio-emotional functioning of 56 boys 10- to 14-years-old and 52 girls 9- to 14-years-old who represented the five stages of Tanner's criteria of pubertal development. The hormone measures were serum levels…

  16. The Association Between the Levels of Thyroid Hormones and Peripheral Nerve Conduction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan-Fan; Yang, Li-Zhen

    2018-06-26

    Type 2 diabetes has an underlying pathology with thyroid dysfunction. However, few studies have investigated the association between thyroid hormones and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between thyroid hormones and electrophysiological properties of peripheral nerves in type 2 diabetes. The medical records of 308 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in this study. Subjects stratified by sex were divided into subgroups based on the diagnosis of nerve conduction study. The nerve conduction parameters were separately described with the spectrum of thyroid hormones. Multivariate regression models to analyze the potential links between thyroid hormones and nerve conduction parameters. The serum free triiodine thyronine levels between normal and abnormal nerve conduction groups were statistically different in total (4.55±0.65 vs 4.37±0.63, P<0.05) and female diabetic patients (4.46±0.50 vs 4.14±0.57, P<0.01). Moreover, the summed amplitude and velocity Z score of female and male increased with free triiodine thyronine levels (P<0.05). Sex-specific binary logistic regression models showed that free triiodine thyronine levels were associated with decreased odds of abnormal nerve conduction diagnosis (odds ratio [95%CI]=0.151[0.047-0.186]) and low tertile of summed amplitude Z score (odds ratio [95%CI]=0.283[0.099-0.809]) in female. In total patients, free triiodine thyronine level was negatively associated with odds of abnormal nerve conduction (odds ratio [95%CI]=0.436 [0.226-0.842]), low tertile of summed velocity (odds ratio [95%CI]=0.44[0.226-0.858]) and amplitude (odds ratio [95%CI]=0.436[0.227-0.838) Z score. Serum free triiodine thyronine level is associated with nerve conduction in diabetes. Low free triiodine thyronine may be a potential risk for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Neurodevelopmental Consequences of Low-Level Thyroid Hormone Disruption Induced by Environmental Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inadequate levels of thyroid hormone during critical developmental periods lead to stunted growth, mental retardation, and neurological 'cretinism'. Animal models of developmental thyroid hormone deficiency mirror well the impact of severe insults to the thyroid system. However, ...

  18. Decreased levels of circulating sex hormones as a biomarker of lung cancer in male patients with solitary pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Gu, Tao; Wen, Zongmei; Xu, Shufeng; Hua, Haixia; Zhang, Zhi; Wen, Tao; Fu, Zhanzhao; Lv, Xin

    2014-06-01

    An early differentiation of malignant from benign solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) is essential for management and prognosis of lung cancer. Here we investigated whether measurement of circulating sex hormones could be useful for an early detection of malignancy among patients with SPNs. We recruited 47 patients with malignant SPNs 45 patients with benign SPNs, and 32 healthy persons. Testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone were measured. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as well as TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 were also measured. We found that sex hormones were decreased significantly in patients with malignant SPNs, as compared to patients with benign SPNs and healthy controls (P<0.05). Sex hormones levels showed a trend to decline in patients with benign SPNs as compared to normal controls, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). CEA levels were only abnormally elevated in eight patients with lung adenocarcinoma. The inflammatory cytokines were remarkably higher in both patients than in normal controls. However, there was no statistical difference in these cytokines among patients. The reduced sex hormones levels seemed to be uniquely associated with lung cancer. Therefore, measurement of sex hormones may have clinical potential in the diagnosis of malignancy in patients with SPNs.

  19. Craniofacial and brain abnormalities in Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity).

    PubMed

    Kornreich, L; Horev, G; Schwarz, M; Karmazyn, B; Laron, Z

    2002-04-01

    To investigate abnormalities in the craniofacial structures and in the brain in patients with Laron syndrome. Eleven patients with classical Laron syndrome, nine untreated adults aged 36-68 years and two children aged 4 and 9 years (the latter treated by IGF-I), were studied. Magnetic resonance images of the brain were obtained in all the patients. One patient also underwent computed tomography. The maximal diameter of the maxillary and frontal sinuses was measured and compared with reference values, the size of the sphenoid sinus was evaluated in relation to the sella, and the mastoids were evaluated qualitatively (small or normal). The brain was evaluated for congenital anomalies and parenchymal lesions. In the adult untreated patients, the paranasal sinuses and mastoids were small; in six patients, the bone marrow in the base of the skull was not mature. The diploe of the calvaria was thin. On computed tomography in one adult patient, the sutures were still open. A minimal or mild degree of diffuse brain parenchymal loss was seen in ten patients. One patient demonstrated a lacunar infarct and another periventricular high signals on T2-weighted images. Two patients had cerebellar atrophy. The present study has demonstrated the important role IGF-I plays in the development of the brain and bony structures of the cranium.

  20. Somatotype and stress hormone levels in young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Handziska, E; Handziski, Z; Gjorgoski, I; Dalip, M

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between somatotype and cortisol and adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) hormone concentrations at rest or after exercise in adolescent soccer players at different time points throughout a soccer season is not understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype and cortisol and ACTH concentrations at rest and after exercise in adolescent soccer players at different time points during a soccer season. During the first 4 months of the soccer season, 47 soccer players (between 15-17 years of age) were tested at three different time points including at baseline, after 6 weeks, and at the end of 4 months. Testing included anaerobic threshold (AnT, km/h) and maximal speed of running (Max, km/h) were measured with Conconi protocol on treadmill. Before and after a maximal exercise Test, plasma levels of cortisol (ug/dL) and ACTH (pg/ml) were assessed by chemiluminometry enzyme amplificated method. Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype model was used to determine 13 elements of somatotype. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used for statistical analysis (P<0.05). Body composition and AnT were not significantly different between each time point of testing. The mesomorph-ectomorph (N.=21), balanced mesomorph (N.=8) and balanced ectomorph (N.=7) were the most frequent somatotypes. There were significant decrements of cortisol plasma levels (at rest 33.4%; after test 27.46%), with insignificant changes of ACTH plasma levels, after 6 weeks of preparation phase and after finishing of half season, at rest and after maximal treadmill test. There were significant correlation between ACTH levels at rest (R=0.44; P<0.01) and some somatotypes (mesomorph endomorph, central and balanced endomorph) and ACTH levels after maximal exercise test (R=0.36; P<0.05) and balanced ectomorph and endomorph mesomorph. There were significant correlation between cortisol levels after maximal exercise test at the beginning of training

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Berga, S L; Loucks-Daniels, T L; Adler, L J; Chrousos, G P; Cameron, J L; Matthews, K A; Marcus, M D

    2000-04-01

    Women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea are anovulatory because of reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone drive. Several studies have documented hypercortisolemia, which suggests that functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is stress-induced. Further, with recovery (resumption of ovulation), cortisol decreased and gonadotropin-releasing hormone drive increased. Corticotropin-releasing hormone can increase cortisol and decrease gonadotropin-releasing hormone. To determine its role in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, we measured corticotropin-releasing hormone in cerebrospinal fluid along with arginine vasopressin, another potent adrenocorticotropic hormone secretagog, and beta-endorphin, which is released by corticotropin-releasing hormone and can inhibit gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, and beta-endorphin levels were measured in cerebrospinal fluid from 14 women with eumenorrhea and 15 women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone in cerebrospinal fluid and of vasopressin were comparable and beta-endorphin levels were lower in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. In women with established functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, increased cortisol and reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone are not sustained by elevated cerebrospinal-fluid corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin, or beta-endorphin. These data do not exclude a role for these factors in the initiation of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

  2. Profiles of Patients Demonstrating Abnormal Masking Level Difference Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battin, R. Ray; Waryas, Paul A.

    1985-01-01

    Profiles of three persons (9-11 years old) with extremely reduced masking level difference results (scores which measure binaural release from masking) are reported. It is suggested that tests of the MLD appear to be a useful adjunct of an evaluation battery for patients with presumed auditory perceptual problems. (CL)

  3. Abnormal adaptations to stress and impaired cardiovascular function in mice lacking corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor-2.

    PubMed

    Coste, S C; Kesterson, R A; Heldwein, K A; Stevens, S L; Heard, A D; Hollis, J H; Murray, S E; Hill, J K; Pantely, G A; Hohimer, A R; Hatton, D C; Phillips, T J; Finn, D A; Low, M J; Rittenberg, M B; Stenzel, P; Stenzel-Poore, M P

    2000-04-01

    The actions of corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh), a mediator of endocrine and behavioural responses to stress, and the related hormone urocortin (Ucn) are coordinated by two receptors, Crhr1 (encoded by Crhr) and Crhr2. These receptors may exhibit distinct functions due to unique tissue distribution and pharmacology. Crhr-null mice have defined central functions for Crhr1 in anxiety and neuroendocrine stress responses. Here we generate Crhr2-/- mice and show that Crhr2 supplies regulatory features to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) stress response. Although initiation of the stress response appears to be normal, Crhr2-/- mice show early termination of adrenocorticotropic hormone (Acth) release, suggesting that Crhr2 is involved in maintaining HPA drive. Crhr2 also appears to modify the recovery phase of the HPA response, as corticosterone levels remain elevated 90 minutes after stress in Crhr2-/- mice. In addition, stress-coping behaviours associated with dearousal are reduced in Crhr2-/- mice. We also demonstrate that Crhr2 is essential for sustained feeding suppression (hypophagia) induced by Ucn. Feeding is initially suppressed in Crhr2-/- mice following Ucn, but Crhr2-/- mice recover more rapidly and completely than do wild-type mice. In addition to central nervous system effects, we found that, in contrast to wild-type mice, Crhr2-/- mice fail to show the enhanced cardiac performance or reduced blood pressure associated with systemic Ucn, suggesting that Crhr2 mediates these peripheral haemodynamic effects. Moreover, Crhr2-/- mice have elevated basal blood pressure, demonstrating that Crhr2 participates in cardiovascular homeostasis. Our results identify specific responses in the brain and periphery that involve Crhr2.

  4. Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Emeville, Elise; Giton, Frank; Giusti, Arnaud; Oliva, Alejandro; Fiet, Jean; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Blanchet, Pascal; Multigner, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. Objective We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153, and chlordecone. Methods We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. Results DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. Conclusions These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether this response pattern

  5. Effect of anticonvulsants on plasma testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels.

    PubMed Central

    Barragry, J M; Makin, H L; Trafford, D J; Scott, D F

    1978-01-01

    Plasma sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone levels were measured in 29 patients with epilepsy (16 men and 13 women), most of them on chronic therapy with anticonvulsant drugs. Sex hormone binding globulin concentrations were increased in both sexes and testosterone levels in male patients. It is postulated that anticonvulsants may induce hepatic synthesis of SHBG. PMID:569688

  6. THYROID HORMONE INSUFFICIENCY AND BRAIN DEVELOPMENT -- DETERMINATION OF NEUROTOXICITY AT LOW LEVELS OF HORMONE DISRUPTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormone (TH) deficiencies during development produce deleterious effects on brain structure and function. The degree to which TH must be perturbed to induce neurotoxicity remains unclear. The present study was conducted as part of a Cooperative Agreement between US EPA, U...

  7. Physical activity and sex hormone levels in estradiol- and placebo-treated postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Farzana; Bernstein, Leslie; Hodis, Howard N; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Mack, Wendy J

    2011-10-01

    Postmenopausal changes in the hormonal milieu in women with or without hormone therapy are hypothesized to be the pathway for a number of menopause-associated modifications in physiology and disease risk. Physical activity may modify these changes in women's hormone profiles. The crucial yet complex relationship between physical activity and physiologic and pharmacologic sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women has not been investigated sufficiently. Using structured recall, physical activity was assessed longitudinally during a period of 2 years in 194 postmenopausal women (90 randomized to 1 mg 17β-estradiol treatment daily and 104 randomized to placebo) in the Estrogen in the Prevention of Atherosclerosis Trial. The levels of physical activity were correlated with the serum sex hormone and the serum hormone-binding globulin levels in each treatment group. Among the placebo-treated women, total energy expenditure was positively associated with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG; P < 0.001) and inversely associated with testosterones (total, bioavailable, or free) and androstenedione (P < 0.001 for all), as well as with estradiol (P = 0.02). In estradiol-treated women, estradiol levels were inversely associated with total energy expenditure (P = 0.002) and weekly hours spent in moderate or more vigorous physical activity (P = 0.001). Physical activity is associated with lower serum levels of estradiol in both hormone therapy-treated and untreated women. In placebo-treated women only, physical activity is associated with reduced androgen levels and elevated SHBG levels.

  8. Deficiencies in pro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone processing and abnormalities in thermoregulation in Cpefat/fat mice.

    PubMed

    Nillni, Eduardo A; Xie, Weihua; Mulcahy, Lawrence; Sanchez, Vanesa C; Wetsel, William C

    2002-12-13

    Cpe(fat/fat) mice are obese, diabetic, and infertile. They have a mutation in carboxypeptidase E (CPE), an enzyme that converts prohormone intermediates to bioactive peptides. The Cpe(fat) mutation leads to rapid degradation of the enzyme. To test whether pro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) conversion to TRH involves CPE, processing was examined in the Cpe(fat/fat) mouse. Hypothalamic TRH is depressed by at least 75% compared with wild-type controls. Concentrations of pro-TRH forms are increased in homozygotes. TRH-[Gly(4)-Lys(5)-Arg(6)] and TRH-[Gly(4)-Lys(5)] represent approximately 45% of the total TRH-like immunoreactivity in Cpe(fat/fat) mice; they constitute approximately 1% in controls. Levels of TRH-[Gly(4)] were depressed in homozygotes. Because the hypothalamus contains some TRH, another carboxypeptidase must be responsible for processing. Immunocytochemical studies indicate that TRH neurons contain CPE- and carboxypeptidase D-like immunoreactivity. Recombinant CPE or carboxypeptidase D can convert synthetic TRH-[Gly(4)-Lys(5)] and TRH-[Gly(4)-Lys(5)-Arg(6)] to TRH-[Gly(4)]. When Cpe(fat/fat) mice are exposed to cold, they cannot maintain their body temperatures, and this loss is associated with hypothalamic TRH depletion and reduction in thyroid hormone. These findings demonstrate that the Cpe(fat) mutation can affect not only carboxypeptidase activity but also endoproteolysis. Because Cpe(fat/fat) mice cannot sustain a cold challenge, and because alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis can affect metabolism, deficits in pro-TRH processing may contribute to the obese and diabetic phenotype in these mice.

  9. Relations between Hormone Levels and Observational Measures of Aggressive Behavior of Young Adolescents in Family Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoff-Germain, Gale; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Relations between hormone levels and aggressive behavior of adolescents in family interactions were examined. Higher estradiol and androstenedione levels were associated with higher degrees of aggressive behaviors in girls. Findings for boys were sparse. (PCB)

  10. Prenatal and Neonatal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Levels and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Vincent M.; Lutsky, Marta; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Lasley, Bill; Kharrazi, Martin; Windham, Gayle; Gee, Nancy; Croen, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are critical for normal brain development. This study examined autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured in mid-pregnancy maternal serum and infant blood after birth. Three groups of children born in Orange County, CA in 2000-2001 were identified: ASD (n = 78), developmental delay…

  11. Prolonged inhibition of luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels in male rats with the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist SB-75.

    PubMed Central

    Bokser, L; Bajusz, S; Groot, K; Schally, A V

    1990-01-01

    Inhibitory effects of the potent antagonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone N-Ac-[3-(2-naphthyl)-D-alanine1,4-chloro-D-phenylalanine2,3- (3-pyridyl)-D- alanine3,D-citrulline6,D-alanine10]luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (SB-75) free of edematogenic effects were investigated in male rats. In a study to determine the effect on luteinizing hormone levels in castrated male rats, SB-75 was injected s.c. in doses of 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10 micrograms. Blood samples were taken at different intervals for 48 hr. All doses of SB-75 significantly decreased luteinizing hormone levels for greater than 6 hr (P less than 0.01); this inhibition lasted for greater than 24 hr (P less than 0.01) with a dose of 5.0 micrograms and greater than 48 hr with 10 micrograms (P less than 0.05). Serum testosterone levels were also measured in intact male rats injected with SB-75 in doses of 25, 50, and 100 micrograms. All doses produced a dramatic fall in testosterone to castration levels 6 hr after injection (P less than 0.01); this inhibition of serum testosterone was maintained for greater than 72 hr, but only the 100-micrograms dose could keep testosterone in the castration range for greater than 24 hr (P less than 0.01). In another study using a specific RIA, we obtained the pharmacokinetic release pattern of SB-75 from two sustained delivery formulations of SB-75 pamoate microgranules and examined their effect on serum testosterone. After a single i.m. injection of 20 mg of one batch of microgranules, a large peak corresponding to SB-75 at 45.8 ng/ml was observed, corresponding to the "burst" effect. Levels of the analog decreased to 19.6 ng/ml on day 2, gradually reached a concentration of 4.7 ng/ml on day 7, and kept declining thereafter. Testosterone levels were reduced on day 1 (P less than 0.01) and were maintained at low values for greater than 7 days (P less than 0.05). In rats injected with 10 mg of SB-75 pamoate microgranules of the second batch, SB-75 serum

  12. Prolonged inhibition of luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels in male rats with the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist SB-75.

    PubMed

    Bokser, L; Bajusz, S; Groot, K; Schally, A V

    1990-09-01

    Inhibitory effects of the potent antagonist of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone N-Ac-[3-(2-naphthyl)-D-alanine1,4-chloro-D-phenylalanine2,3- (3-pyridyl)-D- alanine3,D-citrulline6,D-alanine10]luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (SB-75) free of edematogenic effects were investigated in male rats. In a study to determine the effect on luteinizing hormone levels in castrated male rats, SB-75 was injected s.c. in doses of 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10 micrograms. Blood samples were taken at different intervals for 48 hr. All doses of SB-75 significantly decreased luteinizing hormone levels for greater than 6 hr (P less than 0.01); this inhibition lasted for greater than 24 hr (P less than 0.01) with a dose of 5.0 micrograms and greater than 48 hr with 10 micrograms (P less than 0.05). Serum testosterone levels were also measured in intact male rats injected with SB-75 in doses of 25, 50, and 100 micrograms. All doses produced a dramatic fall in testosterone to castration levels 6 hr after injection (P less than 0.01); this inhibition of serum testosterone was maintained for greater than 72 hr, but only the 100-micrograms dose could keep testosterone in the castration range for greater than 24 hr (P less than 0.01). In another study using a specific RIA, we obtained the pharmacokinetic release pattern of SB-75 from two sustained delivery formulations of SB-75 pamoate microgranules and examined their effect on serum testosterone. After a single i.m. injection of 20 mg of one batch of microgranules, a large peak corresponding to SB-75 at 45.8 ng/ml was observed, corresponding to the "burst" effect. Levels of the analog decreased to 19.6 ng/ml on day 2, gradually reached a concentration of 4.7 ng/ml on day 7, and kept declining thereafter. Testosterone levels were reduced on day 1 (P less than 0.01) and were maintained at low values for greater than 7 days (P less than 0.05). In rats injected with 10 mg of SB-75 pamoate microgranules of the second batch, SB-75 serum

  13. Steroid hormone levels associated with passive and active smoking

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.; Makambi, Kepher H.; Soldin, Steven J.; O’Mara, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Context Cigarette tobacco smoke is a potent environmental contaminant known to adversely affect health including fertility and pregnancy. Objective To examine the associations between second-hand cigarette tobacco-smoke exposure, or active smoking and serum concentrations of steroid hormones using tandem mass spectrometry. Design Healthy women (18–45 y) from the general community in the Metropolitan Washington, DC were recruited at the follicular stage of their menstrual cycle. Participants were assigned to one of three study groups: active smokers (N= 107), passive smokers (N= 86), or non-smokers (N= 100). Classifications were based on a combination of self-reporting and serum cotinine concentrations. Methods Serum androgens, estrogens, progestins, androstenedione, aldosterone, cortisol, corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), 11-deoxycortisol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 (25-OHVitD3) and cotinine were measured by isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) (API-5000). Kruskal–Wallis tests were used to assess median differences among the three groups, with Dunn’s multiple comparison test for post hoc analysis. Results Serum estrone, estradiol, and estriol concentrations were lower in active and passive smokers than in non-smokers. The three study groups differed significantly in serum concentrations of 16-OHE1, aldosterone and 25-OHVitD3, as well as in the ratios of many of the steroids. Pair-wise comparison of the groups demonstrated significant differences in hormone concentrations between (i) smokers and nonsmokers for aldosterone: (ii) passive smokers and non-smokers for aldosterone, progesterone and estriol. Moreover, for smokers and passive smokers, there were no significant differences in these hormone concentrations. Conclusions Smoke exposure was associated with lower than normal median steroid hormone concentrations. These processes may be instrumental in explaining some adverse effects of

  14. The environmental contaminant tributyltin leads to abnormalities in different levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in female rats.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Marcelle Novaes; Santos-Silva, Ana Paula; Rodrigues-Pereira, Paula; Paiva-Melo, Francisca Diana; de Lima Junior, Niedson Correa; Teixeira, Mariana Pires; Soares, Paula; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Munstock; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; de Carvalho, Denise Pires; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; Miranda-Alves, Leandro

    2018-06-11

    Tributyltin is a biocide used in nautical paints, aiming to reduce fouling of barnacles in ships. Despite the fact that many effects of TBT on marine species are known, studies in mammals have been limited, especially those evaluating its effect on the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure to TBT on the HPT axis in female rats. Female Wistar rats received vehicle, TBT 200 ng kg -1 BW d -1 or 1000 ng kg -1 BW d -1 orally by gavage for 40 d. Hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, liver and blood samples were collected. TBT200 and TBT1000 thyroids showed vacuolated follicular cells, with follicular hypertrophy and hyperplasia. An increase in epithelial height and a decrease in the thyroid follicle and colloid area were observed in TBT1000 rats. Moreover, an increase in the epithelium/colloid area ratio was observed in both TBT groups. Lower TRH mRNA expression was observed in the hypothalami of TBT200 and TBT1000 rats. An increase in Dio1 mRNA levels was observed in the hypothalamus and thyroid in TBT1000 rats only. TSH serum levels were increased in TBT200 rats. In TBT1000 rats, there was a decrease in total T4 serum levels compared to control rats, whereas T3 serum levels did not show significant alterations. We conclude that TBT exposure can promote critical abnormalities in the HPT axis, including changes in TRH mRNA expression and serum TSH and T4 levels, in addition to affecting thyroid morphology. These findings demonstrate that TBT disrupts the HPT axis. Additionally, the changes found in thyroid hormones suggest that TBT may interfere with the peripheral metabolism of these hormones, an idea corroborated by the observed changes in Dio1 mRNA levels. Therefore, TBT exposition might interfere not only with the thyroid axis but also with thyroid hormone metabolism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lifetime cumulative number of menstrual cycles and serum sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; van Gils, Carla H; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Monninkhof, Evelyn; van Noord, Paulus A H; Peeters, Petra H M

    2008-03-01

    Lifetime cumulative number of menstrual cycles is related to breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between this index and serum sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women. Cross-sectional study including 860 naturally postmenopausal Dutch participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Lifetime cumulative number of menstrual cycles was computed using questionnaire data on ages at menarche and menopause, number of pregnancies, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use (OC) and regularity pattern. Measurements of hormones included estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), andostrenedione, testosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEAS). The relation between the lifetime cumulative number of menstrual cycles and hormone levels was assessed using analysis of covariance. Relations between reproductive characteristics and hormone levels were also studied. Adjustments for characteristics at blood collection included age, years since menopause, BMI, hormone replacement therapy use, OC use, smoking habits, alcohol intake and physical activity were done. Lifetime cumulative number of cycles was related with SHBG; participants in the lowest category had higher SHBG levels. For the separate characteristics, DHEAS and androstenedione increased significantly with increasing age at menarche, while androstenedione and testosterone decreased with increasing age at menopause. For the parity characteristics, SHBG levels increased according to the number of live births. Lifetime cumulative number menstrual cycles was related only to SHBG. Therefore, free levels of estrogens or androgens may be related to this number of menstrual cycles estimate, reflecting lifetime exposure to ovarian hormones.

  16. Comparative study of thyroid hormone and antithyroid antibody levels in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and pregnant patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chengkai; Zhang, Zhenjian

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of thyroid hormone and antithyroid antibodies and their relationship with pregnancy outcome in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diabetic patients. Fifty patients with GDM and 50 pregnant patients with diabetes were selected. Their levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin, FT3, FT4, TGab, TSH, TPOab were measured until parturition. There were no statistically significant differences in the age, gestational age, weight, FBG and glycosylated hemoglobin between the two groups (P>0.05). The levels of FT3 and FT4 in patients with GDM were significantly lower than those in diabetic pregnant patients, while the levels of TSH, TGab, TPOab of GDM patients were significantly higher than in diabetic pregnant patients (P<0.05). The total incidence rates of premature delivery, post-term birth and cesarean section in patients with GDM were significantly higher than those in diabetic pregnant patients. At six-month follow-up, the intellectual levels of infants delivered by patients with GDM were significantly lower than those of diabetic pregnant patients (P<0.05). The levels of thyroid hormones and related antibodies in patients with GDM were abnormal, which may have affected outcome of pregnancy and the intellectual level of their infants.

  17. Abnormal electrocardiographic findings in athletes: Correlation with intensity of sport and level of competition.

    PubMed

    Dores, Hélder; Malhotra, Aneil; Sheikh, Nabeel; Millar, Lynne; Dhutia, Harshil; Narain, Rajay; Merghani, Ahmed; Papadakis, Michael; Sharma, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    Athletes can exhibit abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) phenotypes that require further evaluation prior to competition. These are apparently more prevalent in high-intensity endurance sports. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between ECG findings in athletes and intensity of sport and level of competition. A cohort of 3423 competitive athletes had their ECGs assessed according to the Seattle criteria (SC). The presence of abnormal ECGs was correlated with: (1) intensity of sport (low/moderate vs. at least one high static or dynamic component); (2) competitive level (regional vs. national/international); (3) training volume (≤20 vs. >20 hours/week); (4) type of sport (high dynamic vs. high static component). The same endpoints were studied according to the 'Refined Criteria' (RC). Abnormal ECGs according to the SC were present in 225 (6.6%) athletes, more frequently in those involved in high-intensity sports (8.0% vs. 5.4%; p=0.002), particularly in dynamic sports, and competing at national/international level (7.1% vs. 4.9%; p=0.028). Training volume was not significantly associated with abnormal ECGs. By multivariate analysis, high-intensity sport (OR 1.55, 1.18-2.03; p=0.002) and national/international level (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.04-2.14; p=0.027) were independent predictors of abnormal ECGs, and these variables, when combined, doubled the prevalence of this finding. According to the RC, abnormal ECGs decreased to 103 (3.0%), but were also more frequent in high-intensity sports (4.2% vs. 2.0%; p<0.001). There is a positive correlation between higher intensity of sports and increased prevalence of ECG abnormalities. This relationship persists with the use of more restrictive criteria for ECG interpretation, although the number of abnormal ECGs is lower. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of long-term fasting on female hormone levels: Ramadan model.

    PubMed

    Cağlayan, E K; Göçmen, A Y; Delibas, N

    2014-01-01

    Ramadan fasting is a special model of hunger and particularly affects metabolic processes, including carbohydrate and lipid levels. Endocrine changes induced by Ramadan fasting are not well known. The aim of this article was to evaluate the changes in hormone levels in women before and after the special Muslim fasting period of Ramadan. This study was performed in 30 healthy women in Obstetrics and Gynecology department during the Ramadan month of2011. Patients during and after the first menstrual period had menstrual cycles fasting blood samples taken on the same days. Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), testosterone, and prolactin (PRL) levels were determined. Before and during fasting LH, FSH, E2, testosterone and PRL levels were not statistically different. Despite the limited available studies on these subjects in women, effect of Ramadan fasting on hormone levels were found to be within the normal limits.

  19. NIH-Supported Trials Test Hormonal Therapy in Older Men with Low Testosterone Levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... February 18, 2016 NIH-supported trials test hormonal therapy in older men with low testosterone levels Testosterone ... Hadley, M.D., director of NIA’s Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology. “In contrast, though, the results ...

  20. Serum thyrotropin and thyroid hormone levels in elderly and middle-aged euthyroid persons.

    PubMed

    Hershman, J M; Pekary, A E; Berg, L; Solomon, D H; Sawin, C T

    1993-08-01

    To determine whether serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels are altered in euthyroid older persons compared with middle-aged adults. Serum TSH and thyroid hormone levels were measured in a large group of older persons (> 70 years old, n = 216) and their middle-aged offspring (40-60 years old, n = 211) after excluding those with clinical or historical evidence of thyroid disease or abnormal thyroid function. Serum TSH, thyroxine (T4), free T4 index, estimated free T4, triiodothyronine (T3), estimated free T3, and ferritin levels were measured on the Abbott IMx instrument. Peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies were measured by radioimmunoassay using Kronus kits. Overall, serum TSH showed a log-normal distribution. The geometric mean TSH (mU/L) and 95% confidence limits in the older persons, 1.24 (0.29-5.4), did not differ significantly from that in the middle-aged, 1.45 (0.54-3.9). The mean TSH in the 264 women, 1.37 (0.34-5.5), was similar to that of the 163 men, 1.30 (0.48-3.5). The mean TSH in older women, 1.21 (0.22-6.6), was slightly but significantly lower than that in middle-aged women, 1.52 (0.55-4.2). However, when euthyroid women with positive antibodies were excluded, this difference was not significant. Four of the 123 older women had TSH < 0.1 mU/L, but none of the men or middle-aged women had a suppressed serum TSH. The mean TSH in older men, 1.28 (0.43-3.8), was similar to that in middle-aged men, 1.32 (0.55-3.2). Free T4 was slightly higher in older women than middle-aged women. There were no significant correlations between TSH and any thyroid hormone level. Serum ferritin, measured as a potential marker for the action of thyroid hormone, did not correlate with any measure of thyroid function. At least one antibody level was > 10 U/mL in 14.6% of older women, 15.6% of middle-aged women, 4.3% of older men, and no middle-aged men. When those with milder elevations of antibody levels were included (at least one level > 1 U/mL), the prevalence was 32% of older

  1. Human hypocretin and melanin-concentrating hormone levels are linked to emotion and social interaction.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Ashley M; Fried, Itzhak; Wilson, Charles L; Staba, Richard J; Behnke, Eric J; Lam, Hoa A; Maidment, Nigel T; Karlsson, Karl Æ; Lapierre, Jennifer L; Siegel, Jerome M

    2013-01-01

    The neurochemical changes underlying human emotions and social behaviour are largely unknown. Here we report on the changes in the levels of two hypothalamic neuropeptides, hypocretin-1 and melanin-concentrating hormone, measured in the human amygdala. We show that hypocretin-1 levels are maximal during positive emotion, social interaction and anger, behaviours that induce cataplexy in human narcoleptics. In contrast, melanin-concentrating hormone levels are minimal during social interaction, but are increased after eating. Both peptides are at minimal levels during periods of postoperative pain despite high levels of arousal. Melanin-concentrating hormone levels increase at sleep onset, consistent with a role in sleep induction, whereas hypocretin-1 levels increase at wake onset, consistent with a role in wake induction. Levels of these two peptides in humans are not simply linked to arousal, but rather to specific emotions and state transitions. Other arousal systems may be similarly emotionally specialized.

  2. Do differences in female sex hormone levels contribute to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease?

    PubMed

    Menon, Shyam; Prew, Sandra; Parkes, Gill; Evans, Stephanie; Smith, Lynne; Nightingale, Peter; Trudgill, Nigel

    2013-07-01

    Hormone replacement therapy is associated with both reflux symptoms and oesophagitis. During pregnancy, elevated sex hormones are thought to contribute to the high prevalence of reflux symptoms. Increased female sex hormone levels may thus contribute to the aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). To determine if female sex hormone levels are associated with symptomatic acid reflux. Women with GORD symptoms undergoing oesophageal pH monitoring were prospectively recruited. 'Cases' and 'controls' were defined by normal and excess total acid exposure on pH monitoring and were age-matched and BMI-matched. Case and control groups were further stratified into premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. Demographic data were collected, body morphological parameters were measured and oestradiol, oestrone, progesterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured. One hundred and twenty-one women [mean age 52 (SD 11.6) years] were recruited and 104 [mean age 51 (SD 11.6) years] were matched for age and BMI. Increasing BMI, as expected, correlated with increasing acid exposure [premenopausal (r=0.404, P=0.02), postmenopausal (r=0.401, P=0.01)]. Increasing BMI also correlated with sex hormone levels [premenopausal oestradiol (r=0.52, P=0.004), postmenopausal oestrone (r=0.364, P=0.01)]. In premenopausal women, sex hormone binding globulin (r=-0.27, P=0.05) and testosterone (r=0.29, P=0.05) correlated with increasing acid exposure, but oestradiol fell just short of significance (r=0.26, P=0.06). However, on matching for BMI, no association between sex hormones and increased acid exposure on pH monitoring was found on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Female sex hormone levels do not appear to contribute to GORD, once adjustment is made for the influence of increasing BMI.

  3. Normal adiponectin levels despite abnormal glucose tolerance (or diabetes) and inflammation in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hammana, I; Malet, A; Costa, M; Brochiero, E; Berthiaume, Y; Potvin, S; Chiasson, J-L; Coderre, L; Rabasa-Lhoret, R

    2007-06-01

    Circulating adiponectin levels are negatively associated with glucose intolerance, inflammation and central adiposity. Since these conditions are common in cystic fibrosis (CF), we examined whether adiponectin values are altered in these patients. To determine if CF patients have altered adiponectin levels and if these levels correlate with glucose tolerance categories (normal, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD)), insulin resistance or inflammatory markers such as fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP). Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were performed and adiponectin levels were measured in 90 CF patients not known to be diabetic and 15 healthy controls matched for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Inflammatory markers, serum albumin concentrations and the clinical status of CF patients (i.e. pulmonary function) were also examined. CF pathology was characterized by a high prevalence (43.5%) of glucose tolerance abnormalities: 26.5% of IGT and 17.0% of newly diagnosed CFRD. CF patients also presented systemic inflammation as revealed by a significant increase of fibrinogen (P=0.029) in all patients and higher CRP levels in CFRD patients compared to the controls (P<0.05). On the other hand, CF and control subjects had similar albumin serum concentration. While CF patients and controls had similar serum adiponectin values, women had significantly higher hormone levels than men (P<0.001). Adiponectin levels did not correlate with glucose tolerance, inflammatory markers or insulin resistance. On the other hand, they correlated positively with both total and HDL-cholesterol (P<0.001). CF patients did not show any alterations in adiponectin levels despite insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and sub clinical chronic inflammation. Thus, CF appears to be one of the rare conditions in which discordance between adiponectin values and insulin resistance or inflammation is evident.

  4. Neural Correlates of Erotic Stimulation under Different Levels of Female Sexual Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Abler, Birgit; Kumpfmüller, Daniela; Grön, Georg; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia; Seeringer, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N = 12), and a different group of females (nC group; N = 12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results

  5. Neural correlates of erotic stimulation under different levels of female sexual hormones.

    PubMed

    Abler, Birgit; Kumpfmüller, Daniela; Grön, Georg; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia; Seeringer, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N = 12), and a different group of females (nC group; N = 12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results

  6. Hormone levels in neonatal hair reflect prior maternal stress exposure during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Amita; Lubach, Gabriele R.; Ziegler, Toni E.; Coe, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Hormones present in hair provide summative information about endocrine activity while the hair was growing. Therefore, it can be collected from an infant after birth and still provide retrospective information about hormone exposure during prenatal development. We employed this approach to determine whether a delimited period of maternal stress during pregnancy affected the concentrations of glucocorticoids and gonadal hormones in the hair of neonatal rhesus monkeys. Hair from 22 infant monkeys exposed to 5 weeks of gestational disturbance was compared to specimens from 13 infants from undisturbed control pregnancies. Using an LC/MS/MS based technique, which permitted seven steroid hormones to be quantified simultaneously, we found 2 hormones were significantly different in infants from disturbed pregnancies. Cortisol and testosterone levels were lower in the hair of both male and female neonates. Maternal hair hormone levels collected on the same day after delivery no longer showed effects of the disturbance earlier during pregnancy. This study documents that a period of acute stress, lasting for 20% of gestation, has sustained effects on the hormones to which a developing fetus is exposed. PMID:26802598

  7. Prevalence of Abnormal Vitamin D Levels Among Division I NCAA Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Villacis, Diego; Yi, Anthony; Jahn, Ryan; Kephart, Curtis J.; Charlton, Timothy; Gamradt, Seth C.; Romano, Russ; Tibone, James E.; Hatch, George F. Rick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Up to 1 billion people have insufficient or deficient vitamin D levels. Despite the well-documented, widespread prevalence of low vitamin D levels and the importance of vitamin D for athletes, there is a paucity of research investigating the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in athletes. Hypothesis: We investigated the prevalence of abnormal vitamin D levels in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I college athletes at a single institution. We hypothesized that vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent among our cohort. Study Design: Cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 1. Methods: We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels of 223 NCAA Division I athletes between June 2012 and August 2012. The prevalence of normal (≥32 ng/mL), insufficient (20 to <32 ng/mL), and deficient (<20 ng/mL) vitamin D levels was determined. Logistic regression was utilized to analyze risk factors for abnormal vitamin D levels. Results: The mean serum 25(OH)D level for the 223 members of this study was 40.1 ± 14.9 ng/mL. Overall, 148 (66.4%) participants had sufficient 25(OH)D levels, and 75 (33.6%) had abnormal levels. Univariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of abnormal vitamin D levels: male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 2.83; P = 0.0006), Hispanic race (OR = 6.07; P = 0.0063), black race (OR = 19.1; P < 0.0001), and dark skin tone (OR = 15.2; P < 0.0001). Only dark skin tone remained a significant predictor of abnormal vitamin D levels after multivariate analysis (adjusted OR = 15.2; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: In a large cohort of NCAA athletes, more than one third had abnormal vitamin D levels. Races with dark skin tones are at much higher risk than white athletes. Male athletes are more likely than female athletes to be vitamin D deficient. Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy NCAA athletes. Clinical Relevance: Many studies indicate a significant prevalence of vitamin-D insufficiency

  8. MODE OF ACTION: NEUROTOXICITY INDUCED BY DEVELOPMENTAL THYROID HORMONE INSUFFICIENCY -- NEUROLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES RESULTING FROM EXPOSURE TO PROPYLTHIOURACIL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A manuscript summarizes a workshop aimed at developing a framework to determine the relevancy of animal modes-of-action for extrapolation to humans. This specific report used animal data on neurodevelopmental effects of thyroid hormone disruption to test the framework. Polyhaloge...

  9. [Sleep quality and hormone levels in the morning and evening hours under chemical pollution].

    PubMed

    Budkevich, R O; Budkevich, E V

    To evaluate self-assessment of sleep and the level of hormones in the morning and evening in chemical pollution conditions. Three hundred adolescent and adult men living in the regions with low and high levels of chemical pollution were examined using questionnaires for self-assessment of quality of sleep, sleep hygiene, daytime sleepiness. Levels of cortisol and testosterone in the saliva were determined in the morning and evening hours by ELISA. In areas with low pollution level, there were normal changes in hormone levels with an increase in the morning and decrease in the evening. In high pollution conditions, the average levels of hormones increased, the morning-evening gradient disappeared. These conditions were also associated with an increase in daytime sleepiness and disturbances in the sleep-wake cycle and the endocrine regulation system that indicate the possibility of the development of internal desynchronosis.

  10. Prader-Willi syndrome with elevated follicle stimulating hormone levels and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nagai, T; Mimura, N; Tomizawa, T; Monden, T; Mori, M

    1998-12-01

    A 21 -year-old man with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) was hospitalized due to hyperglycemia. After diet therapy and transient insulin administration, his blood glucose levels improved. Based on the fact that his urinary C-peptide levels increased, the diabetes mellitus may have been due to insulin resistance with obesity. In addition, his testes had become atrophied. Testosterone levels remained low even after human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administration. Luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were also low after LH releasing hormone (LHRH) administration. The LH response increased slightly after daily LHRH administration, indicating hypothalamic hypogonadism. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were, however, high and increased after LHRH administration. The selective FSH elevation may have been due to the accompanying idiopathic oligospermia.

  11. Residual hormone levels in used contraceptive rings as a measurement of adherence to vaginal ring use.

    PubMed

    Haaland, Richard E; Holder, Angela; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Nyagol, Beatrice; Makanga, Mumbi; Oyaro, Boaz; Humwa, Felix; Williams, Tiffany; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Desai, Mitesh; Huey, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    This study sought to measure residual contraceptive hormone levels in vaginal rings as an adherence marker for monitoring product use in clinical trials. Residual etonogestrel and ethinyl estradiol levels from used NuvaRings® of 26 self-reported adherent women enrolled in a clinical trial of vaginal ring acceptability were compared to those from 16 women who used NuvaRing® as their contraceptive choice. Twenty-one (81%) clinical trial rings had contraceptive hormone levels within the range of those used as a contraceptive choice. Five returned rings had unused or discordant levels of residual contraceptive hormones. Residual vaginal ring drug levels could help assess adherence in clinical trials. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Type 3 deiodinase deficiency results in functional abnormalities at multiple levels of the thyroid axis.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Arturo; Martinez, M Elena; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Van Sande, Jacqueline; Refetoff, Samuel; Galton, Valerie Anne; St Germain, Donald L

    2007-12-01

    The type 3 deiodinase (D3) is a selenoenzyme that inactivates thyroid hormones and is highly expressed during development and in the adult central nervous system. We have recently observed that mice lacking D3 activity (D3KO mice) develop perinatal thyrotoxicosis followed in adulthood by a pattern of hormonal levels that is suggestive of central hypothyroidism. In this report we describe the results of additional studies designed to investigate the regulation of the thyroid axis in this unique animal model. Our results demonstrate that the thyroid and pituitary glands of D3KO mice do not respond appropriately to TSH and TRH stimulation, respectively. Furthermore, after induction of severe hypothyroidism by antithyroid treatment, the rise in serum TSH in D3KO mice is only 15% of that observed in wild-type mice. In addition, D3KO animals rendered severely hypothyroid fail to show the expected increase in prepro-TRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Finally, treatment with T(3) results in a serum T(3) level in D3KO mice that is much higher than that in wild-type mice. This is accompanied by significant weight loss and lethality in mutant animals. In conclusion, the absence of D3 activity results in impaired clearance of T(3) and significant defects in the mechanisms regulating the thyroid axis at all levels: hypothalamus, pituitary, and thyroid.

  13. Hypergravity and estrogen effects on avian anterior pituitary growth hormone and prolactin levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorindo, R. P.; Negulesco, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Developing female chicks with fractured right radii were maintained for 14 d at either earth gravity (1 g) or a hypergravity state (2 g). The birds at 1 g were divided into groups which received daily injections of (1) saline, (2) 200 micrograms estrone, and (3) 400 micrograms estrone for 14 d. The 2-g birds were divided into three similarly treated groups. All 2-g birds showed significantly lower body weights than did 1-g birds. Anterior pituitary (AP) glands were excised and analyzed for growth hormone and prolactin content by analytical electrophoresis. The 1-g chicks receiving either dose of daily estrogen showed increased AP growth hormone levels, whereas hypergravity alone did not affect growth hormone content. Chicks exposed to daily estrogen and hypergravity displayed reduced growth hormone levels. AP prolactin levels were slightly increased by the lower daily estrogen dose in 1-g birds, but markedly reduced in birds exposed only to hypergravity. Doubly-treated chicks displayed normal prolactin levels. Reduced growth in 2-g birds might be due, in part, to reduced AP levels of prolactin and/or growth hormone.

  14. Intraindividual variation in levels of serum testosterone and other reproductive and adrenal hormones in men.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Donald J; O'Donnell, Amy B; Matsumoto, Alvin M; McKinlay, John B

    2007-12-01

    Estimates of intraindividual variation in hormone levels provide the basis for interpreting hormone measurements clinically and for developing eligibility criteria for trials of hormone replacement therapy. However, reliable systematic estimates of such variation are lacking. To estimate intraindividual variation of serum total, free and bioavailable testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), SHBG, LH, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), oestrone, oestradiol and cortisol, and the contributions of biological and assay variation to the total. Paired blood samples were obtained 1-3 days apart at entry and again 3 months and 6 months later (maximum six samples per subject). Each sample consisted of a pool of equal aliquots of two blood draws 20 min apart. Men aged 30-79 years were randomly selected from the respondents to the Boston Area Community Health Survey, a study of the health of the general population of Boston, MA, USA. Analysis was based on 132 men, including 121 who completed all six visits, 8 who completed the first two visits and 3 who completed the first four visits. Day-to-day and 3-month (long-term) intraindividual standard deviations, after transforming measurements to logarithms to eliminate the contribution of hormone level to intraindividual variation. Biological variation generally accounted for more of total intraindividual variation than did assay variation. Day-to-day biological variation accounted for more of the total than did long-term biological variation. Short-term variability was greater in hormones with pulsatile secretion (e.g. LH) than those that exhibit less ultradian variation. Depending on the hormone, the intraindividual standard deviations imply that a clinician can expect to see a difference exceeding 18-28% about half the time when two measurements are made on a subject. The difference will exceed 27-54% about a quarter of the time. Given the level of intraindividual variability in hormone

  15. Effect of ethanolic extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Yu, Longjiang; Jin, Wenwen; Ao, Mingzhang

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of long-term ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and compare them with the effect of diethylstilbestrol. Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized or sham operated. Both sham and OVX control groups (n = 10, respectively) received the vehicle. The remaining OVX rats were oral administrated with ethanol extract of Maca (0.096, or 0.24g/kg; n = 10, respectively) and diethylstilbestrol (0.05 mg/kg; n = 10). The treatment continued for 28 weeks. At week 12 and week 28, the blood of rats was collected and serum hormone levels, including estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. At week 12, the levels of serum E2 were slightly higher in Maca groups than that in OVX group; T levels were significantly decreased; and FSH levels were advanced slightly in Maca groups than that in sham group. After 28 weeks administration, serum E2 levels in Maca-treated animals did not differ significantly from sham control, the low dose of Maca increased serum E2 levels, and Maca prevented increase in serum FSH levels compared with OVX group. Long-term Maca supply modulates endocrine hormone balance in OVX rats, especially it decreases enhanced FSH levels. It is proposed that Maca may become a potential choice for postmenopausal women.

  16. Effect of ethanolic extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Yu, Longjiang; Jin, Wenwen; Ao, Mingzhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of long-term ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and compare them with the effect of diethylstilbestrol. Materials and Methods: Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized or sham operated. Both sham and OVX control groups (n = 10, respectively) received the vehicle. The remaining OVX rats were oral administrated with ethanol extract of Maca (0.096, or 0.24g/kg; n = 10, respectively) and diethylstilbestrol (0.05 mg/kg; n = 10). The treatment continued for 28 weeks. At week 12 and week 28, the blood of rats was collected and serum hormone levels, including estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: At week 12, the levels of serum E2 were slightly higher in Maca groups than that in OVX group; T levels were significantly decreased; and FSH levels were advanced slightly in Maca groups than that in sham group. After 28 weeks administration, serum E2 levels in Maca-treated animals did not differ significantly from sham control, the low dose of Maca increased serum E2 levels, and Maca prevented increase in serum FSH levels compared with OVX group. Conclusions: Long-term Maca supply modulates endocrine hormone balance in OVX rats, especially it decreases enhanced FSH levels. It is proposed that Maca may become a potential choice for postmenopausal women. PMID:25097281

  17. Influence of chewing rate on salivary stress hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Tasaka, Akinori; Tahara, Yasuaki; Sugiyama, Tetsuya; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of different chewing rates on salivary cortisol levels as a stress indicator. The subject group consisted of 16 healthy males. They were required to rest for 30 min, and then given arithmetic calculations to perform for 30 min as stress loading. Immediately after, the first set of saliva specimens (S1) was collected over a period of 1 min to measure cortisol levels. Next, they were asked to chew a tasteless gum base for 10 min, and the second set of saliva specimens (S2) was collected in the same manner. They were then required to rest for 10 min, after which the third set of saliva specimens (S3) was collected. Chewing rates were set to slow, habitual, and fast in time with a metronome. Salivary cortisol levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Changes in salivary cortisol levels comparing S1 with S2, and S1 with S3 were determined. Changes in salivary cortisol levels between S1 and S2 showed a reduction of 4.7%, 14.6%, and 16.2% with slow, habitual, and fast chewing, respectively. A significant difference was observed between slow and fast chewing. Changes in salivary cortisol levels between S1 and S3 showed a reduction of 14.4%, 22.2%, and 25.8% with slow, habitual, and fast chewing, respectively. A significant difference was observed between slow and fast chewing. This study showed that differences in chewing rate affected salivary cortisol levels as a stress indicator, and suggested that the effect on stress release with fast chewing is greater than that with slow chewing.

  18. Prostate-specific antigen levels in the United States: implications of various definitions for abnormal.

    PubMed

    Welch, H Gilbert; Schwartz, Lisa M; Woloshin, Steven

    2005-08-03

    The finding that some men with a normal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (i.e., less than 4 ng/mL) nonetheless have microscopic evidence of prostate cancer has led to some suggestions that the threshold defining abnormal should be lowered to 2.5 ng/mL. We examined the effect of this lower threshold on the number of American men who would be labeled abnormal by a single PSA test. We obtained PSA data on a nationally representative sample of American men 40 years of age and older with no history of prostate cancer and no current inflammation or infection of the prostate gland (n = 1308) from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We obtained data on the 10-year risk of prostate cancer death in the pre-PSA era from DevCan, the National Cancer Institute's software to calculate the probability of dying of cancer. Based on NHANES data, approximately 1.5 million American men aged 40 to 69 years have a PSA level over 4.0 ng/mL. Lowering the threshold to 2.5 ng/mL would label an additional 1.8 million men as abnormal, if all men were screened. For men aged 70 years or older, the corresponding numbers are 1.5 and 1.2 million. The proportion of the population affected by different thresholds would vary with age. Among men in their 60s, for example, 17% have a PSA level over 2.5 ng/mL, 5.7% have a PSA level over 4.0 ng/mL, and 1.7% have a PSA level over 10.0 ng/mL. For context, only 0.9% of men in their 60s are expected to die from prostate cancer in the next 10 years. Lowering the PSA threshold to 2.5 ng/mL would double the number of men defined as abnormal, to up to 6 million. Until there is evidence that screening is effective, increasing the number of men recommended for prostate biopsy--and the number potentially diagnosed and treated unnecessarily--would be a mistake.

  19. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) enhances the serum levels of luteinising hormone in female rats.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Fumiaki; Jikyo, Tamaki; Takeda, Ryosuke; Ogata, Misato

    2014-02-03

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed fertility benefits. This study investigated the effect of Maca on the serum pituitary hormone levels during the pro-oestrus phase. Maca powder was made from the tubers of Lepidium meyenii Walp collected, dried, and reduced to powder at the plantation in Junín Plateau and was purchased from Yamano del Perú SAC. The Maca powder was identified by chemical profiling and taxonomic methods. Two groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were provided feed with normal feed containing 5%, 25%, or 50% Maca powder ad libitum for 7 weeks. At 1800h of the proestrus stage, the rats were euthanised, and blood samples were collected for serum isolation. The serum pituitary hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). No significant differences in feed intake or growth rate were observed among the rats. During the pro-oestrus stage, a 4.5-fold increase (P<0.01) in luteinising hormone (LH) and a 19-fold increase (P<0.01) in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were observed in the sera of rats fed with 50% Maca powder compared with the control rats. No significant differences were observed in the levels of the other pituitary hormones, including growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A dose-dependent increase of LH serum levels was observed within the range of 3-30g Maca/kg. Furthermore, the enhancement of the LH serum levels was specific to the pro-oestrus LH surge. The present study demonstrates that Maca uniquely enhances the LH serum levels of pituitary hormones in female rats during the pro-oestrus LH surge and acts in a pharmacological, dose-dependent manner. These findings support the traditional use of Maca to enhance fertility and suggest a potential molecular mechanism responsible for its effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of physical therapeutic agents on serum levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tönük, Şükrü Burak; Serin, Erdinc; Ayhan, Fikriye Figen; Yorgancioglu, Zeynep Rezan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the effects of physical agents on the levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, hot packs, and therapeutic ultrasound were applied to the lumbar region and knees of patients with OA. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of the serum levels of glucose, insulin (INS), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), cortisol (COR), and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immediately before and after the 1st session, to investigate the acute effects of those physical agents on the endocrine system. The hormone levels were also measured every 5 sessions in a total of 10 sessions. The treatment response was also evaluated by using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) throughout the therapy period. After the 1st session, there was a decrease in INS levels and a mild decrease in PRL levels (P = 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Throughout the 10-session therapy period, the INS levels increased, whereas the ACTH and COR levels decreased (P < 0.05 for all). The VAS-spine, RMDQ, VAS-knee, and WOMAC scores decreased (P = 0.001 for VAS-spine and P < 0.001 for all others). A positive correlation was detected between the changes in serum COR and WOMAC-pain score (P < 0.05). Although the combination therapy caused changes in INS level accompanied with steady glucose levels, the application of physical agents did not adversely affect the hormone levels. The decrease in ACTH and COR levels may be attributed to the analgesic effect of agents and may be an indicator of patient comfort through a central action. PMID:27583888

  1. Association of hair dye use with circulating levels of sex hormones in premenopausal Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Chisato; Wada, Keiko; Tsuji, Michiko; Hayashi, Makoto; Takeda, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2015-10-01

    Substances identified as animal carcinogens are no longer used as ingredients of hair dyes. However, hair dyes are diverse groups of chemicals, and certain compounds may affect endogenous sex hormone levels. We examined the association between hair dye use and sex hormone levels among premenopausal women. Study subjects were 431 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long. Information on the use of hair dyes or hair bleach, the type of hair coloring used, the duration of use and the frequency of application was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Fasting plasma samples were obtained to measure estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, sex hormone-binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. After controlling for covariates, the mean plasma total testosterone level was about 14% higher in women who had used hair dyes for 10 or more years than that among women who had never used them (P for trend = 0.02). A similar association was observed when the type of hair dye was restricted to permanent hair dyes. A higher frequency of applying non-permanent hair dyes was marginally significantly associated with higher total and free estradiol levels. Data suggest that long-term use of hair dyes may be associated with an increase in circulating testosterone levels. As this is, to our knowledge, the first study examining the association between hair dye use and sex hormone levels, replication of the results is required. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. [Evaluation of leptin levels in plasma and their reliance on other hormonal factors affecting tissue fat levels in people with various levels of endogenous cotisol].

    PubMed

    Robaczyk, Maciej G

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of leptin (LEP) shed new light on mechanisms regulating body fat mass (BFM). In this aspect, interactions between LEP and glucocorticoids at hypothalamic level may be of great importance. Factors that influence plasma LEP levels have not been fully recognized and available data on LEP levels are often inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate absolute and BFM-corrected plasma LEP levels and their diurnal variation, as well as to assess the relationship between LEP levels, body fat distribution, and hormones influencing body fat in subjects with various levels of endogenous cortisol and different nutritional status. Group I was composed of 14 women aged 14-58 yrs, BMI of 23.9-37.1 kg/m2, with hypercortisolism due to ACTH-dependent and ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (CUS). 17 women with visceral obesity (OTY) and normal or disturbed carbohydrate metabolism, i.e. impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM), aged 24 do 50 yrs, BMI 30.0-46.1 kg/m2, were included in group II. Group III consisted of 14 women with Addison's disease (AD), aged 18 do 63 yrs, BMI 15.4-31.6 kg/m2. The control group IV (KON) included 17 healthy women with normal BMI. BMI, WHR, body composition, and body fat distribution (DEXA method) were assessed in all subjects. Basal plasma levels of LEP, beta-endorphin (B-EP), cortisol (F), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured with RIA test kits. Plasma adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) levels, serum levels of insulin (IRI) and growth hormone (GH) were measured with IRMA test kits. Blood glucose (G) concentration was determined with an enzymatic method. Adiposity-corrected LEP levels were expressed as LEP/BFM and LEP/%BF indices. Fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) was also calculated. Higher BFM and %BF values were found in the OTY group as compared with CUS KON and AD groups. BFM distribution did not differ in KON and AD groups whereas CUS subjects exhibited a higher accumulation of fat in the trunk

  3. Evaluation of basal sex hormone levels for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yu; Li, Juan; Yu, Yongguo; Yang, Peirong; Li, Huaiyuan; Shen, Yongnian; Huang, Xiaodong; Liu, Shijian

    2018-03-28

    This study aimed to identify the predictive value of basal sex hormone levels for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in girls. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation tests were performed and evaluated in a total of 1750 girls with development of secondary sex characteristics. Correlation analyses were conducted between basal sex hormones and peak luteinizing hormone (LH) levels ≥5 IU/L during the GnRH stimulation test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for basal levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), LH/FSH, and estradiol (E2) before the GnRH stimulation test were plotted. The area under the curve (AUC) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were measured for each curve. The maximum AUC value was observed for basal LH levels (0.77, 95% CI: 0.74-0.79), followed by basal FSH levels (0.73, 95% CI: 0.70-0.75), the basal LH/FSH ratio (0.68, 95% CI: 0.65-0.71), and basal E2 levels (0.61, 95% CI: 0.59-0.64). The appropriate cutoff value of basal LH levels associated with a positive response of the GnRH stimulation test was 0.35 IU/L, with a sensitivity of 63.96% and specificity of 76.3% from the ROC curves when Youden's index showed the maximum value. When 100% of patients had peak LH levels ≥5 IU/L, basal LH values were >2.72 IU/L, but the specificity was only 5.45%. Increased basal LH levels are a significant predictor of a positive response during the GnRH stimulation test for assessing activation of the HPG axis in most girls with early pubertal signs.

