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Sample records for abnormal hormone levels

  1. Hormone levels

    MedlinePlus

    Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

  2. A structural abnormality associated with graded levels of thyroid hormone insufficiency: Dose dependent increases in heterotopia volume

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in ...

  3. Structural Abnormalities and Learning Impairments Induced by Low Level Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency: A Cross-Fostering Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Severe reductions in thyroid hormones (TH) during development alter brain structure and impair learning. Uncertainty surrounds both the impact oflower levels of TH disruption and the sensitivity of available metrics to detect neurodevelopmental deficits of this disruption. We ha...

  4. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    PubMed

    Proctor, C A

    1981-10-01

    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  5. Hormonal abnormalities of the pancreas and gut in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Adrian, T E; McKiernan, J; Johnstone, D I; Hiller, E J; Vyas, H; Sarson, D L; Bloom, S R

    1980-09-01

    We have investigated the effect of cystic fibrosis on alimentary hormones in 10 children by measuring the pancreatic and gut hormone rsponse to a milk drink. Plasma insulin and gastric inhibitory peptide were both significantly reduced (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005, respectively, at 15 min) in the patients with cystic fibrosis, compared with controls, even though the early glucose rise was greater in the former group (P < 0.05 at 15 min). Fasting levels of pancreatic polypeptide were significantly lower in the fibrocystic children (P < 0.01), and the normal response to milk was completely abolished in these patients (P < 0.001). Fasting plasma enteroglucagon concentrations were grossly abolished in the cystic fibrosis patients (P < 0.001) and these remained elevated throughout the test. No significant differences were seen in basal or postmilk responses of plasma glucagon, gastrin, secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, or motilin in cystic fibrosis. It would thus appear that the pancreatic polypeptide cell is more susceptible to the effects of the disease process than the beta or alpha cell in cystic fibrosis. Some aspects of the abnormalities in the gastrointestinal endocrine system were similar to those seen in celiac disease and tropical sprue and may, therefore, effect a similar hormonal response in these patients with cystic fibrosis to those with mucosal damage.

  6. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Hua Chiaho; Wu Shengjie; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  7. Limb malformations and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in frogs.

    PubMed Central

    Sower, S A; Reed, K L; Babbitt, K J

    2000-01-01

    Declines in amphibian populations, and amphibians with gross malformations, have prompted concern regarding the biological status of many anuran species. A survey of bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, and green frogs, Rana clamitans, conducted in central and southern New Hampshire showed malformed frogs at 81% of the sites sampled (13 of 16 sites). Brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the synthesis of androgens and estradiol, hormones essential to reproductive processes, were measured from limb-malformed and normal (no limb malformation) frogs. Normal frogs had significantly higher concentrations (nearly 3-fold) of in vitro produced androgens and of brain GnRH than malformed frogs. Because most malformations are thought to occur during development, we propose that environmental factors or endocrine-disrupting chemicals that may cause developmental abnormalities also act during early development to ultimately cause abnormally reduced GnRH and androgen production in adult frogs. The consequences of reduced GnRH and androgens on anuran reproductive behavior and population dynamics are unknown but certainly may be profound and warrant further research. PMID:11102301

  8. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  9. A structural abnormality associated with graded levels of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in the corpus callosum (CC), a heterotopia, in adult rats following hypothyroidism induced by the hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU). In this report we have investigated the dose- response relationships to administered dose of PTU, the magnitude of reductions in circulating TH, and the incidence and volume of the heterotopia in adult offspring of PTU-treated dams. Pregnant rat dams were administered 0, 1, 2, 3 or 10 ppm of PTU in the drinking water from gestational day 6 until pups were weaned on postnatal day 21 (PN2 1). Serum hormones in the dams were reduced in a dose-dependent manner, but at the lower dose levels (1, 2 and 3ppm) reductions were limited to T4 with no change in serum T3. At higher PTU concentrations, serum T3 was reduced in dams (1 Oppm) and pups on PN14 and 21 (3 and 10 ppm). All hormone levels returned to control levels in adulthood. On PN 130, female offspring were perfused with paraformaldehyde and sections prepared for immunohistochemistry for the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. All sections (40-45 50u through the hippocampus) were examined for the presence of a heterotopia in the CC. A dose-dependent increase in incidence and volume of heterotopic re

  10. Developmental abnormalities of the gonad and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators from contaminated and control lakes in Florida.

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, L J; Gross, T S; Masson, G R; Matter, J M; Percival, H F; Woodward, A R

    1994-01-01

    The reproductive development of alligators from a contaminated and a control lake in central Florida was examined. Lake Apopka is adjacent to an EPA Superfund site, listed due to an extensive spill of dicofol and DDT or its metabolites. These compounds can act as estrogens. Contaminants in the lake also have been derived from extensive agricultural activities around the lake that continue today and a sewage treatment facility associated with the city of Winter Garden, Florida. We examined the hypothesis that an estrogenic contaminant has caused the current failure in recruitment of alligators on Lake Apopka. Supporting data include the following: At 6 months of age, female alligators from Lake Apopka had plasma estradiol-17 beta concentrations almost two times greater than normal females from the control lake, Lake Woodruff. The Apopka females exhibited abnormal ovarian morphology with large numbers of polyovular follicles and polynuclear oocytes. Male juvenile alligators had significantly depressed plasma testosterone concentrations comparable to levels observed in normal Lake Woodruff females but more than three times lower than normal Lake Woodruff males. Additionally, males from Lake Apopka had poorly organized testes and abnormally small phalli. The differences between lakes and sexes in plasma hormone concentrations of juvenile alligators remain even after stimulation with luteinizing hormone. Our data suggest that the gonads of juveniles from Lake Apopka have been permanently modified in ovo, so that normal steroidogenesis is not possible, and thus normal sexual maturation is unlikely. Images p680-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 4. C Figure 4. D Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C PMID:7895709

  11. Low and Normal IGF-1 Levels in Patients with Chronic Medical Disorders (CMD) is Independent of Anterior Pituitary Hormone Deficiencies: Implications for Treating IGF-1 Abnormal Deficiencies with CMD.

    PubMed

    Braverman, E; Oscar-Berman, M; Lohmann, R; Kennedy, R; Kerner, M; Dushaj, K; Blum, K

    2013-02-09

    Over time, based on evidence-based medicine, a number of hormonal test levels including IGF-1 had been raised or lowered to meet new criteria standards. In particular, IGF-1 plasma levels have been shown in several studies to be an independent diagnostic tool in Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD). Many endocrinology studies link low IGF-1 plasma levels with low levels of other anterior pituitary hormones (i.e., LH, FSH, and TSH). Low IGF-1 is considered by most to be between 84-100 µ/l and numerous studies recommend that raising IGF-1 to high normal range reverses Chronic Medical Diseases (CMD), improves bone mineral density (BMD), and fibromyalgia. Moreover, some studies suggest that low levels of IGF-1 by itself independent of anterior pituitary deficiencies is sufficient to determine AGHD in humans. In order to determine the relationship of low IGF-1 with that of LH, FSH, and TSH levels in subjects with CMD, we evaluated these levels (± SD) in 944 patients. Patients with IGF-1 below 84 µ/l, 100 µ/l, and 150 µ/l were accessed. 9.22% had less than 84 µ/l (SD ± 12.52); 19.9% had less than 100 µ/l (SD ± 9.54); and 51.6 had less than 150 µ/l (SD ± 26.0). Specifically, the percentages found for low LH, FSH, and TSH were only 4.2%, 4.8%, and 6.5%. We conclude that IGF-1 deficiencies occur independent of comorbid deficiencies of LH, FSH, and TSH. Finally, we propose that based on the present investigation, IGF-1 low levels between the range of 84-100 µ/l may be too low to be considered as an independent diagnostic marker to treat AGHD with CMD.

  12. Low and Normal IGF-1 Levels in Patients with Chronic Medical Disorders (CMD) is Independent of Anterior Pituitary Hormone Deficiencies: Implications for Treating IGF-1 Abnormal Deficiencies with CMD

    PubMed Central

    Braverman, E; Oscar-Berman, M; Lohmann, R; Kennedy, R; Kerner, M; Dushaj, K; Blum, K

    2013-01-01

    Over time, based on evidence–based medicine, a number of hormonal test levels including IGF-1 had been raised or lowered to meet new criteria standards. In particular, IGF-1 plasma levels have been shown in several studies to be an independent diagnostic tool in Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency (AGHD). Many endocrinology studies link low IGF-1 plasma levels with low levels of other anterior pituitary hormones (i.e., LH, FSH, and TSH). Low IGF-1 is considered by most to be between 84–100 µ/l and numerous studies recommend that raising IGF-1 to high normal range reverses Chronic Medical Diseases (CMD), improves bone mineral density (BMD), and fibromyalgia. Moreover, some studies suggest that low levels of IGF-1 by itself independent of anterior pituitary deficiencies is sufficient to determine AGHD in humans. In order to determine the relationship of low IGF-1 with that of LH, FSH, and TSH levels in subjects with CMD, we evaluated these levels (± SD) in 944 patients. Patients with IGF-1 below 84 µ/l, 100 µ/l, and 150 µ/l were accessed. 9.22% had less than 84 µ/l (SD ± 12.52); 19.9% had less than 100 µ/l (SD ± 9.54); and 51.6 had less than 150 µ/l (SD ± 26.0). Specifically, the percentages found for low LH, FSH, and TSH were only 4.2%, 4.8%, and 6.5%. We conclude that IGF-1 deficiencies occur independent of comorbid deficiencies of LH, FSH, and TSH. Finally, we propose that based on the present investigation, IGF-1 low levels between the range of 84–100 µ/l may be too low to be considered as an independent diagnostic marker to treat AGHD with CMD. PMID:23616929

  13. Role of abnormal anterior pituitary hormones-growth hormone and prolactin in active systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Xu, Jinhua; Li, Shujuan; Huang, Wen; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of anterior pituitary hormones in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains controversial. Aims and Objectives: We determined the expression levels of human growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and their receptors in subjects presenting with SLE, and modulation of disease severity. Materials and methods: Forty-seven subjects and ten healthy controls were assessed for possible association between SLE disease activity and levels of serum PRL, GH and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), specific binding and mRNA expression of receptors for GH (GHR), and PRL (PRLR) were determined by receptor-ligand binding assay (RLBA) and RT-PCR. PBMC of recruited subjects were treated with hPRL and rhGH to assess IgG production and antibodies against dsDNA. Results: In active SLE subjects we found elevated PRL and GH levels. Study subject PBMCs displayed augmented GHR and PRLR protein and mRNA expression. Study subjects also showed a positive correlation in serum PRL levels and specific antibodies against dsDNA, SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), and proteinuria. However, a negative correlation was found between serum PRL levels and complement component C3. We found a positive correlation between specific binding rates of PRLR and GHR and both SLE activity and dsDNA antibody titers. Enhanced IgG and anti-dsDNA secretion was observed in cultured PBMC stimulated by PRL or GH with/without PHA, PWM, IL-2 or IL-10. In active SLE, a close association was found between augmented PRL and GH levels, expression and specific binding activities of PRLR and GHR, and changes in the specific titer of anti-dsDNA. Conclusion: Anterior pituitary hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of SLE. High levels of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) play a role in pathogenesis of SLE, which is correlated with SLE disease activity and antibodies against dsDNA. The mechanism of GH and PRL in SLE was complicated and should

  14. Interpretation of Hormone Levels in Older Patients: Points for Consideration

    PubMed Central

    Sztefko, Krystyna; Szybowska, Patrycja

    2012-01-01

    Blood hormone and tumor marker concentrations are usually determined by immunochemical methods which are based on an unique reaction between antigen and assay capture antibody. Despite the speed and simplicity of assays performance on automatic immunochemistry platforms, the interpretation of final results requires a deep knowledge of method fallibility. General lack of immunoassays standardization, presence of cross-reacting substances in patient's sample, limitation of free hormones measurement due to abnormal analyte binding protein concentrations, assay interferences due to patient's autoantibodies, and heterophilic antibodies, as well as proper interpretation of very low- and very high-sample analyte levels, are the main points discussed in respect to hormones and tumor markers measurement in geriatric population. PMID:22666247

  15. The effects of thyroid hormone abnormalities on periodontal disease status.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Talal M; Wang, Bing-Yan; Cohen, Robert E

    2011-10-01

    Thyroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of physiologic processes. Thyroid disease can lead to imbalance in the homeostasis of the body and affect the healing capacity of tissues. However, limited data are available regarding the relationship between thyroid hormone imbalance (thyroid disease) and periodontal health. This review is carried out to summarize the relationship between thyroid disease and periodontal status. PUBMED and MEDLINE searches of both human and animal studies were performed to investigate the relationship between thyroid disease, periodontal status, and dental implants. Results suggest that thyroid diseases may affect the status of periodontal diseases, especially in hypothyroid conditions. The duration from disease onset to treatment of thyroid disorders may be critical, since uncontrolled thyroid disease may result in destruction of the periodontium. Further controlled studies are needed to explore the relationship between thyroid hormone imbalance and periodontal status. Periodontal therapies, including dental implant placement, appear to be safe with no increase in treatment failure, so long as the status of the thyroid gland is controlled.

  16. Hormonal and echocardiographic abnormalities in adult patients with sickle-cell anemia in Bahrain

    PubMed Central

    Garadah, Taysir S; Jaradat, Ahmed A; Alalawi, Mohammed E; Hassan, Adla B

    2016-01-01

    Background Adrenal, thyroid, and parathyroid gland hormonal changes are recognized in children with homozygous (HbSS) sickle-cell anemia (SCA), but are not clear in adult patients with SCA. Aim To assess the metabolic and endocrine abnormalities in adult patients with SCA and evaluate left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions compared with patients with no SCA and further study the relationship between serum levels of cortisol, free thyroxine (T4), and testosterone with serum ferritin. Materials and methods The study was conducted on 82 patients with adult HbSS SCA compared with a sex- and age-matched control group. The serum levels of cortisol, parathyroid hormone (PTH), testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and free T4 were compared. Blood levels of hemoglobin, reticulocyte count, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), calcium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), vitamin D3, and ferritin were also compared. Pulsed Doppler echo was performed to evaluate the LV mass, wall thickness, and cavity dimensions with diastolic filling velocities of early (E) and atria (A) waves. Biometric data were analyzed as mean ± standard deviation between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed between serum levels of ferritin as independent variable and testosterone, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Results A total of 82 adult patients with HbSS SCA were enrolled who had a mean age of 21±5.7 years, with 51 males (62%). Patients with SCA compared with the control group had significantly lower hemoglobin, body mass index, cortisol, vitamin D3, testosterone, and T4. Furthermore, there were significantly high levels of reticulocyte count, PTH, TSH, ferritin, LDH, ALP, and uric acid. The incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency was 7% and 4.8%, respectively, with hypogonadism 9.8% and vitamin D3 deficiency 61%. There were inverse relationships between ferritin as independent variable and serum levels of testosterone, T4, and cortisol

  17. Recurrent venous thromboembolism and abnormal uterine bleeding with anticoagulant and hormone therapy use

    PubMed Central

    Lensing, Anthonie W. A.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Levi, Marcel; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; van Bellen, Bonno; Bounameaux, Henri; Brighton, Timothy A.; Cohen, Alexander T.; Trajanovic, Mila; Gebel, Martin; Lam, Phuong; Wells, Philip S.; Prins, Martin H.

    2016-01-01

    Women receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) require adequate contraception because of the potential for fetal complications. It is unknown whether the use of hormonal therapy, especially those containing estrogens, is associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) during anticoagulation. Despite the absence of data, World Health Organization guidelines state that use of estrogen-containing contraceptives confers an “unacceptable health risk” during established anticoagulation for VTE. We compared the incidences of recurrent VTE and abnormal uterine bleeding with and without concomitant hormonal therapy in women aged <60 years who were receiving anticoagulation with rivaroxaban or enoxaparin/VKA for confirmed VTE. Incidence densities in percentage per year were computed for the on and off estrogen-containing or progestin-only therapy periods. Cox regression models were fitted, with hormonal therapy (on vs off) as a time-dependent variable to derive the hazard ratio (HR) for the effects on recurrent VTE and abnormal uterine bleeding. In total, 1888 women were included. VTE incidence densities on and off hormonal therapy were 3.7%/year and 4.7%/year (adjusted HR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-1.39), respectively, and were 3.7%/year and 3.8%/year, respectively, for estrogen-containing and progestin-only therapy. The adjusted HR for all abnormal uterine bleeding (on vs off hormonal therapy) was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.66-1.57). Abnormal uterine bleeding occurred more frequently with rivaroxaban than with enoxaparin/VKA (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.57-2.89). Hormonal therapy was not associated with an increased risk of recurrent VTE in women receiving therapeutic anticoagulation. The observed increased risk of abnormal uterine bleeding with rivaroxaban needs further exploration. PMID:26696010

  18. Abnormal serum thyroid hormones concentration with healthy functional gland: a review on the metabolic role of thyroid hormones transporter proteins.

    PubMed

    Azad, Reza Mansourian

    2011-03-01

    Laboratory findings can definitely help the patients not to enter into status, where the damage might be happen due to a miss-diagnosis based on clinical assessment alone. The secondary disease accompanied with thyroid patients should also carefully check out due to the interference which some diseases can cause in the amount of serum thyroid hormone, particularly the free thyroxin. The dilemma over thyroid clinical diagnosis occur due to variation on serum thyroid hormone which initiated by other non-thyroidal disorders which can play an important roles in metabolic disorders of thyroid hormone due to the alteration which occur on the serum level of thyroid hormone transporter proteins. The majority of serum thyroid hormones of up to 95-99% are bound to the carrier proteins mainly to Thyroxin-Binding Globulins (TBG), some transthyretin already known as pre-albumin and albumin which are all synthesis in the liver and any modification which alter their production may alter the status of thyroid hormones. It seems TBG, transthyretin and albumin carries 75, 20, 5% of thyroid hormones within blood circulation, respectively. The dilemma facing the thyroid hormones following disruption of thyroid hormone transporter protein synthesis originate from this fact that any alteration of these protein contribute to the alteration of total thyroid and free serum thyroid hormones which are in fact the biologically active form of thyroid hormones. The subsequent of latter implication result in miss-understanding and miss-diagnosis of thyroid function tests, with possible wrongly thyroid clinical care, followed by undesired therapy of otherwise healthy thyroid.

  19. Abnormalities of Thyroid Hormone Metabolism during Systemic Illness: The Low T3 Syndrome in Different Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Zantut-Wittmann, Denise Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone abnormalities are common in critically ill patients. For over three decades, a mild form of these abnormalities has been described in patients with several diseases under outpatient care. These alterations in thyroid hormone economy are a part of the nonthyroidal illness and keep an important relationship with prognosis in most cases. The main feature of this syndrome is a fall in free triiodothyronine (T3) levels with normal thyrotropin (TSH). Free thyroxin (T4) and reverse T3 levels vary according to the underlying disease. The importance of recognizing this condition in such patients is evident to physicians practicing in a variety of specialties, especially general medicine, to avoid misdiagnosing the much more common primary thyroid dysfunctions and indicating treatments that are often not beneficial. This review focuses on the most common chronic diseases already known to present with alterations in serum thyroid hormone levels. A short review of the common pathophysiology of the nonthyroidal illness is followed by the clinical and laboratorial presentation in each condition. Finally, a clinical case vignette and a brief summary on the evidence about treatment of the nonthyroidal illness and on the future research topics to be addressed are presented. PMID:27803712

  20. Cubilin dysfunction causes abnormal metabolism of the steroid hormone 25(OH) vitamin D(3).

    PubMed

    Nykjaer, A; Fyfe, J C; Kozyraki, R; Leheste, J R; Jacobsen, C; Nielsen, M S; Verroust, P J; Aminoff, M; de la Chapelle, A; Moestrup, S K; Ray, R; Gliemann, J; Willnow, T E; Christensen, E I

    2001-11-20

    Steroid hormones are central regulators of a variety of biological processes. According to the free hormone hypothesis, steroids enter target cells by passive diffusion. However, recently we demonstrated that 25(OH) vitamin D(3) complexed to its plasma carrier, the vitamin D-binding protein, enters renal proximal tubules by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Knockout mice lacking the endocytic receptor megalin lose 25(OH) vitamin D(3) in the urine and develop bone disease. Here, we report that cubilin, a membrane-associated protein colocalizing with megalin, facilitates the endocytic process by sequestering steroid-carrier complexes on the cellular surface before megalin-mediated internalization of the cubilin-bound ligand. Dogs with an inherited disorder affecting cubilin biosynthesis exhibit abnormal vitamin D metabolism. Similarly, human patients with mutations causing cubilin dysfunction exhibit urinary excretion of 25(OH) vitamin D(3). This observation identifies spontaneous mutations in an endocytic receptor pathway affecting cellular uptake and metabolism of a steroid hormone.

  1. Functional Changes after Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Replacement in Patients with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury and Abnormal Growth Hormone Secretion.

    PubMed

    Mossberg, Kurt A; Durham, William J; Zgaljardic, Dennis J; Gilkison, Charles R; Danesi, Christopher P; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Masel, Brent E; Urban, Randall J

    2017-02-15

    We explored the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement on physical and cognitive functioning in subjects with a moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) with abnormal growth hormone (GH) secretion. Fifteen individuals who sustained a TBI at least 12 months prior to study enrollment were identified as having abnormal GH secretion by glucagon stimulation testing (maximum GH response less than 8 ng/mL). Peak cardiorespiratory capacity, body composition, and muscle force testing were assessed at baseline and one year after rhGH replacement. Additionally, standardized neuropsychological tests that assess memory, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility, as well as self-report inventories related to depression and fatigue, were administered at baseline and 1 year after rhGH replacement. Comparison tests were performed with proper post hoc analyses. All analyses were carried out at α < 0.05. Peak O2 consumption, peak oxygen pulse (estimate of cardiac stroke volume), and peak ventilation all significantly increased (p < 0.05). Maximal isometric and isokinetic force production were not altered. Skeletal muscle fatigue did not change but the perceptual rating of fatigue was reduced by ∼25% (p = 0.06). Cognitive performance did not change significantly over time, whereas self-reported symptoms related to depression and fatigue significantly improved. The observed changes suggest that rhGH replacement has a positive impact on cardiorespiratory fitness and a positive impact on perceptual fatigue in survivors of TBI with altered GH secretion.

  2. Imbalance in sex hormone levels exacerbates diabetic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qin; Wells, Corinne C; Garman, Joseph H; Asico, Laureano; Escano, Crisanto S; Maric, Christine

    2008-04-01

    Studies suggest that the presence of testosterone exacerbates, whereas the absence of testosterone attenuates, the development of nondiabetic renal disease. However, the effects of the absence of testosterone in diabetic renal disease have not been studied. The study was performed in male Sprague-Dawley nondiabetic, streptozotocin-induced diabetic, and streptozotocin-induced castrated rats (n=10 to 11 per group) for 14 weeks. Diabetes was associated with the following increases: 3.2-fold in urine albumin excretion, 6.3-fold in glomerulosclerosis, 6.0-fold in tubulointerstitial fibrosis, 1.6-fold in collagen type I, 1.2-fold in collagen type IV, 1.3-fold in transforming growth factor-beta protein expression, and 32.7-fold in CD68-positive cell abundance. Diabetes was also associated with a 1.3-fold decrease in matrix metalloproteinase protein expression and activity. Castration further exacerbated all of these parameters. Diabetes was also associated with a 4.7-fold decrease in plasma testosterone, 2.9-fold increase in estradiol, and 2.1-fold decrease in plasma progesterone levels. Castration further decreased plasma testosterone levels but had no additional effects on plasma estradiol and progesterone. These data suggest that diabetes is associated with abnormal sex hormone levels that correlate with the progression of diabetic renal disease. Most importantly, our results suggest an important role for sex hormones in the pathophysiology of diabetic renal complications.

  3. High Prevalence of Chronic Pituitary and Target-Organ Hormone Abnormalities after Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Charles W.; Pagulayan, Kathleen F.; Petrie, Eric C.; Mayer, Cynthia L.; Colasurdo, Elizabeth A.; Shofer, Jane B.; Hart, Kim L.; Hoff, David; Tarabochia, Matthew A.; Peskind, Elaine R.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least 1 year after injury, in 25–50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI), an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least 1 year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and rehabilitation. PMID

  4. Abnormal thyroid hormone metabolism in mice lacking the monocarboxylate transporter 8.

    PubMed

    Trajkovic, Marija; Visser, Theo J; Mittag, Jens; Horn, Sigrun; Lukas, Jan; Darras, Veerle M; Raivich, Genadij; Bauer, Karl; Heuer, Heike

    2007-03-01

    In humans, inactivating mutations in the gene of the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8; SLC16A2) lead to severe forms of psychomotor retardation combined with imbalanced thyroid hormone serum levels. The MCT8-null mice described here, however, developed without overt deficits but also exhibited distorted 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) serum levels, resulting in increased hepatic activity of type 1 deiodinase (D1). In the mutants' brains, entry of T4 was not affected, but uptake of T3 was diminished. Moreover, the T4 and T3 content in the brain of MCT8-null mice was decreased, the activity of D2 was increased, and D3 activity was decreased, indicating the hypothyroid state of this tissue. In the CNS, analysis of T3 target genes revealed that in the mutants, the neuronal T3 uptake was impaired in an area-specific manner, with strongly elevated thyrotropin-releasing hormone transcript levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and slightly decreased RC3 mRNA expression in striatal neurons; however, cerebellar Purkinje cells appeared unaffected, since they did not exhibit dendritic outgrowth defects and responded normally to T3 treatment in vitro. In conclusion, the circulating thyroid hormone levels of MCT8-null mice closely resemble those of humans with MCT8 mutations, yet in the mice, CNS development is only partially affected.

  5. Genetic Polymorphisms, Hormone Levels, and Hot Flashes in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Chrissy; Gallicchio, Lisa; Miller, Susan R.; Langenberg, Patricia; Zacur, Howard; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Hot flashes disrupt the lives of millions of women each year. Although hot flashes are a public health concern, little is known about risk factors that predispose women to hot flashes. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine whether sex steroid hormone levels and genetic polymorphisms in hormone biosynthesis and degradation enzymes are associated with the risk of hot flashes. Methods In a cross-sectional study design, midlife women aged 45 to 54 years (n=639) were recruited from Baltimore and its surrounding counties. Participants completed a questionnaire and donated a blood sample for steroid hormone analysis and genotyping. The associations between genetic polymorphisms and hormone levels, as well as the associations between genetic polymorphisms, hormone levels, and hot flashes were examined using statistical models. Results A polymorphism in CYP1B1 was associated with lower dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and progesterone levels, while a polymorphism in CYP19 (aromatase) was associated with higher testosterone and DHEA-S levels. Lower progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels, lower free estradiol index, and a higher ratio of total androgens to total estrogens were associated with the experiencing of hot flashes. A polymorphism in CYP1B1 and a polymorphism in 3βHSD were both associated with hot flashes. Conclusion Some genetic polymorphisms may be associated with altered levels of hormones in midlife women. Further, selected genetic polymorphisms and altered hormone levels may be associated with the risk of hot flashes in midlife women. PMID:17187946

  6. Circulating thyroid hormone levels in children

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, J. M.; Eastman, C. J.; Carter, J. N.; Lazarus, L.

    1977-01-01

    Extensive use of radioimmunoassay for routine measurement of serum thyroid hormones in paediatric thyroid disorders showed inconsistencies between laboratory results based upon adult criteria and clinical observation. To resolve this disparity, serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 354 healthy children aged between 3 weeks and 17 years. The mean serum T3 concentration in children up to 10 years of age was 1·94±0·35 ng/ml (SD) which was higher than the mean serum T3 of 1·37±0·25 ng/ml in healthy adults. Similarly, the mean serum T4 of 10±2·5 μg/100 ml was higher than the adult mean serum T4 of 8·5±1·5 μg/100 ml. Neither concentration changed significantly from 3 weeks to 10 years of age, nor was there any sex difference. In girls serum T3 and T4 concentrations declined gradually from age 10 to maturity. A perimenarcheal nadir observed in the T4 data was thought to reflect the joint effects of the age-dependent fall in circulating T4 and the concomitant oestrogen-dependent rise in thyroxine-binding globulin. In boys the decline in serum T3 occurred approximately 2 years later than in the girls. These observations show that the normal ranges for serum T3 and T4 in children are higher than those in adults and that reference to normal adult ranges may lead to misclassification in diagnosis and monitoring of paediatric thyroid disorders. PMID:921322

  7. Relation of thyroid hormone abnormalities with subclinical inflammatory activity in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Moura Neto, Arnaldo; Parisi, Maria Candida Ribeiro; Alegre, Sarah Monte; Pavin, Elizabeth Joao; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Zantut-Wittmann, Denise Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). These thyroid hormone abnormalities have been associated with inflammatory activity in several conditions but this link remains unclear in DM. We assessed the influence of subclinical inflammation in TH metabolism in euthyroid diabetic patients. Cross-sectional study involving 258 subjects divided in 4 groups: 70 patients with T2DM and 55 patients with T1DM and two control groups of 70 and 63 non-diabetic individuals, respectively. Groups were paired by age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). We evaluated the association between clinical and hormonal variables [thyrotropin, reverse T3 (rT3), total and free thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3)] with the inflammation markers C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Serum T3 and free T3 were lower in patients with diabetes (all P < 0.001) compared to the control groups. Interleukin-6 showed positive correlations with rT3 in both groups (P < 0.05). IL-6 was independently associated to FT3/rT3 (B = -0.193; 95% CI -0.31; -0.076; P = 0.002) and FT4/rT3 (B = -0.107; 95% CI -0.207; -0.006; P = 0.039) in the T1DM group. In the T2DM group, SAA (B = 0.18; 95% CI 0.089; 0.271; P < 0.001) and hs-CRP (B = -0.069; 95% CI -0.132; -0.007; P = 0.03) predicted FT3 levels. SAA (B = -0.16; 95% CI -0.26; -0.061; P = 0.002) and IL6 (B = 0.123; 95% CI 0.005; 0.241; P = 0.041) were related to FT4/FT3. In DM, differences in TH levels compared to non-diabetic individuals were related to increased subclinical inflammatory activity and BMI. Altered deiodinase activity was probably involved. These findings were independent of sex, age, BMI, and HbA1c levels.

  8. Effects of Anesthetic Agent Propofol on Postoperative Sex Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H.; Ku, S.-Y.; Kim, H. C.; Suh, C. S.; Kim, S. H.; Choi, Y. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have found anesthetic agents including propofol in ovarian follicular fluid. However, little is known about the effect of anesthetic agents on ovarian function. We aimed to investigate whether there were differences in the postoperative levels of sex hormones when propofol was used as the anesthetic agent. Methods: A retrospective review was done of 80 patients who underwent ovarian surgery, with 72 infertile women serving as controls. Patients were included in the study if their serum estradiol (E2) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were measured during their first postoperative menstrual cycle. Results: Patients were grouped according to the use or non-use of propofol as follows: propofol group (n = 39) and non-propofol group (n = 41). The control group did not undergo surgery. Postoperative E2 levels did not differ between the three groups, but FSH levels were significantly higher in the patients who had undergone surgery compared to controls (p < 0.05). Post-hoc analysis of E2 and FSH levels in the propofol and non-propofol groups did not show any significant differences. Conclusions: The use of propofol did not result in any differences compared to other anesthetic agents in terms of postoperative sex hormone levels after gynecologic surgery. The type of anesthetic agent does not seem to affect the postoperative levels of female sex hormones. PMID:27134297

  9. Associations between dietary acrylamide intake and plasma sex hormone levels

    PubMed Central

    Hogervorst, Janneke G.; Fortner, Renee T.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Hankinson, Susan E.; Wilson, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rodent carcinogen acrylamide was discovered in 2002 in commonly consumed foods. Epidemiological studies have observed positive associations between acrylamide intake and endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer risks, which suggests that acrylamide may have sex-hormonal effects. Methods We cross-sectionally investigated the relationship between acrylamide intake and plasma levels of sex hormones and SHBG among 687 postmenopausal and 1300 premenopausal controls from nested case-control studies within the Nurses’ Health Studies. Results There were no associations between acrylamide and sex hormones or SHBG among premenopausal women overall or among never-smokers. Among normal-weight premenopausal women, acrylamide intake was statistically significantly positively associated with luteal total and free estradiol levels. Among postmenopausal women overall and among never-smokers, acrylamide was borderline statistically significantly associated with lower estrone sulfate levels but not with other estrogens, androgens, prolactin or SHBG. Among normal weight women, (borderline) statistically significant inverse associations were noted for estrone, free estradiol, estrone sulfate, DHEA, and prolactin, while statistically significant positive associations for testosterone and androstenedione were observed among overweight women. Conclusions Overall, this study did not show conclusive associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that would lend unequivocal biological plausibility to the observed increased risks of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer. The association between acrylamide and sex hormones may differ by menopausal and overweight status. We recommend other studies investigate the relationship between acrylamide and sex hormones in women, specifically using acrylamide biomarkers. Impact The present study showed some interesting associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that urgently need confirmation. PMID:23983241

  10. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment. PMID:26633522

  11. Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone Levels in Ground Based Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, B. O.

    1972-01-01

    Baseline values of immunoreactive ACTH were established in the normal healthy adult. Normal levels of ACTH secretion were determined for both the male and the female in circulating plasma and serum. The data obtained in these studies are particularly significant in that the sampling was carefully controlled; only healthy employed individuals of both sexes were tested in a routine work situation that would not be considered conducive to stress. It has been found that alterations in the classically described circadian rhythm of ACTH secretion can occur when activities (such as work/rest cycles) are imposed on the individual studied. These changes can be demonstrated even when there is no appreciable change noted in the rhythm of hydrocortisone secretion.