  4. Associations of urinary cadmium with circulating sex hormone levels in pre- and postmenopausal Japanese women

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Chisato, E-mail: chisato@gifu-u.ac.jp

    Background: Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. The present study examined the associations between urinary cadmium levels and circulating sex hormone levels that are linked to breast cancer risk in healthy women. Methods: The study subjects were 396 premenopausal Japanese women who had regular menstrual cycles less than 40 days long and 207 postmenopausal Japanese women. Urinary cadmium was measured using spot urine samples. Plasma estradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were measured. Additionally, the follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured for premenopausal women. Results: In premenopausal women, the urinarymore » cadmium level either expressed in μg per liter or per g of urine creatinine was significantly inversely associated with total and free testosterone levels after controlling for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Total and free testosterone levels were 14.6% and 15.0% lower, respectively, in women in the highest quartile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine in those in the lowest quartile. In postmenopausal women, the urinary cadmium in μg per liter as well as per g creatinine was significantly inversely associated with the estradiol level after controlling for covariates. The estradiol level was 25.8% lower in women in the highest tertile of urinary cadmium per g creatinine than in those in the lowest tertile. Conclusions: The data suggest inverse associations between urinary cadmium and the plasma estradiol or testosterone level in Japanese women. - Highlights: • Exposure to cadmium has been suspected as a risk factor for breast cancer. • Urinary cadmium and plasma sex-hormone levels were measured in Japanese women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with testosterone in premenopausal women. • Urinary cadmium was inversely associated with estradiol in

  5. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), inmore » 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.« less

  6. Levels of hormones and cytokines associated with growth in Honamlı and native hair goats.

    PubMed

    Devrim, A K; Elmaz, O; Mamak, N; Sudagidan, M

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess alterations of hormone and cytokine levels associated with growth period during puberty in Honamlı goats which were identified as a new goat breed and had one of the highest meat production potential among the other goat breeds in Turkey. Honamlı goats are originated from native hair goats, so parallel studies of sampling and analyzing were conducted also in native hair goats which have moderate meat production. Blood serum samples of Honamlı (n=90) and native hair goats (n=90) were obtained from the pure herds in Korkuteli and Ka districts of Anatolia. Concentrations of growth hormone (GH), myostatin (MSTN), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP), leptin, transforming growth factor-betal (TGF-β1) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) levels were measured by ELISA in each breed in the age groups of 4, 8 and 12 months. The present results indicate interesting correlations among the age groups and all the examined hormone and cytokine parameters exhibited significant (P<0.05 and P<0.001) differences. The parameters investigated were usually begun to increase after 4 months of age in the both breeds and sexes. Therefore, this paper supported the view that the beginning of hormonal alterations of goats could occur at 4th month of age. The results reported here emphasize the primary role played by GH, MSTN, IGF-1, leptin, GHRH, GHRP, TGF-βi and VEGF in the first year growth period of goats.

  7. Protein- and tryptophan-restricted diets induce changes in rat gonadal hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Del Angel-Meza, A R.; Feria-Velasco, A; Ontiveros-Martínez, L; Gallardo, L; Gonzalez-Burgos, I; Beas-Zárate, C

    2001-04-01

    The release of gonadotrophic hormones starts at puberty and, along with the subsequent estral cyclicity, is subject to hormonal feedback systems and to the action of diverse neuroactive substances such as gamma amino butyric acid and catecholamines. This study shows the effect of the administration during 40 days of protein-restricted and corn-based (tryptophan- and lysine-deficient) diets on the serotonin concentration in medial hypothalamic fragments as well as in follicle-stimulating luteinizing hormones, 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels, and estral cyclicity in 60- and 100-day-old rats (young, mature, and in gestation). In young rats, a delay in vaginal aperture development, and a lengthening of the estral cycle to a continuous anestral state was observed, mainly in the group fed corn. This group showed a 25% decrease in the serotonin concentration compared with the protein-restricted group, which exhibited an increase of 9% over the control group. Luteinizing hormone levels decreased in 16% and 13%, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone increased in 13% and 5% in the young animals of restricted groups, respectively, compared with the control group. Serum progesterone levels decreased only in young restricted versus control animals, and no differences were seen among adult and gestational rats. Serum levels of 17-beta-estradiol in restricted animals showed different concentration patterns, mainly in the corn group, which was higher at the 20th gestational day, falling drastically postpartum. The results obtained in this study show serotonin to be a very important factor in the release of gonadotrophic hormones and the start of puberty.

  8. Relationship Between Low Levels of Anabolic Hormones and 6-Year Mortality in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Marcello; Lauretani, Fulvio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ling, Shari M.; Metter, Jeffrey E.; Artoni, Andrea; Carassale, Laura; Cazzato, Anna; Ceresini, Graziano; Guralnik, Jack M.; Basaria, Shehzad; Valenti, Giorgio; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Background Aging in men is characterized by a progressive decline in levels of anabolic hormones, such as testosterone, insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S). We hypothesized that in older men a parallel age-associated decline in bioavailable testosterone, IGF-1, and DHEA-S secretion is associated with higher mortality independent of potential confounders. Methods Testosterone, IGF-1, DHEA-S, and demographic features were evaluated in a representative sample of 410 men 65 years and older enrolled in the Aging in the Chianti Area (InCHIANTI) study. A total of 126 men died during the 6-year follow-up. Thresholds for lowest-quartile definitions were 70 ng/dL (to convert to nanomoles per liter, multiply by 0.0347) for bioavailable testosterone, 63.9 ng/mL (to convert to nanomoles per liter, multiply by 0.131) for total IGF-1, and 50 μg/dL (to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 0.027) for DHEA-S. Men were divided into 4 groups: no hormone in the lowest quartile (reference) and 1, 2, and 3 hormones in the lowest quartiles. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for confounders were used in the analysis. Results Compared with men with levels of all 3 hormones above the lowest quartiles, having 1, 2, and 3 dysregulated hormones was associated with hazard ratios for mortality of 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-2.44), 1.85 (95% CI, 1.04-3.30), and 2.29 (95% CI, 1.12-4.68), respectively (test for trend, P <.001). In the fully adjusted analysis, only men with 3 anabolic hormone deficiencies had a significant increase in mortality (hazard ratio, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.09-5.46 (test for trend, P <.001). Conclusions Age-associated decline in anabolic hormone levels is a strong independent predictor of mortality in older men. Having multiple hormonal deficiencies rather than a deficiency in a single anabolic hormone is a robust biomarker of health status in older persons. PMID:17998499

  9. Women's hormone levels modulate the motivational salience of facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyi; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-12-01

    The physical attractiveness of faces is positively correlated with both behavioral and neural measures of their motivational salience. Although previous work suggests that hormone levels modulate women's perceptions of others' facial attractiveness, studies have not yet investigated whether hormone levels also modulate the motivational salience of facial characteristics. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between within-subject changes in women's salivary hormone levels (estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol-to-progesterone ratio) and within-subject changes in the motivational salience of attractiveness and sexual dimorphism in male and female faces. The motivational salience of physically attractive faces in general and feminine female faces, but not masculine male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high testosterone levels. Additionally, the reward value of sexually dimorphic faces in general and attractive female faces, but not attractive male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high estradiol-to-progesterone ratios. These results provide the first evidence that the motivational salience of facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism is modulated by within-woman changes in hormone levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary Fat, Fiber, and Carbohydrate Intake and Endogenous Hormone Levels in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaohui; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of fat, fiber and carbohydrate intake with endogenous estrogen, androgen, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) levels among 595 premenopausal women. Overall, no significant associations were found between dietary intake of these macronutrients and plasma sex steroid hormone levels. Dietary fat intake was inversely associated with IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels. When substituting 5% of energy from total fat for the equivalent amount of energy from carbohydrate or protein intake, the plasma levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3, 5.3) and 1.6% (95% CI 0.4, 2.8) lower, respectively. Animal fat, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat intakes also were inversely associated with IGFBP-3 levels (P < 0.05). Carbohydrates were positively associated with plasma IGF-I level. When substituting 5% of energy from carbohydrates for the equivalent amount of energy from fat or protein intake, the plasma IGF-I level was 2.0% (95% CI 0.1, 3.9%) higher. No independent associations between fiber intake and hormone levels were observed. The results suggest that a low-fat/high-fiber or carbohydrate diet is not associated with endogenous levels of sex steroid hormones, but it may modestly increase IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels among premenopausal women. PMID:21761370

  11. Metformin influence on hormone levels at birth, in PCOS mothers and their newborns.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, S M; Vanky, E

    2010-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) tends to run in families and excess intrauterine androgen exposure has been suggested as one possible cause of PCOS. We wanted to study the relationship between maternal and offspring sex hormone levels and the possible effects of metformin treatment in PCOS pregnancies. We performed a post hoc analysis of a trial in which 40 pregnant women with PCOS were randomized in the first trimester, to use either metformin 850 mg twice daily or placebo until delivery. Maternal venous blood and umbilical arterial and venous blood samples were collected at delivery. Outcome measures were levels of androgens, estrogens and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). (i) In newborns, SHBG levels were higher in the metformin group. All other hormones, both in mothers and offspring, were unaffected by metformin treatment. (ii) Mothers, who gave birth to boys, had higher estrone and estradiol levels compared with those who gave birth to girls. (iii) Male newborns had higher levels of testosterone, androstanediol glucuronide and estradiol compared with females. (iv) Positive correlations were found between maternal and newborn levels of androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol. Intrauterine metformin exposure seems to result in elevated SHBG levels in newborns. However, at birth, maternal and newborn androgen and estrogen levels are unaffected by metformin use in pregnancy. Although androgen and estrogen levels are higher in male newborns compared with females, maternal and newborn androgen and estrogen levels are highly correlated at birth.

  12. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Paula I.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Hauser, Russ; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octaand deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. PMID:23333513

  13. Hypopituitarism in the elderly in the presence of elevated thyroid stimulating hormone levels.

    PubMed Central

    Beringer, T.; McClements, B.; Weir, I.; Gilmore, D.; Kennedy, L.

    1988-01-01

    Two cases of primary hypothyroidism with hypopituitarism in elderly patients are reported. The elevated levels of thyroid stimulating hormone led to delay in the recognition of accompanying pituitary failure. Elderly patients should not be commenced on thyroxine replacement therapy until the possibility of hypopituitarism and cortisol deficiency has been excluded. PMID:3256811

  14. Structural coloration signals condition, parental investment, and circulating hormone levels in Eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis).

    PubMed

    Grindstaff, Jennifer L; Lovern, Matthew B; Burtka, Jennifer L; Hallmark-Sharber, Alesia

    2012-08-01

    Many of the brilliant plumage coloration displays of birds function as signals to conspecifics. One species in which the function of plumage ornaments has been assessed is the Eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis). Studies of a population breeding in Alabama (USA) have established that plumage ornaments signal quality, parental investment, and competitive ability in both sexes. Here we tested the additional hypotheses that (1) Eastern bluebird plumage ornamentation signals nest defense behavior in heterospecific competitive interactions and (2) individual variation in plumage ornamentation reflects underlying differences in circulating hormone levels. We also tested the potential for plumage ornaments to signal individual quality and parental investment in a population breeding in Oklahoma (USA). We found that Eastern bluebirds with more ornamented plumage are in better condition, initiate breeding earlier in the season, produce larger clutches, have higher circulating levels of the stress hormone corticosterone, and more ornamented males have lower circulating androgen levels. Plumage coloration was not related to nest defense behavior. Thus, plumage ornamentation may be used by both sexes to assess the physiological condition and parental investment of prospective mates. Experimental manipulations of circulating hormone levels during molt are needed to define the role of hormones in plumage ornamentation.

  15. PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT CAUSED BY BROMODICHLOROMETHANE: EFFECTS ON SERUM LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT CAUSED BY BROMODICHLOROMETHANE: EFFECTS ON SERUM LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS
    Bielmeier1, S.R., D.S. Best2, and M.G. Narotsky2; 1University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Curriculum in Toxicology, 2Reproductive Toxicology Division, U.S. Enviro...

  16. Influence of obesity and surgical weight loss on thyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Chikunguwo, Silas; Brethauer, Stacy; Nirujogi, Vijaya; Pitt, Tracy; Udomsawaengsup, Suthep; Chand, Bipan; Schauer, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The pathophysiologic relationship between morbid obesity and thyroid hormones is not well understood. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of obesity and weight reduction after bariatric surgery on thyroid hormone levels. Patients who underwent gastric bypass or adjustable gastric banding at our institution, had no previous diagnosis of thyroid disorder, were not taking medication that could affect the thyroid function evaluation, and who were nonsmokers were included in this retrospective evaluation. The association between the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (T(4)) levels and body mass index (BMI), and the influence of weight loss after bariatric surgery on these hormones were investigated at different points (preoperatively and 6 and 12 months after bariatric surgery). A total of 86 patients met the study criteria. The TSH levels correlated positively with BMI (P <.001, r = .91) within the BMI range of 30-67 kg/m(2). The mean BMI change from 49 to 32 kg/m(2) after bariatric surgery was associated with a mean reduction in the TSH level from 4.5 to 1.9 microU/mL. Free T(4) showed no association with BMI and was not significantly influenced by weight loss. Before bariatric surgery, 10.5% of the subjects had laboratory values consistent with subclinical hypothyroidism. After bariatric surgery, 100% of these patients experienced significant weight reduction with simultaneous resolution of their subclinical hypothyroidism. The results of our study have demonstrated a statistically significant positive association between serum TSH within the normal range and BMI. No association was found between BMI and free T(4) serum levels. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in study group was 10.5%. Weight loss after bariatric surgery improved or normalized thyroid hormone levels.

  17. Hormone levels predict individual differences in reproductive success in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jenny Q; Sharp, Peter J; Dawson, Alistair; Quetting, Michael; Hau, Michaela

    2011-08-22

    Hormones mediate major physiological and behavioural components of the reproductive phenotype of individuals. To understand basic evolutionary processes in the hormonal regulation of reproductive traits, we need to know whether, and during which reproductive phases, individual variation in hormone concentrations relates to fitness in natural populations. We related circulating concentrations of prolactin and corticosterone to parental behaviour and reproductive success during both the pre-breeding and the chick-rearing stages in both individuals of pairs of free-living house sparrows, Passer domesticus. Prolactin and baseline corticosterone concentrations in pre-breeding females, and prolactin concentrations in pre-breeding males, predicted total number of fledglings. When the strong effect of lay date on total fledgling number was corrected for, only pre-breeding baseline corticosterone, but not prolactin, was negatively correlated with the reproductive success of females. During the breeding season, nestling provisioning rates of both sexes were negatively correlated with stress-induced corticosterone levels. Lastly, individuals of both sexes with low baseline corticosterone before and high baseline corticosterone during breeding raised the most offspring, suggesting that either the plasticity of this trait contributes to reproductive success or that high parental effort leads to increased hormone concentrations. Thus hormone concentrations both before and during breeding, as well as their seasonal dynamics, predict reproductive success, suggesting that individual variation in absolute concentrations and in plasticity is functionally significant, and, if heritable, may be a target of selection.

  18. Baby babbling at five months linked to sex hormone levels in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Quast, Anja; Hesse, Volker; Hain, Johannes; Wermke, Peter; Wermke, Kathleen

    2016-08-01

    Gender-dependent differentiation of the brain at morphological, neurochemical and functional levels of organization have been shown to be primarily controlled by sex differences in gonadal hormone concentrations during pre- and early postnatal development. Indeed, previous studies have reported that pre- and perinatal hormonal environments influence brain development and, consequently, affect sex specific long-term language outcomes. Herein, we investigated whether postnatal surges of estrogen (estradiol) and androgen (testosterone) may predict properties of pre-speech babbling at five months. This study is the first attempt to investigate a possible correlation between sex hormones and infants' articulatory skills during the typical postnatal period of extended hormonal activity known as 'mini-puberty.' A hierarchical, multiple regression approach revealed a significant, robust positive relationship between 4-week concentrations of estradiol and individual articulatory skills. In contrast, testosterone concentrations at five months negatively correlated with articulatory skills at the same age in both boys and girls. Our findings reinforce the assumption of the importance of sex hormones for auditory-vocal development towards language in human infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels in serum from human foetuses and children: pattern and clinical interest.

    PubMed

    Guibourdenche, J; Lucidarme, N; Chevenne, D; Rigal, O; Nicolas, M; Luton, D; Léger, J; Porquet, D; Noël, M

    2003-12-15

    Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) determination has been used to investigate gonadal development and abnormal sexual differentiation, but until recently, it was based on assays developed by specialized laboratories. A short time ago, a sensitive assay kit was developed commercially (Immunotech-Beckman Coulter) for clinical use. With this method, we established usual levels of serum AMH in fetuses, newborns, and pre-pubertal children, and evaluated the clinical value of this assay. AMH measurement required only 25 microl of sample and could be performed within 3 h. In females, AMH emerged after birth at low levels (median: 4 ng/ml). In males, AMH levels remained stable during fetal life (median: 44.4 ng/ml), peaked in the first months of life to reach a median of 124.7 ng/ml, then fell with wide individual variations. Cord blood AMH levels at birth may be useful to investigate ambiguous genitalia suspected prenatally. In children with isolated microphallus or hypospadias, decreased AMH values are in favor of testis dysfunction. When testes cannot be palpated, a single determination of serum AMH levels can distinguish between anorchia and cryptorchidism.

  20. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, T. K.; Boiko, E. R.; Zenchenko, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work four examinations (January, March, June, October 1991-1992) of the blood concentration of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine T4) and their dependence on space and terrestrial weather parameters have been done for large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements). The aim of this study was to find the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to variations of external natural factors at high latitudes in three independent groups of people living in this region (miners and people working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women working on the ground (280 samples)). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of concentration of the three studied hormones is on the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA) - Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p < 0.05) increase in cortisol concentration in all three independent groups of people was observed. Range of increases in cortisol concentration in different groups were about 30% of the observed variation in the average intragroup concentration in June and from 16% to 38% in October. For T3 dependence was found only in June: drop in hormone secretion with increasing levels of GMA from 18 to 30% of the average range of intragroup variations. Thus it was shown for the first time that at high geographical latitudes with increased level of GMA a significant change in the level of secretion of several hormones leads to the type of adaptive stress reaction.

  1. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area--Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Breus, T K; Boiko, E R; Zenchenko, T A

    2015-01-01

    In the present work four examinations (January, March, June, October 1991-1992) of the blood concentration of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine T4) and their dependence on space and terrestrial weather parameters have been done for large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements). The aim of this study was to find the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to variations of external natural factors at high latitudes in three independent groups of people living in this region (miners and people working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women working on the ground (280 samples)). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of concentration of the three studied hormones is on the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA) - Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p<0.05) increase in cortisol concentration in all three independent groups of people was observed. Range of increases in cortisol concentration in different groups were about 30% of the observed variation in the average intragroup concentration in June and from 16% to 38% in October. For T3 dependence was found only in June: drop in hormone secretion with increasing levels of GMA from 18 to 30% of the average range of intragroup variations. Thus it was shown for the first time that at high geographical latitudes with increased level of GMA a significant change in the level of secretion of several hormones leads to the type of adaptive stress reaction. Copyright © 2014 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Correlation of serum sex hormone levels with metabolic syndrome in elderly men].

    PubMed

    Xiao, H Y; Lu, Y H; Gong, Y P; Cheng, X L; Tian, H; Li, C L

    2016-03-08

    To investigate the relationship between sex hormones and metabolic syndrome (MS), as well as its components in elderly men. 1 505 elderly men (≥60 years old, mean age 75.4±9.7 years old) who participated in a routine health screening examination in PLA general hospital from May to June in 2012 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum lipids, glucose and sex hormones were measured along with body height, weight and blood pressure. Free testosterone (FT) and bioavailable testosterone (BT) were calculated. The correlation of serum sex hormones with the presence of MS and its components were analyzed. The prevalence of MS was 21.7% (326/1 505) in this study. Elderly men with MS had lower levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (TT), FT and BT than those without MS. The levels of SHBG, TT, FT and BT were significantly lower in the overweight/obesity group, hyperglycemia group and dyslipidemia group than those in the respective control groups (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the SHBG level was an independent risk factor for MS in elderly men(OR=0.977, 95%CI: 0.964-0.989, P<0.001), while the levels of TT, FT and BT were not associated with MS. The prevalence of MS gradually increased with decreasing of SHBG values (P<0.001). When comparing subjects in the lowest and highest quartile of SHBG, the former group demonstrated a 2.13-fold increase in the odds ratio for MS after adjusting for age, smoking, drinking and other sex hormone indices. In elderly men, lower SHBG level, not TT, FT or BT may be an independent predictor for the prevalence of MS, in which the mechanism requires further studies.

  3. Natural levels of abnormalities in the trilling frog (neobactrachus centralis) at the Olympic dam mine

    SciTech Connect

    Read, J.L.; Tyler, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Frogs are more susceptible than most vertebrates to environmental contaminants. Unlike amniotes, the frog egg is not protected by a semi-impervious shell, and hence is readily exposed to pollutants. In addition, tadpoles develop in wetlands to which many noxious substances drain from the surrounding landscape. Coupled with this high exposure rate, frogs are also very sensitive to trace elements, some pesticides, heavy metals especially when coupled with exposure to low pH and ionizing radiation. Frogs commonly exhibit discernible deformities following exposure to teratogenic contaminants, and therefore are valuable indicators of the existence of noxious substances in the environment. The abundancemore » and ease of sampling of frogs, along with their sensitivity to environmental contaminants, makes them ideal organisms for environmental monitoring in the Australian arid zone. The study of abnormalities in frogs has become an integral part of the Environmental Management Programme of the Olympic Dam Operations (ODO) copper-uranium-gold-silver mine in northern South Australia. The Trilling Frog (Neobatrachus centralis) is the only frog species which has been recorded at Olympic Dam. It is likely that these frogs, are relatively sedentary, thus enhancing their value as indicator organisms. A pilot survey in 1989 documented frog deformity levels comparable to those found at undisturbed sites in Australia and in other countries. This paper reports on larger study conducted in February and March 1992 when heavy rains provided another opportunity to survey the frog population. The low levels of abnormalities support the conclusion that N. centralis at Olympic Dam does not appear to be accumulating or being influenced by the very low levels of radionuclides present here.« less

  4. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-11-15

    abnormal changes in hormone levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. D2-Thr92Ala, thyroid hormone levels and biochemical hypothyroidism in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Procopciuc, Lucia Maria; Caracostea, Gabriela; Hazi, Georgeta; Nemeti, Georgiana; Stamatian, Florin

    2017-02-01

    To identify if there is a relationship between the deiodinase D2-Thr92Ala genetic variant, thyroid hormone levels and biochemical hypothyroidism in preeclampsia. We genotyped 125 women with preeclampsia and 131 normal pregnant women using PCR-RFLP. Serum thyroid hormone levels were determined using ELISA. Our study showed higher TSH and FT4 levels and lower FT3 levels in women with preeclampsia compared to normal pregnant women, with statistical significance for women with mild and severe preeclampsia. The risk to develop pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), mild or severe preeclampsia was increased in carriers of at least one D2-Ala92 allele. TSH and FT4 levels were significantly higher and FT3 levels were significantly lower in preeclamptic women with severe preeclampsia if they carried the D2-Ala92 allele compared to non-carriers. Pregnant women with PIH and mild preeclampsia, carriers of at least one D2-Ala92 allele, delivered at lower gestational age neonates with a lower birth weight compared to non-carriers, but the results were statistically significant only in severe preeclampsia. The D2-Thr92Ala genetic variant is associated with the severity and the obstetric outcome of preeclampsia, and it also influences thyroid hormone levels. The study demonstrates non-thyroidal biochemical hypothyroidism - as a result of deiodination effects due to D2 genotypes.

  6. The lethal form of Cushing's in 7B2 null mice is caused by multiple metabolic and hormonal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Sarac, Miroslav S; Zieske, Arthur W; Lindberg, Iris

    2002-06-01

    The neuroendocrine-specific protein 7B2, which serves as a molecular escort for proPC2 in the secretory pathway, promotes the production of enzymatically active PC2 and may have non-PC2 related endocrine roles. Mice null for 7B2 exhibit a lethal phenotype with a complex Cushing's-like pathology, which develops from intermediate lobe ACTH hypersecretion as a consequences of interruption of PC2-mediated peptide processing as well as undefined consequences of the loss of 7B2. In this study we investigated the endocrine and metabolic alterations of 7B2 null mice from pathological and biochemical points of view. Our results show that 7B2 nulls exhibit a multisystem disorder that includes severe pathoanatomical and histopathologic alterations of vital organs, including the heart and spleen but most notably the liver, in which massive steatosis and necrosis are observed. Metabolic derangements in glucose metabolism result in glycogen and fat deposition in liver under conditions of chronic hypoglycemia. Liver failure is also likely to contribute to abnormalities in blood coagulation and blood chemistry, such as lactic acidosis. A hypoglycemic crisis coupled with respiratory distress and intensive internal thrombosis most likely results in rapid deterioration and death of the 7B2 null.

  7. Dietary minerals, reproductive hormone levels and sporadic anovulation: associations in healthy women with regular menstrual cycles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keewan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Michels, Kara A; Schliep, Karen C; Plowden, Torie C; Chaljub, Ellen N; Mumford, Sunni L

    2018-04-20

    Although minerals are linked to several reproductive outcomes, it is unknown whether dietary minerals are associated with ovulatory function. We hypothesised that low intakes of minerals would be associated with an increased risk of anovulation. We investigated associations between dietary mineral intake and both reproductive hormones and anovulation in healthy women in the BioCycle Study, which prospectively followed up 259 regularly menstruating women aged 18-44 years who were not taking mineral supplements for two menstrual cycles. Intakes of ten selected minerals were assessed through 24-h dietary recalls at up to four times per cycle in each participant. Oestradiol, progesterone, luteinising hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex-hormone-binding globulin and testosterone were measured in serum up to eight times per cycle. We used weighted linear mixed models to evaluate associations between minerals and hormones and generalised linear models for risk of anovulation. Compared with Na intake ≥1500 mg, Na intake <1500 mg was associated with higher levels of FSH (21·3 %; 95 % CI 7·5, 36·9) and LH (36·8 %; 95 % CI 16·5, 60·5) and lower levels of progesterone (-36·9 %; 95 % CI -56·5, -8·5). Na intake <1500 mg (risk ratio (RR) 2·70; 95 % CI 1·00, 7·31) and Mn intake <1·8 mg (RR 2·00; 95 % CI 1·02, 3·94) were associated with an increased risk of anovulation, compared with higher intakes, respectively. Other measured dietary minerals were not associated with ovulatory function. As essential minerals are mostly obtained via diet, our results comparing insufficient levels with sufficient levels highlight the need for future research on dietary nutrients and their associations with ovulatory cycles.

  8. A null mutation of Hhex results in abnormal cardiac development, defective vasculogenesis and elevated Vegfa levels.

    PubMed

    Hallaq, Haifa; Pinter, Emese; Enciso, Josephine; McGrath, James; Zeiss, Caroline; Brueckner, Martina; Madri, Joseph; Jacobs, Harris C; Wilson, Christine M; Vasavada, Hemaxi; Jiang, Xiaobing; Bogue, Clifford W

    2004-10-01

    The homeobox gene Hhex has recently been shown to be essential for normal liver, thyroid and forebrain development. Hhex(-/-) mice die by mid-gestation (E14.5) and the cause of their early demise remains unclear. Because Hhex is expressed in the developing blood islands at E7.0 in the endothelium of the developing vasculature and heart at E9.0-9.5, and in the ventral foregut endoderm at E8.5-9.0, it has been postulated to play a critical role in heart and vascular development. We show here, for the first time, that a null mutation of Hhex results in striking abnormalities of cardiac and vascular development which include: (1) defective vasculogenesis, (2) hypoplasia of the right ventricle, (3) overabundant endocardial cushions accompanied by ventricular septal defects, outflow tract abnormalities and atrio-ventricular (AV) valve dysplasia and (4) aberrant development of the compact myocardium. The dramatic enlargement of the endocardial cushions in the absence of Hhex is due to decreased apoptosis and dysregulated epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT). Interestingly, vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) levels in the hearts of Hhex(-/-) mice were elevated as much as three-fold between E9.5 and E11.5, and treatment of cultured Hhex(-/-) AV explants with truncated soluble Vegfa receptor 1, sFlt-1, an inhibitor of Vegf signaling, completely abolished the excessive epithelial-mesenchymal transformation seen in the absence of Hhex. Therefore, Hhex expression in the ventral foregut endoderm and/or the endothelium is necessary for normal cardiovascular development in vivo, and one function of Hhex is to repress Vegfa levels during development.

  9. Prognostic Value of Thyroid Hormone Levels in Patients Evaluated for Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Van Thiel, David H.; Udani, Mahendra; Schade, Robert R.; Sanghvi, Agit; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    The thyroid hormones T4, T3, rT3 and TSH were assayed in 134 adult patients evaluated and accepted as potential liver transplant candidates at the University of Pittsburgh from March, 1981 to December, 1983. The subsequent course of these patients was evaluated with respect to the levels of these hormones obtained at the time of acceptance for transplantation. T4 levels were increased significantly while their T3 levels were reduced (both p < 0.01) in those who survived and were discharged home as compared to either those who died waiting to be transplanted or died following the procedure. As a result, the ratio of T3/T4 was reduced markedly (p < 0.01) in those who were transplanted and survived as compared to those not transplanted or dying following transplantation. Importantly, the rT3 levels clearly separated (p < 0.01) those who would die prior to transplantation from those who would survive to be transplanted. Finally, the ratio rT3/T3 even more clearly separates those who will die prior to transplantation (p < 0.01) from the other two groups. These data suggest that thyroid hormone levels, particularly rT3 levels, might be useful in setting priorities for which patients referred for a transplantation evaluation should be accepted into the program and in determining who among accepted patients should be operated upon in preference to others also accepted and waiting to be transplanted. PMID:2993148

  10. Alteration of sperm quality and hormone levels by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on airborne particulate particles.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Yu, Liang

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affect male reproductive functions in vivo. Male reproductive parameters included testis weight, sperm counts and motility, circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone. The average body weight, testis weight, and epididymis weight in the exposed group were not significantly lower than that in the control group (p < 0.01). The daily numbers of sperm in the PAH-exposed groups were significantly lower than those in the control group. The motility of sperm in the PAH-exposed groups was significantly less than those in the control group. Plasma LH concentrations increased at the end of the exposure period and continued to increase after post-cessation of exposure to PAHs. Testosterone decreased at the end of the exposure period and increased after post-cessation of exposure. However, the follicle-stimulation hormone level remained relatively stable during the study period. The present study showed that PAHs can compromise sperm functions and alter endocrine hormone levels.

  11. Effects of snake venom from Saudi cobras and vipers on hormonal levels in peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Galil, Khidir A; Al-Hazimi, Awdah M

    2004-08-01

    Knowledge about the effects of snake venoms on endocrine glands in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is meager. The aim of the present study is to investigate the acute and chronic envenomation from 4 snakes out of 8 species of Saudi Cobras and Vipers on the tissues of endocrine glands and peripheral hormonal levels in male rats. The peripheral blood levels of 4 hormones mainly testosterone, cortisol, insulin and thyroxin were investigated in male Wistar rats following acute and chronic treatment of the rats with poisonous snake venoms at the Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2000 to May 2001. Using radio immunoassay for hormonal analysis, a rise in testosterone levels in peripheral blood was obtained following acute treatment, which is due to the effect of the venoms on vascular permeability and increased blood flow. In contrast, the chronic treatment with venoms resulted in a delayed effect on vascular permeability and testicular degeneration resulting in a decreased blood flow and a significant drop in testosterone concentration. Cortisol levels were no different from the controls during acute treatment but it demonstrates gradual rise following chronic treatment to withstand the stress imposed on the animals. Similar results were obtained for insulin, which showed normal values with acute treatment but decreased levels of chronic treatment suggesting insulin insufficiently. Likewise, the thyroxin levels were decreased with chronic treatment suggesting a toxic effect of the poison on the rich blood supply of the thyroid follicles with a subsequent decrease in blood flow to the tissues and therefore, decreased thyroid hormone levels. The effects of venom toxicity on testosterone levels were either normal or stimulatory with acute treatment or inhibitory with chronic treatment depending on the vascular blood flow and testicular degeneration. Cortisol levels were normal at

  12. Graves' disease: an analysis of thyroid hormone levels and hyperthyroid signs and symptoms.

    PubMed

    Trzepacz, P T; Klein, I; Roberts, M; Greenhouse, J; Levey, G S

    1989-11-01

    Assessment of disease severity for patients with hyperthyroidism involves clinical evaluation and laboratory testing. To determine if there is a correlation between symptoms and thyroid function test results, we prospectively studied hyperthyroid patients using a standardized symptom rating scale and serum thyroid function parameters. We examined 25 patients with untreated, newly diagnosed Graves' disease using the Hyperthyroid Symptom Scale (HSS) and serum levels of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) relative insulin area (RIA), and estimates of free thyroxine index (FTI). In addition, we compared thyroid hormone levels with standard measures of depression and anxiety in these patients. When regression analyses controlling for age were performed, none of these symptom ratings were associated with FTI or T3 RIA. The HSS was correlated with goiter size and anxiety ratings and was inversely correlated with age. The present study suggests that there is no relationship between the clinical assessment of disease severity and serum levels of thyroid hormone in untreated Graves' disease.

  13. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, Tamara; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Boiko, Evgeni

    It was previously shown that magnetic storms lead to an increase in the level of cortisol and noradrenalin in healthy and sick people with cardiovascular diseases [Breus Rapoport. 2003]. However, in the healthy group in the cited study was only 4 people and it seemed that these results need to be checked. In the present work the 4 examinations (January, March, June, October) of large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements) on the blood levels of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3 ) and thyroxine T4) have been done. The aim was to study the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters in three independent groups of people living in this region (men working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women (280 samples)) to variations in external natural factors of high latitudes. For the analysis we used the following parameters of space and terrestrial weather :index of intensity of solar radio emission at a wavelength 10.7sm (RF10.7), planetary geomagnetic activity index - daily Kp index ( Kp) , the daily average Ap index ( Ap) , the maximum per every 3 -hour Kp index ) as well as the daily average indicators of flow rate of galactic cosmic rays neutron component (N), atmospheric pressure ( RATM ) and its rate of change ( the difference between the Ratm today and yesterday ) according to the geophysical station Oulu (Finland , http://cosmicrays.oulu.fi/). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of the level of studied three hormones is from the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA)-Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p <0.05) increase in cortisol levels in all three independent groups of people was shown. Amplitude increases in cortisol levels in different groups were about 30% of the observed variation in the

  14. Fetal and Neonatal Iron Deficiency Exacerbates Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency Effects on Male Thyroid Hormone Levels and Brain Thyroid Hormone-Responsive Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, Thomas W.; Prohaska, Joseph R.; Georgieff, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Fetal/neonatal iron (Fe) and iodine/TH deficiencies lead to similar brain developmental abnormalities and often coexist in developing countries. We recently demonstrated that fetal/neonatal Fe deficiency results in a mild neonatal thyroidal impairment, suggesting that TH insufficiency contributes to the neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with Fe deficiency. We hypothesized that combining Fe deficiency with an additional mild thyroidal perturbation (6-propyl-2-thiouracil [PTU]) during development would more severely impair neonatal thyroidal status and brain TH-responsive gene expression than either deficiency alone. Early gestation pregnant rats were assigned to 7 different treatment groups: control, Fe deficient (FeD), mild TH deficient (1 ppm PTU), moderate TH deficient (3 ppm PTU), severe TH deficient (10 ppm PTU), FeD/1 ppm PTU, or FeD/3 ppm PTU. FeD or 1 ppm PTU treatment alone reduced postnatal day 15 serum total T4 concentrations by 64% and 74%, respectively, without significantly altering serum total T3 concentrations. Neither treatment alone significantly altered postnatal day 16 cortical or hippocampal T3 concentrations. FeD combined with 1 ppm PTU treatment produced a more severe effect, reducing serum total T4 by 95%, and lowering hippocampal and cortical T3 concentrations by 24% and 31%, respectively. Combined FeD/PTU had a more severe effect on brain TH-responsive gene expression than either treatment alone, significantly altering Pvalb, Dio2, Mbp, and Hairless hippocampal and/or cortical mRNA levels. FeD/PTU treatment more severely impacted cortical and hippocampal parvalbumin protein expression compared with either individual treatment. These data suggest that combining 2 mild thyroidal insults during development significantly disrupts thyroid function and impairs TH-regulated brain gene expression. PMID:24424046

  15. Exposure to ambient air pollution--does it affect semen quality and the level of reproductive hormones?

    PubMed

    Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna; Polańska, Kinga; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with a variety of reproductive disorders. However, a limited amount of research has been conducted to examine the association between air pollution and male reproductive outcomes, specifically semen quality. The present study was designed to address the hypothesis that exposure to fluctuating levels of specific air pollutants adversely affects sperm parameters and the level of reproductive hormones. The study population consisted of 327 men who were attending an infertility clinic in Łodź, Poland for diagnostic purposes and who had normal semen concentration of 15-300 mln/ml. All participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. Air quality data were obtained from AirBase database. The statistically significant association was observed between abnormalities in sperm morphology and exposure to all examined air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOX, CO). Exposure to air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, CO, NOx) was also negatively associated with the level of testosterone. Additional exposure to PM2.5, PM10 increase the percentage of cells with immature chromatin (HDS). The present study provides suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and sperm quality. Further research is needed to explore this association in more detail. Individual precise exposure assessment would be needed for more detailed risk characterization.

  16. Leptin levels in protracted critical illness: effects of growth hormone-secretagogues and thyrotropin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Van den Berghe, G; Wouters, P; Carlsson, L; Baxter, R C; Bouillon, R; Bowers, C Y

    1998-09-01

    Prolonged critical illness is characterized by feeding-resistant wasting of protein, whereas reesterification, instead of oxidation of fatty acids, allows fat stores to accrue and associate with a low-activity status of the somatotropic and thyrotropic axis, which seems to be partly of hypothalamic origin. To further unravel this paradoxical metabolic condition, and in search of potential therapeutic strategies, we measured serum concentrations of leptin; studied the relationship with body mass index, insulin, cortisol, thyroid hormones, and somatomedins; and documented the effects of hypothalamic releasing factors, in particular, GH-secretagogues and TRH. Twenty adults, critically ill for several weeks and supported with normocaloric, continuously administered parenteral and/or enteral feeding, were studied for 45 h. They had been randomized to receive one of three combinations of peptide infusions, in random order: TRH (one day) and placebo (other day); TRH + GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-2 and GHRP-2; TRH + GHRH + GHRP-2 and GHRH + GHRP-2. Peptide infusions were started after a 1-microgram/kg bolus at 0900 h and infused (1 microgram/kg.h) until 0600 h the next morning. Serum concentrations of leptin, insulin, cortisol, T4, T3, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-binding protein-3 and the acid-labile subunit (ALS) were measured at 0900 h, 2100 h, and 0600 h on each of the 2 study days. Baseline leptin levels (mean +/- SEM: 12.4 +/- 2.1 micrograms/L) were independent of body mass index (25 +/- 1 kg/m2), insulin (18.6 +/- 2.9 microIU/mL), cortisol (504 +/- 43 mmol/L), and thyroid hormones (T4: 63 +/- 5 nmol/L, T3: 0.72 +/- 0.08 nmol/L) but correlated positively with circulating levels of IGF-I [86 +/- 6 micrograms/L, determination coefficient (R2) = 0.25] and ALS (7.2 +/- 0.6 mg/L, R2 = 0.32). Infusion of placebo or TRH had no effect on leptin. In contrast, GH-secretagogues elevated leptin levels within 12 h. Infusion of GHRP-2 alone induced a maximal leptin

  17. Low circulating IGF-I levels in hyperthyroidism are associated with decreased GH response to GH-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Dias, J C; Yateman, M; Camacho-Hübner, C; Grossman, A; Lengyel, A M

    1995-11-01

    Several abnormalities in the GH response to pharmacological stimuli have been described in hyperthyroidism. Both normal and high serum IGF-I levels have been reported, as well as a decrease in IGF-I bioactivity. We have evaluated the GH response to GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in hyperthyroid patients and the effects of hyperthyroidism on serum IGF-I levels. The possible relations between nutritional status, thyroid hormones and IGF-I levels were also investigated. We also studied the influence of long-term beta-adrenoceptor blockade on the GH response to GHRH in these patients. In 18 hyperthyroid patients and in 12 control subjects, GHRH (100 micrograms) was administered as an i.v. bolus injection. Eight hyperthyroid patients and 8 control subjects received 50 micrograms GHRH i.v. Seven hyperthyroid patients were reevaluated after beta-adrenoceptor blockade. IGF-I and albumin levels were measured initially in all hyperthyroid patients and control subjects. Body composition was determined in 11 hyperthyroid patients and in a group of 33 matched normal controls. Hyperthyroid patients were compared to control subjects. GH, TSH and free T4 were measured by immunofluorometric assay. IGF-I, total T3 and total T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. Body composition was determined using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer. The GH response to 100 micrograms GHRH in hyperthyroid patients was blunted compared to control subjects. The mean peak GH levels and the area under the curve were significantly lower in hyperthyroid patients compared to control subjects (11 +/- 1 vs 27 +/- 5 micrograms/l and 820 +/- 113 vs 1879 +/- 355 micrograms/l 120 min, respectively; P < 0.01). IGF-I levels were significantly reduced in hyperthyroid patients compared to controls (131 +/- 10 vs 201 +/- 16 micrograms/l, respectively; P < 0.01). Ideal body weight, serum albumin levels and the lean body mass were also reduced in hyperthyroid patients. After beta-adrenoceptor blockade there were no changes

  18. Changes in gut hormone levels and negative energy balance during aerobic exercise in obese young males.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shin-ya; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Katsura, Yoshihiro; Usui, Tatsuya; Nakao, Hayato; Fujimoto, Shigeo

    2009-04-01

    We examined whether changes in gut hormone levels due to a single bout of aerobic exercise differ between obese young males and normal controls, and attempted to determine the involvement of hormonal changes during exercise in the regulation of energy balance (EB) in these obese subjects. Seven obese and seven age-matched subjects of normal weight participated in exercise and rest sessions. Subjects consumed a standardized breakfast that was followed by constant cycling exercise at 50% VO(2max) or rest for 60 min. At lunch, a test meal was presented, and energy intake (EI) and relative energy intake (REI) were calculated. Blood samples were obtained at 30 min intervals during both sessions for measurement of glucose, insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Plasma levels of PYY and GLP-1 were increased by exercise, whereas plasma ghrelin levels were unaffected by exercise. The areas under the curve (AUC) of the time courses of PYY and GLP-1 levels did not significantly differ between the two groups. In contrast, EI and REI were decreased by exercise in both groups, and energy deficit was significantly larger in obese subjects than in normal controls. The present findings suggest that short-term EB during a single exercise session might be regulated not by increased amounts of these gut hormones per se.

  19. Sensitivity of anterior pituitary hormones to graded levels of psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Armario, A; Lopez-Calderón, A; Jolin, T; Castellanos, J M

    1986-08-04

    The effect of graded levels of stressor intensity on anterior pituitary hormones was studied in adult male rats. Corticosterone, considered as a reflection of ACTH release, and prolactin responses showed a good correlation with the intensity of the stressors. On the contrary, neither LH, GH nor TSH release showed a parallelism with the intensity of the stressors in spite of the fact that they clearly responded to all the stimuli. It appears that the hormones of the anterior pituitary might be divided into two groups: those whose response is sensitive to the levels of emotional arousal elicited by stress, and those displaying a clear but stereotyped response during stress. However, other alternative explanations might exist to justify the present results. The neural mechanisms underlying the two types of response are at present unknown. These data indicate that only the pituitary-adrenal axis and prolactin have some potential utilities as quantitative indices of emotional arousal elicited by currently applied stressors in the rat.

  20. The role of the habenula-interpeduncular pathway in modulating levels of circulating adrenal hormones.

    PubMed

    Murray, M; Murphy, C A; Ross, L L; Haun, F

    1994-01-01

    The fasciculus retroflexus (FR) is the major pathway by which the medial and lateral habenular nuclei project to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) and ventral tegmentum. Recent work has suggested that the habenula-interpeduncular system may be involved in the regulation of states of arousal. Bilateral FR lesions have been shown to disrupt chronically, and habenula transplants have been shown to restore normal sleep patterns in rats [J. NeuroscL, 12 (1992) 3282-3290]. In this study, we examined whether FR lesions and habenula cell transplants would also modify chronically the circulating plasma levels of the stress-related hormones, norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EPI) and corticosterone. When plasma samples were obtained via retro-orbital eye-bleed during anesthesia, animals with FR lesions had significantly increased levels of plasma NE, EPI and corticosterone 2-3 months postoperatively compared to unoperated controls. Transplants of embryonic habenula cells placed near the denervated IPN in FR-lesioned animals restored levels of NE and EPI to normal, but did not attenuate elevated corticosterone levels. When plasma samples were obtained in conscious animals via indwelling arterial cannulae, FR-lesioned rats likewise exhibited increased basal levels of corticosterone but plasma levels of catecholamines were similar to those of unoperated controls. Differences in our results obtained using the two methods of blood sampling may be explained by the effects of anesthesia and stress associated with the eye-bleed method. Thus, the effect of FR lesions in increasing plasma levels of catecholamines may not reflect a difference in basal hormone levels, but a heightened sympathetic adrenomedullary response to stress. While these results indicate that the integrity of the habenular efferent pathway is important in modulating circulating levels of hormones associated with the stress response, two separate mechanisms appear to control its interactions with sympathetic

  1. Sex Differences in Brain Thyroid Hormone Levels during Early Post-Hatching Development in Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Hayase, Shin; Aoki, Naoya; Takehara, Akihiko; Ishigohoka, Jun; Matsushima, Toshiya; Wada, Kazuhiro; Homma, Koichi J

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are closely linked to the hatching process in precocial birds. Previously, we showed that thyroid hormones in brain had a strong impact on filial imprinting, an early learning behavior in newly hatched chicks; brain 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) peaks around hatching and imprinting training induces additional T3 release, thus, extending the sensitive period for imprinting and enabling subsequent other learning. On the other hand, blood thyroid hormone levels have been reported to increase gradually after hatching in altricial species, but it remains unknown how the brain thyroid hormone levels change during post-hatching development of altricial birds. Here, we determined the changes in serum and brain thyroid hormone levels of a passerine songbird species, the zebra finch using radioimmunoassay. In the serum, we found a gradual increase in thyroid hormone levels during post-hatching development, as well as differences between male and female finches. In the brain, there was clear surge in the hormone levels during development in males and females coinciding with the time of fledging, but the onset of the surge of thyroxine (T4) in males preceded that of females, whereas the onset of the surge of T3 in males succeeded that of females. These findings provide a basis for understanding the functions of thyroid hormones during early development and learning in altricial birds.

  2. Associations of Circulating Gut Hormone and Adipocytokine Levels with the Spectrum of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ping-Huei; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Liou, Jyh-Ming; Lee, Yi-Chia; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Lin, Jaw-Town; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is complex and poorly understood. We aim to investigate the association of various circulating peptide hormones with heterogenous manifestations of GERD. Methods One hundred and four patients that had experienced typical GERD symptoms (heartburn and/or acid regurgitation) for at least 3 episodes per week in the past 3 months were enrolled. All patients received a baseline assessment of symptom severity and frequency with the Reflux Disease Questionnaire and an upper endoscopy to classify GERD into erosive esophagitis (EE, n = 67), non-erosive esophagitis (NE, n = 37), and Barrett’s esophagus (BE, n = 8). Fifty asymptomatic subjects with an endoscopically normal esophagus were recruited as the control group. Complete anthropometric measures and blood biochemistry were obtained and fasting serum levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin) and gut hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY)) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all subjects. Results All circulating peptide hormone levels were not statistically different between the GERD and control groups. However, GERD patients appeared to have lower PYY levels [median (25th-75th percentile), 80.1 (49.8–108.3) vs. 99.4 (65.8–131.9) pg/ml, p = 0.057] compared with control subjects. Among the GERD patients, ghrelin levels were inversely associated with the frequency and severity of acid regurgitation. In male GERD patients, EE was associated with significantly higher PYY levels [107.0 (55.0–120.8) vs. 32.8 (28.7–84.5) pg/ml, p = 0.026] but lower adiponectin levels [6.7 (5.6–9.3) vs. 9.9 (9.6–10.6) μg/ml, p = 0.034] than NE. Patients with BE had significantly lower adiponectin levels [6.0 (5.1–9.2) vs. 9.2 (7.1–11.2) μg/ml, p = 0.026] than those without BE. Conclusions Humoral derangement of circulating peptide hormones might participate in inflammation and symptom perception in patients suffering from GERD

  3. Thyroid hormone levels and incident chronic kidney disease in euthyroid individuals: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiyi; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Lee, Won-Young; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kwon, Min-Jung; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rampal, Sanjay; Han, Won Kon; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-10-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are associated with higher levels of serum creatinine and with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prospective association between thyroid hormones and kidney function in euthyroid individuals,however, is largely unexplored. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 104 633 South Korean men and women who were free of CKD and proteinuria at baseline and had normal thyroid hormone levels and no history of thyroid disease or cancer. At each annual or biennial follow-up visit, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxin (FT4) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The study outcome was incident CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 based on the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, 1032 participants developed incident CKD.There was a positive association between high-normal levels of TSH and increased risk of incident CKD. In fully-adjusted models including baseline eGFR, the hazard ratio comparing the highest vs the lowest quintiles of TSH was 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.55; P for linear trend=0.03]. In spline models, FT3 levels below 3 pg/ml were also associated with increased risk of incident CKD. There was no association between FT4 levels and CKD. In a large cohort of euthyroid men and women, high levels of TSH and low levels of FT3, even within the normal range, were modestly associated with an increased risk of incident CKD.

  4. Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, L.; Kvetňanský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, S.; Popova, I.; Tigranian, R. A.; Noskov, V. B.; Serova, L.; Grigoriev, I. A.

    An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the aminoacid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this recovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues.

  5. Menstrual cycle characteristics and steroid hormone, prolactin, and growth factor levels in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Farland, Leslie V; Mu, Fan; Eliassen, A Heather; Hankinson, Susan E; Tworoger, Shelley S; Barbieri, Robert L; Dowsett, Mitch; Pollak, Michael N; Missmer, Stacey A

    2017-12-01

    Menstrual cycle characteristics are markers of endocrine milieu. However, associations between age at menarche and adulthood sex steroid hormone levels have been inconsistent, and data on menstrual characteristics and non-sex steroid hormones are sparse. We assessed the relations of menstrual characteristics with premenopausal plasma sex steroid hormones, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), prolactin, and growth factors among 2,745 premenopausal women (age 32-52) from the Nurses' Health Study II. Geometric means and tests for trend were calculated using multivariable general linear models. Early age at menarche was associated with higher premenopausal early-follicular free estradiol (percent difference < 12 vs. > 13 years = 11%), early-follicular estrone (7%), luteal estrone (7%), and free testosterone (8%) (all p trend  < 0.05). Short menstrual cycle length at age 18-22 was associated with higher early-follicular total (< 26 vs. > 39 days = 18%) and free estradiol (16%), early-follicular estrone (9%), SHBG (7%), lower luteal free estradiol (- 14%), total (- 6%), and free testosterone (- 15%) (all p trend  < 0.05). Short adult menstrual length was associated with higher early-follicular total estradiol (< 26 vs. > 31 days = 14%), SHBG (10%), lower luteal estrone (- 8%), progesterone (- 9%), total (- 11%) and free testosterone (- 25%), and androstenedione (- 14%) (all p trend  < 0.05). Irregularity of menses at 18-22 was associated with lower early-follicular total (irregular vs. very regular = - 14%) and free estradiol (- 14%), and early-follicular estrone (- 8%) (All p trend  < 0.05). Irregularity of adult menstrual cycle was associated with lower luteal total estradiol (irregular vs. very regular = - 8%), SHBG (- 3%), higher total (8%), and free testosterone (11%) (all p trend  < 0.05). Early-life and adulthood menstrual characteristics are moderately associated with mid

  6. [Diagnostic value of baseline serum luteinizing hormone level for central precocious puberty in girls].

    PubMed

    Ou-Yang, Li-Xue; Yang, Fan

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of baseline serum luteinizing hormone (LH) level for central precocious puberty (CPP) in girls. A total of 279 girls with precocious puberty were subjected to assessment of growth and development, bone age determination, baseline LH test, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) test, gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test, and other related examinations. Of the 279 patients, 175 were diagnosed with CPP and 104 with premature thelarche (PT). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of baseline LH and FSH levels and their peak levels for CPP, and the correlation between the baseline LH level and the peak LH level was analyzed. The CPP group had significantly higher bone age, baseline LH and FSH levels, peak LH and FSH levels, and ratio of peak LH level to peak FSH level than the PT group (P<0.01). The ROC curve proved that baseline LH level and peak LH level had good diagnostic values for CPP. Among the three bone age subgroups in the CPP group (7.0-9.0 years, 9.0-11.0 years, and >11.0 years), baseline LH level showed the best diagnostic value in the >11.0 years subgroup, with the largest area under the ROC curve. At a baseline LH level of 0.45 IU/L, the Youden index reached the peak value, and the sensitivity and specificity were 66.7% and 80% respectively, for the diagnosis of CPP. At a peak LH level of 9.935 IU/L, the Youden index reached the peak value, and the sensitivity and specificity were 74.8% and 100% respectively, for the diagnosis of CPP. The baseline LH level was positively correlated with the peak LH level (r=0.440, P<0.01). Baseline LH level can be used as an primary screening index for the diagnosis of CPP. It has a certain diagnostic value for CPP at different bone ages, and may be used as a monitoring index during the treatment and follow-uP.

  7. Average ovarian hormone levels, rather than daily values and their fluctuations, are related to facial preferences among women.

    PubMed

    Marcinkowska, Urszula M; Kaminski, Gwenael; Little, Anthony C; Jasienska, Grazyna

    2018-05-24

    Hormones are of crucial importance for human behavior. Cyclical changes of ovarian hormones throughout women's menstrual cycle are suggested to underlie fluctuation in masculinity preference for both faces and bodies. In this study we tested this hypothesis based on daily measurements of estradiol and progesterone throughout menstrual cycle, and multiple measurements of women's preference towards masculinity of faces and bodies of men. We expected that due to a large variation among daily hormonal levels we would not observe a direct effect of daily hormone levels, but rather that average levels of ovarian hormones throughout the cycle (a reliable marker of a probability of conception) would better predict women's preferences. We found a negative relationship between average progesterone levels and facial masculinity preference, but only among women who were in long-term relationships. There was no relationship between facial masculinity preference and either of the estradiol or progesterone daily levels. Similarly, only average levels of hormones were significantly related to facial symmetry preference. For women who were in relationships estradiol was positively related to symmetry preference, while for single women this relationship was opposite. For body masculinity preference there were no significant relationships with neither averaged nor daily hormonal levels. Taken together, our results further suggest that overall cycle levels of ovarian hormones (averaged for a cycle) are better predictors of facial masculinity and symmetry preference than daily levels assessed during preferences' tests. Importantly, including information about relationship status in the investigations of hormonal bases of preferences is crucial. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Occupational exposure to pesticides, reproductive hormone levels and sperm quality in young Brazilian men.

    PubMed

    Cremonese, Cleber; Piccoli, Camila; Pasqualotto, Fabio; Clapauch, Ruth; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio; Freire, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The association of occupational exposure to current-use pesticides with reproductive hormones, semen quality, and genital measures was investigated among young men in the South of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 99 rural and 36 urban men aged 18-23 years. Information on pesticide use was obtained through questionnaire. Serum and semen samples were analyzed for sex hormones and sperm parameters, respectively, and measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) and testis volume (TV) were performed. Associations were explored using multivariate linear regression. Rural men had poorer sperm morphology, higher sperm count, and lower LH levels relative to urban subjects. Lifetime use of pesticides, especially herbicides and fungicides, was associated with poorer morphology and reduced LH and prolactin, with evidence of a linear pattern. Maternal farming during pregnancy was associated with larger AGD and TV. Chronic occupational exposure to modern pesticides may affect reproductive outcomes in young men. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Replication of Epigenetic Postpartum Depression Biomarkers and Variation with Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Lauren; Clive, Makena; Kimmel, Mary; Gispen, Fiona; Guintivano, Jerry; Brown, Tori; Cox, Olivia; Judy, Jennifer; Meilman, Samantha; Braier, Aviva; Beckmann, Matthias W; Kornhuber, Johannes; Fasching, Peter A; Goes, Fernando; Payne, Jennifer L; Binder, Elisabeth B; Kaminsky, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation variation at HP1BP3 and TTC9B is modified by estrogen exposure in the rodent hippocampus and was previously shown to be prospectively predictive of postpartum depression (PPD) when modeled in antenatal blood. The objective of this study was to replicate the predictive efficacy of the previously established model in women with and without a previous psychiatric diagnosis and to understand the effects of changing hormone levels on PPD biomarker loci. Using a statistical model trained on DNA methylation data from N=51 high-risk women, we prospectively predicted PPD status in an independent N=51 women using first trimester antenatal gene expression levels of HP1BP3 and TTC9B, with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69–0.92, p<5 × 10−4). Modeling DNA methylation of these genes in N=240 women without a previous psychiatric diagnosis resulted in a cross-sectional prediction of PPD status with an AUC of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.68–0.93, p=0.01). TTC9B and HP1BP3 DNA methylation at early antenatal time points showed moderate evidence for association to the change in estradiol and allopregnanolone over the course of pregnancy, suggesting that epigenetic variation at these loci may be important for mediating hormonal sensitivity. In addition both loci showed PPD-specific trajectories with age, possibly mediated by age-associated hormonal changes. The data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that PPD is mediated by differential gene expression and epigenetic sensitivity to pregnancy hormones and that modeling proxies of this sensitivity enable accurate prediction of PPD. PMID:26503311

  10. The Association between Nonylphenols and Sexual Hormones Levels among Pregnant Women: A Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Huang; Tsai, Ming-Song; Lin, Ching-Ling; Hou, Jia-Woei; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Tsai, Yen-An; Liao, Kai-Wei; Mao, I-Fang; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonylphenol (NP) has been proven as an endocrine disrupter and had the ability to interfere with the endocrine system. Though the health effects of NP on pregnant women and their fetuses are sustained, these negative associations related to the mechanisms of regulation for estrogen during pregnancy need to be further clarified. The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal NP and hormonal levels, such as estradiol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and progesterone. Methods A pregnant women cohort was established in North Taiwan between March and December 2010. Maternal urine and blood samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation (GEE) was applied to assess the associations between maternal NP concentration and plasma hormones throughout the three trimesters. Results In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27, 4.21, and 4.10 µg/g cre. in the first, second, and third trimesters respectively. A natural log-transformation of urinary NP concentrations were significantly associated with LH in the GEE model (β = −0.23 mIU/ml, p<0.01). Conclusion This perspective cohort study demonstrates that negative association occurs between maternal NP exposure and plasma LH levels. The estrogen-mimic effect of NP might influence the negative feedback on LH during pregnancy. PMID:25148048

  11. The influence of sporadic anovulation on hormone levels in ovulatory cycles

    PubMed Central

    Hambridge, H.L.; Mumford, S.L.; Mattison, D.R.; Ye, A.; Pollack, A.Z.; Bloom, M.S.; Mendola, P.; Lynch, K.L.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Schisterman, E.F.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Do ovulatory hormone profiles among healthy premenopausal women differ between women with and without sporadic anovulation? SUMMARY ANSWER Women with one anovulatory cycle tended to have lower estradiol, progesterone and LH peak levels during their ovulatory cycle. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Anovulation occurs sporadically in healthy premenopausal women, but the influence of hormones in a preceding cycle and the impact on a subsequent cycle's hormone levels is unknown. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The BioCycle Study was a prospective cohort including 250 healthy regularly menstruating women, 18–44 years of age, from Western New York with no history of menstrual or ovulation disorders. The women were followed with up to eight study visits per cycle for two cycles, most of which were consecutive. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING AND METHODS All study visits were timed to menstrual cycle phase using fertility monitors and located at the University at Buffalo women's health research center from 2005 to 2007. The main outcomes measured were estradiol, progesterone, LH and follicle-stimulating hormone levels in serum at up to 16 visits over two cycles. Anovulation was defined as peak serum progesterone concentrations ≤5 ng/ml and no serum LH peak detected during the mid- or late-luteal phase visit. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Reproductive hormone concentrations were lower during anovulatory cycles, but significant reductions were also observed in estradiol (−25%, P = 0.003) and progesterone (−22%, P = 0.001) during the ovulatory cycles of women with one anovulatory cycle compared with women with two ovulatory cycles. LH peak concentrations were decreased in the ovulatory cycle of women with an anovulatory cycle (significant amplitude effect, P = 0.004; geometric mean levels 38% lower, P < 0.05). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Follow-up was limited to two menstrual cycles, and no ultrasound assessment of ovulation was available. Data were

  12. Peripheral thyroid hormone levels and hepatic thyroid hormone deiodinase gene expression in dairy heifers on the day of ovulation and during the early peri-implantation period.

    PubMed

    Meyerholz, Marie Margarete; Mense, Kirsten; Linden, Matthias; Raliou, Mariam; Sandra, Olivier; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Hoedemaker, Martina; Schmicke, Marion

    2016-09-08

    Before the onset of fetal thyroid hormone production, the transplacental delivery of maternal thyroid hormones is necessary for embryonic and fetal development. Therefore, the adaptation of maternal thyroid hormone metabolism may be important for pregnancy success and embryo survival. The aims of this study were to determine the thyroid hormone levels during the early peri-implantation period until day 18 and on the day of ovulation, to determine whether pregnancy success is dependent on a "normothyroid status" and to determine whether physiological adaptations in maternal thyroid hormone metabolism occur, which may be necessary to provide sufficient amounts of biologically active T3 to support early pregnancy. Therefore, blood samples obtained on the day of ovulation (day 0) and days 14 and 18 of the Holstein-Friesian heifers (n = 10) during the respective pregnant, non-pregnant and negative control cycles were analyzed for thyroid-stimulating-hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Liver biopsies (day 18) from pregnant and respective non-pregnant heifers were analyzed for mRNA expression of the most abundant hepatic thyroid hormone deiodinase (DIO1) by real time qPCR. Although liver DIO1 mRNA expression did not differ between the pregnant and non-pregnant heifers on day 18, the serum concentrations of TSH and T3 on day 18 were higher in non-pregnant heifers compared to pregnant heifers (P < 0.05). Moreover, T3 decreased between day 0 and 18 in pregnant heifers (P < 0.001). In conclusion, no associations between thyroid hormone patterns on day 18 and pregnancy success were detected. During the early peri-implantation period, TSH and T3 may be affected by the pregnancy status because both TSH and T3 were lower on day 18 in pregnant heifers compared to non-pregnant dairy heifers. In further studies, the thyroid hormone axis should be evaluated throughout the entire gestation to confirm these data and identify other possible effects of

  13. Berberine protects against diet-induced obesity through regulating metabolic endotoxemia and gut hormone levels

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian Hui; Liu, Xing Zhen; Pan, Wei; Zou, Da Jin

    2017-01-01

    Systemic inflammation, which can be induced by metabolic endotoxemia, and corresponding high-fat diet-mediated metabolic disorders are associated with gut microbiota. In the present study reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, pyrosequencing, ELISA and Oil Red O staining were performed to assess whether berberine can protect against diet-induced obesity, through modulating the gut microbiota and consequently improving metabolic endotoxemia and gastrointestinal hormone levels. Alterations in the gut microbiota induced by berberine resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial lipopolysaccharide levels in portal plasma. Levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, as well as the mRNA expression levels of macrophage infiltration markers in visceral adipose tissue, were also reduced by berberine. Inhibition of the inflammatory response was associated with a reduction in intestinal permeability and an increase in the expression of tight junction proteins. In addition, berberine was reported to restore aberrant levels of gut hormones in the portal plasma, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 and −2, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and pancreatic polypeptide. The present findings indicated that berberine, through modulating gut microbiota, restored the gut barrier, reduced metabolic endotoxemia and systemic inflammation, and improved gut peptide levels in high-fat diet-fed rats. The present study suggests that berberine may be an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:28447763

  14. Berberine protects against diet-induced obesity through regulating metabolic endotoxemia and gut hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian Hui; Liu, Xing Zhen; Pan, Wei; Zou, Da Jin

    2017-05-01

    Systemic inflammation, which can be induced by metabolic endotoxemia, and corresponding high‑fat diet‑mediated metabolic disorders are associated with gut microbiota. In the present study reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, pyrosequencing, ELISA and Oil Red O staining were performed to assess whether berberine can protect against diet-induced obesity, through modulating the gut microbiota and consequently improving metabolic endotoxemia and gastrointestinal hormone levels. Alterations in the gut microbiota induced by berberine resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial lipopolysaccharide levels in portal plasma. Levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, as well as the mRNA expression levels of macrophage infiltration markers in visceral adipose tissue, were also reduced by berberine. Inhibition of the inflammatory response was associated with a reduction in intestinal permeability and an increase in the expression of tight junction proteins. In addition, berberine was reported to restore aberrant levels of gut hormones in the portal plasma, such as glucagon‑like peptide‑1 and ‑2, peptide YY, glucose‑dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and pancreatic polypeptide. The present findings indicated that berberine, through modulating gut microbiota, restored the gut barrier, reduced metabolic endotoxemia and systemic inflammation, and improved gut peptide levels in high‑fat diet‑fed rats. The present study suggests that berberine may be an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.

  15. Maternal Urinary Triclosan Concentration in Relation to Maternal and Neonatal Thyroid Hormone Levels: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Feng, Liping; Wang, Xia; Liu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jun

    2017-06-27

    Triclosan (TCS) is a synthetic antibacterial chemical widely used in personal care products. TCS exposure has been associated with decreased thyroid hormone levels in animals, but human studies are scarce and controversial. We evaluated the association between maternal TCS exposure and thyroid hormone levels of mothers and newborns. TCS was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) in urine samples collected during gestational weeks 38.8±1.1 from 398 pregnant women in a prospective birth cohort enrolled in 2012-2013 in Shanghai, China. Maternal serum levels of free thyroxine (FT 4 ), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) were obtained from medical records. Cord blood levels of free triiodothyronine (FT 3 ), FT 4 , TSH, and TPOAb were measured. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between maternal urinary TCS and thyroid hormone levels. TCS was detectable (≥0.1 ng/mL) in 98.24% of maternal urine samples with tertile of urinary TCS levels: low (>0.1-2.75 μg/g.Cr), medium (2.75–9.78 μg/g.Cr), and high (9.78–427.38 μg/g.Cr). With adjustment for potential confounders, cord blood log(FT 3 )pmol/L concentration was 0.11 lower in newborns of mothers with medium and high urinary TCS levels compared with those with low levels. At third trimester, the high TCS concentration was associated with 0.03 [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.08, −0.02] lower maternal serum log(FT 4 )pmol/L, whereas the medium TCS concentration was associated with 0.15 (95% CI: −0.28, −0.03) lower serum log(TSH)mIU/L with adjustment for covariates. Our results suggest significant inverse associations between maternal urinary TCS and cord blood FT 3 as well as maternal blood FT 4 concentrations at third trimester. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP500.

  16. Growth failure, somatomedin and growth hormone levels in juvenile diabetes mellitus--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nash, H

    1979-06-01

    Growth hormone (hGH) responsiveness to exercise and somatomedin C (SmC) activity were measured in ten children with insulin-deficient diabetes mellitus. Four of the ten children showed a significant degree of growth retardation. Normal SmC activity was found in association with elevated hGH levels. The hypothesis that growth-retarded diabetics have a failure of Sm production despite high hGH levels (analogous to malnutrition and Laron dwarfism) was not substantiated by this study. Chronic deficiency of insulin, itself a somatomedin, may play a major role in diabetic growth failure.

  17. Generalized Resistance to Thyroid Hormone Associated with a Mutation in the Ligand-Binding Domain of the Human Thyroid Hormone Receptor β

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Akihiro; Takeda, Kyoko; Ain, Kenneth; Ceccarelli, Paola; Nakai, Akira; Seino, Susumu; Bell, Graeme I.; Refetoff, Samuel; Degroot, Leslie J.

    1989-11-01

    The syndrome of generalized resistance to thyroid hormone is characterized by elevated circulating levels of thyroid hormone in the presence of an overall eumetabolic state and failure to respond normally to triiodothyronine. We have evaluated a family with inherited generalized resistance to thyroid hormone for abnormalities in the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors. A single guanine --> cytosine replacement in the codon for amino acid 340 resulted in a glycine --> arginine substitution in the hormone-binding domain of one of two alleles of the patient's thyroid hormone nuclear receptor β gene. In vitro translation products of this mutant human thyroid hormone nuclear receptor β gene did not bind triiodothyronine. Thus, generalized resistance to thyroid hormone can result from expression of an abnormal thyroid hormone nuclear receptor molecule.

  18. Association Between Sex and Speech Auditory Brainstem Responses in Adults, and Relationship to Sex Hormone Levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfeng; Wang, Dan; Li, Xiaoting; Ningyu, Wang

    2017-05-14

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sex and speech-ABR in adults, and its relationship to sex hormone levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS Speech-ABR were elicited with the consonant-vowel syllable (/da/) in a total of 35 adults. Reproductive hormone levels were also measured. RESULTS The transient response of the speech-ABR (waves V, A, and O) in females show a shorter latency (waves V, A and O) and a larger amplitude (waves V and A) than in males (P<0.05), except for the amplitude of peak O (P>0.05). The sustained response of females exhibited a larger amplitude (wave F, P<0.05) and a shorter latency (wave D, E, and F, P<0.05) than in males, except for the amplitude of peak D and E (P>0.05). The latencies of speech-ABR were positively correlated with testosterone level (P<0.05), and were negatively correlated with estradiol (E2) levels (P<0.05), except for wave E (P>0.05). The E2 showed a positive correlation with the absolute value of amplitude of the speech-ABR (P < 0.05). On the contrary, total testosterone showed a negative correlation with the absolute value of amplitude the speech-ABR (P<0.05), except for wave D and wave O (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS Sex differences in speech-ABR are significant in adults. The latencies and amplitude of the speech-ABR waves were correlated with the E2 concentration and testosterone level. The sex hormones likely affect speech encoding in the brainstem.

  19. Abnormal levels of expression of plasma microRNA-33 in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, S; Arias-Santiago, S; Orgaz-Molina, J; Magro-Checa, C; Valenzuela, I; Navarro, P; Naranjo-Sintes, R; Sancho, J; Zubiaur, M

    2014-06-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNA) are involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of genes associated with lipid metabolism (miRNA-33) and vascular function and angiogenesis (miRNA-126). The objective of this exploratory study was to measure plasma levels of miRNA-33 and miRNA-126 in patients with plaque psoriasis and evaluate their association with clinical parameters. We studied 11 patients with plaque psoriasis. The median Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) was 13 (interquartile range [IQR], 9-14) and body surface area involvement was 12 (IQR, 11-15). Eleven healthy controls matched for age and sex were also included. We analyzed cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical carotid atheromatosis. Plasma miRNAs were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Carotid intima-media thickness was greater in patients (0.57mm; IQR, 0.54-0.61; n=11) than in controls (0.50mm; IQR, 0.48-0.54; data available for 9 controls) (P=.0055, Mann-Whitney). Expression of miRNA-33 in patients (5.34; IQR, 3.12-7.96; n=11) was significantly higher than in controls (2.33; IQR, 1.71-2.84; only detected in 7 of 11 controls) (P=.0049, Wilcoxon signed rank). No differences in miRNA-126 levels were observed between patients and controls. In patients (n=11), we observed a positive correlation between miRNA-33 and insulin levels (r=0.7289, P=.0109) and a negative correlation between miRNA-126 and carotid intima-media thickness (r=-0.6181, P=.0426). In psoriasis patients plasma levels of lipid and glucose metabolism-related miRNA-33 are increased and correlated with insulin. The study of circulating miRNA-33 in psoriasis may provide new insights about the associated systemic inflammatory abnormalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  20. Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use.

    PubMed

    Lucero, J; Harlow, B L; Barbieri, R L; Sluss, P; Cramer, D W

    2001-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use on early follicular phase FSH, LH, E2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center. Four hundred ninety-eight women selected from the general population, ages 36-45, who were not currently pregnant, breast feeding, or using exogenous hormones. A general questionnaire assessing demography, anthropometry, and smoking habits and a standardized dietary questionnaire assessing food and beverage frequencies, including sources of alcohol and caffeine. FSH, LH, E2, and SHBG levels measured during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Significant associations observed in a univariate analysis included age > or =40 and current smoking associated with higher FSH; higher body mass index (BMI) associated with lower SHBG levels; and daily alcohol use, cholesterol consumption greater than the median, and coffee use >1 cup/d associated with higher E2 levels. In a multivariate model, total caffeine use was significantly associated with E2 levels after adjustment for age, BMI, total calories, current smoking, alcohol, cholesterol consumption, and day of sampling. Early follicular phase E2 increased from 28.2 pg/mL for women consuming < or =100 mg of caffeine to 45.2 pg/mL for women consuming > or =500 mg of caffeine per day, about a 70% increase. Coffee consumption and total caffeine use may increase early follicular phase E2 levels independent of related habits of alcohol or tobacco use.

  1. Elevated stress hormone levels relate to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress and spaceflight on levels of neuroendocrine hormones and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in astronauts. METHODS: Antiviral antibody titers and stress hormones were measured in plasma samples collected from 28 astronauts at their annual medical exam (baseline), 10 days before launch (L-10), landing day (R+0), and 3 days after landing (R+3). Urinary stress hormones were also measured at L-10 and R+0. RESULTS: Significant increases (p <.01) in EBV virus capsid antigen antibodies were found at all three time points (L-10, R+0, and R+3) as compared with baseline samples. Anti-EBV nuclear antigen antibodies were significantly decreased at L-10 (p <.05) and continued to decrease after spaceflight (R+0 and R+3, p <.01). No changes were found in antibodies to the nonlatent measles virus. The 11 astronauts who showed evidence of EBV reactivation had significant increases in urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine as compared with astronauts without EBV reactivation. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that physical and psychological stresses associated with spaceflight resulted in decreased virus-specific T-cell immunity and reactivation of EBV.

  2. Raised D-dimer levels in acute sickle cell crisis and their correlation with chest X-ray abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Javeed; Mughal, Inam; Hassan, Hilali; Al Mekki, Taj E.; Chapunduka, Zivani; Hassan, Imad S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Quantitation of D-dimer level during a sickling crisis and its correlation with other clinical abnormalities. Design: Prospective longitudinal study. Setting: Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients: Adult patients (12 years and older) admitted acutely with a sickle cell crisis who consent to taking part in the study. Candidates may re-participate if they are readmitted with a further acute painful crisis. Results: 36 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease consented to take part in the study. D-dimer levels were raised in 31 (68.9%) of 45 episodes of painful crisis of whom 13 had an abnormal chest X-ray. Of those with a normal chest X-ray only one patient had a raised D-dimer level: sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity 40.6%, positive predictive value 38.7% and negative predictive value of 92.9% for an abnormal chest X-ray. Conclusion: D-dimer levels are frequently raised during an acute painful crisis. A normal level has a high negative predictive value for an abnormal chest X-ray. PMID:21063468

  3. Raised D-dimer levels in acute sickle cell crisis and their correlation with chest X-ray abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Dar, Javeed; Mughal, Inam; Hassan, Hilali; Al Mekki, Taj E; Chapunduka, Zivani; Hassan, Imad S A

    2010-10-08

    Quantitation of D-dimer level during a sickling crisis and its correlation with other clinical abnormalities. Prospective longitudinal study. Armed Forces Hospital, Southern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Adult patients (12 years and older) admitted acutely with a sickle cell crisis who consent to taking part in the study. Candidates may re-participate if they are readmitted with a further acute painful crisis. 36 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease consented to take part in the study. D-dimer levels were raised in 31 (68.9%) of 45 episodes of painful crisis of whom 13 had an abnormal chest X-ray. Of those with a normal chest X-ray only one patient had a raised D-dimer level: sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity 40.6%, positive predictive value 38.7% and negative predictive value of 92.9% for an abnormal chest X-ray. D-dimer levels are frequently raised during an acute painful crisis. A normal level has a high negative predictive value for an abnormal chest X-ray.

  4. Circulating anti-Mullerian hormone levels in adult men are under a strong genetic influence.

    PubMed

    Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Kaprio, Jaakko; Vaaralahti, Kirsi; Rissanen, Aila; Raivio, Taneli

    2012-01-01

    The determinants of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in adult men remain unclear. The objective of the study was to investigate the genetic and environmental components in determining postpubertal AMH levels in healthy men. Serum AMH levels, body mass index (BMI), and fat mass (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured in 64 healthy male (23 monozygotic and 41 dizygotic) twin pairs. Postpubertal AMH levels were highly genetically determined (broad sense heritability 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.83-0.96). AMH correlated negatively with BMI (r = -0.26, P = 0.030) and fat mass (r = -0.23, P = 0.048). As AMH, BMI had a high heritability (0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.83), but no genetic correlation was observed between them. AMH levels in men after puberty are under a strong genetic influence. Twin modeling suggests that AMH and BMI are influenced by different sets of genes.

  5. Menstrual cycle characteristics and reproductive hormone levels in women exposed to atrazine in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Cragin, Lori A; Kesner, James S; Bachand, Annette M; Barr, Dana Boyd; Meadows, Juliana W; Krieg, Edward F; Reif, John S

    2011-11-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the U.S. and a wide-spread groundwater contaminant. Epidemiologic and laboratory evidence exists that atrazine disrupts reproductive health and hormone secretion. We examined the relationship between exposure to atrazine in drinking water and menstrual cycle function including reproductive hormone levels. Women 18-40 years old residing in agricultural communities where atrazine is used extensively (Illinois) and sparingly (Vermont) answered a questionnaire (n=102), maintained menstrual cycle diaries (n=67), and provided daily urine samples for analyses of luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol and progesterone metabolites (n=35). Markers of exposures included state of residence, atrazine and chlorotriazine concentrations in tap water, municipal water and urine, and estimated dose from water consumption. Women who lived in Illinois were more likely to report menstrual cycle length irregularity (odds ratio (OR)=4.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58-13.95) and more than 6 weeks between periods (OR=6.16; 95% CI: 1.29-29.38) than those who lived in Vermont. Consumption of >2 cups of unfiltered Illinois water daily was associated with increased risk of irregular periods (OR=5.73; 95% CI: 1.58-20.77). Estimated "dose" of atrazine and chlorotriazine from tap water was inversely related to mean mid-luteal estradiol metabolite. Atrazine "dose" from municipal concentrations was directly related to follicular phase length and inversely related to mean mid-luteal progesterone metabolite levels. We present preliminary evidence that atrazine exposure, at levels below the US EPA MCL, is associated with increased menstrual cycle irregularity, longer follicular phases, and decreased levels of menstrual cycle endocrine biomarkers of infertile ovulatory cycles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Incidence of Abnormal Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Emily D.; Magliano, Dianna J.; Zimmet, Paul Z.; Kavanagh, Anne M.; Stevenson, Christopher E.; Oldenburg, Brian F.; Shaw, Jonathan E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the role of area-level socioeconomic status (SES) on the development of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) using national, population-based data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study is a national, population-based, longitudinal study of adults aged ≥25 years. A sample of 4,572 people provided complete baseline (1999 to 2000) and 5-year follow-up (2004 to 2005) data relevant for these analyses. Incident AGM was assessed using fasting plasma glucose and 2-h plasma glucose from oral glucose tolerance tests, and demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were collected by interview and questionnaire. Area SES was defined using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the relationship between area SES and incident AGM, with adjustment for covariates and correction for cluster design effects. RESULTS Area SES predicted the development of AGM, after adjustment for age, sex, and individual SES. People living in areas with the most disadvantage were significantly more likely to develop AGM, compared with those living in the least deprived areas (odds ratio 1.53; 95% CI 1.07–2.18). Health behaviors (in particular, physical activity) and central adiposity appeared to partially mediate this relationship. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that characteristics of the physical, social, and economic aspects of local areas influence diabetes risk. Future research should focus on identifying the aspects of local environment that are associated with diabetes risk and how they might be modified. PMID:22619081

  7. The relation among steroid hormone levels, lipid profile and menopausal symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Cihan; Cengiz, Hüseyin; Yeşil, Ali; Ekin, Murat; Yaşar, Levent

    2017-12-01

    Many postmenopausal women experience hot flashes, night sweats, non-specific emotional and psychological distresses. Our aim was to investigate the relation among steroid hormone levels, lipid profile and menopausal symptom severity using the menopause rating scale (MRS). A cross-sectional study was performed at our outpatient clinic with natural postmenopausal women. A total of 444 women were included in this study. The basic characteristics of the study population, such as age, gravidity, parity, time to menopause onset and body mass index (BMI) were recorded. Venous blood samples were collected from subjects after overnight fasting. The levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), fasting plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, estradiol (E2), progesterone, testosterone and dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEA-S) were analyzed. The MRS questionnaire validated for the Turkish population was used to assess the menopausal symptoms. There was a statistically significant difference between mild and severe total symptom scores for TG, and elevated TG levels were observed in the severe group (p = 0.04). Elevated testosterone levels were observed with severe psychological symptom and total symptom scores. There were significant differences in progesterone level in psychological, urogenital, and total scores and lower levels were seen in severe symptom groups. There was a significant negative correlation between urogenital symptom scores and progesterone levels (p < 0.001). Elevated levels of testosterone were related to severe psychological symptom and total menopausal symptom scores. A decrease in progesterone levels was related to high psychological, urogenital and total menopausal symptom scores. Elevated TG levels were also related to the total severe symptom scores.

  8. Serum adiponectin levels in adolescents and young adults with growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Oswiecimska, Joanna M; Roczniak, Wojciech; Roczniak, Robert Grzegorz; Malczyk, Zaneta; Chyra, Marcin; Mazur, Bogdan; Ziora, Katarzyna T

    2017-05-01

    Adiponectin (APN) is adipose tissue-derived hormone influencing energy metabolism. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) may contribute to the development of disturbances in the hormonal function of adipose tissue (AT), and many disorders observed in untreated patients with GHD coincides with these contributed to low serum APN levels. The assessment of serum adiponectin levels in adolescents and young adults with severe or partial GHD and analysis of relationships between serum APN and GH/IGF-1 axis function impairment as well as cardiometabolic risk factors. Based on the results of insulin tolerance test (ITT) patients were qualified for one of the following groups: 1) severe GHD - SGHD (26 patients; 8 women and 18 men); 2) partial GHD - PGHD (22 patients, 7 women and 15 men); 3) normal GH status - NGHS (28 patients, 9 women and 19 men). The fourth examined group consisted of healthy individuals - H (46 participants; 15 women, 31 men). Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, BMI), analysis of body composition and serum glucose, lipids, insulin, IGF-1 and APN assays were performed in all participants. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of APN between groups. After calculation of the total APN content in extracellular fluids per unit of fat tissue mass (TAPN/FM), these values were significantly lower in the SGHD (p<0.001) and correlated with the degree of impairment of the GH/IGF-1 axis functioning. In patients with GHD positive correlations between APN and serum HDL cholesterol (r=0.39, p<0.05) have been demonstrated. In the subjects with normal GH secretion serum APN correlated positively with serum HDL cholesterol (r=0.28; p<0.05), and negatively with fasting blood glucose (r=-0.31; p<0.05). Severe, but not partial growth hormone deficiency impairs adiponectin production in the adipose tissue that is compensated by the increase of fat mass. The degree of GH/IGF-1 axis disruption is related to the TAPN/FM. This parameter may be potentially

  9. Effect of exercise and exogenous glucocorticoid on serum level of intact parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Tsai, K S; Lin, J C; Chen, C K; Cheng, W C; Yang, C H

    1997-11-01

    Most previous studies suggest that physical exercise, or physiological response to exercise such as cortisol and adrenaline secretion regulate parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in humans. To investigate the effects and possible interaction of exercise and excessive glucocorticoid on PTH secretion, we examined the serum of levels of intact-PTH, cortisol, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), calcium, magnesium and phosphorus before and during one-hour of bicycle-ergometric exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake. These exercise tests were performed on eight Chinese male volunteers aged between 20 and 25 years, once with and once without pretreatment with 0.5 mg of dexamethasone taken orally 9.5 hours in advance. The results showed that dexamethasone pretreatment significantly lowered basal levels of cortisol and ACTH, but intact PTH did not change. After 60 minutes of bicycling, intact PTH level increases by 50% of baseline both with and without dexamethasone pretreatment. Serum levels of calcium, corrected for changes in serum albumin concentration, phosphorus and magnesium also increased in both cases. This study demonstrated an increase of intact-PTH with exercise which was not associated with hypocalcemia or hypomagnesemia, and was not altered in the presence of mild exogenous glucocorticoid excess and suppressed endogenous cortisol secretion.

  10. [Association between obstetric factors, hormone levels and nutritional status with the development of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; Montero-Alonso, Miguel Ángel; Schmidt Riovalle, Jacqueline

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that the age at first pregnancy, number of children and the lapse between births may protect against breast cancer. Furthermore, serum levels of estrogen, prolactin and progesterone appear to contribute to the development of this tumors in obese women. To verify whether the variables age at first pregnancy, number of children, birth interval, hormone levels and nutritional status are associated with the age at diagnosis of breast cancer. Retrospective analysis of medical records of 550 female patients, diagnosed and treated for breast cancer at a hospital in Spain between 2009 and 2012. We found a significant and positive association between age at diagnosis of cancer and the variables age at first pregnancy, parity and interval between pregnancies. There was also a significant correlation (p < 0.000) between serum levels of estrogen, prolactin and progesterone and nutritional status of patients. In this sample, age at first pregnancy or number of children, hormone levels and nutritional status are related to the age of onset of cancer.

  11. Assessment of gonadotropins and testosterone hormone levels in regular Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) users.

    PubMed

    Singh, Darshan; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Hamid, Shahrul Bariyah Sahul; Kasinather, Vicknasingam; Chan, Michelle Su Ann; Ho, Eric Tatt Wei; Grundmann, Oliver; Chear, Nelson Jeng Yeou; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2018-07-15

    Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) also known as kratom, is a native medicinal plant of Southeast Asia with opioid-like effects. Kratom tea/juice have been traditionally used as a folk remedy and for controlling opiate withdrawal in Malaysia. Long-term opioid use is associated with depletion in testosterone levels. Since kratom is reported to deform sperm morphology and reduce sperm motility, we aimed to clinically investigate the testosterone levels following long-term kratom tea/juice use in regular kratom users. A total of 19 regular kratom users were recruited for this cross-sectional study. A full-blood test was conducted including determination of testosterone level, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) profile, as well as hematological and biochemical parameters of participants. We found long-term kratom tea/juice consumption with a daily mitragynine dose of 76.23-94.15 mg did not impair testosterone levels, or gonadotrophins, hematological and biochemical parameters in regular kratom users. Regular kratom tea/juice consumption over prolonged periods (>2 years) was not associated with testosterone impairing effects in humans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Levels of adipocytokines and vitamin D in a biracial sample of young metabolically healthy obese and metabolically abnormal obese women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: Adipocytokines and vitamin D (vitD) concentrations may contribute to cardiometabolic risk profiles in obese populations. The purpose was to determine if levels of adipocytokines and vitD differ between young metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) black and ...

  13. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance index, leptin and thyroid hormone levels in the general population of Merida (Venezuela).

    PubMed

    Uzcátegui, Euderruh; Valery, Lenin; Uzcátegui, Lilia; Gómez Pérez, Roald; Marquina, David; Baptista, Trino

    2015-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular events, but scarce information exists about its frequency in Venezuela. In this cross-sectional study, we quantified the prevalence of the MetSyn in a probabilistic, stratified sample of 274 subjects aged > or =18 years from the Libertador district in Merida, Venezuela. Secondary outcomes were the measurement of thyroid hormones (free T4 and TSH), leptin levels, and insulin resistance index (HOMA2-IR). The frequency of MetSyn (percentage +/- 95% confidence interval) according to several diagnostic criteria was as follows: National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP, original): 27.4% (22.1-32.7); modified NCEP: 31.8% (26.3-37.3); International Diabetes Federation: 40.9% (35.1-46.7); Latin American Diabetes Association: 27% (21.7-32.3), and Venezuelan criteria: 31.8% (26.3-37.3). The MetSyn was more frequent in males than in females with most diagnostic criteria. The estimated prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 2.9% either according to the patients' self reports or to fasting glucose level found to be above 126 mg/dL. Abnormal HOMA2-IR index, free T4 and TSH (above the 95th percentile) were detected in 4.5%, 4.4% and 5.1% of the sample, respectively. Free T4 and TSH levels below the 5th percentile were detected in 4.4% and 4.7% of subjects respectively. These values are presented for comparisons with forthcoming studies in specific clinical populations. While studies are being conducted about the different definitions of the MetSyn in Venezuela, we recommend analyzing and publishing local research data with all the available criteria so as to allow comparisons with the results already reported in the literature.

  14. Cortisol level measurements in fingernails as a retrospective index of hormone production.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shuhei; Miki, Keiichi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Mitani, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Toru; Fuchu, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Taiki; Togo, Fumiharu

    2015-04-01

    The cortisol level in fingernails may reflect the hormone's cumulative production over a long period, but the notions have not been fully established. In this study, we investigated the association of cortisol in fingernails with cortisol accumulation over a long period (hair cortisol) and over a relatively short period (salivary cortisol). In study 1, hair and fingernail samples were collected from 58 middle-aged and elderly men. The cortisol level in hair samples was moderately associated with the level in fingernail samples (r = 0.29, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.36, p < 0.01). In study 2, 37 workers provided 4 saliva samples over the course of one day (at awakening, 30 min after awakening, before lunch, and after work) and another set a month later. Further, the workers were asked to provide fingernail samples during a six-month period. We found that the cortisol level in saliva over the whole day (area under the curve for cortisol) was moderately associated with the cortisol level measured in fingernail samples that were collected 4 months (r = 0.43, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.50, p < 0.01) and 5 months later (r = 0.45, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.53, p < 0.01). These results indicated that the cortisol level in fingernail samples might retrospectively represent hormone production during a given period. The cortisol level in fingernail samples may be useful in the investigation of the link between psychosocial stress and health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stress hormone levels in a freshwater turtle from sites differing in human activity.

    PubMed

    Polich, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone (CORT), commonly serve as a measure of stress levels in vertebrate populations. These hormones have been implicated in regulation of feeding behaviour, locomotor activity, body mass, lipid metabolism and other crucial behaviours and physiological processes. Thus, understanding how glucocorticoids fluctuate seasonally and in response to specific stressors can yield insight into organismal health and the overall health of populations. I compared circulating CORT concentrations between two similar populations of painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, which differed primarily in the level of exposure to human recreational activities. I measured basal CORT concentrations as well as the CORT stress response and did not find any substantive difference between the two populations. This similarity may indicate that painted turtles are not stressed by the presence of humans during the nesting season. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of CORT concentrations in freshwater reptiles, a group that is historically under-represented in studies of circulating hormone concentrations; specifically, studies that seek to use circulating concentrations of stress hormones, such as CORT, as a measure of the effect of human activities on wild populations. They also give insight into how these species as a whole may respond to human recreational activities during crucial life-history stages, such as the nesting season. Although there was no discernable difference between circulating CORT concentrations between the urban and rural populations studied, I did find a significant difference in circulating CORT concentrations between male and female C. picta. This important finding provides better understanding of the sex differences between male and female painted turtles and adds to our understanding of this species and other species of freshwater turtle.

  16. Comparability of antimüllerian hormone levels among commercially available immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Su, H Irene; Sammel, Mary D; Homer, Michael V; Bui, Kim; Haunschild, Carolyn; Stanczyk, Frank Z

    2014-06-01

    To compare antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels among three commercially available AMH immunoassays: AMH Gen II (Beckman Coulter), Ultrasensitive AMH (Ansh Labs), and picoAMH (Ansh Labs). Cross-sectional. Academic reproductive endocrinology program. 90 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients before cancer treatment. None. Proportion of detectable AMH levels by immunoassay, and comparability among assays. At a mean age of 38.1 years, the median (interquartile range) AMH level for the cohort was 0.92 [1.35] ng/mL for the Gen II assay, 1.68 [2.30] ng/mL for the Ultrasensitive assay, and 1.52 [2.41] ng/mL for the picoAMH assay. Significantly higher proportions of detectable AMH levels were observed with the picoAMH kit (97%) compared with both the Gen II (84%) and Ultrasensitive (92%) assays. Although the AMH results were highly correlated among the assays (r = 0.92-0.99), the Gen II AMH levels were consistently lower than both Ultrasensitive and picoAMH levels. Moreover, as AMH levels increased, the magnitude of difference grew larger between Gen II and each of the other two assays. Measurement of AMH levels with the picoAMH kit maximized detection at very low levels, particularly in contrast with the Gen II kit. Conversion of AMH levels from different immunoassays using regression equations is potentially highly inaccurate. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mildly elevated lactate levels are associated with microcirculatory flow abnormalities and increased mortality: a microSOAP post hoc analysis.

    PubMed

    Vellinga, Namkje A R; Boerma, E Christiaan; Koopmans, Matty; Donati, Abele; Dubin, Arnaldo; Shapiro, Nathan I; Pearse, Rupert M; van der Voort, Peter H J; Dondorp, Arjen M; Bafi, Tony; Fries, Michael; Akarsu-Ayazoglu, Tulin; Pranskunas, Andrius; Hollenberg, Steven; Balestra, Gianmarco; van Iterson, Mat; Sadaka, Farid; Minto, Gary; Aypar, Ulku; Hurtado, F Javier; Martinelli, Giampaolo; Payen, Didier; van Haren, Frank; Holley, Anthony; Gomez, Hernando; Mehta, Ravindra L; Rodriguez, Alejandro H; Ruiz, Carolina; Canales, Héctor S; Duranteau, Jacques; Spronk, Peter E; Jhanji, Shaman; Hubble, Sheena; Chierego, Marialuisa; Jung, Christian; Martin, Daniel; Sorbara, Carlo; Bakker, Jan; Ince, Can

    2017-10-18

    Mildly elevated lactate levels (i.e., 1-2 mmol/L) are increasingly recognized as a prognostic finding in critically ill patients. One of several possible underlying mechanisms, microcirculatory dysfunction, can be assessed at the bedside using sublingual direct in vivo microscopy. We aimed to evaluate the association between relative hyperlactatemia, microcirculatory flow, and outcome. This study was a predefined subanalysis of a multicenter international point prevalence study on microcirculatory flow abnormalities, the Microcirculatory Shock Occurrence in Acutely ill Patients (microSOAP). Microcirculatory flow abnormalities were assessed with sidestream dark-field imaging. Abnormal microcirculatory flow was defined as a microvascular flow index (MFI) < 2.6. MFI is a semiquantitative score ranging from 0 (no flow) to 3 (continuous flow). Associations between microcirculatory flow abnormalities, single-spot lactate measurements, and outcome were analyzed. In 338 of 501 patients, lactate levels were available. For this substudy, all 257 patients with lactate levels ≤ 2 mmol/L (median [IQR] 1.04 [0.80-1.40] mmol/L) were included. Crude ICU mortality increased with each lactate quartile. In a multivariable analysis, a lactate level > 1.5 mmol/L was independently associated with a MFI < 2.6 (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7, P = 0.027). In a heterogeneous ICU population, a single-spot mildly elevated lactate level (even within the reference range) was independently associated with increased mortality and microvascular flow abnormalities. In vivo microscopy of the microcirculation may be helpful in discriminating between flow- and non-flow-related causes of mildly elevated lactate levels. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01179243 . Registered on August 3, 2010.

  18. Gonadal hormone levels and platelet tryptophan and serotonin concentrations in perimenopausal women with or without depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ramos, Mónica; Moreno, Julia; Heinze, Gerhard; Aguilera-Pérez, Rafael; Pellicer Graham, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    The etiology of depressive symptoms associated with the transition to menopause is still unknown; hormonal changes, serotonergic system or insomnia, could be a trigger to depressive symptomatology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate gonadal hormonal levels, platelet serotonin concentrations and platelet tryptophan concentrations in a group of depressed perimenopausal women and their healthy counterparts. A total of 63 perimenopausal women between 45 and 55 years old were evaluated; of these, 44 were depressed patients, and 19 were perimenopausal women without depression. The instruments that were applied included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Green Climacteric Scale (GCS); gonadal hormone levels and platelet tryptophan and serotonin concentrations were measured in all participants. Differences in hormonal levels and tryptophan and serotonin concentrations were evaluated with respect to specific symptoms, such as insomnia, hot flashes, nervousness, depressed mood and loss of interest. No differences between groups were observed with respect to hormonal levels and tryptophan and serotonin concentrations; mean sleep hours and insomnia were significantly correlated with platelet tryptophan concentrations. In this sample, all symptoms of depression could not be explained by platelet tryptophan and serotonin concentrations and hormonal levels; differences were observed only when we evaluated insomnia and hot flashes.

  19. Comparison of serum and cervical mucus hormone levels during hormone-free interval of 24/4 vs. 21/7 combined oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Fels, Heather; Steward, Rachel; Melamed, Alexander; Granat, Anna; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Mishell, Daniel R

    2013-06-01

    This study analyzes levels of progesterone, estradiol, norethindrone (NET) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) in serum and levels of NET in cervical mucus on the last day of the hormone-free interval (HFI) in users of 24/4 [norethindrone acetate (NETA)/EE-24] vs. 21/7 (NETA/EE-21) regimens. This was a randomized controlled, crossover, equivalency trial. Subjects were randomized to receive NETA/EE-24 or NETA/EE-21 for 2 months and then switched between study drugs. Blood and cervical mucus samples were obtained on Days 12-16 and on the last day of the HFI. From April 2010 to November 2011, 32 subjects were enrolled with 18 subjects completing all study visits. There were no statistically significant differences in either day 12-16 (p=.54) or last hormone-free day (p=.33) cervical mucus NET concentrations between the regimens. On the last day of the HFI, median serum progesterone levels did not differ significantly; however, users of NETA/EE-24 had higher levels of serum NET (p<.001) and users of NETA/EE-21 had higher levels of serum estradiol (p=.01). This data supports the fact that inhibition of the pituitary-ovarian axis occurs during oral contraceptive use and during the HFI. We demonstrated that a reduced HFI of 4 days resulted in better suppression of the ovarian hormone production, thereby reducing the risk of ovulation and potential contraceptive failure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Associations of blood lead levels with reproductive hormone levels in men and postmenopausal women: Results from the SPECT-China Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chi; Wang, Ningjian; Zhai, Hualing; Nie, Xiaomin; Sun, Honglin; Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Cheng, Jing; Xia, Fangzhen; Zhao, Li; Zheng, Yanjun; Shen, Zhoujun; Lu, Yingli

    2016-11-01

    We examined whether blood lead levels (BLLs) were associated with reproductive hormone levels in a cross-sectional study using data from the SPECT-China study. We selected 2286 men and 1571 postmenopausal women without hormone replacement therapy. BLLs, blood cadmium, total testosterone (TT), oestradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone binding globulin(SHBG) levels were measured. The results showed that median values (interquartile range) of BLLs were 44.00 μg/L (29.00-62.30) for men and 41.00 μg/L (27.00-59.81) for postmenopausal women. In linear regression, after adjusting for age, current smoking status, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes and blood cadmium level, TT (P for trend = 0.001) and SHBG (P for trend < 0.001) levels were still positively associated with BLLs in men. Meanwhile, significant positive associations were found for BLLs with SHBG (P for trend = 0.002), FSH (P for trend = 0.001) and LH (P for trend = 0.026) levels in postmenopausal women. Additionally, the association between BLL and SHBG was modified by dysglycaemia (P for interaction = 0.03) in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, BLLs were associated with reproductive hormone levels in the general population of Chinese men and postmenopausal women, which may have important implications for human health. Concerted efforts to reduce adult lead exposure are warranted.

  1. Oviductal morphology in relation to hormonal levels in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    PubMed

    Alkindi, A Y A; Mahmoud, I Y; Woller, M J; Plude, J L

    2006-02-01

    Microscopic and in situ visual observations were used to relate circulating hormone levels to morphological changes in the oviduct of the snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina throughout the ovarian cycle. Increase in levels of progesterone (P), estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) levels coincide with an increase in number and growth of endometrial glands, luminal epithelial cells and secretory droplets throughout the oviduct. Testosterone and estradiol levels rose significantly (P < 0.05) after the May-June period and remained high throughout the rest of the summer. Progesterone levels remained stable throughout the summer, with a brief decline in July due to luteolysis. Hormonal values declined significantly (P < 0.001) at the end of the ovarian cycle in the fall. In situ visual observation of fresh oviducts at different stages of gravidity in recently ovulated turtles revealed that proteinaceous like components from the endometrial glands were released into the lumen to form fibers. The morphological features of the oviduct remained active throughout the summer months even though the snapping turtle is a monoclutch species which deposits all the eggs in late-May to mid-June. The high steroid levels correlate with and may be responsible for the secretory activity present throughout the summer and their decline correlates with change to low secretory activity in the fall. Calcium deposition accompanied by morphological changes in luminal cells are suggestive of secretory activity. In the egg-bearing turtles, uterine Ca2+ concentrations measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed significantly higher Ca2+ concentrations (P < 0.001) in eggs with soft shell than eggs without shell. There was a significant increase in calcium granules and proteinaceous fibers in luminal surface of the uterus during the period of eggshelling. This supports the fact that in the snapping turtle like in other reptiles, eggshelling process occurs in the uterus.

  2. The Association between Androgenic Hormone Levels and the Risk of Developing Coronary Artery Disease (CAD).

    PubMed

    Allameh, Farzad; Pourmand, Gholamreza; Bozorgi, Ali; Nekuie, Sepideh; Namdari, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the serum levels of androgens and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) in an Iranian population. Male individuals admitted to Tehran Heart Center and Sina Hospital, Tehran, Iran from 2011-2012 were categorized into CAD and control groups based on selective coronary angiography. Baseline demographic data, including age, BMI, diabetes, and a history of hypertension were recorded. Patients were also assessed for their serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepi and rosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG). Data analysis was carried out chi-square and ANOVA tests as well as logistic regression analysis. Two hundred patients were in the CAD group and 135 individuals in control group. In the CAD group, 69 had single-vessel disease, 49 had two-vessel diseases, and 82 had three-vessel diseases. Statistically significant differences were observed between the individuals in the two groups with respect to age (P<0.0001), diabetes (P<0.0001), and a history of hypertension (P=0.018). The serum levels of free testosterone (P=0.048) and DHEA-S (P<0.0001) were significantly higher in the control group than in the CAD group; however, the serum level of SHBG was higher in the CAD group than in the control group (P=0.007). Results of the logistic regression analysis indicated that only age (P=0.042) and diabetes (P=0.003) had significant relationships with CAD. Although the serum levels of some of the androgens were significantly different between the two groups, no association was found between androgenic hormone levels and the risk of CAD, due mainly to the effect of age and diabetes.

  3. Alterations in Hormone Levels After Adjuvant Chemoradiation in Male Rectal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Frederick H.; Perera, Francisco; Fisher, Barbara

    Purpose: To evaluate follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone levels after postoperative chemoradiation in men with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-three men with rectal cancer had baseline and postchemoradiation FSH, LH, and testosterone measured. Adjuvant chemoradiation consisted of two 5-day cycles of bolus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) every 4 weeks at a dose of 500 mg/m{sup 2}/d followed by concurrent chemoradiation followed by two additional 5-day cycles of 5-FU at a dose of 450 mg/m{sup 2}/d. Continuous-infusion 5-FU at 225 mg/m{sup 2}/d was given during radiation. Pelvic radiation consisted of a three- or four-field technique with a median dosemore » of 54.0 Gy in 30 fractions. Results: Median follow-up was 6.1 years. Mean baseline FSH levels increased from 5.3 to a peak of 23.9 IU/L (p < 0.001) 13-24 months after chemoradiation. Mean baseline LH levels increased from 4.3 to a peak of 8.5 IU/L (p < 0.001) within 6 months after chemoradiation. Mean testosterone levels decreased from 15.4 nmol/L at baseline to 8.0 nmol/L more than 4 years after chemoradiation. Mean testosterone to mean LH ratio decreased from 4.4 at baseline to 1.1 after 48 months posttreatment, suggesting a continued decrease in Leydig cell function with time. Testicular dose was measured in 5 patients. Median dose was 4 Gy (range, 1.5-8.9 Gy). Conclusions: Chemoradiation in men with rectal cancer causes persistent increases in FSH and LH levels and decreases in testosterone levels.« less

  4. Water stress, CO2 and photoperiod influence hormone levels in wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nan, Rubin; Carman, John G.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    'Super Dwarf' wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants have been grown from seed to maturity in the Mir space station where they were periodically exposed, because of microgravity and other constraints, to water deficit, waterlogging, high CO2 levels, and low light intensities. The plants produced many tillers, but none of them produced viable seed. Studies have been initiated to determine why the plants responded in these ways. In the present study, effects of the listed stresses on abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and isopentenyl adenosine ([9R]iP) levels in roots and leaves of plants grown under otherwise near optimal conditions on earth were measured. Hormones were extracted, purified by HPLC, and quantified by noncompetitive indirect ELISA. In response to water deficit, ABA levels increased in roots and leaves, IAA levels decreased in roots and leaves, and [9R]iP levels increased in leaves but decreased in roots. In response to waterlogging, ABA, IAA and [9R]iP levels briefly increased in roots and leaves and then decreased. When portions of the root system were exposed to waterlogging and/or water deficit, ABA levels in leaves increased while [9R]iP and IAA levels decreased. These responses were correlated with the percentage of the root system stressed. At a low photosynthetic photon flux (100 micromoles m-2 s-1), plants grown in continuous light had higher leaf ABA levels than plants grown using an 18 or 21 h photoperiod.

  5. Persistent organic contaminants and steroid hormones levels in Morelet's crocodiles from the Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Jauregui, Mauricio; Valdespino, Carolina; Salame-Méndez, Arturo; Aguirre-León, Gustavo; Rendón-Vonosten, Jaime

    2012-04-01

    Effects of endocrine disruptors on reproductive variables of top predators, such as alligators and crocodiles, have long been cited. Due to their long life span, these predators provide us with historic contaminant annals. In this study we tried to test whether lifestyle (free-ranging vs. farm animals) and reproductive age of Morelet's crocodiles in Campeche, Mexico, affect the bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Subsequently, we tested to see whether their concentration was related to steroid hormones (testosterone and estradiol-17β) levels once normal cyclic hormone variation and reproductive age had been taken into account. From the group of contaminants considered (analyzed as families), only frequency of hexachlorocyclohexanes (∑HCH) and ∑PCB permitted analyses. Whereas there was a greater concentration of ∑HCH bioaccumulated by free-ranging crocodiles, ∑PCB was found in equal quantities in free-ranging and farm animals. No difference was observed in relation to reproductive age for any of the contaminants. However, ∑PCB concentrations were related to testosterone levels among female crocodiles. This androgenic effect of ∑PCB has not been reported previously. Because testosterone promotes aggressive behavior in vertebrates, excessive aggression during the estrous season, or when female crocodiles should be caring for their young, could result in reproductive failure in Morelet's crocodiles and potential long-term decline of the population.

  6. T wave abnormalities, high body mass index, current smoking and high lipoprotein (a) levels predict the development of major abnormal Q/QS patterns 20 years later. A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Moller, Christina Strom; Byberg, Liisa; Sundstrom, Johan; Lind, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Background Most studies on risk factors for development of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been based on the clinical outcome of CHD. Our aim was to identify factors that could predict the development of ECG markers of CHD, such as abnormal Q/QS patterns, ST segment depression and T wave abnormalities, in 70-year-old men, irrespective of clinical outcome. Methods Predictors for development of different ECG abnormalities were identified in a population-based study using stepwise logistic regression. Anthropometrical and metabolic factors, ECG abnormalities and vital signs from a health survey of men at age 50 were related to ECG abnormalities identified in the same cohort 20 years later. Results At the age of 70, 9% had developed a major abnormal Q/QS pattern, but 63% of these subjects had not been previously hospitalized due to MI, while 57% with symptomatic MI between age 50 and 70 had no major Q/QS pattern at age 70. T wave abnormalities (Odds ratio 3.11, 95% CI 1.18–8.17), high lipoprotein (a) levels, high body mass index (BMI) and smoking were identified as significant independent predictors for the development of abnormal major Q/QS patterns. T wave abnormalities and high fasting glucose levels were significant independent predictors for the development of ST segment depression without abnormal Q/QS pattern. Conclusion T wave abnormalities on resting ECG should be given special attention and correlated with clinical information. Risk factors for major Q/QS patterns need not be the same as traditional risk factors for clinically recognized CHD. High lipoprotein (a) levels may be a stronger risk factor for silent myocardial infarction (MI) compared to clinically recognized MI. PMID:16519804

  7. Maternal iron deficiency alters circulating thyroid hormone levels in developing neonatal rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormone insufficiency and iron deficiency (FeD) during fetal and neonatal life are both similarly deleterious to mammalian development suggesting a possible linkage between iron and thyroid hormone insufficiencies. Recent published data from our laboratory demonstrate a r...

  8. Early follicular testosterone level predicts preference for masculinity in male faces - but not for women taking hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Bobst, Cora; Sauter, Sabine; Foppa, Andrina; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2014-03-01

    It has been shown that women's preference for masculinity in male faces changes across the menstrual cycle. Preference for masculinity is stronger when conception probability is high than when it is low. These findings have been linked to cyclic fluctuations of hormone levels. The purpose of the present study is to further investigate the link between gonadal steroids (i.e. testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone) and masculinity preference in women, while holding the cycle phase constant. Sixty-two female participants were tested in their early follicular cycle phase, when conception probability is low. Participants were shown face pairs and where asked to choose the more attractive face. Face pairs consisted of a masculinized and feminized version of the same face. For naturally cycling women we found a positive relationship between saliva testosterone levels and masculinity preference, but there was no link between any hormones and masculinity preference for women taking hormonal contraception. We conclude that in naturally cycling women early follicular testosterone levels are associated with masculinity preference. However, these hormonal links were not found for women with artificially modified hormonal levels, that is, for women taking hormonal contraception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes of thyroid hormone levels and related gene expression in zebrafish on early life stage exposure to triadimefon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaoying; Chang, Juhua; Zhao, Ying; Zhu, Guonian

    2011-11-01

    In this study, zebrafish was exposed to triadimefon. Thyroid hormones levels and the expression of related genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH-beta), deiodinases (dio1 and dio2) and the thyroid hormone receptor (thraa and thrb) were evaluated. After triadimefon exposure, increased T4 can be explained by increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH-beta). The conversion of T4 to T3 (deiodinase type I-dio1) was decreased, which reduced the T3 level. Thyroid hormone receptor beta (thrb) mRNA levels were significantly down-regulated, possibly as a response to the decreased T3 levels. The overall results indicated that triadimefon exposure could alter gene expression in the HPT axis and that mechanisms of disruption of thyroid status by triadimefon could occur at several steps in the synthesis, regulation, and action of thyroid hormones. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hormone levels of world class cyclists during the Tour of Spain stage race

    PubMed Central

    Lucia, A; Diaz, B; Hoyos, J; Fernandez, C; Villa, G; Bandres, F; Chicharro, J

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To evaluate the hormonal response to strenuous endurance exercise performed by elite athletes. Methods—Nine professional cyclists (mean (SD) age 28 (1) years; mean (SD) VO2MAX 75.3 (2.3) ml/kg/min) who participated in a three week tour race (Vuelta a España 1999) were selected as subjects. Morning urinary levels of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) and morning serum levels of testosterone, follicle stimulating (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), and cortisol were measured in each subject at t0 (before the competition), t1 (end of first week), t2 (end of second week), and t3 (end of third week). Urine samples of aMT6s were also evaluated in the evening at t0, t1, t2, and t3. Results—Mean urinary aMT6s levels had increased significantly (p<0.01) during the day after each stage (1091 (33) v 683 (68) ng/ml at t1; 955 (19) v 473 (53) ng/ml at t2; 647 (61) v 337 (47) ng/ml at t3). Both morning and evening aMT6s levels decreased significantly during the study. A similar pattern was observed for morning serum levels of cortisol and testosterone. Conclusions—The results suggest that the basal activity of the pineal gland, adrenal glands, and testis may be decreased after consecutive days of intense, long term exercise. Key Words: melatonin; gonadotrophins; testosterone; cortisol; endurance exercise PMID:11726480

  11. Serum Spot 14 concentration is negatively associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone level

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Pei-Lung; Chi, Yu-Chao; Han, Der-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spot 14 (S14) is a protein involved in fatty acid synthesis and was shown to be induced by thyroid hormone in rat liver. However, the presence of S14 in human serum and its relations with thyroid function status have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to compare serum S14 concentrations in patients with hyperthyroidism or euthyroidism and to evaluate the associations between serum S14 and free thyroxine (fT4) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. We set up an immunoassay for human serum S14 concentrations and compared its levels between hyperthyroid and euthyroid subjects. Twenty-six hyperthyroid patients and 29 euthyroid individuals were recruited. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of S14 and fT4, TSH, or quartile of TSH. The hyperthyroid patients had significantly higher serum S14 levels than the euthyroid subjects (median [Q1, Q3]: 975 [669, 1612] ng/mL vs 436 [347, 638] ng/mL, P < 0.001). In univariate linear regression, the log-transformed S14 level (logS14) was positively associated with fT4 but negatively associated with creatinine (Cre), total cholesterol (T-C), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and TSH. The positive associations between logS14 and fT4 and the negative associations between logS14 and Cre, TG, T-C, or TSH remained significant after adjustment with sex and age. These associations were prominent in females but not in males. The logS14 levels were negatively associated with the TSH levels grouped by quartile (ß = −0.3020, P < 0.001). The association between logS14 and TSH quartile persisted after adjustment with sex and age (ß = −0.2828, P = 0.001). In stepwise multivariate regression analysis, only TSH grouped by quartile remained significantly associated with logS14 level. We developed an ELISA to measure serum S14 levels in human. Female patients with hyperthyroidism had higher serum S14 levels

  12. CCR5 Expression Levels in HIV-Uninfected Women Receiving Hormonal Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Sciaranghella, Gaia; Wang, Cuiwei; Hu, Haihong; Anastos, Kathryn; Merhi, Zaher; Nowicki, Marek; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Cohen, Mardge; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Watts, D. Heather; Alter, Galit; Young, Mary A.; Tsibris, Athe M. N.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity increases as receptor/coreceptor expression levels increase. We determined peripheral CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 expression levels in HIV-uninfected women who used depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA; n = 32), the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD; n = 27), oral contraceptive pills (n = 32), or no hormonal contraception (n = 33). The use of LNG-IUD increased the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that expressed CCR5; increases in the magnitude of T-cell subset CCR5 expression were observed with DMPA and LNG-IUD use (P < .01 for all comparisons). LNG-IUD and, to a lesser extent, DMPA use were associated with increased peripheral T-cell CCR5 expression. PMID:25895986

  13. Luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in male workers exposed to urban stressors.

    PubMed

    Tomao, Enrico; Tomei, Gianfranco; Rosati, Maria Valeria; Caciari, Tiziana; Danese, Daniele; Gamberale, Daniele; Vacca, Daniele; Palermo, Paola; Anzelmo, Vincenza; Tomei, Francesco

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate if occupational exposure to urban stressors could cause alterations in luteinizing hormone (LH) plasma levels in male traffic policemen vs. administrative staff of Municipal Police.After excluding the subjects with the main confounding factors, male traffic police and administrative staff of Municipal Police were matched by age, working life, body mass index (BMI), alcohol drinking habit, cigarette smoking habit and habitual consumption of Italian coffee.In 166 male traffic police mean LH values were significantly higher compared to 166 male administrative employees. The distribution of LH values in traffic police and in administrative employees was statistically significant.Our results suggest that recent exposure to urban stressors (chemical, physical and psycho-social) can alter the plasma concentration of LH. In agreement with our previous research, levels of plasma LH may be used as early biological markers, valuable for the group, used in occupational set before the appearance of the disease.