  12. Sex steroid hormones and circulating IgE levels.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Mathur, R S; Goust, J M; Williamson, H O; Fudenberg, H H

    1977-12-01

    The possible influence of sex steroid hormones on circulating IgE levels in general and IgE anti-Candida antibodies in particular was studied by quantification of plasma levels of progesterone, estradiol and IgE (total and anti-Candida-specific) in females during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and during pregnancy. IgE levels during the follicular and luteal phases were not significantly different, although the mean values for the luteal phase were slightly lower. This trend was apparent in daily samples from two normal females during one menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, when the levels of circulating sex steroids were high, IgE levels were only slightly higher than in the follicular and luteal phases. In men and in gonadal dysgenetics, circulating progesterone levels were similar to those of women during the follicular phase (i.e., lower than in the luteal phase or in pregnancy), but the IgE levels were not different. The apparently low levels of IgE during the luteal phase may therefore be due to physiological factors other than fluctuations in the sex steroid hormones. From the present studies, it is apparent that sex steroid hormones have little or no effect on humoral IgE levels, in marked contrast to previously described correlations for other immunoglobulins, especially anti-Candida antibodies.

  13. Effects of smoking cessation on hormonal levels in men.

    PubMed

    Hruškovičová, H; Dušková, M; Simůnková, K; Hill, M; Pospíšilová, H; Rácz, B; Králíková, E; Vondra, K; Stárka, L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic smoking can cause imbalance in endocrine homeostasis and impairment of fertility in both sexes. The male reproductive system is more resilient, still the literature provides conflicting results about the influence of smoking on the steroid hormone levels. The data about smoking cessation are limited; there has not yet been a study primarily focused on changes in steroids levels. In our study, we analyzed levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), cortisol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in male smokers and during smoking cessation. Monitored analytes were determined by RIA. The free testosterone index was calculated. Basal samples of men successful and unsuccessful in smoking cessation did not differ and monitored hormones could hardly predict success of smoking cessation. After one year without smoking, a significant BMI increase and SHBG decrease in former smokers was observed. The decrease in total testosterone was non-significant. Changes in SHBG and testosterone did not correlate with BMI, presumably due to the direct effect of smoking cessation.

  14. Pituitary hormone level changes and hypxonatremia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    MAIMAITILI, AISHA; MAIMAITILI, MIJITI; REXIDAN, AIKEREMU; LU, JUNYI; AJIMU, KUERBAN; CHENG, XIAOJIANG; LUO, KUN; SAILIKE, DUISHANBAI; LIU, YUAN; KAHEERMAN, KADEER; TANG, CHANGJIU; ZHANG, TINGRONG

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in serum pituitary hormone levels and the mechanism of hyponatremia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Nuclear medical tests and serum electrolyte monitoring were performed in 49 aneurysmal SAH cases and 10 healthy volunteers. The levels of serum pituitary hormones were significantly higher in the SAH patients compared with the control group on days 1–3 and 7–9 after SAH onset (P<0.05). The peak value occurred on days 7–9. The rate of hyponatremia was 49.0% in the 49 SAH patients. The incidence of severe hyponatremia was significantly higher in Fisher grades III–IV and Hunt-Hess grades III–IV compared with Fisher grades I–II and Hunt-Hess grades I–II, respectively (P<0.05). There was no correlation between the site of aneurysm and the rate of hyponatremia. The incidence of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm was significantly higher in the hyponatremia group and Fisher grades III–IV compared with the normal serum sodium group and Fisher grades I–II, respectively. Serum pituitary hormone levels were positively correlated with blood loss and disease severity in patients with aneurysmal SAH. Hyponatremia may be considered an important indicator of SAH. SAH patients are likely to benefit from intense monitoring and regulation of serum sodium. PMID:23837049

  15. Hormonal and nonhormonal factors affecting sex hormone-binding globulin levels in blood.

    PubMed

    Thijssen, J H

    1988-01-01

    Researchers in Utrecht, the Netherlands have studied the effects of different factors, such as oral contraceptives (OCs), on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in blood. The SHBG levels in women who continuously used OCs consisting only of .05 mg of ethinyl estradiol (EE2) rose as high as 260% + or - 25% of those in women not using OCs. Further, mean SHBG levels of women using combination OCs of EE2 and levonorgestrel were 10-60% higher than women not using OCs. SHBG levels were significantly higher than the use of a sequential OC containing decreasing amounts of EE2 and increasing amounts of levonorgestrel than those cause by use of a continuous combined OC with .03 mg and .15 mg respectively. As the dosage of EE2 increased in combination OCs with 2.5 mg lynestrenol, the SHBG increased from 20% (.05 mg EE2) to 150% (.75 mg EE2). SHBG levels after taking EE2 and cyproterone acetate increased significantly more (240%) than levels after EE2 and desogestrel (170%), or after EE2 and gestoden (140%) [p.001]. SHBG levels of women who took OCs containing only .03 mg of levonorgestrel daily decreased 35% (p.01). These levels fell by 30% in women who received 150 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate intramuscularly every 3 months (p.001). SHBG concentrations increased when estrogens were taken orally for noncontraceptive purposes, but they did not change when they were administered percutaneously. As body weight increased the SHBG levels decreased despite hormonal status or sex. Further, the lower the fat content of one's diet the higher the SHBG levels and vice versa. SHBG levels are higher in males with flaccid lungs than they are in males with healthy lungs.

  16. Sexual hormone serum levels and temporomandibular disorders. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Landi, Nicola; Lombardi, Ilaria; Manfredini, Daniele; Casarosa, Elena; Biondi, Katya; Gabbanini, Massimo; Bosco, Mario

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sexual hormones in a young adult population affected by articular forms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), measuring 17beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels. In the study, we included 40 patients (20 males and 20 females) with a Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) axis I group II diagnosis of disk displacement and/or group III diagnosis of arthralgia, osteoarthritis or osteoarhrosis, and 32 healthy controls. In female patients, blood samples were collected in follicular and luteal phases of the same menstrual cycle, while only one blood sample was drawn in male patients. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone were determined using a radioimmunoassay and the comparison between the two groups was performed using a t test. Regarding estradiol, our results showed significantly higher serum levels in patients affected by TMD than in healthy controls, both in males (p < 0.01) and in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in females (p < 0.05), while no difference was found for progesterone serum levels. Considering the multifactorial etiology of TMD and the hypothesis that some joint tissues (e.g., bone, cartilage, collagen, proteins) could be a target for sexual hormones, these data suggest that high serum estrogen levels might be implicated in the physiopathology of TMD.

  17. Vitamin D metabolites and bioactive parathyroid hormone levels during Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Schnoes, Heinrich K.; Deluca, Hector F.; Phelps, Mary E.; Klein, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of an 8-day space flight (Spacelab mission 2) on plasma levels of the vitamin D and parathyroid hormones is investigated experimentally in four crew members. The results are presented in tables and graphs and briefly characterized. Parathyroid hormone levels remained normal throughout the flight, whereas vitamin D hormone levels increased significantly on day 1 but returned to normal by day 7.

  18. Prostate Cancer, High Cortisol Levels and Complex Hormonal Interaction.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Bibiana; Grosman, Halina; Gonzalez, Diego; Machulsky, Nahuel Fernandez; Repetto, Esteban M; Mesch, Viviana; Lopez, Miguel Angel; Mazza, Osvaldo; Berg, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common diseases in men. It is important to assess prognostic factors and whether high cortisol levels and complex hormonal interactions could be responsible for PCa development. We evaluated the relationship between cortisol, leptin and estrogens in 141 men, 71 with PCa and the remaining 70 constituting a low risk group (LRG). They were recruited for this study from a total of 2906 middleaged men (ages 4570 years) who completed an evaluation for prostatic diseases at the Urology Division, Hospital de Clinicas "Jose de San Martin", University of Buenos Aires, in May 2009. In this cross sectional study, cortisol, PSA, totaltestosterone, freetestosterone, bioavailable testosterone, LH and estradiol were measured in serum. We observed increased cortisol levels in PCa patients as compared to LRG cases (p=0.004,). Leptin and estradiol levels were also higher in PCa patients (p=0.048; p<0.0001, respectively). Logistic regression analysis indicated that serum cortisol (OR: 1.110 (95% CI 1.0161.213), p=0.022), estradiol (OR: 1.044 (95% CI 1.0081.081), p=0.016) and leptin (OR: 1.248 (95% CI 1.0481.487), p=0.013) explained 27% of the variance of dependent variables, even after adjusting for age, smoking, BMI and waist circumference. We found increased cortisol levels in PCa patients as compared to LRG, as well as an altered circulating hormonal profile.

  19. Chronic effects of marihuana smoking on luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin levels in human males.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, P P; Pedrazzoni, M; Michelini, M; Maninetti, L; Bernardelli, F; Passeri, M

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the chronic effects of marihuana smoking on the basal and stimulated secretion of the pituitary hormones luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating (FSH) and prolactin (PRL). Ten male chronic marihuana users and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were studied by measuring hormone levels before and after i.v. administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). The basal and stimulated levels of LH were reduced in marihuana users, whereas FSH and PRL levels and responses were not different from the control subjects. The chronic use of marihuana may selectively impair the hypothalamic control mechanisms regulating LH secretion.

  20. Illness-induced changes in thyroid hormone metabolism: focus on the tissue level.

    PubMed

    Kwakkel, J; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

    2011-05-01

    During illness changes in thyroid hormone metabolism occur, collectively known as the non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterised by low serum thyroid hormone levels without the expected rise in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, indicating a major change in thyroid hormone feedback regulation. Recent studies have made clear that during NTIS differential changes in thyroid hormone metabolism occur in various tissues, the net effect of which may be either activation or inhibition of thyroid hormone action. In this review we discuss systemic and local changes in thyroid hormone metabolism during illness, highlighting their physiological implications in terms of disease course.

  1. Hormonal and behavioural abnormalities induced by stress in utero: an animal model for depression.

    PubMed

    Maccari, S; Darnaudery, M; Van Reeth, O

    2001-09-01

    Prenatal stress in rats can exert profound influence on the off spring's development, inducing abnormalities such as increased "anxiety", "emotionality" or "depression-like" behaviours.Prenatal stress has long-term effects on the development of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal(HPA) axis and forebrain cholinergic systems. These long-term neuroendocrinological effects are mediated, at least in part, by stress-induced maternal corticosterone increase during pregnancy and stress-induced maternal anxiety during the postnatal period. We have shown a significant phase advance in the circadian rhythms of corticosterone secretion and locomotor activity in prenatally-stressed (PNS) rats. When subjected to an abrupt shift in the light-dark(LD) cycle, PNS rats resynchronized their activity rhythm more slowly than control rats. In view of the data suggesting abnormalities in the circadian timing system in these animals, we have investigated the effects of prenatal stress on the sleep-wake cycle in adult male rats. PNS rats exhibited various changes in sleep-wake parameters, including a dramatic increase in the amount of paradoxical sleep. Taken together, our results indicate that prenatal stress can induce increased responses to stress and abnormal circadian rhythms and sleep in adult rats.Various clinical observations in humans suggest a possible pathophysiological link between depression and disturbances in circadian rhythmicity. Circadian abnormalities in depression can be related to those found in PNS rats. Interestingly, we have recently shown that the increased immobility in the forced swimming test observed in PNS rats can be corrected by chronic treatment with the antidepressant tianeptine, or with melatonin or S23478, a melatonin agonist. Those results reinforce the idea of the usefulness of PNS rats as an appropriate animal model to study human depression and support a new antidepressant-like effect of melatonin and the melatonin agonist S23478.

  2. [Gigantism with low serum level of growth hormone: a case report].

    PubMed

    Ran, X; Zhang, L; Xiong, P; Zhao, T; Tong, N; Li, X

    2001-12-01

    Gigantism with low or normal basal concentrations of growth hormone (GH) is a rare condition, possibly due to abnormal GH secretory patterns, enhanced tissue sensitivity to GH, or the existence of an unidentified growth promoting factor. Here we report an 11 year-old female case of gigantism with a normal pituitary gland. Her height was 181 cm, body weight 77 kg, and bone age 11.1 years. Her basal serum GH levels were lower than 1 ng/ml. The levels of T3, T4, FT3, FT4, TSH, E2, LH, FSH, PRL, PTC and ACTH were normal. Serum GH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia or arginine stimulation tests was blunted. In this case, non-pulsatile GH secretion and enhanced tissue sensitivity to GH may induce hypersecretion of IGF-1 and the existence of an unidentified growth promoting factor or biologically active anti-GH receptor antibodies may cause clinical gigantism.

  3. Peri-Implantation Hormonal Milieu: Elucidating Mechanisms of Abnormal Placentation and Fetal Growth1

    PubMed Central

    Mainigi, Monica A.; Olalere, Devvora; Burd, Irina; Sapienza, Carmen; Bartolomei, Marisa; Coutifaris, Christos

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have been associated with several adverse perinatal outcomes involving placentation and fetal growth. It is critical to examine each intervention individually in order to assess its relationship to the described adverse perinatal outcomes. One intervention ubiquitously used in ART is superovulation with gonadotropins. Superovulation results in significant changes in the hormonal milieu, which persist during the peri-implantation and early placentation periods. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that the treatment-induced peri-implantation maternal environment plays a critical role in perinatal outcomes. In this study, using the mouse model, we have isolated the exposure to the peri-implantation period, and we examine the effect of superovulation on placentation and fetal growth. We report that the nonphysiologic peri-implantation maternal hormonal environment resulting from gonadotropin stimulation appears to have a direct effect on fetal growth, trophoblast differentiation, and gene expression. This appears to be mediated, at least in part, through trophoblast expansion and invasion. Although the specific molecular and cellular mechanism(s) leading to these observations remain to be elucidated, identifying this modifiable risk factor will not only allow us to improve perinatal outcomes with ART, but help us understand the pathophysiology contributing to these outcomes. PMID:24352558

  4. Concurrent and Predictive Relations between Hormone Levels and Social-Emotional Functioning in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nottelmann, Editha D.; And Others

    Hormone levels and changes in hormone levels were evaluated three times across a 1-year period as concurrent and predictive correlates of the socio-emotional functioning of 56 boys 10- to 14-years-old and 52 girls 9- to 14-years-old who represented the five stages of Tanner's criteria of pubertal development. The hormone measures were serum levels…

  5. Neurodevelopmental Consequences of Low-Level Thyroid Hormone Disruption Induced by Environmental Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inadequate levels of thyroid hormone during critical developmental periods lead to stunted growth, mental retardation, and neurological 'cretinism'. Animal models of developmental thyroid hormone deficiency mirror well the impact of severe insults to the thyroid system. However, ...

  6. Multicenter study on adult growth hormone level in postoperative pituitary tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-min; Gu, Jian-wen; Kuang, Yong-qin; Ma, Yuan; Xia, Xun; Yang, Tao; Lu, Min; He, Wei-qi; Sun, Zhi-yong; Zhang, Yan-chao

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to observe the adult growth hormone level in postoperative pituitary tumor patients of multi-centers, and explore the change of hypophyseal hormones in postoperative pituitary tumor patients. Sixty patients with pituitary tumor admitted during March, 2011-March, 2012 were selected. Postoperative hypophyseal hormone deficiency and the change of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative growth hormone levels were recorded. Growth hormone hypofunction was the most common hormonal hypofunction, which took up to 85.0 %. Adrenocortical hormone hypofunction was next to it and accounted for 58.33 %. GH + ACTH + TSH + Gn deficiency was the most common in postoperative hormone deficiency, which took up to 40.00 %, and GH + ACTH + TSH + Gn + AVP and GH deficiencies were next to it and accounted for 23.33 and 16.67 %, respectively. The hormone levels in patients after total pituitary tumor resection were significantly lower than those after partial pituitary tumor resection, and the difference was statistically significant; growth hormone and serum prolactin levels after surgery in two groups were decreased, and the difference was statistically significant. The incidence rate of growth hormone deficiency in postoperative pituitary tumor patients is high, which is usually complicated with deficiency of various hypophyseal hormones. In clinical, we should pay attention to the levels of the hypopnyseal hormones, and take timely measures to avoid postoperative complications.

  7. Novel mutation in MCT8 gene in a Brazilian boy with thyroid hormone resistance and severe neurologic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Filho, Hamilton Cabral de Menezes; Marui, Suemi; Manna, Thais Della; Brust, Ester Saraiva; Radonsky, Vanessa; Kuperman, Hilton; Dichtchekenian, Vaê; Setian, Nuvarte; Damiani, Durval

    2011-02-01

    MCT8 is a cellular transporter of thyroid hormones important in their action and metabolization. We report a male patient with the novel inactivating mutation 630insG in the coding region in exon 1 of MCT8. He was characterized clinically by severe neurologic impairment (initially with global hypotonia, later evolving with generalized hypertonia), normal growth during infancy, reduced weight gain, and absence of typical signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism, while the laboratory evaluation disclosed elevated T3, low total and free T4, and mildly elevated TSH serum levels. Treatment with levothyroxine improved thyroid hormone profile but was not able to alter the clinical picture of the patient. These data reinforce the concept that the role of MCT8 is tissue-dependent: while neurons are highly dependent on MCT8, bone tissue, adipose tissue, muscle, and liver are less dependent on MCT8 and, therefore, may suffer the consequences of the exposition to high serum T3 levels.

  8. Abnormally high serum ferritin levels among professional road cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Zotter, H; Robinson, N; Zorzoli, M; Schattenberg, L; Saugy, M; Mangin, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: An international, longitudinal medical follow up examination of male professional road cyclists revealed excessively elevated serum ferritin levels. Objective: To evaluate the importance of elevated ferritin values among professional cyclists, their relationship with age and nationality, and their evolution over 3 years. Methods: Over 1000 serum ferritin values were collected. Other parameters were included in order to exclude conditions which might have increased ferritin levels without changing body iron stores. Results: In 1999, over 45% of riders displayed ferritin values above 300 ng/ml and one fourth levels over 500 ng/ml. These percentages had decreased to 27% and 9%, respectively, 3 years later, while the overall average, which was above the normal limits in 1999, had decreased by 33% in 3 years. Older cyclists had higher ferritin values than younger cyclists. There was also a relationship between ferritin levels and the nationality of the cyclists. Analysis of 714 riders in 2000 and 2002 showed only a slight and insignificant decrease in the mean ferritin value although those with initially elevated iron stores had a much greater decrease. Conclusion: Professional road cyclists used excessive iron supplementation leading to high serum ferritin levels correlating with increased body iron stores. Although the situation progressively improved over 3 years, it remains worrying as increased body iron stores are related to health complications. Therefore, prevention in addition to the fight against doping should be a main goal of the UCI. Aggressive therapy for athletes with excessive ferritin values should be carried out at or before the end of their careers. PMID:15562163

  9. Relationship of thyroid hormone levels and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moura Neto, A; Parisi, M C R; Tambascia, M A; Pavin, E J; Alegre, S M; Zantut-Wittmann, D E

    2014-02-01

    Alterations in thyroid hormone levels are found associated with inflammation in patients with non-thyroidal illness (NTIS) and are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Inflammation has also been linked with development of cardiovascular events (CVE) in T2DM. Our objective was to assess whether thyroid hormone abnormalities typical of NTIS in patients with T2DM are related to inflammation and CVE. This was a cross-sectional study of 140 subjects; 70 with T2DM and 70 as a control group paired by age, sex and body mass index (BMI). We recorded age, sex, BMI, waist/hip ratio, diabetes duration, HbA1c, CVE history, serum amyloid A (SAA), TSH, total (T) and free (F) T4 and T3, reverse T3 (rT3) and TT3/rT3 ratio. Patients with T2DM had lower levels of TT4 (p = 0.012), TT3 (p < 0.001), FT3 (p < 0.001) and TT3/rT3 (p = 0.002). They also showed higher FT4 (p < 0.001) and similar TSH levels (p = 0.627) compared to the control group. SAA levels correlated positively with rT3 (r = 0.45; p < 0.001) and inversely with TT3/rT3 (r = -0.38; p = 0.001). Patients with T2DM and history of CVE had higher rT3 (p = 0.006) and lower TT3/rT3 (p = 0.002), along with higher SAA levels (p = 0.002) than patients without this characteristic. Multiple logistic regression showed that factors independently associated with CVE were older age (OR = 1.159, 95 % CI 1.011-1.329), male sex (OR = 4.391, 95 % CI 1.081-17.829) and higher TT3/rT3 (OR = 0.993, 95 % CI 0.987-0.999). We have confirmed the presence of NTIS in T2DM. We also showed that thyroid hormone abnormalities are associated to inflammatory activity and to CVE in these patients.

  10. Hormonal composition of follicular fluid from abnormal follicular structures in mares.

    PubMed

    Beltman, M E; Walsh, S W; Canty, M J; Duffy, P; Crowe, M A

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to characterise the hormonal composition of follicular fluid from mares with distinct anovulatory-cystic follicles. Follicular fluid was aspirated from six mares that presented with cystic follicles and from pre-ovulatory follicles of five normal mares (controls). Differences in progesterone, oestradiol, testosterone, IGF-I and IGF binding were analysed using Fisher's exact test. There were greater (P < 0.03) follicular fluid oestradiol concentrations in normal follicles and the testosterone concentration of the cystic fluid was greater (P < 0.05) than that of the normal fluid. There also was a greater (P < 0.03) percentage of IGF-I binding and lower (P < 0.02) IGF-I concentrations in the fluid collected from the cystic structures compared with the fluid from normal follicles. Despite the limited number of animals, the fact that fluid aspirated from cystic follicles had higher testosterone and lower oestradiol concentrations could be of diagnostic value when a practitioner wants to distinguish between a cystic and non-cystic persistent follicle. The research reported here also indicates a likely role for the IGF system in the pathogenesis of the development and maintenance of anovulatory follicular structures in mare ovaries.

  11. Energy balance regulation by thyroid hormones at central level.

    PubMed

    López, Miguel; Alvarez, Clara V; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    Classically, medical textbooks taught that most effects of thyroid hormones (THs) on energy homeostasis are directly exerted in peripheral tissues. However, current evidence is changing (and challenging) our perspective about the role of THs from a 'peripheral' to a 'central' vision, implying that they affect food intake, energy expenditure, and metabolism by acting, to a large extent, at the central level. Interestingly, effects of THs are interrelated with global energy sensors in the central nervous system (CNS), such as uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK; the 'AMPK-BAT axis'), and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Here, we review what is currently known about THs and their regulation of energy balance and metabolism in both peripheral and central tissues.

  12. Structural and diffusional brain abnormality related to relatively low level alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroki; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Fukuda, Rin; Yamada, Haruyasu; Takei, Kunio; Suga, Motomu; Takao, Hidemasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2009-06-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol intake results in alcohol-related brain damage. Many previous reports have documented alcohol-related global or local brain shrinkage or diffusional abnormalities among alcoholics and heavy to moderate drinkers; however, the influence of relatively low levels of alcohol consumption on brain structural or diffusional abnormality is unclear. We investigated structural or diffusional abnormalities related to lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) among Japanese non-alcohol-dependent individuals (114 males, 97 females). High-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance images and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired in all subjects. The collected images were normalized, segmented, and smoothed using SPM 5. Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) were normalized for each total intracranial volume (TIV), and partial correlation coefficients were estimated between normalized GMV or WMV and lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) adjusted for age. To investigate regional GMV or WMV abnormalities related to LAC, multiple regression analyses were performed among regional GMV or WMV and LAC, age, and TIV. To investigate subtle regional abnormalities, multiple regression analyses were performed among fractional anisotropy (FA) or mean diffusivity (MD), and LAC and age. No LAC-related global or regional GMV or WMV abnormality or LAC-related regional FA abnormality was found among male or female subjects. Significant LAC-related MD increase was found in the right amygdala among female subjects only. The current results suggest female brain vulnerability to alcohol, and a relation between subtle abnormality in the right amygdala and alcohol misuse.

  13. Antimullerian Hormone Level and Endometrioma Ablation Using Plasma Energy

    PubMed Central

    Bubenheim, Michael; Auber, Mathieu; Marpeau, Loïc; Puscasiu, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of ovarian endometrioma vaporization using plasma energy on antimullerian hormone (AMH) level. Method: We report a prospective, noncomparative series (NCT01596985). Twenty-two patients with unilateral ovarian endometriomas ≥30 mm, with no surgical antecedent and no ongoing pregnancy, underwent vaporization of ovarian endometriomas using plasma energy during the period of November 29, 2010 to November 28, 2012. We assessed AMH levels before surgery, 3 months postoperatively, and at the end of follow-up. Results: The mean length of postoperative follow-up was 18.2 ± 8 months. AMH level significantly varied through the 3 assessments performed in the study, as the mean values ± SD were 3.9 ± 2.6 ng/mL before the surgery, 2.3 ± 1.1 ng/mL at 3 months, and 3.1 ± 2.2 ng/mL at the end of the follow-up (P = .001). There was a significant increase from 3 months postoperatively to the end of follow-up (median change 0.7 ng/mL, P = .01). Seventy-one percent of patients had an AMH level >2 ng/mL at the end of the follow-up versus 76% before the surgery (P = 1). During the postoperative follow-up, 11 patients tried to conceive, of whom 8 (73%) became pregnant. Conclusions: The ablation of unilateral endometriomas is followed in a majority of cases by a significant decrease in AMH level 3 months after surgery. In subsequent months, this level progressively increases, raising questions about the real factors that impact postoperative ovarian AMH production. PMID:25392649

  14. Soy milk intake in relation to serum sex hormone levels in British men.

    PubMed

    Allen, N E; Appleby, P N; Davey, G K; Key, T J

    2001-01-01

    Soy beans contain high levels of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein and their glycosides and have been implicated in the prevention of prostate cancer, possibly via their effects on sex hormone metabolism. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between dietary soy intake and sex hormone levels in a cross-sectional analysis of 696 men with a wide range of soy intakes. Soy milk intake was measured using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and serum hormone concentrations were measured by immunoassay. Multiple regression was used to investigate the association between soy milk intake, an index of isoflavone intake, and hormone levels after adjustment for pertinent confounders. Soy milk intake was not associated with serum concentrations of testosterone, free testosterone, androstanediol glucuronide, sex hormone-binding globulin, or luteinizing hormone. These results suggest that soy milk intake, as a marker of isoflavone intake, is not associated with serum sex hormone concentrations among free-living Western men.

  15. [Obesity, hormonal and metabolic abnormalities in adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ságodi, László; Lombay, Béla; Vámosi, Ildikó; Barkai, László

    2013-08-04

    Bevezetés: A polycystás ovarium szindrómához metabolikus rendellenességek társulnak (dyslipidaemia, elhízás, glükózintolerancia), amelyek a metabolikus szindrómának is összetevői. A centrális elhízás és az inzulinrezisztencia úgy tűnik, hogy fontos szerepet játszik a polycystás ovarium szindróma patogenezisében, talán a következményes szteroidogenezis diszregulációja miatt. Célkitűzés: A metabolikus és hormonális rendellenességek felmérése a polycystás ovarium szindrómás serdülőkorú leányoknál. Módszer: 52, polycystás ovarium szindrómában szenvedő serdülőt a rotterdami kritériumok alapján diagnosztizáltak. Antropometriai, hormonális és metabolikus paramétereket értékeltek valamennyi személynél. Kontrollként 20 egészséges, azonos életkorú, nem elhízott, szabályosan menstruáló leányok adatait használták. Az 52 beteg között a kis súllyal születettek száma 15, az érett súllyal születettek száma 37 volt. Minden betegnél és kontrollszemélynél orális glükóztolerancia-tesztet végeztek. A betegek életkora 16,8±3,1 év, a kontrollok életkora 16,95±2,1 év volt. Eredmények: A szerzők vizsgálatai alapján a túlsúly és elhízás prevalenciája a polycystás ovarium szindrómában szenvedő serdülőknél 35% volt (18 személy). A betegeknél emelkedett éhomi vércukor egy esetben, csökkent glükóztolerancia nyolc esetben, inzulinrezisztencia 25 esetben és metabolikus szindróma 12 esetben fordult elő. A szérumtriglicerid-szint a betegek körében 1,4±0,8 mmol/l, a kontrollcsoportban 0,9±0,3 mmol/l volt (szignifikáns különbség.) Az éhomi vércukor-, teljeskoleszterin-, HDL- és LDL-koleszterin-értékek között nem találtak szignifikáns különbséget. A kis súllyal születettek csoportjában a metabolikus zavarok és elhízás súlyosabb volt és gyakrabban fordult elő, mint a normális súllyal születettek csoportjában. A kis súllyal születettek csoportj

  16. Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone levels in patients with gout treated with inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Chinchilla, Sandra Pamela; Atxotegi, Joana; Urionagüena, Irati; Herrero-Beites, Ana Maria; Aniel-Quiroga, Maria Angeles

    2015-11-01

    Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels over the upper normal limit has been reported in a small percentage of patients treated with febuxostat in clinical trials, but a mechanistic explanation is not yet available. In an observational parallel longitudinal cohort study, we evaluated changes in TSH levels in patients with gout at baseline and during urate-lowering treatment with febuxostat. Patients to be started on allopurinol who had a measurement of TSH in the 6-month period prior to baseline evaluation were used for comparison. TSH levels and change in TSH levels at 12-month follow-up were compared between groups. Patients with abnormal TSH levels or previous thyroid disease or on amiodarone were not included for analysis. Eighty-eight patients treated with febuxostat and 87 with allopurinol were available for comparisons. Patients to be treated with febuxostat had higher urate levels and TSH levels, more severe gout, and poorer renal function, but were similar regarding other characteristics. A similar rise in TSH levels was observed in both groups (0.4 and 0.5 µUI/mL for febuxostat and allopurinol, respectively); at 12-mo, 7/88 (7.9 %) of patients on febuxostat and 4/87 (3.4 %) of patients on allopurinol showed TSH levels over 0.5 µUI/mL. Doses prescribed (corrected for estimated glomerular filtration rate in the case if patients on allopurinol) and baseline TSH levels were determinants of TSH levels at 12-month follow-up. No impact on free T4 (fT4) levels was observed. Febuxostat, but also allopurinol, increased TSH levels in a dose-dependent way, thus suggesting rather a class effect than a drug effect, but with no apparent impact on either clinical or fT4 levels.

  17. Decreased levels of genuine large free hCG alpha in men presenting with abnormal semen analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and its free subunits (hCG alpha, hCG beta) are produced in the male reproductive tract and found in high concentrations in seminal fluid, in particular hCG alpha. This study aimed to elucidate changes in peptide hormone profiles in patients showing abnormal semen analyses and to determine the genuineness of the highly abundant hCG alpha. Methods Seminal plasma was obtained from 45 male patients undergoing semen analysis during infertility workups. Comprehensive peptide hormone profiles were established by a panel of immunofluorometric assays for hCG, hCG alpha, hCG beta and its metabolite hCG beta core fragment, placental lactogen, growth hormone and prolactin in seminal plasma of patients with abnormal semen analysis results (n = 29) versus normozoospermic men (n = 16). The molecular identity of large hyperglycosylated hCG alpha was analyzed by mass-spectrometry and selective deglycosylation. Results hCG alpha levels were found to be significantly lower in men with impaired semen quality (1346 +/- 191 vs. 2753 +/- 533 ng/ml, P = 0.022). Moreover, patients with reduced sperm count had reduced intact hCG levels compared with normozoospermic men (0.097 +/- 0.022 vs. 0.203 +/- 0.040 ng/ml, P = 0.028). Using mass-spectrometry, the biochemical identity of hCG alpha purified from seminal plasma was verified. Under non-reducing conditions in SDS-PAGE, hCG alpha isolated from seminal plasma migrated in a manner comparable with large free hCG alpha with an apparent molecular mass (Mr, app) of 24 kDa, while hCG alpha dissociated from pregnancy-derived holo-hCG migrated at approximately 22 kDa. After deglycosylation with PNGase F under denaturing conditions, all hCG alpha variants showed an Mr, app of 15 kDa, indicating identical amino acid backbones. Conclusions The findings indicate a pathophysiological relevance of hCG, particularly its free alpha subunit, in spermatogenesis. The alternative glycosylation

  18. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... affect many different processes, including Growth and development Metabolism - how your body gets energy from the foods you eat Sexual function Reproduction Mood Endocrine glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the ...

  19. Significance of rebounding parathyroid hormone levels during parathyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, David F.; Ojomo, Kristin A.; Mazeh, Haggi; Oltmann, Sarah C.; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Chen, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Using minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP), most surgeons require a 50% decline in intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IoPTH) to determine cure, but the significance of IoPTH kinetics occurring after this drop remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of IoPTH levels that first meet criteria for cure, but then increase again, or rebound, between 10 and 15 minutes post-excision. METHODS We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing initial parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism at our institution from 2001 – 2011. Rebound IoPTH was defined as an increase in PTH ≥ 5 pg/mL after achieving the 50% drop required for cure. Comparisons were evaluated with the student's t-test, Chi-squared test, or Fisher's exact test where appropriate. RESULTS Of the 1,386 patients who met selection criteria, 86 (6.2%) patients exhibited rebound IoPTH. The mean magnitude of rebound was 13.8 ± 3.6 pg/mL. Compared to those not displaying rebound, more patients with rebound IoPTH were treated with open parathyroidectomy rather than MIP (10.8% vs. 4.5%, p<0.01). The recurrence rate among those with rebound IoPTH was more than double that of patients without rebound IoPTH (5.8% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.03). Magnitude of rebound, however, did not correlate with recurrence. The rate of persistent disease was not different between those with and without rebound IoPTH. Rebound was a much better indicator of recurrence than patients whose final IoPTH levels were not within the normal range. CONCLUSIONS Rebound IoPTH is more common in patients who develop recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Therefore, surgeons should closely monitor patients with rebound IoPTH for disease recurrence. PMID:23669749

  20. Abnormal ovarian cycles as diagnosed by ultrasound and serum estradiol levels.

    PubMed

    Polan, M L; Totora, M; Caldwell, B V; DeCherney, A H; Haseltine, F P; Kase, N

    1982-03-01

    A significant portion of human infertility is presumably due to defective ovulation, including patients who fail to conceive despite medical induction of ovulation, those who fail despite repeated timely donor inseminations, and those with "infertility of unknown etiology". All point out the inadequacy of standard criteria for normal ovulation. This investigation correlates preovulatory serum estradiol and gonadotropin concentrations with dominant follicle growth measured ultrasonographically and serum progesterone levels. The data indicate a 35% incidence of cycles with significantly abnormal serum estradiol levels, decreased dominant follicle size, and abnormal progesterone levels despite biphasic basal body temperature curves and normal cycle length. If these cycles represent inadequate or abnormal ovulation, they can be distinguished from adequate cycles prior to follicle rupture and may benefit the treatment of human infertility.

  1. Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Emeville, Elise; Giton, Frank; Giusti, Arnaud; Oliva, Alejandro; Fiet, Jean; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Blanchet, Pascal; Multigner, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. Objective We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153, and chlordecone. Methods We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. Results DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. Conclusions These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether this response pattern

  2. Homologous down-regulation of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Aleppo, G; Moskal, S F; De Grandis, P A; Kineman, R D; Frohman, L A

    1997-03-01

    Repeated stimulation of pituitary cell cultures with GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) results in diminished responsiveness, a phenomenon referred to as homologous desensitization. One component of GHRH-induced desensitization is a reduction in GHRH-binding sites, which is reflected by the decreased ability of GHRH to stimulate a rise in intracellular cAMP. In the present study, we sought to determine if homologous down-regulation of GHRH receptor number is due to a decrease in GHRH receptor synthesis. To this end, we developed and validated a quantitative RT-PCR assay system that was capable of assessing differences in GHRH-R messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in total RNA samples obtained from rat pituitary cell cultures. Treatment of pituitary cells with GHRH, for as little as 4 h, resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in GHRH-R mRNA levels. The maximum effect was observed with 0.1 and 1 nM GHRH, which reduced GHRH-R mRNA levels to 49 +/- 4% (mean +/- SEM) and 54 +/- 11% of control values, respectively (n = three separate experiments; P < 0.05). Accompanying the decline in GHRH-R mRNA levels was a rise in GH release; reaching 320 +/- 31% of control values (P < 0.01). Because of the possibility that the rise in medium GH level is the primary regulator of GHRH-R mRNA, we pretreated pituitary cultures for 4 h with GH to achieve a concentration comparable with that induced by a maximal stimulation with GHRH (8 micrograms GH/ml medium). Following pretreatment, cultures were stimulated for 15 min with GHRH and intracellular cAMP accumulation was measured by RIA. GH pretreatment did not impair the ability of GHRH to induce a rise in cAMP concentrations. However, as anticipated, GHRH pretreatment (10 nM) significantly reduced subsequent GHRH-stimulated cAMP to 46% of untreated controls. These data suggest that GHRH, but not GH, directly reduces GHRH-R mRNA levels. To determine whether this effect was mediated through cAMP, cultures were treated with forskolin, a direct stimulator of

  3. Correlation between the serum luteinizing hormone to folliclestimulating hormone ratio and the anti-Müllerian hormone levels in normo-ovulatory women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Eun; Yoon, Sang Ho; Kim, Hye Ok; Min, Eung Gi

    2015-03-01

    Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels are regarded as an age-specific marker for predicting the ovarian reserve in women of reproductive age. Some studies have shown that the luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio can be used as a predictor of ovarian reserve. The purpose of this study was to assess the variation of LH/FSH ratio with aging and to evaluate the correlation between serum LH/FSH ratio and AMH levels as a predictor of the ovarian reserve in normo-ovulatory women. We retrospectively analyzed the day 3 serum hormone levels in 1,251 patients (age range: 20-50 yr) between January 2010 and January 2011. We divided the patients into 6 groups according to their age. Relation between serum AMH level and LH/FSH ratio was analyzed statistically. The serum AMH level was inversely correlated with age (r = -0.400, P < 0.001). A significant negative correlation was found between serum LH/FSH ratio and age (r = -0.213, P < 0.001). There was a significant partial correlation between serum LH/FSH ratio and AMH level when adjusted by age (r = 0.348, P < 0.001). The LH/FSH ratio could be considered as a useful marker for the ovarian reserve and could be applied to the clinical evaluation with AMH.

  4. Serum Parathyroid Hormone Levels Predict Falls in Older Diabetic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Denise K.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Cauley, Jane A.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Harris, Tamara B.; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Schwartz, Gary G.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and incident falls in older diabetic adults. Design Longitudinal analysis of incident falls over 1 year in a sub-study of diabetic participants in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study. Setting Pittsburgh, PA, and Memphis, TN. Participants Well-functioning, community-dwelling black and white adults aged 70-79 with diabetes (n = 472). Measurements Measured baseline serum PTH. Self-report of falls over the subsequent 12 months. Baseline physical performance and self-reported demographic, behavioral, and health status measures including kidney function, chronic conditions and medication use. Results 30.3% of participants reported falling over one year of follow-up. The mean ± SD baseline serum PTH was 53.5 ± 30.0 pg/mL in non-fallers and 62.6 ± 46.2 pg/mL in fallers (p = 0.01). For every 1 SD (36 pg/mL) increment in baseline serum PTH, there was approximately a 30% increased likelihood of reporting a fall in the subsequent year after adjusting for age, gender, race, field center, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, and winter/spring season (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.59). Further adjustment for kidney function, chronic conditions, medication and supplement use, and physical performance attenuated the association slightly (OR (95% CI): 1.26 (1.01-1.58)). A trend remained after additional adjustment for reported falls in the previous year. Conclusion Higher serum PTH was associated with incident falls among older, well-functioning diabetic men and women. Further investigation aimed at understanding the underlying mechanism for the association between serum PTH and falls is needed. PMID:19016936

  5. THYROID HORMONE INSUFFICIENCY AND BRAIN DEVELOPMENT -- DETERMINATION OF NEUROTOXICITY AT LOW LEVELS OF HORMONE DISRUPTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormone (TH) deficiencies during development produce deleterious effects on brain structure and function. The degree to which TH must be perturbed to induce neurotoxicity remains unclear. The present study was conducted as part of a Cooperative Agreement between US EPA, U...

  6. DETERMINANTS OF PLASMA PARATHYROID HORMONE LEVELS IN YOUNG WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Julie M.; Curhan, Gary C.; Forman, John P.; Taylor, Eric N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose While the effects of calcium, phosphorus intake, and vitamin D on parathyroid hormone (PTH) have been well studied, less is known about other factors that impact PTH. Our goal was to delineate associations between demographic, dietary, and plasma factors and PTH. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of intact PTH among 1,288 non-black women in the Nurses Health Study II aged 33–53 with BMI < 30kg/m2 and eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2. Results Median PTH was 30.7pg/ml. After adjusting for 25-hydroxyvitamin D and other factors, PTH was 4.1pg/ml lower (95% CI −7.7 to −0.5) in women who smoked 1–14 cigarettes/day and 6.4pg/ml lower (95% CI −11.2 to −1.7) in women who smoked >15 cigarettes/day compared to non-smokers. After multivariate adjustment, women whose BMI was 27–29 kg/m2 had PTH levels 2.0pg/ml higher (95% CI 0.2–3.9) compared to BMI of 21–22 kg/m2, and women in the highest quartile of plasma phosphorus had PTH levels 4.1pg/ml lower (95% CI −5.8 to −2.4) than women in the lowest quartile. Higher vitamin A intake was independently associated with lower PTH whereas lower calcium intake, lower plasma calcium, lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and winter blood draw were associated with higher PTH. Intakes of phosphorus, animal protein, magnesium, alcohol, and caffeine were not associated with PTH. Conclusions Factors not classically associated with calcium-phosphorus metabolism impact PTH. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms whereby smoking, vitamin A, and phosphorus affect PTH and to examine how body size and season may affect PTH independent of 25(OH)D. PMID:20631996

  7. Effects of sex steroid hormones, thyroid hormone levels, and insulin regulation on thyrotoxic periodic paralysis in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Li, Wang; Changsheng, Chen; Jiangfang, Fu; Bin, Gao; Nanyan, Zhang; Xiaomiao, Li; Deqiang, Li; Ying, Xing; Wensong, Zai; Qiuhe, Ji

    2010-12-01

    Our study is to determine the expression of thyroid hormone, sex hormone, insulin, and C-peptide in Chinese male patients with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP). This study covered 102 patients with hyperthyroidism from Xijing Hospital. According to whether occurrence of TPP or not, patients were divided into two groups (those that were hyperthyroid with and without TPP) that were, matched with age, blood pressure, urea, and creatinine. We found the body mass index (BMI) in patients with TPP was higher than that in pure hyperthyroidism patients. The levels of the total thyroxine (T4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4) were significantly lower in patients with TPP compared with pure hyperthyroidism patients, while serum testosterone levels were higher compared with pure hyperthyroidism patients. Moreover, after glucose administration, the concentration of insulin at 60, 120, and 180 min were significantly higher in patients with TPP than those in pure hyperthyroidism patients. The insulin area under the curve (AUC) was significantly increased in patients with TPP compared with pure hyperthyroidism patients. The levels of thyroid hormone, sex hormone, and insulin were different in Chinese male patients with TPP compared to those with only hyperthyroidism.

  8. Maternal and cord serum vitamin E levels in normal and abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    von Mandach, U; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether there is an association between reduced vitamin E levels and an abnormal pregnancy. Levels were measured by HPLC in maternal and, where possible, in paired umbilical cord serum from normal and abnormal pregnancies at delivery and in serial serum samples from healthy women during gestation. Abnormal pregnancies were compared with normals. In normal pregnancies, mean vitamin E levels rose from 12.9 +/- 1.1 micrograms/ml in early pregnancy to 22.5 +/- 1.5 micrograms/ml at term (p < 0.05, n = 11). In pregnancies with fetal complications or maternal risks, levels were lower than in normals at corresponding gestational age (p < 0.005 in smokers, n = 20 at > or = 30 weeks & p < 0.01 in hypertensives, n = 4 at 16-23 weeks). Mean maternal and paired cord serum levels in normal pregnancies at delivery > or = 37 weeks were 21.3 +/- 0.6 and 3.8 +/- 0.1 micrograms/ml respectively (p < 0.001, n = 56). Maternal levels in women with a low birthweight infant and in smokers (> 10 cig/day) were significantly lower (p < 0.05, n = 13 & p < 0.0005, n = 12); levels in women with a malformed infant (n = 6) were also reduced, but just barely below the level of significance (p = 0.06). Cord serum levels in complicated pregnancies, however, were unchanged. The results show lower maternal levels of vitamin E in abnormal pregnancies, suggesting a changed vitamin E metabolism.

  9. Prenatal and Neonatal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Levels and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Vincent M.; Lutsky, Marta; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Lasley, Bill; Kharrazi, Martin; Windham, Gayle; Gee, Nancy; Croen, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are critical for normal brain development. This study examined autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured in mid-pregnancy maternal serum and infant blood after birth. Three groups of children born in Orange County, CA in 2000-2001 were identified: ASD (n = 78), developmental delay…

  10. Effects of oral chlortetracycline and dietary protein level on plasma concentrations of growth hormone and thyroid hormones in beef steers before and after challenge with a combination of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and growth hormone-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Rumsey, T S; McLeod, K; Elsasser, T H; Kahl, S; Baldwin, R L

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a subtherapeutic level of chlortetracycline (CTC) fed to growing beef steers under conditions of limited and adequate dietary protein on plasma concentrations of GH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid hormones before and after an injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) + GHRH. Young beef steers (n = 32; average BW = 285 kg) were assigned to a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments of either a 10 or 13% crude protein diet (70% concentrate, 15% wheat straw, and 15% cottonseed hulls) and either a corn meal carrier or carrier + 350 mg of CTC daily top dressed on the diet. Steers were fed ad libitum amounts of diet for 56 d, and a jugular catheter was then placed in each steer in four groups (two steers from each treatment combination per group) during four consecutive days (one group per day). Each steer was injected via the jugular catheter with 1.0 microg/kg BW TRH + .1 microg/kg BW GHRH in 10 mL of saline at 0800. Blood samples were collected at -30, -15, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 120, 240, and 360 min after releasing hormone injection. Plasma samples were analyzed for GH, TSH, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). After 84 d on trial, the steers were slaughtered and the pituitary and samples of liver were collected and analyzed for 5'-deiodinase activity. Feeding CTC attenuated the GH response to releasing hormone challenge by 26% for both area under the response curve (P<.03) and peak response (P<.10). Likewise, CTC attenuated the TSH response to releasing hormone challenge for area under the response curve by 16% (P<.10) and peak response by 33% (P<.02), and attenuated the T4 response for area under the curve by 12% (P<.08) and peak response by 14% (P<.04). Type II deiodinase activity in the pituitary was 36% less (P<.02) in CTC-fed steers than in steers not fed CTC. The results of this study are interpreted to suggest that feeding subtherapeutic levels of CTC to young

  11. Absence of the dawn phenomenon and abnormal lipolysis in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with chronic growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Boyle, P J; Avogaro, A; Smith, L; Shah, S D; Cryer, P E; Santiago, J V

    1992-04-01

    To determine the role of growth hormone in overnight insulin requirements and lipolysis, five patients with chronic growth hormone deficiency and Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and six control patients with diabetes were each studied on two separate nights. Insulin was infused at a variable rate throughout one night to maintain euglycaemia and fixed at 04.00 hours on another. During the variable infusion, euglycaemia was maintained in control patients by a 36% increase in insulin infusion rate between 03.00 and 08.00 hours while a 46% decrease in the rate was required in growth hormone deficient patients (p less than 0.02). Despite this difference, mean free insulin values were equivalent. This finding is suggestive of increased insulin clearance in growth hormone sufficient patients. Glucose levels rose in control and fell in growth hormone deficient patients when insulin infusion rates were fixed at 04.00 hours. Glycerol production and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were significantly lower in the growth hormone deficient diabetic patients, p less than 0.001, and when normalized with a heparin infusion, had no effect on insulin requirements. We conclude that: (1) growth hormone contributes to the development of the "dawn phenomenon," possibly by increasing insulin clearance (2) growth hormone helps sustain nocturnal lipolysis in Type 1 diabetes and (3) non-esterified fatty acids are not involved in the dawn phenomenon.

  12. Effect of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Batool; Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Enayati, Ehsan; Maleki, Maryam; Rezaeei, Saeedeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Opioid consumption has been widely increasing across the globe; how- ever, it can cause adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid, can reduce sex hor- mones and fertility. Withania somnifera (WS) is a traditional herb used to improve sexual activities. This study strives to investigate the effect of WS on sex hormones and gonado- tropins in addicted male rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, forty-eight male National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI) rats were randomly divided into four groups: i. Control group, ii. WS-treated control group, iii. Addicted group, and iv. WS-treated addicted group. Wa- ter-soluble morphine was given to rats for 21 days to induce addiction, concurrently the treated groups (2 and 4) also received WS plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%). At the end of the treatment, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of the rats’ sera were deter- mined in all the groups. Results Except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropin and sex hormone levels. Whereas WS caused a considerable increase in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in the treated control group. Conclusion WS increased sex hormones and gonadotropins-especially testosterone, es- trogen, and luteinizing hormone-in the addicted male rats and even increased the proges- terone level, a stimulant of most sex hormones in addicted male rats. PMID:27441058

  13. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kate C; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valerie A M; Martinez, Marni

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals.

  14. Positive Reinforcement Training Moderates Only High Levels of Abnormal Behavior in Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kate C.; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Martinez, Marni

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals. PMID:20183477

  15. Lack of effects of a lyposterolic extract of Serenoa repens on plasma levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone.

    PubMed

    Casarosa, C; Cosci di Coscio, M; Fratta, M

    1988-01-01

    Twenty men, aged 50 to 75 years (mean, 67 years), suffering from benign prostatic hypertrophy received 160 mg of a lyposterolic extract of Serenoa repens, twice daily for 30 days. Before and at the end of treatment, plasma levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone were determined. No changes in plasma hormone levels occurred as a result of treatment. It is concluded that Serenoa extract, which is useful in the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy, does not act via systemic changes of hormone levels.

  16. Sex steroid hormone levels in breast adipose tissue and serum in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Falk, Roni T; Gentzschein, Elisabet; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine D; Ioffe, Olga B; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A; Sherman, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of circulating estrogens and androgens are linked to higher breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women; however, little is known about hormone levels within the breast. Hormone concentrations within the breast may not be reflected in the blood and are likely important contributors to breast carcinogenesis. We used a previously validated method to measure levels of estrone, estradiol, androstenedione, and testosterone in adipose tissue removed as part of breast excisions performed for cancer in 100 postmenopausal women (69 ER/PR +/+ and 31 ER/PR -/-) participating in a breast cancer case-control study. We also measured the same steroid hormones, as well as estrone sulfate, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in serum from these patients and 100 controls matched on ages at blood collection and on menopause. Overall, concentrations of serum hormones did not vary significantly between controls and cases. However, women with ER-/PR- breast cancers had lower circulating levels of all measured sex steroid hormones and higher SHBG levels than women with ER+/PR+ breast cancers and controls. Similarly, hormone concentrations in breast adipose tissue were higher among women with ER+/PR+ compared to ER-/PR- breast cancer, although differences were only significant for testosterone. These data demonstrate that high sex steroid concentrations in both serum and adipose tissues are more strongly related to ER+/PR+ than ER-/PR- breast cancers. Measurement of sex hormones in serum and in the microenvironment may help in understanding the hormonal etiology of breast cancer, suggest methods for prevention, and have value in gauging treatment response and prognosis.

  17. Serum Sclerostin Levels Negatively Correlate with Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Free Estrogen Index in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Faryal S.; Padhi, I. Desmond; Raisz, Lawrence G.; Lorenzo, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Sclerostin is a negative regulator of bone formation. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare serum sclerostin levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and evaluate its relationship to estrogen, TH, bone turnover, and bone mass. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of healthy community-dwelling pre- and postmenopausal women. Intervention(s): There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measure(s): We compared serum sclerostin levels in pre- and postmenopausal women and correlated sclerostin levels with female sex hormones, calciotropic hormones, bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density. Results: Premenopausal women were 26.8 yr old, and postmenopausal women were 56.8 yr old. Postmenopausal women had lower values for estradiol (30 ± 23 vs. 10 ± 4 pg/ml; P < 0.001), estrone (61 ± 24 vs. 29 ± 10 pg/ml; P <0.001), and free estrogen index (FEI) (6 ± 4 vs. 3 ± 2 pmol/nmol; P = 0.008) and significantly lower bone mineral density at all sites compared to premenopausal women, with no significant differences in levels of PTH, 25-hydroxy or 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels. Postmenopausal women had significantly higher serum sclerostin levels (1.16 ± 0.38 ng/ml vs. 0.48 ± 0.15 ng/ml; P < 0.001). Because most of the premenopausal women were on oral contraceptives, subsequent analyses were limited to postmenopausal women. There were significant negative correlations between sclerostin and FEI and sclerostin and PTH in this group. Using multiple regression analysis, both FEI (β = −0.629; P = 0.002) and PTH (β = −0.554; P = 0.004) were found to be independent predictors of sclerostin levels in postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that serum sclerostin levels are regulated by both estrogens and PTH in postmenopausal women. These findings need to be explored further in larger prospective studies. PMID:20156921

  18. Changes in serum growth hormone and prolactin levels, and in hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and somatostatin content, after superior cervical sympathectomy in rats.

    PubMed

    Cardinalí, D P; Esquifino, A I; Arce, A; Vara, E; Ariznavarreta, C; Tresguerres, J A

    1994-01-01

    After bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx) of adult male rats, norepinephrine (NE) content of the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) decreased significantly by 39-47% from 16 h to 7 days after surgery. During this time the levels of serum growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) and of MBH GH-releasing hormone (GRH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and somatostatin were measured by RIA. In sham-operated controls, serum PRL increased and serum GH decreased 16-24 h after surgery, attaining pre-surgical levels later on. In SCGx rats, significantly lower serum GH and PRL and higher MBH GRH and TRH content as compared to controls was observed 16-24 h after surgery, during the wallerian degeneration phase after SCGx. MBH somatostatin concentration decreased in SCGx rats 20 h after surgery. Two injections of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocker prazosin 45 and 90 min before sacrifice, alone or together with the beta-blocker propranolol, prevented the changes in MBH hypophysiotropic hormone content, as well as in serum GH and PRL levels, found in SCGx rats 20 h after surgery. Propranolol treatment did not affect hormone levels. Neither drug modified the decrease in MBH NE content observed after SCGx. The results argue in favor of the existence of physiologically relevant projections from superior cervical ganglion neurons to the MBH controlling hypophysiotropic hormone release.

  19. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie; Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Samsioe, Göran; Halldin, Krister; Åkesson, Agneta

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  20. Early life trauma is associated with decreased peripheral levels of thyroid-hormone T3 in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Machado, T D; Salum, G A; Bosa, V L; Goldani, M Z; Meaney, M J; Agranonik, M; Manfro, G G; Silveira, P P

    2015-12-01

    An adverse early life environment can induce changes on behavioral and metabolic responses later in life. Recent studies in rats showed that the quality of maternal care as measured by high levels of pup licking and grooming (LG) was associated with changes in the relationship between the precursor thyroid-hormone T4 and the more active T3. Here we investigated if early exposure to childhood abuse is associated with thyroid-hormone levels in human adolescents. Given the empirical evidence from animal models showing that good maternal care was associated with increased conversion of T4 to T3, we hypothesized that early adversity would be associated with a decreased peripheral conversion of T4 to T3. A sample of 80 adolescents (10-18 years) participated in this study. We used the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire to investigate early life stress. We calculate the body mass index (BMI) assessing weight and height and sexual maturation stage was determined by self-assessment. Blood samples were collected to measure T3 and T4 levels. ANCOVA were used to evaluate the influence of the Physical Abuse domain of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire as the early life stress variable in T3 and T4 separately, adjusted for potential confounders such as pubertal status, gender, socioeconomic status and BMI. Early life trauma was associated with reduced T3 levels in adolescents, when adjusted for potential confounders (p=0.013), but not with peripheral T4 levels (p=0.625). We extended findings from animal models showing that adverse early experience persistently impacts on the individual's responses to stress, which is marked by an abnormal metabolism of thyroid hormones. Further studies are needed to further investigate the nature of such associations.

  1. The relationship between bilateral oophorectomy and plasma hormone levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Shafrir, Amy L; Rice, Megan; Hankinson, Susan E; Eliassen, A Heather; Tworoger, Shelley S; Narod, Steven A

    2015-02-01

    Oophorectomy prior to natural menopause reduces breast cancer risk. We evaluated whether timing of oophorectomy (during premenopause vs. postmenopause) or hysterectomy was associated with hormone levels, specifically estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and prolactin, using data from the Nurses' Health Study. We included 2,251 postmenopausal women not using hormones who provided blood samples in 1989-1990 and/or 2000-2002, and who were controls in various nested case-control studies. We used multivariate linear mixed-effects models to assess geometric mean hormone levels by surgery status. Bilateral oophorectomy was associated with 25% lower testosterone levels versus women with natural menopause (20.8 vs. 15.5 ng/dL) (P < 0.0001) with no effect of timing of surgery (P = 0.80). SHBG levels were lower among women with a premenopausal oophorectomy (52.2 nmol/L) versus those with natural menopause (58.1 nmol/L) or a postmenopausal oophorectomy (62.0 nmol/L) (P = 0.02). There was no significant association of oophorectomy with estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, DHEAS, or prolactin levels (P ≥ 0.23). A simple hysterectomy was associated with a significant 8% lower testosterone (P = 0.03) and 14 % lower DHEAS (P = 0.02) levels compared with women with natural menopause but not with other hormone levels. Although limited by small numbers, our findings suggest no differential influence of timing of surgery on sex hormone levels. The reduction of testosterone levels in women with oophorectomy or hysterectomy suggests a possible role of this hormone in postmenopausal breast cancer development.

  2. High-Cholesterol Diet Disrupts the Levels of Hormones Derived from Anterior Pituitary Basophilic Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Zhang, X; Liu, Z; Yuan, Z; Song, Y; Shao, S; Zhou, X; Yan, H; Guan, Q; Gao, L; Zhang, H; Zhao, J

    2016-03-01

    Emerging evidence shows that elevated cholesterol levels are detrimental to health. However, it is unclear whether there is an association between cholesterol and the pituitary. We investigated the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on pituitary hormones using in vivo animal studies and an epidemiological study. In the animal experiments, rats were fed a high-cholesterol or control diet for 28 weeks. In rats fed the high-cholesterol diet, serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; also known as thyrotrophin), luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) produced by the basophilic cells of the anterior pituitary were elevated in a time-dependent manner. Among these hormones, TSH was the first to undergo a significant change, whereas adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), another hormone produced by basophilic cells, was not changed significantly. As the duration of cholesterol feeding increased, cholesterol deposition increased gradually in the pituitary. Histologically, basophilic cells, and especially thyrotrophs and gonadotrophs, showed an obvious increase in cell area, as well as a potential increase in their proportion of total pituitary cells. Expression of the β-subunit of TSH, FSH and LH, which controls hormone specificity and activity, exhibited a corresponding increase. In the epidemiological study, we found a similar elevation of serum TSH, LH and FSH and a decrease in ACTH in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Significant positive correlations existed between serum total cholesterol and TSH, FSH or LH, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that the high-cholesterol diet affected the levels of hormones derived from anterior pituitary basophilic cells. This phenomenon might contribute to the pituitary functional disturbances described in hypercholesterolaemia.

  3. Hormone levels in neonatal hair reflect prior maternal stress exposure during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Amita; Lubach, Gabriele R; Ziegler, Toni E; Coe, Christopher L

    2016-04-01

    Hormones present in hair provide summative information about endocrine activity while the hair was growing. Therefore, it can be collected from an infant after birth and still provide retrospective information about hormone exposure during prenatal development. We employed this approach to determine whether a delimited period of maternal stress during pregnancy affected the concentrations of glucocorticoids and gonadal hormones in the hair of neonatal rhesus monkeys. Hair from 22 infant monkeys exposed to 5 weeks of gestational disturbance was compared to specimens from 13 infants from undisturbed control pregnancies. Using an LC/MS/MS based technique, which permitted seven steroid hormones to be quantified simultaneously, we found 2 hormones were significantly different in infants from disturbed pregnancies. Cortisol and testosterone levels were lower in the hair of both male and female neonates. Maternal hair hormone levels collected on the same day after delivery no longer showed effects of the disturbance earlier during pregnancy. This study documents that a period of acute stress, lasting for 20% of gestation, has sustained effects on the hormones to which a developing fetus is exposed.

  4. Dexamethasone increases growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GRH) receptor mRNA levels in cultured rat anterior pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, M; Sato, M; Matsubara, S; Wada, Y; Takahara, J

    1996-06-01

    To examine the effects of glucocorticoid (GC) on growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GRH) receptor gene expression, a highly-sensitive and quantitative reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was used in this study. Rat anterior pituitary cells were isolated and cultured for 4 days. The cultured cells were treated with dexamethasone for 2, 6, and 24 h. GRH receptor mRNA levels were determined by competitive RT-PCR using a recombinant RNA as the competitor. Dexamethasone significantly increased GRH receptor mRNA levels at 5 nM after 6- and 24 h-incubations, and the maximal effect was found at 25 nM. The GC receptor-specific antagonist, RU 38486 completely eliminated the dexamethasone-induced enhancement of GRH receptor mRNA levels. Dexamethasone did not alter the mRNA levels of beta-actin and prolactin at 5 nM for 24 h, whereas GH mRNA levels were significantly increased by the same treatment. The GH response to GRH was significantly enhanced by the 24-h incubation with 5 nM dexamethasone. These findings suggest that GC stimulates GRH receptor gene expression through the ligand-activated GC receptors in the rat somatotrophs. The direct effects of GC on the GRH receptor gene could explain the enhancement of GRH-induced GH secretion.

  5. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Hansen, Martin

    2013-09-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g(-1) dry weight or 22.5 mg kg(-1) N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones.

  6. Ovarian stimulation using human chorionic gonadotrophin impairs blastocyst implantation and decidualization by altering ovarian hormone levels and downstream signaling in mice.

    PubMed

    Ezoe, Kenji; Daikoku, Takiko; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Murata, Nana; Kawano, Hiroomi; Abe, Takashi; Okuno, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tamotsu; Kato, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    Ovarian stimulation induced by follicle-stimulating hormone and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) is commonly used in assisted reproductive technology to increase embryo production. However, recent clinical and animal studies have shown that ovarian stimulation disrupts endometrial function and embryo development and adversely affects pregnancy outcomes. How ovarian stimulation impairs pregnancy establishment and the precise mechanisms by which this stimulation reduces the chances of conception remain unclear. In this study, we first demonstrated that ovarian stimulation using hCG alone impairs implantation, decidualization and fetal development of mice by generating abnormal ovarian hormone levels. We also showed that ovarian hormone levels were altered because of changes in the levels of the enzymes involved in their synthesis in the follicles and corpora lutea. Furthermore, we determined that anomalous ovarian hormone secretion induced by ovarian stimulation alters the spatiotemporal expression of progesterone receptors and their downstream genes, especially in the uterine epithelium. Epithelial estrogenic signaling and cell proliferation were promoted on the day of implantation in stimulated mice and these changes led to the failure of uterine transition from the prereceptive to the receptive state. Collectively, our findings indicate that ovarian stimulation using hCG induces an imbalance in steroid hormone secretion, which causes a failure of the development of uterine receptivity and subsequent implantation and decidualization by altering the expression of steroid receptors and their downstream signaling associated with embryo implantation.

  7. Serum Vitamin B12 and thyroid hormone levels in Saudi patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khamis, Fahd A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Materials and Methods: One hundred and ten patients with MS were recruited for this study after Institutional Review Board approval. All patients signed a written informed consent form and donated a single blood sample. Plasma Vitamin B12 levels, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) hormone levels were measured. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: Analysis of Vitamin B12 levels in 110 patients with MS revealed that 65% had normal levels of Vitamin B12 (200–900 pg/ml), 30% had low levels of Vitamin B12 (<200 pg/ml), and 5% high levels of Vitamin B12 (higher than 900 pg/ml). Further analysis of patients with low levels of Vitamin B12 revealed that this cohort exhibited a significantly high number of patients with low levels of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) (P < 0.005). Conclusion: This study suggests a relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones. This opens the possibility that the use of therapies that increase triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels might be beneficial to patients with MS. PMID:27625581

  8. MODE OF ACTION: NEUROTOXICITY INDUCED BY DEVELOPMENTAL THYROID HORMONE INSUFFICIENCY -- NEUROLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES RESULTING FROM EXPOSURE TO PROPYLTHIOURACIL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A manuscript summarizes a workshop aimed at developing a framework to determine the relevancy of animal modes-of-action for extrapolation to humans. This specific report used animal data on neurodevelopmental effects of thyroid hormone disruption to test the framework. Polyhaloge...

  9. Hypergravity and estrogen effects on avian anterior pituitary growth hormone and prolactin levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorindo, R. P.; Negulesco, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Developing female chicks with fractured right radii were maintained for 14 d at either earth gravity (1 g) or a hypergravity state (2 g). The birds at 1 g were divided into groups which received daily injections of (1) saline, (2) 200 micrograms estrone, and (3) 400 micrograms estrone for 14 d. The 2-g birds were divided into three similarly treated groups. All 2-g birds showed significantly lower body weights than did 1-g birds. Anterior pituitary (AP) glands were excised and analyzed for growth hormone and prolactin content by analytical electrophoresis. The 1-g chicks receiving either dose of daily estrogen showed increased AP growth hormone levels, whereas hypergravity alone did not affect growth hormone content. Chicks exposed to daily estrogen and hypergravity displayed reduced growth hormone levels. AP prolactin levels were slightly increased by the lower daily estrogen dose in 1-g birds, but markedly reduced in birds exposed only to hypergravity. Doubly-treated chicks displayed normal prolactin levels. Reduced growth in 2-g birds might be due, in part, to reduced AP levels of prolactin and/or growth hormone.

  10. Effect of excitatory amino acids on serum TSH and thyroid hormone levels in freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, M; Durán, R; Arufe, M C

    2000-01-01

    The actions of glutamate (L-Glu), and glutamate receptor agonists on serum thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) and TSH levels have been studied in conscious and freely moving adult male rats. The excitatory amino acids (EAA), L-Glu, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), kainic acid (KA) and domoic acid (Dom) were administered intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected through a cannula implanted in the rats jugular 0--60 min after injection. Thyroid hormone concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassay, and thyrotrophin (TSH) concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that L-Glu (20 and 25 mg/kg) and NMDA (25 mg/kg) increased serum thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and TSH concentrations. Serum thyroid hormone levels increased 30 min after treatment, while serum TSH levels increased 5 min after i.p. administration, in both cases serum levels remained elevated during one hour. Injection of the non-NMDA glutamatergic agonists KA (30 mg/kg) and Dom (1 mg/kg) produced an increase in serum thyroid hormones and TSH levels. These results suggest the importance of EAAs in the regulation of hormone secretion from the pituitary-thyroid axis, as well as the importance of the NMDA and non-NMDA receptors in this stimulatory effect.