  14. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Shawn E.; Barber, Sarah J.; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V.; Mather, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: 1) Immediate handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, 2) Residual handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip 15 min prior to encoding, or 3) No handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10 minutes after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal

  15. Changes in glucose, insulin, and growth hormone levels associated with bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Leach, C. S.; Winget, C. M.; Goodwin, A. L.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in plasma glucose, insulin, and growth hormone (HGH) resulting from exposure to 56 d of bedrest were determined in five healthy young male subjects. Changes in the daily levels of these factors for each subject were expressed as the mean of six blood samples per 24-h period. The level of HGH dropped after 10 d of bedrest, then showed a 1.5-fold increase at 20 d and subsequently decreased gradually reaching levels of 2.5 mg/ml/24 h, well below pre-bedrest controls of 4.2 mg/ml/24 h, by the 54th d. In spite of a marked increase in the daily plasma insulin levels during the first 30 d of bedrest, glucose levels remained unchanged. Beyond 30 d of bedrest, insulin began decreasing toward pre-bedrest levels and glucose followed with a similar reduction to below the control levels of 75 mg/100 ml/24 h on day 54. The daily mean changes reflect a change in the amplitude of the diurnal variation. The daily peak in plasma insulin shifted progressively to the late evening during the bedrest period.

  16. Effects of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Parathyroid Hormone, Vitamin D, Calcium, Phosphorus, and Albumin Levels.

    PubMed

    Mihmanli, Mehmet; Isil, Riza Gurhan; Isil, Canan Tulay; Omeroglu, Sinan; Sayin, Pinar; Oba, Sibel; Ozturk, Feyza Yener; Altuntas, Yuksel

    2017-12-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) reduces obesity-related co-morbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Endocrinological abnormalities may occur as undesired side effects. Most centers routinely prescribe folic acid, cyanocobalamin (vitB12), and protein replacement in the postoperative period, but 25-OH-vitamin-D3 (vitD) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels are not routinely followed up. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of LSG on iPTH, vitD, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and albumin levels. Data of morbidly obese patients who underwent LSG between January and December 2014 were studied in this prospectively designed study. Serum levels of iPTH, vitD, Ca, P, folic acid, vitB12, ALP, and albumin were measured preoperatively and postoperatively at the 3rd, 6th, and 12th months. In total, 119 patients were analyzed. All patients had normal iPTH, vitD, Ca, P, folic acid, vitB12, ALP, and albumin values preoperatively, and 31.6% had received vitD supplementation during their nutritionist observation time before surgery. At the 3rd, 6th, and 12th postoperative months, 21 (17.6%), 17 (17.3%), and 1 (0.8%) patients, respectively, had increased iPTH and ALP and decreased vitD levels. A total of 39 (32.7%) patients needed high-dose vitD treatment during a 1 year follow-up. Approximately 37.5% of the patients who received vitD supplementation preoperatively needed vitD supplementation postoperatively. Hospital records of 101 of 119 patients who underwent LSG could be screened to determine their vitD supplementation requirements previously ordered by their nutritionist for a 1-year period before LSG. Thirty-two (31.6%) of the 101 patients had received vitD supplementation during the 1-year period preoperatively. Although serum levels of iPTH, vitD, Ca, P, vitB12, ALP, and albumin may be normal preoperatively, severe vitD insufficiency requiring high-dose vitD replacement may develop in morbidly

  17. Increased juvenile hormone levels after long-duration flight in the grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung Jin; Jones, Nathan; Borst, David W; Rankin, Mary Ann

    2004-06-01

    Although, in many insects, migration imposes a cost in terms of timing or amount of reproduction, in the migratory grasshopper Melanoplus sanguinipes performance of long-duration flight to voluntary cessation or exhaustion accelerates the onset of first reproduction and enhances reproductive success over the entire lifetime of the insect. Since juvenile hormone (JH) is involved in the control of reproduction in most species, we examined JH titer after long flight using a chiral selective radioimmunoassay. JH levels increased on days 5 and 8 in animals flown to exhaustion on day 4 but not in 1-h or non-flier controls. No difference was seen in the diel pattern of JH titer, but hemolymph samples were taken between 5 and 7 h after lights on. Treatment of grasshoppers with JH-III mimicked the effect of long-duration flight in the induction of early reproduction. The increased JH titer induced by performance of long-duration flight is thus at least one component of flight-enhanced reproduction. To test the possibility that post-flight JH titer increases are caused by adipokinetic hormone (AKH) released during long flights, a series of injections of physiological doses of Lom-AKH I were given to unflown animals to simulate AKH release during long flight. This treatment had no effect on JH titers. Thus, although AKH is released during flight and controls lipid mobilization, it is not the factor responsible for increased JH titers after long-duration flight.

  18. [Effect of whole body cryotherapy on the levels of some hormones in professional soccer players].

    PubMed

    Korzonek-Szlacheta, Ilona; Wielkoszyński, Tomasz; Stanek, Agata; Swietochowska, Elzbieta; Karpe, Jacek; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2007-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine blood serum concentrations of selected steroid hormones (estradiol--E(2), testosterone--T, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate--DHEA-S) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in professional footballers subjected to whole body cryotherapy. Twenty-two clinically healthy males, mean age 26.7 years, were studied. The subjects underwent ten sessions of whole body cryotherapy in Wroclaw-type chamber, with kinesitherapy following each session. Blood samples were collected before and two days after the treatment and the results were analyzed statistically. After the treatment there was a significant decrease in the concentrations of T (6.01 vs. 4.80 ng/mL, p < 0.01) and E(2) (102.3 vs. 47.5 pg/mL, p < 0.00001), but no DHEA-S and LH. The T/E(2) ratio showed a significant increase form 72.2 to 136.5 (p < 0.01). Whole body cryotherapy leads to a significant decrease in serum T and E(2), with no effect on LH and DHEAS levels. As a results of cryotherapy, the T/E(2) ratio was significant increased. The changes observed are probably due to cryotherapy-induced alternation in the blood supply to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, as well as to modulation of the activity of aromatase which is responsible for conversion of testosterone and androstenedione to estrogens.

  19. Plasma and urine levels of electrolytes, urea and steroid hormones involved in osmoregulation of cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Birukawa, Naoko; Ando, Hironori; Goto, Mutsuo; Kanda, Naohisa; Pastene, Luis A; Nakatsuji, Hiroki; Hata, Hiroshi; Urano, Akihisa

    2005-11-01

    Cetaceans are well adapted to their hyperosmotic environment by properly developed osmoregulatory ability. A question here is how they regulate water and mineral balances in marine habitats. In the present study, we determined blood and urine levels of various chemicals involved in osmoregulation, compared them with those in artiodactyls, and characterized the values in the whales. Blood and urine samples obtained from baleen whales of common minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), sei (B. borealis), and Bryde's whales (B. brydei), and toothed whales of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) were analyzed for osmolality, major electrolytes, urea, steroid hormones and glucose. The urine osmolality and Na(+) concentrations in the cetaceans were much higher than those in the cattle. Furthermore, the cetaceans had 5 to 11-fold urea in plasma than the cattle, and 2 to 4-fold urea in urine. There were no significant difference in the plasma concentrations of corticosteroids between the cetaceans and the cattle. The present results indicate that the osmoregulatory parameters seem to be not affected by the reproductive stage and sex steroid hormones. The concentrations of urea in plasma and urine of the baleen whales were higher than those of the sperm whales, indicating a possibility that their osmoregulatory mechanisms may be correlated to their feeding habits. The present results suggest that cetaceans have unique osmoregulatory mechanisms by which they excrete strongly hypertonic urine to maintain fluid homeostasis in marine habitats.

  20. Salivary Hormones Response to Preparation and Pre-competitive Training of World-class Level Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hanon, Christine; Gendreau, Nicolas; Bonneau, Dominique; Guével, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity, and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months) and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks) training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while IgA (+61%) and creatine kinase activity (+43%) increased, and chromogranin A decreased (−27%) during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15%) and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P < 0.05). None of the psycho-physiological parameters were significantly correlated to training load during the pre-competitive period. Results showed a lower adrenocortical response and autonomic activity, and an improvement of immunity status, in response to the reduction in training load and fatigue, without significant correlations of salivary hormones with training load. Our findings suggest that saliva composition is sensitive to training contents (season period) but could not be related to workload resulting from track and field athletics training. PMID:26635619

  1. Plant proximity perception dynamically modulates hormone levels and sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bou-Torrent, Jordi; Galstyan, Anahit; Gallemí, Marçal; Cifuentes-Esquivel, Nicolás; Molina-Contreras, Maria José; Salla-Martret, Mercè; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Martínez-García, Jaime F

    2014-06-01

    The shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) refers to a set of plant responses initiated after perception by the phytochromes of light enriched in far-red colour reflected from or filtered by neighbouring plants. These varied responses are aimed at anticipating eventual shading from potential competitor vegetation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the most obvious SAS response at the seedling stage is the increase in hypocotyl elongation. Here, we describe how plant proximity perception rapidly and temporally alters the levels of not only auxins but also active brassinosteroids and gibberellins. At the same time, shade alters the seedling sensitivity to hormones. Plant proximity perception also involves dramatic changes in gene expression that rapidly result in a new balance between positive and negative factors in a network of interacting basic helix-loop-helix proteins, such as HFR1, PAR1, and BIM and BEE factors. Here, it was shown that several of these factors act as auxin- and BR-responsiveness modulators, which ultimately control the intensity or degree of hypocotyl elongation. It was deduced that, as a consequence of the plant proximity-dependent new, dynamic, and local balance between hormone synthesis and sensitivity (mechanistically resulting from a restructured network of SAS regulators), SAS responses are unleashed and hypocotyls elongate. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Review and analysis of physical exercise at hormonal and brain level, and its influence on appetite.

    PubMed

    Gómez Escribano, Laura; Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Escribá Fernández-Marcote, Antonio R; Tárraga López, Pedro; Tárraga Marcos, Loreto

    Due to the currently growing rate of obesity, it is important to maintain good control of food intake. The main purpose of the present study is to determine the influence of physical exercise on appetite, changes in hormone concentrations, and changes in certain neuronal regions. To achieve this, a literature search was conducted using different data bases. The results show how exercise produces changes in the appetite perception, in the amount of energy intake, and in different weight-control related hormones, as well as in specific neuronal responses. In conclusion, it can be shown that exercise leads to changes in appetite, hunger, and energy intake. In addition, exercise decreases the ghrelin levels and increases concentrations of leptin. Likewise, it is shown how physical exercise alters the responses of certain neuronal regions after visualizing specific food elements decreasing so the appetite or the intake of them. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Serum Levels of Stress Hormones and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers Differ according to Sasang Constitutional Type

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeong Geug; Kim, Yoon Jung; Ahn, Yo Chan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigated whether Sasang constitutional type is associated with differences in the serum levels of stress hormones and oxidative stress. Methods. A total of 236 participants (77 males and 159 females) were enrolled. The serum levels of cortisol, adrenaline, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were analyzed. Results. The distribution of Sasang constitutional types was as follows: Taeumin, 35.6%; Soumin, 33.0%; and Soyangin, 31.4%. The serum cortisol levels of Taeumin were significantly lower than Soumin (p < 0.1 in both sexes) and Soyangin (p < 0.05 in males and p < 0.1 in females). The adrenaline levels were also significantly lower in Taeumin than in Soumin (p < 0.05 in males and p < 0.1 in females) and Soyangin (p < 0.1 in males). Serum ROS levels were significantly higher in Soyangin than in Taeumin and Soumin (p < 0.05 in males), whereas MDA levels were significantly lower in Taeumin compared with Soumin and Soyangin (p < 0.05 in males and p < 0.1 in females). Conclusion. Taeumin type may tolerate psychological or oxidative stress better than other types, which suggests a biological mechanism to explain the different pathophysiological features of Sasang constitutional types. PMID:26539232

  4. Assessment of Anti-Müllerian Hormone Level in Management of Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dursun, Fatma; Güven, Ayla; Yıldız, Metin

    2016-03-05

    This study was oriented to investigate the benefit of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). To assess the impact of metformin and oral contraceptives (OC) on serum AMH levels in a cohort of adolescents with PCOS. Forty-nine adolescents with PCOS were recruited to the study. Twenty-nine patients without insulin resistance were treated with OC (group 1), and 20 patients with insulin resistance were treated with metformin and OC (group 2). AMH and androgen levels were measured prior to and 6 months after the initiation of treatment. AMH levels were significantly decreased with treatment in both group 1 (p=0.006) and group 2 (p=0.0048). There was a significant correlation between pre- and post-treatment AMH and left ovarian volume (pretreatment: rho=0.336, p=0.018; post-treatment: rho=0.310, p=0.034). This study investigated two different treatment regimens in adolescents with PCOS and revealed that AMH levels decreased with treatment. AMH levels were correlated with ovarian volume.

  5. Estrogen hormone level of prepubertal female rat treated with Calliandra calothyrsus ethanolic leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyawati, I.; Wiratmini, N. I.; Narayani, I.

    2018-03-01

    This research examined the phytoestrogen potential of Calliandra calothyrsus leaf extract in prepubertal female rat (Rattus norvegicus). Sixty weaned female rats (21 days old) were divided into five groups i.e. control (K), negative control which was given 0.5% Na CMC suspension (KN) and treatment groups which were given with C. calothyrsus ethanolic leaf extract doses 25 mg/kg bw (P1), 50 mg/kg bw (P2) and 75 mg/kg bw (P3). The treatment suspension was administered 0.5 mL/rat/day by gavage for 28 days, started at the age of 21st days old. The rats were sacrificed and the blood samples were collected from 4 rats / group at the age of 28th, 42nd and 56th days old, each. The concentration of estrogen hormone levels were measured from blood serum by ELISA kit and were read at 450 nm wavelength with an ELISA Spectrophotometer. Data was analyzed statistically by General Linear Model with 95% of confidence. The result showed that rat’s body weight decreased significantly with the higher doses and the longer the treatment of C. calothyrsus leaf extract due to the anti-nutritive activity of calliandra tannins. The estrogen hormone level was significantly increased at the highest dose. The highest estrogen levels were found in the group of female rats which were given the exctract of 75 mg/kg bw until the age of 42nd days. This results showed that there was a phytoestrogen potential in the C. calothyrsus leaf extract.

  6. Cord Blood Bisphenol A Levels and Reproductive and Thyroid Hormone Levels of Neonates: The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Minatoya, Machiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Yamamoto, Jun; Matsumura, Toru; Mitsui, Takahiko; Moriya, Kimihiko; Cho, Kazutoshi; Morioka, Keita; Minakami, Hisanori; Shinohara, Nobuo; Kishi, Reiko

    2017-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used and BPA exposure is nearly ubiquitous in developed countries. While animal studies have indicated adverse health effects of prenatal BPA exposure including reproductive dysfunction and thyroid function disruption possibly in a sex-specific manner, findings from epidemiologic studies have not been enough to prove these adverse effects. Given very limited research on human, the aim of this study was to investigate associations between cord blood BPA levels and reproductive and thyroid hormone levels of neonates and whether associations differed by neonate sex. The study population included 514 participants of the Hokkaido study recruited from 2002 to 2005 at one hospital in Sapporo, Japan. The BPA level in cord blood was determined by ID-LC/MS/MS, and the limit of quantification was 0.040 ng/ml. We measured nine types of reproductive hormone levels in cord blood, and thyroid hormone levels were obtained from neonate mass screening test data. There were 283 subjects, who had both BPA and hormone levels measurements, included for the final analyses. The geometric mean of cord blood BPA was 0.051 ng/ml. After adjustment, BPA level was negatively associated with prolactin (PRL) (β = -0.38). There was an interaction between infant sex and BPA levels on PRL; a weak negative association was found in boys (β = -0.12), whereas a weak positive association was found in girls (β = 0.14). BPA level showed weak positive association with testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone levels in boys. No association was found between BPA and thyroid hormone levels. Our findings suggested that fetal BPA levels might be associated with changes in certain reproductive hormone levels of neonates in a sex-specific manner, though further investigations are necessary.

  7. Sex-hormone-binding globulin.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D C

    1974-01-01

    A review was made to understand how plasma binding protein might influence sex-hormone action in target tissues. Steroids are predominately bound to plasma proteins and only unbound steroids enter the cells. Sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) binds to both the main circulating steroid T and E2 but changes in SHBG concentrations exert significant results. Increased SHBG levels increase estrogen production and decreases T activity; whereas, increased androgens increase T action and inhibit SHBG production. These disturbances in hormone maintenance may lead to abnormal adult sex differentiation such as hirsutism and forms of hynaecomastia. By developing SHBG concentration measurement methods-responses of hirsutism to glucocorticoid or estrogem may be assessed. In addition, the effect of thyroid hormones on SHBG may also have therapeutic implications in endocrine disease.

  8. Correlation of serum androgens and pituitary hormone levels with serum PSA less than 2.5 ng/ml.

    PubMed

    Sofikerim, Mustafa; Oruç, Ozgür; Eskicorapci, Sadettin; Guliyev, Fuat; Ozen, Haluk

    2007-07-27

    The aim of this clinical study was to determine whether there is a relationship between total serum testosterone, free testosterone, FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone), LH (Luteinizing Hormone) and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. We postulated that such a correlation existed then the use of hormone specific reference ranges might enhance the usefullness of PSA concentrations <2.5 ng/mL as a marker for prostate cancer. Prior to digital rectal examination, serum was obtained from all patients between 8.30-10:00 AM for hormone and PSA concentrations. The study was performed on 210 male patients >40 years of age visiting our urology outpatient clinics. PSA was correlated to age (r = 0.23, p = 0.019), but there none between serum testosterone and age. No significant correlation was noted between testosterone or free testosterone and serum PSA levels, and none between serum FSH or LH and PSA. In age specific reference groups (41-49; 50-59; 60-69 years), we found no significant correlation between PSA and hormone concentrations. In this population of eugonadal men with serum PSA values less than 2.5 ng/ml, serum androgens and pituitary hormones do not appear to correlate with serum PSA.

  9. The effect of liming on antibacterial and hormone levels in wastewater biosolids.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Jennifer M; Lozano, Nuria; Haines, Christine; Rice, Clifford P; Ramirez, Mark; Torrents, Alba

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of liming on levels of triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS), estrone (E1), and progesterone (P), two antimicrobial agents and two natural hormones, respectively. Factors studied include lime particle size, mixing time, and overall lime contact time. The study results suggest that coarse lime may be more active than fine lime due to less interaction with surrounding air. Both TCS and TCC concentrations were lower in coarse limed samples versus unlimed samples and the decrease was a function of time. A similar, but statistically insignificant trend in TCC and TCS levels was observed in fine lime samples with respect to unlimed samples. Liming was also found to decrease apparent E1 levels, with more notable decreases in samples amended with coarse lime. P-levels significantly increased after 1-day of contact time, stabilizing over the next 14 days of the study period. This increase and stabilization of P-levels was attributed to the pH and moisture-driven conversion of more chemically complex steroids into P.

  10. Relationship between serum anti-Mullerian hormone and intrafollicular AMH levels in PCOS women.

    PubMed

    Stracquadanio, M; Ciotta, L; Palumbo, M A

    2018-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex disease characterized by various endocrine disorders that are the potential cause of anovulation and hyperandrogenism. Anti-Müllerian hormone expression is suspected to be overexpressed in PCOS granulosa cells. AMH acts as a regulator of folliculogenesis: it is produced by the granulosa cells of follicles from the stage of the primary follicle to the initial formation of the antrum. Serum and intrafollicular AMH levels are elevated in patients with PCOS due to increased number of small follicles and an increased secretion within each of these small follicles. This excess of AMH is strongly suspected to play a role in the characteristic follicular arrest of PCOS, through a negative action on aromatase expression and on FSH action. Value above 5 ng/ml or 35 pmol/l might be considered as a diagnostic criterion for PCOS. The aim of our study is to demonstrate the presence of higher AMH serum levels and higher AMH intrafollicular fluid level of PCOS patients, undergone to IVF cycles, compared to normovulatory patients. The results clearly indicate that blood and intrafollicular AMH levels are significantly higher in PCOS women comparing to the normovulatory population. Serum AMH level appears to be a good predictive marker for the risk ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: thus, its evaluation should be recommended before starting a controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF.

  11. Influences of menstrual cycle position and sex hormone levels on spontaneous intrusive recollections following emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ferree, Nikole K; Kamat, Rujvi; Cahill, Larry

    2011-12-01

    Spontaneous intrusive recollections (SIRs) are known to follow emotional events in clinical and non-clinical populations. Previous work in our lab has found that women report more SIRs than men after exposure to emotional films, and that this effect is driven entirely by women in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. To replicate and extend this finding, participants viewed emotional films, provided saliva samples for sex hormone concentration analysis, and estimated SIR frequency following film viewing. Women in the luteal phase reported significantly more SIRs than did women in the follicular phase, and SIR frequency significantly correlated with salivary progesterone levels. The results are consistent with an emerging pattern in the literature suggesting that menstrual cycle position of female participants can potently influence findings in numerous cognitive domains. The potential implications of these results for disorders characterized by intrusions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mesh-free based variational level set evolution for breast region segmentation and abnormality detection using mammograms.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Kanchan L; Bajpai, Manish K; Khanna, Pritee; Giakos, George

    2018-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of abnormal region is a crucial task in computer-aided detection system using mammograms. In this work, an automatic abnormality detection algorithm using mammographic images is proposed. In the preprocessing step, partial differential equation-based variational level set method is used for breast region extraction. The evolution of the level set method is done by applying mesh-free-based radial basis function (RBF). The limitation of mesh-based approach is removed by using mesh-free-based RBF method. The evolution of variational level set function is also done by mesh-based finite difference method for comparison purpose. Unsharp masking and median filtering is used for mammogram enhancement. Suspicious abnormal regions are segmented by applying fuzzy c-means clustering. Texture features are extracted from the segmented suspicious regions by computing local binary pattern and dominated rotated local binary pattern (DRLBP). Finally, suspicious regions are classified as normal or abnormal regions by means of support vector machine with linear, multilayer perceptron, radial basis, and polynomial kernel function. The algorithm is validated on 322 sample mammograms of mammographic image analysis society (MIAS) and 500 mammograms from digital database for screening mammography (DDSM) datasets. Proficiency of the algorithm is quantified by using sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The highest sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 93.96%, 95.01%, and 94.48%, respectively, are obtained on MIAS dataset using DRLBP feature with RBF kernel function. Whereas, the highest 92.31% sensitivity, 98.45% specificity, and 96.21% accuracy are achieved on DDSM dataset using DRLBP feature with RBF kernel function. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Decrease in calcitonin and parathyroid hormone mRNA levels and hormone secretion under long-term hypervitaminosis D3 in rats.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Santos, J M; Utrilla, J C; Conde, E; Hevia, A; Loda, M; Martín-Lacave, I

    2001-04-01

    In calcium homeostasis, vitamin D3 is a potent serum calcium-raising agent which in vivo regulates both calcitonin (CT) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene expression. Serum calcium is the major secretagogue for CT, a hormone product whose biosynthesis is the main biological activity of thyroid C-cells. Taking advantage of this regulatory mechanism, long-term vitamin D3-induced hypercalcemia has been extensively used as a model to produce hyperactivation, hyperplasia and even proliferative lesions of C-cells, supposedly to reduce the sustained high calcium serum concentrations. We have recently demonstrated that CT serum levels did not rise after long-term hypervitaminosis D3. Moreover, C-cells did not have a proliferative response, rather a decrease in CT-producing C-cell number was observed. In order to confirm the inhibitory effect of vitamin D3 on C-cells, Wistar rats were administered vitamin D3 chronically (25,000 IU/d) with or without calcium chloride (CaCl2). Under these long-term vitamin D3-hypercalcemic conditions, calcium, active metabolites of vitamin D3, CT and PTH serum concentrations were determined by RIA; CT and PTH mRNA levels were analysed by Northern blot and in situ hybridization; and, finally, the ultrastructure of calciotrophic hormone-producing cells was analysed by electron microscopy. Our results show, that, in rats, long term administration of vitamin D3 results in a decrease in hormone biosynthetic activities of both PTH and CT-producing cells, albeit at different magnitudes. Based upon these results, we conclude that hypervitaminosis D3-based methods do not stimulate C-cell activity and can not be used to induce proliferative lesions of calcitonin-producing cells.

  14. Evaluation of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels in children with growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Önder, Aşan; Aycan, Zehra; Koca, Cemile; Ergin, Merve; Çetinkaya, Semra; Ağladıoğlu, Sebahat Yılmaz; Peltek Kendirci, Havva Nur; Baş, Veysel Nijat

    2014-01-01

    To investigate serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and to determine the effect of GH replacement therapy on these levels. 31 patients diagnosed with isolated GHD and 29 age-and sex-matched healthy children were enrolled in the study. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured in all subjects. Fasting serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein-3, glucose, insulin and lipid levels were evaluated. Serum ADMA levels were assessed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The same evaluations were repeated on the 3rd and 6th months of treatment in 28 of the GHD cases. There were no significant differences in ADMA levels between the patient and control groups [0.513±0.130 (0.291-0.820) µmol/L vs. 0.573±0.199 (0.241-1.049) µmol/L]. There was a positive correlation between serum ADMA and HbA1c levels in the control group. In the GHD cases, ADMA levels negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein levels and positively correlated with low-density lipoprotein levels. There was also a significant increase in ADMA levels in patients receiving GH therapy compared to pre-treatment levels [serum ADMA level, 1.075±0.133 (0.796-1.303) µmol/L at the 3rd month and 0.923±0.121 (0.695-1.159) µmol/L at the 6th month of treatment]. There was a negative correlation between ADMA levels and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance values at the 6th month evaluation. There were no relationships between ADMA levels and age, sex, or pubertal state either before or during the treatment. Serum ADMA levels were found to be similar in patients with GHD and in healthy children. However, serum ADMA levels showed a significant increase in GHD patients following GH replacement therapy.

  15. Regulation of hepatic level of fatty-acid-binding protein by hormones and clofibric acid in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, S; Kawashima, Y; Hirose, A; Kozuka, H

    1994-01-01

    Regulation of the hepatic level of fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) by hormones and p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (clofibric acid) was studied. The hepatic level of FABP, measured as the oleic acid-binding capacity of the cytosolic FABP fraction, was decreased in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. The level of FABP was markedly increased in adrenalectomized rats, and the elevation was prevented by the administration of dexamethasone. Hypothyroidism decreased the level of FABP and hyperthyroidism increased it. A high correlation between the incorporation of [14C]oleic acid in vivo into hepatic triacylglycerol and the level of FABP was found for normal, diabetic and adrenalectomized rats. The level of FABP was increased by administration of clofibric acid to rats in any altered hormonal states, as was microsomal 1-acylglycerophosphocholine (1-acyl-GPC) acyltransferase, a peroxisome-proliferator-responsive parameter. These results suggest that the hepatic level of FABP is under regulation by multiple hormones and that clofibric acid induces FABP and 1-acyl-GPC acyltransferase by a mechanism which may be distinct from that by which hormones regulate the level of FABP. PMID:8110197

  16. Parathyroid hormone and serum calcium levels measurements as predictors of postoperative hypocalcemia in total thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Algarni, Mohammed; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Hadi, Al-Hakami; AlSubayea, Haia

    2017-01-01

    Background The rules of quantitative measures such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the first hours following total thyroidectomy have since been validated repeatedly. Such measures play an integral rule in identifying patients at significant risk for hypocalcaemia and have allowed for earlier supplementation of these patients with calcium with or without vitamin D. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted of 40 consecutive patients with well differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) who underwent total thyroidectomy without central neck dissection (CND) as an initial surgery and no comorbidity at King Abdulaziz Medical City (National Guard hospital), between July 2011 and July 2012. A blood testing protocol was applied for all patients that measured serum calcium PTH at 6 hours postoperatively. Results Following total thyroidectomy, women were found to experience transient hypocalcaemia in 12.5% of cases (4/32), whereas no men cases encountered this postoperative complication (0/8). However, most probably due to small sample size, this difference was not statistically significant. PTH level was significantly associated with post thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia (43.7±39.3 versus 13.40±24.9 ng/L), P=0.014. Only negligible differences in the length of hospital stay were observed with and without post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia. Conclusions Using post-thyroidectomy PTH levels to predict hypocalcaemia has been confirmed in the current study. So, the use of PTH levels allows for early risk stratification of our patients and we feel this has resulted in better patient satisfaction. PMID:29142830

  17. Factors influencing growth hormone levels of Bali cattle in Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa Islands, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Suwiti, N K; Besung, I N K; Mahardika, G N

    2017-10-01

    Bali cattle ( Bos javanicus ) are an Indonesian's native cattle breed that distributed in Asia to Australia. The scientific literature on these cattle is scarce. The growth hormone (GH) of Bali cattle is investigated from three separated islands, namely, Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa. Forty plasma samples were collected from each island, and the GH was measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The data were analyzed based on the origin, sex, and cattle raising practices. We found that the GH level (bovine GH [BGH]) of animal kept in stall 1.72±0.70 µg/ml was higher than free-grazing animal 1.27±0.81 µg/ml. The GH level was lower in female (1.22±0.62 µg/ml) compared to male animals (1.77±0.83 µg/ml). We conclude that the level of BGH in Bali cattle was low and statistically equal from all origins. The different level was related to sex and management practices. Further validation is needed through observing the growth rate following BGH administration and discovering the inbreeding coefficient of the animal in Indonesia.

  18. Factors influencing growth hormone levels of Bali cattle in Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa Islands, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Suwiti, N. K.; Besung, I N. K.; Mahardika, G. N.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) are an Indonesian’s native cattle breed that distributed in Asia to Australia. The scientific literature on these cattle is scarce. The growth hormone (GH) of Bali cattle is investigated from three separated islands, namely, Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa. Materials and Methods: Forty plasma samples were collected from each island, and the GH was measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The data were analyzed based on the origin, sex, and cattle raising practices. Results: We found that the GH level (bovine GH [BGH]) of animal kept in stall 1.72±0.70 µg/ml was higher than free-grazing animal 1.27±0.81 µg/ml. The GH level was lower in female (1.22±0.62 µg/ml) compared to male animals (1.77±0.83 µg/ml). Conclusion: We conclude that the level of BGH in Bali cattle was low and statistically equal from all origins. The different level was related to sex and management practices. Further validation is needed through observing the growth rate following BGH administration and discovering the inbreeding coefficient of the animal in Indonesia. PMID:29184372

  19. Alteration of Hormonal Levels in a Rootless Epiphytic Bromeliad in Different Phenological Phases.

    PubMed

    Mercier; Endres

    1999-11-01

    Major changes in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinin (CK) levels occur at different phenological phases of Tillandsia recurvata shoots. This epiphytic rootless bromeliad was chosen as suitable material for hormonal analysis because CK synthesis is restricted to the shoots, thus avoiding problems in the interpretation of results caused by translocation and interconversion of CK forms between roots and leaves encountered in plants with both organs. Young plants of T. recurvata have weak apical dominance because side shoots appeared early in development, and branch growth was correlated with a strong increase in the level of zeatin. The flowering phase was characterized by a significant increase in free base CKs, zeatin, and isopentenyladenine compared with the levels found in adult vegetative shoots. In contrast, both free-base CKs declined in the fruiting phenological phase, and the IAA level increased dramatically. It was concluded that in phases characterized by intense organ formation, such as in the juvenile and flowering stages, there was an enhancement of CK content, mainly caused by zeatin, leading to a lower IAA/CK ratio. Higher ratios were correlated with phases that showed no organogenesis, such as adult and fruiting phenologies.

  20. Follicle-stimulating hormone levels in male workers exposed to urban chemical, physical, and psychosocial stressors.

    PubMed

    Tomei, G; Tomao, E; Ciarrocca, M; Rosati, M V; Caciari, T; Gamberale, D; Palermo, P; De Sio, S; Tria, M; Panfili, A; Tomei, F

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether occupational exposure to urban stressors could cause alterations in the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in traffic policemen compared to a control group. After excluding the subjects with main confounding factors, traffic policemen and male controls were matched by age, working life, body mass index (BMI), drinking habit, cigarette smoking history, and daily consumption of Italian coffee, 166 traffic policemen and 166 controls were included into the study. FSH levels were significantly higher in traffic policemen compared to male controls (P < 0.05). The distribution of FSH values in traffic policemen and controls was significant (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that occupational exposure to low doses of chemical and psychosocial stressors may alter plasma levels of FSH in traffic policemen more than in the control group. If the results obtained are confirmed by further research, the plasma levels of FSH may be used as early biological markers, valuable for the group, used in occupational set even before the appearance of disorders of male fertility.

  1. Persistent Organic Pollutant and Hormone Levels in Harbor Porpoise with B Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Norman, Stephanie A; Winfield, Zach C; Rickman, Barry H; Usenko, Sascha; Klope, Matthew; Berta, Susan; Dubpernell, Sandra; Garrett, Howard; Adams, Mary Jo; Lambourn, Dyanna; Huggins, Jessica L; Lysiak, Nadine; Clark, Adelaide E; Sanders, Rebel; Trumble, Stephen J

    2017-05-01

    B-cell lymphoma, a common morphologic variant of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, has been associated with persistent pollutants in humans, but this association is not well-characterized in top-level predators sharing marine resources with humans. We characterized and compared blubber contaminants and hormones of a pregnant harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) with B-cell lymphoma, with those in two presumed healthy fishery by-caught porpoises with no lymphoma: a pregnant adult and female juvenile. Common historic use compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and pesticides, were evaluated in blubber samples from three porpoises. In addition, blubber cortisol and progesterone levels (ng/g) were determined in all three animals. Total pollutant concentrations were highest in the juvenile porpoise, followed by the lymphoma porpoise and the nonlymphoma adult. Blubber cortisol concentrations were 191% greater in the pregnant with lymphoma porpoise compared with the pregnant no lymphoma porpoise, and 89% greater in the juvenile female compared with the pregnant no lymphoma porpoise. Although both adults were pregnant, progesterone levels were substantially greater (90%) in the healthy compared with the lymphoma adult. Health monitoring of top-level marine predators, such as porpoise, provides a sentinel measure of contaminants that serve as indicators of potential environmental exposure to humans.

  2. Increasing maternal obesity is associated with alterations in both maternal and neonatal thyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Kahr, Maike K; Antony, Kathleen M; DelBeccaro, Melanie; Hu, Min; Aagaard, Kjersti M; Suter, Melissa A

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is associated with alterations in thyroid hormone (TH) levels in obese, pregnant individuals. The maintenance of TH levels throughout gestation is important for proper foetal development. The aim of this study was to measure levels of fT3, fT4 and TSH in maternal and matched cord blood serum from normal weight, overweight and obese gravidae to determine alterations in maternal and neonatal TH levels by virtue of maternal obesity. ELISA was utilized to measure fT3, fT4 and TSH levels from banked, matched maternal and neonatal (cord blood) serum (N = 205 matched pairs). Data were stratified according to prepregnancy or first trimester BMI. Both maternal and neonatal fT3 levels consistently increased with increasing maternal obesity, and maternal and neonatal fT3 were significantly correlated (r = 0·422, P < 0·001). Maternal and neonatal fT3 were also significantly associated with birthweight (β = 0·155, P = 0·027 and β = 0·171, P = 0·018, respectively). Both the maternal and neonatal fT3 to fT4 ratio significantly increased with increasing maternal obesity. We further found that excess gestational weight gain was associated with a decrease in maternal fT4 compared with gravidae who had insufficient gestational weight gain (0·86 ± 0·17 vs 0·95 ± 0·22, P < 0·01). Maternal obesity is not only associated with maternal alterations in TH, but with accompanying neonatal changes. Because both maternal obesity and alterations in TH levels are associated with childhood obesity, based on these findings and our prior analyses in a nonhuman primate model, we propose that changes in fT3 levels in the offspring of obese mothers may be a potential molecular mediator of foetal overgrowth and childhood obesity. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Endocrinology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The effect of hormone therapy on plasma homocysteine levels: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tutuncu, Levent; Ergur, Ali Rustu; Mungen, Ercument; Gun, Ismet; Ertekin, Aktug; Yergok, Yusuf Ziya

    2005-03-01

    An elevated plasma homocysteine level is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Hormone therapy (HT) may reduce fasting plasma homocysteine levels. We studied 80 postmenopausal women to determine the effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) combined with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) on fasting plasma homocysteine levels. In a randomized, double blind, prospective, placebo-controlled study, we randomly assigned 80 healthy postmenopausal women between CEE 0.625 mg/d combined with MPA 2.5 mg/d (n = 20), CEE 0.625 mg/d combined with MPA 5 mg/d (n = 20), unopposed CEE 0.625 mg/d (n = 20), and placebo (n = 20) all given for a duration of 6 months. Fasting plasma homocysteine levels were measured before and at the end of the treatment. Before treatment, plasma homocysteine concentrations were similar in all groups. After 6 months of unopposed CEE, the mean fasting plasma homocysteine levels decreased by 19.02% when compared with baseline levels (P < 0.05). The mean fasting plasma homocysteine concentrations decreased by 17.63% and 19.56% from baseline in both the CEE plus MPA 2.5 mg/d and CEE plus MPA 5 mg/d groups, respectively (P < 0.05 for each group). In contrast, plasma homocysteine levels increased by 11.66% in the placebo group. The homocysteine lowering effect did not differ significantly among the three groups of women receiving unopposed CEE alone and CEE plus MPA at two different doses. Six months of estrogen therapy (ET) and combined estrogen-progestogen therapy (EPT) significantly lower fasting plasma homocysteine levels in healthy postmenopausal women with equal efficacy.

  4. Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yeung Bae; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Byung Chan; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2013-01-01

    Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simultaneous exposure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF signals for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg (total 4.0 W/kg). At 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment began, each experimental group's 40 rats (male 20, female 20) were autopsied. Exposure for 8 weeks to simultaneous CDMA and WCDMA RF did not affect serum levels in rats of melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) as assessed by the ELISA method. PMID:23239176

  5. Candidate genes associated with testicular development, sperm quality, and hormone levels of inhibin, luteinizing hormone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 in Brahman bulls.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Marina R S; Reverter, Antonio; Hawken, Rachel J; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Lehnert, Sigrid A

    2012-09-01

    Bull fertility is an important target for genetic improvement, and early prediction using genetic markers is therefore a goal for livestock breeding. We performed genome-wide association studies to identify genes associated with fertility traits measured in young bulls. Data from 1118 Brahman bulls were collected for six traits: blood hormone levels of inhibin (IN) at 4 mo, luteinizing hormone (LH) following a gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge at 4 mo, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) at 6 mo, scrotal circumference (SC) at 12 mo, ability to produce sperm (Sperm) at 18 mo, and percentage of normal sperm (PNS) at 24 mo. All the bulls were genotyped with the BovineSNP50 chip. Sires and dams of the bull population (n = 304) were genotyped with the high-density chip (∼800 000 polymorphisms) to allow for imputation, thereby contributing detail on genome regions of interest. Polymorphism associations were discovered for all traits, except for Sperm. Chromosome 2 harbored polymorphisms associated with IN. For LH, associated polymorphisms were located in five different chromosomes. A region of chromosome 14 contained polymorphisms associated with IGF1 and SC. Regions of the X chromosome showed associations with SC and PNS. Associated polymorphisms yielded candidate genes in chromosomes 2, 14, and X. These findings will contribute to the development of genetic markers to help select cattle with improved fertility and will lead to better annotation of gene function in the context of reproductive biology.

  6. C-reactive protein and homocysteine levels are associated with abnormal heart rate recovery in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Cemil; Akgül, Ebru; Pabuccu, Recai

    2010-06-01

    To determine heart rate recovery (HRR) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its relation to C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels. Prospective clinical study. University hospital. Sixty-eight women with PCOS and 68 healthy women were included this study. Heart rate recovery was evaluated. We measured serum levels of CRP and Hcy. The presence of insulin resistance was investigated using homeostasis model assesment (HOMA-IR). Heart rate recovery, CRP, Hcy. Heart rate recovery was significantly decreased in women with PCOS compared with control group women. Subjects with abnormal HRR had significantly greater levels of CRP and Hcy. The PCOS patients with HRR in the top tertile compared with the bottom quartile tended to have lower mean CRP and Hcy levels. The HRR was significantly and negatively correlated with age, CRP, Hcy, HOMA-IR, and body mass index. C-reactive protein and Hcy are independent determinants of HRR. The CRP and Hcy levels may affect the development and progression of abnormal HRR in PCOS. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pre-competition hormonal and psychological levels of elite hockey players: relationship to the "home advantage".

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin; Muir, Cameron; Belanger, Joey; Putnam, Susan K

    2006-10-30

    The home advantage is a robust phenomenon that occurs in the world of amateur and professional sport. Athletic teams have been shown to win significantly more games in their home venue as compared to their opponents' venue. Studies have suggested that the home advantage may be related to familiarity with the facility, increased crowd density and even pre-competition hormonal levels. The present study investigated pre-competition physiological and psychological states of elite hockey players in the home and away venues. Physiological measures included salivary cortisol and testosterone, which were assessed using enzyme immunoassays. In addition, pre-competition psychological states were assessed using the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. Physiological measures indicated that the players had significantly higher pre-game testosterone when playing in their home venue as compared to their opponents' venue (t(13)=2.29, p=0.04); however, this difference was not due to a pre-game rise in testosterone while competing at home. Furthermore, players showed a trend toward higher pre-game cortisol when playing in their home venue (t(13)=1.96, p=0.07). Psychological measures indicated that players were more self-confident when playing in their home venue (t(13)=2.8, p=0.008) and also had higher somatic (t(13)=2.3, p=0.02) and cognitive anxiety (t(13)=1.87, p=0.04) when playing in their opponents' venue. The present study supports the notion that there are differences in pre-competition hormonal and psychological states that may play a key role in the "home advantage".

  8. Subject standardization, acclimatization, and sample processing affect gut hormone levels and appetite in humans.

    PubMed

    Chandarana, Keval; Drew, Megan E; Emmanuel, Julian; Karra, Efthimia; Gelegen, Cigdem; Chan, Philip; Cron, Nicholas J; Batterham, Rachel L

    2009-06-01

    Gut hormones represent attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, controversy surrounds the effects that adiposity, dietary manipulations, and bariatric surgery have on their circulating concentrations. We sought to determine whether these discrepancies are due to methodologic differences. Ten normal-weight males participated in a 4-way crossover study investigating whether fasting appetite scores, plasma acyl-ghrelin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) levels are altered by study-induced stress, prior food consumption, and sample processing. Study visit order affected anxiety, plasma cortisol, and temporal profiles of appetite and plasma PYY3-36, with increased anxiety and cortisol concentrations on the first study day. Plasma cortisol area under the curve (AUC) correlated positively with plasma PYY3-36 AUC. Despite a 14-hour fast, baseline hunger, PYY3-36 concentrations, temporal appetite profiles, PYY3-36 AUC, and active GLP-1 were affected by the previous evening's meal. Sample processing studies revealed that sample acidification and esterase inhibition are required when measuring acyl-ghrelin and dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitor addition for active GLP-1. However, plasma PYY3-36 concentrations were unaffected by addition of dipeptidyl-peptidase IV. Accurate assessment of appetite, feeding behavior, and gut hormone concentrations requires standardization of prior food consumption and subject acclimatization to the study protocol. Moreover, because of the labile nature of acyl-ghrelin and active GLP-1, specialized sample processing needs to be undertaken.

  9. Ethological endophenotypes are altered by elevated stress hormone levels in both Huntington's disease and wildtype mice.

    PubMed

    Mo, Christina; Renoir, Thibault; Hannan, Anthony J

    2014-11-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive, psychiatric, motor, neuroendocrine and peripheral dysfunctions. Symptom onset and progression can be closely modeled in HD transgenic mice, which facilitate the search for therapeutics and environmental modulators. In the first investigation of chronic stress in HD, we have previously shown that administering a moderate dose of the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT) had no effect on short-term memory in wildtype (WT) mice but accelerated the onset of the impairment in male R6/1 HD mice. We now extend this investigation to ethological dysfunctions in HD, which we hypothesized to be more susceptible to CORT treatment compared to the same functions in WT littermates. Both genotypes consumed similar doses of CORT dissolved in drinking water across 6-14 weeks of age and were assessed for olfactory sensitivity, nest-building, saccharin preference as well as vocal responses to sociosexual stimuli. In female HD and WT mice, olfactory sensitivity and saccharin preference were reduced by 2 and 4 weeks of CORT, respectively. In males, there was no effect of CORT on saccharin preference, however the number of vocalizations to a female mouse was transiently increased by CORT-drinking, regardless of genotype. Nest-building was severely impaired in HD mice at an early age, but was unaffected by CORT. Our results suggest that the presence of the HD mutation had no bearing on CORT-induced effects at this dose, suggesting that even moderately elevated stress hormone levels can impair ethological behaviors in both the HD and healthy brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus terrestris L. on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Maleki, Maryam; Ahmad Abadi, Mohammad Esmail

    2013-01-01

    Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug, reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This study investigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent to show its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48 rats into four groups: i. control, ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated addicted. Watersoluble morphine was administrated orally for 21 days to induce addiction, after which the treated groups 2 and 4 received plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%) orally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of all rats’ sera were determined by radioimmunoassay and Elisa kits. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukey test. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The addicted group had a significantly lower luteinizing hormone (LH) level than the control group (p<0.027). LH levels increased significantly in the TT-treated addicted group (p<0.031). The testosterone level in the treated addicted group was lower than the treated control group. The addicted group had a significantly low testosterone level (p<0.001). The estrogen level was significantly (p<0.002) lower in the addicted group than in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference between the treated addicted group and the treated control group (p<0.048). The treated control group had a significant increase in its progesterone level (p<0.002). Overall, except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropins and sexual hormones. Whereas TT caused a considerable increase (p<0.05) in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a

  11. One level up: abnormal proteolytic regulation of IGF activity plays a role in human pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Frystyk, Jan; Oxvig, Claus

    2017-10-01

    The discovery of a mutation in a specific gene can be very important for determining the pathophysiology underlying the disease of a patient and may also help to decide the best treatment protocol on an individual basis. However, sometimes the discovery of mutations in new proteins advances our comprehension in a more widespread manner. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis is fundamental for systemic growth, but is also involved in many other important processes. Our understanding of this system in physiology and pathophysiology has advanced throughout the years with each discovery of mutations in members of this axis. This review focuses on the most recent discovery: mutations in the metalloproteinase pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 (PAPP-A2), one of the proteases involved in liberating IGF-1 from the complexes in which it circulates, in patients with delayed growth failure. We also discuss the advances in the stanniocalcins (STC1 and STC2), proteins that modulate PAPP-A2, as well as PAPP-A. These new advances not only bring us one step closer to understanding the strict spatial and temporal control of this axis in systemic growth and maturation, but also highlight possible therapeutic targets when this system goes awry. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  12. Expression of Estrogen Receptors in Relation to Hormone Levels and the Nottingham Prognostic Index.

    PubMed

    Fahlén, Mia; Zhang, Hua; Löfgren, Lars; Masironi, Britt; VON Schoultz, Eva; VON Schoultz, B O; Sahlin, Lena

    2016-06-01

    Estrogen hormones have a large impact on both normal development and tumorigenesis of the breast. Breast tissue samples from 49 women undergoing surgery were included. The estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ), ERα36 and G-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER) were determined in benign and malignant breast tissue. The ERα36 and ERα mRNA levels were highest in malignant tumors. Stromal ERβ immunostaining in benign tumors was higher than in the paired normal tissue. GPER expression was lowest in benign tumors. In the malignant tumors, the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI) correlated positively with stromal GPER and the serum testosterone level. The serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level correlated negatively with GPER mRNA and glandular ERα. The expression of ERα36 is stronger in malignant breast tissue. The strong positive correlation between NPI and GPER in malignant breast stroma indicates an important role for GPER in breast cancer prognosis. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. Somatostatin-14 modulates postprandial glucose levels and release of gastrointestinal and pancreatic hormones.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, D J; Long, R G; Adrian, T E; Christofides, N D; Ghatei, M A; Sarson, D L; Bloom, S R

    1985-01-01

    Ingestion of a 4,500-kcal mixed meal by healthy volunteers resulted in a significant rise of plasma somatostatin-14-like immunoreactivity (9 +/- 1 pmol l-1. Whether this peptide has a role as a humoral agent or not is still controversial and, until recently, most studies investigating its effects by exogenous administration have produced vastly supraphysiological circulating plasma levels. In order to reproduce the rise obtained following the large meal, synthetic somatostatin-14 was infused at a dose of 0.8 pmol kg-1 min-1 before and during a 530-kcal test breakfast. This resulted in a rise of 8 + 2 pmol l-1 in the peripheral circulation. This infusion produced a significant reduction in the postprandial release of insulin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, pancreatic polypeptide and in the preprandial motilin levels. In contrast, blood glucose levels following the breakfast were elevated when compared to the control saline infusion. This suggests that somatostatin possesses true endocrine functions and is capable of profoundly altering the postprandial glucose and hormone response.

  14. Antimüllerian hormone levels are independently related to ovarian hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert L; Wroblewski, Kristen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Mortensen, Monica; Ehrmann, David A

    2012-07-01

    To determine the relationship of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels to polycystic ovaries and ovarian androgenic function. Prospective case-control study. General clinical research center. Eumenorrheic asymptomatic volunteers without (V-NO; n = 19; reference population) or with (V-PCO; n = 28) a polycystic ovary and hyperandrogenemic anovulatory subjects grouped according to ovarian function into typical PCOS (PCOS-T; n = 37) and atypical PCOS (PCOS-A; n = 18). Pelvic ultrasonography, short dexamethasone androgen-suppression test (SDAST), and GnRH agonist (GnRHag) test. Baseline AMH levels were related to polycystic ovary status, testosterone response to SDAST, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone response to GnRHag test. AMH levels correlated with SDAST and GnRHag test outcomes. AMH was elevated (>6.2 ng/mL) in 32% of V-PCO versus 5% V-NO. The 21% of V-PCO who met Rotterdam PCOS criteria all had functional ovarian hyperandrogenism, but AMH levels were similar to nonhyperandrogenic V-PCO. AMH >10.7 ng/mL discriminated V-PCO from PCOS with 96% specificity and 41% sensitivity for PCOS-T, and insignificantly for PCOS-A. AMH levels are independently related to ovarian androgenic function and polycystic ovaries. Very high AMH levels are specific but insensitive for PCOS. In the absence of hyperandrogenism, moderate AMH elevation in women with normal-variant polycystic ovaries seems to indicate an enlarged oocyte pool. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antimüllerian hormone levels are independently related to ovarian hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfield, Robert L.; Wroblewski, Kristen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Mortensen, Monica; Ehrmann, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels to polycystic ovaries and ovarian androgenic function. Design Prospective case-control study. Setting General clinical research center. Participant(s) Eumenorrheic asymptomatic volunteers without (V-NO; n = 19; reference population) or with (V-PCO; n = 28) a polycystic ovary and hyperandrogenemic anovulatory subjects grouped according to ovarian function into typical PCOS (PCOS-T; n = 37) and atypical PCOS (PCOS-A; n = 18). Intervention(s) Pelvic ultrasonography, short dexamethasone androgen-suppression test (SDAST), and GnRH agonist (GnRHag) test. Main Outcome Measure(s) Baseline AMH levels were related to polycystic ovary status, testosterone response to SDAST, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone response to GnRHag test. Result(s) AMH levels correlated with SDAST and GnRHag test outcomes. AMH was elevated (>6.2 ng/mL) in 32% of V-PCO versus 5% V-NO. The 21% of V-PCO who met Rotterdam PCOS criteria all had functional ovarian hyperandrogenism, but AMH levels were similar to nonhyperandrogenic V-PCO. AMH >10.7 ng/mL discriminated V-PCO from PCOS with 96% specificity and 41% sensitivity for PCOS-T, and insignificantly for PCOS-A. Conclusion(s) AMH levels are independently related to ovarian androgenic function and polycystic ovaries. Very high AMH levels are specific but insensitive for PCOS. In the absence of hyperandrogenism, moderate AMH elevation in women with normal-variant polycystic ovaries seems to indicate an enlarged oocyte pool. PMID:22541936

  16. Longitudinal development of hormone levels and grey matter density in 9 and 12-year-old twins.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Koenis, M M G; Schnack, Hugo G; van Baal, G Caroline; van Soelen, Inge L C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-05-01

    Puberty is characterized by major changes in hormone levels and structural changes in the brain. To what extent these changes are associated and to what extent genes or environmental influences drive such an association is not clear. We acquired circulating levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol and testosterone and magnetic resonance images of the brain from 190 twins at age 9 [9.2 (0.11) years; 99 females/91 males]. This protocol was repeated at age 12 [12.1 (0.26) years] in 125 of these children (59 females/66 males). Using voxel-based morphometry, we tested whether circulating hormone levels are associated with grey matter density in boys and girls in a longitudinal, genetically informative design. In girls, changes in FSH level between the age of 9 and 12 positively associated with changes in grey matter density in areas covering the left hippocampus, left (pre)frontal areas, right cerebellum, and left anterior cingulate and precuneus. This association was mainly driven by environmental factors unique to the individual (i.e. the non-shared environment). In 12-year-old girls, a higher level of circulating estradiol levels was associated with lower grey matter density in frontal and parietal areas. This association was driven by environmental factors shared among the members of a twin pair. These findings show a pattern of physical and brain development going hand in hand.

  17. Altered Sex Hormone Concentrations and Gonadal mRNA Expression Levels of Activin Signaling Factors in Hatchling Alligators From a Contaminated Florida Lake

    PubMed Central

    MOORE, BRANDON C.; KOHNO, SATOMI; COOK, ROBERT W.; ALVERS, ASHLEY L.; HAMLIN, HEATHER J.; WOODRUFF, TERESA K.; GUILLETTE, LOUIS J.

    2014-01-01

    Activins and estrogens participate in regulating the breakdown of ovarian germ cell nests and follicle assembly in mammals. In 1994, our group reported elevated frequencies of abnormal, multioocytic ovarian follicles in 6 month old, environmental contaminant-exposed female alligators after gonadotropin challenge. Here, we investigated if maternal contribution of endocrine disrupting contaminants to the egg subsequently alters estrogen/inhibin/activin signaling in hatchling female offspring, putatively predisposing an increased frequency of multioocytic follicle formation. We quantified basal and exogenous gonadotropin-stimulated concentrations of circulating plasma steroid hormones and ovarian activin signaling factor mRNA abundance in hatchling alligators from the same contaminated (Lake Apopka) and reference (Lake Woodruff) Florida lakes, as examined in 1994. Basal circulating plasma estradiol and testosterone concentrations were greater in alligators from the contaminated environment, whereas activin/inhibin βA subunit and follistatin mRNA abundances were lower than values measured in ovaries from reference lake animals. Challenged, contaminant-exposed animals showed a more robust increase in plasma estradiol concentration following an acute follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) challenge compared with reference site alligators. Aromatase and follistatin mRNA levels increased in response to an extended FSH challenge in the reference site animals, but not in the contaminant-exposed animals. In hatchling alligators, ovarian follicles have not yet formed; therefore, these endocrine differences are likely to affect subsequent ovarian development, including ovarian follicle assembly. PMID:20166196

  18. Sex steroid levels, oocyte maturation and spawning performance in Waigieu seaperch (Psammoperca waigiensis) exposed to thyroxin, human chorionic gonadotropin, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone and carp pituitary extract.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hung Quoc; Nguyen, Anh Tuong; Nguyen, Mao Dinh; Arukwe, Augustine

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the sex steroid hormone levels, oocyte maturation and spawning performance in Waigieu seaperch (Psammoperca waigiensis) exposed to different doses (0, (control), 0.05, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg fish) of thyroxin (T(4)) both through diet (continuously) and injection (single injection). In addition, we also studied plasma steroid hormone levels and spawning performances in female fish injected with a single dose of D-Ala(6), Pro(9)-Net-mGnRH (LHRHa: 50 microg/kg), human chronic gonadotropin (HCG: 1,500 IU/kg) and carp pituitary extract (CPE: 10 mg/kg). In all experiments, samples were collected at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after exposure. T4 exposure via dietary route produced differential and enhanced effects, compared with when the compound was injected to the broodstock. A significant association between exposure to dietary T4, elevated plasma steroid hormone levels, maturation-, spawning-, fertilization- and hatching rate, egg diameter, embryogenesis and larval growth were observed. Interestingly, we observed that broodstock groups fed with T4 doses spawned 20 days earlier than the control group. Thus, we propose that these differences may be attributed to higher systemic availability of T4 due to dietary exposure that is easily transferable to eggs and embryos, as opposed to injection that require absorption to increase bioavailability. Furthermore, our results show that LHRHa, CPE and HCG produced significant increase in spawning rate, but significantly reduced fertilization- and hatching rates. Waigieu seaperch is a new candidate for marine aquaculture in Vietnam and relatively little is known about the reproductive biology and endocrinology of this species. Therefore, the present study forms an integral basis for understanding the reproductive endocrinology of a tropical marine finfish with increasing aquaculture prospects and may also contribute in the development of sustainable aquaculture of this species in a developing

  19. The association between estradiol levels, hormonal contraceptive use, and responsiveness to one-session-treatment for spider phobia in women.