  11. Effect of ethanolic extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Yu, Longjiang; Jin, Wenwen; Ao, Mingzhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of long-term ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and compare them with the effect of diethylstilbestrol. Materials and Methods: Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized or sham operated. Both sham and OVX control groups (n = 10, respectively) received the vehicle. The remaining OVX rats were oral administrated with ethanol extract of Maca (0.096, or 0.24g/kg; n = 10, respectively) and diethylstilbestrol (0.05 mg/kg; n = 10). The treatment continued for 28 weeks. At week 12 and week 28, the blood of rats was collected and serum hormone levels, including estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: At week 12, the levels of serum E2 were slightly higher in Maca groups than that in OVX group; T levels were significantly decreased; and FSH levels were advanced slightly in Maca groups than that in sham group. After 28 weeks administration, serum E2 levels in Maca-treated animals did not differ significantly from sham control, the low dose of Maca increased serum E2 levels, and Maca prevented increase in serum FSH levels compared with OVX group. Conclusions: Long-term Maca supply modulates endocrine hormone balance in OVX rats, especially it decreases enhanced FSH levels. It is proposed that Maca may become a potential choice for postmenopausal women. PMID:25097281

  12. The Association between Exposure to Environmental Bisphenol A and Gonadotropic Hormone Levels among Men

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianping; Shi, Huijuan; Zhu, Jiang; Liu, Xiaoqin; Wang, Jian; Miao, Maohua; Yuan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an extensively used chemical with endocrine disrupting properties. Although animal and in vivo studies have suggested possible effects of BPA on levels of gonadotropic hormones, human studies are limited and inconclusive. The study examined whether environmental BPA exposure was associated with gonadotropic hormones levels in men. A total of 560 men aged 18–55 years were recruited from Sandu County, Guizhou Province, China. We collected urine samples for measurement of BPA, and blood samples for measurement of reproductive hormones. We examined serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and total testosterone (T). Relative risk (RR) was obtained by log-binominal regression to explore the association between urinary BPA level and hormone levels. BPA was detected in 70.4% of urine samples, with a geometric mean of 0.50 μg/gCr. Men with detectable levels of BPA had a 1.52-fold increased risk of having a high LH level (>75th percentile) when compared with men with undetectable levels of BPA, after adjustment for potential confounders (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–2.21). The association persisted and slightly intensified among current smokers (adjusted RR (aRR) = 1.76, 95%CI: 1.05–2.95), while it weakened among non-smokers (aRR = 1.17, 95%CI: 0.69–1.96). Urinary BPA level was associated with an increased FSH level among smokers (aRR = 1.64, 95%CI: 1.01–2.67). Urinary BPA level was inversely associated with total T level among males with body max index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 although this association was of borderline significance (aRR = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.26–1.05). In conclusion, environmental exposure to BPA was associated with increased serum levels of LH and FSH in male smokers, along with decreased serum levels of total T in men with BMI≥25 kg/m2. These findings suggest that the effects of environmental BPA exposure on hormone levels might be modified by smoking and BMI. PMID:28085949

  13. Pesticide Exposure Alters Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Levels in Mexican Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Recio, Rogelio; Ocampo-Gómez, Guadalupe; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Borja-Aburto, Victor; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Uribe, Marisela; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Cebrián, Mariano E.

    2005-01-01

    Organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) are suspected of altering reproductive function by reducing brain acetylcholinesterase activity and monoamine levels, thus impairing hypothalamic and/or pituitary endocrine functions and gonadal processes. Our objective was to evaluate in a longitudinal study the association between OP exposure and serum levels of pituitary and sex hormones. Urinary OP metabolite levels were measured by gas–liquid chromatography, and serum pituitary and sex hormone levels by enzymatic immunoassay and radioimmunoassay in 64 men. A total of 147 urine and blood samples were analyzed for each parameter. More than 80% of the participants had at least one OP metabolite in their urine samples. The most frequent metabolite found was diethylthiophosphate (DETP; 55%), followed by diethylphosphate (DEP; 46%), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP; 32%), and dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP; 31%). However, the metabolites detected at higher concentrations were DMTP, DEP, DMDTP, and dimethylphosphate. There was a high proportion of individuals with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations outside the range of normality (48%). The average FSH serum levels were higher during the heavy pesticide spraying season. However, a multivariate analysis of data collected in all periods showed that serum FSH levels were negatively associated with urinary concentrations of both DMTP and DMDTP, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH) was negatively associated with DMTP. We observed no significant associations between estradiol or testosterone serum levels with OP metabolites. The hormonal disruption in agricultural workers presented here, together with results from experimental animal studies, suggests that OP exposure disrupts the hypothalamic–pituitary endocrine function and also indicates that FSH and LH are the hormones most affected. PMID:16140621

  14. Mandibular coronoid process in parathyroid hormone-related protein-deficient mice shows ectopic cartilage formation accompanied by abnormal bone modeling.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Shunichi; Suda, Naoto; Fukada, Kenji; Ohyama, Kimie; Yamashita, Yasuo; Hammond, Vicki E

    2003-07-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) null mutant mice were analyzed to investigate an additional role for PTHrP in cell differentiation. We found ectopic cartilage formation in the mandibular coronoid process in newborn mice. While many previous studies involving PTHrP gene knockout mouse have shown that the cartilage in various regions becomes smaller, this is the first report showing an "increase" of cartilage volume. Investigations of mandibular growth using normal mice indicated that coronoid secondary cartilage never formed from E 15 to d 4, but small amount of cartilage temporally formed at d 7, and this also applies to PTHrP-wild type mice. Therefore, PTHrP deficiency consequently advanced the secondary cartilage formation, which is a novel role of PTHrP in chondrocyte differentiation. In situ hybridization of matrix proteins showed that this coronoid cartilage had characteristics of the lower hypertrophic cell zone usually present at the site of endochondral bone formation and/or "chondroid bone" occasionally found in distraction osteogenesis. In addition, the coronoid process in the PTHrP-deficient mouse also showed abnormal expansion of bone marrow and an increase in the number of multinucleated osteoclasts, an indication of abnormal bone modeling. These results indicate that PTHrP is involved in bone modeling as well as in chondrocyte differentiation. In situ hybridization of matrix protein mRNAs in the abnormal mandibular condylar cartilage revealed that this cartilage was proportionally smaller, supporting previous immunohistochemical results.

  15. The effects of physical therapeutic agents on serum levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tönük, Şükrü Burak; Serin, Erdinc; Ayhan, Fikriye Figen; Yorgancioglu, Zeynep Rezan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the effects of physical agents on the levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, hot packs, and therapeutic ultrasound were applied to the lumbar region and knees of patients with OA. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of the serum levels of glucose, insulin (INS), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), cortisol (COR), and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immediately before and after the 1st session, to investigate the acute effects of those physical agents on the endocrine system. The hormone levels were also measured every 5 sessions in a total of 10 sessions. The treatment response was also evaluated by using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) throughout the therapy period. After the 1st session, there was a decrease in INS levels and a mild decrease in PRL levels (P = 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Throughout the 10-session therapy period, the INS levels increased, whereas the ACTH and COR levels decreased (P < 0.05 for all). The VAS-spine, RMDQ, VAS-knee, and WOMAC scores decreased (P = 0.001 for VAS-spine and P < 0.001 for all others). A positive correlation was detected between the changes in serum COR and WOMAC-pain score (P < 0.05). Although the combination therapy caused changes in INS level accompanied with steady glucose levels, the application of physical agents did not adversely affect the hormone levels. The decrease in ACTH and COR levels may be attributed to the analgesic effect of agents and may be an indicator of patient comfort through a central action. PMID:27583888

  16. [A case of megaloblastic anemia with abnormally high urine level of beta-aminoisobutyric acid].

    PubMed

    Konjiki, O; Yoneda, Y; Sato, Y; Oosawa, Y; Imamura, T; Takasaki, M

    1993-01-01

    A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with anemia and jaundice. Hematological studies revealed hyperchromic macrocytic anemia, and biochemical studies revealed findings of hemolysis. The folic acid level was low and megaloblasts were observed in the bone marrow. From these findings, the patient was diagnosed as having megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency. This patient had been a heavy alcohol drinker in the habit of drinking alcohol without meals. He began to eat regular meals in the hospital, and the anemia and jaundice improved gradually. Since liver cirrhosis was suspected, amino acid analysis of the urine was performed, and abnormal excretion of beta-amino-isobutyric acid (BAIB) was found. According to the amount of BAIB excreted, the Japanese population can be divided into low and high BAIB excretors comprising 65% and 36%, respectively. BAIB is also considered to reflect dissimilation of thymine. The present patient was included in the high excretion group because of the abnormally high urine level of BAIB, which was considered to be caused by ineffective hematopoiesis in the bone marrow as a result of his megaloblastic anemia. For this reason, dissimilation of thymine was considered to have been active in this patient.

  17. Mice lacking Mrp1 have reduced testicular steroid hormone levels and alterations in steroid biosynthetic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    SIVILS, JEFFREY C.; GONZALEZ, IVEN; BAIN, LISA J.

    2010-01-01

    The multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) is a member of the ABC active transporter family that can transport several steroid hormone conjugates, including 17β-estradiol glucuronide, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and estrone 3-sulfate. The present study investigated the role that MRP1 plays in maintaining proper hormone levels in the serum and testes. Serum and testicular steroid hormone levels were examined in both wild-type mice and Mrp1 null mice. Serum testosterone levels were reduced 5-fold in mice lacking Mrp1, while testicular androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were significantly reduced by 1.7- to 4.5-fold in Mrp1 knockout mice. Investigating the mechanisms responsible for the reduction in steroid hormones in Mrp1-/- mice revealed no differences in the expression or activity of enzymes that inactivate steroids, the sulfotransferases or glucuronosyltransferases. However, steroid biosynthetic enzyme levels in the testes were altered. Cyp17 protein levels were increased by 1.6-fold, while Cyp17 activity using progesterone as a substrate was also increased by 1.4-2.0-fold in mice lacking Mrp1. Additionally, the ratio of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and steroidogenic factor 1 to 3βhydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were significantly increased in the testes of Mrp1-/- mice. These results indicate that Mrp1-/- mice have lowered steroid hormones levels, and suggests that upregulation of steroid biosynthetic enzymes may be an attempt to maintain proper steroid hormone homeostasis. PMID:20178799

  18. The effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy on serum estrogen, progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels in healthy post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Edlefsen, Kerstin L.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Prentice, Ross L.; Janssen, Imke; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Anderson, Garnet

    2010-01-01

    Objective Differences in disease outcomes between users and non-users of hormone therapy (HT) and between users of estrogen alone (ET) and users of estrogen plus progesterone therapy (EPT) may relate to differences in serum hormone concentrations between these populations. In this study, we examine the response of serum hormone levels in healthy post-menopausal women after one year of HT. Methods A representative sub-sample of 200 healthy adherent participants from the active and placebo groups of the Women's Health Initiative randomized, controlled clinical trials of ET (conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg daily) or EPT (ET plus medroxyprogesterone actetate 2.5 mg daily) were selected for determination of selected sex hormone levels at baseline and one year after randomization. Results In participants receiving active ET intervention compared to placebo, estrogenic hormone levels increased from baseline to year 1 by 3.6-fold for total estrone, 2.7-fold for total estradiol, and 1.8-fold for bioavailable and free estradiol concentrations. Serum SHBG concentrations also increased 2.5-fold. In contrast, progesterone levels decreased slightly in women taking exogenous EPT. The response of serum estrogens and SHBG did not differ substantially with the addition of progesterone. In subgroup analyses, hormone response varied by age, ethnicity, BMI, smoking, vasomotor symptoms, and baseline hormone levels. Conclusions These data provide a reference point for the serum hormone response to HT, and demonstrate that response of serum estrogens is similar for ET and EPT. The implications of the slight decrease in serum progesterone levels with EPT therapy are uncertain. Potential treatment interactions for estrogenic hormones were identified, which suggest a larger response to HT in women with low endogenous levels. PMID:20215977

  19. The effect of rapeseed meal and methimazole on levels of plasma hormones in growing broiler cockerels.

    PubMed

    Chiasson, R B; Sharp, P J; Klandorf, H; Scanes, C G; Harvey, S

    1979-11-01

    The effects of feeding a heat treated rapeseed meal, which has goitrogenic properties, on the concentrations of plasma pituitary and thyroid gland hormones was investigated in broiler cockerels of between 3 and 10 weeks of age. For purposes of comparison, two other groups were included in the study; one was fed the goitrogen, methimazole, and the other a normal control diet. The hormones measured were thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and luteinizing hormone (LH). In birds fed methimazole the thyroid glands were greatly enlarged, the concentrations of plasma T4 and T3 were depressed and the concentrations of growth hormone, prolactin, and LH were elevated. The high level of plasma LH in the birds fed methimazole was not due to the absence of sufficient concentrations of plasma testosterone to exert a negative feedback effect. Although the inclusion of rapeseed meal in the diet caused the thyroid glands to enlarge, the concentrations of all the hormones studied, with the exception of T3, were similar to those in the control birds. However, there was a tendency, which was more pronounced in birds of between 3 and 5 weeks of age, for rapeseed meal to depress the concentrations of plasma T4, GH, and LH and to increase the concentration of plasma prolactin. The most significant observation was that between 3 and 5 weeks of age the inclusion of rapeseed meal in the diet significantly (P less than .001) depressed the concentration of plasma T3.

  20. Effects of thyroid hormone on serum glycated albumin levels: study on non-diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Koga, M; Murai, J; Saito, H; Matsumoto, S; Kasayama, S

    2009-05-01

    Glycated albumin (GA) is used alongside glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1C)) as an indicator of glycemic control. Although serum GA levels are affected mainly by plasma glucose, they are also influenced by serum albumin metabolism. Thyroid hormone is known to promote albumin catabolism, and it is thus thought to affect serum GA levels. In the present study, the effects of thyroid hormone on serum GA measurements were investigated in patients with thyroid dysfunction. Six patients with untreated hypothyroidism and 17 patients with untreated thyrotoxicosis were investigated. Patients who had anemia or diabetes were excluded. A total of 25 non-diabetic, euthyroid individuals were enrolled as controls. HbA(1C), serum GA, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (T(3)), and free thyroxine (T(4)) levels were measured in all these subjects, and their relationships were examined. Although no intergroup differences were observed for HbA(1C), serum GA was significantly higher among patients with hypothyroidism than controls, and significantly lower among patients with thyrotoxicosis. Serum GA had a significant positive correlation with serum TSH and significant inverse correlations with free T(3) and free T(4). Thyroid hormone levels are inversely associated with serum GA levels. Cautions are necessary when evaluating serum GA levels in patients with thyroid dysfunction.

  1. Effects of domoic acid on serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Arufe, M C; Arias, B; Durán, R; Alfonso, M

    1995-08-01

    The actions of Domoic Acid (Dom), a marine toxin, on the levels of serum TSH and thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) has been studied to determine if these actions could be mediated by the serotoninergic system. In all the experiments, adult male Wistar rats were used. The Dom dissolved in saline was administered via i.p. in doses of 0.5 and 1 mg/kg. The T4 and T3 concentrations were determined by enzimoinmunoassay and TSH concentration was determined by radioinmunoassay. The results show that Dom 1 mg/kg increases the serum T4 levels one hour after treatment and decreases these levels 2 and 3 hr after treatment. Dom 0.5 mg/kg decreased the serum T4 levels 2 and 3 hr after treatment. The concentrations of T3 in serum were unchanged by both doses of Dom. The concentration of TSH was increased by Dom. In order to study the possible mediation of the serotoninergic system in the effect of Dom on the hormone levels, PCPA, a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, was administered i.p. 90 min before blood sampling. In this case, with both doses of Dom a decrease in the levels of both hormones occurred with respect to the PCPA group. These results indicate that the serotoninergic system could affect the actions of Dom on TSH and thyroid hormone secretion.

  2. Levels of hormones and cytokines associated with growth in Honamlı and native hair goats.

    PubMed

    Devrim, A K; Elmaz, O; Mamak, N; Sudagidan, M

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess alterations of hormone and cytokine levels associated with growth period during puberty in Honamlı goats which were identified as a new goat breed and had one of the highest meat production potential among the other goat breeds in Turkey. Honamlı goats are originated from native hair goats, so parallel studies of sampling and analyzing were conducted also in native hair goats which have moderate meat production. Blood serum samples of Honamlı (n=90) and native hair goats (n=90) were obtained from the pure herds in Korkuteli and Ka districts of Anatolia. Concentrations of growth hormone (GH), myostatin (MSTN), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP), leptin, transforming growth factor-betal (TGF-β1) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) levels were measured by ELISA in each breed in the age groups of 4, 8 and 12 months. The present results indicate interesting correlations among the age groups and all the examined hormone and cytokine parameters exhibited significant (P<0.05 and P<0.001) differences. The parameters investigated were usually begun to increase after 4 months of age in the both breeds and sexes. Therefore, this paper supported the view that the beginning of hormonal alterations of goats could occur at 4th month of age. The results reported here emphasize the primary role played by GH, MSTN, IGF-1, leptin, GHRH, GHRP, TGF-βi and VEGF in the first year growth period of goats.

  3. Natural levels of abnormalities in the trilling frog (neobactrachus centralis) at the Olympic dam mine

    SciTech Connect

    Read, J.L. ); Tyler, M.J. )

    1994-07-01

    Frogs are more susceptible than most vertebrates to environmental contaminants. Unlike amniotes, the frog egg is not protected by a semi-impervious shell, and hence is readily exposed to pollutants. In addition, tadpoles develop in wetlands to which many noxious substances drain from the surrounding landscape. Coupled with this high exposure rate, frogs are also very sensitive to trace elements, some pesticides, heavy metals especially when coupled with exposure to low pH and ionizing radiation. Frogs commonly exhibit discernible deformities following exposure to teratogenic contaminants, and therefore are valuable indicators of the existence of noxious substances in the environment. The abundance and ease of sampling of frogs, along with their sensitivity to environmental contaminants, makes them ideal organisms for environmental monitoring in the Australian arid zone. The study of abnormalities in frogs has become an integral part of the Environmental Management Programme of the Olympic Dam Operations (ODO) copper-uranium-gold-silver mine in northern South Australia. The Trilling Frog (Neobatrachus centralis) is the only frog species which has been recorded at Olympic Dam. It is likely that these frogs, are relatively sedentary, thus enhancing their value as indicator organisms. A pilot survey in 1989 documented frog deformity levels comparable to those found at undisturbed sites in Australia and in other countries. This paper reports on larger study conducted in February and March 1992 when heavy rains provided another opportunity to survey the frog population. The low levels of abnormalities support the conclusion that N. centralis at Olympic Dam does not appear to be accumulating or being influenced by the very low levels of radionuclides present here.

  4. Protein- and tryptophan-restricted diets induce changes in rat gonadal hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Del Angel-Meza, A R.; Feria-Velasco, A; Ontiveros-Martínez, L; Gallardo, L; Gonzalez-Burgos, I; Beas-Zárate, C

    2001-04-01

    The release of gonadotrophic hormones starts at puberty and, along with the subsequent estral cyclicity, is subject to hormonal feedback systems and to the action of diverse neuroactive substances such as gamma amino butyric acid and catecholamines. This study shows the effect of the administration during 40 days of protein-restricted and corn-based (tryptophan- and lysine-deficient) diets on the serotonin concentration in medial hypothalamic fragments as well as in follicle-stimulating luteinizing hormones, 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels, and estral cyclicity in 60- and 100-day-old rats (young, mature, and in gestation). In young rats, a delay in vaginal aperture development, and a lengthening of the estral cycle to a continuous anestral state was observed, mainly in the group fed corn. This group showed a 25% decrease in the serotonin concentration compared with the protein-restricted group, which exhibited an increase of 9% over the control group. Luteinizing hormone levels decreased in 16% and 13%, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone increased in 13% and 5% in the young animals of restricted groups, respectively, compared with the control group. Serum progesterone levels decreased only in young restricted versus control animals, and no differences were seen among adult and gestational rats. Serum levels of 17-beta-estradiol in restricted animals showed different concentration patterns, mainly in the corn group, which was higher at the 20th gestational day, falling drastically postpartum. The results obtained in this study show serotonin to be a very important factor in the release of gonadotrophic hormones and the start of puberty.

  5. Seasonal variation in urinary and salivary reproductive hormone levels in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis).

    PubMed

    Amaral, Rodrigo S; Rosas, Fernando C W; da Silva, Vera M F; Graham, Laura H; Viau, Priscila; Nichi, Marcilio; Oliveira, Claudio A

    2015-09-01

    The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is a threatened aquatic mammal endemic to the Amazon basin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urinary and salivary reproductive hormone levels of captive Amazonian manatees collected during two seasons of the year. Salivary samples from four males and urinary and salivary samples from three females were collected during two seasons (March-June and September-November) over two consecutive years. Salivary testosterone in males was measured by radioimmunoassay and reproductive hormones in females (salivary progesterone and oestradiol and urinary progestogens, oestrogens and luteinising hormone) were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The data were analysed in a 2×2 factorial design, where the factors were year and season. There was no effect of year or season for salivary testosterone. All female hormones showed a seasonal effect (higher hormone levels during March-June than September-November) or an interaction between year and season (P<0.05). These results strongly indicate the existence of reproductive seasonality in Amazonian manatees; however, apparently only females exhibit reproductive quiescence during the non-breeding season. Further long-term studies are necessary to elucidate which environmental parameters are related to reproductive seasonality in T. inunguis and how this species responds physiologically to those stimuli.

  6. Effects of α-zearalanol on spermatogenesis and sex hormone levels of male mice

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Cunxiang; Zhao, Wei; Jia, Qiang; Yang, Zhifeng; Sai, Linlin; Zhang, Fang; Du, Zhongjun; Yu, Gongchang; Xie, Lin; Zhang, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the mechanisms of α-zearalanol (Zeranol)-induced male reproductive toxicity, the effects of Zeranol on spermatogenesis and sex hormone levels of male mice were studied. Methods: Forty healthy sexually mature male Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups. The mice were mock-treated or treated with Zeranol 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg via oral gavage for 35 days. The epididymal sperms were counted and their morphology and motility were analyzed. The testicles were examined by light and electron microscopy. The levels of serum/testicular testosterone (T), serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and serum luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined by radioimmunoassay. Results: Zeranol decreased the epididymal sperm count and sperm motility in a dose depend manner. While there were not significant differences in the sperm malformation rates between the Zeranol treated groups and the control group. Furthermore, Zeranol could decrease the weight and the organ coefficient of the seminal vesicles and the testicles and lead to significant pathological changes of the testicles. Zeranol could also decrease the levels of serum T, FSH, LH as well as the levels of testicular T of male mice. Conclusions: Zeranol induced reproductive toxicity in adult male mice. It could damage spermatogenesis via its direct effects on the testicles and interfere with sex hormone levels of male mice through its effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. PMID:26884912

  7. Women's hormone levels modulate the motivational salience of facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyi; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-12-01

    The physical attractiveness of faces is positively correlated with both behavioral and neural measures of their motivational salience. Although previous work suggests that hormone levels modulate women's perceptions of others' facial attractiveness, studies have not yet investigated whether hormone levels also modulate the motivational salience of facial characteristics. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between within-subject changes in women's salivary hormone levels (estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol-to-progesterone ratio) and within-subject changes in the motivational salience of attractiveness and sexual dimorphism in male and female faces. The motivational salience of physically attractive faces in general and feminine female faces, but not masculine male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high testosterone levels. Additionally, the reward value of sexually dimorphic faces in general and attractive female faces, but not attractive male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high estradiol-to-progesterone ratios. These results provide the first evidence that the motivational salience of facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism is modulated by within-woman changes in hormone levels.

  8. Dietary Fat, Fiber, and Carbohydrate Intake and Endogenous Hormone Levels in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaohui; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of fat, fiber and carbohydrate intake with endogenous estrogen, androgen, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) levels among 595 premenopausal women. Overall, no significant associations were found between dietary intake of these macronutrients and plasma sex steroid hormone levels. Dietary fat intake was inversely associated with IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels. When substituting 5% of energy from total fat for the equivalent amount of energy from carbohydrate or protein intake, the plasma levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3, 5.3) and 1.6% (95% CI 0.4, 2.8) lower, respectively. Animal fat, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat intakes also were inversely associated with IGFBP-3 levels (P < 0.05). Carbohydrates were positively associated with plasma IGF-I level. When substituting 5% of energy from carbohydrates for the equivalent amount of energy from fat or protein intake, the plasma IGF-I level was 2.0% (95% CI 0.1, 3.9%) higher. No independent associations between fiber intake and hormone levels were observed. The results suggest that a low-fat/high-fiber or carbohydrate diet is not associated with endogenous levels of sex steroid hormones, but it may modestly increase IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels among premenopausal women. PMID:21761370

  9. Relationship between serum sodium level and coronary artery abnormality in Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sora; Kim, Ji Hong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Kawasaki disease (KD) is an immune-related multisystemic vasculitis that occurs in children, especially ensuing from a coronary artery abnormality. Sodium level is known to be related to vascular injury, which could affect the progress of KD. The purpose of this study was to determine the serum sodium levels that could predict the occurrence of cardiac and coronary artery events in KD. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of medical records for 104 patients with KD from January 2015 to December 2015. Patients with serum Na levels of <135 mEq/L at the time of initial diagnosis were assigned to the hyponatremia group. Laboratory findings and echocardiographic data were analyzed for various aspects. Results Among the 104 patients with KD, 91 were included in the study, of whom 48 (52.7%) had hyponatremia. The degree of fever, white blood cell count, percentage of neutrophils, percentage of lymphocytes, total bilirubin level, brain natriuretic peptide level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein level were higher in the patients with hyponatremia. They also demonstrated a trend of larger coronary artery diameters based on Z scores. Conclusion The severity of vascular inflammation in acute KD with hyponatremia might worsen the prognosis of coronary vasculature. Although no statistically significant correlation was found between the initial serum sodium levels and coronary arteriopathy in the patients with KD in this study, a long-term follow-up study with a larger number of enrolled patients should be designed in the future to elucidate the relationship between serum sodium level and coronary arteriopathy in patients with KD. PMID:28289432

  10. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and levels of thyroid hormones in children.

    PubMed Central

    Osius, N; Karmaus, W; Kruse, H; Witten, J

    1999-01-01

    As part of an epidemiologic study on exposure to a toxic waste incineration plant we investigated whether blood concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, and cadmium, as well as concentration of mercury in 24-hr urine samples were associated with thyroid hormone status. As an indication of status, we determined levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT(4)), and free triiodothyronine (FT(3)) in children living in households where [less than/equal to] 10 cigarettes were smoked per day. Eight PCB congeners (PCBs 101, 118, 138, 153, 170, 180, 183, and 187) were measured in whole blood samples. Of these, seven congeners (PCB 101 was not detected in any sample) and the sum of all PCB congeners were analyzed as predictors for thyroid hormone status in separate linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. In addition, the possible effects of cadmium, lead, and mercury on levels of thyroid hormones were examined. Blood concentrations and information on questionnaire data were available for 320 children 7-10 years of age. We found a statistically significant positive association between the mono-ortho congener PCB 118 and TSH as well as statistically significant negative relationships of PCBs 138, 153, 180, 183, and 187 to FT(3). There was no association for the PCB congeners and FT(4). Blood cadmium concentration was associated with increasing TSH and diminishing FT(4). Blood lead and urine concentration of mercury were of no importance to thyroid hormone levels. The results stress the need for future studies on the possible influences of PCB and cadmium exposure on thyroid hormones, particularly in children. These studies should also take neurologic development into account. PMID:10504153

  11. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels in serum from human foetuses and children: pattern and clinical interest.

    PubMed

    Guibourdenche, J; Lucidarme, N; Chevenne, D; Rigal, O; Nicolas, M; Luton, D; Léger, J; Porquet, D; Noël, M

    2003-12-15

    Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) determination has been used to investigate gonadal development and abnormal sexual differentiation, but until recently, it was based on assays developed by specialized laboratories. A short time ago, a sensitive assay kit was developed commercially (Immunotech-Beckman Coulter) for clinical use. With this method, we established usual levels of serum AMH in fetuses, newborns, and pre-pubertal children, and evaluated the clinical value of this assay. AMH measurement required only 25 microl of sample and could be performed within 3 h. In females, AMH emerged after birth at low levels (median: 4 ng/ml). In males, AMH levels remained stable during fetal life (median: 44.4 ng/ml), peaked in the first months of life to reach a median of 124.7 ng/ml, then fell with wide individual variations. Cord blood AMH levels at birth may be useful to investigate ambiguous genitalia suspected prenatally. In children with isolated microphallus or hypospadias, decreased AMH values are in favor of testis dysfunction. When testes cannot be palpated, a single determination of serum AMH levels can distinguish between anorchia and cryptorchidism.

  12. Diets and hormonal levels in postmenopausal women with or without breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Hämäläinen, Esa; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2011-01-01

    The role of diet in breast cancer (BC) risk is unclear. Fiber could reduce BC risk, through the enterohepatic circulation of estrogens. We examined the relationship between diet and sex hormones in postmenopausal women with or without BC. Thirty-one postmenopausal women (10 omnivores, 11 vegetarians, and 10 BC omnivores) were recruited. Dietary records (5 days) and hormone levels (3 days) were evaluated on 4 occasions over 1 yr. Vegetarians showed a lower fat/fiber ratio, a higher intake of total and cereal fiber (g/d)/body weight (kg), a significantly lower level of plasma estrone-sulfate, estradiol, free-estradiol, free-testosterone, and ring D oxygenated estrogens, and a significantly higher level of sex-hormone-binding-globulin than BC subjects. Fiber was consumed in slightly larger amounts by omnivores than by BC subjects. Omnivores had significantly lower plasma testosterone and estrone-sulfate but higher sex-hormone-binding-globulin than BC subjects. No difference was found for the urinary 16-oxygenated estrogens. However, the 2-MeO-E1/2-OH-E1 ratio was significantly lower in omnivores than in BC group. This ratio is positively associated with the fat/fiber ratio. In conclusion, testosterone may contribute to causing alterations in the levels of catechol estrogens and 16-oxygenated estrogens. The fat/fiber ratio appears to be useful in evaluating dietary effects on estrogen metabolism.

  13. PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT CAUSED BY BROMODICHLOROMETHANE: EFFECTS ON SERUM LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT CAUSED BY BROMODICHLOROMETHANE: EFFECTS ON SERUM LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS
    Bielmeier1, S.R., D.S. Best2, and M.G. Narotsky2; 1University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Curriculum in Toxicology, 2Reproductive Toxicology Division, U.S. Enviro...

  14. Thyroid Hormone Levels and Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…

  15. Effects of horseback riding exercise therapy on hormone levels in elderly persons

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Hyoun; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Seon-Rye; Cho, Byung-Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of riding exercise on hormone levels in normal elderly people who were taught horseback riding for 8 weeks. [Subjects] Subjects were classified into an exercise group (n=10) and control group (n=10). [Methods] The two groups, horseback riding exercise group of 10 and control group of 10, were each tested for 15 minutes, 3 times, over 8 weeks. Post-exercise tests were implemented in both groups in the same way as pre-study tests. [Results] The horseback riding group showed a significant difference in the pre- and post-exercise serotonin and cortisol levels. Additionally, serotonin and cortisol levels showed significant differences between the two groups. [Conclusion] Serotonin and cortisol levels significantly increased in the experimental group, suggesting that horseback riding exercise is effective for improving the levels of these hormones. PMID:26311966

  16. Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor that Progressed to Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Syndrome with Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone (GHRH) Production

    PubMed Central

    Tadokoro, Rie; Sato, Shotaro; Otsuka, Fumiko; Ueno, Makoto; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Katakami, Hideki; Taniyama, Matsuo; Nagasaka, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    The patient was a 61-year-old woman who had a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) with lymph node metastasis. After 15 months of octreotide treatment, glucose control deteriorated and pigmentation of the tongue and moon face developed, leading to the diagnosis of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome. An abnormal secretion of growth hormone (GH) was identified, and the plasma growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) level was elevated. A tumor biopsy specimen positively immunostained for ACTH and GHRH. Ectopic hormone secretion seems to have evolved along with the progression of the PNET. PMID:27746436

  17. Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor that Progressed to Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Syndrome with Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone (GHRH) Production.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Rie; Sato, Shotaro; Otsuka, Fumiko; Ueno, Makoto; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Katakami, Hideki; Taniyama, Matsuo; Nagasaka, Shoichiro

    The patient was a 61-year-old woman who had a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) with lymph node metastasis. After 15 months of octreotide treatment, glucose control deteriorated and pigmentation of the tongue and moon face developed, leading to the diagnosis of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome. An abnormal secretion of growth hormone (GH) was identified, and the plasma growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) level was elevated. A tumor biopsy specimen positively immunostained for ACTH and GHRH. Ectopic hormone secretion seems to have evolved along with the progression of the PNET.

  18. Zip1, Zip2, and Zip8 mRNA expressions were associated with growth hormone level during the growth hormone provocation test in children with short stature.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Wang, Shifu; Jiang, Yali; Tao, Yanting; Tian, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Kai; Wan, Haiyan; Zhang, Lehai; Zhang, Lianying

    2013-10-01

    Short stature of children is affected by multiple factors. One of them is growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Growth hormone therapy can increase the final height of children with growth hormone deficiency. Zinc is found to induce dimerization and to enhance the bioactivity of human GH. Two gene families have been identified involved in zinc homeostasis. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that Zip1, Zip2, Zip6, and ZnT1 mRNA were associated with zinc level in established human breast cancer in nude mice model; Zip8 was significantly lower in zinc-deficient Wistar rats in kidney. In this study, five zinc transporters: Zip1, Zip2, Zip6, Zip8, and ZnT1 were chosen. We aimed to investigate the mRNA expression of zinc transporters and to explore the relationship between zinc transporters and growth hormone in short stature children. Growth hormone provocation test is used to confirm the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency. Six short children for the test were enrolled. At the same time, 15 sex- and age-matched normal children were enrolled as control. The expression levels of zinc transporters in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Zip1 and Zip2 mRNA expression positively correlated with growth hormone level (r = 0.5133, P = 0.0371; r = 0.6719, P = 0.0032); Zip8 mRNA expression negatively correlated with growth hormone level (r = -0.5264, P = 0.0285) during the test in short stature children. The average expression level of Zip2 was significantly higher and Zip6, Zip8 mRNA levels were significantly lower in short stature children than in health controls at 0 min (P < 0.05, P < 0.05).

  19. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, T. K.; Boiko, E. R.; Zenchenko, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work four examinations (January, March, June, October 1991-1992) of the blood concentration of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine T4) and their dependence on space and terrestrial weather parameters have been done for large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements). The aim of this study was to find the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to variations of external natural factors at high latitudes in three independent groups of people living in this region (miners and people working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women working on the ground (280 samples)). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of concentration of the three studied hormones is on the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA) - Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p < 0.05) increase in cortisol concentration in all three independent groups of people was observed. Range of increases in cortisol concentration in different groups were about 30% of the observed variation in the average intragroup concentration in June and from 16% to 38% in October. For T3 dependence was found only in June: drop in hormone secretion with increasing levels of GMA from 18 to 30% of the average range of intragroup variations. Thus it was shown for the first time that at high geographical latitudes with increased level of GMA a significant change in the level of secretion of several hormones leads to the type of adaptive stress reaction.

  20. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area--Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Breus, T K; Boiko, E R; Zenchenko, T A

    2015-01-01

    In the present work four examinations (January, March, June, October 1991-1992) of the blood concentration of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine T4) and their dependence on space and terrestrial weather parameters have been done for large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements). The aim of this study was to find the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to variations of external natural factors at high latitudes in three independent groups of people living in this region (miners and people working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women working on the ground (280 samples)). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of concentration of the three studied hormones is on the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA) - Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p<0.05) increase in cortisol concentration in all three independent groups of people was observed. Range of increases in cortisol concentration in different groups were about 30% of the observed variation in the average intragroup concentration in June and from 16% to 38% in October. For T3 dependence was found only in June: drop in hormone secretion with increasing levels of GMA from 18 to 30% of the average range of intragroup variations. Thus it was shown for the first time that at high geographical latitudes with increased level of GMA a significant change in the level of secretion of several hormones leads to the type of adaptive stress reaction.

  1. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-11-15

    abnormal changes in hormone levels.

  2. Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J. |; Secord, A.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-12-31

    Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

  3. Effects of dietary vitamin D on calcium and magnesium levels in mice with abnormal calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Spurlock, B.G.; West, W.L.; Knight, E.M. )

    1991-03-11

    In previous studies vitamin D has been used to induce cardiac calcium overload in laboratory animals. Interrelationships between calcium and magnesium metabolism are also documented. The authors have investigated the effect of varying vitamin D in the diet on calcium and magnesium levels in plasma, kidney and heart of DBA mice which exhibit genetic abnormalities in cardiac calcium metabolism. Weanling DBA mice were maintained for 28 days on an AIN-76 diet containing either 1,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet (control); 4,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet; or no vitamin D. When compared to controls, supplemented animals showed significantly higher plasma magnesium, kidney calcium and kidney magnesium levels; animals receiving the vitamin D-deficient diet exhibited increases in cardiac calcium levels. The authors results support previous findings that vitamin D deficiency increases cardiac calcium uptake and suggest a possible role of vitamin D in magnesium metabolism.

  4. Some blood minerals and hormones in cows fed variable mineral levels and ionic balance.

    PubMed

    Romo, G A; Kellems, R O; Powell, K; Wallentine, M V

    1991-09-01

    Eighty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to eight treatments in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design to examine changes in serum parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, Ca, P, Mg, K, and Cl under two levels of dietary Ca and P with two anion-cation balances. Factor levels were low and high Ca (51 vs. 115 g/d), P (38 vs. 52 g/d), and cationic:anionic balance (23 vs. -8 meq). Cows were offered a TMR and an experimental mineral supplement to adjust mineral and anion-cation levels. Caudal vein blood samples were collected every 2 d from d -10 to +10 from calving. Serum K was lower for low Ca and high P compared with high Ca and low P treatments. Neither hormones nor the minerals examined in serum showed treatment effects. Cows of higher parity consumed less supplement and had lower serum Ca and P. All serum variables except calcitonin showed day to day variations. Both Ca and P decreased around parturition, whereas parathyroid hormone and Mg increased. Anionic diets did not differ from cationic diets regarding serum parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, Ca, P, Mg, K, Cl, or Na.

  5. Effects of alprazolam on increases in hormonal and anxiety levels induced by meta-chlorophenylpiperazine.

    PubMed

    Sevy, S; Brown, S L; Wetzler, S; Kotler, M; Molcho, A; Plutchik, R; van Praag, H M

    1994-09-01

    The effects of alprazolam, a triazolobenzodiazepine, on hormonal and behavioral responses induced by meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (MCPP), a serotonin receptor agonist, were investigated in 10 healthy men. Alprazolam (0.5 mg) or placebo was given 1 hour before MCPP (0.5 mg/kg) or placebo. Cortisol, prolactin, and growth hormone (GH) release, MCPP and alprazolam plasma levels, anxiety level, and panic symptoms were measured over 210 minutes. MCPP was found to increase cortisol, prolactin, GH, and anxiety levels. Alprazolam decreased cortisol and GH levels but had no effect on prolactin. When used in combination with MCPP, alprazolam blunted MCPP-induced cortisol and GH release, and it blocked the anxiogenic effects of MCPP.

  6. Elevated Levels of Plasma Phenylalanine in Schizophrenia: A Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase-1 Metabolic Pathway Abnormality?

    PubMed Central

    Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Muravitskaja, Olesja; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ashraf, Ayesha; Hinman, Sarah; Giegling, Ina; Hartmann, Annette M.; Konte, Bettina; Friedl, Marion; Schiffman, Jason; Hong, Elliot; Reeves, Gloria; Groer, Maureen; Dantzer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Phenylalanine and tyrosine are precursor amino acids required for the synthesis of dopamine, the main neurotransmitter implicated in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Inflammation, increasingly implicated in schizophrenia, can impair the function of the enzyme Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; which catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine) and thus lead to elevated phenylalanine levels and reduced tyrosine levels. This study aimed to compare phenylalanine, tyrosine, and their ratio (a proxy for PAH function) in a relatively large sample of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Methods We measured non-fasting plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine in 950 schizophrenia patients and 1000 healthy controls. We carried out multivariate analyses to compare log transformed phenylalanine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio between patients and controls. Results Compared to controls, schizophrenia patients had higher phenylalanine (p<0.0001) and phenylalanine: tyrosine ratio (p<0.0001) but tyrosine did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.596). Conclusions Elevated phenylalanine and phenylalanine:tyrosine ratio in the blood of schizophrenia patients have to be replicated in longitudinal studies. The results may relate to an abnormal PAH function in schizophrenia that could become a target for novel preventative and interventional approaches. PMID:24465804

  7. Rat hippocampal alterations could underlie behavioral abnormalities induced by exposure to moderate noise levels.

    PubMed

    Uran, S L; Aon-Bertolino, M L; Caceres, L G; Capani, F; Guelman, L R

    2012-08-30

    Noise exposure is known to affect auditory structures in living organisms. However, it should not be ignored that many of the effects of noise are extra-auditory. Previous findings of our laboratory demonstrated that noise was able to induce behavioral alterations that are mainly related to the cerebellum (CE) and the hippocampus (HC). Therefore, the aim of this work was to reveal new data about the vulnerability of developing rat HC to moderate noise levels through the assessment of potential histological changes and hippocampal-related behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats were exposed to noise (95-97 dB SPL, 2h daily) either for 1 day (acute noise exposure, ANE) or between postnatal days 15 and 30 (sub-acute noise exposure, SANE). Hippocampal histological evaluation as well as short (ST) and long term (LT) habituation and recognition memory assessments were performed. Results showed a mild disruption in the different hippocampal regions after ANE and SANE schemes, along with significant behavioral abnormalities. These data suggest that exposure of developing rats to noise levels of moderate intensity is able to trigger changes in the HC, an extra-auditory structure of the Central Nervous System (CNS), that could underlie the observed behavioral effects.

  8. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormone levels and of motor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahabrach, Hanan; Piedrafita, Blanca; Ayad, Abdelmalik; El Mlili, Nisrin; Errami, Mohammed; Felipo, Vicente; Llansola, Marta

    2010-05-15

    Patients with liver cirrhosis may present hepatic encephalopathy with a wide range of neurological disturbances and alterations in sleep quality and in the sleep-wake circadian rhythm. Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to the neurological alterations in hepatic encephalopathy. We have assessed, in an animal model of chronic hyperammonemia without liver failure, the effects of hyperammonemia per se on the circadian rhythms of motor activity, temperature, and plasma levels of adrenal corticosteroid hormones. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and of cortisol and corticosterone levels in blood. Different types of motor activity are affected differentially. Hyperammonemia significantly alters the rhythm of spontaneous ambulatory activity, reducing strongly ambulatory counts and slightly average velocity during the night (the active phase) but not during the day, resulting in altered circadian rhythms. In contrast, hyperammonemia did not affect wheel running at all, indicating that it affects spontaneous but not voluntary activity. Vertical activity was affected only very slightly, indicating that hyperammonemia does not induce anxiety. Hyperammonemia abolished completely the circadian rhythm of corticosteroid hormones in plasma, completely eliminating the peaks of cortisol and corticosterone present in control rats at the start of the dark period. The data reported show that chronic hyperammonemia, similar to that present in patients with liver cirrhosis, alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormones and of motor activity. This suggests that hyperammonemia would be a relevant contributor to the alterations in corticosteroid hormones and in circadian rhythms in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  9. Pituitary transplantation: Part 1. Successful reconstitution of pituitary-dependent hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Tulipan, N B; Zacur, H A; Allen, G S

    1985-03-01

    Neonatal or adult pituitary glands were transplanted to the median eminence of adult rats of the same or a histoincompatible inbred strain. The hormonal status of 39 transplanted rats and of control animals was evaluated by serial determination of serum prolactin and thyroxine. Grafts of neonatal tissue to adults of the same strain resulted in normal postoperative hormone levels. This indicates not only that pituitary grafts had survived, but also that the transplants were under hypothalamic control. Grafts of adult tissue were less successful. The prolactin value was lower, but still within the normal range, whereas the thyroxine value was lower than normal, suggesting that viable pituitary tissue had survived but was not under hypothalamic control. Transplantation across a histocompatibility barrier was uniformly unsuccessful. Postoperative prolactin levels were low and thyroxine levels were not significantly different from those in hypophysectomized controls.

  10. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, Tamara; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Boiko, Evgeni

    It was previously shown that magnetic storms lead to an increase in the level of cortisol and noradrenalin in healthy and sick people with cardiovascular diseases [Breus Rapoport. 2003]. However, in the healthy group in the cited study was only 4 people and it seemed that these results need to be checked. In the present work the 4 examinations (January, March, June, October) of large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements) on the blood levels of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3 ) and thyroxine T4) have been done. The aim was to study the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters in three independent groups of people living in this region (men working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women (280 samples)) to variations in external natural factors of high latitudes. For the analysis we used the following parameters of space and terrestrial weather :index of intensity of solar radio emission at a wavelength 10.7sm (RF10.7), planetary geomagnetic activity index - daily Kp index ( Kp) , the daily average Ap index ( Ap) , the maximum per every 3 -hour Kp index ) as well as the daily average indicators of flow rate of galactic cosmic rays neutron component (N), atmospheric pressure ( RATM ) and its rate of change ( the difference between the Ratm today and yesterday ) according to the geophysical station Oulu (Finland , http://cosmicrays.oulu.fi/). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of the level of studied three hormones is from the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA)-Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p <0.05) increase in cortisol levels in all three independent groups of people was shown. Amplitude increases in cortisol levels in different groups were about 30% of the observed variation in the

  11. Insulin Plant (Costus pictus) Extract Restores Thyroid Hormone Levels in Experimental Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Ashwini, S.; Bobby, Zachariah; Sridhar, M. G.; Cleetus, C. C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the preventive effect of Costus pictus leaf extract in experimental hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups with ten rats in each group: Control (C), hypothyroid (H), control+extract (C+E), and hypothyroid+extract (H+E). Rats in C group did not receive any intervention throughout the experimental period. The rats in the C+E and H+E groups received pretreatment with C. pictus leaf extract for 4 weeks. Subsequently, for the next 6 weeks, rats in the H group received 0.05% propylthiouracil in drinking water while C+E group received C. pictus leaf extract and H+E group received propyl thiouracil and C. pictus leaf extract. Results: Hypothyroid group rats exhibited dramatic increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with concomitant depletion in the levels of thyroid hormones. Treatment with the extract resulted in remarkable improvement in thyroid profile. Extract produced 10.59-fold increase in plasma free T3, 8.65-fold increase in free T4, and 3.59-fold decrease in TSH levels in H+E group in comparison with H group. Treatment with the extract ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, decreased levels of plasma C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor alpha, suppressed tissue oxidative stress and prevented hepatic and renal damage caused due to thyroid hormone depletion in the H+E group. Pentacyclic triterpenes alpha and beta amyrins were identified and quantified in the extract. Conclusions: This is the first study to reveal that C. pictus extract has therapeutic potential to restore thyroid hormone levels and prevent the biochemical complications due to thyroid hormone insufficiency in the animal model of experimental hypothyroidism. SUMMARY The preventive effect of Costus pictus leaf extract in experimental hypothyroidism was evaluated in the present study.Hypothyroidism was induced in the experimental animals by giving 0

  12. The Relationship between Aggression and Serum Thyroid Hormone Level in Individuals Diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    EVRENSEL, Alper; ÜNSALVER, Barış Önen; ÖZŞAHİN, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Aggression is one of the leading clinical characteristics of antisocial personality disorder (APD). Studies aiming to clarify and control the biological basis of aggression are ongoing. Thyroid hormones have been indicated to play a role in the development of aggression. The aim of this study was to examine the level of aggression and serum thyroid hormone in a sample of APD and to make contributions to this field with the current findings. Methods The sample consisted of 96 subjects with a diagnosis of APD and 97 subjects as a control group. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis (SCID) 1 and 2 were used for the diagnosis, and the Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire was administered. Based on criminal patterns, the APD group was then divided into two subgroups: “criminal” and “noncriminal” APD groups. The day after the interview, after one night of fasting, blood was collected from the subjects between 7:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m.. Thyroid function tests and other biochemical analyses related to the confounding variables were also administered. The study group and the control group were compared in terms of their aggression scores and thyroid hormone levels. Results The mean score of free T3 level in the criminal APD group was found to be significantly higher than that in the noncriminal APD group. APD subjects with higher free T3 levels also had higher aggression scores. In the noncriminal APD group, as serum free T3 and T4 levels increased, there was also an increment in the aggression scores. However, in the criminal APD group, there was no significant correlation between thyroid hormone levels and aggression. Conclusion The findings of this study indicated that criminal and noncriminal APD groups actually show different properties. PMID:28360783

  13. Urinary Bisphenol A Levels in Young Men: Association with Reproductive Hormones and Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Joensen, Ulla N.; Main, Katharina M.; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Juul, Anders; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few human studies have examined bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in men, and results are divergent. Objectives: We examined associations between urinary BPA concentration and reproductive hormones, as well as semen quality, in young men from the general population. Methods: Our study population consisted of 308 young men from the general population. Urinary BPA concentration was measured by isotope dilution TurboFlow-liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analysis to estimate associations between BPA concentration and reproductive hormones and semen quality, adjusting for confounding factors. Results: We found that 98% of the men had detectable urinary levels of BPA. Median (5th–95th percentiles) BPA concentration was 3.25 ng/mL (0.59–14.89 ng/mL). Men with BPA concentrations above the lowest quartile had higher concentrations of serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and free testosterone compared with the lowest quartile (ptrend ≤ 0.02). Men in the highest quartile of BPA excretion had on average 18% higher total testosterone (95% CI: 8, 28%), 22% higher LH (95% CI: 6, 39%), and 13% higher estradiol (95% CI: 4, 24%) compared with lowest quartile. Men in the highest quartile of BPA also had significantly lower percentage progressive motile spermatozoa compared with men in the lowest quartile (–6.7 percentage points, 95% CI: –11.76, –1.63). BPA was not associated with other semen parameters. Adjusting for dietary patterns did not influence the results. Conclusions: The pattern of associations between BPA and reproductive hormones could indicate an antiandrogenic or antiestrogenic effect, or both, of BPA on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal hormone feedback system, possibly through a competitive inhibition at the receptor level. However, additional research is needed to confirm our findings and to further test the suggested

  14. Luteinizing hormone (LH)-releasing hormone agonist reduces serum adrenal androgen levels in prostate cancer patients: implications for the effect of LH on the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Masahiro; Nomura, Masashi; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Koike, Hidekazu; Matsui, Hiroshi; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Ito, Kazuto; Oyama, Tetsunari; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Recently, adrenal androgens have been targeted as key hormones for the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer therapeutics. Although circulating adrenal androgens originate mainly from the adrenal glands, the testes also supply about 10%. Although widely used in androgen deprivation medical castration therapy, the effect of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist on adrenal androgens has not been fully studied. In this study, changes in testicular and adrenal androgen levels were measured and compared to adrenocorticotropic hormone levels. To assess the possible role of LH in the adrenal glands, immunohistochemical studies of the LH receptor in normal adrenal glands were performed. Forty-seven patients with localized or locally progressive prostate cancer were treated with LH-RH agonist with radiotherapy. Six months after initiation of treatment, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol levels were decreased by 90%-95%, and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione levels were significantly decreased by 26%-40%. The suppressive effect of LH-RH agonist at 12 months was maintained. Adrenocorticotropic hormone levels showed an increasing trend at 6 months and a significant increase at 12 months. LH receptors were positively stained in the cortex cells of the reticular layer of the adrenal glands. The long-term LH-RH agonist treatment reduced adrenal-originated adrenal androgens. LH receptors in the adrenal cortex cells of the reticular layer might account for the underlying mechanism of reduced adrenal androgens.

  15. Analysis of the correlation between lipotoxicity and pituitary-thyroid axis hormone levels in men and male rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianmei; Zhou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Xu; Hu, Jianting; Gao, Ling; Song, Yongfeng; Yu, Chunxiao; Shao, Shanshan; Yuan, Zhongshang; Sun, Yan; Yan, Huili; Li, Guimei; Zhao, Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Lipotoxicity seriously harms human health, but it is unclear whether lipotoxicity is detrimental to the pituitary. We investigated the correlation between serum triglyceride and pituitary axis hormone levels in epidemiological and animal studies. In the epidemiological study, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were greater in male patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia than in controls, whereas adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) levels were lower in the patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Pituitary hormone levels correlated with triglyceride levels, even after adjustment for potential confounders. In the animal study, male rats were fed a high-fat or control diet for 28 weeks. As the duration of high-fat feeding increased, the serum and pituitary triglyceride concentrations increased. At early times, the high-fat diet elevated serum TSH and triiodothyronine. At later times, much higher serum TSH levels coupled with reduced thyroxine were observed in the high-fat group. Serum levels of pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-adrenal axis hormones were not affected by the diet. The mRNA and protein expression of Tshβ were greater in the high-fat group than in the control group, whereas expression of Fshβ, Lhβ and Acth had no difference between the groups. Overall, serum triglyceride levels were associated with pituitary-thyroid axis hormone levels. PMID:27322428

  16. [Thyroid hormone levels and thyroid dysfunction of French adults participating in the SU.VI.MAX study].

    PubMed

    Valeix, P; Dos Santos, C; Castetbon, K; Bertrais, S; Cousty, C; Hercberg, S

    2004-12-01

    Abnormal thyroid function has important public health consequences. However, the various degrees of thyroid dysfunction remain unsettled. The SU.VI.MAX cohort provided a unique opportunity to conduct a cross-sectional study of abnormal thyroid function in a large representative population of 11256 men and women representing the geographic distribution of the French continental adult population. Thyroid status was measured, in fasting blood samples, at baseline in 1994-1995. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels (abnormal < 0.4 mU/l or > or =4.0 mU/l) and free thyroxine (fT4) were both performed in duplicate on the same sample. Subjects with previous or present thyroid diseases or who were taking thyroid hormones or antithyroid drugs (n=920) were excluded (8.1%). Thus, the final study group consisted of 10346 subjects, 4121 men aged 45-60 years (mean +/-SD) (51.8+/-4.7 yrs), 2641 women aged 35-44 years (40.6+/-2.8 yrs), and 3584 women aged 45-60 years (51.4+/-4.4 yrs). Median (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles) for TSH (mU/l) were 1.52 (0.20-4.54) for men, 1.78 (0.22-5.54) for women aged 35-44 years, and 1.96 (0.22-6.80) for women aged 45-60 years. The TSH distribution of women was shifted to the right compared with men. Arithmetic mean fT4 (+/-SD) was 10.7+/-1.7 ng/l (13.8 +/-2.2 pmol/l) for men and 10.9+/-1.8 ng/l (14.0+/-2.3 pmol/l) for women. The prevalence of abnormal TSH values in men, and in women (35-44 yrs and 45-60 yrs) were TSH<0.4 mU/l 7.0%, 5.3% and 4.4%; TSH 4.0-9.9 mU/l 4.0%, 7.2% and 11.1% and TSH > or =10.0 mU/l 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.7%, respectively. Geometric mean serum TSH and arithmetic mean serum fT4 concentrations showed significant overall inter-regional differences for men and women (p<0.0001). There was also an inter-regional difference in the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction for men (p=0.003), and for the older group of women (i.e. > or =45 yrs) (p=0.04) exclusively. Over the age of 45 years, the women: men ratio for unrecognized elevated TSH levels (> or

  17. Sex Differences in Brain Thyroid Hormone Levels during Early Post-Hatching Development in Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Hayase, Shin; Aoki, Naoya; Takehara, Akihiko; Ishigohoka, Jun; Matsushima, Toshiya; Wada, Kazuhiro; Homma, Koichi J.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are closely linked to the hatching process in precocial birds. Previously, we showed that thyroid hormones in brain had a strong impact on filial imprinting, an early learning behavior in newly hatched chicks; brain 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) peaks around hatching and imprinting training induces additional T3 release, thus, extending the sensitive period for imprinting and enabling subsequent other learning. On the other hand, blood thyroid hormone levels have been reported to increase gradually after hatching in altricial species, but it remains unknown how the brain thyroid hormone levels change during post-hatching development of altricial birds. Here, we determined the changes in serum and brain thyroid hormone levels of a passerine songbird species, the zebra finch using radioimmunoassay. In the serum, we found a gradual increase in thyroid hormone levels during post-hatching development, as well as differences between male and female finches. In the brain, there was clear surge in the hormone levels during development in males and females coinciding with the time of fledging, but the onset of the surge of thyroxine (T4) in males preceded that of females, whereas the onset of the surge of T3 in males succeeded that of females. These findings provide a basis for understanding the functions of thyroid hormones during early development and learning in altricial birds. PMID:28060907

  18. Male patients with terminal renal failure exhibit low serum levels of antimüllerian hormone.

    PubMed

    Eckersten, Dag; Giwercman, Aleksander; Christensson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Male reproductive function is impaired during end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and therefore the regulation of sex hormones, is one of the major causes. Our focus was to include antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin B concentrations. Twenty male patients on hemodialysis, median age 40 (26-48) years, were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, estradiol, AMH and inhibin B levels. We used 144 proven fertile men, median age 32 (19-44) years as a control group and analyzed differences using multiple linear regression. Males with ESRD demonstrated higher mean values for prolactin, 742 versus normal 210 mIE l-1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 60.3, 729), LH, 8.87 versus normal 4.5 IE l-1 (95% CI: 2.75, 6.14), and estradiol 89.7 versus normal 79.0 pmol l-1 (95% CI: -1.31, -0.15). Mean value for AMH was lower, 19.5 versus normal 47.3 pmol l-1 (95% CI: -37.6, -11.6). There were no differences found for FSH, SHBG, inhibin B and testosterone. The most important difference was found for AMH, a marker of Sertoli cell function in the testes, which decreased by close to 60% when compared with controls. Combined with an increase in LH, these findings may indicate a dysfunction of Sertoli cells and an effect on Leydig cells contributing to a potential mechanism of reproductive dysfunction in men with ESRD.

  19. Early effects of fluoro-edenite: correlation between IL-18 serum levels and pleural and parenchymal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ledda, Caterina; Loreto, Carla; Matera, Serena; Massimino, Nicoletta; Cannizzaro, Emanuele; Musumeci, Andrea; Migliore, Marcello; Fenga, Concettina; Pomara, Cristoforo; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2016-12-01

    Fluoro-edenite (FE) is a natural mineral asbestos-like fibrous species first isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. In order to clarify potential involvement of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of FE-induced chest abnormalities, we analyzed IL-18 serum levels in FE-exposed workers (FEEW) and correlated them with pleural and parenchymal abnormalities. A total of 21 FEEWs, residing in Biancavilla for >30 years, with a working seniority of 17 ± 6.1 years were examined. High-resolution computed tomography scans revealed low grade of fibrosis in 8 (38%) FEEWs, and pleural plaques (PPs) in 13 (62%) FEEWs. The mean IL-18 level was 203.13 ± 90.43 pg/ml. Pearson correlation showed a significant association (p < 0.0001) between IL-18 and PPs and parenchymal abnormality scores. Data suggest a potential role of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  20. Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, L.; Kvetňanský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, S.; Popova, I.; Tigranian, R. A.; Noskov, V. B.; Serova, L.; Grigoriev, I. A.

    An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the aminoacid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this recovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues.

  1. Late hormonal levels, semen parameters, and presence of antisperm antibodies in patients treated for testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Arap, Marco A; Vicentini, Fabio C; Cocuzza, Marcello; Hallak, Jorge; Athayde, Kelly; Lucon, Antonio M; Arap, Sami; Srougi, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    In spite of prompt diagnosis and either orchiectomy or preservation of the affected testis, infertility remains a significant sequel to testicular torsion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the late endocrine profile, seminal parameters, and antisperm antibody levels after testicular torsion. We also analyzed the impact of orchiectomy or detorsion on the organ fate. Of 24 patients evaluated after testicular torsion, 15 were treated with orchiectomy (group 1) and 9 were treated with orchiopexy (group 2). All subjects were assessed by semen analysis, endocrine profile (levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone), and seminal antisperm antibody levels. A group of 20 proven fertile men was used as the control. Median ischemia time in group 1 (48 hours) was significantly higher than in group 2 (7 hours). Both groups demonstrated decreases in sperm count and morphology compared with controls. Group 1 showed a significantly higher motility than group 2 (P = .02). Group 1 also showed a significantly better morphology by World Health Organization and Kruger criteria than group 2 (P = .01). All patients presented endocrine profiles within the normal range, and no significant differences in antisperm antibody levels were detected between the groups. However, a trend for higher levels was found in patients treated for testicular torsion, regardless of the fate of the testis. Moreover, no significant correlation was found between antisperm antibody levels and age at torsion, ischemia time, seminal parameters, or treatment applied. In conclusion, we found that after torsion patients maintain late hormonal levels within the normal range. Testicular fate did not have any correlation with the formation of antisperm antibodies. Although sperm quality was preserved in most of the patients with the exception of sperm morphology, patients treated with orchiectomy presented better motility and morphology compared with the detorsion group

  2. Thyroid hormone level is associated with the frequency and severity of acute transverse myelitis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yiyun; Lin, Huiyue; Ye, Xiaoxian; Xie, Dewei; Chen, Zhibo; Zheng, Juzeng; Su, Zhongqian; Xie, Hongli; Zhang, Xu; Li, Xiang

    2017-03-22

    Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is a progressive and autoimmune disease with inflammatory cell infiltrates into the spinal cord, and thyroid hormone (TH) level is associated with the oxidative and antioxidant status. Variations in oxidative stress and antioxidant levels are related to the pathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Our study aimed to investigate the possible correlation between ATM and TH levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and FT4/FT3. We measured serum concentrations of TSH, FT4, and FT3 in 205 individuals, including 42 ATM patients, 49 multiple sclerosis patients, and 114 healthy controls. Our findings show that ATM patients had lower levels of TSH and FT3 and higher levels of FT4 and FT4/FT3 compared with healthy controls, whether male or female. Moreover, levels of TSH and FT3 in patients with ATM were inversely correlated with disease severity measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale. Variations in TH level may represent the oxidative status and are surrogate biomarkers of the incidence and severity of ATM.

  3. Optimizing conditions for production of high levels of soluble recombinant human growth hormone using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Savari, Marzieh; Zarkesh Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Edalati, Masoud; Biria, Davoud

    2015-10-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is synthesized and stored by somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland and can effect on body metabolism. This protein can be used to treat hGH deficiency, Prader-Willi syndrome and Turner syndrome. The limitations in current technology for soluble recombinant protein production, such as inclusion body formation, decrease its usage for therapeutic purposes. To achieve high levels of soluble form of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) we used suitable host strain, appropriate induction temperature, induction time and culture media composition. For this purpose, 32 experiments were designed using Taguchi method and the levels of produced proteins in all 32 experiments were evaluated primarily by ELISA and dot blotting and finally the purified rhGH protein products assessed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. Our results indicate that media, bacterial strains, temperature and induction time have significant effects on the production of rhGH. The low cultivation temperature of 25°C, TB media (with 3% ethanol and 0.6M glycerol), Origami strain and a 10-h induction time increased the solubility of human growth hormone.

  4. Occupational exposure to pesticides, reproductive hormone levels and sperm quality in young Brazilian men.

    PubMed

    Cremonese, Cleber; Piccoli, Camila; Pasqualotto, Fabio; Clapauch, Ruth; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio; Freire, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The association of occupational exposure to current-use pesticides with reproductive hormones, semen quality, and genital measures was investigated among young men in the South of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 99 rural and 36 urban men aged 18-23 years. Information on pesticide use was obtained through questionnaire. Serum and semen samples were analyzed for sex hormones and sperm parameters, respectively, and measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) and testis volume (TV) were performed. Associations were explored using multivariate linear regression. Rural men had poorer sperm morphology, higher sperm count, and lower LH levels relative to urban subjects. Lifetime use of pesticides, especially herbicides and fungicides, was associated with poorer morphology and reduced LH and prolactin, with evidence of a linear pattern. Maternal farming during pregnancy was associated with larger AGD and TV. Chronic occupational exposure to modern pesticides may affect reproductive outcomes in young men.

  5. Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... estrogen , a hormone that helps control the menstrual cycle . Changing estrogen levels can bring on symptoms such ... two hormones—estrogen and progesterone —control your menstrual cycle. These hormones are made by the ovaries . Estrogen ...

  6. Levels of adipocytokines and vitamin D in a biracial sample of young metabolically healthy obese and metabolically abnormal obese women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Adipocytokines and vitamin D (vitD) concentrations may contribute to cardiometabolic risk profiles in obese populations. The purpose was to determine if levels of adipocytokines and vitD differ between young metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) black and ...

  7. Plasma. beta. -endorphin and stress hormone levels during adaptation and stress

    SciTech Connect

    Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Trifonova, Zh.V.; Tsibin, A.N.; Maslova, L.V.; Dement'eva, L.A.

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of ..beta..-endorphin and stress hormone levels in the blood plasma of rats during stress and adaptation. Immunoreactive ..beta..-endorphin in the blood plasma was assayed by means of a kit after preliminary isolation of the ..beta..-endorphin fraction by affinity chromatography on sepharose; ACTH was assayed with a kit and cortisol, insulin, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine by means of kits from Izotop. Determination of plasma levels of ..beta..-endorphin and other opioids could evidently be an important method of assessing the state of resistance of the organism to stress.

  8. Effect of exogenous hormones on transcription levels of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthetic enzymes in the silkworm (Bombyx mori).

    PubMed

    Huang, ShuoHao; Yang, HuanHuan; Yao, LiLi; Zhang, JianYun; Huang, LongQuan

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B6 includes 6 pyridine derivatives, among which pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is a coenzyme for over 140 enzymes. Animals acquire their vitamin B6 from food. Through a salvage pathway, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is synthesized from pyridoxal, pyridoxine or pyridoxamine, in a series of reactions catalyzed by pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase. The regulation of pyridoxal 5'-phospahte biosynthesis and pyridoxal 5'-phospahte homeostasis are at the center of study for vitamin B6 nutrition. How pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis is regulated by hormones has not been reported so far. Our previous studies have shown that pyridoxal 5'-phosphate level in silkworm larva displays cyclic developmental changes. In the current study, effects of exogenous juvenile hormone and molting hormone on the transcription level of genes coding for the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phospahte were examined. Results show that pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase are regulated at the transcription level by development and are responsive to hormones. Molting hormone stimulates the expression of genes coding for pyridoxal kinase and pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase, and juvenile hormone appears to work against molting hormone. Whether pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis is regulated by hormones in general is an important issue for further studies.

  9. Elevated stress hormone levels relate to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress and spaceflight on levels of neuroendocrine hormones and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in astronauts. METHODS: Antiviral antibody titers and stress hormones were measured in plasma samples collected from 28 astronauts at their annual medical exam (baseline), 10 days before launch (L-10), landing day (R+0), and 3 days after landing (R+3). Urinary stress hormones were also measured at L-10 and R+0. RESULTS: Significant increases (p <.01) in EBV virus capsid antigen antibodies were found at all three time points (L-10, R+0, and R+3) as compared with baseline samples. Anti-EBV nuclear antigen antibodies were significantly decreased at L-10 (p <.05) and continued to decrease after spaceflight (R+0 and R+3, p <.01). No changes were found in antibodies to the nonlatent measles virus. The 11 astronauts who showed evidence of EBV reactivation had significant increases in urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine as compared with astronauts without EBV reactivation. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that physical and psychological stresses associated with spaceflight resulted in decreased virus-specific T-cell immunity and reactivation of EBV.

  10. Menstrual cycle characteristics and reproductive hormone levels in women exposed to atrazine in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Cragin, Lori A; Kesner, James S; Bachand, Annette M; Barr, Dana Boyd; Meadows, Juliana W; Krieg, Edward F; Reif, John S

    2011-11-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the U.S. and a wide-spread groundwater contaminant. Epidemiologic and laboratory evidence exists that atrazine disrupts reproductive health and hormone secretion. We examined the relationship between exposure to atrazine in drinking water and menstrual cycle function including reproductive hormone levels. Women 18-40 years old residing in agricultural communities where atrazine is used extensively (Illinois) and sparingly (Vermont) answered a questionnaire (n=102), maintained menstrual cycle diaries (n=67), and provided daily urine samples for analyses of luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol and progesterone metabolites (n=35). Markers of exposures included state of residence, atrazine and chlorotriazine concentrations in tap water, municipal water and urine, and estimated dose from water consumption. Women who lived in Illinois were more likely to report menstrual cycle length irregularity (odds ratio (OR)=4.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58-13.95) and more than 6 weeks between periods (OR=6.16; 95% CI: 1.29-29.38) than those who lived in Vermont. Consumption of >2 cups of unfiltered Illinois water daily was associated with increased risk of irregular periods (OR=5.73; 95% CI: 1.58-20.77). Estimated "dose" of atrazine and chlorotriazine from tap water was inversely related to mean mid-luteal estradiol metabolite. Atrazine "dose" from municipal concentrations was directly related to follicular phase length and inversely related to mean mid-luteal progesterone metabolite levels. We present preliminary evidence that atrazine exposure, at levels below the US EPA MCL, is associated with increased menstrual cycle irregularity, longer follicular phases, and decreased levels of menstrual cycle endocrine biomarkers of infertile ovulatory cycles.