    PubMed

    Graham, Bronwyn M; Li, Sophie H; Black, Melissa J; Öst, Lars-Göran

    2018-04-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that conditioned fear extinction is impaired in females with low endogenous levels of the sex hormone estradiol, due to menstrual fluctuations or hormonal contraceptive use. As fear extinction is a laboratory model of exposure therapy for anxiety and trauma disorders, here we assessed the hypothesis that treatment outcomes may be diminished when exposure therapy occurs during periods of low estradiol. 90 women with spider phobia (60 cycling and 30 using hormonal contraceptives) underwent a one-session exposure treatment for spider phobia, following which, serum estradiol levels were assessed. A median split in estradiol level was used to divide cycling participants into two groups; lower and higher estradiol. Behavioral avoidance and self-reported fear of spiders were measured pre-treatment, post-treatment, and at a 12 week follow-up assessment. Women using hormonal contraceptives exhibited a significantly slower rate of improvement across treatment, greater behavioral avoidance at post-treatment and follow-up, and fewer self-initiated post-treatment exposure tasks, relative to both groups of cycling women, who did not differ. No group differences in self-reported fear were evident. Correlational analyses revealed that across the whole sample, lower estradiol levels were associated with slower rates of improvement across treatment, and greater self-reported fear and behavioral avoidance at post-treatment, but not follow-up. These results provide the first evidence of an association between endogenous estradiol, hormonal contraceptive use, and exposure therapy outcomes in spider phobic women. Hormonal profile may partly account for variability in responsiveness to psychological treatments for anxiety and trauma disorders in women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Cornelia de Lange Syndrome and multiple hormonal deficiency, an unusual association. Clinical case].

    PubMed

    Mora-Bautista, Víctor M; Mendoza-Rojas, Víctor; Contreras-García, Gustavo A

    2017-06-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial features, failure to thrive, microcephaly and several malformations associated. Its main endocrinological features are anomalies of the genitalia. We present a 13-year-old boy, who suffered from complicated aspiration pneumonia and showed Cornelia de Lange syndrome phenotype, with global developmental delay, suction-swallowing abnormalities, short stature and abnormal genitalia associated. His bone age was delayed, so he underwent full endocrinological panel. Central hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency and low luteinizing hormone-follicle-stimulating hormone levels were observed and multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies diagnosis was made. Basal cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone and prolactin levels were normal. He received thyroid hormonal substitution. Multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies are an unusual feature of De Lange syndrome. We suggest evaluating all different endocrine axes in these patients. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  1. Intraoperative serum parathyroid hormone level is an indicator of hypocalcaemia in total thyroidectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Islam, M S; Sultana, T; Paul, D; Huq, A H M Z; Chowdhury, A A; Ferdous, C; Ahmed, A N N

    2012-12-01

    Postoperative hypocalcaemia is the most frequent and common complication after total thyroidectomy. It is necessary to diagnose or to predict hypocalcaemia immediately after total thyroidectomy for minimizing complications. A prospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Clinical Pathology in collaboration with Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Department of Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and Department of Otolaryngology, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital (DMC&H), Dhaka, during the period of September 2010 to August 2011 to evaluate intraoperative (20 minutes after total thyroidectomy) parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurement as a predictor of post thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia. Total 65 patients were enrolled in this study those came for total thyroidectomy. Postoperative hypocalcaemia developed in 25 cases. Intraoperative PTH was assessed and significant correlation was found between intraoperative PTH level and development of hypocalcaemia. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of intraoperative serum PTH for prediction of post total thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia were 84.0%, 85.0%, 84.6%, 77.8%, and 89.5% respectively. Because of the high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of intraoperative serum PTH of this study, the early prediction of hypocalcaemia could be made by single assay of intraoperative serum PTH level at 20 minutes after total thyroidectomy.

  2. Associations between complex OHC mixtures and thyroid and cortisol hormone levels in East Greenland polar bears.

    PubMed

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, E W; Muir, D C G; Letcher, R J; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S; Jenssen, B M; Villanger, G D

    2012-07-01

    The multivariate relationship between hair cortisol, whole blood thyroid hormones, and the complex mixtures of organohalogen contaminant (OHC) levels measured in subcutaneous adipose of 23 East Greenland polar bears (eight males and 15 females, all sampled between the years 1999 and 2001) was analyzed using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression modeling. In the resulting PLS model, most important variables with a negative influence on cortisol levels were particularly BDE-99, but also CB-180, -201, BDE-153, and CB-170/190. The most important variables with a positive influence on cortisol were CB-66/95, α-HCH, TT3, as well as heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, BDE-47, p,p'-DDD. Although statistical modeling does not necessarily fully explain biological cause-effect relationships, relationships indicate that (1) the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in East Greenland polar bears is likely to be affected by OHC-contaminants and (2) the association between OHCs and cortisol may be linked with the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fasting upregulates adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase levels and phosphorylation in mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Marvyn, Phillip M; Bradley, Ryan M; Button, Emily B; Mardian, Emily B; Duncan, Robin E

    2015-06-01

    Circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) rise during fasting and are taken up by the kidneys, either directly from the plasma or during re-uptake of albumin from glomerular filtrate, and are stored as triacylglycerol (TAG). Subsequent utilization of stored fatty acids requires their hydrolytic release from cellular lipid droplets, but relatively little is known about renal lipolysis. We found that total [(3)H]triolein hydrolase activity of kidney lysates was significantly increased by 15% in the fasted state. Adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl) mRNA expression was time-dependently increased by fasting, along with other fatty acid metabolism genes (Pparα, Cd36, and Aox). ATGL and HSL protein levels were also significantly induced (by 239 ± 7% and 322 ± 8%, respectively). Concomitant with changes in total protein levels, there was an increase in ATGL phosphorylation at the AMPK-regulated serine 406 site in the 14-3-3 binding motif, and an increase in HSL phosphorylation at serines 565 and 660 that are regulated by AMPK and PKA, respectively. Using immunofluorescence, we further demonstrate nearly ubiquitous expression of ATGL in the renal cortex with a concentration on the apical/lumenal surface of some cortical tubules. Our findings suggest a role for ATGL and HSL in kidney lipolysis.

  4. Associations between complex OHC mixtures and thyroid and cortisol hormone levels in East Greenland polar bears

    PubMed Central

    TØ, Bechshøft; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, EW; Muir, DCG; Letcher, RJ; Novak, MA; Henchey, E; Meyer, JS; Jenssen, BM; Villanger, GD

    2012-01-01

    The multivariate relationship between hair cortisol, whole blood thyroid hormones, and the complex mixtures of organohalogen contaminant (OHC) levels measured in subcutaneous adipose of 23 East Greenland polar bears (eight males and 15 females, all sampled between the years 1999 and 2001) was analyzed using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression modeling. In the resulting PLS model, most important variables with a negative influence on cortisol levels were particularly BDE-99, but also CB-180, -201, BDE-153, and CB-170/190. The most important variables with a positive influence on cortisol were CB-66/95, α-HCH, TT3, as well as heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, BDE-47, p,p′-DDD. Although statistical modeling does not necessarily fully explain biological cause-effect relationships, relationships indicate that (1) the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in East Greenland polar bears is likely to be affected by OHC-contaminants and (2) the association between OHCs and cortisol may be linked with the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. PMID:22575327

  5. Sex Hormone Effects on Physical Activity Levels: Why Doesn’t Jane Run as Much as Dick?

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Robert S.; Turner, Michael J.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between physical activity levels and disease rates have become an important health related concern in the developed world. Heart disease, certain cancers, and obesity persist at epidemic rates in the United States and Western Europe. Increased physical activity levels have been shown to reduce the occurrence of many chronic diseases leading to reductions in the burden on the health care system. Activity levels in humans are affected by many cultural and environmental factors, nevertheless current research points to a strong biological input with potential genetic, neurological, and endocrinological origins. Of unique interest, the sex hormones appear to have a very strong influence on activity levels. The current animal literature suggests that females tend to be more active than males due to biological pathways of estrogenic origin. The majority of human epidemiological and anthropological data, on the contrary, suggest women are less active than men in spite of this inherent activity-increasing mechanism. The purpose of this manuscript was to review the current literature regarding the control of physical activity levels by the sex hormones in humans. Using the natural transitional phases of the aging endocrine system, natural periodicity of the menstrual cycle, and pharmacological/hormone replacement therapy as variable experimental stages, some authors have been able to provide some information regarding the existence of an inherent activity-increasing mechanism in humans. In brief, activity levels during life stages prior to and after menopause do not significantly differ, despite the vast changes in sex hormone levels and function. Activity difference throughout a regular menstrual cycle do not appear to influence activity levels in humans either—an effect that is pronounced in the female rodent. The use of hormone replacement therapies provide researchers with more systematic controls over hormone modulation in human subjects; however

  6. [Effect of treatment with diet on reducing levels of sex hormones in perimenopausal women with overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Łokieć, Katarzyna; Błońska, Aleksandra; Walecka-Kapica, Ewa; Stec-Michalska, Krystyna

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, fight against obesity is a big challenge for the developed countries. Perimenopausal women are especially prone to becoming overweight and obese. This is due to changes in hormone levels and alterations in the sex hormones synthesis pathway. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of sex hormones in overweight and obese women during menopause following the three month period of reducing diet. The study involved women aged 55±4,75 years. Group I - 33 overweight women (BMI 28,06±1,00 kg/m(2)). Group II - 32 obese women (BMI 34,22±3,79 kg/m(2)). Anthropometric measurements, body composition tested with Bodystat QuadScan 4000 analyzer and levels of sex hormones in the blood was determined before and after the three-months of reducing diet in both groups. Statistical data analysis was performed. After three-months of reducing diet it was noticed that levels of BMI, body fat, FSH, DHEA-S and androstenedione were decreased in a statistically significant manner. A significant increase in estradiol levels after reduction of visceral adipose tissue in both groups, overweight and obese women, was observed. However, only in the group of obese women, a decrease in BMI correlated with a significant increase in estradiol levels. Application of appropriate reducing diet in perimenopausal overweight and obese women has positive impact on visceral adipose tissue distribution and causes an increase in sex hormones levels. Perimenopausal overweight and obese women should pursue weight reduction to improve their chances of contracting cardiovascular diseases. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  7. Serum levels of inhibin A and inhibin B in women with normal and abnormal luteal function.

    PubMed

    Yamoto, M; Imai, M; Otani, H; Nakano, R

    1997-05-01

    To determine whether serum inhibin A and inhibin B concentrations are lower in patients with luteal dysfunction than in women with normal luteal function. Serum samples were collected from seven healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. Serum samples on days +5 to +9 after the LH surge were collected from patients with luteal dysfunction. The diagnosis of luteal dysfunction was based on a luteal phase duration less than 11 days and a single midluteal progesterone level below 10 ng/mL. Serum levels of inhibin A, inhibin B, progesterone, estradiol (E2), FSH, and LH were measured. The serum inhibin A levels were increased toward the late follicular phase. The levels reached a maximum during the midluteal phase, followed by a fall during the late luteal phase. The serum inhibin B levels were high during the follicular phases and the early luteal phase. The levels decreased during the midluteal and late luteal phases. Serum levels (mean +/- standard error of the mean) of inhibin A in patients with luteal dysfunction were significantly lower than those in women during the midluteal phase (26.2 +/- 2.9 compared to 41.9 +/- 2.8 pg/mL; P < .01) in addition to the expected decrease in serum progesterone levels (6.3 +/- 0.7 compared to 14.7 +/- 1.2 ng/mL; P < .01). Serum inhibin B levels did not differ significantly between normal women and those with luteal dysfunction. There also were no significant differences in the E2, FSH, and LH levels. Levels of inhibin A, but not of inhibin B, may reflect the human luteal function.

  8. Relationship of drinking water disinfectants to plasma cholesterol and thyroid hormone levels in experimental studies.

    PubMed Central

    Revis, N W; McCauley, P; Bull, R; Holdsworth, G

    1986-01-01

    The effects of drinking water containing 2 or 15 ppm chlorine (pH 6.5 and 8.5), chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine on thyroid function and plasma cholesterol were studied because previous investigators have reported cardiovascular abnormalities in experimental animals exposed to chlorinated water. Plasma thyroxine (T4) levels, as compared to controls, were significantly decreased in pigeons fed a normal or high-cholesterol diet and drinking water containing these drinking water disinfectants at a concentration of 15 ppm (the exception was chlorine at pH 6.5) for 3 months. In most of the treatment groups, T4 levels were significantly lower following the exposure to drinking water containing the 2 ppm dose. Increases in plasma cholesterol were frequently observed in the groups with lower T4 levels. This association was most evident in pigeons fed the high-cholesterol diet and exposed to these disinfectants at a dose of 15 ppm. For example, after 3 months of exposure to deionized water or water containing 15 ppm monochloramine, plasma cholesterol was 1266 +/- 172 and 2049 +/- 212 mg/dl, respectively, a difference of 783 mg/dl. The factor(s) associated with the effect of these disinfectants on plasma T4 and cholesterol is not known. We suggest however that these effects are probably mediated by products formed when these disinfectants react with organic matter in the upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:3456597

  9. Comparison of serum hormone levels of captive and free-living maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus.

    PubMed

    Maia, O B; Jácomo, A T A; Bringel, B A; Kashivakura, C K; Oliveira, C A; Teodoro, L O F; Silveira, L; Teixeira da Costa, M E L; Malta, M C C; Furtado, M M; Torres, N M; Mattos, P S R; Viau, P; Lima, T F G; Morato, R G

    2008-02-01

    Serum hormone levels were compared between captive and free-living maned wolves and seasonal variations of sex hormones were studied. Blood samples were collected from 16 male and 26 female adult animals from Brazilian zoos, and from 30 male and 24 female free-living adults to determine serum progesterone and testosterone by radioimmunoassay. Serum testosterone concentrations varied (P < 0.05) across seasons for 16 captive males, being higher in autumn (2184.7 +/- 355.1 pg/mL) than in summer (1080.7 +/- 205.4 pg/mL), winter (1270.1 +/- 276.6 pg/mL) and spring (963.9 +/- 248.1 pg/mL), although they did not differ between summer, winter and spring. Testosterone concentration of 30 free-living males differed (P < 0.05) between autumn (824.1 +/- 512.2 pg/mL), winter (14.4 +/- 8.0 pg/mL) and spring (151.9 +/- 90.5 pg/mL). Comparison between captive and free-living animals showed no difference in autumn (P > 0.05). Sixteen captive males showed higher testosterone concentration during winter and spring compared with 30 free-living animals (P < 0.05). Progesterone concentration varied among seasons in 26 captive females (P < 0.05), being higher in autumn (15.3 +/- 3.1 ng/mL) than in summer (6.6 +/- 1.5 ng/mL), winter (5.3 +/- 3.1 ng/mL) and spring (4.3 +/- 0.7 ng/mL). Progesterone concentration of 24 free-living females varied between autumn (17.1 +/- 6.0 ng/mL) and winter (1.7 +/- 0.3 ng/mL) (P < 0.05), but we could not obtain data for spring or summer. No difference in progesterone levels was observed between captive and free-living females in autumn and winter.

  10. Antimüllerian hormone levels and cardiometabolic risk in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Rebecca A; O'Neill, Kathleen; Butts, Samantha F; Dokras, Anuja

    2017-01-01

    To determine the association between antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Cross-sectional study. Academic PCOS center. A total of 252 women aged 18-46 years with PCOS. None. Association of AMH with markers of cardiometabolic risk and MetSyn. The median AMH level was 5.1 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR] 3.0-8.1), and prevalence of MetSyn was 23.8%. AMH levels positively correlated with total T, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and SHBG and negatively correlated with fasting glucose, homeostasis-model assessment of insulin resistance, body mass index (BMI), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. A single-unit decrease in AMH was associated with an 11% increase in odds of MetSyn (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.20); the strength of this association was maintained in the multivariate model (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.18) adjusting for age and race. Subjects with AMH values in the lowest tertile were twice as likely as those in the highest tertile to have MetSyn (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.01-4.3). Total T was not associated with MetSyn or its individual components. Our findings indicate that in young women with PCOS, low AMH levels predict a greater risk of MetSyn. The role of AMH, an established biomarker of ovarian reserve, in risk stratification of cardiometabolic risk in obese women with PCOS needs to be clarified in longitudinal studies and in the perimenopausal population. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pranic meditation affects phagocyte functions and hormonal levels of recent practitioners.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, César A; Nóbrega, Yanna K M; Tosta, C Eduardo

    2012-08-01

    Despite the recognized importance of phagocytes in the maintenance and recovery of health, the influence of meditation on their functions is not properly established. This investigation aimed at evaluating the influence of pranic meditation on the functions of phagocytes, and on the levels of hormones that influence them. A pre-post design was adopted. The investigation was carried out at a university research laboratory. Twenty-nine (29) healthy individuals of both sexes, 24-67 years old (median 45), with no previous experience in meditation, received 3-hour-duration weekly training on pranic meditation during 10 weeks and agreed to engage in daily home practice for 20 minutes. Pranic meditation is a novel method of meditation, based on the Vedic tradition, which uses techniques of breathing and visualization for quieting the mind, and for capturing and intentionally directing prana ("vital energy") wherever necessary. For assessing phagocytosis, the production of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide by monocytes, and the concentrations of corticotrophin and cortisol, blood was collected at the beginning (week 1), at the middle (week 5), and by the end (week 10) of the practice period. At the same intervals, melatonin concentrations were evaluated in the saliva. Those who meditated for more than 980 minutes showed increased phagocytosis, their monocytes produced higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, and their plasma levels of corticotrophin were reduced. The production of nitric oxide by monocytes, and the levels of cortisol and melatonin were not modified by meditation. This is the first study to show that a short program of pranic meditation practice was able to upregulate the function and metabolism of phagocytes, in parallel with the reduction of the plasma levels of corticotrophin. The results of this study point to a possible causal effect between these events, and indicate that pranic meditation could be useful for stimulating the function and

  12. A relationship between vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, calcium levels and lactose intolerance in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Rana, SatyaVati; Morya, Rajesh Kumar; Malik, Aastha; Bhadada, Sanjay Kumar; Sachdeva, Naresh; Sharma, Gaurav

    2016-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is chronic metabolic disorder. Common gastrointestinal symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients are flatulence, constipation and/or diarrhea. Reason for these may be lactose intolerance leading to change in vitamin D, Calcium and parathyroid hormone which further regulate bone mineralization. To measure lactose intolerance, vitamin D, calcium and parathyroid hormone in type 2 diabetic patients. 150 type 2 diabetic patients attending Endocrinology Clinic in PGI, Chandigarh and 150 age and sex matched healthy controls were enrolled. Lactose intolerance was measured using non-invasive lactose breath test. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (total) and Parathyroid hormone were measured in plasma using immunoassay. Serum calcium was measured using auto analyzer. T score was recorded from DXA scan for bone mineral density measurement. Lactose intolerance was observed significantly higher (p<0.001) diabetic patients (59.3%) as compared to controls (42%). Levels of plasma 25-OH vitamin D (total), parathyroid hormone and serum calcium were significantly lower in patients as compared to controls. Furthermore, levels of plasma 25-OH vitamin D (total), parathyroid hormone and serum calcium were more decreased in lactose intolerant diabetic patients than lactose tolerant patients. Sixty seven percent (67%) of diabetic patients suffered from osteoporosis and 20% of controls. Eighty percent (80%) diabetic patients and 16% controls with osteoporosis suffered from lactose intolerance. From this study we can conclude that measurement of lactose intolerance using non-invasive lactose breath test is suggested for type 2 diabetic patients along with timely measurement of 25-OH vitamin D (total), calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between serum levels of organochlorine pesticides and sex hormones in adults living in a heavily contaminated area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Sarcinelli, Paula Novaes; Rosa, Ana Cristina Simões; Clapauch, Ruth; Koifman, Sergio

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have investigated the effects of organochlorine (OC) pesticides on adverse reproductive outcomes. However, few previous studies explored their effects on sex hormones. To examine the association between serum concentrations of OC pesticides and levels of sex hormones in adult population in a rural area in Brazil heavily contaminated with these pesticides. A cross-sectional study with 304 men and 300 women was undertaken. Wet weight serum concentrations of 19 OC pesticides (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane [DDT] and hexachlorocyclohexane [HCH], among others) were determined in all participants. Testosterone levels were obtained for men and estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) for women. Associations between OC pesticides and sex hormones were evaluated using linear regression models. Prevalence of women with non-physiological hyperprolactinemia was 4%. After adjusting for serum lipids and confounders, heptachlor and o,p'-DDT concentrations in men were associated with lower testosterone levels, while peri- and postmenopausal women (N=77) showed inverse associations between LH and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD (dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane), endosulfan 1 and 2, aldrin and mirex, as well as between FSH and p,p'-DDD, endosulfan 1 and aldrin. Premenopausal women (N=210) did not show statistically significant associations between OC pesticides and sex hormones. Inverse associations between OC pesticide concentrations and testosterone in men and LH and FSH in peri-/postmenopausal women, together with the high proportion of women with elevated prolactin, suggest that these OC compounds may have triggered anti-androgenic effects in men and estrogenic effects in women in this population. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Outcomes of patients with altered level of consciousness and abnormal electroencephalogram: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Paula Rodrigues; Corrêa, Thiago Domingos; Ferrari-Marinho, Taissa; Naves, Pedro Vicente Ferreira; Ladeia-Frota, Carol; Caboclo, Luís Otávio

    2017-01-01

    , respectively, p = 0.049]. Hospital LOS, in-hospital mortality and frequency of unfavorable outcomes did not differ between Ictal patients treated exclusively with AEDs or IVADs. In patients with acute altered consciousness and abnormal routine EEG, antiepileptic treatment did not improve outcomes regardless of the presence of periodic, rhythmic or ictal EEG patterns.

  15. Outcomes of patients with altered level of consciousness and abnormal electroencephalogram: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari-Marinho, Taissa; Naves, Pedro Vicente Ferreira; Ladeia-Frota, Carol; Caboclo, Luís Otávio

    2017-01-01

    .9%) vs. 11/36 (30.6%) patients, respectively, p = 0.049]. Hospital LOS, in-hospital mortality and frequency of unfavorable outcomes did not differ between Ictal patients treated exclusively with AEDs or IVADs. Conclusion In patients with acute altered consciousness and abnormal routine EEG, antiepileptic treatment did not improve outcomes regardless of the presence of periodic, rhythmic or ictal EEG patterns. PMID:28886073

  16. The intellectual capacity of patients with Laron syndrome (LS) differs with various molecular defects of the growth hormone receptor gene. Correlation with CNS abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Shevah, O; Kornreich, L; Galatzer, A; Laron, Z

    2005-12-01

    The correlation between the molecular defects of the GH receptor (R), psychosocial development and brain abnormalities were evaluated in 10 patients with Laron syndrome (LS), in whom all data were available. The findings revealed that the intelligence quotient (IQ) and abnormalities in the brain of the patients with LS differ with various molecular defects of the GH-receptor. The most severe mental deficits and brain pathology occurred in patients with 3, 5, 6 exon deletion. Patients with point mutations in exons 2, 4 and 7 presented various degrees of medium to mild CNS abnormalities that correlated with the IQ. Notably, the patient with the E180 splice mutation in exon 6 had a normal IQ, which fits the report on normal IQ in a large Ecuadorian cohort with the same mutation. This is the first report to support a correlation between IQ, brain abnormalities and localization of the molecular defects in the GH-R gene. As all patients with LS are IGF-I-deficient, it must be assumed that other as yet unknown factors related to the molecular defects in the GH-R are the major cause of the differences in intellect and brain abnormalities.

  17. High level expression of bioactive recombinant human growth hormone in the milk of a cloned transgenic cow.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Daniel; Barañao, Lino; Santos, Claudio; Bussmann, Leonardo; Artuso, Jorge; Werning, Carlos; Prync, Aida; Carbonetto, Cesar; Dabsys, Susana; Munar, Carlos; Salaberry, Roberto; Berra, Guillermo; Berra, Ignacio; Fernández, Nahuel; Papouchado, Mariana; Foti, Marcelo; Judewicz, Norberto; Mujica, Ignacio; Muñoz, Luciana; Alvarez, Silvina Fenández; González, Eliseo; Zimmermann, Juan; Criscuolo, Marcelo; Melo, Carlos

    2006-07-13

    Transgenic farm animals have been proposed as an alternative to current bioreactors for large scale production of biopharmaceuticals. However, the efficiency of both methods in the production of the same protein has not yet been established. Here we report the production of recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) in the milk of a cloned transgenic cow at levels of up to 5 g l(-1). The hormone is identical to that currently produced by expression in E. coli. In addition, the hematological and somatometric parameters of the cloned transgenic cow are within the normal range for the breed and it is fertile and capable of producing normal offspring. These results demonstrate that transgenic cattle can be used as a cost-effective alternative for the production of this hormone.

  18. Chronic exposure to hypergravity affects thyrotropin-releasing hormone levels in rat brainstem and cerebellum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, N. G.; Tang, F.; Corcoran, M. L.; Fox, R. A.; Man, S. Y.

    1998-01-01

    In studies to determine the neurochemical mechanisms underlying adaptation to altered gravity we have investigated changes in neuropeptide levels in brainstem, cerebellum, hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex by radioimmunoassay. Fourteen days of hypergravity (hyperG) exposure resulted in significant increases in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) content of brainstem and cerebellum, but no changes in levels of other neuropeptides (beta-endorphin, cholecystokinin, met-enkephalin, somatostatin, and substance P) examined in these areas were found, nor were TRH levels significantly changed in any other brain regions investigated. The increase in TRH in brainstem and cerebellum was not seen in animals exposed only to the rotational component of centrifugation, suggesting that this increase was elicited by the alteration in the gravitational environment. The only other neuropeptide affected by chronic hyperG exposure was met-enkephalin, which was significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex. However, this alteration in met-enkephalin was found in both hyperG and rotation control animals and thus may be due to the rotational rather than the hyperG component of centrifugation. Thus it does not appear as if there is a generalized neuropeptide response to chronic hyperG following 2 weeks of exposure. Rather, there is an increase only of TRH and that occurs only in areas of the brain known to be heavily involved with vestibular inputs and motor control (both voluntary and autonomic). These results suggest that TRH may play a role in adaptation to altered gravity as it does in adaptation to altered vestibular input following labyrinthectomy, and in cerebellar and vestibular control of locomotion, as seen in studies of ataxia.

  19. Validation of 1-hour post-thyroidectomy parathyroid hormone level in predicting hypocalcemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior work by our group suggested that a single one hour post-thyroidectomy parathyroid hormone (1 hr PTH) level could accurately stratify patients into high and low risk groups for the development of hypocalcemia. This study looks to validate the safety and efficacy of a protocol based on a 1 hr PTH threshold of 12 pg/ml. Study design Retrospective analysis of consecutive cohort treated with standardized protocol. Methods One hundred and twenty five consecutive patients underwent total or completion thyroidectomy and their PTH level was drawn 1-hour post operatively. Based on our previous work, patients were stratified into either a low risk group (PTH < 12 pg/ml) or a high risk group (PTH ≥ 12 pg/ml). Patients in the high risk group were immediately started on prophylactic calcium carbonate (5–10 g/d) and calcitriol (0.5-1.0 mcg/d). The outcomes were then reviewed focusing mainly on how many low risk patients developed hypocalcemia (false negative rate), and how many high risk patients failed prophylactic therapy. Results Thirty one patients (25%) were stratified as high risk, and 94 (75%) as low risk. Five (16%) of the high risk patients became hypocalcemic despite prophylactic therapy. Two of the low risk group became hypocalcemic, (negative predictive value = 98%). None of the hypocalcemic patients had anything more than mild symptoms. Conclusions A single 1-hour post-thyroidectomy PTH level is a very useful way to stratify thyroidectomy patients into high and low risk groups for development of hypocalcemia. Early implementation of oral prophylactic calcium and vitamin D in the high risk patients is a very effective way to prevent serious hypocalcemia. Complex protocols requiring multiple calcium and PTH measurements are not required to guide post-thyroidectomy management. PMID:24476535

  20. Hormone levels in vegetarian and nonvegetarian teenage girls: potential implications for breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Persky, V W; Chatterton, R T; Van Horn, L V; Grant, M D; Langenberg, P; Marvin, J

    1992-02-01

    Between September 1984 and June 1985, a total of 75 adolescent girls, 35 vegetarians residing in a Seventh-Day Adventist school and 40 nonvegetarians residing in a private non-Adventist boarding school, underwent measurement of their plasma hormone levels in the follicular and luteal phase of their menstrual cycles as well as dietary intake measured by 3-day food records, medical history, height, and weight. There were no significant differences between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in average age of the girls, weight, body mass index, age at menarche, years since the onset of menstruation, or percentage of girls with ovulatory cycles. Vegetarian girls had significantly higher levels of log follicular estradiol [2.00 +/- 0.27 (SD) versus 1.85 +/- 0.27 pg/ml, P less than or equal to 0.05] and luteal dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHS) (1.88 +/- 0.71 versus 1.45 +/- 0.80 microgram/ml, P less than or equal to 0.05) than nonvegetarian girls. Follicular DHS was higher in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians (1.72 +/- 0.79 versus 1.45 +/- 0.95 microgram/ml), but the difference was not significant. The differences in follicular and luteal DHS, but not the difference in log estradiol, were significant (P less than or equal to 0.05) after controlling for ovulation, smoking, and alcohol intake with multivariable regression analysis. There were no significant differences in testosterone or in percentage free estradiol levels between vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Smoking was significantly associated with follicular and luteal DHS and with percentage free follicular estradiol, while alcohol use was significantly and inversely associated with percentage free follicular estradiol after controlling for other variables. The implications for breast cancer risk are discussed.

  1. Metformin and low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Jean-Pascal; Yin, Hui; Yu, Oriana Hoi Yun; Azoulay, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Background: Small cross-sectional studies have suggested that metformin, a first-line oral hypoglycemic agent, may lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Our objective was to determine whether the use of metformin monotherapy, when compared with sulfonylurea monotherapy, is associated with an increased risk of low TSH levels (< 0.4 mIU/L) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we identified patients who began receiving metformin or sulfonylurea monotherapy between Jan. 1, 1988, and Dec. 31, 2012. We assembled 2 subcohorts of patients with treated hypothyroidism or euthyroidism, and followed them until Mar. 31, 2013. We used Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the association of low TSH levels with metformin monotherapy, compared with sulfonylurea monotherapy, in each subcohort. Results: A total of 5689 patients with treated hypothyroidism and 59 937 euthyroid patients were included in the subcohorts. Among patients with treated hypothyroidism, 495 events of low TSH levels were observed during follow-up (incidence rate 119.7/1000 person-years). In the euthyroid group, 322 events of low TSH levels were observed (incidence rate 4.5/1000 person-years). Compared with sulfonylurea monotherapy, metformin monotherapy was associated with a 55% increased risk of low TSH levels in patients with treated hypothyroidism (incidence rate 79.5/1000 person-years v. 125.2/1000 person-years, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09–2.20), with the highest risk in the 90–180 days after initiation (adjusted HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.00–5.29). No association was observed in euthyroid patients (adjusted HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.69–1.36). Interpretation: In this longitudinal population-based study, metformin use was associated with an increased incidence of low TSH levels in patients with treated hypothyroidism, but not in euthyroid patients. The clinical consequences of this need further

  2. Serum lipid levels and steroidal hormones in women runners with irregular menses.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D L; Snead, D B; Seip, R L; Weltman, J Y; Rogol, A D; Weltman, A

    1997-02-01

    This study compared the lipid profile of women runners with menstrual cycle irregularities with their normally menstruating counterparts. Relationships among selected steroid hormones and serum lipid levels in 10 eumenorrheic (EU) and 8 oligo-/amenorrheic (O/A) women runners and 6 eumenorrheic controls (CON) were examined. Serum 17 beta-estradiol (E2), progesterone (Prog), and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations were determined in daily blood samples for 21 days, and integrated concentrations were calculated. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2, HDL3, triglycerides (Trig), and apolipoproteins A-1, A-II, and B. The O/A group had significantly lower E2 and Prog than EU or CON groups. Women in the CON group had lower HDL-C and HDL3 than the runners. With all women grouped together, E2 was not significantly correlated with any measured blood lipid parameters. On the other hand, DHEAS was significantly correlated with HDL-C, HDL2, and apolipoprotein A-I. These data demonstrate that women runners, regardless of menstrual cycle status, exhibit higher HDL-C concentrations than CON and supports previous research reporting a positive association between DHEAS and HDL-C.

  3. Juvenile hormone levels reflect social opportunities in the facultatively eusocial sweat bee Megalopta genalis (Hymenoptera: Halictidae).

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam R; Kapheim, Karen M; Pérez-Ortega, Betzi; Brent, Colin S; Wcislo, William T

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of eusociality is hypothesized to have involved de-coupling parental care from reproduction mediated by changes in endocrine regulation. While data for obligately eusocial insects are consistent with this hypothesis, we lack information from species representative of the transition from solitary reproduction to eusociality. Here we report the first evidence for a link between endocrine processes and social behavior in a facultatively eusocial bee, Megalopta genalis (Halictidae). Using females that varied in social, reproductive, and ecological context, we measured juvenile hormone (JH), a major regulator of colony caste dynamics in other eusocial species. JH was low at adult emergence, but elevated after 10 days in all nesting females. Females reared in cages with ad lib nutrition, however, did not elevate JH levels after 10 days. All reproductive females had significantly more JH than all age-matched non-reproductive females, suggesting a gonadotropic function. Among females in established nests, JH was higher in queens than workers and solitary reproductives, suggesting a role for JH in social dominance. A lack of significant differences in JH between solitary reproductives and non-reproductive workers suggests that JH content reflects more than reproductive status. Our data support the hypothesis that endocrine modifications are involved in the evolutionary decoupling of reproductive and somatic effort in social insects. These are the first measurements of JH in a solitary-nesting hymenopteran, and the first to compare eusocial and solitary nesting individuals of the same species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The effect of orbital implantation on peripheral blood melatonin and sex hormone levels in child patients with congenital eyeball dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junze; Liu, Tao; Qu, Jianqiang

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of orbital implantation on peripheral blood melatonin and sex hormone levels in pediatric patients with congenital eyeball dysplasia. A total of 28 cases of pediatric patients with congenital eyeball dysplasia diagnosed in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University from June 2014 to December 2014 were selected for the study. The patients included those that received orbital implantation, and the melatonin levels in the peripheral blood in patients before and after operation was observed. In addition, the sex hormone levels and T lymphocytes, plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS) and VEGF levels, urine 8-OHdG and 8-isoPGF2α levels in patients before and after treatment were detected, followed by statistical analysis. As a result, after 3 months of orbital implantation, the sex hormone levels in peripheral blood in child patients fluctuated significantly, and differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The peripheral blood T lymphocytes and ROS levels were significantly lower than those before treatment, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The correlation analysis revealed that the peripheral blood melatonin levels were negatively related to ROS levels; the correlation coefficient was rs = -0.481 and P<0.05. In conclusion, orbital implantation does not have significant impact on sex hormone levels in child patients with congenital eyeball dysplasia. The hydroxyapatite orbital implantation can achieve more satisfactory curative effects, and there are fewer postoperative complications. It does not affect the appearance of the eye, and therefore, it is suitable for patients with congenital eyeball dysplasia.

  5. Impact of Low-Level Thyroid Hormone Disruption Induced by Propylthiouracil on Brain Development and Function.*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The critical role of thyroid hormone (TH) in brain development is well established, severe deficiencies leading to significant neurological dysfunction. Much less information is available on more modest perturbations of TH on brain function. The present study induced varying degr...

  6. Inclusion of Endogenous Hormone Levels in Risk Prediction Models of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tworoger, Shelley S.; Zhang, Xuehong; Eliassen, A. Heather; Qian, Jing; Colditz, Graham A.; Willett, Walter C.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Endogenous hormones are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer, and their measurement may improve our ability to identify high-risk women. Therefore, we evaluated whether inclusion of plasma estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, prolactin, and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) improved risk prediction for postmenopausal invasive breast cancer (n = 437 patient cases and n = 775 controls not using postmenopausal hormones) in the Nurses' Health Study. Methods We evaluated improvement in the area under the curve (AUC) for 5-year risk of invasive breast cancer by adding each hormone to the Gail and Rosner-Colditz risk scores. We used stepwise regression to identify the subset of hormones most associated with risk and assessed AUC improvement; we used 10-fold cross validation to assess model overfitting. Results Each hormone was associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio doubling, 0.82 [SHBG] to 1.37 [estrone sulfate]). Individual hormones improved the AUC by 1.3 to 5.2 units relative to the Gail score and 0.3 to 2.9 for the Rosner-Colditz score. Estrone sulfate, testosterone, and prolactin were selected by stepwise regression and increased the AUC by 5.9 units (P = .003) for the Gail score and 3.4 (P = .04) for the Rosner-Colditz score. In cross validation, the average AUC change across the validation data sets was 6.0 (P = .002) and 3.0 units (P = .03), respectively. Similar results were observed for estrogen receptor–positive disease (selected hormones: estrone sulfate, testosterone, prolactin, and SHBG; change in AUC, 8.8 [P < .001] for Gail score and 5.8 [P = .004] for Rosner-Colditz score). Conclusion Our results support that endogenous hormones improve risk prediction for invasive breast cancer and could help identify women who may benefit from chemoprevention or more screening. PMID:25135988

  7. Pulling Rank: Military Rank Affects Hormone Levels and Fairness in an Allocation Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Siart, Benjamin; Pflüger, Lena S.; Wallner, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Status within social hierarchies has great effects on the lives of socially organized mammals. Its effects on human behavior and related physiology, however, is relatively little studied. The present study investigated the impact of military rank on fairness and behavior in relation to salivary cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) levels in male soldiers. For this purpose 180 members of the Austrian Armed Forces belonging to two distinct rank groups participated in two variations of a computer-based guard duty allocation experiment. The rank groups were (1) warrant officers (high rank, HR) and (2) enlisted men (low rank, LR). One soldier from each rank group participated in every experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, one participant was assigned to start standing guard and the other participant at rest. The participant who started at rest could choose if and when to relieve his fellow soldier and therefore had control over the experiment. In order to trigger perception of unfair behavior, an additional experiment was conducted which was manipulated by the experimenter. In the manipulated version both soldiers started in the standing guard position and were never relieved, believing that their opponent was at rest, not relieving them. Our aim was to test whether unfair behavior causes a physiological reaction. Saliva samples for hormone analysis were collected at regular intervals throughout the experiment. We found that in the un-manipulated setup high-ranking soldiers spent less time standing guard than lower ranking individuals. Rank was a significant predictor for C but not for T levels during the experiment. C levels in the HR group were higher than in the LR group. C levels were also elevated in the manipulated experiment compared to the un-manipulated experiment, especially in LR. We assume that the elevated C levels in HR were caused by HR feeling their status challenged by the situation of having to negotiate with an individual of lower military rank

  8. Pulling Rank: Military Rank Affects Hormone Levels and Fairness in an Allocation Experiment.

    PubMed

    Siart, Benjamin; Pflüger, Lena S; Wallner, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Status within social hierarchies has great effects on the lives of socially organized mammals. Its effects on human behavior and related physiology, however, is relatively little studied. The present study investigated the impact of military rank on fairness and behavior in relation to salivary cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) levels in male soldiers. For this purpose 180 members of the Austrian Armed Forces belonging to two distinct rank groups participated in two variations of a computer-based guard duty allocation experiment. The rank groups were (1) warrant officers (high rank, HR) and (2) enlisted men (low rank, LR). One soldier from each rank group participated in every experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, one participant was assigned to start standing guard and the other participant at rest. The participant who started at rest could choose if and when to relieve his fellow soldier and therefore had control over the experiment. In order to trigger perception of unfair behavior, an additional experiment was conducted which was manipulated by the experimenter. In the manipulated version both soldiers started in the standing guard position and were never relieved, believing that their opponent was at rest , not relieving them. Our aim was to test whether unfair behavior causes a physiological reaction. Saliva samples for hormone analysis were collected at regular intervals throughout the experiment. We found that in the un-manipulated setup high-ranking soldiers spent less time standing guard than lower ranking individuals. Rank was a significant predictor for C but not for T levels during the experiment. C levels in the HR group were higher than in the LR group. C levels were also elevated in the manipulated experiment compared to the un-manipulated experiment, especially in LR. We assume that the elevated C levels in HR were caused by HR feeling their status challenged by the situation of having to negotiate with an individual of lower military

  9. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: Data from two preliminary studies

    PubMed Central

    Gaffey, Allison E.; Wirth, Michelle M.; Hoks, Roxanne M.; Jahn, Allison L.; Abercrombie, Heather C.

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants’ cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 hours. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 hours. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC vs. women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group. PMID:24773147

  10. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  11. Association of serum organochlorine pesticides concentrations with reproductive hormone levels and polycystic ovary syndrome in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhizhun; Qiu, Huiling; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Lijun; Wang, Chonggang; Chen, Meng; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a total of 178 women were studied. The concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in serum were determined using Gas Chromatography Mass-Mass Spectrometer. No differences with statistical significance in the mean HCH, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE concentrations were observed between the patients with PCOS and the control group. Serum p,p'-DDT (P = 0.016) and o,p'-DDT (P = 0.000) levels were significantly higher in patients with PCOS compared with the control group. The results of the association between OCPs levels and hormone levels indicated that o,p'-DDT may play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS by affecting hormones levels. Further trials should be investigated with the findings in this study to obtain new pathogenesis of PCOS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential hormonal and gene expression dynamics in two inbred sunflower lines with contrasting dormancy level.

    PubMed

    Roselló, Paula L; Vigliocco, Ana E; Andrade, Andrea M; Riera, Natalí V; Calafat, Mario; Molas, María L; Alemano, Sergio G

    2016-05-01

    Seed germination and dormancy are tightly regulated by hormone metabolism and signaling pathway. We investigated the endogenous content of abscisic acid (ABA), its catabolites, and gibberellins (GAs), as well as the expression level of certain ABA and GAs metabolic and signaling genes in embryo of dry and imbibed cypselas of inbred sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae) lines: B123 (dormant) and B91 (non-dormant). Under our experimental conditions, the expression of RGL2 gene might be related to the ABA peak in B123 line at 3 h of imbibition. Indeed, RGL2 transcripts are absent in dry and early embedded cypselas of the non-dormant line B91. ABA increase was accompanied by a significant ABA-Glucosyl ester (ABA-GE) and phaseic acid (PA) (two ABA catabolites) decrease in B123 line (3 h) which indicates that ABA metabolism seems to be more active in this line, and that it would be involved in the imposition and maintenance of sunflower seed dormancy, as it has been reported for many species. Finally, an increase of bioactive GAs (GA1 and GA3) occurs at 12 h of imbibition in both lines after a decrease in ABA content. This study shows the first report about the RGL2 tissue-specific gene expression in sunflower inbred lines with contrasting dormancy level. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that ABA and GAs content and differential expression of metabolism and signaling genes would be interacting in seed dormancy regulation through a mechanism of action related to embryo itself. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations between Markers of Inflammation and Physiological and Pharmacological Levels of Circulating Sex Hormones in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Roksana; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Hodis, Howard N.; Cushman, Mary; Lobo, Roger A.; Hwang, Juliana; Mack, Wendy J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Hormone therapy has been shown to reduce markers of vascular inflammation in postmenopausal women. C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of generalized inflammation, is raised by oral estradiol therapy. It is not known how sex hormone concentrations relate to the markers of inflammation in postmenopausal women taking or not taking hormone therapy. Methods This observational study includes postmenopausal women participating in the Estrogen in the Prevention of Atherosclerosis Trial (EPAT). Multiple measures of serum sex hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels from 107 postmenopausal women taking oral estradiol therapy (ET) and 109 taking placebo over 2 years were correlated with markers of inflammation over the same time period using generalized estimating equations. Results Levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) were significantly inversely associated with estrone (p = 0.05), total and free estradiol (p = 0.008 and 0.02, respectively), and SHBG (p = 0.03) only among oral ET users. Serum homocysteine levels were also inversely associated with estrone (p = 0.0001), total and free estradiol (p = 0.0006 and 0.0009, respectively) in ET-treated women only. No such associations were observed among women taking placebo. C-reactive protein (CRP) was positively associated with estrogens and SHBG among women taking oral ET but inversely associated with SHBG among the placebo group. Conclusions The inverse associations of estrogens with sICAM-1, and homocysteine support an anti-inflammatory property of estrogen, which was only observed at pharmacologic levels in postmenopausal women. The positive associations between estrogens and CRP in the ET-treated women can be explained by the first-pass hepatic effect rather than a pro-inflammatory response. PMID:20632462

  14. Hypereosinophilia with abnormal T cells, trisomy 7 and elevated TARC serum level.

    PubMed

    Roumier, A S; Grardel, N; Laï, J L; Becqueriaux, I; Ghomari, K; de Lavareille, A; Roufosse, F; Prin, L; Capron, M

    2003-07-01

    The idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare heterogeneous disorder, characterized by persistent blood eosinophilia with possible organ involvement. We describe here the case of a 20-year-old atopic male presenting chronic hypereosinophilia and eczema since childhood. Biological findings included hypereosinophilia (9.5 x 10(9)/L), hyperlymphocytosis (10.9 x 10(9)/L), polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and elevated IgE serum level. Flow cytometric analysis of blood lymphoid cells showed a population of CD2+CD3-CD4+TCRab-TCRgd- lymphocytes. These cells displayed a Th0/Th2 cytokine profile, and a clonal TCR rearrangement pattern. A high serum TARC level was observed. Karyotype studies on blood stimulated culture or lymph nodes revealed a cellular hyperdiploïd clone 47, XY, +7. To our knowledge, this chromosomal aberration has never been reported in such case.

  15. Prevalence of abnormal serum alanine aminotransferase levels in type 2 diabetic patients in Iran.

    PubMed

    Meybodi, M A; Afkhami-Ardekani, M; Rashidi, M

    2008-09-15

    This study was performed to estimate prevalence of transaminase levels in type 2 diabetic patients and identify contributing risk factors. In this cross-sectional study 348 patients with type 2 diabetes, who attended the diabetic clinic of Yazd Diabetes Research Center, were studied from October 2004 to December 2005. Patients with history of viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse and use of drug such as Amiodarone, Bleomycin, methotrexate, tamoxifen and sodium valporate was excluded. To examine the relationships between ALT, AST in individuals with type II diabetes and relation to various metabolic parameters like triglyceride, cholesterol, age, duration of diabetes, gender and BMI. Of 348 patients that entered the study, mean age was 58.8 +/- 11.5. Elevated ALT and AST were found in 10.4 and 3.3% of type 2 diabetic patients, respectively. Although the prevalence of elevated ALT increased with increasing age, FBS and triglyceride levels in subjects, but it was not statistically significant. There was a significant association between elevated ALT and gender as well as diabetes duration. The prevalence of elevated of ALT in type 2 diabetic patients is 1.6 times higher than general population in Iran unrelated to age, BMI, glycemic control, triglyceride levels. Identification risk factors and mechanisms of these elevations are very important and require further evaluation.

  16. [Effect of Transcutaneuos Acupoint Electrostimulation on Serum Sex Hormone Levels and Expression of Ovarian Steroid Hormone Metabolic Enzymes in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Rats].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-yong; Zhang, Xiao-yue; Yu, Mei-ling; Lu, Sheng-feng; Chen, Xia

    2016-02-01

    To observe the effect of transcutaneuos acupoint electrostimulation(TAES) on ovarian serum sex hormone levels and ovarian follicle granular cell aromatase cytochrome P 450 (P 450 arom) protein and follicle theca cell cytochrome P 450 17 α-hydroxylase/c 17-20 lyase cytochrome P 450 (P 450 c 17 α) protein expression in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improvement of PCOS. METHODS Forty SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, model, medication and TAES (10 rats/group). The PCOS model was established by giving (gavage) the animals with letrozole solution (1.0 mg/kg, once daily for 21 consecutive days). Rats of the medication group were treated with Clomiphene (1 mg/kg) once daily for 7 days, and those of the TAES group were treated with electrical stimulation (2 Hz, 3 mA) of "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) areas for 30 min, once daily for 7 consecutive days. The rats body weight and bilateral ovarian weight were detected, and the ovarian structure and follicular development degree were observed under light microscope after H. E. stain, and the serum testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), luteotrophic hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) contents were detected using radioimmunoassay. The expression of ovarian P 450 arom (for production of estrogen)protein and P 450 c 17 α (for production of androgen) protein was detected by using immunohistochemical stain and Western blot, respectively. The body weight, bilateral ovary weight, serum T and LH contents, and ratio of LH/FSH, and ovarian P 450 c 17 α immunoactivity and protein expression levels in the model group were all significantly increased compared with the normal control group (P < 0.01), and the levels of serum E2 and ovarian P 450 arom immunoactivity and protein expression were significantly decreased after modeling (P < 0.01). Following the treatment, the increased body weight, ovary weight, serum T and LH contents

  17. Immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone in dairy cattle: antibody titers, ovarian function, hormonal levels, and reversibility.

    PubMed

    Balet, L; Janett, F; Hüsler, J; Piechotta, M; Howard, R; Amatayakul-Chantler, S; Steiner, A; Hirsbrunner, G

    2014-01-01

    Suppression of cyclic activity in cattle is often desired in alpine farming and for feedlot cattle not intended for breeding. A cattle-specific anti-GnRH vaccination (Bopriva, Zoetis Australia Ltd., West Ryde, Australia) is approved for use in heifers and bulls in New Zealand, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Turkey, and Peru. Eleven healthy, cyclic Swiss Fleckvieh cows were included in the study and vaccinated twice with Bopriva 4wk apart. Injection site, rectal body temperature, and heart and respiratory rates were recorded before and 3d following each vaccination. Blood samples were taken weekly for progesterone and estrogen analysis and to determine GnRH antibody titer. Ovaries were examined weekly, using ultrasound to count the number of follicles and identify the presence of a corpus luteum. Thirty weeks after the first vaccination, the cows were subjected to a controlled internal drug-releasing device-based Select-Synch treatment. The GnRH antibody titers increased after the second vaccination and peaked 2wk later. Estrogen levels were not influenced by vaccination, and progesterone level decreased in 7 of 11 cows up to 3wk after the second vaccination and remained low for 10 to 15wk following the second vaccination. The number of class I follicles (diameter ≤5mm) was not influenced by vaccination, whereas the number of class II follicles (diameter 6-9mm) decreased between 7 and 16wk after the first vaccination. Class III follicles (diameter >9mm) were totally absent during this period in most cows. The median period until recurrence of class III follicles was 78d from the day of the second vaccination (95% confidence interval: 60-92d). After vaccination, all cows showed swelling and pain at the injection site, and these reactions subsided within 2wk. Body temperature and heart and respiratory rates increased after the first and second vaccinations and returned to normal values within 2d of each vaccination. The cows in our study were not observed to

  18. Influence of abnormally high leptin levels during pregnancy on metabolic phenotypes in progeny mice.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Elena N; Chepeleva, Elena V; Panchenko, Polina E; Bazhan, Nadezhda M

    2013-12-01

    Maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in offspring, and obesity is accompanied by an increase in blood leptin levels. The "yellow" mutation at the mouse agouti locus (A(y)) increases blood leptin levels in C57BL preobese pregnant mice without affecting other metabolic characteristics. We investigated the influence of the A(y) mutation or leptin injection at the end of pregnancy in C57BL mice on metabolic phenotypes and the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) in offspring. In both C57BL-A(y) and leptin-treated mice, the maternal effect was more pronounced in male offspring. Compared with males born to control mothers, males born to A(y) mothers displayed equal food intake (FI) but decreased body weight (BW) gain after weaning, equal glucose tolerance, and enhanced FI-to-BW ratios on the standard diet but the same FI and BW on the high-fat diet. Males born to A(y) mothers were less responsive to the anorectic effect of exogenous leptin and less resistant to fasting (were not hyperphagic and gained less weight during refeeding after food deprivation) compared with males born to control mothers. However, all progeny displayed equal hypothalamic expression of Agouti gene-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and equal plasma leptin and glucose levels after food deprivation. Leptin injections in C57BL mice on day 17 of pregnancy decreased BW in both male and female offspring but inhibited FI and DIO only in male offspring. Our results show that hyperleptinemia during pregnancy has sex-specific long-term effects on energy balance regulation in progeny and does not predispose offspring to developing obesity.

  19. GPR40/FFAR1 deficient mice increase noradrenaline levels in the brain and exhibit abnormal behavior.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Fuka; Nishinaka, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Kurihara, Takashi; Hirasawa, Akira; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Miyata, Atsuro; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2016-12-01

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is activated by long chain fatty acids. We have previously demonstrated that activation of brain GPR40/FFAR1 exerts an antinociceptive effect that is mediated by the modulation of the descending pain control system. However, it is unclear whether brain GPR40/FFAR1 contributes to emotional function. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPR40/FFAR1 in emotional behavior using GPR40/FFAR1 deficient (knockout, KO) mice. The emotional behavior in wild and KO male mice was evaluated at 9-10 weeks of age by the elevated plus-maze test, open field test, social interaction test, and sucrose preference test. Brain monoamines levels were measured using LC-MS/MS. The elevated plus-maze test and open field tests revealed that the KO mice reduced anxiety-like behavior. There were no differences in locomotor activity or social behavior between the wild and KO mice. In the sucrose preference test, the KO mice showed reduction in sucrose preference and intake. The level of noradrenaline was higher in the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and midbrain of KO mice. Therefore, these results suggest that brain GPR40/FFAR1 is associated with anxiety- and depression-related behavior regulated by the increment of noradrenaline in the brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of dietary estrogens from bovine milk on blood hormone levels and reproductive organs in mice.

    PubMed

    Grgurevic, N; Koracin, J; Majdic, G; Snoj, T

    2016-08-01

    Cows are often milked until 60 d before their next expected calving. Milk from cows in the third trimester of pregnancy contains up to 20 times more estrogens than milk from nonpregnant cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure to known doses of estrogens from bovine milk could affect blood hormone levels in mice and influence their reproductive organs. This study was performed with 30 intact male and 30 ovariectomized female mice. Mice of each sex were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups, each with 6 animals of each sex, and a control group with 12 animals of each sex. The first experimental group received 4mL of milk each day from a pregnant cow with natural estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) in concentrations 0.093 and 0.065ng/mL, respectively. The second experimental group received 4mL of the same milk each day, with an added 10ng/mL of both E1 and E2. The third experimental group received 4mL of the same milk each day, with an added 100ng/mL of both E1 and E2. The control group received no milk. After 8 d of treatment, mice were euthanized, blood was collected, and the uteruses, testes, and seminal vesicles were weighed. The results of our study demonstrated that consumption of native milk from a pregnant cow did not affect plasma E1 and E2 levels in either sex; uterine weight in females; or testosterone levels and testes and seminal vesicle weights in males. Similarly, we found no changes in the group that received the milk with an added 10ng/mL of E1 and E2. We did observe elevated plasma estrogens in both sexes, increased uterus weight in females, and decreased plasma testosterone levels in males from the group that received milk with an added 100ng/mL of E1 and E2. However, concentrations in the third group exceeded the physiological concentration of milk estrogens by 1,000 times, so it would be extremely unlikely to find such concentrations in native cow milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  1. Gene expression and plant hormone levels in two contrasting rice genotypes responding to brown planthopper infestation.

    PubMed

    Li, Changyan; Luo, Chao; Zhou, Zaihui; Wang, Rui; Ling, Fei; Xiao, Langtao; Lin, Yongjun; Chen, Hao

    2017-02-28

    The brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is a destructive piercing-sucking insect pest of rice. The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play important roles in plant-pest interactions. Many isolated rice genes that modulate BPH resistance are involved in the metabolism or signaling pathways of SA, JA and ethylene. 'Rathu Heenati' (RH) is a rice cultivar with a high-level, broad-spectrum resistance to all BPH biotypes. Here, RH was used as the research material, while a BPH-susceptible rice cultivar 'Taichung Native 1' (TN1) was the control. A cDNA microarray analysis illuminated the resistance response at the genome level of RH under BPH infestation. The levels of SA and JA in RH and TN1 seedlings after BPH infestation were also determined. The expression pattern clustering indicated that 1467 differential probe sets may be associated with constitutive resistance and 67 with the BPH infestation-responsive resistance of RH. A Venn diagram analysis revealed 192 RH-specific and BPH-inducible probe sets. Finally, 23 BPH resistance-related gene candidates were selected based on the expression pattern clustering and Venn diagram analysis. In RH, the SA content significantly increased and the JA content significantly decreased after BPH infestation, with the former occurring prior to the latter. In RH, the differential genes in the SA pathway were synthesis-related and were up-regulated after BPH infestation. The differential genes in the JA pathway were also up-regulated. They were jasmonate ZIM-domain transcription factors, which are important negative regulators of the JA pathway. Comparatively, genes involved in the ET pathway were less affected by a BPH infestation in RH. DNA sequence analysis revealed that most BPH infestation-inducible genes may be regulated by the genetic background in a trans-acting manner, instead of by their promoters. We profiled the analysis of the global gene expression in RH and TN1 under BPH infestation

  2. Association Between Circulating Levels of Sex Steroid Hormones and Barrett's Esophagus in Men: a Case–Control Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Michael B.; Wood, Shannon N.; Cash, Brooks D.; Young, Patrick; Acosta, Ruben D.; Falk, Roni T.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Hu, Nan; Su, Hua; Wang, Lemin; Wang, Chaoyu; Gherman, Barbara; Giffen, Carol; Dykes, Cathy; Turcotte, Veronique; Caron, Patrick; Guillemette, Chantal; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Abnet, Christian C.; Hyland, Paula L.; Taylor, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Esophageal adenocarcinoma is believed to result from the progression of gastroesophageal reflux disease to erosive esophagitis and re-epithelialization of the esophagus with a columnar cell population termed Barrett's esophagus (BE). Men develop BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma more frequently than women, and the ratio is increasing; approximately 7 men are diagnosed with malignancy for every woman, yet little is known about the mechanisms of this difference. We assessed whether sex steroid hormones were associated with BE in a male population. Methods We analyzed data from the Barrett's Esophagus Early Detection Case Control Study, based at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. Blood samples were collected from 173 men with BE and 213 men without BE (controls, based on endoscopic analysis); 13 sex steroid hormones were measured by mass spectrometry and sex hormone binding globulin was measured by ELISA. We also calculated free estradiol, free testosterone and free dihydrotestosterone (DHT). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age, race, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), heartburn, regurgitation, and gastroesophageal symptom score (excluding heartburn and regurgitation). Results Levels of free testosterone and free DHT were positively associated with BE risk; patients in the highest quartile for these hormones were most likely to have BE (for free testosterone, OR=5.36; 95% CI, 2.21–13.03; P=0.0002 and for free DHT, OR=4.25, 95% CI, 1.87–9.66; P=.001). Level of estrone sulfate was inversely associated with BE risk (P for trend=.02). No other hormone was associated with BE risk. Relationships were not modified by age or BMI. Conclusions In an analysis of men, levels of free testosterone and free DHT were significantly associated with risk of BE. PMID:25158929

  3. Association between circulating levels of sex steroid hormones and esophageal adenocarcinoma in the FINBAR Study.

    PubMed

    Petrick, Jessica L; Falk, Roni T; Hyland, Paula L; Caron, Patrick; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Wood, Shannon N; Dawsey, Sanford M; Abnet, Christian C; Taylor, Philip R; Guillemette, Chantal; Murray, Liam J; Anderson, Lesley A; Cook, Michael B

    2018-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) is characterized by a strong male predominance. Sex steroid hormones have been hypothesized to underlie this sex disparity, but no population-based study to date has examined this potential association. Using mass spectrometry and ELISA, we quantitated sex steroid hormones and sex hormone binding globulin, respectively, in plasma from males- 172 EA cases and 185 controls-within the Factors Influencing the Barrett/Adenocarcinoma Relationship (FINBAR) Study, a case-control investigation conducted in Northern Ireland and Ireland. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between circulating hormones and EA. Higher androgen:estrogen ratio metrics were associated with increased odds of EA (e.g., testosterone:estradiol ratio ORQ4 v. Q1 = 2.58, 95%CI = 1.23-5.43; Ptrend = 0.009). All estrogens and androgens were associated with significant decreased odds of EA. When restricted to individuals with minimal to no decrease in body mass index, the size of association for the androgen:estrogen ratio was not greatly altered. This first study of sex steroid hormones and EA provides tentative evidence that androgen:estrogen balance may be a factor related to EA. Replication of these findings in prospective studies is needed to enhance confidence in the causality of this effect.