  11. Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone associated with a mutation in the ligand-binding domain of the human thyroid hormone receptor. beta

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, A.; Takeda, K.; Ain, K.; Ceccarelli, P.; Nakai, A.; Seino, S.; Bell, G.I.; Refetoff, S.; DeGroot, L.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The syndrome of generalized resistance to thyroid hormone is characterized by elevated circulating levels of thyroid hormone in the presence of an overall eumetabolic state and failure to respond normally to triiodothyronine. The authors have evaluated a family with inherited generalized resistance to thyroid hormone for abnormalities in the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors. A single guanine {yields} cytosine replacement in the codon for amino acid 340 resulted in a glycine {yields} arginine substitution in the hormone-binding domain of one of two alleles of the patient's thyroid hormone nuclear receptor {beta} gene. In vitro translation products of this mutant human thyroid hormone nuclear receptor {beta} gene did not bind triiodothyronine. Thus, generalized resistance to thyroid hormone can result from expression of an abnormal thyroid hormone nuclear receptor molecule.

  12. Sex Hormones in Allergic Conjunctivitis: Altered Levels of Circulating Androgens and Estrogens in Children and Adolescents with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Sacchetti, Marta; Lambiase, Alessandro; Moretti, Costanzo; Bonini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic allergic disease mainly affecting boys in prepubertal age and usually recovering after puberty. To evaluate a possible role of sex hormones in VKC, serum levels of sex hormones in children and adolescents with VKC were assessed. Methods. 12 prepubertal and 7 early pubertal boys with active VKC and 6 male patients with VKC in remission phase at late pubertal age and 48 healthy age and sex-matched subjects were included. Serum concentration of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, total testosterone and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), cortisol, delta-4-androstenedione, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex-hormones binding globuline (SHBG) were evaluated. Results. Serum levels of Estrone were significantly increased in all groups of patients with VKC when compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). Prepubertal and early pubertal VKC showed a significant decrease in DHT (P = 0.007 and P = 0.028, resp.) and SHBG (P = 0.01 and P = 0.002, resp.) when compared to controls and serum levels of SHBG were increased in late pubertal VKC in remission phase (P = 0.007). Conclusions and Relevance. VKC patients have different circulating sex hormone levels in different phases of the disease and when compared to nonallergic subjects. These findings suggest a role played by sex hormones in the pathogenesis and/or activity of VKC. PMID:25756057

  13. Plasma levels of trace elements and exercise induced stress hormones in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Ansón, Miguel; López-Colón, José L; Escanero, Jesús F

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the variation and relationship of several trace elements, metabolic substrates and stress hormones activated by exercise during incremental exercise. Seventeen well-trained endurance athletes performed a cycle ergometer test: after a warm-up of 10 min at 2.0 W kg(-1), the workload was increased by 0.5 W kg(-1) every 10 min until exhaustion. Prior diet, activity patterns, and levels of exercise training were controlled, and tests timed to minimize variations due to the circadian rhythm. Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration, plasma ions (Zn, Se, Mn and Co), serum glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and several hormones were measured at rest, at the end of each stage and 3, 5 and 7 min post-exercise. Urine specific gravity was measured before and after the test, and participants drank water ad libitum. Significant differences were found in plasma Zn and Se levels as a function of exercise intensity. Zn was significantly correlated with epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.884, P < 0.01; r = 0.871, P < 0.01; and r = 0.808, P = 0.05); and Se showed significant positive correlations whit epinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.743, P < 0.05; and r = 0.776, P < 0.05). Neither Zn nor Se levels were associated with insulin or glucagon, and neither Mn nor Co levels were associated with any of the hormones or substrate metabolites studied. Further, while Zn levels were found to be associated only with lactate, plasma Se was significantly correlated with lactate and glucose (respectively for Zn: r = 0.891, P < 0.01; and for Se: r = 0.743, P < 0.05; r = 0.831, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggest that there is a positive correlation between the increases in plasma Zn or Se and stress hormones variations induced by exercise along different submaximal intensities in well-hydrated well-trained endurance athletes.

  14. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance index, leptin and thyroid hormone levels in the general population of Merida (Venezuela).

    PubMed

    Uzcátegui, Euderruh; Valery, Lenin; Uzcátegui, Lilia; Gómez Pérez, Roald; Marquina, David; Baptista, Trino

    2015-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular events, but scarce information exists about its frequency in Venezuela. In this cross-sectional study, we quantified the prevalence of the MetSyn in a probabilistic, stratified sample of 274 subjects aged > or =18 years from the Libertador district in Merida, Venezuela. Secondary outcomes were the measurement of thyroid hormones (free T4 and TSH), leptin levels, and insulin resistance index (HOMA2-IR). The frequency of MetSyn (percentage +/- 95% confidence interval) according to several diagnostic criteria was as follows: National Cholesterol Education Panel (NCEP, original): 27.4% (22.1-32.7); modified NCEP: 31.8% (26.3-37.3); International Diabetes Federation: 40.9% (35.1-46.7); Latin American Diabetes Association: 27% (21.7-32.3), and Venezuelan criteria: 31.8% (26.3-37.3). The MetSyn was more frequent in males than in females with most diagnostic criteria. The estimated prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 2.9% either according to the patients' self reports or to fasting glucose level found to be above 126 mg/dL. Abnormal HOMA2-IR index, free T4 and TSH (above the 95th percentile) were detected in 4.5%, 4.4% and 5.1% of the sample, respectively. Free T4 and TSH levels below the 5th percentile were detected in 4.4% and 4.7% of subjects respectively. These values are presented for comparisons with forthcoming studies in specific clinical populations. While studies are being conducted about the different definitions of the MetSyn in Venezuela, we recommend analyzing and publishing local research data with all the available criteria so as to allow comparisons with the results already reported in the literature.

  15. Stressed snakes strike first: Hormone levels and defensive behavior in free ranging cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus).

    PubMed

    Herr, Mark W; Graham, Sean P; Langkilde, Tracy

    2017-03-01

    Stress is believed to be an important factor mediating animal behavior. Here we explore the relationship between concentrations of a stress hormone and defensive behavior of a snake. The cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) is an abundant, large-bodied pitviper that is well known for its intense defensive behaviors. The defensive behaviors and hormonal ecology of cottonmouths have been studied extensively, but the interaction between these is not well understood. We conducted field trials, recording the snake's behavior and obtaining blood samples to quantify plasma CORT concentrations, both upon first encountering a snake and after a 30min standardized confinement stressor. We found that snakes with elevated levels of baseline CORT at first encounter were more likely to strike than exhibit a threat display when approached in the field. However, this behavior was not related to the magnitude of the snake's CORT increase following confinement, suggesting that more stress-prone snakes are not more defensive. Post-stressor antipredator behavior was also not related to any of our CORT measures. This study suggests that baseline CORT levels can be important correlates of defensive behavior. If this is a causative relationship, environmental challenges that increase baseline stress levels of populations may elevate cottonmouth defensive behavior. This would increase costs associated with defensive behavior (energetic, lost opportunity, etc.) and have important consequences for animal-human interactions.

  16. Changes in Testosterone Levels and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels in Extremely Obese Men after Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Laichuthai, Nitchakarn; Suwannasrisuk, Preaw; Houngngam, Natnicha; Udomsawaengsup, Suthep; Snabboon, Thiti

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Obesity is a risk factor for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in men. Weight loss has been shown to improve hypogonadism in obese men. This study evaluated the early changes in sex hormones profile after bariatric surgery. Methods. This is a prospective study including 29 morbidly obese men. Main outcomes were changes in serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (cFT), SHBG, estradiol, adiponectin, and leptin at 1 and 6 months after surgery. Results. The mean age of patients was 31 ± 8 years and the mean BMI was 56.8 ± 11.7 kg/m2. Fifteen patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 14 patients underwent sleeve gastrectomy. At baseline, 22 patients (75.9%) had either low TT levels (<10.4 nmol/L) or low cFT levels (<225 pmol/L). Total testosterone and SHBG levels increased significantly at 1 month after surgery (p ≤ 0.001). At 6 months after surgery, TT and cFT increased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) and 22 patients (75.9%) had normalized TT and cFT levels. There were no changes in estradiol levels at either 1 month or 6 months after surgery. Conclusions. Increases in TT and SHBG levels occurred early at 1 month after bariatric surgery while improvements in cFT levels were observed at 6 months after bariatric surgery. PMID:27725831

  17. Insulin resistance and normal thyroid hormone levels: prospective study and metabolomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, Ele; Iervasi, Giorgio; Cobb, Jeff; Ndreu, Rudina; Nannipieri, Monica

    2017-02-28

    While hyper/hypothyroidism causes dysglycemia, the relationship between thyroid hormone levels within the normal range and insulin resistance (IR) is unclear. In 940 participants with strictly normal serum concentrations of free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)) followed up for 3 years, we measured insulin sensitivity (by the insulin clamp technique) and a panel of 35 circulating metabolites. At baseline, across quartiles of increasing fT3 levels (or fT3/fT4 ratio) there emerged most features of IR (male sex, higher BMI, waist circumference, heart rate, blood pressure, fatty liver index, free fatty acids, and triglycerides levels, reduced insulin-mediated glucose disposal and ß-cell glucose sensitivity). In multiadjusted analyses, fT3 was reciprocally related to insulin sensitivity and, in a subset of 303 subjects, directly related to endogenous glucose production. In multiple regression models adjusting for sex, age, BMI and baseline value of insulin sensitivity, higher baseline fT3 levels were significant predictors of the decreases in insulin sensitivity. Moreover, baseline fT3 predicted follow-up increases in glycemia independently of sex, age, BMI, insulin sensitivity, ß-cell glucose sensitivity and baseline glycemia. Serum tyrosine levels were higher in IR and were directly associated with fT3; higher α-hydroxybutyrate levels signaled enhanced oxidative stress impairing tyrosine degradation. In 25 morbidly obese patients, surgery-induced weight loss improved IR and consensually lowered fT3 High-normal fT3 levels are associated with IR both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, and predict deterioration of glucose tolerance. This association is supported by a metabolite pattern that points at increased oxidative stress as part of the IR syndrome.

  18. Photoperiod regulation of plasma growth hormone levels during induced smoltification of underyearling Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Björnsson, B T; Hemre, G I; Bjørnevik, M; Hansen, T

    2000-07-01

    Earlier studies have established that increased daylength increases plasma growth hormone (GH) levels during spring smoltification of yearling Atlantic salmon. Recently, the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry has started the production of underyearling ("summer") smolts. This involves fast juvenile growth on continuous light (24L), the transfer of juveniles over 8 cm in length to short day (12L) for 6 weeks in the summer, followed by transfer to 24L for another 6 weeks before transfer to seawater in late October. Three groups were studied in fresh water from July to the following May in order to elucidate the GH response to this photoperiod manipulation: one group was kept on 24L throughout (long-day group), while the other two groups were exposed to short day from July 15th. Of these, one was brought back onto long day on September 1st (winter group) while the other was kept on short day (short-day group). Plasma GH levels of the long-day group were around 1.6 ng/ml throughout the study. The short-day transfer suppressed GH levels to 0.7 ng/ml within 2 weeks (short-day and winter groups). The long-day transfer (winter group) increased GH levels to 11 ng/ml within 3 weeks, and this elevation of GH levels was sustained for about 3 months, before declining to pretreatment levels. The study demonstrates that underyearling Atlantic salmon react to increased daylength in a way similar to traditional yearling smolts. It also demonstrates for the first time that decreased daylength can suppress plasma GH levels in fish. It is concluded that winter photoperiod manipulation causes an out-of-season initiation and completion of the parr-smolt transformation of underyearling Atlantic salmon and that growth hormone plays a major role in this process.

  19. Cortisol level measurements in fingernails as a retrospective index of hormone production.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shuhei; Miki, Keiichi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Mitani, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Toru; Fuchu, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Taiki; Togo, Fumiharu

    2015-04-01

    The cortisol level in fingernails may reflect the hormone's cumulative production over a long period, but the notions have not been fully established. In this study, we investigated the association of cortisol in fingernails with cortisol accumulation over a long period (hair cortisol) and over a relatively short period (salivary cortisol). In study 1, hair and fingernail samples were collected from 58 middle-aged and elderly men. The cortisol level in hair samples was moderately associated with the level in fingernail samples (r = 0.29, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.36, p < 0.01). In study 2, 37 workers provided 4 saliva samples over the course of one day (at awakening, 30 min after awakening, before lunch, and after work) and another set a month later. Further, the workers were asked to provide fingernail samples during a six-month period. We found that the cortisol level in saliva over the whole day (area under the curve for cortisol) was moderately associated with the cortisol level measured in fingernail samples that were collected 4 months (r = 0.43, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.50, p < 0.01) and 5 months later (r = 0.45, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.53, p < 0.01). These results indicated that the cortisol level in fingernail samples might retrospectively represent hormone production during a given period. The cortisol level in fingernail samples may be useful in the investigation of the link between psychosocial stress and health.

  20. Association between Decreased Klotho Blood Levels and Organic Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children with Growth Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ami, Michal; Levy-Shraga, Yael; Mazor-Aronovitch, Kineret; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Yeshayahu, Yonatan; Hemi, Rina; Kanety, Hannah; Rubinek, Tami; Modan-Moses, Dalit

    2014-01-01

    Objective Klotho is an aging-modulating protein expressed mainly in the kidneys and choroid plexus, which can also be shed, released into the circulation and act as a hormone. Klotho deficient mice are smaller compared to their wild-type counterparts and their somatotropes show marked atrophy and reduced number of secretory granules. Recent data also indicated an association between klotho levels and growth hormone (GH) levels in acromegaly. We aimed to study the association between klotho levels and GH deficiency (GHD) in children with growth impairment. Design Prospective study comprising 99 children and adolescents (aged 9.0±3.7 years, 49 male) undergoing GH stimulation tests for short stature (height-SDS = −2.1±0.6). Klotho serum levels were measured using an α-klotho ELISA kit. Results Klotho levels were significantly lower (p<0.001) among children with organic GHD (n = 11, 727±273 pg/ml) compared to both GH sufficient participants (n = 59, 1497±754 pg/ml) and those with idiopathic GHD (n = 29, 1645±778 pg/ml). The difference between GHS children and children with idiopathic GHD was not significant. Klotho levels positively correlated with IGF-1- standard deviation scores (SDS) (R = 0.45, p<0.001), but were not associated with gender, pubertal status, age or anthropometric measurements. Conclusions We have shown, for the first time, an association between low serum klotho levels and organic GHD. If validated by additional studies, serum klotho may serve as novel biomarker of organic GHD. PMID:25198618

  1. Alterations in plant growth and in root hormone levels of lodgepole pines inoculated with rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bent, E; Tuzun, S; Chanway, C P; Enebak, S

    2001-09-01

    The presence of other soil microorganisms might influence the ability of rhizobacterial inoculants to promote plant growth either by reducing contact between the inoculant and the plant root or by interfering with the mechanism(s) involved in rhizobacterially mediated growth promotion. We conducted the following experiments to determine whether reductions in the extent of growth promotion of lodgepole pine mediated by Paenibacillus polymyxa occur in the presence of a forest soil isolate (Pseudomonas fluorescens M20) and whether changes in plant growth promotion mediated by P. polymyxa (i) are related to changes in P. polymyxa density in the rhizosphere or (ii) result from alterations in root hormone levels. The extent of plant growth, P. polymyxa rhizosphere density, and root hormone concentrations were determined for lodgepole pine treated with (i) a single growth-promoting rhizobacterial strain (P. polymyxa L6 or Pw-2) or (ii) a combination of bacteria: strain L6 + strain M20 or strain Pw-2 + strain M20. There was no difference in the growth of pines inoculated with strain L6 and those inoculated with strain L6 + strain M20. However, seedlings inoculated with strain Pw-2 had more lateral roots and greater root mass at 12 weeks after inoculation than plants inoculated with strain Pw-2 + strain M20. The extent of growth promotion mediated by P. polymyxa L6 and Pw-2 in each treatment was not correlated to the average population density of each strain in the rhizosphere. Bacterial species-specific effects were observed in root hormone levels: indole-3-acetic acid concentration was elevated in roots inoculated with P. polymyxa L6 or Pw-2, while dihydrozeatin riboside concentration was elevated in roots inoculated with P. fluorescens M20.

  2. Stress hormone levels in a freshwater turtle from sites differing in human activity

    PubMed Central

    Polich, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone (CORT), commonly serve as a measure of stress levels in vertebrate populations. These hormones have been implicated in regulation of feeding behaviour, locomotor activity, body mass, lipid metabolism and other crucial behaviours and physiological processes. Thus, understanding how glucocorticoids fluctuate seasonally and in response to specific stressors can yield insight into organismal health and the overall health of populations. I compared circulating CORT concentrations between two similar populations of painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, which differed primarily in the level of exposure to human recreational activities. I measured basal CORT concentrations as well as the CORT stress response and did not find any substantive difference between the two populations. This similarity may indicate that painted turtles are not stressed by the presence of humans during the nesting season. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of CORT concentrations in freshwater reptiles, a group that is historically under-represented in studies of circulating hormone concentrations; specifically, studies that seek to use circulating concentrations of stress hormones, such as CORT, as a measure of the effect of human activities on wild populations. They also give insight into how these species as a whole may respond to human recreational activities during crucial life-history stages, such as the nesting season. Although there was no discernable difference between circulating CORT concentrations between the urban and rural populations studied, I did find a significant difference in circulating CORT concentrations between male and female C. picta. This important finding provides better understanding of the sex differences between male and female painted turtles and adds to our understanding of this species and other species of freshwater turtle. PMID:27293763

  3. Lower sex hormone levels are associated with more chronic musculoskeletal pain in community-dwelling elderly women.

    PubMed

    de Kruijf, Marjolein; Stolk, Lisette; Zillikens, M Carola; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Hofman, Albert; Huygen, Frank J P M; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Meurs, Joyce B J

    2016-07-01

    Chronic pain is more prevalent in women than in men, with increasing differences between sexes in advanced age. This could be caused by differences in sex hormone levels. We therefore studied the relationship between sex hormones and the prevalence and incidence of chronic pain. The association between sex hormone levels and chronic pain was examined in 9717 participants aged 45 years and older from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study. Chronic pain was defined as pain in the lower back, hands, knees and/or hips for at least 3 months. Sex hormone levels included estrogen, testosterone, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone. Relationships between hormones and prevalent and new onset chronic pain were analyzed using linear and logistic regression, stratified by gender. Women with androstenedione or estradiol levels in the lowest tertile had more chronic pain (odds ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.39 and odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.10-1.48, respectively). Mean estradiol levels were lower among men with chronic pain (mean difference -3.88 pmol/L; P = 0.005). Lowest tertile 17-hydroxyprogesterone in women was associated with 38% more new onset pain. All these associations were independent from age, body mass index, health and lifestyle factors, and osteoarthritis. Lower sex hormone levels are associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain, independent from lifestyle and health-related factors, in community-dwelling elderly women. These results suggest that sex hormones play a role in chronic pain and should be taken into account when a patient presents with chronic pain. Therefore, sex hormones may be a potential treatment target for these patients.

  4. Acute melatonin and para-chloroamphetamine interactions on pineal, brain and serum serotonin levels as well as stress hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Manzana, E J; Chen, W J; Champney, T H

    2001-08-03

    para-Chloroamphetamine, an amphetamine analog, alters serotonergic neurochemistry. In previous reports, melatonin (MEL), when administered with other amphetamine analogs, altered the decline in serotonin content produced by these analogs. The present studies assessed the effects of various doses of melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine on serotonin levels in numerous brain regions in male rats. Melatonin (10, 25 or 50 mg/kg, s.c.) and p-chloroamphetamine (3 or 5 mg/kg, s.c.) were administered and, 3 h later, brain samples and serum were collected. Serotonin levels in the serum and various regions of the brain were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Melatonin in combination with a high dose of p-chloroamphetamine (5 mg/kg) produced cumulative deficits in serotonin levels in the serum. However, serotonin levels in the pineal, cortex or brain stem in all combined melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine groups were not significantly different from groups that received p-chloroamphetamine alone. Serum adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone levels were significantly elevated in the melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine combined groups, suggesting that animals receiving both treatments were more stressed than control animals or animals receiving melatonin or p-chloroamphetamine alone. These results indicate that melatonin does not alter p-chloroamphetamine-induced deficits in central serotonin levels. The increased serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and serotonin levels observed following melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine treatment suggest that this combination may have adverse peripheral effects.

  5. Water stress, CO2 and photoperiod influence hormone levels in wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nan, Rubin; Carman, John G.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    'Super Dwarf' wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants have been grown from seed to maturity in the Mir space station where they were periodically exposed, because of microgravity and other constraints, to water deficit, waterlogging, high CO2 levels, and low light intensities. The plants produced many tillers, but none of them produced viable seed. Studies have been initiated to determine why the plants responded in these ways. In the present study, effects of the listed stresses on abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and isopentenyl adenosine ([9R]iP) levels in roots and leaves of plants grown under otherwise near optimal conditions on earth were measured. Hormones were extracted, purified by HPLC, and quantified by noncompetitive indirect ELISA. In response to water deficit, ABA levels increased in roots and leaves, IAA levels decreased in roots and leaves, and [9R]iP levels increased in leaves but decreased in roots. In response to waterlogging, ABA, IAA and [9R]iP levels briefly increased in roots and leaves and then decreased. When portions of the root system were exposed to waterlogging and/or water deficit, ABA levels in leaves increased while [9R]iP and IAA levels decreased. These responses were correlated with the percentage of the root system stressed. At a low photosynthetic photon flux (100 micromoles m-2 s-1), plants grown in continuous light had higher leaf ABA levels than plants grown using an 18 or 21 h photoperiod.

  6. Water stress, CO2 and photoperiod influence hormone levels in wheat.

    PubMed

    Nan, Rubin; Carman, John G; Salisbury, Frank B

    2002-03-01

    'Super Dwarf' wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants have been grown from seed to maturity in the Mir space station where they were periodically exposed, because of microgravity and other constraints, to water deficit, waterlogging, high CO2 levels, and low light intensities. The plants produced many tillers, but none of them produced viable seed. Studies have been initiated to determine why the plants responded in these ways. In the present study, effects of the listed stresses on abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and isopentenyl adenosine ([9R]iP) levels in roots and leaves of plants grown under otherwise near optimal conditions on earth were measured. Hormones were extracted, purified by HPLC, and quantified by noncompetitive indirect ELISA. In response to water deficit, ABA levels increased in roots and leaves, IAA levels decreased in roots and leaves, and [9R]iP levels increased in leaves but decreased in roots. In response to waterlogging, ABA, IAA and [9R]iP levels briefly increased in roots and leaves and then decreased. When portions of the root system were exposed to waterlogging and/or water deficit, ABA levels in leaves increased while [9R]iP and IAA levels decreased. These responses were correlated with the percentage of the root system stressed. At a low photosynthetic photon flux (100 micromoles m-2 s-1), plants grown in continuous light had higher leaf ABA levels than plants grown using an 18 or 21 h photoperiod.

  7. Alterations in Hormone Levels After Adjuvant Chemoradiation in Male Rectal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Frederick H.; Perera, Francisco Fisher, Barbara; Stitt, Larry

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone levels after postoperative chemoradiation in men with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-three men with rectal cancer had baseline and postchemoradiation FSH, LH, and testosterone measured. Adjuvant chemoradiation consisted of two 5-day cycles of bolus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) every 4 weeks at a dose of 500 mg/m{sup 2}/d followed by concurrent chemoradiation followed by two additional 5-day cycles of 5-FU at a dose of 450 mg/m{sup 2}/d. Continuous-infusion 5-FU at 225 mg/m{sup 2}/d was given during radiation. Pelvic radiation consisted of a three- or four-field technique with a median dose of 54.0 Gy in 30 fractions. Results: Median follow-up was 6.1 years. Mean baseline FSH levels increased from 5.3 to a peak of 23.9 IU/L (p < 0.001) 13-24 months after chemoradiation. Mean baseline LH levels increased from 4.3 to a peak of 8.5 IU/L (p < 0.001) within 6 months after chemoradiation. Mean testosterone levels decreased from 15.4 nmol/L at baseline to 8.0 nmol/L more than 4 years after chemoradiation. Mean testosterone to mean LH ratio decreased from 4.4 at baseline to 1.1 after 48 months posttreatment, suggesting a continued decrease in Leydig cell function with time. Testicular dose was measured in 5 patients. Median dose was 4 Gy (range, 1.5-8.9 Gy). Conclusions: Chemoradiation in men with rectal cancer causes persistent increases in FSH and LH levels and decreases in testosterone levels.

  8. Associations between Thyroid Hormones, Calcification Inhibitor Levels and Vascular Calcification in End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meuwese, Christiaan Lucas; Olauson, Hannes; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Ripsweden, Jonaz; Barany, Peter; Vermeer, Cees; Drummen, Nadja; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vascular calcification is a common, serious and elusive complication of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). As a pro-calcifying risk factor, non-thyroidal illness may promote vascular calcification through a systemic lowering of vascular calcification inhibitors such as matrix-gla protein (MGP) and Klotho. Methods and Material In 97 ESRD patients eligible for living donor kidney transplantation, blood levels of thyroid hormones (fT3, fT4 and TSH), total uncarboxylated MGP (t-ucMGP), desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA-II), and soluble Klotho (sKlotho) were measured. The degree of coronary calcification and arterial stiffness were assessed by means of cardiac CT-scans and applanation tonometry, respectively. Results fT3 levels were inversely associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores and measures of arterial stiffness, and positively with dp-ucMGP and sKlotho concentrations. Subfractions of MGP, PIVKA-II and sKlotho did not associate with CAC scores and arterial stiffness. fT4 and TSH levels were both inversely associated with CAC scores, but not with arterial stiffness. Discussion The positive associations between fT3 and dp-ucMGP and sKlotho suggest that synthesis of MGP and Klotho is influenced by thyroid hormones, and supports a link between non-thyroidal illness and alterations in calcification inhibitor levels. However, the absence of an association between serum calcification inhibitor levels and coronary calcification/arterial stiffness and the fact that MGP and Klotho undergo post-translational modifications underscore the complexity of this association. Further studies, measuring total levels of MGP and membrane bound Klotho, should examine this proposed pathway in further detail. PMID:26147960

  9. Persistent organic contaminants and steroid hormones levels in Morelet's crocodiles from the Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Jauregui, Mauricio; Valdespino, Carolina; Salame-Méndez, Arturo; Aguirre-León, Gustavo; Rendón-Vonosten, Jaime

    2012-04-01

    Effects of endocrine disruptors on reproductive variables of top predators, such as alligators and crocodiles, have long been cited. Due to their long life span, these predators provide us with historic contaminant annals. In this study we tried to test whether lifestyle (free-ranging vs. farm animals) and reproductive age of Morelet's crocodiles in Campeche, Mexico, affect the bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Subsequently, we tested to see whether their concentration was related to steroid hormones (testosterone and estradiol-17β) levels once normal cyclic hormone variation and reproductive age had been taken into account. From the group of contaminants considered (analyzed as families), only frequency of hexachlorocyclohexanes (∑HCH) and ∑PCB permitted analyses. Whereas there was a greater concentration of ∑HCH bioaccumulated by free-ranging crocodiles, ∑PCB was found in equal quantities in free-ranging and farm animals. No difference was observed in relation to reproductive age for any of the contaminants. However, ∑PCB concentrations were related to testosterone levels among female crocodiles. This androgenic effect of ∑PCB has not been reported previously. Because testosterone promotes aggressive behavior in vertebrates, excessive aggression during the estrous season, or when female crocodiles should be caring for their young, could result in reproductive failure in Morelet's crocodiles and potential long-term decline of the population.

  10. Diazepam affects the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor density and their expression levels in adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Caterina; Bolaris, Stamatis; Valcana, Theony; Margarity, Marigoula

    2005-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are involved in the occurrence of anxiety and affective disorders; however, the effects following an anxiolytic benzodiazepine treatment, such as diazepam administration, on the mechanism of action of thyroid hormones has not yet been investigated. The effect of diazepam on the in vitro nuclear T3 binding, on the relative expression of the TH receptors (TRs) and on the synaptosomal TH availability were examined in adult rat cerebral hemispheres 24 h after a single intraperitoneal dose (5 mg/kg BW) of this tranquillizer. Although, diazepam did not affect the availability of TH either in blood circulation or in the synaptosomal fraction, it decreased (33%) the nuclear T3 maximal binding density (B(max)). No differences were observed in the equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)). The TRalpha2 variant (non-T3-binding) mRNA levels were increased by 33%, whereas no changes in the relative expression of the T3-binding isoforms of TRs (TRalpha1, TRbeta1) were observed. This study shows that a single intraperitoneal injection of diazepam affects within 24 h, the density of the nuclear TRs and their expression pattern. The latest effect occurs in an isoform-specific manner involving specifically the TRalpha2 mRNA levels in adult rat brain.

  11. [Hormonal perturbations in fibromyalgia].

    PubMed

    Schlienger, J L; Perrin, A E; Grunenberger, F; Goichot, B

    2001-12-01

    Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain and fatigue without biological detectable disturbances. The mechanisms of this disease are unknown. It has been postulated that it can be the consequence of a chronic stress mediated mainly through the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system. These fields have been extensively studied. Results were scattered and non convincing. A reduction of growth hormone and IGF-1 levels described in a third of patients has led to a double blind random clinical trial with biogenetic growth hormone. Results were equivocal . Other hormonal systems are grossly normals and circadian rhythms are unaltered. Despite some arguments in favour of a CRH neurons hyperactivity, these results are not able to consolide a particular physiopathological mechanism and to argument for a new therapeutic approach. Many of the abnormalities may be the consequence of psychological disturbances.

  12. Low level exposure to the flame retardant BDE-209 reduces thyroid hormone levels and disrupts thyroid signaling in fathead minnows.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Pamela D; Lema, Sean C; Macaulay, Laura J; Douglas, Nora K; Stapleton, Heather M

    2013-09-03

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone regulation, neurodevelopment, and reproduction in some animals. However, effects of the most heavily used PBDE, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), on thyroid functioning remain unclear. This study examined low-dose effects of BDE-209 on thyroid hormone levels and signaling in fathead minnows. Adult males received dietary exposures of BDE-209 at a low dose (∼3 ng/g bw-day) and high dose (∼300 ng/g bw-day) for 28 days followed by a 14-day depuration to evaluate recovery. Compared to controls, fish exposed to the low dose for 28 days experienced a 53% and 46% decline in circulating total thyroxine (TT4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (TT3), respectively, while TT4 and TT3 deficits at the high dose were 59% and 62%. Brain deiodinase activity (T4-ORD) was reduced by ∼65% at both doses. BDE-209 elevated the relative mRNA expression of genes encoding deiodinases, nuclear thyroid receptors, and membrane transporters in the brain and liver in patterns that varied with time and dose, likely in compensation to hypothyroidism. Declines in the gonadal-somatic index (GSI) and increased mortality were also measured. Effects at the low dose were consistent with the high dose, suggesting nonlinear relationships between BDE-209 exposures and thyroid dysfunction.

  13. Serum Spot 14 concentration is negatively associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone level

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Pei-Lung; Chi, Yu-Chao; Han, Der-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spot 14 (S14) is a protein involved in fatty acid synthesis and was shown to be induced by thyroid hormone in rat liver. However, the presence of S14 in human serum and its relations with thyroid function status have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to compare serum S14 concentrations in patients with hyperthyroidism or euthyroidism and to evaluate the associations between serum S14 and free thyroxine (fT4) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. We set up an immunoassay for human serum S14 concentrations and compared its levels between hyperthyroid and euthyroid subjects. Twenty-six hyperthyroid patients and 29 euthyroid individuals were recruited. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of S14 and fT4, TSH, or quartile of TSH. The hyperthyroid patients had significantly higher serum S14 levels than the euthyroid subjects (median [Q1, Q3]: 975 [669, 1612] ng/mL vs 436 [347, 638] ng/mL, P < 0.001). In univariate linear regression, the log-transformed S14 level (logS14) was positively associated with fT4 but negatively associated with creatinine (Cre), total cholesterol (T-C), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and TSH. The positive associations between logS14 and fT4 and the negative associations between logS14 and Cre, TG, T-C, or TSH remained significant after adjustment with sex and age. These associations were prominent in females but not in males. The logS14 levels were negatively associated with the TSH levels grouped by quartile (ß = −0.3020, P < 0.001). The association between logS14 and TSH quartile persisted after adjustment with sex and age (ß = −0.2828, P = 0.001). In stepwise multivariate regression analysis, only TSH grouped by quartile remained significantly associated with logS14 level. We developed an ELISA to measure serum S14 levels in human. Female patients with hyperthyroidism had higher serum S14 levels

  14. The levels of the sex hormones are not different between type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jiayi; Gao, Yifei; Zeng, Ke; Yin, Yongxiang; Zhao, Min; Wei, Jia; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of hormonal factors in developing endometrial cancer is well documented. In particular, excess or unopposed estrogen is a major risk factor. Endometrial cancer is divided into estrogen-dependent and estrogen-independent types. Studies suggested that the subtypes of endometrial cancer share many common risk factors. Whether the levels of sex hormones differ between types 1 and 2 endometrial cancer has not been investigated. In this study, levels of estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were investigated between type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer taking into account menopausal status and parity. The sex hormones levels and estrogen and progesterone receptors were measured in 187 women with endometrial cancer. The levels of estradiol (E2), progesterone, testosterone, FSH and LH were not different between the subtypes of endometrial cancer regardless of menopausal status. In addition, the sex hormones were not different between patients of different party regardless of the menopausal status. The majority of type 1 (96%) and type 2 (82%) endometrial cancers were estrogen and progesterone receptor positive. Our data suggest that type 2 endometrial cancer is not completely estrogen independent, and type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancers may have a similar pathogenesis. PMID:28000774

  15. Early follicular testosterone level predicts preference for masculinity in male faces - but not for women taking hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Bobst, Cora; Sauter, Sabine; Foppa, Andrina; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2014-03-01

    It has been shown that women's preference for masculinity in male faces changes across the menstrual cycle. Preference for masculinity is stronger when conception probability is high than when it is low. These findings have been linked to cyclic fluctuations of hormone levels. The purpose of the present study is to further investigate the link between gonadal steroids (i.e. testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone) and masculinity preference in women, while holding the cycle phase constant. Sixty-two female participants were tested in their early follicular cycle phase, when conception probability is low. Participants were shown face pairs and where asked to choose the more attractive face. Face pairs consisted of a masculinized and feminized version of the same face. For naturally cycling women we found a positive relationship between saliva testosterone levels and masculinity preference, but there was no link between any hormones and masculinity preference for women taking hormonal contraception. We conclude that in naturally cycling women early follicular testosterone levels are associated with masculinity preference. However, these hormonal links were not found for women with artificially modified hormonal levels, that is, for women taking hormonal contraception.