  4. Low parathyroid hormone levels in bedridden geriatric patients with vitamin D deficiency.

    PubMed

    Björkman, Mikko P; Sorva, Antti J; Risteli, Juha; Tilvis, Reijo S

    2009-06-01

    To identify the clinical conditions associated with low parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with vitamin D deficiency and to evaluate the stability of the blunted PTH response to vitamin D deficiency over 6 months. Secondary analysis of a randomized double-blind controlled vitamin D supplementation trial. Four long-term care hospitals in Helsinki, Finland. Two hundred eighteen chronically bedridden patients. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), intact PTH, amino-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), activities of daily living (ADLs), and body mass index (BMI) were measured at baseline and at 6 months. Patient records were reviewed for demographic data. PTH was within reference values (8-73 ng/L) despite low 25-OHD level (<50 nmol/L) in 74.8% (n=163) of patients (mean age 84.5+/-7.5). Patients in the lowest PTH quartile (<38 ng/L) were characterized by a history of hip fractures (OR=2.9, P=0.01), low BMI (OR=0.9, P=.02), and high ICTP (OR=1.1, P=.03). PTH remained within reference values even after 6 months in 76.2% of the patients with persistent vitamin D deficiency in the placebo group. The absence of secondary hyperparathyroidism seems to be common and persistent in frail chronically bedridden patients with vitamin D deficiency. Attenuated parathyroid function appears to be associated with immobilization that causes accelerated bone resorption. Further studies addressing the possible adverse effects of low PTH are warranted.

  5. Variations of serum testosterone levels in prostate cancer patients under LH-releasing hormone therapy: an open question.

    PubMed

    Reis, Leonardo Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    The hypothesis 'the lower the better when achieving castration levels of testosterone' is based on the data from second-line hormonal manipulation and its molecular basis, and on better oncological results reported for lower castration levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients, including those achieved with maximal androgen blockade. In this regard, the equivalence of surgical and different pharmacological castrations has been controversial. The modified amino acid structure that makes LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs more potent than LHRH, and the method of delivering the analogs impacts on bioavailibility and potentially causes differences in androgen levels and in its final oncological efficacy. In addition to this, there is a myriad of circumstances, such as those related to ethnic variations and co-morbidities, which uniquely impact on the pharmacological approach in a highly heterogeneous population of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. Ineffective testosterone suppression through hormonal escape is currently poorly recognized and may result in increased PCa mortality. Until now, the optimal serum testosterone level in patients under castration, and the impact of its variations in patients under LHRH therapy, remain open questions and have been merged to a broad spectra of patients who are highly heterogeneous. This heterogeneity relates to a number of mechanisms regarding response to treatment, which influences the biology of the relapsing tumor and the sensitivity to subsequent therapies in the individual patient. The rationale to achieve testosterone levels below 20-50 ng/dl warrant further investigation as these levels have recently rescued CRPC patients. In the last few years and months, important advancements in prostate cancer treatment have been achieved. Nevertheless, these advances are measured in a few months of additional survival and under high costs, not available to most of the world population, compared with the benefits

  6. Lignin biosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): its response to waterlogging and association with hormonal levels.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tran-Nguyen; Son, SeungHyun; Jordan, Mark C; Levin, David B; Ayele, Belay T

    2016-01-25

    Lignin is an important structural component of plant cell wall that confers mechanical strength and tolerance against biotic and abiotic stressors; however it affects the use of biomass such as wheat straw for some industrial applications such as biofuel production. Genetic alteration of lignin quantity and quality has been considered as a viable option to overcome this problem. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lignin formation in wheat biomass has not been studied. Combining molecular and biochemical approaches, the present study investigated the transcriptional regulation of lignin biosynthesis in two wheat cultivars with varying lodging characteristics and also in response to waterlogging. It also examined the association of lignin level in tissues with that of plant hormones implicated in the control of lignin biosynthesis. Analysis of lignin biosynthesis in the two wheat cultivars revealed a close association of lodging resistance with internode lignin content and expression of 4-coumarate:CoA ligase1 (4CL1), p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase1 (C3H1), cinnamoyl-CoA reductase2 (CCR2), ferulate 5-hydroxylase2 (F5H2) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase2 (COMT2), which are among the genes highly expressed in wheat tissues, implying the importance of these genes in mediating lignin deposition in wheat stem. Waterlogging of wheat plants reduced internode lignin content, and this effect is accompanied by transcriptional repression of three of the genes characterized as highly expressed in wheat internode including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase6 (PAL6), CCR2 and F5H2, and decreased activity of PAL. Expression of the other genes was, however, induced by waterlogging, suggesting their role in the synthesis of other phenylpropanoid-derived molecules with roles in stress responses. Moreover, difference in internode lignin content between cultivars or change in its level due to waterlogging is associated with the level of cytokinin. Lodging resistance, tolerance against

  7. Testosterone-induced increase of insulin-like growth factor I levels depends upon normal levels of growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Saggese, G; Cesaretti, G; Franchi, G; Startari, L

    1996-08-01

    Pubertal development is associated with a rise in plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels that is related both to the increase in sex steroids and/or to the sex steroid-induced augmentation in endogenous growth hormone (GH) secretion. In order to investigate the relationship between IGF-I, GH and testosterone, we examined 42 male subjects with various clinical conditions (classical GH deficiency (CGHD, N = 5), non-classical GH deficiency (NCGHD, N = 7), short idiopathic stature (N = 6), nutritional obesity (N = 8), GH-treated CGHD (N = 4), GH-treated NCGHD (N = 5) and normal stature (N = 7)) in which , for evaluation of hypogonadism (i.e. the absence of one or both testes from the scrotal sac), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) tests were performed. We measured IGF-I, total and free testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) by radioimmunoassays before and 48 and 96 h after the start of the test. The values of IGF-I were lower (0.001 < p < 0.005) in CGHD and NCGHD than in the other groups. In comparison to basal levels, IGF-I values increased (0.005 < p < 0.05) both 48 and 96 h after the start of the hCG test in short idiopathic and normal stature children and in GH-treated subjects with NCGHD, but only 96 h in subjects with untreated NCGHD and GH-treated CGHD. No difference was demonstrated in basal values of total testosterone among any of the groups, while basal free testosterone levels were higher (0.001 < p < 0.05) in GH-treated subjects with NCGHD than in all the other groups except nutritional obesity; furthermore, free testosterone was higher (p < 0.05) in nutritional obesity than in CGHD. The values of total and free testosterone obtained both 48 and 96 h after the start of the hCG test were higher (0.001 < p < 0.05) than basal values in all groups. The DHEAS values did not show any significant change during the hCG test. Basal values were higher (0.01 < p < 0.05) in nutritional obesity than in the other groups. Considering all

  8. Sex hormones and female homosexuality: a critical examination.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Bahlburg, H F

    1979-03-01

    To ascertain the validity of hormonal theories of human homosexuality, which are based on animal research, this article reviews psychoendocrine data on lesbian and transsexual women. Sex hormone levels were found to be normal in the majority of homosexual women, but about a third of the subjects studied had elevated androgen levels. In women with prenatal androgen excess, heterosexuality appears to be more frequent than bisexuality, and exclusive homosexuality is rare. Two recent reports suggest abnormalities of the neuroendocrine regulation of LH secretion in female transsexuals. Clearly, prenatal or postpubertal hormone levels do not determine the development of sexual orientation, but a facilitating neuroendocrine predisposition cannot be ruled out at present.

  9. Both cell substratum regulation and hormonal regulation of milk protein gene expression are exerted primarily at the posttranscriptional level

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenstein, R.S.; Rosen, J.M.

    The mechanism by which individual peptide and steroid hormones and cell-substratum interactions regulate milk protein gene expression has been studied in the COMMA-D mammary epithelial cell line. In the presence of insulin, hydrocortisone, and prolactin, growth of COMMA-D cells on floating collagen gels in comparison with that on a plastic substratum resulted in a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in the relative rate of ..beta..-casein gene transcription but a 37-fold increase in ..beta..-casein mRNA accumulation. In contrast, whey acidic protein gene transcription was constitutive in COMMA-D cells grown on either substratum, but its mRNA was unstable and little intact mature mRNAmore » was detected. Culturing COMMA-D cells on collagen also promoted increased expression of other genes expressed in differentiated mammary epithelial cells, including those encoding ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-casein, transferrin, malic enzyme, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase but decreased the expression of actin and histone genes. Using COMMA-D cells, the authors defined further the role of individual hormones in influencing ..beta..-casein gene transcription. With insulin alone, a basal level of ..beta..-casein gene transcription was detected in COMMA-D cells grown on floating collagen gels. Addition of prolactin but not hydrocortisone resulted in a 2.5- to 3.0-fold increase in ..beta..-casein gene transcription, but both hormones were required to elicit the maximal 73-fold induction in mRNA accumulation. The posttranscriptional effect of hormones on casein mRNA accummulation preceded any detectable changes in the relative rate of transcription. Thus, regulation by both hormones and cell substratum of casein gene expression is exerted primarily at the post transcriptional level.« less

  10. Relationship of visfatin level to pancreatic endocrine hormone level, HOMA-IR index, and HOMA β-cell index in overweight women who performed hydraulic resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Ha, Chang Ho; Swearingin, Brenda; Jeon, Yong Kyun

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the correlation of visfatin level to pancreatic endocrine hormone level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, and HOMA β-cell index in hydraulic resistance exercise. Furthermore, it investigated the relationship between visfatin level and other variables affected by exercise in overweight women. [Subjects and Methods] The exercise group trained for 12 weeks, 70 minutes/day, 5 days/week. Visfatin level, pancreatic endocrine hormone level, HOMA-IR index, and HOMA β-cell index were measured before and after the intervention. Based on the blood insulin and glucose concentrations, HOMA-IR index, the indicator of insulin resistance, and HOMA β-cell index, the indicator of insulin secretion level, were assessed. [Results] Interaction effects on visfatin level, insulin level, HOMA-IR index, and HOMA β-cell index were observed. Interaction effects on glucagon and glucose levels were not observed between the intervention groups. The correlations of visfatin level to insulin, glucagon, and glucose levels, and HOMA-IR and HOMA β-cell indexes were not significant for any of the subjects. [Conclusion] Therefore, the 12-week resistance exercise affected body composition, visfatin level, insulin level, HOMA-IR index, and HOMA β-cell index. Finally, visfatin was not related to insulin, glucagon, and glucose levels, and HOMA-IR and HOMA β-cell indexes.

  11. Changes in levels of peripheral hormones controlling appetite are inconsistent with hyperphagia in leptin-deficient subjects.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sadia; Bech, Paul R; Hafeez, Tayyaba; Alam, Rabail; Falchi, Mario; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Arslan, Muhammad; Froguel, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    Congenital leptin deficiency, a rare genetic disorder due to a homozygous mutation in the leptin gene (LEP), is accompanied by extreme obesity and hyperphagia. A number of gastrointestinal hormones have been shown to critically regulate food intake but their physiological role in hyperphagic response in congenital leptin deficiency has not been elucidated. This study is the first to evaluate the fasting and postprandial profiles of gut-derived hormones in homozygous and heterozygous carriers of LEP mutation. The study subjects from two consanguineous families consisted of five homozygous and eight heterozygous carriers of LEP mutation, c.398delG. Ten wild-type normal-weight subjects served as controls. Fasting and 1-h postprandial plasma ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1, peptide YY (PYY), leptin and insulin levels were measured by immunoassays. Fasting plasma ghrelin levels in homozygotes remained remarkably unchanged following food consumption (P = 0.33) in contrast to a significant decline in heterozygous (P < 0.03) and normal (P < 0.02) subjects. A significant postprandial increase in PYY was observed in heterozygous (P < 0.02) and control subjects (P < 0.01), but not in the homozygous group (P = 0.22). A postprandial rise in GLP-1 levels was significant (P < 0.02) in all groups. Interestingly, fasting leptin levels in heterozygotes were not significantly different from controls and did not change significantly following meal. Our results demonstrate that gut hormones play little or no physiological role in driving the hyperphagic response of leptin-deficient subjects. In contrast, fasting and postprandial levels of gut hormones in heterozygous mutation carriers were comparable to those of normal-weight controls.

  12. Masturbation Frequency and Sexual Function Domains Are Associated With Serum Reproductive Hormone Levels Across the Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huiyong; Avis, Nancy E.; Greendale, Gail A.; Harlow, Siobán D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether reproductive hormones are related to sexual function during the menopausal transition. Design: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a multiethnic cohort study of the menopausal transition located at seven US sites. At baseline, the 3302 community-based participants, aged 42–52, had an intact uterus and at least one ovary and were not using exogenous hormones. Participants self-identified as White, Black, Hispanic, Chinese, or Japanese. At baseline and at each of the 10 follow-up visits, sexual function was assessed by self-administered questionnaires, and blood was drawn to assay serum levels of T, estradiol, FSH, SHBG, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported frequency of masturbation, sexual desire, sexual arousal, orgasm, and pain during intercourse. Results: Masturbation, sexual desire, and arousal were positively associated with T. Masturbation, arousal, and orgasm were negatively associated with FSH. Associations were modest. Estradiol was not related to any measured sexual function domain. Pain with intercourse was not associated with any hormone. Conclusions: Reproductive hormones were associated with sexual function in midlife women. T was positively associated, supporting the role of androgens in female sexual function. FSH was negatively associated, supporting the role of menopausal status in female sexual function. The modest associations in this large study suggest that the relationships are subtle and may be of limited clinical significance. PMID:25412335

  13. Masturbation frequency and sexual function domains are associated with serum reproductive hormone levels across the menopausal transition.

    PubMed

    Randolph, John F; Zheng, Huiyong; Avis, Nancy E; Greendale, Gail A; Harlow, Siobán D

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether reproductive hormones are related to sexual function during the menopausal transition. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a multiethnic cohort study of the menopausal transition located at seven US sites. At baseline, the 3302 community-based participants, aged 42-52, had an intact uterus and at least one ovary and were not using exogenous hormones. Participants self-identified as White, Black, Hispanic, Chinese, or Japanese. At baseline and at each of the 10 follow-up visits, sexual function was assessed by self-administered questionnaires, and blood was drawn to assay serum levels of T, estradiol, FSH, SHBG, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Self-reported frequency of masturbation, sexual desire, sexual arousal, orgasm, and pain during intercourse. Masturbation, sexual desire, and arousal were positively associated with T. Masturbation, arousal, and orgasm were negatively associated with FSH. Associations were modest. Estradiol was not related to any measured sexual function domain. Pain with intercourse was not associated with any hormone. Reproductive hormones were associated with sexual function in midlife women. T was positively associated, supporting the role of androgens in female sexual function. FSH was negatively associated, supporting the role of menopausal status in female sexual function. The modest associations in this large study suggest that the relationships are subtle and may be of limited clinical significance.

  14. Brief report: circadian melatonin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and cortisol levels in serum of young adults with autism.

    PubMed

    Nir, I; Meir, D; Zilber, N; Knobler, H; Hadjez, J; Lerner, Y

    1995-12-01

    An abnormal circadian pattern of melatonin was found in a group of young adults with an extreme autism syndrome. Although not out of phase, the serum melatonin levels differed from normal in amplitude and mesor. Marginal changes in diurnal rhythms of serum TSH and possibly prolactin were also recorded. Subjects with seizures tended to have an abnormal pattern of melatonin correlated with EEG changes. In others, a parallel was evidenced between thyroid function and impairment in verbal communication. There appears to be a tendency for various types of neuroendocrinological abnormalities in autistics, and melatonin, as well as possibly TSH and perhaps prolactin, could serve as biochemical variables of the biological parameters of the disease.

  15. Erectile Dysfunction and Sexual Hormone Levels in Men With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Efficacy of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Lin, Qi-Chang; Zeng, Hui-Qing; Jiang, Xing-Tang; Chen, Bo; Chen, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and serum sexual hormone levels were evaluated in men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In these patients, the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was determined. The 207 men (mean age 44.0 ± 11.1 years) enrolled in the study were stratified within four groups based on their apnea-hypopnea index score: simple snoring (n = 32), mild OSA (n = 29), moderate OSA (n = 38), and severe OSA (n = 108). The International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 (IIEF-5) score was obtained from each patient, and blood samples for the analysis of sexual hormones (prolactin, luteotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, progestin, and testosterone) were drawn in the morning after polysomnography. The IIEF-5 test and serum sexual hormone measurements were repeated after 3 months of CPAP treatment in 53 men with severe OSA. The prevalence of ED was 60.6 % in OSA patients overall and 72.2 % in those with severe OSA. Compared with the simple snoring group, patients with severe OSA had significantly lower testosterone levels (14.06 ± 5.62 vs. 17.02 ± 4.68, p = .018) and lower IIEF-5 scores (16.33 ± 6.50 vs. 24.09 ± 1.94, p = .001). The differences in the other sexual hormones between groups were not significant. After 3 months of CPAP treatment, there were no significant changes in sexual hormone levels, but the IIEF-5 score had improved significantly (18.21 ± 4.05 vs. 19.21 ± 3.86, p = .001). Severe OSA patients have low testosterone concentration and high ED prevalence. IIEF-5 scores increased significantly after CPAP treatment, but there was no effect on serum testosterone levels.

  16. Gene Expression in Developing Brain is Altered by Modest Reductions in Circulating Levels of Thyroid Hormone.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis is a known effect of environmental contaminants. Although animal models of developmental TH deficiency can predict the impact of severe insults to the thyroid system, the effects of moderate TH insufficiencies have not been adequatel...

  17. Effects of experimentally induced mild hyperthyroidism on growth hormone and insulin secretion and sex steroid levels in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, J C; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Veldhuis, J D; Rood, J C; Tulley, R

    1997-12-01

    Although triiodothyronine (T3) exerts major regulatory actions in both animals and humans, most clinical studies of T3 administration have been relatively short-term. The present study examined the effects of more than 2 months (63 days) of low-dose T3 treatment on overnight pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion, short-term insulin secretion, and of sex steroid levels in seven healthy, lean men studied at an inpatient metabolic unit. At baseline, there were strong correlations between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and several measures of GH production, including total GH production (r = .99), GH interburst interval (r = -.75), and GH mass (r = .82). SHBG was also inversely correlated with basal insulin secretion (r = -.74). There was a 42% increase in serum levels of total testosterone (18.5 +/- 1.3 to 26.3 +/- 1.8 nmol/L, P = .005) and a 150% increase in SHBG (18.0 +/- 2.2 to 44.9 +/- 7.0 nmol/L, P = .008) following T3 treatment. Estradiol and free testosterone levels were unchanged by treatment, although free testosterone decreased from 142.8 +/- 18.4 to 137.3 +/- 19.5 pmol/L. T3 treatment significantly reduced the GH interburst interval (P < .05) and produced slight increases in the measures of GH secretion. There were no statistically significant effects of T3 treatment on insulin secretion, although insulin peak amplitude, mass secreted per burst, and total production all decreased. We conclude that experimentally induced T3 excess in healthy men produces significant and sustained changes in sex hormone levels and GH secretion. Furthermore, there are strong associations between SHBG and both GH and insulin secretion independent of thyroid hormone excess that require additional study.

  18. Influence of sex hormone levels on gingival enlargement in adolescent patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hosadurga, Rajesh; Nabeel Althaf, M. S.; Hegde, Shashikanth; Rajesh, Kashyap S.; Arun Kumar, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sex hormones may be a modifying factor in the periodontal disease pathogenesis. Aim: The association between gingival enlargement and sex hormone levels in adolescent patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy needs to be determined. Settings and Design: This study was conducted in the Department of Periodontology in association with the Department of Orthodontics, Yenepoya Dental College, Yenepoya University, Mangaluru. Materials and Methods: A pilot study was conducted on 21 adolescent patients between the age group of 13–19 years, who had undergone fixed orthodontic therapy for at least 3 months. Apicocoronally, the gingival enlargement was assessed by the index described by Miller and Damm. Miranda and Brunet index was used to assess gingival overgrowth in the buccal–lingual direction in the interdental papilla. Furthermore, the patients were assigned to two groups - Group 1-GE and Group 2-non-GE. Sex hormones assessed were estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males in both groups. Results: 57.1% of the study population had enlargement of the gingiva. The mean plaque score was 0.59 and 0.56, respectively, in both groups. A statistically significant relationship was found between estradiol and testosterone levels with gingival enlargement. However, a significant relationship was not obtained for progesterone levels with the gingival enlargement. Conclusion: Direct correlation between estradiol, testosterone, and gingival enlargement was seen. PMID:27994419

  19. Relation of body mass and sex steroid hormone levels to hot flushes in a sample of mid-life women.

    PubMed

    Schilling, C; Gallicchio, L; Miller, S R; Langenberg, P; Zacur, H; Flaws, J A

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies indicate that obesity is associated with a higher risk of experiencing hot flushes in mid-life women. The reasons for this association are unknown, although altered hormone levels have been associated with both hot flushes and obesity. Thus, this current study tested the hypothesis that obesity is associated with hot flushes in mid-life women through a mechanism involving levels of total and free androgen, free estrogen, progesterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Women aged 45-54 years were recruited from Baltimore and its surrounding counties. Each participant (n=628) was weighed, measured, completed a questionnaire, and provided a blood sample that was used to measure estradiol, estrone, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, progesterone, and SHBG. Obese mid-life women (body mass index (BMI)>or=30.0 kg/m2) had significantly higher testosterone, and lower estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and SHBG levels than normal-weight mid-life women (BMIhormones and SHBG.

  20. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels and abnormal geometric patterns of left ventricle in untreated hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Elbasan, Zafer; Gür, Mustafa; Sahin, Durmuş Yıldıray; Kırım, Sinan; Akyol, Selahattin; Kuloğlu, Osman; Koyunsever, Nermin Yıldız; Seker, Taner; Kıvrak, Ali; Caylı, Murat

    2014-01-01

    N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predicts cardiovascular events and mortality in hypertensive patients. Relationship between NT-proBNP level and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is well known in hypertensive patients. However, the studies investigating relationship between LV geometric patterns and serum NT-proBNP level have conflicting results and are in a limited number. The goal of the present study is to investigate relation between NT-proBNP and abnormal LV geometric patterns in untreated hypertensive patients. Measurements were obtained from 273 patients with untreated essential hypertension (mean age = 51.7 ± 5.8 years) and 44 healthy control subjects (mean age; 51.3 ± 4.7). Four different geometric patterns (NG: normal geometry; CR: concentric remodelling; EH: eccentric hypertrophy; CH: concentric hypertrophy) were determined according to LV mass index (LVMI) and relative wall thickness. NT-proBNP and other biochemical markers were measured in all subjects. The highest NT-proBNP levels were determined in the CH group compared with the control group and other geometric patterns (p < 0.05). NT-proBNP levels of all geometric patterns were higher than the control group (p < 0.05, for all). NT-proBNP levels were similar between CR and NG groups (p > 0.05). NT-proBNP was independently associated with LV geometry (β = 0.304, p = 0.003) and LVMI (β = 0.266, p = 0.007) in multiple linear regression analysis. Serum NT-proBNP level was independently associated with LVMI and LV geometry in untreated hypertensive patients with preserved ejection fraction.

  1. Modeled nitrate levels in well water supplies and prevalence of abnormal thyroid conditions among the Old Order Amish in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Heltshe, Sonya L; Nuckols, John R; Sabra, Mona M; Shuldiner, Alan R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Airola, Matt; Holford, Theodore R; Zhang, Yawei; Ward, Mary H

    2012-02-17

    Nitrate is a widespread contaminant of drinking water supplies, especially in agricultural areas. Nitrate intake from drinking water and dietary sources can interfere with the uptake of iodide by the thyroid, thus potentially impacting thyroid function. We assessed the relation of estimated nitrate levels in well water supplies with thyroid health in a cohort of 2,543 Old Order Amish residing in Lancaster, Chester, and Lebanon counties in Pennsylvania for whom thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured during 1995-2008. Nitrate measurement data (1976-2006) for 3,613 wells in the study area were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey and we used these data to estimate concentrations at study participants' residences using a standard linear mixed effects model that included hydrogeological covariates and kriging of the wells' residuals. Nitrate levels estimated by the model ranged from 0.35 mg/L to 16.4 mg/L N-NO3(-), with a median value of 6.5 mg/L, which was used as the cutpoint to define high and low nitrate exposure. In a validation analysis of the model, we calculated that the sensitivity of the model was 67% and the specificity was 93%. TSH levels were used to define the following outcomes: clinical hyperthyroidism (n = 10), clinical hypothyroidism (n = 56), subclinical hyperthyroidism (n = 25), and subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 228). In women, high nitrate exposure was significantly associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.11-2.32). Nitrate was not associated with subclinical thyroid disease in men or with clinical thyroid disease in men or women. Although these data do not provide strong support for an association between nitrate in drinking water and thyroid health, our results do suggest that further exploration of this hypothesis is warranted using studies that incorporate individual measures of both dietary and drinking water nitrate intake.

  2. Modeled nitrate levels in well water supplies and prevalence of abnormal thyroid conditions among the Old Order Amish in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nitrate is a widespread contaminant of drinking water supplies, especially in agricultural areas. Nitrate intake from drinking water and dietary sources can interfere with the uptake of iodide by the thyroid, thus potentially impacting thyroid function. Methods We assessed the relation of estimated nitrate levels in well water supplies with thyroid health in a cohort of 2,543 Old Order Amish residing in Lancaster, Chester, and Lebanon counties in Pennsylvania for whom thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured during 1995-2008. Nitrate measurement data (1976-2006) for 3,613 wells in the study area were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey and we used these data to estimate concentrations at study participants' residences using a standard linear mixed effects model that included hydrogeological covariates and kriging of the wells' residuals. Nitrate levels estimated by the model ranged from 0.35 mg/L to 16.4 mg/L N-NO3-, with a median value of 6.5 mg/L, which was used as the cutpoint to define high and low nitrate exposure. In a validation analysis of the model, we calculated that the sensitivity of the model was 67% and the specificity was 93%. TSH levels were used to define the following outcomes: clinical hyperthyroidism (n = 10), clinical hypothyroidism (n = 56), subclinical hyperthyroidism (n = 25), and subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 228). Results In women, high nitrate exposure was significantly associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.11-2.32). Nitrate was not associated with subclinical thyroid disease in men or with clinical thyroid disease in men or women. Conclusions Although these data do not provide strong support for an association between nitrate in drinking water and thyroid health, our results do suggest that further exploration of this hypothesis is warranted using studies that incorporate individual measures of both dietary and drinking water nitrate intake. PMID:22339761

  3. Effects of exemestane and tamoxifen on hormone levels within the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multicentre (TEAM) trial: results of a German substudy.

    PubMed

    Hadji, P; Kauka, A; Bauer, T; Tams, J; Hasenburg, A; Kieback, D G

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of exemestane and tamoxifen on hormone levels in postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer within a Germany substudy of the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial. Within the TEAM trial, patients were randomized to receive adjuvant treatment with exemestane for 5 years or tamoxifen for 2.5-3 years followed by exemestane for 2-2.5 years. Serum levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and parathyroid hormone (PTH)-intact were measured at screening and after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. Data on hormone levels were available from 63 patients in the tamoxifen arm and 68 patients in the exemestane arm. Treatment with exemestane resulted in decreases from baseline in SHBG and PTH-intact levels, and increases from baseline in testosterone, DHEAS and FSH levels. Tamoxifen treatment resulted in increases from baseline in SHBG and PTH-intact, whereas levels of testosterone and FSH decreased and DHEAS levels did not change. At all time points assessed, the absolute change from baseline was significantly different between tamoxifen and exemestane for testosterone, SHBG, FSH and PTH-intact (all p < 0.0001). Exemestane and tamoxifen had statistically significantly different effects on hormone levels, including testosterone, SHBG, FSH and PTH-intact.

  4. Use of stress-hormone levels and habitat selection to assess functional connectivity of a landscape for an amphibian.

    PubMed

    Janin, Agnès; Léna, Jean-Paul; Deblois, Sandrine; Joly, Pierre

    2012-10-01

    The influence of landscape matrix on functional connectivity has been clearly established. Now methods to assess the effects of different land uses on species' movements are needed because current methods are often biased. The use of physiological parameters as indicators of the level of resistance to animal movement associated with different land uses (i.e., matrix resistance) could provide estimates of energetic costs and risks to animals migrating through the matrix. To assess whether corticosterone levels indicate matrix resistance, we conducted experiments on substrate choice and measured levels of corticosterone before and after exposure of toads (Bufo bufo) to 3 common substrates (ploughed soil, meadow, and forest litter). We expected matrix resistance and hormone levels to increase from forest litter (habitat of the toad) to meadows to ploughed soil. Adult toads had higher corticosterone levels on ploughed soil than on forest litter or meadow substrates. Hormone levels did not differ between forest litter and meadow. Toads avoided moving onto ploughed soil. Corticosterone levels in juvenile toads were not related to substrate type; however, hormone levels decreased as humidity increased. Juveniles, unlike adults, did not avoid moving over ploughed soil. The difference in responses between adult and juvenile toads may have been due to differences in experimental design (for juveniles, entire body used to measure corticosterone concentration; for adults, saliva alone); differences in the scale of sensory perception of the substrate (juveniles are much smaller than adults); or differences in cognitive processes between adult and juvenile toads. Adults probably had experience with different substrate types, whereas juveniles first emerging from the water probably did not. As a consequence, arable lands could act as ecological traps for juvenile toads. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Hormonal modulation of food intake in response to low leptin levels induced by hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A loss in fat mass is a common response to centrifugation and it results in low circulating leptin concentrations. However, rats adapted to hypergravity are euphagic. The focus of this study was to examine leptin and other peripheral signals of energy balance in the presence of a hypergravity-induced loss of fat mass and euphagia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were centrifuged for 14 days at gravity levels of 1.25, 1.5, or 2 G, or they remained stationary at 1 G. Urinary catecholamines, urinary corticosterone, food intake, and body mass were measured on Days 11 to 14. Plasma hormones and epididymal fat pad mass were measured on Day 14. Mean body mass of the 1.25, 1.5, and 2 G groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than controls, and no differences were found in food intake (g/day/100 g body mass) between the hypergravity groups and controls. Epididymal fat mass was 14%, 14%, and 21% lower than controls in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 G groups, respectively. Plasma leptin was significantly reduced from controls by 46%, 45%, and 65% in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2 G groups, respectively. Plasma insulin was significantly lower in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 G groups than controls by 35%, 38%, and 33%. No differences were found between controls and hypergravity groups in urinary corticosterone. Mean urinary epinephrine was significantly higher in the 1.5 and 2.0 G groups than in controls. Mean urinary norepinephrine was significantly higher in the 1.25, 1.5 and 2.0 G groups than in controls. Significant correlations were found between G load and body mass, fat mass, leptin, urinary epinephrine, and norepinephrine. During hypergravity exposure, maintenance of food intake is the result of a complex relationship between multiple pathways, which abates the importance of leptin as a primary signal.

  6. Contribution of estradiol levels and hormonal contraceptives to sex differences within the fear network during fear conditioning and extinction.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Moon Jung; Zsido, Rachel G; Song, Huijin; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Miller, Karen Klahr; Lebron-Milad, Kelimer; Marin, Marie-France; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-11-18

    Findings about sex differences in the field of fear conditioning and fear extinction have been mixed. At the psychophysiological level, sex differences emerge only when taking estradiol levels of women into consideration. This suggests that this hormone may also influence sex differences with regards to activations of brain regions involved in fear conditioning and its extinction. Importantly, the neurobiological correlates associated with the use of hormonal oral contraceptives in women have not been fully contrasted against men and against naturally cycling women with different levels of estradiol. In this study, we begin to fill these scientific gaps. We recruited 37 healthy men and 48 healthy women. Of these women, 16 were using oral contraceptives (OC) and 32 were naturally cycling. For these naturally cycling women, a median split was performed on their serum estradiol levels to create a high estradiol (HE) group (n = 16) and a low estradiol (LE) group (n = 16). All participants underwent a 2-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm in a 3 T MR scanner. Using the 4 groups (men, HE women, LE women, and OC users) and controlling for age and coil type, one-way ANCOVAs were performed to look at significant activations within the nodes of the fear circuit. Using post-hoc analyses, beta-weights were extracted in brain regions showing significant effects in order to unveil the differences based on hormonal status (men, HE, LE, OC). Significant main effect of hormonal status group was found across the different phases of the experiment and in different sub-regions of the insular and cingulate cortices, amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. During conditioning, extinction and recall, most of the observed differences suggested higher activations among HE women relative to men. During the unconditioned response, however, a different pattern was observed with men showing significantly higher brain activations. Our data further support the important contribution

  7. Ecdysteroids regulate the levels of Molt-Inhibiting Hormone (MIH) expression in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Techa, Sirinart; Chung, J Sook

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod molt is coordinated through the interplay between ecdysteroids and neuropeptide hormones. In crustaceans, changes in the activity of Y-organs during the molt cycle have been regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH). Little has been known of the mode of direct effects of ecdysteroids on the levels of MIH and CHH in the eyestalk ganglia during the molt cycle. This study focused on a putative feedback of ecdysteroids on the expression levels of MIH transcripts using in vitro incubation study with ecdysteroids and in vivo RNAi in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Our results show a specific expression of ecdysone receptor (EcR) in which EcR1 is the major isoform in eyestalk ganglia. The initial elevation of MIH expression at the early premolt stages is replicated by in vitro incubations of eyestalk ganglia with ecdysteroids that mimic the intrinsic conditions of D0 stage: the concentration (75 ng/ml) and composition (ponasterone A and 20-hydroxyecdysone at a 3:1 (w:w) ratio). Additionally, multiple injections of EcR1-dsRNA reduce MIH expression by 67%, compared to the controls. Our data provide evidence on a putative feedback mechanism of hormonal regulation during molting cycle, specifically how the molt cycle is repeated during the life cycle of crustaceans. The elevated concentrations of ecdysteroids at early premolt stage may act positively on the levels of MIH expression in the eyestalk ganglia. Subsequently, the increased MIH titers in the hemolymph at postmolt would inhibit the synthesis and release of ecdysteroids by Y-organs, resulting in re-setting the subsequent molt cycle.

  8. Ecdysteroids Regulate the Levels of Molt-Inhibiting Hormone (MIH) Expression in the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus

    PubMed Central

    Techa, Sirinart; Chung, J. Sook

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod molt is coordinated through the interplay between ecdysteroids and neuropeptide hormones. In crustaceans, changes in the activity of Y-organs during the molt cycle have been regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH). Little has been known of the mode of direct effects of ecdysteroids on the levels of MIH and CHH in the eyestalk ganglia during the molt cycle. This study focused on a putative feedback of ecdysteroids on the expression levels of MIH transcripts using in vitro incubation study with ecdysteroids and in vivo RNAi in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Our results show a specific expression of ecdysone receptor (EcR) in which EcR1 is the major isoform in eyestalk ganglia. The initial elevation of MIH expression at the early premolt stages is replicated by in vitro incubations of eyestalk ganglia with ecdysteroids that mimic the intrinsic conditions of D0 stage: the concentration (75 ng/ml) and composition (ponasterone A and 20-hydroxyecdysone at a 3:1 (w:w) ratio). Additionally, multiple injections of EcR1-dsRNA reduce MIH expression by 67%, compared to the controls. Our data provide evidence on a putative feedback mechanism of hormonal regulation during molting cycle, specifically how the molt cycle is repeated during the life cycle of crustaceans. The elevated concentrations of ecdysteroids at early premolt stage may act positively on the levels of MIH expression in the eyestalk ganglia. Subsequently, the increased MIH titers in the hemolymph at postmolt would inhibit the synthesis and release of ecdysteroids by Y-organs, resulting in re-setting the subsequent molt cycle. PMID:25849453

  9. Serum levels of sex steroid hormones and matrix metalloproteinases after intra-articular glucocorticoid treatment in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Weitoft, T; Larsson, A; Rönnblom, L

    2008-03-01

    To study metalloproteinase activity and sex steroid hormone production in serum after intra-articular glucocorticoid treatment for knee synovitis. 18 female patients with rheumatoid arthritis and synovitis of the knee with need for intra-articular glucocorticoid treatment were included in this study. Serum samples of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1/TIMP complex and MMP-3), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, testosterone, oestradiol, steroid hormone binding globulin, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone were collected before injection with 20 mg triamcinolone hexacetonide, and 24 h, 48 h, 1 week and 2 weeks after injection, respectively. Serum levels of MMP-3 were significantly decreased, but MMP-1/TIMP complex was unaffected. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, testosterone and oestradiol levels all decreased and tended to return to baseline levels during the observation period. Steroid hormone binding globulin, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone levels were unchanged. Intra-articular glucocorticoid treatment causes a temporary, but considerable suppression of sex steroid hormone secretion. The reduction of MMP-3 indicates an inhibition of the inflammatory, but probably also the cartilage destructive processes within the treated joint.

  10. Pituitary-ovarian hormone levels and symptoms in oral contraceptive users: comparison of a 21/7-day and extended regimen.

    PubMed

    Kuehl, Thomas J; Speikermann, A Michael; Willis, Sherilyn A; Coffee, Andrea; Sulak, Patricia J

    2008-04-01

    To compare hormone levels and symptoms during transition from standard to extended oral contraceptive (OC) regimens. A prospective analysis of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and inhibin-B levels with symptoms during 21/7-day vs. 168/7-day extended OCs containing 3 mg of drosperinone and 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol. Blood samples were obtained from 10 subjects in each of 4 weeks in the 21/7 regimen, in the first 6 weeks of the extended regimen, and again the week before, the week of and the week after the 7-day hormone-free interval (HFI) at the end of the extended regimen. All 4 hormones followed a cyclic pattern with decreasing levels during the 3 active pill weeks of the 21/7 cycle, followed by an increase during the 7-day HFI, which continued into the extended regimen. Levels then decreased during the extended regimen and remained low at week 24. During the 7-day HFI after the extended regimen FSH and LH again increased above baseline (p > 0.07). Hormone withdrawal symptoms increased at the end of 21 active pills with increasing severity during the 7-day HFI. Absence of pituitary and ovarian suppression associated with HFI leads to fluctuations in hormones and associated hormone withdrawal symptoms.

  11. Ideal cardiovascular health predicts lower risk of abnormal liver enzymes levels in the Chilean National Health Survey (2009-2010).

    PubMed

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Hackney, Anthony C; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2017-01-01

    High levels of gamma glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as fatty liver index (FLI) has been associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between gamma-GT, ALT, and fatty liver index FLI levels across a gradient number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics in a representative sample of adults from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009-2010. Data from 1,023 men and 1,449 women (≥ 15 years) from the Chilean Health Survey 2009-2010 were analyzed. Ideal cardiovascular health was defined as meeting ideal levels of the following components: four behaviours (smoking, body mass index, physical activity and diet adherence) and three factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure and fasting glucose). Adults were grouped into three categories according to their number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics: ideal (5-7 metrics), intermediate (3-4 metrics), and poor (0-2 metrics). Blood levels of gamma-GT and ALT were measured and the FLI was calculated. A higher number of ideal cardiovascular health index metric was associated with lower gamma-GT, ALT and FLI (p from trend analysis <0.001). Also, adults meeting at least 3-4 metrics were predicted less likely to have prevalence of abnormal levels of gamma-GT and FLI (p<0.001) compared to adults who met only 0-2 metrics. These findings reinforce the usefulness of the ideal cardiovascular health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association as a tool to identify target subjects and promote cardiovascular health in South-American adults.

  12. Ideal cardiovascular health predicts lower risk of abnormal liver enzymes levels in the Chilean National Health Survey (2009–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, Anthony C.

    2017-01-01

    High levels of gamma glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as fatty liver index (FLI) has been associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between gamma-GT, ALT, and fatty liver index FLI levels across a gradient number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics in a representative sample of adults from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010. Data from 1,023 men and 1,449 women (≥ 15 years) from the Chilean Health Survey 2009–2010 were analyzed. Ideal cardiovascular health was defined as meeting ideal levels of the following components: four behaviours (smoking, body mass index, physical activity and diet adherence) and three factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure and fasting glucose). Adults were grouped into three categories according to their number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics: ideal (5–7 metrics), intermediate (3–4 metrics), and poor (0–2 metrics). Blood levels of gamma-GT and ALT were measured and the FLI was calculated. A higher number of ideal cardiovascular health index metric was associated with lower gamma-GT, ALT and FLI (p from trend analysis <0.001). Also, adults meeting at least 3–4 metrics were predicted less likely to have prevalence of abnormal levels of gamma-GT and FLI (p<0.001) compared to adults who met only 0–2 metrics. These findings reinforce the usefulness of the ideal cardiovascular health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association as a tool to identify target subjects and promote cardiovascular health in South-American adults. PMID:29049384

  13. Circulating Anti-Müllerian Hormone Levels in Daughters of Women with and without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Zachurzok, Agnieszka; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Bożętowicz-Wikarek, Maria; Owczarek, Aleksander; Gawlik, Aneta; Chudek, Jerzy; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in daughters of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOSd) correspond with clinical and biochemical features of hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary morphology and menstrual cycle disturbances. Menstrual cycle disturbances, hirsutism, acne and ultrasonographic ovarian morphology were assessed in 75 girls aged 13-18 years (35 PCOSd and 40 daughters of healthy women). Serum gonadotropins, androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin and plasma AMH were measured in a fasting state, and the free androgen index was calculated. A significant correlation between the AMH level and mean ovary volume was found (r = 0.36; p < 0.01). AMH levels were not related to hirsutism, acne and polycystic ovary morphology. Significantly higher AMH levels were found only in PCOSd with irregular menstruation or secondary amenorrhea. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that in that group for each 1-ng/ml increase in the AMH level, the odds ratio of the PCOS occurrence in the future was increased 1.27 times (95% CI: 1.09-1.47; p < 0.01). A higher AMH level in PCOSd is associated with menstrual cycle disturbances and larger ovarian volume but not with clinical and biochemical features of hyperandrogenism. Thus, the risk for PCOS development among genetically predisposed girls may be related to increased AMH levels. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Hormonal Aspects of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, Page B.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis The interactions between hormones, epilepsy, and the medications used to treat epilepsy are complex, with tridirectional interactions which affect both men and women in various ways. Abnormalities of baseline endocrine status occur more commonly in people with epilepsy, and are most often described for the sex steroid hormone axis. Common symptoms include sexual dysfunction, decreased fertility, premature menopause, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Antiepileptic drugs and hormones have a bidirectional interaction, with a decrease in the efficacy of hormonal contraceptive agents with some AEDs and a decrease in the concentration and efficacy of other AEDs with hormonal contraceptives. Endogenous hormones can influence seizure severity and frequency, resulting in catamenial patterns of epilepsy. However, this knowledge can be used to develop hormonal strategies to improve seizure control in people with epilepsy. PMID:19853217

  15. Impact of Aromatase Genetic Variation on Hormone Levels and Global Outcome after Severe TBI

    PubMed Central

    Garringer, Julie A.; Niyonkuru, Christian; McCullough, Emily H.; Loucks, Tammy; Dixon, C. Edward; Conley, Yvette P.; Berga, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Although experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) studies support estradiol as a neuroprotectant and potent stimulator of neuroplasticity, clinical studies suggest a negative association between endogenous estradiol profiles and mortality/poor outcomes. However, no studies have evaluated associations with cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) hormone profiles and aromatase gene (cytochrome P450 [CYP]19A1) variability on clinical TBI outcomes. We evaluated 110 adults with severe TBI. Average and daily estradiol, testosterone, and estradiol/testosterone ratios (E2:T) were measured using CSF and serum samples and compared to healthy controls. Eighteen tagging and four functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for CYP19A1 were genotyped and compared to hormones, acute mortality, and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores 6 months post-TBI. TBI subjects had lower CSF estradiol over time versus controls. CSF testosterone was initially high, but declined over time. E2/T ratios were initially low, compared to controls, but rose over time. Higher mean E2/T ratio in bivariate analysis was associated with lower mortality (p=0.019) and better GOS-6 scores (p=0.030). rs2470152 influenced CSF E2/T ratio and also serum and CSF testosterone (p≤0.05 all comparisons). Multiple-risk SNPs rs2470152, rs4646, and rs2470144 were associated with worse GOS-6 scores (p≤0.05, all comparisons), and those with>1 risk SNP variant had a higher risk for poor outcome, compared with those with ≤1 risk variant. TBI results in low CSF estradiol and dynamic CSF testosterone and E2/T ratio. In contrast to clinical serum hormone studies, higher CSF E2/T ratio was associated with better outcome. Further, genetic variation in CYP19A1 influences both hormone dynamics and outcome post-TBI. PMID:23540392

  16. Serum vitamin D and sex hormones levels in men and women: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Di; Ouyang, Pamela; de Boer, Ian H; Lutsey, Pamela L; Farag, Youssef M K; Guallar, Eliseo; Siscovick, David S; Post, Wendy S; Kalyani, Rita R; Billups, Kevin L; Michos, Erin D

    2017-02-01

    25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency has been associated with low testosterone levels in men, but there are conflicting reports of its associations with sex hormones in women. Less is known about whether these associations are independent of adiposity and lifestyle factors, and whether they differ by race/ethnicity. To examine associations of 25(OH)D concentrations with sex hormone levels. Cross-sectional analysis of 3017 men and 2929 women in a multi-ethnic cohort. Testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and free testosterone. The mean (SD) levels of 25(OH)D in men and women were 25.7(10.4) and 26.1(12.0)ng/ml, respectively. In men, after adjusting for demographic and lifestyle variables, a 10ng/ml [25nmol/L] decrease in 25(OH)D was associated with an average difference of -0.70nmol/L (95%CI -1.36, -0.05) in SHBG and 0.02 percent (0.01, 0.04) in free testosterone, but was not associated with low total testosterone level (<10.41nmol/L). In women, a 10ng/ml decrease in 25(OH)D levels was associated with an average difference of -0.01nmol/L (-0.01, -0.00) for estradiol, -8.29nmol/L (-10.13, -6.45) for SHBG, 0.06 percent (0.04, 0.07) for free testosterone, and 0.40nmol/L (0.19, 0.62) for DHEA. There was no significant interaction by race/ethnicity. Lower 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with lower SHBG levels and higher free testosterone levels in both men and women, and lower estradiol and higher DHEA levels in women, independent of adiposity and lifestyle. We observed no significant association of 25(OH)D with total testosterone in men. Future studies are needed to determine whether vitamin D supplementation influences sex hormone levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Some case studies of skewed (and other ab-normal) data distributions arising in low-level environmental research.

    PubMed

    Currie, L A

    2001-07-01

    Three general classes of skewed data distributions have been encountered in research on background radiation, chemical and radiochemical blanks, and low levels of 85Kr and 14C in the atmosphere and the cryosphere. The first class of skewed data can be considered to be theoretically, or fundamentally skewed. It is typified by the exponential distribution of inter-arrival times for nuclear counting events for a Poisson process. As part of a study of the nature of low-level (anti-coincidence) Geiger-Muller counter background radiation, tests were performed on the Poisson distribution of counts, the uniform distribution of arrival times, and the exponential distribution of inter-arrival times. The real laboratory system, of course, failed the (inter-arrival time) test--for very interesting reasons, linked to the physics of the measurement process. The second, computationally skewed, class relates to skewness induced by non-linear transformations. It is illustrated by non-linear concentration estimates from inverse calibration, and bivariate blank corrections for low-level 14C-12C aerosol data that led to highly asymmetric uncertainty intervals for the biomass carbon contribution to urban "soot". The third, environmentally, skewed, data class relates to a universal problem for the detection of excursions above blank or baseline levels: namely, the widespread occurrence of ab-normal distributions of environmental and laboratory blanks. This is illustrated by the search for fundamental factors that lurk behind skewed frequency distributions of sulfur laboratory blanks and 85Kr environmental baselines, and the application of robust statistical procedures for reliable detection decisions in the face of skewed isotopic carbon procedural blanks with few degrees of freedom.

  18. Correlation of plasma nitrite/nitrate levels and inducible nitric oxide gene expression among women with cervical abnormalities and cancer.

    PubMed

    Sowjanya, A Pavani; Rao, Meera; Vedantham, Haripriya; Kalpana, Basany; Poli, Usha Rani; Marks, Morgan A; Sujatha, M

    2016-01-30

    Cervical cancer is caused by infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a soluble factor involved in chronic inflammation, may modulate cervical cancer risk among HPV infected women. The aim of the study was to measure and correlate plasma nitrite/nitrate levels with tissue specific expression of iNOS mRNA among women with different grades of cervical lesions and cervical cancer. Tissue biopsy and plasma specimens were collected from 120 women with cervical neoplasia or cancer (ASCUS, LSIL, HSIL and invasive cancer) and 35 women without cervical abnormalities. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA from biopsy and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels of the same study subjects were measured. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed on the promoter region and Ser608Leu (rs2297518) in exon 16 of the iNOS gene. Differences in iNOS gene expression and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were compared across disease stage using linear and logistic regression analysis. Compared to normal controls, women diagnosed with HSIL or invasive cancer had a significantly higher concentration of plasma nitrite/nitrate and a higher median fold-change in iNOS mRNA gene expression. Genotyping of the promoter region showed three different variations: A pentanucleotide repeat (CCTTT) n, -1026T > G (rs2779249) and a novel variant -1153T > A. These variants were associated with increased levels of plasma nitrite/nitrate across all disease stages. The higher expression of iNOS mRNA and plasma nitrite/nitrate among women with pre-cancerous lesions suggests a role for nitric oxide in the natural history of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Abnormal troponin I levels in a thalassemia major patient with high ferritin concentration, permanent atrial fibrillation and without acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2010-01-21

    Thalassemia is a congenital hemoglobinopathy leading to anemia because of impaired erythropoiesis and peripheral hemolysis. Thalassemia major patients are transfusion dependent and it results in iron accumulation. The heart is one of the major organs affected with iron overload and iron induced cardiac dysfunction (pump and conduction abnormalities) remains the number one cause of death among thalassemia major patients. It has been reported that a high ferritin concentration is related to high troponin levels in hemodialysis patients receiving more intravenous iron sucrose. Abnormal troponin I levels have also been reported without acute coronary syndrome. We present a case of abnormal troponin I levels in Thalassemia major patient with high ferritin concentration, permanent atrial fibrillation and without acute coronary syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first report of abnormal troponin I levels in a Thalassemia major patient with high ferritin concentration and without acute coronary syndrome and also this case focuses attention on the importance of the correct evaluation of abnormal troponin I levels. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrafine Angelica gigas powder normalizes ovarian hormone levels and has antiosteoporosis properties in ovariectomized rats: particle size effect.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Lee, Inae; Paik, Sae-Yeol-Rim; Kim, Dong Eun; Lim, Jung Dae; Kang, Wie-Soo; Ko, Sanghoon

    2012-10-01

    The root of Angelica gigas (Korean angelica) is traditionally used to treat women's ailments that are caused by an impairment of menstrual blood flow and cycle irregularities. This study evaluated the effect particle size of Korean angelica powder on its efficacy for treating estrogen-related symptoms of menopause. Initially, Korean angelica roots were pulverized into ultrafine powder, and orally administered to the rats at a concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks. The effects of Korean angelica powder particle size on extraction yield, contents of bioactive compounds (decursin and decursinol angelate), levels of serum ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone), reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), and experimental osteoporosis parameters (mineral density, strength, and histological features) were determined. A significant increase (fivefold) in the contents of decursin and decursinol angelate in the extract of the ultrafine Korean angelica powder was observed compared to coarse Korean angelica powder. Rats were divided into sham-operated or ovariectomized (OVX) groups that were fed coarse (CRS) or ultrafine (UF) ground Korean angelica root. The serum levels of estradiol in the OVX_UF group were 19.2% and 54.1% higher than that of OVX_CRS group. Serum bone-alkaline phosphatase/total-alkaline phosphatase index in the OVX_UF group was half that of the OVX_CRS group. In addition, less trabecular bone loss and thick cortical areas were observed in rats administered ultrafine powder. Therefore, ultrafine grinding may enhance the bioactivity of herbal medicines and be especially useful when their extracted forms lose bioactivity during processing, storage, and oral intake.

  1. Ultrafine Angelica gigas Powder Normalizes Ovarian Hormone Levels and Has Antiosteoporosis Properties in Ovariectomized Rats: Particle Size Effect

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Lee, Inae; Paik, Sae-Yeol-Rim; Kim, Dong Eun; Lim, Jung Dae; Kang, Wie-Soo; Ko, Sanghoon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The root of Angelica gigas (Korean angelica) is traditionally used to treat women's ailments that are caused by an impairment of menstrual blood flow and cycle irregularities. This study evaluated the effect particle size of Korean angelica powder on its efficacy for treating estrogen-related symptoms of menopause. Initially, Korean angelica roots were pulverized into ultrafine powder, and orally administered to the rats at a concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks. The effects of Korean angelica powder particle size on extraction yield, contents of bioactive compounds (decursin and decursinol angelate), levels of serum ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone), reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), and experimental osteoporosis parameters (mineral density, strength, and histological features) were determined. A significant increase (fivefold) in the contents of decursin and decursinol angelate in the extract of the ultrafine Korean angelica powder was observed compared to coarse Korean angelica powder. Rats were divided into sham-operated or ovariectomized (OVX) groups that were fed coarse (CRS) or ultrafine (UF) ground Korean angelica root. The serum levels of estradiol in the OVX_UF group were 19.2% and 54.1% higher than that of OVX_CRS group. Serum bone-alkaline phosphatase/total-alkaline phosphatase index in the OVX_UF group was half that of the OVX_CRS group. In addition, less trabecular bone loss and thick cortical areas were observed in rats administered ultrafine powder. Therefore, ultrafine grinding may enhance the bioactivity of herbal medicines and be especially useful when their extracted forms lose bioactivity during processing, storage, and oral intake. PMID:23039111

  2. Common Genetic Variants of the Human Steroid 21-Hydroxylase Gene (CYP21A2) Are Related to Differences in Circulating Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Doleschall, Márton; Szabó, Julianna Anna; Pázmándi, Júlia; Szilágyi, Ágnes; Koncz, Klára; Farkas, Henriette; Tóth, Miklós; Igaz, Péter; Gláz, Edit; Prohászka, Zoltán; Korbonits, Márta; Rácz, Károly; Patócs, Attila

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Systematic evaluation of the potential relationship between the common genetic variants of CYP21A2 and hormone levels. Methods The relationships of CYP21A2 intron 2 polymorphisms and haplotypes with diverse baseline and stimulated blood hormone levels were studied in 106 subjects with non-functioning adrenal incidentaloma (NFAI). The rationale for using NFAI subjects is dual: i) their baseline hormone profiles do not differ from those of healthy subjects and ii) hormone levels after stimulation tests are available. Results The carriers (N = 27) of a well-defined CYP21A2 haplotype cluster (c5) had significantly elevated levels of cortisol (p = 0.0110), and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (p = 0.0001) after ACTH stimulation, and 11-deoxycortisol after metyrapone administration (p = 0.0017), but the hormone values were in normal ranges. In addition, the carriers (N = 33) of the C allele of the rs6462 polymorphism had a higher baseline aldosterone level (p = 0.0006). The prevalence of these genetic variants of CYP21A2 did not differ between NFAI and healthy subjects. Conclusions The common CYP21A2 variants presumably exert the same effect on hormone levels in the healthy and disease-affected populations. Therefore, they may contribute to complex diseases such as some cardiovascular diseases, and may influence the genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) including the individual need for hormone substitution. PMID:25210767

  3. Do differences in age specific androgenic steroid hormone levels account for differing prostate cancer rates between Arabs and Caucasians?

    PubMed

    Kehinde, Elijah O; Akanji, Abayomi O; Al-Hunayan, Adel; Memon, Anjum; Luqmani, Yunus; Al-Awadi, Khaleel A; Varghese, Ramani; Bashir, Abdul Aziz; Daar, Abdallah S

    2006-04-01

    Factors responsible for the low incidence of clinical prostate cancer in the Arab population remain unclear, but may be related to differences in androgenic steroid hormone metabolism between Arabs and other populations, especially as prostate cancer is believed to be androgen dependent. We therefore measured the levels of serum androgenic steroids and their binding proteins in Arab men and compared results obtained with values reported for Caucasian populations to determine if any differences could at least partially account for differences in incidence of prostate cancer rates between the two populations. Venous blood samples were obtained from 327 unselected apparently healthy indigenous Arab men (Kuwaitis and Omanis) aged 15-79 years. Samples were also obtained from 30 Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), derived free androgen index (FAI); adrenal C19 -steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (ADT) were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Age specific reference intervals, mean and median for each analyte were determined. Frequency distribution pattern for each hormone was plotted. The reference range for hormones with normal distribution was mean +/- 2SD and 2.5-97.5% for those with non-normal distribution. The mean serum levels of the hormones in Arab men with prostate cancer were compared with values in healthy age-matched Arab men. There was a significant decrease between the 21-29 years age group and the 70-79 years age group for TT (-38.77%), DHEAS (-70%), ADT (-36%) and FAI (-63.25%), and an increase for SHBG (+64%). The calculated reference ranges are TT (2.73-30.45 nmol/L), SHBG (6.45-65.67 nmol/L), FAI (14.51-180.34), DHEAS (0.9-11.0 micromol/L) and ADT (0.54-4.26 ng/mL). The mean TT, SHBG, DHEAS and ADT in Arab men were significantly lower than those reported for Caucasians especially in the 21-29 years age group. Arab men with

  4. Luteinizing Hormone and Testosterone Levels during Acute Phase of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Prognostic Implications for Adult Male Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hohl, Alexandre; Zanela, Fernando Areas; Ghisi, Gabriela; Ronsoni, Marcelo Fernando; Diaz, Alexandre Paim; Schwarzbold, Marcelo Liborio; Dafre, Alcir Luiz; Reddi, Benjamin; Lin, Kátia; Pizzol, Felipe Dal; Walz, Roger

    2018-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide core public health problem affecting mostly young male subjects. An alarming increase in incidence has turned TBI into a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young adults as well as a tremendous resource burden on the health and welfare sector. Hormone dysfunction is highly prevalent during the acute phase of severe TBI. In particular, investigation of the luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels during the acute phase of severe TBI in male has identified a high incidence of low testosterone levels in male patients (36.5–100%) but the prognostic significance of which remains controversial. Two independent studies showed that normal or elevated levels of LH levels earlier during hospitalization are significantly associated with higher mortality/morbidity. The association between LH levels and prognosis was independent of other predictive variables such as neuroimaging, admission Glasgow coma scale, and pupillary reaction. The possible mechanisms underlying this association and further research directions in this field are discussed. Overall, current data suggest that LH levels during the acute phase of TBI might contribute to accurate prognostication and further prospective multicentric studies are required to develop more sophisticated predictive models incorporating biomarkers such as LH in the quest for accurate outcome prediction following TBI. Moreover, the potential therapeutic benefits of modulating LH during the acute phase of TBI warrant investigation. PMID:29487565

  5. Lowered quality of life in mood disorders is associated with increased neuro-oxidative stress and basal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and use of anticonvulsant mood stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Caroline Sampaio; Maes, Michael; Roomruangwong, Chutima; Moraes, Juliana Brum; Bonifacio, Kamila Landucci; Vargas, Heber Odebrecht; Barbosa, Decio Sabbatini; Anderson, George; de Melo, Luiz Gustavo Piccoli; Drozdstoj, Stoyanov; Moreira, Estefania; Carvalho, André F; Nunes, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas

    2018-04-17

    Major affective disorders including bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Oxidative stress and subtle thyroid abnormalities may play a pathophysiological role in both disorders. Thus, the current study was performed to examine whether neuro-oxidative biomarkers and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels could predict HRQoL in BD and MDD. This cross-sectional study enrolled 68 BD and 37 MDD patients and 66 healthy controls. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-BREF scale was used to assess 4 QoL subdomains. Peripheral blood malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products, paraoxonaxe/CMPAase activity, a composite index of nitro-oxidative stress, and basal TSH were measured. In the total WHOQoL score, 17.3% of the variance was explained by increased advanced oxidation protein products and TSH levels and lowered CMPAase activity and male gender. Physical HRQoL (14.4%) was associated with increased MDA and TSH levels and lowered CMPAase activity. Social relations HRQoL (17.4%) was predicted by higher nitro-oxidative index and TSH values, while mental and environment HRQoL were independently predicted by CMPAase activity. Finally, 73.0% of the variance in total HRQoL was explained by severity of depressive symptoms, use of anticonvulsants, lower income, early lifetime emotional neglect, MDA levels, the presence of mood disorders, and suicidal ideation. These data show that lowered HRQoL in major affective disorders could at least in part result from the effects of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, lowered antioxidant enzyme activities, and higher levels of TSH. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Sibutramine administration decreases serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vosnakis, Christos; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A; Armeni, Anastasia K; Papadakis, Efstathios; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Katsikis, Ilias; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the effect of diet, physical exercise and sibutramine administration on serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, hormonal and metabolic parameters in overweight and obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Prospective clinical study, in an outpatient clinic setting, of 76 overweight and obese women with PCOS. All patients were placed on a hypocaloric diet, physical exercise plus sibutramine (10 mg per day) for the first month and then on either a hypocaloric diet, physical exercise plus sibutramine (10 mg per day) or a hypocaloric diet and physical exercise for the subsequent 6 months. Serum AMH levels, body composition, hormonal and metabolic features and insulin sensitivity indices were evaluated at baseline and at 4 and 7 months of treatment. Body weight reduction was greater in the sibutramine group. Moreover, serum FSH and testosterone levels decreased, and SHBG, free androgen index and all indices of insulin resistance significantly improved at 4 and 7 months. Serum AMH levels decreased only in PCOS women who received sibutramine, at both 4 and 7 months of treatment. A hypocaloric diet and a diet plus sibutramine both resulted in significant weight loss in overweight and obese women with PCOS. Patients who received sibutramine showed greater weight loss and improvement in hyperandrogenemia and insulin sensitivity after 7 months of treatment. Serum AMH levels significantly decreased at both 4 and 7 months of treatment only in PCOS women who received sibutramine, indicating a possible direct, gonadotropin independent effect of sibutramine on the ovarian production of AMH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Effect of severe burn on growth and development and the level of growth hormone in mice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Qiu, Lin; Liu, Cuiping; Tian, Xiaofei; Xiao, Jun

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the changes in body growth, learning and memory capabilities, exercise capacity, and the level of growth hormone (GH) in mice suffering from severe burn. One hundred and four healthy BALB/c mice aged from 3 to 4 weeks were divided into normal control group (NC, without treatment) , 7 s burn group (inflicted with 20%TBSA deep partial-thickness burn on the back), 10 s burn group (inflicted with 20%TBSA full-thickness burn on the back), and negative control group (simulating the treatment of two burn groups without injury) according to the random number table, with 26 mice in each group. The body weight, body length, and tail length of 8 mice in each group were measured before burn. Respectively 6 mice of two burn groups were sacrificed on post burn day (PBD) 1, 3, and 7 for determination of serum level of GH with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The remaining 8 mice in each of the two burn groups were raised to adulthood. The body weight, body length, and tail length were measured on PBD 62, and the increased percentages of body weight, body length, and tail length were calculated. Morris water maze tests, including escape latency on PBD 66, 67, and 68, frequency of stepping over the platform location and proportion of staying time in the target quadrant on PBD 69, were used to examine the learning and memory capabilities. The time of loaded swimming and the time of pole-climbing on PBD 70 were used to assess the exercise capacity. Above-mentioned indexes were also determined in the two control groups at the same time points. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance; Welch test was applied when equal variance was not assumed; independent samples t test was applied for paired comparison. (1) The level of GH of mice in 7 s burn group on PBD 1 [(3 021 ± 506) pg/mL] was lower than that of group NC [(3 728 ± 412) pg/mL, t = 2.656, P < 0.05], while on PBD 3 and 7 [(3 098 ± 503) , (3 199 ± 275) pg/mL] they were close to those of group NC

  8. Effect of short-term diet and exercise on hormone levels and menses in obese, infertile women.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul B; Forstein, David A; Styles, Sheena

    2008-05-01

    To improve serum metabolic and endocrine measures known to influence fecundity. Twelve infertile, obese women were enrolled in a 12-week program of diet and exercise. Subjects underwent baseline testing for estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin, fasting leptin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), C-reactive protein (CRP) and total cholesterol. Glucose and insulin levels were measured fasting and 2 hours after a 75-g glucose load. Subjects attended three 1-hour exercise sessions per week and received instructions for a 1,200- to 1,300-kcal/day diet. Serum tests and body mass index (BMI) were remeasured after 12 weeks. Intermenstrual intervals were also recorded. At 24 weeks, subjects rated compliance with diet and exercise. Main outcome measures included change in serum variables, BMI and intermenstrual interval. BMI, total cholesterol and E1/E2 ratio significantly decreased over 12 weeks (mean difference +/- SEM, 2.06 +/- 0.51 kg/m2, 25.91 +/- 4.33 mg/dL and 0.7 +/- 0.22, respectively). No significant differences were noted for all other measures. Ten of the 12 subjects (83%) showed menstrual improvement, with 8 becoming eumenorrheic. Favorable metabolic and menstrual changes are possible in obese, infertile women after 12 weeks of diet and exercise.

  9. Growth hormone responsiveness: peak stimulated growth hormone levels and other variables in idiopathic short stature (ISS): data from the National Cooperative Growth Study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Wayne V; Dana, Ken; Frane, James; Lippe, Barbara

    2008-09-01

    In children with idiopathic short stature (ISS), growth hormone (GH) response to a provocative test will be inversely related to the first year response to hGH and be a variable accounting for a degree of responsiveness. Because high levels of GH are a characteristic of GH insensitivity, such as in Laron syndrome, it is possible that a high stimulated GH is associated with a lower first year height velocity among children diagnosed as having ISS. We examined the relationship between the peak stimulated GH levels in 3 ISS groups; GH >10 -<25, 25-40, and >40 ng/mL and the first year growth response to rhGH therapy. We also looked at 8 other predictor variables (age, sex, height SDS, height age, body mass index (BMI), bone age, dose, and SDS deficit from target parental height. Multiple regression analysis with the first year height as the dependent variable and peak stimulated GH was the primary endpoint. The predictive value of adding each of the other variables was then assessed. Mean change in height velocity was similar among the three groups, with a maximum difference among the groups of 0.6 cm/yr. There was a small but statistically significant correlation (r=-0.12) between the stimulated GH and first year height velocity. The small correlation between first year growth response and peak GH is not clinically relevant in defining GH resistance. No cut off level by peak GH could be determined to enhance the usefulness of this measure to predict response. Baseline age was the only clinically significant predictor, R-squared, 6.4%. All other variables contributed less than an additional 2% to the R-squared.

  10. Effect of thyroid hormone on the levels of erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase isozymes and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kondo, T; Taniguchi, N; Ishikawa, N; Ide, H; Takakuwa, E; Murao, M

    1978-05-01

    Levels of rabbit erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase B and C isozymes were determined in experimental hyperthyroidism using a quantitative immunologic technique. Levels of erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and protein binding iodine were simultaneously determined. Thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine were administered to rabbits orally for 30 days. A significant decrease in carbonic anhydrase B type was observed after 30 days, although no significant change was observed in carbonic anhydrase C type. These findings suggest that the steady state level of carbonic anhydrase B type in red cells is affected by thyroid hormone more readily than that of carbonic anhydrase C type. The level of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate increased markedly after 10 days of treatment, corresponding to the increase of protein binding iodine. The clinical or pathologic significances were discussed in relation to the changes in the levels of these isozymes and 2,3-diphosphglycerate in red cells.

  11. Association of Hormonal Contraceptive Use With Reduced Levels of Depressive Symptoms: A National Study of Sexually Active Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Westhoff, Carolyn; Heim, Christine M.; Haloossim, Michelle; Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 80% of sexually active young women in the United States use hormonal contraceptives during their reproductive years. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and mood disturbances remain understudied, despite the hypothesis that estrogen and progesterone play a role in mood problems. In this study, we used data from 6,654 sexually active nonpregnant women across 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994–2008), focusing on women aged 25–34 years. Women were asked about hormonal contraceptive use in the context of a current sexual partnership; thus, contraceptive users were compared with other sexually active women who were using either nonhormonal contraception or no contraception. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. At ages 25–34 years, hormonal contraceptive users had lower mean levels of concurrent depressive symptoms (β = −1.04, 95% confidence interval: −1.73, −0.35) and were less likely to report a past-year suicide attempt (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.14, 0.95) than women using low-efficacy contraception or no contraception, in models adjusted for propensity scores for hormonal contraceptive use. Longitudinal analyses indicated that associations between hormonal contraception and depressive symptoms were stable. Hormonal contraception may reduce levels of depressive symptoms among young women. Systematic investigation of exogenous hormones as a potential preventive factor in psychiatric epidemiology is warranted. PMID:24043440

  12. Association of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity with sex steroid hormone levels in US men.

    PubMed

    Shiels, Meredith S; Rohrmann, Sabine; Menke, Andy; Selvin, Elizabeth; Crespo, Carlos J; Rifai, Nader; Dobs, Adrian; Feinleib, Manning; Guallar, Eliseo; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated the associations of smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity with sex steroid hormone concentrations among 1,275 men > or =20 years old who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We compared geometric mean concentrations across levels of smoking, alcohol, and physical activity using multiple linear regression. Current smokers had higher total testosterone (5.42, 5.10, and 5.26 ng/ml in current, former, and never smokers), free testosterone (0.110, 0.102, and 0.104 ng/ml), total estradiol (40.0, 34.5, and 33.5 pg/ml), and free estradiol (1.05, 0.88, and 0.84 pg/ml) compared with former and never smokers (all p < or = 0.05). Men who consumed > or =1 drink/day had lower SHBG than men who drank less frequently (31.5 vs. 34.8 nmol/l, p = 0.01); total (p-trend = 0.08) and free testosterone (p-trend = 0.06) increased with number of drinks per day. Physical activity was positively associated with total (p-trend = 0.01) and free testosterone (p-trend = 0.05). In this nationally representative sample of men, smoking, alcohol, and physical activity were associated with hormones and SHBG, thus these factors should be considered as possible confounders or upstream variables in studies of hormones and men's health, including prostate cancer.

  13. Influence of Dietary Copper on Serum Growth-Related Hormone Levels and Growth Performance of Weanling Pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Guo, Yazhou; Wang, Zhe; Zhao, Baoyu; Yin, Yunhou; Liu, Guowen

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of dietary copper on serum growth-related hormones levels and growth performance, a total of 60 weanling pigs were randomly assigned to six groups each containing 10 pigs, fed on basal diets supplemented with 0 (control), 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg/kg copper sulfate for 80 days, respectively. The average daily gain (ADG), feed to gain ratio (F/G), feed intake and serum growth hormone (GH), insulin (INS), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels were detected at interval of 20 days. The results revealed that ADG, and serum GH, INS, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 concentrations were increased significantly in the pigs fed on diets added with 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg/kg copper sulfate. Meanwhile, in the pigs supplemented with 250 mg/kg copper sulfate, ADG was increased significantly from the 40th to the 60th day of the experiment (P < 0.01), and the levels of GH, INS, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 in serum were elevated significantly from the 20th to the 40th day of the experiment (P < 0.01). It is concluded that effects of copper supplemented in the diet on the growth of pigs were related to the increasing levels of GH, INS, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 in serum which were induced by copper. High dietary copper increase the concentrations of growth-related hormones in serum, resulting in improving the growth performance of weanling pigs.

  14. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (DE-71)Interferes with Thyroid Hormone Action Independent Of Effects On Circulating Levels of Thyroid Hormone in Male Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological stud...

  15. Changes in sex steroid hormone levels reflect the reproductive status of captive female zebra sharks (Stegostoma fasciatum).

    PubMed

    Nozu, Ryo; Murakumo, Kiyomi; Yano, Nagisa; Furuyama, Rina; Matsumoto, Rui; Yanagisawa, Makio; Sato, Keiichi

    2018-03-03

    Captive breeding in aquaria is a useful means for ex situ preservation of threatened elasmobranch species. To promote captive breeding, it is important to determine the female reproductive status. However, information regarding reproductive status in female elasmobranchs is limited. Here, we used zebra sharks, Stegostoma fasciatum, as a model for elasmobranch reproduction in captivity. We investigated the relationships among changes in the sex steroid hormone levels, follicle size, and egg-laying period to develop indicators for the female reproductive status. We confirmed that mature female zebra sharks undergo an annual reproductive cycle. Additionally, we showed that the variations in sex steroid hormone levels correlated with reproductive status in mature female zebra sharks. Plasma estradiol-17ß (E2) concentrations increased two months before ovarian follicle development and decreased along with follicle regression. Interestingly, E2 levels were inversely correlated with water temperature (R = -0.901). Moreover, high levels of testosterone (T) correlated well with the laying period. These results strongly suggest that E2 is an indicator for ovarian follicle development, and that T is a useful indicator for both the onset and end of the egg-laying period in captive zebra sharks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma Selenium Levels in First Trimester Pregnant Women with Hyperthyroidism and the Relationship with Thyroid Hormone Status.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Tugba Atilan

    2015-10-01

    The thyroid gland has the highest selenium (Se) concentration per unit weight among all tissues. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the Se levels in the plasma of hyperthyroidic pregnant women and to investigate the association between maternal plasma Se concentrations and thyroid hormone levels. The study population consisted of 107 pregnant women, 70 healthy pregnant women (group 1) and 37 pregnant women with hyperthyroidism (group 2). The plasma free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels were significantly higher, and the plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and Se levels were significantly lower in group 2 than in group 1 (p < 0.05). A correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between Se and fT4 in group 1 and with TSH in group 2 (p < 0.05). Decreased maternal serum antioxidant trace element Se in hyperthyroidic pregnant women compared with normal pregnant women supported the hypothesis that hyperthyroidism was associated with decreased antioxidant response.

  17. Both thyroid hormone levels and resting metabolic rate decrease in African striped mice when food availability decreases.

    PubMed

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Pillay, Neville; Schradin, Carsten

    2017-03-01

    In response to variation in food availability and ambient temperature ( T a ), many animals show seasonal adaptations in their physiology. Laboratory studies showed that thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of metabolism, and their regulatory function is especially important when the energy balance of an individual is compromised. However, little is known about the relationship between thyroid hormones and metabolism in free-living animals and animals inhabiting seasonal environments. Here, we studied seasonal changes in triiodothyronine (T 3 ) levels, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and two physiological markers of energy balance (blood glucose and ketone bodies) in 61 free-living African striped mice ( Rhabdomys pumilio ) that live in an semi-arid environment with food shortage during the dry season. We predicted a positive relationship between T 3 levels and RMR. Further, we predicted higher T 3 levels, blood glucose levels and RMR, but lower ketone body concentrations, during the moist season when food availability is high compared with summer when food availability is low. RMR and T 3 levels were negatively related in the moist season but not in the dry season. Both RMR and T 3 levels were higher in the moist than in the dry season, and T 3 levels increased with increasing food availability. In the dry season, blood glucose levels were lower but ketone body concentrations were higher, indicating a change in substrate use. Seasonal adjustments in RMR and T 3 levels permit a reduction of energy expenditure when food is scarce, and reflect an adaptive response to reduced food availability in the dry season. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Elderly Men Have Low Levels of Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Inhibin B, but with High Interpersonal Variation: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Sertoli Cell Hormones in 615 Community-Dwelling Men

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Yih Harng; Dennis, Nicola A.; Connolly, Martin J.; Teh, Ruth; Jones, Gregory T.; van Rij, Andre M.; Farrand, Stephanie; Campbell, A. John; MLennan, Ian S.

    2013-01-01

    The Sertoli cells of the testes secrete anti-Müllerian hormone (Müllerian inhibiting Substance, AMH) and inhibin B (InhB). AMH triggers the degeneration of the uterine precursor in male embryos, whereas InhB is part of the gonadal-pituitary axis for the regulation of sperm production in adults. However, both hormones are also putative regulators of homeostasis, and age-related changes in these hormones may therefore be important to the health status of elderly men. The levels of AMH in elderly men are unknown, with limited information being available about age-related changes in InhB. We have therefore used ELISAs to measure Sertoli cell hormone levels in 3 cohorts of community-dwelling men in New Zealand. In total, 615 men were examined, 493 of which were aged 65 or older. Serum AMH and InhB levels inversely correlated with age in men older than 50 years (p<0.001) but not in the younger men. A minority of elderly men had undetectable levels of AMH and InhB. The variation in hormone levels between similarly aged men increased with the age of men. AMH and InhB partially correlated with each other as expected (r = 0.48, p<0.001). However, the ratio of the two Sertoli hormones varied significantly between men, with this variation increasing with age. Elderly men selected for the absence of cardiovascular disease had AMH levels similar to those of young men whereas their InhB levels did not differ from aged-matched controls. These data suggests that Sertoli cell number and function changes with age, but with the extent and nature of the changes varying between men. PMID:23940675

  19. Hormone Replacement Therapy: Will it affect seizure control and AED levels?

    PubMed Central

    Harden, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    Interest in the years of reproductive changes for women with epilepsy (WWE), specifically perimenopause, menopause and postmenopause has been emerging in the epilepsy community. This article discusses evidence for changes in seizure frequency during perimenopause and postmenopause. Further, a catamenial epilepsy pattern during the reproductive years may be a hallmark for the observed seizure frequency change during these years; that is, an increase at perimenopause but a decrease at menopause. This finding implies that a subset of WWE are particularly susceptible to endogenous reproductive hormonal changes. An adverse effect on seizure frequency with the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during postmenopause for WWE was reported in questionnaires, and was later borne out in a clinical trial. The laboratory counterpart of this human trial, HRT in ovariectomized rodent seizure models, shows that estrogen and progesterone are neuroprotective and do not uniformly increase seizure frequency. Possible reasons for the discrepancy between “the lab and the clinic” are presented. Strategies for managing HRT in symptomatic postmenopausal WWE using estrogenic and progestogenic compounds that may be less likely to promote seizures are discussed. PMID:18187348

  20. Effect of CPPU on Carbohydrate and Endogenous Hormone Levels in Young Macadamia Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chaozhong; Lin, Wenqiu; Zou, Minghong; Zhang, Hanzhou; Wan, Jifeng; Huang, Xuming

    2016-01-01

    N-(2-Chloro-4-pyridyl)-N′-phenylurea (CPPU) is a highly active cytokinin-like plant growth regulator that promotes chlorophyll biosynthesis, cell division, and cell expansion. It also increases fruit set and accelerates fruit enlargement. However, there has been no report about the effect of CPPU on fruit development and its physiological mechanism in macadamia. In this study, we investigated the effect of CPPU treatment at early fruit development via foliar spray or raceme soaking at 20 mg·L-1 on fruit set and related physiology in macadamia. Changes in carbohydrate contents and endogenous hormones in leaves, bearing shoots and fruit were also examined. Results showed that CPPU significantly reduced young fruit drop and delayed the wave of fruit drop by 1–2 weeks. The treatment significantly decreased the contents of total soluble sugars and starch in the leaves, but increased them in the bearing shoots and total soluble sugars in the husk (pericarp) and seeds. These findings suggested that CPPU promoted carbohydrate mobilization from the leaves to the fruit. In addition, CPPU increased the contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellin acid (GA3), and zeatin riboside (ZR) and decreased the abscisic acid (ABA) in the husk. Therefore, CPPU treatment reduced the early fruit drop by increasing carbohydrate availability and by modifying the balance among endogenous hormones. PMID:27387814

  1. Do Thyroxine and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels Reflect Urinary Iodine Concentrations?

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Pezzullo, John C.

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of environmental chemicals such as nitrates, thiocynates, and perchlorates, some therapeutics, and dietary goitrogens can lower thyroidal iodine uptake and result in hypothyroidism and goiter. Iodine sufficiency, essential for normal thyroid hormone synthesis, is critical during gestation to assure that sufficient thyroxine (T4) and iodine reach the developing fetus. Spot urinary iodide (UI) measurements are used globally to indicate and monitor iodine sufficiency of populations. In individuals, however, UI are not routinely measured; instead, normal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and T4 concentrations serve as surrogate indicators of iodine sufficiency as well as thyroidal health. Our objective was to examine the relationship between UI concentrations and serum T4 and TSH concentrations in individuals in an ‘‘iodine-sufficient population.’’ Using a cross-sectional sample of the US population (n = 7628) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988–1994) database, we examined the relationship among UI, T4, and TSH in pregnant and nonpregnant women and in men (15–44 years). There was a lack of relationship between UI (or UI/Cr) concentrations and serum T4 or TSH concentrations. Therefore, TSH and T4 are not appropriate markers of UI concentrations in this population. Monitoring the status of iodine nutrition of individuals in the United States may be important because serum TSH and T4 concentrations do not indicate low iodine status. PMID:15795649

  2. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (p<0.05), but the odds ratio for waist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI. Copyright © 2012

  3. Bisphenol A Exposure, Ovarian Follicle Numbers, and Female Sex Steroid Hormone Levels: Results From a CLARITY-BPA Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shreya; Brehm, Emily; Gao, Liying; Rattan, Saniya; Ziv-Gal, Ayelet

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical found in thermal receipts and food and beverage containers. Previous studies have shown that BPA can affect the numbers and health of ovarian follicles and the production of sex steroid hormones, but they often did not include a wide range of doses of BPA, used a small sample size, focused on relatively short-term exposures to BPA, and/or did not examine the consequences of chronic BPA exposure on the ovaries or steroid levels. Thus, this study was designed to examine the effects of a wide range of doses of BPA on ovarian morphology and sex steroid hormone production. Specifically, this study tested the hypothesis that prenatal and continuous BPA exposure reduces ovarian follicle numbers and sex steroid hormone levels. To test this hypothesis, rats were dosed with vehicle, ethinyl estradiol (0.05 and 0.5 μg/kg body weight/d), or BPA (2.5, 25, 250, 2500, and 25,000 μg/kg body weight/d) from gestation day 6 until 1 year as part of the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA). Ovaries and sera were collected on postnatal days 1, 21, and 90, and at 6 months and 1 year. The ovaries were subjected to histological evaluation of follicle numbers and the sera were subjected to measurements of estradiol and progesterone. Collectively, these data indicate that BPA exposure at some doses and time points affects ovarian follicle numbers and sex steroid levels, but these effects are different than those observed with ethinyl estradiol exposure and some previous studies on BPA. PMID:28324068

  4. Bisphenol A Exposure, Ovarian Follicle Numbers, and Female Sex Steroid Hormone Levels: Results From a CLARITY-BPA Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya; Brehm, Emily; Gao, Liying; Rattan, Saniya; Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Flaws, Jodi A

    2017-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical found in thermal receipts and food and beverage containers. Previous studies have shown that BPA can affect the numbers and health of ovarian follicles and the production of sex steroid hormones, but they often did not include a wide range of doses of BPA, used a small sample size, focused on relatively short-term exposures to BPA, and/or did not examine the consequences of chronic BPA exposure on the ovaries or steroid levels. Thus, this study was designed to examine the effects of a wide range of doses of BPA on ovarian morphology and sex steroid hormone production. Specifically, this study tested the hypothesis that prenatal and continuous BPA exposure reduces ovarian follicle numbers and sex steroid hormone levels. To test this hypothesis, rats were dosed with vehicle, ethinyl estradiol (0.05 and 0.5 μg/kg body weight/d), or BPA (2.5, 25, 250, 2500, and 25,000 μg/kg body weight/d) from gestation day 6 until 1 year as part of the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA). Ovaries and sera were collected on postnatal days 1, 21, and 90, and at 6 months and 1 year. The ovaries were subjected to histological evaluation of follicle numbers and the sera were subjected to measurements of estradiol and progesterone. Collectively, these data indicate that BPA exposure at some doses and time points affects ovarian follicle numbers and sex steroid levels, but these effects are different than those observed with ethinyl estradiol exposure and some previous studies on BPA. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  5. Maternal hormone levels and risk of cryptorchism among populations at high and low risk of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Katherine A; Graubard, Barry I; Nam, Jun-Mo; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Longnecker, Matthew P; Klebanoff, Mark A

    2005-07-01

    Cryptorchism is one of the few well-described risk factors for testicular cancer. It has been suggested that both conditions are related to increased in utero estrogen exposure. The evidence supporting the "estrogen hypothesis" has been inconsistent, however. An alternative hypothesis suggests that higher in utero androgen exposure may protect against the development of cryptorchism and testicular cancer. In order to examine both hypotheses, we studied maternal hormone levels in two populations at diverse risks of testicular cancer; Black Americans (low-risk) and White Americans (high-risk). The study population of 200 mothers of cryptorchid sons and 200 mothers of noncryptorchid sons was nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a cohort study of pregnant women and their children. Third trimester serum levels of estradiol (total, free, bioavailable), estriol, testosterone (total, free, bioavailable), sex hormone-binding globulin, alpha-fetoprotein, and the ratios of estradiols to testosterones were compared between the case and control mothers. The results found no significant differences in the levels of testosterone (total, free, bioavailable), alpha-fetoprotein, sex hormone-binding globulin, or in the ratios of estrogens to androgens. Total estradiol, however, was significantly lower in the cases versus the controls (P = 0.03) among all mothers and, separately, among White mothers (P = 0.05). Similarly, estriol was significantly lower among all cases (P = 0.05) and among White cases (P = 0.05). These results do not support either the estrogen or the androgen hypothesis. Rather, lower estrogens in case mothers may indicate that a placental defect increases the risk of cryptorchism and, possibly, testicular cancer.

  6. Association of maternal breast milk and serum levels of macronutrients, hormones, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight.

    PubMed

    Khodabakhshi, Adeleh; Mehrad-Majd, Hassan; Vahid, Farhad; Safarian, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast-milk levels of macronutrients, hormones, growth factors, and maternal body composition with infant's body weight. Eighty mother-infant pairs comprised 40 with overweight or obese infant and 40 with normal-weight infant were enrolled in this study. The level of ghrelin, Leptin, adiponectin, EGF, and IGF1 in plasma and breast milk were assessed. Daily breast milk intake and macronutrient concentration along with anthropometric indices of mother-infant pairs were also assessed. No significant differences were observed in concentrations of serum hormones between two groups (p > 0.05). However, hormones levels in maternal serum were higher than those in breast milk. A significant positive correlation was found between serum EGF and ghrelin (r = 0.57, p = 0 < 0001). Higher IGF1 in serum showed a significant association with its milk counterpart (r = 0.37). Current mother's weight was associated with infant's weight at the 2nd and 6th month (B = 0.023 p = 0.04, B = 0.055 p = 0.005). The breast-milk macronutrient content was not comparable between two groups. However, the average daily breast milk consumption in obese infants was higher than normals (p = 0.001). Milk EGF and leptin were related to a decrease of 59% and 46% the odds of obese infant development, respectively. There was a significant association of milk EGF and ghrelin with birth weight (B = -0.19, p = 0.04 and B = -0.2, p = 0.04, respectively), and also serum leptin with infant's body weight at the 6th month. Our findings provide a positive association of maternal weight, daily breast milk intake, EGF, and ghrelin with infant's body weight.

  7. Computed tomography airway lumen volumetry in patients with acromegaly: Association with growth hormone levels and lung function.

    PubMed

    Camilo, Gustavo Bittencourt; Carvalho, Alysson Roncally Silva; Guimarães, Alan Ranieri Medeiros; Kasuki, Leandro; Gadelha, Mônica Roberto; Mogami, Roberto; de Melo, Pedro Lopes; Lopes, Agnaldo José

    2017-10-01

    The segmentation and skeletonisation of images via computed tomography (CT) airway lumen volumetry provide a new perspective regarding the incorporation of this technique in medical practice. Our aim was to quantify morphological changes in the large airways of patients with acromegaly through CT and, secondarily, to correlate these findings with hormone levels and pulmonary function testing (PFT) parameters. This was a cross-sectional study in which 28 non-smoker patients with acromegaly and 15 control subjects underwent CT analysis of airway lumen volumetry with subsequent image segmentation and skeletonisation. Moreover, all participants were subjected to PFT. Compared with the controls, patients with acromegaly presented higher diameters in the trachea, right main bronchus and left main bronchus. The patients with acromegaly also showed a higher tracheal sinuosity index (the deviation of a line from the shortest path, calculated by dividing total length by shortest possible path) than the controls [1.06 (1.02-1.09) vs. 1.03 (1.02-1.04), P = 0.04], and tracheal stenosis was observed in 25% of these individuals. The tracheal area was correlated with the levels of growth hormone (r s  = 0.45, P = 0.02) and insulin-like growth factor type I (r s  = 0.38, P = 0.04). The ratio between the forced expiratory flow and forced inspiratory flow at 50% of the forced vital capacity was correlated with the tracheal area (r s  = 0.36, P = 0.02) and Δ tracheal diameters (r s  = 0.58, P < 0.0001). Patients with acromegaly exhibit tracheobronchomegaly and tracheal sinuosity/stenosis. Moreover, there are associations between the results of CT airway lumen volumetry, hormone levels and functional parameters of large airway obstruction. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  8. Improving Effect of the Acute Administration of Dietary Fiber-Enriched Cereals on Blood Glucose Levels and Gut Hormone Secretion

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber improves hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes through its physicochemical properties and possible modulation of gut hormone secretion, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We assessed the effect of dietary fiber-enriched cereal flakes (DC) on postprandial hyperglycemia and gut hormone secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirteen participants ate isocaloric meals based on either DC or conventional cereal flakes (CC) in a crossover design. DC or CC was provided for dinner, night snack on day 1 and breakfast on day 2, followed by a high-fat lunch. On day 2, the levels of plasma glucose, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were measured. Compared to CC, DC intake exhibited a lower post-breakfast 2-hours glucose level (198.5±12.8 vs. 245.9±15.2 mg/dL, P<0.05) and a lower incremental peak of glucose from baseline (101.8±9.1 vs. 140.3±14.3 mg/dL, P<0.001). The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose after breakfast was lower with DC than with CC (P<0.001). However, there were no differences in the plasma insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP levels. In conclusion, acute administration of DC attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia without any significant change in the representative glucose-regulating hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT 01997281). PMID:26839476

  9. Urinary growth hormone level and insulin-like growth factor-1 standard deviation score (IGF-SDS) can discriminate adult patients with severe growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hirohata, Toshio; Saito, Nobuhito; Takano, Koji; Yamada, So; Son, Jae-Hyun; Yamada, Shoko M; Nakaguchi, Hiroshi; Hoya, Katsumi; Murakami, Mineko; Mizutani, Akiko; Okinaga, Hiroko; Matsuno, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Adult growth hormone (GH) deficiency (AGHD) in Japan is diagnosed based on peak GH concentrations during GH provocative tests such as GHRP-2 stimulation test. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the ability of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (sIGF-1) and urinary GH (uGH) at the time of awakening to diagnose AGHD. Fifty-nine patients with pituitary disease (32 men and 27 women; age 20-85 y (57.5 ± 15.5, mean ± SD) underwent GHRP-2 stimulation and sIGF-1 testing. Thirty-six and 23 patients were diagnosed with and without severe AGHD, respectively based on a peak GH response of <9 ng/mL to GHRP-2 stimulation. Serum IGF-1 was evaluated as a standard deviation score (IGF-1 SDS) based on age and sex. We determined whether uGH levels in urine samples from 42 of the 59 patients at awakening were above or below the sensitivity limit. We evaluated IGF-1 SDS and uGH levels in a control group of 15 healthy volunteers. Values for IGF-1 SDS were significantly lower in patients with, than without (-2.07 ± 1.77 vs.-0.03 ± 0.92, mean ± SD; p < 0.001) AGHD whereas the range of IGF-1 SDS substantially overlapped at > -1.4. IGF-1 SDS discriminated AGHD more effectively in patients aged ≤60 years. The χ2 test revealed a statistical relationship between uGH and AGHD (test statistic: 7.0104 ≥ χ2 (1; 0.01) = 6.6349). When IGF-1 SDS is < -1.4 or uGH is below the sensitivity limit, AGHD can be detected with high sensitivity.

  10. Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2001-09-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α; 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  11. [Anti-Müllerian hormone levels as a predictor of ovarian reserve in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: a review].

    PubMed

    Gasparin, Andrese Aline; Chakr, Rafael Mendonça da Silva; Brenol, Claiton Viegas; Palominos, Penélope Ester; Xavier, Ricardo Machado; Souza, Lucian; Brenol, João Carlos Tavares; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2015-01-01

    The anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is secreted from granulosa cells of growing ovarian follicles and appears to be the best endocrine marker capable of estimating ovarian reserve. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that predominantly affects women of reproductive age and may negatively affect their fertility due to disease activity and the treatments used. Recently, several studies assessed AMH levels to understand the real impact of SLE and its treatment on fertility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment with N- and C-Terminal Peptides of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Partly Compensate the Skeletal Abnormalities in IGF-I Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Lozano, Daniel; Cediel, Rafael; Esbrit, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency causes growth delay, and IGF-I has been shown to partially mediate bone anabolism by parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is abundant in bone, and has osteogenic features by poorly defined mechanisms. We here examined the capacity of PTHrP (1–36) and PTHrP (107–111) (osteostatin) to reverse the skeletal alterations associated with IGF-I deficiency. Igf1-null mice and their wild type littermates were treated with each PTHrP peptide (80 µg/Kg/every other day/2 weeks; 2 males and 4 females for each genotype) or saline vehicle (3 males and 3 females for each genotype). We found that treatment with either PTHrP peptide ameliorated trabecular structure in the femur in both genotypes. However, these peptides were ineffective in normalizing the altered cortical structure at this bone site in Igf1-null mice. An aberrant gene expression of factors associated with osteoblast differentiation and function, namely runx2, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ratio, Wnt3a , cyclin D1, connexin 43, catalase and Gadd45, as well as in osteocyte sclerostin, was found in the long bones of Igf1-null mice. These mice also displayed a lower amount of trabecular osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis than those in wild type mice. These alterations in Igf1-null mice were only partially corrected by each PTHrP peptide treatment. The skeletal expression of Igf2, Igf1 receptor and Irs2 was increased in Igf1-null mice, and this compensatory profile was further improved by treatment with each PTHrP peptide related to ERK1/2 and FoxM1 activation. In vitro, PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin were effective in promoting bone marrow stromal cell mineralization in normal mice but not in IGF-I-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin can exert several osteogenic actions even in the absence of IGF-I in the mouse bone. PMID:24503961

  13. Serum sex hormone and growth arrest-specific protein 6 levels in male patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui; Li, Yan; Dai, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of low serum testosterone levels in men with cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the tyrosine kinase receptor Axl, the ligand of which is growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6), is expressed in the vasculature, and serum GAS6 levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular events. Testosterone regulates GAS6 gene transcription directly, which inhibits calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells and provides a mechanistic insight into the cardioprotective action of androgens. This study was designed to determine the correlation between serum GAS6 and testosterone levels in male patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We recruited 225 patients with CHD and 102 apparently healthy controls. Serum concentrations of GAS6 and soluble Axl were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, testosterone, estradiol, and other routine biochemical markers were also measured. Testosterone decreased from 432.69 ± 14.40 to 300.76 ± 6.23 ng dl-1 (P < 0.001) and GAS6 decreased from 16.20 ± 0.31 to 12.51 ± 0.19 ng ml-1 (P < 0.001) in patients with CHD, compared with control subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum testosterone and GAS6 levels were positively associated in male patients with CHD. Alterations in GAS6 levels may influence the development of CHD. Downregulation of GAS6/Axl signaling in the presence of low sex hormone levels during disease progression is a potential mechanism by which GAS6 affects CHD. This study provides novel results regarding the influence of sex hormones on serum GAS6 levels in patients with CHD.

  14. Low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are associated with lipid profile in depressive patients with long symptom duration.

    PubMed

    Peng, Rui; Li, Yan

    2017-08-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the association between serum thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with lipid profile in depressive disorder. A total of 370 depressive individuals aged 18 years and above were recruited in this cross-section study. All participants underwent a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and recorded the duration of their symptoms. The serum levels of total cholesterol (TCH), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), lipoprotein A (Lp(a)), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and TSH levels were determined and the ratios of TCH/HDL-C were assessed. Depressed subjects with a symptom duration ≥3 years had higher TG levels, increased TCH/HDL-C ratios and lower levels of HDL-C, FT4 and TSH compared with depressive patients with a symptom duration <3 years. Correlation analysis displayed that TSH is positively and significantly associated with TCH and LDL-C (p<0.05); the above FT4 and FT3 are negatively, significantly and respectively associated with TCH/HDL-C (p<0.05) and TCH, HDL-C, LDL-C (p<0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that serum TG and TSH levels are associated with depressive symptom duration. According to our results,These findings indicate that low serum TSH levels are associated with lipid profile, TG and TSH levels have significant association with symptom duration in depressive patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Are stress hormone levels a good proxy of foraging success? An experiment with king penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus.

    PubMed

    Angelier, Frédéric; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Bost, Charles-André; Le Bouard, Fabrice; Chastel, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    In seabirds, variations in stress hormone (corticosterone; henceforth CORT) levels have been shown to reflect changing marine conditions and, especially, changes in food availability. However, it remains unclear how CORT levels can be mechanistically affected by these changes at the individual level. Specifically, the influence of food acquisition and foraging success on CORT secretion is poorly understood. In this study, we tested whether food acquisition can reduce baseline CORT levels (;the food intake hypothesis') by experimentally reducing foraging success of King Penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Although CORT levels overall decreased during a foraging trip, CORT levels did not differ between experimental birds and controls. These results demonstrate that mass gain at sea is not involved in changes in baseline CORT levels in this species. The overall decrease in CORT levels during a foraging trip could result from CORT-mediated energy regulation (;the energy utilisation hypothesis'). Along with other evidence, we suggest that the influence of foraging success and food intake on CORT levels is complex and that the ecological meaning of baseline CORT levels can definitely vary between species and ecological contexts. Therefore, further studies are needed to better understand (1) how baseline CORT levels are functionally regulated according to energetic status and energetic demands and (2) to what extent CORT can be used to aid in the conservation of seabird populations.

  16. The influence of occupational heat exposure on cognitive performance and blood level of stress hormones: a field study report.

    PubMed

    Mazlomi, Adel; Golbabaei, Farideh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Mahmoud Khani, Somayeh; Ansari, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mostafa

    2017-09-01

    This article aimed to investigate the effect of heat stress on cognitive performance and the blood concentration of stress hormones among workers of a foundry plant. Seventy workers within the exposed (35 people) and unexposed (35 people) groups were studied. The wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index was measured for heat stress assessment. The cognitive performance tests were conducted using the Stroop color word test (SCWT) before and during working hours. For the assessment of the serum level of cortisol and the plasma level of adrenaline and noradrenaline, blood samples were taken during working hours from both groups. Only for SCWT III was there a significant relationship between heat stress and test duration, error rate and reaction time. The laboratory test results revealed significantly higher concentrations of cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline in the exposed subjects than in the unexposed group. There existed a positive correlation between cortisol, adrenaline, noradrenaline and WBGT index and also test duration and reaction time of SCWT III, and number of errors of SCWT I, SCWT II and SCWT III during work. Heat stress can lead to an increase in the blood level of stress hormones, resulting in cognitive performance impairment.

  17. Environmental prenatal stress eliminates brain and maternal behavioral sex differences and alters hormone levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Del Cerro, M C R; Ortega, E; Gómez, F; Segovia, S; Pérez-Laso, C

    2015-07-01

    Environmental prenatal stress (EPS) has effects on fetuses that are long-lasting, altering their hormone levels, brain morphology and behavior when they reach maturity. In previous research, we demonstrated that EPS affects the expression of induced maternal behavior (MB), the neuroendocrine system, and morphology of the sexually dimorphic accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) involved in reproductive behavior patterns. The bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) is another vomeronasal (VN) structure that plays an inhibitory role in rats in the expression of induced maternal behavior in female and male virgins. In the present study, we have ascertained whether the behavioral, neuroendocrine, and neuromorphological alterations of the AOB found after EPS also appear in the BAOT. After applying EPS to pregnant rats during the late gestational period, in their female offspring at maturity we tested induced maternal behavior, BAOT morphology and plasma levels of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (Cpd B). EPS: a) affected the induction of MB, showed a male-like pattern of care for pups, b) elevated plasma levels of Cpd B and reduced E2 in comparison with the controls, and c) significantly increased the number of BAOT neurons compared to the control females and comparable to the control male group. These findings provide further evidence that stress applied to pregnant rats produces long-lasting behavioral, endocrine and neuroanatomical alterations in the female offspring that are evident when they become mature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Evolocumab on Vitamin E and Steroid Hormone Levels: Results From the 52-Week, Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled DESCARTES Study.

    PubMed

    Blom, Dirk J; Djedjos, C Stephen; Monsalvo, Maria Laura; Bridges, Ian; Wasserman, Scott M; Scott, Rob; Roth, Eli

    2015-09-25

    Vitamin E transport and steroidogenesis are closely associated with low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) metabolism, and evolocumab can lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) to low levels. To determine the effects of evolocumab on vitamin E and steroid hormone levels. After titration of background lipid-lowering therapy per cardiovascular risk, 901 patients with an LDL-C ≥2.0 mmol/L were randomized to 52 weeks of monthly, subcutaneous evolocumab, or placebo. Vitamin E, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and gonadal hormones were analyzed at baseline and week 52. In a substudy (n=100), vitamin E levels were also measured in serum, LDL, high-density lipoprotein, and red blood cell membranes at baseline and week 52. Absolute vitamin E decreased in evolocumab-treated patients from baseline to week 52 by 16% but increased by 19% when normalized for cholesterol. In the substudy, vitamin E level changes from baseline to week 52 mirrored the changes in the lipid fraction, and red blood cell membrane vitamin E levels did not change. Cortisol in evolocumab-treated patients increased slightly from baseline to week 52, but adrenocorticotropic hormone and the cortisol:adrenocorticotropic hormone ratio did not change. No patient had a cortisol:adrenocorticotropic hormone ratio <3.0 (nmol/pmol). Among evolocumab-treated patients, gonadal hormones did not change from baseline to week 52. Vitamin E and steroid changes were consistent across subgroups by minimum postbaseline LDL-C <0.4 and <0.6 mmol/L. As expected, vitamin E levels changed similarly to lipids among patients treated for 52 weeks with evolocumab. No adverse effects were observed in steroid or gonadal hormones, even at very low LDL-C levels. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01516879. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was

  20. Ascorbic acid treatment elevates follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone plasma levels and enhances sperm quality in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Utuk, Ikponoabasi Ibanga

    2016-01-01

    Infertility issues have been linked to the effect of oxidative reaction in the reproductive system. This study evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid, on fertility parameters of male albino Wistar rats was studied. Eighteen albino Wistar rats weighed between 178 g and 241 g were used, randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 was the control group; oral gavaged 5 ml of distilled water; Groups 2 and 3 were administered medium dose (250 mg/kg) and high dose of ascorbic acid (400 mg/kg), respectively; twice daily for 21 days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture, and blood serum was obtained for hormonal assay, and the testes were harvested for sperm analysis. Follicle stimulating hormone levels significantly increased in the high-dose group as compared to both the control and medium dose groups. Luteinizing hormone levels in the medium dose group decreased significantly as compared to the control group. Testosterone significantly increased in both the medium- and high-dose groups as compared to the control group. Sperm motility increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to both control and medium-dose groups. Percentage sperm concentration decreased significantly in the medium-dose group when compared to the control and increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to the medium-dose group. For percentage normal morphology, there was a dose-dependent increase in the test groups when compared to control group. These results are indicative of a positive influence of ascorbic acid on male fertility modulators and may therefore, serve as a potential adjuvant treatment for male infertility cases.

  1. The reference intervals of thyroid stimulating hormone in healthy individuals with normal levels of serum free thyroxine and without sonographic pathologies.

    PubMed

    Kutluturk, Faruk; Yildirim, Beytullah; Ozturk, Banu; Ozyurt, Huseyin; Bekar, Ulku; Sahin, Semsettin; Akturk, Yeliz; Akbas, Ali; Cetin, Ilhan; Etikan, Ilker

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the reference intervals for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in healthy individuals with normal levels of serum free thyroxine (fT4) and without sonographic pathologies, and determine the effects of age, gender, and residence on the TSH reference intervals. This research was a population-based study conducted in 70 regions. The random sampling method was used to select the 1095 subjects of the study among inhabitants aged 18 and above. Patients who had a previous history of thyroid disease and had been taking medication were excluded from the study as this may have affected their fT4 or TSH levels. In addition, subjects who had serum fT4 without a reference range and abnormal ultrasonography findings were also excluded. A total of 408 subjects were used for establishing the reference intervals for TSH. The data for TSH in the study group were not normally distributed according to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov index. The geometric mean was 1.62 mIU/L, the median was 1.40 mIU/L, and the 95% reference intervals were 0.38-4.22 mIU/L. The median TSH level was higher in females compared to males (p < 0.05). In the female subjects 2.5th percentile of TSH was lower and 97.5th percentile was higher than those of males. The reference intervals of TSH were of lower values in subjects over 50 years old (p < 0.001). Studies suggest that determination of the TSH reference intervals may differ due to environmental influences or due to age, gender, and race. It is suggested that the lower limit of normal TSH for the adult Turkish population would be 0.38 mIU/L and the upper limit similar to the traditional value of 4.2 mIU/L. If each clinician uses their population-specific reference interval for TSH, thyroid function abnormalities can be accurately estimated.

  2. Hormone therapy in acne.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2013-01-01

    Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  3. The effect of low and high plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on the morphology of major organs: studies of Laron dwarf and bovine growth hormone transgenic (bGHTg) mice

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Sylwia J.; Wiszniewska, Barbara; Laszczyńska, Maria; Słuczanowska-Głąbowska, Sylwia; Havens, Aaron M.; Kopchick, John J.; Bartke, Andrzej; Taichman, Russel S.; Kucia, Magda; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.

    2014-01-01

    Summary It is well known that somatotrophic/insulin signaling affects lifespan in experimental animals. To study the effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plasma level on the morphology of major organs, we analyzed lung, heart, liver, kidney, bone marrow, and spleen isolated from 2-year-old growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-KO) Laron dwarf mice (with low circulating plasma levels of IGF-1) and 6-month-old bovine growth hormone transgenic (bGHTg) mice (with high circulating plasma levels of IGF-1). The ages of the two mutant strains employed in our studies were selected based on their overall ~50% survival (Laron dwarf mice live up to ~4 years and bGHTg mice up to ~1 year). Morphological analysis of the organs of long-living 2-year-old Laron dwarf mice revealed a lower biological age for their organs compared with normal littermates, with more brown adipose tissue (BAT) surrounding the main body organs, lower levels of steatosis in liver, and a lower incidence of leukocyte infiltration in different organs. By contrast, the organs of 6-month-old, short-living bGHTg mice displayed several abnormalities in liver and kidney and a reduced content of BAT around vital organs. PMID:23613169

  4. Anti-müllerian hormone levels are associated with live birth rates in ART, but the predictive ability of anti-müllerian hormone is modest.

    PubMed

    Alson, Sara S E; Bungum, Leif J; Giwercman, Aleksander; Henic, Emir

    2018-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the association between serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) level and cumulative live birth rates (LBR) in patients undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycle, and to compare serum AMH levels with Antral Follicle Count (AFC) and Ovarian Sensitivity Index (OSI) as predictors of live birth. A prospective cohort study of 454 patients under the age of 40 and with a regular menstrual cycle of 21-35 days, undergoing their first IVF treatment cycles between September 2010 and June 2015. Participants were divided into three groups based on their AMH level, (AMH ≤10, AMH 10-<30 and AMH ≥30 pmol/l). Any difference in AMH-distribution between patients with or without live birth was analyzed using a Mann-Whitney-test, and live birth rates were compared between groups by a chi-squared test for linear trend. The ability of AMH, OSI and AFC as predictors of live birth was assessed by a receiver operating characteristics-analysis and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Patients with live birth had a higher AMH, median (range) 26 [0-137] pmol/l, compared with patients without live birth, AMH 22 [0-154] pmol/l, p = 0.035. Mean live birth rate (SD) was 0.36 (0.48) in the total cohort, 0.26 (0.44) in AMH-group <10, 0.34 (0.48) in AMH-group 10-<30, and 0.41(0.49) in AMH-group ≥30. Thus live birth rates increased with 8% per AMH-group (95% CI: 0.02 -0.14, p = 0.015). The AUC for AFC was 0.56, for AMH 0.57 and for OSI 0.63, respectively. AMH concentration in serum is associated with live birth rates after IVF. Our results suggest that both AMH, AFC and OSI have an equal but modest predictive ability in relation to live birth rate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hormone phase influences sympathetic responses to high levels of lower body negative pressure in young healthy women.

    PubMed

    Usselman, Charlotte W; Nielson, Chantelle A; Luchyshyn, Torri A; Gimon, Tamara I; Coverdale, Nicole S; Van Uum, Stan H M; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2016-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that sympathetic responses to baroreceptor unloading may be affected by circulating sex hormones. During lower body negative pressure at -30, -60, and -80 mmHg, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate, and blood pressure were recorded in women who were taking (n = 8) or not taking (n = 9) hormonal contraceptives. All women were tested twice, once during the low-hormone phase (i.e., the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and the placebo phase of hormonal contraceptive use), and again during the high-hormone phase (i.e., the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle and active phase of contraceptive use). During baroreceptor unloading, the reductions in stroke volume and resultant increases in MSNA and total peripheral resistance were greater in high-hormone than low-hormone phases in both groups. When normalized to the fall in stroke volume, increases in MSNA were no longer different between hormone phases. While stroke volume and sympathetic responses were similar between women taking and not taking hormonal contraceptives, mean arterial pressure was maintained during baroreceptor unloading in women not taking hormonal contraceptives but not in women using hormonal contraceptives. These data suggest that differences in sympathetic activation between hormone phases, as elicited by lower body negative pressure, are the result of hormonally mediated changes in the hemodynamic consequences of negative pressure, rather than centrally driven alterations to sympathetic regulation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Common autoimmune biomarkers, thyroid hormonal abnormalities, and beta cells dysfunction in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults with type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yousefzadeh, Gholamreza; Gozashti, Mohammadhossein; Najafipour, Hamid; Gholamhosseinian, Najar Ahmad; Bahramnejad, Abbas; Shokouhi, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is autoimmune diabetes with a slow progression characterized by the presence of antibodies associated with Type I diabetes. The present study aimed to assess autoimmune characteristics in patients with LADA in Iran. We attempted to obtain a clear view of autoimmune conditions in LADA among our population. This study was sourced from the population-based survey of KERCARDS aiming assessment of cardiovascular risk factors among a great sample of Iranian population who were resident in Kerman, a great province in southern Iran. Among all diabetic patients who were negative for Anti Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD) antibody test, 120 were selected as the controls and among 80 patients who were positive for this test diagnosed as LADA, the recorded files of 57 patients were complete considered as the cases. The level of thyroxin is significantly lower in patients with LADA compared with the controls so 73.7% and 45% of patients had normal level of thyroxin, respectively. Also, those with LADA had considerably lower levels of both thyroid peroxydaseantibody (TPO-Ab) and C-peptide when compared with non-LADA group. Using multivariate analyses and with the presence of baseline variables including gender, age, and duration of disease, the diagnosis of LADA was associated with lower serum levels of Anti-TPO, C-peptide, and thyroxin, but not associated with the level of Anti-TTG in serum. LADA patients may face with lower serum levels of C-peptide and thyroid-specific antibodies indicating insulin therapy requirement and authoimmune fundaments of the disease, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Changes of blood levels of several hormones, catecholamines, prostaglandins, electrolytes and cAMP in man during emotional stress.

    PubMed

    Tigranian, R A; Orloff, L L; Kalita, N F; Davydova, N A; Pavlova, E A

    1980-01-01

    The levels of several hormones (ACTH, GH, TSH, FSH, LH, parathyroid hormone--PTH, insulin, thyroxine--T4, triiodothyronine--T3, cortisol, testosterone, aldosterone, renin), catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamin), prostaglandins (F1 alpha, F2 alpha, A + E), electrolytes (Na, K, Ca, Mg), cAMP and glucose in blood were measured before and immediately after the examination in 15 male students aged 28 to 35 years. Simultaneously the blood pressure was measured and hemodynamic measures were registered with the aid of echocardiography. A remarkable increase of catecholamines, ACTH, renin, T3, PTH, cAMP, PG F1 alpha, PG F2 alpha and Ca was found before the examination together with the increase of blood pressure. After the examination the levels of catecholamines, renin, aldosterone, T3, PTH, GH, FSH, LH, testosterone, PG A + E, glucose and Ca were found to be increased, while these of insulin, Na, PG F1 alpha, PG F2 alpha were decreased. The decrease of blood pressure was also found.

  8. Hormonal causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Nicola; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Wenger, Jean Marie; Petignat, Patrick; Streuli, Isabelle; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disorders play a major role in approximately 8% to 12% of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Indeed, the local hormonal milieu is crucial in both embryo attachment and early pregnancy. Endocrine abnormalities, including thyroid disorders, luteal phase defects, polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperprolactinaemia and diabetes have to be evaluated in any case of RPL. Moreover, elevated androgen levels and some endocrinological aspects of endometriosis are also factors contributing to RPL. In the present article, we review the significance of endocrine disease on RPL.