  16. Hormone levels of world class cyclists during the Tour of Spain stage race

    PubMed Central

    Lucia, A; Diaz, B; Hoyos, J; Fernandez, C; Villa, G; Bandres, F; Chicharro, J

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To evaluate the hormonal response to strenuous endurance exercise performed by elite athletes. Methods—Nine professional cyclists (mean (SD) age 28 (1) years; mean (SD) VO2MAX 75.3 (2.3) ml/kg/min) who participated in a three week tour race (Vuelta a España 1999) were selected as subjects. Morning urinary levels of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) and morning serum levels of testosterone, follicle stimulating (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), and cortisol were measured in each subject at t0 (before the competition), t1 (end of first week), t2 (end of second week), and t3 (end of third week). Urine samples of aMT6s were also evaluated in the evening at t0, t1, t2, and t3. Results—Mean urinary aMT6s levels had increased significantly (p<0.01) during the day after each stage (1091 (33) v 683 (68) ng/ml at t1; 955 (19) v 473 (53) ng/ml at t2; 647 (61) v 337 (47) ng/ml at t3). Both morning and evening aMT6s levels decreased significantly during the study. A similar pattern was observed for morning serum levels of cortisol and testosterone. Conclusions—The results suggest that the basal activity of the pineal gland, adrenal glands, and testis may be decreased after consecutive days of intense, long term exercise. Key Words: melatonin; gonadotrophins; testosterone; cortisol; endurance exercise PMID:11726480

  17. Evaluation of Resettin® on serum hormone levels in sedentary males

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comparisons of hormones such as dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol (E2), and testosterone indicate their impact on metabolism and body composition. While less is known regarding DHT and E2, testosterone is an androgenic metabolic hormone capable of positively regulating a variety of anabolic and androgenic processes in the body. Accordingly, it has been postulated that the age-related reduction in serum testosterone levels leads to reductions in lean muscle mass, bone mineral density, and other physical conditions that impair physical performance and decrease quality of life. Preliminary studies suggest that key ingredients found in Resettin®/MyTosterone™, a natural supplement containing the carotenoid astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis and Saw Palmetto berry lipid extract from Serenoa repens, could positively impact testosterone levels. To investigate the clinical efficacy of Resettin®, the serum profiles of testosterone, E2 and DHT in healthy sedentary males before and after Resettin® treatment were evaluated in a randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial. Method Twenty healthy, sedentary men between the ages of 21 and 70 were randomized into either an 800 mg/day or 1200 mg/day Resettin®/MyTosterone™ treatment group or lecithin, which was used as the placebo. After a 14-day treatment period, there was a 14-day washout period. After the wash-out period, participants were crossed over within their respective group to either Resettin®/MyTosterone™ or the lecithin placebo for 14 days. Results After 14 days, participants receiving 800 mg per day of Resettin® had significantly reduced baseline-subtracted serum DHT levels in comparison to the placebo control group. While after 14 days, participants receiving 1200 mg per day of Resettin® had significantly reduced baseline-subtracted serum DHT and E2 levels in comparison to the placebo control group. Moreover, participants receiving 1200 mg per day of Resettin® experienced a 38

  18. Maternal iron deficiency alters circulating thyroid hormone levels in developing neonatal rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormone insufficiency and iron deficiency (FeD) during fetal and neonatal life are both similarly deleterious to mammalian development suggesting a possible linkage between iron and thyroid hormone insufficiencies. Recent published data from our laboratory demonstrate a r...

  19. Nutrition, evolution and thyroid hormone levels - a link to iodine deficiency disorders?

    PubMed

    Kopp, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    An increased iodine requirement as a result of significant changes in human nutrition rather than a decreased environmental iodine supply is suggested to represent the main cause of the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). The pathomechanism proposed is based on the fact that serum concentrations of thyroid hormones, especially of trijodothyronine (T3), are dependent on the amount of dietary carbohydrate. High-carbohydrate diets are associated with significantly higher serum T3 concentrations, compared with very low-carbohydrate diets. While our Paleolithic ancestors subsisted on a very low carbohydrate/high protein diet, the agricultural revolution about 10,000 years ago brought about a significant increase in dietary carbohydrate. These nutritional changes have increased T3 levels significantly. Higher T3 levels are associated with an enhanced T3 production and an increased iodine requirement. The higher iodine requirement exceeds the availability of iodine from environmental sources in many regions of the world, resulting in the development of IDD.

  20. CCR5 Expression Levels in HIV-Uninfected Women Receiving Hormonal Contraception.

    PubMed

    Sciaranghella, Gaia; Wang, Cuiwei; Hu, Haihong; Anastos, Kathryn; Merhi, Zaher; Nowicki, Marek; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Cohen, Mardge; Golub, Elizabeth T; Watts, D Heather; Alter, Galit; Young, Mary A; Tsibris, Athe M N

    2015-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity increases as receptor/coreceptor expression levels increase. We determined peripheral CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 expression levels in HIV-uninfected women who used depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA; n = 32), the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD; n = 27), oral contraceptive pills (n = 32), or no hormonal contraception (n = 33). The use of LNG-IUD increased the proportion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that expressed CCR5; increases in the magnitude of T-cell subset CCR5 expression were observed with DMPA and LNG-IUD use (P < .01 for all comparisons). LNG-IUD and, to a lesser extent, DMPA use were associated with increased peripheral T-cell CCR5 expression.

  1. CCR5 Expression Levels in HIV-Uninfected Women Receiving Hormonal Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Sciaranghella, Gaia; Wang, Cuiwei; Hu, Haihong; Anastos, Kathryn; Merhi, Zaher; Nowicki, Marek; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Cohen, Mardge; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Watts, D. Heather; Alter, Galit; Young, Mary A.; Tsibris, Athe M. N.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity increases as receptor/coreceptor expression levels increase. We determined peripheral CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 expression levels in HIV-uninfected women who used depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA; n = 32), the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD; n = 27), oral contraceptive pills (n = 32), or no hormonal contraception (n = 33). The use of LNG-IUD increased the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that expressed CCR5; increases in the magnitude of T-cell subset CCR5 expression were observed with DMPA and LNG-IUD use (P < .01 for all comparisons). LNG-IUD and, to a lesser extent, DMPA use were associated with increased peripheral T-cell CCR5 expression. PMID:25895986

  2. Changes in glucose, insulin, and growth hormone levels associated with bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Leach, C. S.; Winget, C. M.; Goodwin, A. L.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in plasma glucose, insulin, and growth hormone (HGH) resulting from exposure to 56 d of bedrest were determined in five healthy young male subjects. Changes in the daily levels of these factors for each subject were expressed as the mean of six blood samples per 24-h period. The level of HGH dropped after 10 d of bedrest, then showed a 1.5-fold increase at 20 d and subsequently decreased gradually reaching levels of 2.5 mg/ml/24 h, well below pre-bedrest controls of 4.2 mg/ml/24 h, by the 54th d. In spite of a marked increase in the daily plasma insulin levels during the first 30 d of bedrest, glucose levels remained unchanged. Beyond 30 d of bedrest, insulin began decreasing toward pre-bedrest levels and glucose followed with a similar reduction to below the control levels of 75 mg/100 ml/24 h on day 54. The daily mean changes reflect a change in the amplitude of the diurnal variation. The daily peak in plasma insulin shifted progressively to the late evening during the bedrest period.

  3. Social context-dependent relationships between mouse dominance rank and plasma hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Cait M; Lee, Won; Romeo, Russell D; Curley, James P

    2017-03-15

    The associations between social status and endogenous testosterone and corticosterone have been well-studied across taxa, including rodents. Dominant social status is typically associated with higher levels of circulating testosterone and lower levels of circulating corticosterone but findings are mixed and depend upon numerous contextual factors. Here, we determine that the social environment is a key modulator of these relationships in Mus musculus. In groups of outbred CD-1 mice living in stable dominance hierarchies, we found no evidence of simple linear associations between social rank and corticosterone or testosterone plasma levels. However, in social hierarchies with highly despotic alpha males that socially suppress other group members, testosterone levels in subordinate males were significantly lower than in alpha males. In less despotic hierarchies, where all animals engage in high rates of competitive interactions, subordinate males had significantly elevated testosterone compared to agonistically inhibited subordinates from despotic hierarchies. Subordinate males from highly despotic hierarchies also had elevated levels of corticosterone compared to alpha males. In pair-housed animals, the relationship was the opposite, with alpha males exhibiting elevated levels of corticosterone compared to subordinate males. Notably, subordinate males living in social hierarchies had significantly higher levels of plasma corticosterone than pair-housed subordinate males, suggesting that living in a large group is a more socially stressful experience for less dominant individuals. Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering social context when analyzing physiological data related to social behavior and using ethologically relevant behavioral paradigms to study the complex relationship between hormones and social behavior.

  4. Spatiotemporal modelling of hormonal crosstalk explains the level and patterning of hormones and gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and mutant roots.

    PubMed

    Moore, Simon; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Mudge, Anna; Rowe, James H; Topping, Jennifer F; Liu, Junli; Lindsey, Keith

    2015-09-01

    Patterning in Arabidopsis root development is coordinated via a localized auxin concentration maximum in the root tip, requiring the regulated expression of specific genes. However, little is known about how hormone and gene expression patterning is generated. Using a variety of experimental data, we develop a spatiotemporal hormonal crosstalk model that describes the integrated action of auxin, ethylene and cytokinin signalling, the POLARIS protein, and the functions of PIN and AUX1 auxin transporters. We also conduct novel experiments to confirm our modelling predictions. The model reproduces auxin patterning and trends in wild-type and mutants; reveals that coordinated PIN and AUX1 activities are required to generate correct auxin patterning; correctly predicts shoot to root auxin flux, auxin patterning in the aux1 mutant, the amounts of cytokinin, ethylene and PIN protein, and PIN protein patterning in wild-type and mutant roots. Modelling analysis further reveals how PIN protein patterning is related to the POLARIS protein through ethylene signalling. Modelling prediction of the patterning of POLARIS expression is confirmed experimentally. Our combined modelling and experimental analysis reveals that a hormonal crosstalk network regulates the emergence of patterns and levels of hormones and gene expression in wild-type and mutants.

  5. Plant proximity perception dynamically modulates hormone levels and sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bou-Torrent, Jordi; Galstyan, Anahit; Gallemí, Marçal; Cifuentes-Esquivel, Nicolás; Molina-Contreras, Maria José; Salla-Martret, Mercè; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Martínez-García, Jaime F

    2014-06-01

    The shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) refers to a set of plant responses initiated after perception by the phytochromes of light enriched in far-red colour reflected from or filtered by neighbouring plants. These varied responses are aimed at anticipating eventual shading from potential competitor vegetation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the most obvious SAS response at the seedling stage is the increase in hypocotyl elongation. Here, we describe how plant proximity perception rapidly and temporally alters the levels of not only auxins but also active brassinosteroids and gibberellins. At the same time, shade alters the seedling sensitivity to hormones. Plant proximity perception also involves dramatic changes in gene expression that rapidly result in a new balance between positive and negative factors in a network of interacting basic helix-loop-helix proteins, such as HFR1, PAR1, and BIM and BEE factors. Here, it was shown that several of these factors act as auxin- and BR-responsiveness modulators, which ultimately control the intensity or degree of hypocotyl elongation. It was deduced that, as a consequence of the plant proximity-dependent new, dynamic, and local balance between hormone synthesis and sensitivity (mechanistically resulting from a restructured network of SAS regulators), SAS responses are unleashed and hypocotyls elongate.

  6. Salivary Hormones Response to Preparation and Pre-competitive Training of World-class Level Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hanon, Christine; Gendreau, Nicolas; Bonneau, Dominique; Guével, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity, and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months) and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks) training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while IgA (+61%) and creatine kinase activity (+43%) increased, and chromogranin A decreased (−27%) during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15%) and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P < 0.05). None of the psycho-physiological parameters were significantly correlated to training load during the pre-competitive period. Results showed a lower adrenocortical response and autonomic activity, and an improvement of immunity status, in response to the reduction in training load and fatigue, without significant correlations of salivary hormones with training load. Our findings suggest that saliva composition is sensitive to training contents (season period) but could not be related to workload resulting from track and field athletics training. PMID:26635619

  7. Plant proximity perception dynamically modulates hormone levels and sensitivity in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Bou-Torrent, Jordi; Galstyan, Anahit; Gallemí, Marçal; Cifuentes-Esquivel, Nicolás; Molina-Contreras, Maria José; Salla-Martret, Mercè; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Martínez-García, Jaime F.

    2014-01-01

    The shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) refers to a set of plant responses initiated after perception by the phytochromes of light enriched in far-red colour reflected from or filtered by neighbouring plants. These varied responses are aimed at anticipating eventual shading from potential competitor vegetation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the most obvious SAS response at the seedling stage is the increase in hypocotyl elongation. Here, we describe how plant proximity perception rapidly and temporally alters the levels of not only auxins but also active brassinosteroids and gibberellins. At the same time, shade alters the seedling sensitivity to hormones. Plant proximity perception also involves dramatic changes in gene expression that rapidly result in a new balance between positive and negative factors in a network of interacting basic helix–loop–helix proteins, such as HFR1, PAR1, and BIM and BEE factors. Here, it was shown that several of these factors act as auxin- and BR-responsiveness modulators, which ultimately control the intensity or degree of hypocotyl elongation. It was deduced that, as a consequence of the plant proximity-dependent new, dynamic, and local balance between hormone synthesis and sensitivity (mechanistically resulting from a restructured network of SAS regulators), SAS responses are unleashed and hypocotyls elongate. PMID:24609653

  8. What is the influence of hormone therapy on homocysteine and crp levels in postmenopausal women?

    PubMed Central

    Lakryc, Eli Marcelo; Machado, Rogério Bonassi; Soares, José Maria; Fernandes, César Eduardo; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of estrogen therapy and estrogen-progestin therapy on homocysteine and C-reactive protein levels in postmenopausal women. METHODS: In total, 99 postmenopausal women were included in this double-blind, randomized clinical trial and divided into three groups: Group A used estrogen therapy alone (2.0 mg of 17β-estradiol), Group B received estrogen-progestin therapy (2.0 mg of 17 β-estradiol +1.0 mg of norethisterone acetate) and Group C received a placebo (control). The length of treatment was six months. Serum measurements of homocysteine and C-reactive protein were carried out prior to the onset of treatment and following six months of therapy. RESULTS: After six months of treatment, there was a 20.7% reduction in homocysteine levels and a 100.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels in the group of women who used estrogen therapy. With respect to the estrogen-progestin group, there was a 12.2% decrease in homocysteine levels and a 93.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that hormone therapy (unopposed estrogen or estrogen associated with progestin) may have a positive influence on decreasing cardiovascular risk due to a significant reduction in homocysteine levels. PMID:25789519

  9. Determination of steroid hormones in bovine milk by LC-MS/MS and their levels in Swiss Holstein cow milk.

    PubMed

    Goyon, Alexandre; Cai, Julia Zhenzhen; Kraehenbuehl, Karin; Hartmann, Christoph; Shao, Bing; Mottier, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic and natural steroid hormones have attracted some attention in recent years as endocrine active substances (EAS) that interact or interfere with the endocrine system. Endogenous hormones occur naturally in food of animal origin, among which bovine milk represents an important source. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of steroid hormones (oestrogens, androgens, progestogens and glucocorticoids) in cow's milk samples from three farms in Switzerland. An isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of 12 hormones in milk. Some hormonal levels from individual cows showed large variations. The average levels of the hormones analysed (17α-estradiol = 31 ng kg(-)(1), 17β-estradiol = 6 ng kg(-)(1), estrone = 159 ng kg(-)(1), 4-androstenedione = 684 ng kg(-)(1), progesterone = 15486 ng kg(-)(1), 17-hydroxyprogesterone = 214 ng kg(-)(1), cortisone = 112 ng kg(-)(1), and cortisol = 235 ng kg(-)(1)) were comparable with literature data. Estriol, testosterone and androstenediols were not detected at their respective limit of quantification. No significant differences of hormonal content among milk from cows at different lactation/calving numbers were evidenced, except for progesterone and 4-androstenedione. Due to confounding parameters linked to the physiological stage of the animal, like pregnancy and gestational stage (pregnancy trimester), the causal correlation between the variation of the levels for these two hormones and the lactation/calving number could not be unambiguously demonstrated.

  10. [Serum insulin, leptin and growth hormone levels are associated with body mass index and obesity index in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Molero-Conejo, Emperatriz; Morales, Luz Marina; Fernández, Virginia; Raleigh, Xiomara; Casanova, Angel; Connell, Lissette; Gómnez, Maria Esther; Ryder, Elena; Campos, Gilberto

    2006-03-01

    Leptin, insulin and growth hormone levels seem to regulate body composition, fat distribution and fat mass. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among insulin, leptin and growth hormone levels in a group of adolescents. Ninety five adolescents (31 boys and 64 girls) between 13 and 18 y. of age were studied. A medical and nutritional history was made which included body mass index (BMI) and subcutaneous skinfolds measurements. Basal levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, leptin, insulin and growth hormone were determined. The leptin and insulin levels were positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and obesity index (OBI). Insulin, leptin and obesity markers were negatively associated with growth hormone level. Fifty two percent of the adolescents with BMI = 21.09 kg/m2 were considered metabolically obese because they had elevated levels of insulin (18.68 +/- 1.52 vs. 10.08 +/- 0.38 microU/ml), HOMA IR (3.34 +/- 0.24 vs. 1.76 +/- 0.07), leptin (16.30 +/- 1.24 vs. 8.11 +/- 1.32 ng./dl) and triglycerides (78.56 +/- 4.38 vs. 64.39 +/- 5.48 mg/dl) and lower levels of HDL-C (39.09 +/- 1.27 vs. 43.30 +/- 2.38 mg/dl), compared with normal group. The same alterations were observed in the obese group, in which significative decrease in growth hormone level was added. We conclude that hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia and low growth hormone levels, may be established as risk factors related to obesity markers, lipid alterations and insulin resistance that can lead to an early development of Type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  11. Correlation between serum parathyroid hormone levels and coronary artery calcification in patients without renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang-Yong; Xu, Bai-Da; Wu, Ting; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Tian-Xiao; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Xiao; Xia, Yang; Zong, Gang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients without renal failure, as well as to determine independent risk factors of CAC score (CACS). A total of 157 patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiographic examination at the 101th Hospital of the People's Liberation Army between December 2013 and February 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. The correlation between PTH levels and CACS was determined using a Pearson correlation analysis. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to determine the best cutoff PTH level for prediction of CAC. The independent association between serum PTH levels and CAC was analyzed by using a logistic regression analysis model with the response variable Be binary class. The results revealed that PTH levels in patients in the CAC group were significantly higher than those of patients in the non-calcification group. PTH levels were positively correlated with CACS (r=0.288, P<0.001). The ROC curve suggested that a PTH level of ≥31.05 pg/ml was the best cut-off point for the prediction of CAC, with a sensitivity of 80.88%, specificity of 60.67% and an area under the curve of 0.761. After including predictive factors for CAC (gender, age, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate and calcium, phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product, magnesium, PTH, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein levels), the odds ratio of the serum PTH levels regarding the prediction of CAC was 1.050 (95% confidence interval, 1.027–1.074; P<0.001). In conclusion, the present study suggested that serum PTH levels are correlated with CAC in patients without renal failure and may thus be used as a reliable predictor of CAC. PMID:27882224

  12. Correlation between serum parathyroid hormone levels and coronary artery calcification in patients without renal failure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang-Yong; Xu, Bai-Da; Wu, Ting; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Tian-Xiao; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Xiao; Xia, Yang; Zong, Gang-Jun

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients without renal failure, as well as to determine independent risk factors of CAC score (CACS). A total of 157 patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiographic examination at the 101th Hospital of the People's Liberation Army between December 2013 and February 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. The correlation between PTH levels and CACS was determined using a Pearson correlation analysis. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to determine the best cutoff PTH level for prediction of CAC. The independent association between serum PTH levels and CAC was analyzed by using a logistic regression analysis model with the response variable Be binary class. The results revealed that PTH levels in patients in the CAC group were significantly higher than those of patients in the non-calcification group. PTH levels were positively correlated with CACS (r=0.288, P<0.001). The ROC curve suggested that a PTH level of ≥31.05 pg/ml was the best cut-off point for the prediction of CAC, with a sensitivity of 80.88%, specificity of 60.67% and an area under the curve of 0.761. After including predictive factors for CAC (gender, age, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate and calcium, phosphorus, calcium-phosphorus product, magnesium, PTH, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein levels), the odds ratio of the serum PTH levels regarding the prediction of CAC was 1.050 (95% confidence interval, 1.027-1.074; P<0.001). In conclusion, the present study suggested that serum PTH levels are correlated with CAC in patients without renal failure and may thus be used as a reliable predictor of CAC.

  13. Potential influence of hormones in the development of slipped capital femoral epiphysis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Papavasiliou, Kyriakos A; Kirkos, John M; Kapetanos, George A; Pournaras, John

    2007-01-01

    The potential influence of hormonal imbalance on the development of slipped capital femoral epiphysis was assessed through a prospective clinical study. The serum levels of T3, T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, human growth hormone, adrenal cortex hormone and cortisol were evaluated in seven boys and seven girls. Forty-three out of 154 hormonal determinations (27.9%) were abnormal. The results showed increased incidence of pathological values mainly in the levels of follicle-stimulating-hormone, luteinizing-hormone and testosterone. No patient had clinical findings of endocrinopathy. A (possibly) temporary hormonal disorder may play a potentially significant role in the development of slipped capital femoral epiphysis.

  14. Preventive effects of chronic exogenous growth hormone levels on diet-induced hepatic steatosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by hepatic steatosis, can be reversed by early treatment. Several case reports have indicated that the administration of recombinant growth hormone (GH) could improve fatty liver in GH-deficient patients. Here, we investigated whether chronic exogenous GH levels could improve hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet in rats, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Results High-fat diet-fed rats developed abdominal obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance. Chronic exogenous GH improved fatty liver, by reversing dyslipidaemia, fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Exogenous GH also reduced serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels, and ameliorated hepatic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Hepatic fat deposition was also reduced by exogenous GH levels, as was the expression of adipocyte-derived adipokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin), which might improve lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis. Exogenous GH seems to improve fatty liver by reducing fat weight, improving insulin sensitivity and correcting oxidative stress, which may be achieved through phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of a group of signal transducers and activators of hepatic signal transduction pathways. Conclusions Chronic exogenous GH has positive effects on fatty liver and may be a potential clinical application in the prevention or reversal of fatty liver. However, chronic secretion of exogenous GH, even at a low level, may increase serum glucose and insulin levels in rats fed a standard diet, and thus increase the risk of insulin resistance. PMID:20653983

  15. Genotype, phenotype and hormonal levels correlation in non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Einaudi, S; Napolitano, E; Restivo, F; Motta, G; Baldi, M; Tuli, G; Grosso, E; Migone, N; Menegatti, E; Manieri, C

    2011-10-01

    Non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) is a morbid condition sustained by the reduced function of one of the enzymes involved in the adrenal steroid biosynthesis pathway, mainly the 21-hydroxylase. Different degrees of enzyme activity impairment determine different clinical pictures, with childhood or post-pubertal onset. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between genotype, phenotype, and adrenal hormonal levels in a group of 66 patients affected by NCAH attending outpatient pediatric or endocrinological Clinics. Our findings show that age at pubarche/menarche was significantly younger, height SD score) and Δ bone age-chronological age were significantly higher in patients with a more severe enzyme activity impairment, while cutaneous androgenization and menstrual irregularities in post-pubertal girls were not related to the grading of genotype.

  16. Capsaicin, arterial hypertensive crisis and acute myocardial infarction associated with high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone.

    PubMed

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Di Bella, Gianluca; Cerrito, Marco; Coglitore, Sebastiano

    2009-05-01

    Chili peppers are rich in capsaicin. The potent vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is stored in a population of C-fiber afferents that are sensitive to capsaicin. CGRP and peptides released from cardiac C fibers have a beneficial effect in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. It has been reported that capsaicin pretreatment deplete cardiac C-fiber peptide stores. Furthermore, it has also been reported that capsaicin-treated pigs significantly increase mean arterial blood pressure compared with controls and that the decrease in CGRP synthesis and release contributes to the elevated blood pressure. It has also been reported that sub-clinical hypothyroidism is associated with a significant risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We present a case of arterial hypertensive crisis and acute myocardial infarction in a 59-year-old Italian man with high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone and with an abundant ingestion of peppers and of chili peppers which occurred the day before.

  17. Effect of daily administration of 0.5 mg. of chlormadinone acetate on plasma levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and progesterone during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Saunders, D M; Marcus, S L; Saxena, B B; Beling, C G; Connell, E B

    1971-05-01

    Investigators at Cornell University Medical College and New York Medical College in New York City studied the effects of chlormadinone acetate administration on hormone levels in an effort to better understand the contraceptive mode of action of this drug. 9 healthy women had 2 consecutive cycles studied. While the first cycle was a control cycle, the second one involved chlormadinone acetate administration, .5 mg/day from Day 1 to Day 28 or until the occurrence of spontaneous menstruation if this delayed until after Day 28. Basal body temperature was recorded each morning. Chlormadinone tended to suppress the mean luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone peaks and the plasma progesterone levels. 3 patients are believed to have ovulated during the experimental cycle, but probably in 2 of them the luteal phase was less pronounced than a normal luteal phase. However, 1 of the remaining 6 patients had failed to ovulate in the control cycle. Though limitations exist in the study of the parameters investigated here, such study is necessary since direct evidence of ovulation (e.g., pregnancy, observation of corpus luteum) is usually unobtainable.

  18. Effects of organochlorine contaminants on thyroid hormone levels in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls, Larus hyperboreus.

    PubMed Central

    Verreault, Jonathan; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2004-01-01

    Studies on glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) breeding in the Barents Sea have reported that high blood levels of halogenated organic contaminants in this species might cause reproductive, behavioral, and developmental stress. However, potential endocrine system modulation caused by contaminant exposure has yet not been reported in this Arctic apical predator. In this present study we aimed to investigate whether the current levels of a selection of organochlorines (OCs) were associated with altered circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs) in free-ranging adult glaucous gulls breeding at Bear Island in the Barents Sea. Blood concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, and p,p' -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' -DDE) were quantified, in addition to free and total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in plasma of 66 glaucous gulls in the spring of 2001. Negative correlations were found between plasma levels of T4 and T4:T3 ratio, and blood levels of OCs in male glaucous gulls. Despite their relatively low contribution to the total OC fraction, HCB and oxychlordane were the most prominent compounds in terms of their negative effect on the variation of the T4:T3 ratio. Moreover, lower T4 levels and T4:T3 ratios were measured in glaucous gulls breeding in a colony exposed to high levels of OCs, compared with a less exposed colony. Levels of T3 were elevated in the high-OC-exposed colony. This may indicate that the glaucous gull is susceptible to changes to TH homeostasis mediated by exposure to halogenated organic contaminants. PMID:15064156

  19. Serum Adiponectin Level and Clinical, Metabolic, and Hormonal Markers in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Yunus; Ozaksit, Gülnur; Serdar Unlu, Bekir; Ozgu, Emre; Energin, Hasan; Kaba, Metin; Ugur, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: To investigate the relationship between adiponectin, metabolic and hor- monal parameters, and insulin resistance in patients with non-treated polycystic ovary syndrome. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, 81 patients admitted to out-patient clinic with complaints of menstrual irregularity, hirsutism and obesity were enrolled. Serum adiponectin, biochemical and hormonal parameters, and 75 gram oral glu- cose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used for statistical analysis. Results: We observed inverse correlations between serum adiponectin level and body mass index, homeostasis model assessment insulin-resistance score, insulin level, fast- ing glucose level, and prolactin level (p=0.001, p=0.02, p=0.04, p=0.02, and p=0.005, respectively). No significant correlations were found between serum adiponectin level and age, height, weight, Ferriman-Gallwey score, 2 hours OGTT test value and free tes- tosterone level (p=0.3, p=0.6, p=0.2, p=0.8, p=0.9, and p=0.01, respectively). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that in polycystic ovary syndrome patients, when serum adiponectin level decreased, degree of insulin resistance increased. Our find- ings indicate that serum adiponectin level is likely to be an adequate marker for deter- mination of the degree of insulin resistance, and may be a predictor of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, which develop on the basis of insulin resistance. PMID:24520503

  20. Variation in steroid hormone levels among Caribbean Anolis lizards: endocrine system convergence?

    PubMed

    Husak, Jerry F; Lovern, Matthew B

    2014-04-01

    Variation in aggression among species can be due to a number of proximate and ultimate factors, leading to patterns of divergent and convergent evolution of behavior among even closely related species. Caribbean Anolis lizards are well known for their convergence in microhabitat use and morphology, but they also display marked convergence in social behavior and patterns of aggression. We studied 18 Anolis species across six ecomorphs on four different Caribbean islands to test four main hypotheses. We hypothesized that species differences in aggression would be due to species differences in circulating testosterone (T), a steroid hormone implicated in numerous studies across vertebrate taxa as a primary determinant of social behavior; more aggressive species were expected to have higher baseline concentrations of T and corticosterone. We further hypothesized that low-T species would increase T and corticosterone levels during a social challenge. Within three of the four island assemblages studied we found differences in T levels among species within an island that differ in aggression, but in the opposite pattern than predicted: more aggressive species had lower baseline T than the least aggressive species. The fourth island, Puerto Rico, showed the pattern of baseline T levels among species we predicted. There were no patterns of corticosterone levels among species or ecomorphs. One of the two species tested increased T in response to a social challenge, but neither species elevated corticosterone. Our results suggest that it is possible for similarities in aggression among closely related species to evolve via different proximate mechanisms.

  1. Plasma hormone levels in human subject during stress loads in microgravity and at readaptation to Earth's gravity.

    PubMed

    Macho, L; Koska, J; Ksinantova, L; Vigas, M; Noskov, V B; Grigoriev, A I; Kvetnansky, R

    2001-07-01

    In great part of the investigations of endocrine system functions in astronauts during space flights the plasma levels of hormones and metabolites were determined only in resting conditions, usually from one blood sample collection. Such levels reflected the psychical and physical state and new hormonal homeostasis of organism at the time of blood collection, however, the functional capacity of neuroendocrine system to respond to various stress stimuli during space flight remained unknown. The aim of present investigations was to study dynamic changes of hormone levels during the stress and metabolic loads (insulin induced hypoglycemia, physical exercise and oral glucose tolerance test) at the exposure of human subject to microgravity on the space station MIR. The responses of sympatico-adrenomedullary system to these stress and workloads were presented by Kvetnansky et al.