  9. Associations of Serum Levels of Sex Hormones in Follicular and Luteal Phases of the Menstrual Cycle with Breast Tissue Characteristics in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Linton, Linda; Taylor, Monica; Dunn, Sheila; Martin, Lisa; Chavez, Sonia; Stanitz, Greg; Huszti, Ella; Minkin, Salomon; Boyd, Norman

    2016-01-01

    In previous work in young women aged 15-30 years we measured breast water and fat using MR and obtained blood for hormone assays on the same day in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Only serum growth hormone levels and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly associated with percent breast water after adjustment for covariates. The sex hormones estradiol, progesterone and testosterone were not associated with percent water in the breast in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. In the present study we have examined the association of percent breast water with serum levels of sex hormones in both follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In 315 healthy white Caucasian young women aged 15-30 with regular menstrual cycles who had not used oral contraceptives or other hormones in the previous 6 months, we used MR to determine percent breast water, and obtained blood samples for hormone assays within 10 days of the onset of the most recent menstrual cycle (follicular phase) of the cycle on the same day as the MR scan, and a second blood sample on days 19-24 of the cycle. Serum progesterone levels of > = 5 mmol/L in days 19-24 were used to define the 225 subjects with ovulatory menstrual cycles, whose data are the subject of the analyses shown here. SHBG was positively associated with percent water in both follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Total and free estradiol and total and free testosterone were not associated with percent water in the follicular phase, but in young women with ovulatory cycles, were all negatively associated with percent water in the luteal phase. Our results from young women aged 15-30 years add to the evidence that the extent of fibroglandular tissue in the breast that is reflected in both mammographic density and breast water is associated positively with higher serum levels of SHBG, but not with higher levels of sex hormones.

  10. Effects of long-term temperature acclimation on thyroid hormone deiodinase function, plasma thyroid hormone levels, growth, and reproductive status of male Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Cyr, D G; Idler, D R; Audet, C; McLeese, J M; Eales, J G

    1998-01-01

    -ring deiodinase activities, predominating respectively in liver and brain, and with properties resembling those of other teleosts, (ii) T4ORD activity of liver is unusually high and may account for the high plasma T3 levels in this species, (iii) T4ORD activity tends to increase during periods of increased somatic growth, and (iv) chronic acclimation of male cod to 2-4 degrees C, as opposed to 6-10 degrees C, decreases somatic growth but does alter circulating levels of thyroid hormones and androgens and it does not change the time of sexual maturation.

  11. Event-related brain potentials to emotional images and gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia and paired controls.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Julie; Mendrek, Adrianna; Germain, Martine; Hot, Pascal; Lavoie, Marc E

    2014-01-01

    Prominent disturbances in the experience, expression, and emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia have been relatively well documented over the last few years. Furthermore, sex differences in behavior and brain activity, associated with the processing of various emotions, have been reported in the general population and in schizophrenia patients. Others proposed that sex differences should be rather attributed to testosterone, which may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Also, it had been suggested that estradiol may play a protective role in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, few studies investigating this pathology have focused on both brain substrates and gonadal steroid hormone levels, in emotional processing. In the present study, we investigated electrocortical responses related to emotional valence and arousal as well as gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia. Event-Related Potentials (ERP) were recorded during exposition to emotional pictures in 18 patients with schizophrenia and in 24 control participants paired on intelligence, manual dominance and socioeconomic status. Given their previous sensitivity to emotional and attention processes, the P200, N200 and the P300 were selected for analysis. More precisely, emotional valence generally affects early components (N200), which reflect early process of selective attention, whereas emotional arousal and valence both influences the P300 component, which is related to memory context updating, and stimulus categorization. Results showed that, in the control group, the amplitude of the N200 was significantly more lateralized over the right hemisphere, while there was no such lateralization in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, significantly smaller anterior P300 amplitude was observed to the unpleasant, compared to the pleasant. That anterior P300 reduction was also correlated with negative symptoms. The N200 and P300 amplitudes were positively

  12. [Prospective study of gluco-lipidic hormone and peptide levels in morbidly obese patients after sleeve gastrectomy].

    PubMed

    Bruna, Marcos; Gumbau, Verónica; Guaita, Marcos; Canelles, Enrique; Mulas, Claudia; Basés, Carla; Celma, Isabel; Puche, José; Marcaida, Goitzane; Oviedo, Miguel; Vázquez, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    Different hormones and peptides involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism have been studied in relation to morbid obesity and its variation after bariatric surgery. The aim of this study is toevaluate variations in different molecules related to glico-lipidic metabolism during the first year after sleeve gastrectomy in morbidly obese patients. Prospective study in patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy between November 2009 and January 2011. We analyzed changes in different clinical, anthropometric and analytic parameters related with glico-lipidic metabolism in all patients in the preoperative period, first postoperative day, fifth day, one month, 6 months and one year after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. We included 20 patients, 60% were women with a median of age of 45 years. Median of body mass index (IMC) was 48,5 kg/m(2) and 70% had obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (SAOS), 65% arterial hypertension (HTA), 45% dyslipidemia and 40% diabetes mellitus. One year after surgery, the percentage of excess of BMI loss was 72% and the rate of cure or improvement of dyslipidemia was 100%, diabetes 87,5%, HTA 84,6% and SAOS 57,1%. At this time, glycemia levels decreased significantly (P<.001), and levels of IGF-1 and HDL-cholesterol increased significantly. Levels of adiponectine increased and leptine (P=.003), insulin (P=.004) and triglycerides (P=.016) decreased significantly one year after the surgery. ACTH levels (that decreased during first 6 months after surgery), glycosilated hemoglobin, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol had no changes one year after surgery. Sleeve gastrectomy is a surgical technique with good results of weight loss and cure of comorbidities. This procedure induces significant modifications in blood levels of glico-lipidic metabolism related peptides and hormones, such as glucose, IGF-1, insulin, leptin, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Event-related brain potentials to emotional images and gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia and paired controls

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Julie; Mendrek, Adrianna; Germain, Martine; Hot, Pascal; Lavoie, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Prominent disturbances in the experience, expression, and emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia have been relatively well documented over the last few years. Furthermore, sex differences in behavior and brain activity, associated with the processing of various emotions, have been reported in the general population and in schizophrenia patients. Others proposed that sex differences should be rather attributed to testosterone, which may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Also, it had been suggested that estradiol may play a protective role in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, few studies investigating this pathology have focused on both brain substrates and gonadal steroid hormone levels, in emotional processing. In the present study, we investigated electrocortical responses related to emotional valence and arousal as well as gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia. Event-Related Potentials (ERP) were recorded during exposition to emotional pictures in 18 patients with schizophrenia and in 24 control participants paired on intelligence, manual dominance and socioeconomic status. Given their previous sensitivity to emotional and attention processes, the P200, N200 and the P300 were selected for analysis. More precisely, emotional valence generally affects early components (N200), which reflect early process of selective attention, whereas emotional arousal and valence both influences the P300 component, which is related to memory context updating, and stimulus categorization. Results showed that, in the control group, the amplitude of the N200 was significantly more lateralized over the right hemisphere, while there was no such lateralization in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, significantly smaller anterior P300 amplitude was observed to the unpleasant, compared to the pleasant. That anterior P300 reduction was also correlated with negative symptoms. The N200 and P300 amplitudes were positively

  14. Associations of maternal exposure to triclosan, parabens, and other phenols with prenatal maternal and neonatal thyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Berger, Kimberly; Gunier, Robert B; Chevrier, Jonathan; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Eskenazi, Brenda; Harley, Kim G

    2018-05-24

    Environmental phenols and parabens are commonly used in personal care products and other consumer products and human exposure to these chemicals is widespread. Although human and animal studies suggest an association between exposure to phenols and parabens and thyroid hormone levels, few studies have investigated the association of in utero exposure to these chemicals and thyroid hormones in pregnant women and their neonates. We measured four environmental phenols (triclosan, benzophenone-3, and 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol), and three parabens (methyl-, propyl-, and butyl paraben) in urine collected from mothers at two time points during pregnancy as part of the CHAMACOS (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas) study. We measured free thyroxine (T4), total T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of the pregnant women (N = 454) and TSH in their neonates (N = 365). We examined potential confounding by a large number of additional chemical exposures and used Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to select the most influential chemicals to include in regression models. We observed negative associations of prenatal urinary concentrations of propyl paraben and maternal TSH (β for two-fold increase = -3.26%, 95% CI: -5.55, -0.90) and negative associations of 2,4-dichlorophenol and maternal free T4 (β for two-fold increase = -0.05, 95% CI: -0.08, -0.02), after controlling for other chemical exposures. We observed negative associations of triclosan with maternal total T4 after controlling for demographic variables, but this association became non-significant after controlling for other chemicals (β for two-fold increase = -0.05, 95% CI: -0.11, 0.00). We found evidence that environmental phenols and parabens are associated with lower TSH and free T4 in pregnant women after controlling for related chemical exposures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual dimorphism in postnatal gonadotrophin levels in infancy reflects diverse maturation of the ovarian and testicular hormone synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kuiri-Hänninen, Tanja; Dunkel, Leo; Sankilampi, Ulla

    2018-04-18

    The postnatal gonadotrophin surge is sexually dimorphic: FSH levels predominate in girls and LH levels in boys. However, in preterm (PT) girls, both gonadotrophin levels are higher than in PT boys. To evaluate how gonadal maturation contributes to the sex differences in FSH and LH. Monthly follow-up of 58 full-term (FT, 29 boys) and 67 PT (33 boys) infants from 1 week (D7) to 6 months of age (M1-M6). Analyses were also carried out according to postmenstrual (PM) age in PT infants. Urinary LH, FSH, oestradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and serum inhibin B (InhB) levels. High gonadotrophin levels in PT girls abruptly decreased (P < .001) by M2, corresponding to a PM age of 38-42 weeks, and LH levels fell below the levels found in boys. This decrease was parallel to a steep increase in E2 levels (P < .001), and, from M4 to M6, LH and E2 correlated positively in PT girls (P < .01). T levels in PT boys increased earlier than E2 levels in PT girls. In addition, InhB levels were high in PT boys already at D7, in contrast to low InhB in PT girls. InhB and FSH correlated negatively in the whole group (P < .001). Ovarian hormone synthesis is immature and incapable of responding to gonadotrophin stimulus before 38-42 PM weeks in PT girls, which may explain their highly elevated FSH and LH levels. The higher InhB levels in boys compared to girls may explain sexual dimorphism in FSH levels. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effect of infused prostaglandin F 2 on hormonal levels during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wentz, A C; Jones, G S; Graeber, J

    1972-12-01

    In light of the theory of prostaglandin (PG) mechanism of action as removal of a progesterone block mediating myometrial stimulation, the effect of PGF2alpha on hormonal patterns was analyzed in 8 patients between 11.5 and 18.5 weeks of gestation. PGF2 alpha was administered intravenously by pump and blood samples were drawn hourly during the first 12 hours and every 2 hours thereafter until abortion occurred. Serum estradiol (2) and estriol (E3) were assayed by radioimmunassay, as was plasma progesteronep. 2 patients had missed abortions; 5 of the 6 remaining patients aborted successfully. The remaining patient of 12 weeks gestation failed to abort. Missed abortion patients had absence of detectible E3 in serum, and E2 and P values were decreased 50%. 3 of 5 successful terminations showed decreases in E3 within first 4 infusion hours and aborted in 17 hours. A 4th patient showed a precipitous E3 drop at 16 infusion hours and aborted at 26 hours. 1 patient showed little E3 change until after abortion, and then it was a 50% decrease. Serum P declined in all 5 successful terminations. E2 values reduced within 4-8 hours before abortion and after infusion. The authors suggest that these findins show a direct effect of PGF2 alpha on steroidogenesis.

  17. Hypercalcemia in hyperthyroidism: patterns of serum calcium, parathyroid hormone, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels during management of thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Ayesha A; Burgess, Elizabeth H; Gallina, Daniel L; Nanes, Mark S; Cook, Curtiss B

    2003-01-01

    To present two cases of hypercalcemia associated with thyrotoxicosis and to describe serial biochemical findings during the course of treatment of hyperthyroidism. We report two cases, illustrate the changes in serum calcium, parathyroid hormone, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels during management of thyrotoxicosis, and compare our findings with those in previous studies. Hypercalcemia attributable to thyrotoxicosis is well documented, but the mechanism for the hypercalcemia is incompletely understood. Our first patient had a complicated medical history and several potential causes of hypercalcemia, including recurrent hyperparathyroidism, metastatic breast cancer, and relapse of previously treated thyrotoxicosis. A suppressed parathyroid hormone level and negative bone and computed tomographic scans excluded the first two factors. After thyroid ablation with 131I, the serum calcium and thyroxine levels decreased, and the parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels normalized. Our second patient, who was referred to our institution with a preliminary diagnosis of hypercalcemia associated with malignant disease and who had no symptoms of hyperthyroidism, was found to have a high free thyroxine level, diffuse enlargement of the thyroid, and high uptake (58%) of 123I on a thyroid scan. After thyroid ablation, the serum calcium, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and intact parathyroid hormone levels normalized, and the free thyroxine level declined. The probable pathogenesis of hypercalcemia in thyrotoxicosis is reviewed with respect to thyroid hormone and its effect on bone turnover. Physicians should consider thyrotoxicosis in the differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia.

  18. [Levels of unified metabolites and thyroid hormones in blood and oral fluid of children with minimal brain dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Gil'miiarova, F N; Pervova, Iu V; Radomskaia, V M; Gergel', N I; Tarasova, S V

    2004-01-01

    Minimal brain dysfunctions in children with various perinatal complications are accompanied by metabolic imbalance manifested by decreased total protein content, the tendency to reduced triglycerides, increased cholesterol concentrations in the oral fluid, the trend to hypoproteinaemia, hypoglycaemia, hypotriglyceridaemia. The most significant changes in the redox systems alpha-ketoglutarate-glutamate, oxaloacetate-malate, pyruvate-lactate, dioxyacetone phosphate-alpha-glycerophosphate in biological fluids were revealed in cases of antenatal alcoholisation. A certain correlation was found between anemia in pregnant women and hypothyroidal background in children. In addition, a high level of free and total thyroxine, that of total triiodthyronine were found in the oral fluid. Hypophysis--thyroid dysregulation in children with minimal brain dysfunction associated with gestosis in their mothers during pregnancy, was manifested by decreased content of total and free T4 and T3 in blood serum and increased level of the thyroid-stimulating hormone.

  19. Effects of itopride hydrochloride on plasma gut-regulatory peptide and stress-related hormone levels in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Shiga, Toru; Inoue, Shin; Sato, Yuhki; Itoh, Hiroki; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    Itopride hydrochloride (itopride), a gastrokinetic drug, has recently been evaluated for its clinical usefulness in functional dyspepsia. We investigated effects of itopride on human plasma gastrin-, somatostatin-, motilin-, and cholecystokinin (CCK)-like immunoreactive substances (IS); adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-immunoreactive substances (IS), and cortisol under stress conditions in healthy subjects. A single administration of itopride caused significant increases in plasma somatostatin- and motilin-IS levels compared to placebo. Itopride significantly decreased plasma CCK-IS, and suppressed the ACTH-IS level compared to placebo. We hypothesize that itopride may have an accelerating gastric emptying effect, and a modulatory effect on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous functions. These effects might be beneficial in stress-related diseases, suggesting that itopride has clinicopharmacological activities.

  20. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The effect of laparoscopic gastric banding surgery on plasma levels of appetite-control, insulinotropic, and digestive hormones.

    PubMed

    Shak, Joshua R; Roper, Jatin; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Tseng, Chi-hong; Francois, Fritz; Gamagaris, Zoi; Patterson, Carlie; Weinshel, Elizabeth; Fielding, George A; Ren, Christine; Blaser, Martin J

    2008-09-01

    We hypothesized that laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) reduces weight and modulates ghrelin production, but largely spares gastrointestinal endocrine function. To examine this hypothesis, we determined plasma concentrations of appetite-control, insulinotropic, and digestive hormones in relation to LAGB. Twenty-four patients undergoing LAGB were prospectively enrolled. Body mass index (BMI) was measured and blood samples obtained at baseline and 6 and 12 months post-surgery. Plasma concentrations of leptin, acylated and total ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), gastrin, and pepsinogens I and II were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Median percent excess weight loss (%EWL) over 12 months was 45.7% with median BMI decreasing from 43.2 at baseline to 33.8 at 12 months post-surgery (p < 0.001). Median leptin levels decreased from 19.7 ng/ml at baseline to 6.9 ng/ml at 12 months post-surgery (p < 0.001). In contrast, plasma levels of acylated and total ghrelin, PP, insulin, GIP, GLP-1, gastrin, and pepsinogen I did not change in relation to surgery (p > 0.05). Pepsinogen II levels were significantly lower 6 months after LAGB but returned to baseline levels by 12 months. LAGB yielded substantial %EWL and a proportional decrease in plasma leptin. Our results support the hypothesis that LAGB works in part by suppressing the rise in ghrelin that normally accompanies weight loss. Unchanged concentrations of insulinotropic and digestive hormones suggest that gastrointestinal endocrine function is largely maintained in the long term.

  2. The Effect of Laparoscopic Gastric Banding Surgery on Plasma Levels of Appetite-Control, Insulinotropic, and Digestive Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Shak, Joshua R.; Roper, Jatin; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I.; Tseng, Chi-hong; Francois, Fritz; Gamagaris, Zoi; Patterson, Carlie; Weinshel, Elizabeth; Fielding, George A.; Ren, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) reduces weight and modulates ghrelin production, but largely spares gastrointestinal endocrine function. To examine this hypothesis, we determined plasma concentrations of appetite-control, insulinotropic, and digestive hormones in relation to LAGB. Methods Twenty-four patients undergoing LAGB were prospectively enrolled. Body mass index (BMI) was measured and blood samples obtained at baseline and 6 and 12 months post-surgery. Plasma concentrations of leptin, acylated and total ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), gastrin, and pepsinogens I and II were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results Median percent excess weight loss (%EWL) over 12 months was 45.7% with median BMI decreasing from 43.2 at baseline to 33.8 at 12 months post-surgery (p<0.001). Median leptin levels decreased from 19.7 ng/ml at baseline to 6.9 ng/ml at 12 months post-surgery (p<0.001). In contrast, plasma levels of acylated and total ghrelin, PP, insulin, GIP, GLP-1, gastrin, and pepsinogen I did not change in relation to surgery (p>0.05). Pepsinogen II levels were significantly lower 6 months after LAGB but returned to baseline levels by 12 months. Conclusions LAGB yielded substantial %EWL and a proportional decrease in plasma leptin. Our results support the hypothesis that LAGB works in part by suppressing the rise in ghrelin that normally accompanies weight loss. Unchanged concentrations of insulinotropic and digestive hormones suggest that gastrointestinal endocrine function is largely maintained in the long term. PMID:18408980

  3. Thyroid hormone independent associations between serum TSH levels and indicators of bone turnover in cured patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Heemstra, Karen A; van der Deure, Wendy M; Peeters, Robin P; Hamdy, Neveen A; Stokkel, Marcel P; Corssmit, Eleonora P; Romijn, Johannes A; Visser, Theo J; Smit, Johannes W

    2008-07-01

    It has been proposed that TSH has thyroid hormone-independent effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism. This concept is still controversial and has not been studied in human subjects in detail. We addressed this question by studying relationships between serum TSH concentration and indicators of bone turnover, after controlling for triiodothyronine (T(3)), free thyroxine (FT(4)), and non-thyroid factors relevant to BMD and bone metabolism. We also studied the contribution of the TSH receptor (TSHR)-Asp727Glu polymorphism to these relationships. We performed a cross-sectional study with 148 patients, who had been thyroidectomized for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. We measured BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine. FT(4), T(3), TSH, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, procollagen type 1 aminoterminal propeptide levels, C-cross-linking terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, and urinary N-telopeptide of collagen cross-links were measured. Genotypes of the TSHR-Asp727Glu polymorphism were determined by Taqman assay. We found a significant, inverse correlation between serum TSH levels and indicators of bone turnover, which was independent of serum FT(4) and T(3) levels as well as other parameters influencing bone metabolism. We found that carriers of the TSHR-Asp727Glu polymorphism had an 8.1% higher femoral neck BMD, which was, however, no longer significant after adjusting for body mass index. We conclude that in this group of patients, serum TSH was related to indicators of bone remodeling independently of thyroid hormone levels. This may point to a functional role of the TSHR in bone in humans. Further research into this mechanism needs to be performed.

  4. Impact of 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure on main male reproductive hormone levels: a Rattus norvegicus model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Saeb, Mehdi; Nazifi, Saeed; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Jelodar, Gholamali; Saeb, Saeedeh

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure on the reproductive system of male rats, assessed by measuring circulating levels of FSH, LH, inhibin B, activin B, prolactin, and testosterone. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (180 ± 10 g) were exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMF in four equal separated groups. The duration of exposure was 1, 2, and 4 h/day over a period of 30 days and sham-exposed animals were kept under the same environmental conditions as the exposed group except with no RF-EMF exposure. Before the exposure, at 15 and 30 days of exposure, determination of the abovementioned hormone levels was performed using ELISA. At the end of the experiment, FSH and LH values of the long time exposure (LTE) group were significantly higher than the sham-exposed group ( p < 0.05). Serum activin B and prolactin in the LTE group showed significant increase and inhibin B showed significant decrease than sham and short time exposed (STE) groups after 30 days RF-EMF exposure ( p < 0.05). Also, a significant decrease in serum testosterone levels in the LTE group was found compared to short and moderate time exposed (MTE) groups after 30 days RF-EMF exposure ( p < 0.05). Results suggest that reproductive hormone levels are disturbed as a result of RF-EMF exposure and it may possibly affect reproductive functions. However, testosterone and inhibin B concentrations as a fertility marker and spermatogenesis were decreased significantly.

  5. Sexual dimorphism in relations of blood growth-hormone levels to body and brain weights in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Elalmis, Derya Deniz; Tan, Uner

    2007-12-01

    The growth promoting effects of growth hormone (GH) are well-known. However, the studies in this respect did not consider the sexual dimorphism. The adverse--growth limiting--GH effects were also reported in human newborns (see Tan, 1992, 1995; Tan et al., 1998). A similar study was replicated in the newborn rat pups in the present work. The serum GH level, body weight, body height, right- and left-brain weights were measured just after birth in rat pups. The relations of the serum GH levels to the bodily measurements were found to be sexually dimorphic. Namely, there were no significant correlations between the serum GH levels and the body size (weight and height) in males, whereas there were inverse relations between these parameters in females. The GH level negatively linearly related to the right-, left-, and right- minus left-brain weights in females, whereas only the right-brain weight positively linearly correlated with the serum GH level, the right- minus left-brain weight being also positively linearly correlated with the serum GH level in males. The results suggested that the sexual dimorphism should be taken into consideration in studies concerning the global GH effects. The relation of the serum GH level to the right-left brain asymmetry, also sexually dimorphic, suggests a role of GH in cerebral lateralization.

  6. Comparative analysis of endogenous hormones level in two soybean (Glycine max L.) lines differing in waterlogging tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon-Ha; Hwang, Sun-Joo; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul L.; Lee, Joon-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Nguyen, Henry T.; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogged condition due to flooding is one of the major abiotic stresses that drastically affect the soybean growth and yield around the world. As a result, many breeders have focused on the development of waterlogging tolerance in soybean varieties, and thus, several tolerant varieties were developed. However, the physiological mechanism of waterlogging tolerance is not yet fully understood. We particularly studied the endogenous hormones regulation during waterlogging in two contrasting soybean genotypes. According to our results, adventitious roots were better developed in the waterlogging tolerant line (WTL) than in the waterlogging susceptible line (WSL). Endogenous hormones also showed significant differences between WTL and WSL. The ethylene production ratio was higher in WTL than in WSL, and methionine was higher in WTL than in WSL. Other endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) contents were lower in WTL than in WSL. Conversely, gibberellic acid (GA) showed a tendency to be high in WTL, especially the levels of the bioactive GA4. The ratio of total GA and ABA was significantly higher in WTL than in WSL. Anatomical study of the root revealed that aerenchyma cells in the stele were better developed in WTL than in WSL. PMID:26442028

  7. Effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist/recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist/recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone on follicular fluid levels of adhesion molecules during in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Fornaro, Felice; Cobellis, Luigi; Mele, Daniela; Tassou, Argyrò; Badolati, Barbara; Sorrentino, Simona; De Lucia, Domenico; Colacurci, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    To compare the effects of GnRH-agonist/recombinant rFSH versus GnRH-antagonist/recombinant FSH stimulation on follicular fluid levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) during in vitro fertilization (IVF). Prospective, randomized study. University hospital. Seventy-three women underwent IVF. GnRH-agonist/rFSH or GnRH-antagonist/rFSH administration and collection of follicular fluid from 3 small (11-14 mm in diameter) and 3 large (18-21 mm in diameter) follicles on the day of oocyte retrieval. Follicular fluid levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 and intrafollicular estradiol and progesterone were also measured. Women who underwent GnRH-agonist/rFSH showed higher concentrations of sICAM-1 in both small and large follicles were compared with patients who received GnRH-antagonist/rFSH treatment; follicular fluid levels of sVCAM-1 were similar between the 2 stimulation protocols. Content of sICAM-1 in small and large follicles positively correlated with the number of follicles of > or =15 mm and the number of oocytes that were retrieved in both study groups. Concentrations of follicular fluid sVCAM-1 and progesterone were higher in large than in small follicles and were correlated positively to each other in both follicular classes. In IVF, GnRH-agonist/rFSH is associated with higher follicular fluid levels of sICAM-1 compared with GnRH-antagonist/rFSH regimen. Intrafollicular sICAM-1 content may predict ovarian response, and sVCAM-1 appears as an indicator of the degree of follicular luteinization.

  8. Effects of supervised aerobic training on the levels of anti-Mullerian hormone and adiposity measures in women with normo-ovulatory and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Gabr, Sami Ali; Alghadir, Ahmad Hieder

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the change in the levels of anti-Mullerian hormone, adiponectin, weight loss and fertility parameters in obese women with or without polycystic ovary syndrome, following 12 weeks of supervised aerobic exercise. This study was conducted from August 2013 to October 2014 among obese women with or without polycystic ovary syndrome referred to Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic, Mansoura University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura, Egypt. Patients were classified into three age-matched groups; group A had controls, group B had patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and group C had obese women. Anti-Mullerian hormone, adiponectin, follicle-stimulating hormone, oestrogen, fasting insulin, fasting glucose, homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance, antral follicle count, hirsutism score, weight, menstrual cyclicity and ovulatory function were assessed at baseline and following 12 weeks of supervised aerobic exercise. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17. Of the 90 patients, there were 30(33.3%) in each group. The mean age was 28.7±3.84 years in group A, 27.9±4.1 years in group B and 27.6±5.7 in group C. The 30(33.3%) participants who responded to aerobic exercise interventions showed significant improvements in reproductive function), with lower baseline anti-Mullerian hormone levels, greater weight loss and higher adiponectin level compared to the the 30(33.3%) participants who did not respond to the exercise programme. Weight loss, fertility hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, oestrogen, antral follicle count, baseline anti-Mullerian hormone, and adiponectin were significantly correlated to the improvement in reproductive function (p<0.05 each). The change in anti-Mullerian hormone and adiponectin levels correlated significantly with physical activity level in both responders and non-responders (p<0.05). In women with anovulatory syndromes, there were significant improvements in ovarian process with an ovulation

  9. Endogenous hormone levels and anatomical characters of haustoria in Santalum album L. seedlings before and after attachment to the host.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinhua; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Duan, Jun; Deng, Rufang; Xu, Xinlan; Ma, Guohua

    2012-06-15

    The physiological and anatomical attributes of haustoria tissues in hemi-parasitic Santalum album L. seedlings, growing on the potential host, Kuhnia rosmarnifolia Vent., were investigated before and after attachment to the host. Quantization of endogenous levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), GA-like substances (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) was performed by HPLC. Histological preparations were used to characterize structural differences between pre- and post-attachment haustoria. The contents of GAs and ABA were higher in attached haustoria, with 3.61 and 3.50μgg(-1) fresh weight, respectively, and three times higher than in non-attached haustoria. Cytokinins, Z, ZR and IAA levels were also high, and their contents in attached haustoria increased 2.04-, 2.17-, and 2.82-fold more, respectively, than in non-attached haustoria. A high auxin-to-cytokinin ratio contributed to haustorial development of S. album. A numerous amount of starch in parenchyma cells around the meristematic region above the haustorial gland and the endophyte tissue of the post-attachment haustoria were reported in a Santalaceae member for the first time. Many lysosomes were present and large-scale digestion of host cells occurred at the interface between the parasite and host. The haustorial penetration in S. album into the host stele was suggested to be a function of mechanical force and enzymatic activity. Analysis of the endogenous hormone levels and the structural characters in S. album haustoria indicated that the haustoria were able to synthesize phytohormones, which appeared to be necessary for cell division and differentiation during haustorial development. These results suggest that endogenous hormones are involved in the haustorial development of S. album and in water and nutrient transport in the host-parasite association. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in subgroups of infertile men.

    PubMed

    Dul, E C; Groen, H; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C M A; Dijkhuizen, T; van Echten-Arends, J; Land, J A

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities is assumed to be higher in infertile men and inversely correlated with sperm concentration. Although guidelines advise karyotyping infertile men, karyotyping is costly, therefore it would be of benefit to identify men with the highest risk of chromosomal abnormalities, possibly by using parameters other than sperm concentration. The aim of this study was to evaluate several clinical parameters in azoospermic and non-azoospermic men, in order to assess the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in different subgroups of infertile men. In a retrospective cohort of 1223 azoospermic men and men eligible for ICSI treatment, we studied sperm parameters, hormone levels and medical history for an association with chromosomal abnormalities. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in the cohort was 3.1%. No association was found between chromosomal abnormalities and sperm volume, concentration, progressive motility or total motile sperm count. Azoospermia was significantly associated with the presence of a chromosomal abnormality [15.2%, odds ratio (OR) 7.70, P < 0.001]. High gonadotrophin levels were also associated with an increased prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities (OR 2.96, P = 0.013). Azoospermic men with a positive andrologic history had a lower prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities than azoospermic men with an uneventful history (OR 0.28, P = 0.047). In non-azoospermic men, we found that none of the studied variables were associated with the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities. We show that the highest prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities is found in hypergonadotrophic azoospermic men with an uneventful andrologic history.

  11. Variation in the levels of pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein in maternal serum from chromosomally abnormal pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Graham, G W; Crossley, J A; Aitken, D A; Connor, J M

    1992-06-01

    Human pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein (SP1) was assayed retrospectively in stored maternal serum (MS) samples from 82 chromosomally abnormal pregnancies and 377 matched controls. The median MSSP1 concentration in 48 Down's syndrome pregnancies was significantly elevated at 1.17 multiples of the control median (MOM), and significantly reduced (0.5 MOM) in a group of eight cases of unbalanced translocations. There was no significant difference in median SP1 concentrations in cases of trisomy 18, trisomy 13, balanced translocations, or sex chromosome abnormalities. A comparison with human chorionic gonadotrophin results in the same series of samples indicates that SP1 is a less sensitive predictor of Down's syndrome pregnancies.

  12. Parenting styles and hormone levels as predictors of physical and indirect aggression in boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Sagastizabal, Eider; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Braza, Francisco; Vergara, Ana I; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parenting style, androgen levels, and measures of physical and indirect aggression. Peer ratings of aggression were obtained from 159 eight-year-old children (89 boys and 70 girls). Parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian or permissive) were assessed using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ).Saliva samples were obtained from children and assayed for testosterone and androstenedione concentrations. A regression analysis revealed that high testosterone levels were associated with a higher level of physical aggression in boys with authoritarian mothers. Testosterone was also found to moderate the relationship between father's authoritarian parenting and physical aggression in girls, with both moderate and high levels being significant. In relation to indirect aggression, moderate and high levels of testosterone were associated with higher levels of this type of aggression in girls with permissive mothers. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the interaction of biological and psychosocial variables when investigating aggressive behavior. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Normal Morning Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Levels and No Association with Rapid Eye Movement or Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Parameters in Narcolepsy Type 1 and Type 2.

    PubMed

    Schrölkamp, Maren; Jennum, Poul J; Gammeltoft, Steen; Holm, Anja; Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Stine

    2017-02-15

    Other than hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) deficiency in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), the neurochemical imbalance of NT1 and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) with normal HCRT-1 levels is largely unknown. The neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is mainly secreted during sleep and is involved in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation. Hypocretin neurons reciprocally interact with MCH neurons. We hypothesized that altered MCH secretion contributes to the symptoms and sleep abnormalities of narcolepsy and that this is reflected in morning cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MCH levels, in contrast to previously reported normal evening/afternoon levels. Lumbar CSF and plasma were collected from 07:00 to 10:00 from 57 patients with narcolepsy (subtypes: 47 NT1; 10 NT2) diagnosed according to International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition (ICSD-3) and 20 healthy controls. HCRT-1 and MCH levels were quantified by radioimmunoassay and correlated with clinical symptoms, polysomnography (PSG), and Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) parameters. CSF and plasma MCH levels were not significantly different between narcolepsy patients regardless of ICSD-3 subtype, HCRT-1 levels, or compared to controls. CSF MCH and HCRT-1 levels were not significantly correlated. Multivariate regression models of CSF MCH levels, age, sex, and body mass index predicting clinical, PSG, and MSLT parameters did not reveal any significant associations to CSF MCH levels. Our study shows that MCH levels in CSF collected in the morning are normal in narcolepsy and not associated with the clinical symptoms, REM sleep abnormalities, nor number of muscle movements during REM or NREM sleep of the patients. We conclude that morning lumbar CSF MCH measurement is not an informative diagnostic marker for narcolepsy. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  14. Genetic variations altering FSH action affect circulating hormone levels as well as follicle growth in healthy peripubertal girls.

    PubMed

    Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Almstrup, Kristian; Main, Katharina M; Juul, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Do variants of the genes encoding follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) beta subunit (B) and FSH receptor (R) impact circulating reproductive hormone levels and ovarian follicle maturation in healthy peripubertal girls? FSHB and FSHR genetic variants exert, alone or their combination, distinct effects on reproductive hormone levels as well as ovarian follicle maturation in healthy peripubertal girls. FSHB and FSHR genetic variants impact reproductive hormone levels as well as associated pathologies in women. While FSHR c. 2039A>G is known to alter gonadotrophin levels in women, FSHR c.-29G>A has not yet been shown to exert effect and there are conflicting results concerning FSHB c.-211G>T. This population-based study included 633 girls recruited as part of two cohorts, the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study (2006-2014, a cross-sectional and ongoing longitudinal study) and the Copenhagen Mother-Child Cohort (1997-2002, including transabdominal ultrasound (TAUS) of the ovaries in a subset of 91 peripubertal girls). Clinical examinations, including pubertal breast stage (Tanner's classification B1-B5) were performed. Circulating levels of FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin-B were assessed by immunoassays. In a subset of the girls (n = 91), ovarian volume and the number/size of antral follicles were assessed by TAUS. Genotypes were determined by competitive PCR. FSHR c.2039A>G minor alleles were positively associated with serum FSH (β = 0.08, P = 0.004), LH (β = 0.06, P = 0.012) and estradiol (β = 0.06, P = 0.017) (adjusted for Tanner stages). In a combined model, FSHR c.-29G>A and FSHR c.2039A>G alleles were positively associated with FSH levels in early-pubertal girls (B2 + B3, n = 327, r = 0.1, P = 0.02) and in young adolescents (B4 + B5, n = 149, r = 0.2, P = 0.01). Serum AMH and inhibin B levels were not significantly influenced by the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Single SNPs were not associated with follicles

  15. Effects of sleeve gastrectomy surgery with modified jejunoileal bypass on body weight, food intake and metabolic hormone levels of rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lingling; Zhu, Zhanyong; Wu, Dan; Zhou, Qixing; Wu, Yiping

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the effects of a combined surgery of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and modified jejunoileal bypass (JIB) on the body weight, food intake, and the plasma levels of active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and total ghrelin of rats. Rats were divided into 3 groups in terms of different surgical protocol: SG-JIB (n=12), SG (n=12), JIB (n=12) and sham surgery groups (n=10). In SG-JIB group, rats was subjected to sleeve gastrectomy and end to side anastomosis of part of the jejunum (25 cm from the ligament of Treitz) to the ileum 25 cm proximal to the cecum. The body weight and food intake were evaluated during 10 consecutive weeks postoperatively. The levels of active GLP-1 and total ghrelin in the plasma of the rats were measured by ELISA assay. The results showed that the SG-JIB treated rats relative to SG- or JIB-treated ones produced a sustained reduction in food intake and weight gain. The level of active GLP-1 was elevated and total ghrelin level decreased in SG-JIB-treated rats as compared with SG- or JIB-treated ones. It was concluded that SG-JIB could efficiently reduce the body weight and food intake, alter obesity-related hormone levels of the rats, indicating that SG-JIB may be potentially used for the treatment of obesity.

  16. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between serum sexual hormone levels and internal derangement of temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Madani, A S; Shamsian, A A; Hedayati-Moghaddam, M R; Fathi-Moghadam, F; Sabooni, M R; Mirmortazavi, A; Golmohamadi, M

    2013-08-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are defined as clinical conditions that involve the masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or both. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum 17β-oestradiol and progesterone levels in menstruating women affected by internal derangement of the TMJ. A total of 142 women (mean age 30·2 ± 6·7) who referred to medical diagnostic laboratory of Iranian Academic Centre for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, were enrolled during 2007 and 2008. Forty-seven individuals had disc displacement with reduction (Group IIa) according to Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC)/TMD Axis I diagnosis. Radioimmunoassay was used for the detection of serum 17β-oestradiol and progesterone levels in all 142 subjects. The mean progesterone level was significantly higher in control group (11·6 ± 10·4 ng mL(-1) ) compared to women with TMD (8·4 ± 6·8 ng mL(-1) , P = 0·03). No significant difference was found in two groups regarding 17β-oestradiol level. Lower progesterone level in women with TMD can suggest the more important role of this hormone in the development of the disorder. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Exposure to Hypoxia at High Altitude (5380 m) for 1 Year Induces Reversible Effects on Semen Quality and Serum Reproductive Hormone Levels in Young Male Adults.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Cui, Jianhua; Wang, Rui; Gao, Liang; Gao, Xiaokang; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Qiong; Cao, Jinjun; Yu, Wuzhong

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypoxia at high altitude on the semen quality and the serum reproductive hormone levels in male adults. A total of 52 male soldiers were enrolled in this cohort study. They were exposed to hypoxia at high altitude (5380 m) for 12 months when undergoing a service. After exposure, they were followed up for 6 months. The samples of semen and peripheral blood were collected at 1 month before exposure (M0), 6 months of exposure (M6), 12 months of exposure (M12), and 6 months after exposure (M18). The semen quality was assessed with computer-assisted analysis system, and the serum levels of reproductive hormones, including prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were analyzed by ELISA. Compared with those at M0, total sperm count, sperm density, motility, survival rate, and serum levels of LH, PRL and testosterone were significantly decreased, whereas the liquefaction time was significantly prolonged and serum FSH level was significantly increased at M6 (p<0.05). At M12, total sperm count and sperm density increased, whereas sperm motility, survival rate, and the liquefaction time further decreased. Sperm velocities, progression ratios, and lateral head displacements were also decreased. Serum FSH level decreased while serum LH, PRL, and testosterone levels increased. Compared with those at M6, the changes in these detected parameters of semen and hormone at M12 were significant (p<0.05). At M18, all these detected parameters except testosterone level returned to levels comparable to those before exposure. In conclusion, hypoxia at high altitude causes adverse effects on semen quality and reproductive hormones, and these effects are reversible.

  18. Abnormal mRNA Expression Levels of Telomere-Binding Proteins Represent Biomarkers in Myelodysplastic Syndromes: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoshan; Yan, Rongdi; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Bin; Sun, Hu; Cui, Xing

    2017-08-02

    As evidence was shown that abnormal shortening of telomeres begins to accumulate in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between the mRNA expression levels of telomere-binding proteins (TRF1/TRF2/TIN2/TPP1/POT1/RAP1) and the risk level in MDS. There were 40 patients with MDS and 40 normal controls in this study. Methods including telomere content assays and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to examine the mRNA levels of TRF1/TRF2/TIN2/TPP1/POT1/RAP1 in patients with MDS. Compared to the normal group used as a control, the mRNA expression levels of RAP1/POT1/TPP1 of the patients with MDS were decreased, whereas their levels of TRF1/TRF2 and TIN2 were increased. A positive correlation was found between the TRF1, TRF2, and TIN2 mRNA expression levels and the risk level of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the World Health Organization Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS) criteria; however, a negative correlation was found between RAP1/POT1/TPP1 mRNA expression levels and the risk levels of IPSS and WPSS criteria. Because the reduction of TRF1/TRF2/TIN2 mRNA expression and the increase of RAP1/POT1/TPP1 mRNA expression are closely related to the risk levels of the IPSS and WPSS criteria in MDS, it is thought that these telomere-binding proteins could lead to abnormal telomere length and function, which cause chromosomal abnormalities in MDS. With this evidence, we suggest that those proteins' mRNA expressions could be used as biomarkers for the assessment of the risk degree of MDS patients.

  19. Second-trimester IL-15 and IL-18 levels in the amniotic fluid of fetuses with normal karyotypes and with chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Klimkiewicz-Blok, Dominika; Florjański, Jerzy; Zalewski, Jerzy; Blok, Radosław

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the behavior of interleukin 15 (IL-15) and 18 (IL-18) in the amniotic fluid in the second trimester of gestations complicated by chromosomal defects in the fetus. Likewise, it has not yet been established whether a fetus with chromosome abnormalities creates its immunity mechanisms in the same way as a fetus with a normal karyotype. The aim of this work was to assess the concentration of IL-15 and IL-18 in the amniotic fluid in the second trimester of gestation in fetuses with normal karyotypes and with chromosome abnormalities. The material consisted of 51 samples of amniotic fluid obtained from genetic amniocenteses carried out between the 15th and the 19th weeks of gestation. On the basis of cytogenetic screening, two groups were singled out: Group I--45 fetuses with normal karyotypes, and Group II--6 fetuses with abnormal karyotypes. The concentrations of IL-15 and IL-18 in the amniotic fluid were assessed with ready-made assays and analyzed, and the results from both groups were compared. The differences between the IL-15 levels in the amniotic fluid from Groups I and II proved to be statistically insignificant (p = 0.054). However, the average IL-18 levels in the amniotic fluid of the fetuses with normal karyotypes were significantly higher than in the amniotic fluid of the fetuses with chromosome abnormalities (p = 0.032). Some defense mechanisms in the second trimester of gestation in fetuses with chromosome abnormalities may develop in a different way than in fetuses with normal karyotypes.

  20. Preoperative normal level of parathyroid hormone signifies an early and mild form of primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Bergenfelz, Anders; Lindblom, Pia; Lindergård, Birger; Valdemarsson, Stig; Westerdahl, Johan

    2003-04-01

    Contemporary patients are often diagnosed with mild or intermittent hypercalcemia. In addition, most studies demonstrate patients with parathyroid (PTH) levels in the upper normal range. The aim of the present investigation was to define subgroups of patients with mild primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), which could be of importance in the decision for or against surgical treatment. Two-hundred and eleven patients, operated for pHPT were investigated with biochemical variables known to reflect PTH activity, renal function, and bone mineral content. The preoperative diagnosis of pHPT was based on the presence of hypercalcemia combined with an inappropriate serum concentration of PTH. The mean age of the patients was 64 +/- 14 years and the mean serum level of calcium was 2.78 +/- 0.19 mmol/L. One hundred and sixty-two patients (77%) had raised levels of calcium and PTH the day before surgery (overt pHPT), 25 patients (12%) had a normal level of calcium and a raised PTH level (normal calcium group), and 20 patients (9%) had a raised level of calcium and a normal level of PTH (normal PTH group). In four patients the level of calcium and PTH was normal. Between-group analysis demonstrated no major difference in symptom and signs of pHPT. Except for lower adenoma weight, patients in the normal calcium group did not essentially differ from the patients in the overt pHPT group. However, patients in the normal PTH group were a decade younger, and had better renal function, lower bone turnover, and a preserved bone density compared with patients in the overt pHPT group. In conclusion, the data from the present investigation show that pHPT patients with a preoperative normal PTH level have an early and mild form of the disease. Furthermore, the serum calcium concentration does not reflect disease severity in pHPT.

  1. Normal Morning Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Levels and No Association with Rapid Eye Movement or Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Parameters in Narcolepsy Type 1 and Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Schrölkamp, Maren; Jennum, Poul J.; Gammeltoft, Steen; Holm, Anja; Kornum, Birgitte R.; Knudsen, Stine

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives: Other than hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) deficiency in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), the neurochemical imbalance of NT1 and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) with normal HCRT-1 levels is largely unknown. The neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is mainly secreted during sleep and is involved in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation. Hypocretin neurons reciprocally interact with MCH neurons. We hypothesized that altered MCH secretion contributes to the symptoms and sleep abnormalities of narcolepsy and that this is reflected in morning cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MCH levels, in contrast to previously reported normal evening/afternoon levels. Methods: Lumbar CSF and plasma were collected from 07:00 to 10:00 from 57 patients with narcolepsy (subtypes: 47 NT1; 10 NT2) diagnosed according to International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition (ICSD-3) and 20 healthy controls. HCRT-1 and MCH levels were quantified by radioimmunoassay and correlated with clinical symptoms, polysomnography (PSG), and Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) parameters. Results: CSF and plasma MCH levels were not significantly different between narcolepsy patients regardless of ICSD-3 subtype, HCRT-1 levels, or compared to controls. CSF MCH and HCRT-1 levels were not significantly correlated. Multivariate regression models of CSF MCH levels, age, sex, and body mass index predicting clinical, PSG, and MSLT parameters did not reveal any significant associations to CSF MCH levels. Conclusions: Our study shows that MCH levels in CSF collected in the morning are normal in narcolepsy and not associated with the clinical symptoms, REM sleep abnormalities, nor number of muscle movements during REM or NREM sleep of the patients. We conclude that morning lumbar CSF MCH measurement is not an informative diagnostic marker for narcolepsy. Citation: Schrölkamp M, Jennum PJ, Gammeltoft S, Holm A, Kornum BR, Knudsen S. Normal morning melanin

  2. Genetics of Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    When a child is not following the normal, predicted growth curve, an evaluation for underlying illnesses and central nervous system abnormalities is required, and appropriate consideration should be given to genetic defects causing growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD). Because Insulin−like Growth Factor−I (IGF−I) plays a pivotal role, GHD could also be considered as a form of IGF−I deficiency (IGFD). Although IGFD can develop at any level of the GH−releasing hormone (GHRH)−GH−IGF axis, a differentiation should be made between GHD (absent to low GH in circulation) and IGFD (normal to high GH in circulation). The main focus of this review is on the GH gene, the various gene alterations and their possible impact on the pituitary gland. However, although transcription factors regulating the pituitary gland development may cause multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, they may present initially as GHD. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274339

  3. Acute myelobalstic leukemia and hypercalcemia. A case of probable ectopic parathyroid hormone production.

    PubMed

    Zidar, B L; Shadduck, R K; Winkelstein, A; Zeigler, Z; Hawker, C D

    1976-09-23

    We studied a patient with acute myeloblastic leukemia, hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia and inappropriately elevated serum parathyroid hormone levels to define the mechanism of the hypercalcemia. On six occasions during two years, hypercalcemia occurred in conjunction with relapses of leukmia. Each time, serum calcium decreased to normal levels in parallel with reduction of the leukemic mass. During two periods of hypercalcemia, immunoreactive parathyroid hormone values were abnormally high. In addition, hormone was detected in vitro after short-term incubation of the leukemic cells (after 24 hours, the patient's cells produced 129 pg of PTH per milliliter, whereas myeloblasts from a normocalcemic patient with leukemia produced only 33 pg). In freeze-thawing experiments, 39 pg of parathyroid hormone was released form 1 x 108 of the patient's myeloblasts; no hormone was released from the normocalcemia cells. These findings suggest that the hypercalcemia resulted from ectopic parathyroid hormone production by leukemic cells.

  4. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  5. Effects of environmental lead pollution on blood lead and sex hormone levels among occupationally exposed group in an E-waste dismantling area.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Lu, Xiao Song; Li, Ding Long; Yu, Yun Jiang

    2013-06-01

    To study the effects of environmental multi-media lead pollution on blood lead and sex hormone levels among lead exposed males engaged in E-waste dismantling, and the correlation between confounding factors and sex hormone levels. An E-waste dismantling area in Taizhou of Zhejiang Province was selected as the research site. One hundred and fifty two samples were collected from the groundwater, soil, rice, corn, chicken, and pork in the dismantling area. The effects of the multi-media lead pollution on the male blood lead and sex hormone levels of FSH, LH, and T, as well as the correlation with confounding factors, were studied. The blood lead concentrations in the males aged under 31, from 31 to 45 and from 46 to 60 were 98.55, 100.23, and 101.45 μg/L, respectively. Of all the environmental media lead exposures, the groundwater, rice and soil were main contributing factors to the lead accumulation in humans. FSH and LH levels increased with the age while the T levels decreased with the age instead. There was a significant correlation between the FSH and LH levels and wearing masks. There was correlation between the FSH, LH, and T levels, and the mean values of lead concentrations in environmental media, and the sex hormone levels were correlated with the confounding factor of wearing masks. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  6. Hormonal regulation of serum Lp (a) levels. Opposite effects after estrogen treatment and orchidectomy in males with prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, P; Angelin, B; Berglund, L

    1992-01-01

    Serum concentrations of lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] were determined in two groups of elderly males suffering from prostatic carcinoma, who were randomized to treatment with estrogen (n = 15) or orchidectomy (n = 16). Estrogen was given as oral ethinylestradiol, 150 micrograms daily, combined with intramuscular polyestradiol phosphate, 80 mg/mo. The baseline levels were similar in both groups, but 6 mo after initiation of therapy, serum Lp (a) levels were decreased approximately 50% in the estrogen-treated group (P less than 0.001) in contrast to a 20% increase (P less than 0.01) in the orchidectomized group. Concomitantly, LDL cholesterol decreased by 30% and HDL cholesterol increased by almost 60% in the estrogen-treated patients. There was no relationship between the change in LDL cholesterol and Lp (a) reduction. In conclusion, Lp (a) levels in males were found to drastically decrease upon estrogen treatment and to increase after orchidectomy, suggesting that sex hormones, and particularly estrogens, exert a regulatory role on the serum Lp (a) level in man. Images PMID:1532586

  7. Dietary fiber intake and endogenous serum hormone levels in naturally postmenopausal Mexican American women: the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Kristine R; Murphy, Suzanne P; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Adlercreutz, Herman; Pike, Malcolm C

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated dietary fiber intake in association with serum estrogen levels in naturally postmenopausal Latina women with a wide range of fiber intake. Estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in 242 women. Associations between estrogen levels and intake of dietary fiber, including insoluble and soluble fractions, quantified from a food frequency questionnaire, were examined. The biomarker enterolactone was also measured. After adjustment for age, weight, and other nondietary factors, dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with E1 and E2; there was a 22% and 17% decrease (2Ptrend=0.023 and 0.045) among subjects in the highest quintile of intake compared with the lowest. Fitting dietary fiber together with soluble and insoluble nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) showed a much greater decrease in E1 and E2 (47% and 41%, respectively) while increased soluble NSP intake showed increases in E1 and E2 (64% and 69%, respectively). Two foods, avocado and grapefruit, showed significant positive associations with E1 (2Ptrend=0.029 and 0.015, respectively). This study suggests that different components of dietary fiber may have very significant different effects on serum estrogen levels. The suggestive findings relating increased estrogen levels to avocado and grapefruit intakes need confirmation.

  8. Enhanced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in bulimia nervosa: relationships to psychiatric comorbidity, psychopathology and hormonal variables.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Santonastaso, Paolo; Pannuto, Marilena; Favaro, Angela; Caregaro, Lorenza; Castaldo, Eloisa; Zanetti, Tatiana; Maj, Mario

    2005-04-30

    Increased levels of cholesterol have been reported in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), but all but one of the published studies were performed on non-fasting subjects, which limits the interpretation of this finding. Moreover, the relationships between serum lipids and comorbid psychiatric disorders or bulimic psychopathology have scarcely been investigated. We measured serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, 17beta-estradiol and thyroid hormones in 75 bulimic women and 64 age-matched healthy females after an overnight fast. Compared with healthy women, bulimic patients exhibited significantly enhanced serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, but similar values of glucose, 17beta-estradiol, FT3 and FT4. No significant differences emerged in these variables between patients with or without comorbid depression, borderline personality disorder or lifetime anorexia nervosa. Circulating cholesterol was positively correlated to the patients' drive for thinness, ineffectiveness, enteroceptive awareness and impulse regulation sub-item scores of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2. These findings confirm that BN is associated with increased levels of serum lipids. This alteration may be involved in the pathophysiology of certain psychopathological characteristics of BN and cannot be explained by the co-occurrence of other psychiatric disorders.

  9. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone, inhibin B, and total inhibin levels in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea and anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Luisi, Stefano; Ciani, Valentina; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Lazzeri, Lucia; De Pascalis, Flavio; Meczekalski, Blazej; Petraglia, Felice

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether neuroendocrine forms of secondary amenorrhea (hypothalamic nervosa (HA) and anorexia nervosa (AN)) affect serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, and total inhibin levels. Amenorrheic women (n = 82) (aged between 16 and 35 years old) according to diagnosed with neuroendocrine forms of amenorrhea: HA (n = 64), AN (n = 18), and healthy women (n = 41) (control group) were enrolled. Serum AMH, inhibin B, and total inhibin levels were measured by specific ELISA. No statistically significant difference of AMH serum levels between women with HA, AN, and control group was observed. Serum inhibin B and total inhibin levels in women with HA (p < 0.0001), AN (p < 0.05) resulted significantly lower than in control healthy women. The present data showed that neuroendocrine forms of amenorrhea are associated with an impaired inhibin secretion while not AMH. These data indirectly support that AMH is an excellent marker of ovarian reserve and its secretion is not influenced by the hypothalamic-ovarian axis activity.

  10. Molt-associated changes in hematologic and plasma biochemical values and stress hormone levels in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Mazzaro, Lisa M; Meegan, Jenny; Sarran, Delphine; Romano, Tracy A; Bonato, Vinicius; Deng, Shibing; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2013-12-01

    Handling, including blood collection, has often been discouraged in molting penguins because it is considered an additional stress imposed on birds already experiencing major physiologic stress associated with molting. To evaluate the degree of physiologic stress posed by molting, we compared the hematologic and plasma biochemical values and hormone levels of molting and nonmolting African penguins, Spheniscus demersus. Five male and 5 female penguins randomly chosen were given complete physical examinations, were weighed, and blood samples were taken at 7 time points before, during, and after the molt. Data were analyzed by linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Throughout the study, behavior and appetite remained normal. Catecholamine levels were highly variable within and among subjects, whereas mean corticosterone levels were significantly different between baseline, molt, and postmolt values. Significant differences from baseline values were observed in many of the hematologic analytes; however, only decreases in hematocrit and red blood cell count values were considered clinically significant. Anemia due to experimentally induced blood loss as a possible cause of the significant hematologic changes was ruled out based on results of a follow-up control study during the nonmolt season, which showed no significant changes in hematocrit level or total red blood cell counts when using similar sampling protocols, which indicates that these changes were associated with molt.

  11. Plasma orexin A levels in recently menopausal women during and 3 years following use of hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Cintron, Dahima; Beckman, John P; Bailey, Kent R; Lahr, Brian D; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Miller, Virginia M

    2017-05-01

    Alterations in sleep quality and metabolism during menopause are improved by menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). The mechanisms mediating these effects remain unclear. Orexin A (OxA) is a neuro-peptide that regulates sleep/wakefulness, food intake and metabolism. This study examined changes in plasma OxA levels during and after treatment in women from the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). KEEPS randomized women within three years of menopause to: oral conjugated equine estrogen (o-CEE, 0.45mg/day), transdermal 17β estradiol (t-E2, 50μg/day), or placebo pills and patches for four years. Plasma OxA levels were measured by enzyme immunoassays in fasting blood samples collected annually from KEEPS participants at Mayo Clinic during and three years after MHT. Changes in menopausal symptoms and plasma OxA levels were assessed for treatment differences. During treatment, OxA levels increased more in women randomized to o-CEE compared with the other groups. Women randomized to either form of MHT demonstrated smaller increases in BMI than those on placebo. Insomnia severity decreased similarly among treatment groups. However, neither changes in sleep nor changes in BMI correlated with changes in plasma OxA levels. Changes in waist circumference correlated positively with changes in plasma OxA levels three years after discontinuation of study treatments. Although OxA levels increased only in women randomized to o-CEE, these changes did not correlate with changes in sleep quality or BMI. The modest correlation of OxA levels with waist circumference once study treatments were discontinued suggests that OxA may be modulated through multiple intermediary pathways affected by metabolites of 17β-estradiol. Clinical Trial Registration for KEEPS: NCT00154180. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. A large-scale association analysis of 68 thyroid hormone pathway genes with serum TSH and FT4 levels.

    PubMed

    Medici, Marco; van der Deure, Wendy M; Verbiest, Michael; Vermeulen, Sita H; Hansen, Pia S; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Hermus, Ad R M M; Breteler, Monique M; Hofman, Albert; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; den Heijer, Martin; Uitterlinden, André G; Visser, Theo J; Peeters, Robin P

    2011-05-01

    Minor variation in serum thyroid hormone (TH) levels can have important effects on various clinical endpoints. Although 45-65% of the inter-individual variation in serum TH levels is due to genetic factors, the causative genes are not well established. We therefore studied the effects of genetic variation in 68 TH pathway genes on serum TSH and free thyroxine (FT(4)) levels. Sixty-eight genes (1512 polymorphisms) were studied in relation to serum TSH and FT(4) levels in 1121 Caucasian subjects. Promising hits (P<0.01) were studied in three independent Caucasian populations (2656 subjects) for confirmation. A meta-analysis of all four studies was performed. For TSH, eight PDE8B polymorphisms (P=4×10(-17)) remained significant in the meta-analysis. For FT(4), two DIO1 (P=8×10(-12)) and one FOXE1 (P=0.0003) polymorphisms remained significant in the meta-analysis. Suggestive associations were detected for one FOXE1 (P=0.0028) and three THRB (P=0.0045) polymorphisms with TSH, and one SLC16A10 polymorphism (P=0.0110) with FT(4)