  2. The serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for maximal suppression of parathyroid hormone in children: the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung In; Lee, Yoon Suk; Han, Ye Jin; Kong, Kyoung Ae

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) is considered as the most appropriate marker of vitamin D status. However, only a few studies have investigated the relationship between 25-OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in children. To this end, this study was aimed at evaluating the lowest 25-OHD level that suppresses the production of parathyroid hormone in children. Methods A retrospective record review was performed for children aged 0.2 to 18 years (n=193; 106 boys and 87 girls) who underwent simultaneous measurements of serum 25-OHD and PTH levels between January 2010 and June 2014. Results The inflection point of serum 25-OHD level for maximal suppression of PTH was at 18.0 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 14.3–21.7 ng/mL). The median PTH level of the children with 25-OHD levels of <18.0 ng/mL was higher than that of children with 25-OHD levels ≥ 18.0 ng/mL (P<0.0001). The median calcium level of children with 25-OHD levels<18.0 ng/mL was lower than that of children with 25-OHD levels≥18.0 ng/mL (P=0.0001). The frequency of hyperparathyroidism was higher in the children with 25-OHD levels<18.0 ng/mL than in the children with 25-OHD levels≥18.0 ng/mL (P<0.0001). Hypocalcemia was more prevalent in the children with 25-OHD levels<18.0 ng/mL than in the children with 25-OHD levels≥18.0 ng/mL (P<0.0001). Conclusion These data suggest that a vitamin D level of 18.0 ng/mL could be the criterion for 25-OHD deficiency in children at the inflection point of the maximal suppression of PTH. PMID:28289433

  3. Peptide YY Levels across Pubertal Stages and Associations with Growth Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Benjamin; Ravi, Praful; Mendes, Nara; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita

    2010-01-01

    Context: Changes in appetite-regulating peptides may impact food intake during puberty and facilitate the pubertal growth spurt. Peptide YY (PYY) is an anorexigenic hormone that is high in anorexia nervosa and low in obesity, inhibits GnRH secretion, and is suppressed by GH administration. The relationship between PYY and GH has not been examined across puberty. Objectives: We hypothesized that PYY would be inversely associated with GH in adolescents and would be lowest when GH is highest. Design and Setting: We conducted a cross-sectional study at a Clinical Research Center. Subjects: We studied 87 children, 46 boys and 41 girls ages 9–17 yr at Tanner stages 1–5 of puberty (10th–90th percentiles for body mass index). Outcome Measures: We measured fasting PYY and nadir GH levels after administration of an oral glucose load. Leptin levels were also measured. Results: Fasting PYY was lowest and nadir GH highest in boys in Tanner stages 3–4 (P = 0.02) and in girls in Tanner stages 2–3 (P = 0.02). Leptin levels were highest in early pubertal boys and late pubertal girls. For the group as a whole and within genders, even after controlling for body mass index, log nadir GH correlated inversely with log PYY (P = 0.003, 0.07, and 0.02). PYY levels did not correlate with leptin levels. Conclusions: During mid-puberty, at a time when GH levels are the highest, PYY is at a nadir, and these low PYY levels may facilitate pubertal progression and growth. PMID:20375207

  4. Evaluation of antimullerian hormone levels before and after laparoscopic management of endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Mostaejeran, Fatemeh; Hamoush, Zeinab; Rouholamin, Safoura

    2015-01-01

    Background: Serum antimullerian hormone (AMH) proposed to be a reliable marker of ovarian reserve; the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence and value of laparoscopic management in endometriosis as measured by serum AMH levels. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 33 infertile patients who referred to fertility - Infertility Center of Isfahan - with different stages of endometriosis managed by diagnostic operative laparoscopy and serum AMH levels were measured pre and one month postoperative laparoscopy. Main outcome measures were serum AMH levels in correlation with the type of infertility, stage of endometriosis, and type of surgery in infertile patients. Results: 33 infertile patients enrolled in the study with mean age 28.9 ± 5 years, and thus did not show a significant difference. Mean serum AMH levels was 4.23 ± 3.75 ng/ml and 2.2 ± 2.47 ng/ml, respectively, in primary and secondary infertility groups before and one month after laparoscopy, which shows a significant difference (P < 0.001). Median AMH level changes in Cauterization (0.67 ± 0.76 ng/ml), endometrioma excision 2 ± 0.6 ng/ml, both 2.18 ± 0.81 ng/ml and shows no significant differences. Mean serum AMH levels were definitely decreased in minimal/mild and severe stage endometriosis before and 1 month after laparoscopy, (1.84 ± 2.06 ng/ml and 2.18 ± 3.45 ng/ml), respectively. Also serum AMH according to ovarian appearance and evolvement showed no significant differences after laparoscopy: (5.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml and 2.76 ± 0.96 ng/ml) and (3.37 ± 2.2 ng/ml and 1.84 ± 1.5 ng/ml). Conclusion: Serum AMH levels clearly decreased 1 month after operative laparoscopy. PMID:26605221

  5. Influence of dioxin exposure upon levels of prostate-specific antigen and steroid hormones in Vietnamese men.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian Liang; Kido, Teruhiko; Honma, Seijiro; Okamoto, Rie; Manh, Ho Dung; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nakano, Takeshi; Koh, Eitetsu; Takasuga, Takumi; Nhu, Dang Duc; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2016-04-01

    Most studies on the relationship between Agent Orange and prostate cancer have focused on US veterans of the Vietnam War. There have been few studies focusing on the relationship between levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and dioxins or steroid hormones in Vietnamese men. In 2009-2011, we collected blood samples from 97 men who had resided in a "dioxin hotspot" and 85 men from a non-sprayed region in Vietnam. Then levels of PSA, dioxins, and steroid hormones were analyzed. Levels of most dioxins, furans, and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls were higher in the hotspot than those in the non-sprayed region. Levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and estradiol differed significantly between the hotspot and the non-sprayed region, but there were no correlations between levels of PSA and steroid hormones and dioxins in either of the two regions. Our findings suggest that PSA levels in Vietnamese men are not associated with levels of dioxin or steroid hormones in these two regions.

  6. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Congenital Abnormalities Page Content Article Body About 3% to 4% ... of congenital abnormalities earlier. 5 Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic ...

  7. Disruption of the transthyretin gene results in mice with depressed levels of plasma retinol and thyroid hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Episkopou, V; Maeda, S; Nishiguchi, S; Shimada, K; Gaitanaris, G A; Gottesman, M E; Robertson, E J

    1993-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is thought to play a major role in vitamin A metabolism and thyroid hormone transport in mammals. To investigate the physiological role of the TTR protein in development of the embryo and in the adult, we used gene targeting techniques to generate a null mutation at the mouse ttr locus. The resultant mutant animals are phenotypically normal, viable, and fertile. However, levels of serum retinol, retinol-binding protein, and thyroid hormone are significantly depressed in the mutant animals. These observations demonstrate that the TTR protein maintains normal levels of these metabolites in the circulating plasma. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8384721

  8. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus terrestris L. on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Maleki, Maryam; Ahmad Abadi, Mohammad Esmail

    2013-01-01

    Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug, reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This study investigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent to show its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48 rats into four groups: i. control, ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated addicted. Watersoluble morphine was administrated orally for 21 days to induce addiction, after which the treated groups 2 and 4 received plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%) orally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of all rats’ sera were determined by radioimmunoassay and Elisa kits. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukey test. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The addicted group had a significantly lower luteinizing hormone (LH) level than the control group (p<0.027). LH levels increased significantly in the TT-treated addicted group (p<0.031). The testosterone level in the treated addicted group was lower than the treated control group. The addicted group had a significantly low testosterone level (p<0.001). The estrogen level was significantly (p<0.002) lower in the addicted group than in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference between the treated addicted group and the treated control group (p<0.048). The treated control group had a significant increase in its progesterone level (p<0.002). Overall, except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropins and sexual hormones. Whereas TT caused a considerable increase (p<0.05) in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a

  9. Associations of blood lead levels with reproductive hormone levels in men and postmenopausal women: Results from the SPECT-China Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi; Wang, Ningjian; Zhai, Hualing; Nie, Xiaomin; Sun, Honglin; Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Cheng, Jing; Xia, Fangzhen; Zhao, Li; Zheng, Yanjun; Shen, Zhoujun; Lu, Yingli

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether blood lead levels (BLLs) were associated with reproductive hormone levels in a cross-sectional study using data from the SPECT-China study. We selected 2286 men and 1571 postmenopausal women without hormone replacement therapy. BLLs, blood cadmium, total testosterone (TT), oestradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone binding globulin(SHBG) levels were measured. The results showed that median values (interquartile range) of BLLs were 44.00 μg/L (29.00–62.30) for men and 41.00 μg/L (27.00–59.81) for postmenopausal women. In linear regression, after adjusting for age, current smoking status, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes and blood cadmium level, TT (P for trend = 0.001) and SHBG (P for trend < 0.001) levels were still positively associated with BLLs in men. Meanwhile, significant positive associations were found for BLLs with SHBG (P for trend = 0.002), FSH (P for trend = 0.001) and LH (P for trend = 0.026) levels in postmenopausal women. Additionally, the association between BLL and SHBG was modified by dysglycaemia (P for interaction = 0.03) in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, BLLs were associated with reproductive hormone levels in the general population of Chinese men and postmenopausal women, which may have important implications for human health. Concerted efforts to reduce adult lead exposure are warranted. PMID:27898110

  10. Associations of blood lead levels with reproductive hormone levels in men and postmenopausal women: Results from the SPECT-China Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chi; Wang, Ningjian; Zhai, Hualing; Nie, Xiaomin; Sun, Honglin; Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Cheng, Jing; Xia, Fangzhen; Zhao, Li; Zheng, Yanjun; Shen, Zhoujun; Lu, Yingli

    2016-11-01

    We examined whether blood lead levels (BLLs) were associated with reproductive hormone levels in a cross-sectional study using data from the SPECT-China study. We selected 2286 men and 1571 postmenopausal women without hormone replacement therapy. BLLs, blood cadmium, total testosterone (TT), oestradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone binding globulin(SHBG) levels were measured. The results showed that median values (interquartile range) of BLLs were 44.00 μg/L (29.00–62.30) for men and 41.00 μg/L (27.00–59.81) for postmenopausal women. In linear regression, after adjusting for age, current smoking status, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes and blood cadmium level, TT (P for trend = 0.001) and SHBG (P for trend < 0.001) levels were still positively associated with BLLs in men. Meanwhile, significant positive associations were found for BLLs with SHBG (P for trend = 0.002), FSH (P for trend = 0.001) and LH (P for trend = 0.026) levels in postmenopausal women. Additionally, the association between BLL and SHBG was modified by dysglycaemia (P for interaction = 0.03) in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, BLLs were associated with reproductive hormone levels in the general population of Chinese men and postmenopausal women, which may have important implications for human health. Concerted efforts to reduce adult lead exposure are warranted.

  11. Effects of mental resilience on neuroendocrine hormones level changes induced by sleep deprivation in servicemen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xinyang; Dai, Xuyan; Yang, Tingshu; Song, Hongtao; Yang, Jialin; Bai, Jing; Zhang, Liyi

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mental resilience on the changes of serum rennin, angiotensin, and cortisol level induced by sleep deprivation in servicemen. By random cluster sampling, a total of 160 servicemen, aged from 18 to 30, were selected to undergo 24-hour total sleep deprivation and administered the military personnel mental resilience scale after the deprivation procedure. The sleep deprivation procedure started at 8 a.m. on Day 8 and ended at 8 a.m. on Day 9 after 7 days of normal sleep for baseline preparation. Blood samples were drawn from the 160 participants at 8 a.m. respectively on Day 8 and Day 9 for hormonal measurements. All blood samples were analyzed using radioimmunoassay. As hypothesized, serum rennin, angiotensin II, and cortisol level of the participants after sleep deprivation were significantly higher than those before (P < 0.05). The changes of serum rennin and cortisol in the lower mental resilience subgroup were significantly greater (P < 0.05); problem-solving skill and willpower were the leading influence factors for the increases of serum rennin and cortisol respectively induced by sleep deprivation. We conclude that mental resilience plays a significant role in alleviating the changes of neurohormones level induced by sleep deprivation in servicemen.

  12. GABA Regulates Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Levels in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus in Newborn Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Matthew S.; Searcy, Brian T.; Tobet, Stuart A.

    2011-01-01

    The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) is a major regulator of stress responses via release of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH) to the pituitary gland. Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is characteristic of individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Postmortem data from individuals diagnosed with MDD show increased levels of CRH mRNA and CRH immunoreactive neurons in the PVN. In the current study, an immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis revealed increased levels of CRH in the PVN of newborn mice lacking functional GABAB receptors. There was no difference in the total number of CRH immunoreactive cells. By contrast, there was a significant increase in the amount of CRH immunoreactivity per cell. Interestingly, this increase in CRH levels in the GABAB receptor R1 subunit knockout was limited to the rostral PVN. While GABAergic regulation of the HPA axis has been previously reported in adult animals, this study provides evidence of region-specific GABA modulation of immunoreactive CRH in newborns. PMID:21236282

  13. Thyroid hormone regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor levels in mouse mammary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Vonderhaar, B.K.; Tang, E.; Lyster, R.R.; Nascimento, M.C.

    1986-08-01

    The specific binding of iodinated epidermal growth factor ((/sup 125/I)iodo-EGF) to membranes prepared from the mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors of euthyroid and hypothyroid mice was measured in order to determine whether thyroid hormones regulate the EGF receptor levels in vivo. Membranes from hypothyroid mammary glands of mice at various developmental ages bound 50-65% less EGF than those of age-matched euthyroid controls. Treatment of hypothyroid mice with L-T4 before killing restored binding to the euthyroid control level. Spontaneous breast tumors arising in hypothyroid mice also bound 30-40% less EGF than tumors from euthyroid animals even after in vitro desaturation of the membranes of endogenous growth factors with 3 M MgCl2 treatment. The decrease in binding in hypothyroid membranes was due to a decrease in the number of binding sites, not to a change in affinity of the growth factor for its receptor, as determined by Scatchard analysis of the binding data. Both euthyroid and hypothyroid membranes bound EGF primarily to a single class of high affinity sites (dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.7-1.8 nM). Euthyroid membranes bound 28.4 +/- (SE) 0.6 fmol/mg protein, whereas hypothyroid membranes bound 15.5 +/- 1.0 fmol/mg protein. These data indicate that EGF receptor levels in normal mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors in mice are subject to regulation by thyroid status.

  14. Thyroid Hormone Levels in Obese Children and Adolescents with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Torun, Emel; Özgen, İlker Tolga; Gökçe, Selim; Aydın, Sinem; Cesur, Yaşar

    2014-01-01

    Ob­jec­ti­ve: We aimed to determine the association of thyroid functions with the components of metabolic syndrome (MS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in pediatric obese patients. Methods: The study included 109 obese children (aged 9-15 years) and a control group of 44 healthy age and gender-matched children of normal weight. NAFLD was diagnosed by conventional ultrasound examination. We assessed the anthropometric data and serum biochemical parameters including lipid profile, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), fasting glucose and insulin levels and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated as a measure of IR. Results: The mean age and gender distributions in the groups were similar (p=0.23). The mean body mass index (BMI) z-scores of obese children with grade 2-3 NAFLD were significantly higher than those of the obese children without hepatic steatosis (p<0.001). Mean ALT, triglyceride (TG) and LDL cholesterol increased and HDL-cholesterol significantly decreased as the hepatic steatosis increased (p<0.05). HOMA-IR levels in obese subjects with grade 2-3 NAFLD were significantly higher than those in both obese children without NAFLD and grade 1 NADFL (p=0.05 and 0.001, respectively). In the obese subjects, TSH levels were increased significantly as the degree of steatosis increased (p=0.04) but fT3 and fT4 levels were not different. In correlation analysis, TSH was significantly correlated with ALT, BMI SDS and the degree of steatosis. Conclusions: Obese children demonstrate an increase in TSH levels as the degree of steatosis increased. PMID:24637308

  15. Effects of Gastrogastric Fistula Repair on Weight Loss and Gut Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Ciaran; Wang, Gary; McGinty, James; Agenor, Keesandra; Dutia, Roxanne; Colarusso, Antonia; Park, Koji; Koshy, Ninan; Laferrère, Blandine

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Weight regain after gastric bypass (GBP) can be associated with a gastrogastric fistula (GGF), in which a channel forms between the gastric pouch and gastric remnant, allowing nutrients to pass through the ‘old route’ rather than bypassing the duodenum. To further understand the mechanisms by which GGF may lead to weight regain, we investigated gut hormone levels in GBP patients with a GGF, before and after repair. Materials and Methods Seven post-GBP subjects diagnosed with GGF were studied before and 4 months after GGF repair. Another cohort of 22 GBP control subjects without GGF complication were studied before and 1 year post-GBP. All subjects underwent a 50g oral glucose tolerance test and blood was collected from 0-120minutes for glucose, insulin, ghrelin, PYY3-36, GIP, and GLP-1 levels. Results Four months after GGF repair subjects lost 6.0 ±3.9kg and had significantly increased postprandial PYY3-36 levels. After GGF repair, fasting and postprandial ghrelin levels decreased and were strongly correlated with weight loss. The insulin response to glucose also tended to be increased after GGF repair, however no concomitant increase in GLP-1 was observed. Compared to the post-GBP group, GLP-1 and PYY3-36 levels were significantly lower before GGF repair; however, after GGF repair, PYY3-36 levels were no longer lower than the post-GBP group. Conclusions These data utilize the GGF model to highlight the possible role of duodenal shunting as a mechanism of sustained weight loss after GBP, and lend support to the potential link between blunted satiety peptide release and weight regain. PMID:23549962

  16. Candidate genes associated with testicular development, sperm quality, and hormone levels of inhibin, luteinizing hormone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 in Brahman bulls.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Marina R S; Reverter, Antonio; Hawken, Rachel J; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Lehnert, Sigrid A

    2012-09-01

    Bull fertility is an important target for genetic improvement, and early prediction using genetic markers is therefore a goal for livestock breeding. We performed genome-wide association studies to identify genes associated with fertility traits measured in young bulls. Data from 1118 Brahman bulls were collected for six traits: blood hormone levels of inhibin (IN) at 4 mo, luteinizing hormone (LH) following a gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge at 4 mo, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) at 6 mo, scrotal circumference (SC) at 12 mo, ability to produce sperm (Sperm) at 18 mo, and percentage of normal sperm (PNS) at 24 mo. All the bulls were genotyped with the BovineSNP50 chip. Sires and dams of the bull population (n = 304) were genotyped with the high-density chip (∼800 000 polymorphisms) to allow for imputation, thereby contributing detail on genome regions of interest. Polymorphism associations were discovered for all traits, except for Sperm. Chromosome 2 harbored polymorphisms associated with IN. For LH, associated polymorphisms were located in five different chromosomes. A region of chromosome 14 contained polymorphisms associated with IGF1 and SC. Regions of the X chromosome showed associations with SC and PNS. Associated polymorphisms yielded candidate genes in chromosomes 2, 14, and X. These findings will contribute to the development of genetic markers to help select cattle with improved fertility and will lead to better annotation of gene function in the context of reproductive biology.

  17. Altered sex hormone concentrations and gonadal mRNA expression levels of activin signaling factors in hatchling alligators from a contaminated Florida lake.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brandon C; Kohno, Satomi; Cook, Robert W; Alvers, Ashley L; Hamlin, Heather J; Woodruff, Teresa K; Guillette, Louis J

    2010-04-01

    Activins and estrogens participate in regulating the breakdown of ovarian germ cell nests and follicle assembly in mammals. In 1994, our group reported elevated frequencies of abnormal, multioocytic ovarian follicles in 6 month old, environmental contaminant-exposed female alligators after gonadotropin challenge. Here, we investigated if maternal contribution of endocrine disrupting contaminants to the egg subsequently alters estrogen/inhibin/activin signaling in hatchling female offspring, putatively predisposing an increased frequency of multioocytic follicle formation. We quantified basal and exogenous gonadotropin-stimulated concentrations of circulating plasma steroid hormones and ovarian activin signaling factor mRNA abundance in hatchling alligators from the same contaminated (Lake Apopka) and reference (Lake Woodruff) Florida lakes, as examined in 1994. Basal circulating plasma estradiol and testosterone concentrations were greater in alligators from the contaminated environment, whereas activin/inhibin betaA subunit and follistatin mRNA abundances were lower than values measured in ovaries from reference lake animals. Challenged, contaminant-exposed animals showed a more robust increase in plasma estradiol concentration following an acute follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) challenge compared with reference site alligators. Aromatase and follistatin mRNA levels increased in response to an extended FSH challenge in the reference site animals, but not in the contaminant-exposed animals. In hatchling alligators, ovarian follicles have not yet formed; therefore, these endocrine differences are likely to affect subsequent ovarian development, including ovarian follicle assembly.

  18. The Association between the Levels of Serum Ferritin and Sex Hormones in a Large Scale of Chinese Male Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiying; Gao, Yong; Tan, Aihua; Zhang, Shijun; Xiao, Qiang; Zhang, Bing; Huang, Lulu; Ye, Bingbing; Qin, Xue; Wu, Chunlei; Lu, Zheng; Zhang, Youjie; Liao, Ming; Yang, Xiaobo; Mo, Zengnan

    2013-01-01

    Background The ferritin is an important participant of iron-storage but its regulation and related factors were not well defined. The present objective was to explore the potential association between serum ferritin levels and sex hormones. Methods 1999 Chinese men in the Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey (FAMHES) were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Levels of serum ferritin, total testosterone (free testosterone was calculated from the total one), estradiol and sex hormone-binding protein were detected in venous blood samples. The effects of age, BMI, smoking as well as alcohol consumption were analyzed on ferritin levels, respectively, and then the Pearson’s correlation analysis was used to evaluate the association between ferritin levels and sex hormones adjusting for the above factors. Results The age, BMI and alcohol consumption significantly affected serum ferritin levels, but there was no significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers. Ferritin levels were significantly and negatively associated with total testosterone (R = −0.205, P< 0.001), sex hormone-binding protein (R = −0.161, P<0.001) and free testosterone (R = −0.097, P<0.001). After age and alcohol consumption were adjusted, the above associations were still significant (R = −0.200, −0.181 and −0.083, respectively, all P<0.001). However, there was only borderline negative association between ferritin levels and estradiol (adjusted R = −0.039, P = 0.083). Conclusion The large scale of epidemic results showed the significantly negative associations between serum ferritin levels and sex hormones, which may provide more clues to explore the potential regulation and biological mechanism of ferritin. PMID:24146788

  19. Cloning and characterization of mouse growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) complementary DNA: increased GRH messenger RNA levels in the growth hormone-deficient lit/lit mouse.

    PubMed

    Frohman, M A; Downs, T R; Chomczynski, P; Frohman, L A

    1989-10-01

    We have isolated and cloned the full length cDNA for mouse GH-releasing hormone (mGRH) from mouse hypothalamus using a recently described strategy involving the polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR). Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were selected based on short (six amino acids) conserved regions in the human and rat GRH peptides that would recognize DNA sequences encoding similar amino acids regardless of codon usage. Primer-extended cDNA was amplified by PCR on cDNA templates prepared by reverse transcribing total mouse hypothalamic RNA. After cloning and sequencing the initial product, the 3' and 5' ends of mGRH were generated using a separate PCR strategy (RACE protocol). The mGRH cDNA encodes a 103-amino acid reading frame, structurally similar to the human and rat GRH genes, containing a signal sequence, a 42-residue GRH peptide, and a 31-residue C-terminal region. Although the structures of mouse and rat GRH are highly conserved in the signal peptide and C-terminal region, there is considerable diversity in the GRH region, which exhibits nearly comparable homology with the rat (68%) and human (62%) structures. Differences between mouse and rat GRH were also found in the amino acid cleavage sites at the 5' and 3' ends of the mature peptide and at the polyadenylation signal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Effect of a 4-week weight maintenance diet on circulating hormone levels: implications for clinical weight loss trials.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, A; Evans, I R; Wood, R E; Seimon, R V; King, N A; Hills, A P; Byrne, N M

    2015-04-01

    The majority of weight loss studies fail to standardize conditions such as diet and exercise via a weight maintenance period prior to commencement of the trial. This study aimed to determine whether a weight stabilization period is necessary to establish stable baseline hormone concentrations. Fifty-one obese male participants with a body mass index of 30-40 kg m(-2) and aged 25-54 years underwent 4 weeks on an energy balance diet that was designed to achieve weight stability. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state at commencement and completion of the 4-week period, and circulating concentrations of 18 commonly measured hormones were determined. During the 4-week weight maintenance period, participants achieved weight stability within -1.5 ± 0.2 kg (-1.4 ± 0.2%) of their initial body weight. Significant reductions in serum insulin (by 18 ± 6.5%) and leptin (by 21 ± 6.0%) levels occurred, but no significant changes were observed for gut-derived appetite-regulating hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY), nor thyroid, adrenal, gonadal or somatotropic hormones. There were no significant correlations between the change in body weight and the change in circulating concentrations of insulin or leptin over the 4-week period, indicating that the observed changes were not due to weight loss, albeit significant negative correlations were observed between the changes in body weight and plasma ghrelin and peptide YY levels. This study demonstrates the need for baseline weight maintenance periods to stabilize serum levels of insulin and leptin in studies specifically investigating effects on these parameters in the obese. However, this does not apply to circulating levels of gut-derived appetite-regulating hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY), nor thyroid, adrenal, gonadal or somatotropic hormones.

  1. Ionizing radiation effects on sex steroid hormone levels in serum and milt of freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus.

    PubMed

    Saiyad Musthafa, M; Jawahar Ali, A; Mohamed Ahadhu Shareef, T H; Vijayakumar, S; Iyanar, K; Thangaraj, K

    2014-03-01

    Effects of gamma rays on the sex steroid hormone levels [testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2)] were studied in the freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Gamma radiation induced effects on hormone levels reported here for the first time in the fish. Since radionuclides released accidentally or during a nuclear disaster can contaminate inland water bodies, biomonitoring methods are required for assessing the impacts of certain dose levels of radiation that may ultimately result in ionizing radiation exposure to both humans and non-human biota. Three groups of (n=15 in each group) fishes were irradiated with a single dose of (60)Co 10Gy, 15Gy and 20Gy with a duration of .33, .50 and .66min. Significant decrease of the hormone levels was seen at higher doses of 15Gy and 20Gy. The sex steroid hormone levels in the fishes are vital for sperm production, development, differential functions related to the physiology and reproductive behavior. This study serves as biomonitoring tool to assess the ionizing radiation effects on reproductive behavior of aquatic biota.

  2. Associations between complex OHC mixtures and thyroid and cortisol hormone levels in East Greenland polar bears.

    PubMed

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, E W; Muir, D C G; Letcher, R J; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S; Jenssen, B M; Villanger, G D

    2012-07-01

    The multivariate relationship between hair cortisol, whole blood thyroid hormones, and the complex mixtures of organohalogen contaminant (OHC) levels measured in subcutaneous adipose of 23 East Greenland polar bears (eight males and 15 females, all sampled between the years 1999 and 2001) was analyzed using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression modeling. In the resulting PLS model, most important variables with a negative influence on cortisol levels were particularly BDE-99, but also CB-180, -201, BDE-153, and CB-170/190. The most important variables with a positive influence on cortisol were CB-66/95, α-HCH, TT3, as well as heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, BDE-47, p,p'-DDD. Although statistical modeling does not necessarily fully explain biological cause-effect relationships, relationships indicate that (1) the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in East Greenland polar bears is likely to be affected by OHC-contaminants and (2) the association between OHCs and cortisol may be linked with the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis.

  3. Relationship of drinking water disinfectants to plasma cholesterol and thyroid hormone levels in experimental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, N.W.; McCauley, P.; Bull, R.; Holdsworth, G.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of drinking water containing 2 or 15 ppm chlorine (pH 6.5 and 8.5), chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine on thyroid function and plasma cholesterol were studied because previous investigators have reported cardiovascular abnormalities in experimental animals exposed to chlorinated water. Plasma thyroxine (T4) levels, as compared to controls, were significantly decreased in pigeons fed a normal or high-cholesterol diet and drinking water containing these drinking water disinfectants at a concentration of 15 ppm (the exception was chlorine at pH 6.5) for 3 months. In most of the treatment groups, T4 levels were significantly lower following the exposure to drinking water containing the 2 ppm dose. Increase in plasma cholesterol were frequently observed in the groups with lower T4 levels. This association was most evident in pigeons fed the high-cholesterol diet and exposed to these disinfectants at a dose of 15 ppm. The factor(s) associated with the effect of these disinfectants on plasma T4 and cholesterol is not known. The authors suggest however that these effects are probably mediated by products formed when these disinfectants react with organic matter in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

  4. Abnormal levels of histone methylation in the retinas of diabetic rats are reversed by minocycline treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjun; Sidoli, Simone; Zhang, Wenquan; Wang, Qing; Wang, Leilei; Jensen, Ole N.; Guo, Lin; Zhao, Xiaolu; Zheng, Ling

    2017-01-01

    In this study we quantified the alterations of retinal histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) in diabetic rats using a liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach. Some diabetic rats were subsequently treated with minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, which has been shown to inhibit the diabetes-induced chronic inflammation in the retinas of rodents. We quantified 266 differentially modified histone peptides, including 48 out of 83 methylation marks with significantly different abundancein retinas of diabetic rats as compared to non-diabetic controls. About 67% of these marks had their relative abundance restored to non-diabetic levels after minocycline treatment. Mono- and di-methylation states of histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20me1/me2), markers related to DNA damage response, were found to be up-regulated in the retinas of diabetic rats and restored to control levels upon minocycline treatment. DNA damage response biomarkers showed the same pattern once quantified by western blotting. Collectively, this study indicates that alteration of some histone methylation levels is associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy in rodents, and the beneficial effect of minocycline on the retinas of diabetic rodents is partially through its ability to normalize the altered histone methylation levels. PMID:28338045

  5. Effect of hormone metabolism genotypes on steroid hormone levels and menopausal symptoms in a prospective population-based cohort of women experiencing the menopausal transition

    PubMed Central

    Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Su, H. Irene; Sammel, Mary D.; Lin, Hui; Tran, Teo V.; Gracia, Clarisa R.; Freeman, Ellen W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated whether genes involved in the metabolism of steroid hormones are associated with hormone levels or menopausal symptoms. Methods We used a population-based prospective sample of 436 African American (AA) and European American (EA) women who were premenopausal at enrollment and were followed longitudinally through menopause. We evaluated the relationship between steroid hormone metabolism genotypes at COMT, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP19, SULT1A1, and SULT1E1 with hormone levels and menopausal features. Results In EA women, SULT1E1 variant carriers had lower levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and SULT1A1 variant carriers had lower levels of estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and testosterone compared with women who did not carry these variant alleles. In AA women, CYP1B1*3 genotypes were associated with hot flashes (odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40–0.95). Interactions of CYP1A2 genotypes were associated with hot flashes across menopausal stage (P = 0.006). Interactions of CYP1B1*3 (P = 0.02) and CYP1B1*4 (P = 0.03) with menopausal stage were associated with depressive symptoms. In EA women, SULT1A1*3 was associated with depressive symptoms (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.41–0.68) and hot flashes (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.64–2.63). There were significant interactions between SULT1A1*3 and hot flashes (P < 0.001) and between SULT1A1*2 and depressive symptoms (P = 0.007) on menopausal stage, and there were race-specific effects of SULT1A1*2, SULT1A1*3, CYP1B1*3, and CYP3A4*1B on menopause. Conclusions Our results suggest that genotypes are associated with the occurrence of menopause-related symptoms or the timing of the menopausal transition. PMID:20505544

  6. Impact of low-level thyroid hormone disruption induced by propylthiouracil on brain development and function.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Mary E

    2011-12-01

    The critical role of thyroid hormone (TH) in brain development is well-established. Evidence shows that severe deficiencies lead to significant neurological dysfunction. Much less information is available on more modest perturbations of TH on brain function. The present study induced varying degrees of developmental hypothyroidism by administration of low doses of the TH synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU 0, 1, 2, and 3 ppm) to the drinking water of pregnant rats. This regimen produced dose-dependent reductions in circulating levels of T4 in dams and offspring on postnatal days (PN) 15 and 22, with return to control levels in adulthood upon termination of treatment at weaning. Modest reductions in T3 were observed in the high-dose group on PN15. Synaptic function in the dentate gyrus was examined in adult euthyroid offspring using in vivo field potentials. Excitatory synaptic transmission (excitatory postsynaptic potential [EPSP] slope amplitude) was significantly reduced at 2 and 3 ppm PTU, with no statistically reliable effect detected in the population spike. Paired-pulse functions estimating the integrity of inhibitory synaptic processing were modestly reduced by 3 ppm PTU. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of the EPSP slope was impaired at all dose levels. Trace fear conditioning to context and to cue was impaired at the highest dose level when a distractor stimulus was present, whereas conditioning in a standard trace fear paradigm paradoxically revealed "enhanced" performance at the intermediate dose and a return to control values in the high-dose group. Biphasic dose-response profiles were evident in some measures (trace fear conditioning and LTP) but not others and serve to exemplify the complexity of the role of TH in brain development and its consequences for brain function.

  7. Comparison of serum hormone levels of captive and free-living maned wolves Chrysocyon brachyurus.

    PubMed

    Maia, O B; Jácomo, A T A; Bringel, B A; Kashivakura, C K; Oliveira, C A; Teodoro, L O F; Silveira, L; Teixeira da Costa, M E L; Malta, M C C; Furtado, M M; Torres, N M; Mattos, P S R; Viau, P; Lima, T F G; Morato, R G

    2008-02-01

    Serum hormone levels were compared between captive and free-living maned wolves and seasonal variations of sex hormones were studied. Blood samples were collected from 16 male and 26 female adult animals from Brazilian zoos, and from 30 male and 24 female free-living adults to determine serum progesterone and testosterone by radioimmunoassay. Serum testosterone concentrations varied (P < 0.05) across seasons for 16 captive males, being higher in autumn (2184.7 +/- 355.1 pg/mL) than in summer (1080.7 +/- 205.4 pg/mL), winter (1270.1 +/- 276.6 pg/mL) and spring (963.9 +/- 248.1 pg/mL), although they did not differ between summer, winter and spring. Testosterone concentration of 30 free-living males differed (P < 0.05) between autumn (824.1 +/- 512.2 pg/mL), winter (14.4 +/- 8.0 pg/mL) and spring (151.9 +/- 90.5 pg/mL). Comparison between captive and free-living animals showed no difference in autumn (P > 0.05). Sixteen captive males showed higher testosterone concentration during winter and spring compared with 30 free-living animals (P < 0.05). Progesterone concentration varied among seasons in 26 captive females (P < 0.05), being higher in autumn (15.3 +/- 3.1 ng/mL) than in summer (6.6 +/- 1.5 ng/mL), winter (5.3 +/- 3.1 ng/mL) and spring (4.3 +/- 0.7 ng/mL). Progesterone concentration of 24 free-living females varied between autumn (17.1 +/- 6.0 ng/mL) and winter (1.7 +/- 0.3 ng/mL) (P < 0.05), but we could not obtain data for spring or summer. No difference in progesterone levels was observed between captive and free-living females in autumn and winter.

  8. [Serum hormonal levels in diamond-extracting industry workers of Yakutia, with surface and underground type of work].

    PubMed

    Seliatitskaia, V G; Kuz'minova, O I; Nikolaev, Iu A; Galanova, Zh M

    2011-01-01

    The authors studied influence of work type (surface or underground) on serum hormonal levels in male workers of "International" mine within diamond-extracting complex of Yakutia-Sakha Republic. The results obtained show compensation and adaptation changes of endocrine system in males engaged into underground work vs. those of surface work.

  9. Linking steroid hormone levels to sexual maturity index and energy reserves in Nereis diversicolor from clean and polluted estuaries.

    PubMed

    Durou, C; Mouneyrac, C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare seasonal variations of reproduction physiology of the ragworm Nereis diversicolor --a key species in estuarine ecosystems--originating from a clean (Authie) and multi-polluted (Seine) estuaries. A particular attention was carried out in female worms, on relationships between sexual maturity stages, energy reserves (glycogen and lipids) and steroid hormone levels (progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and testosterone). Sexual maturity index (SMI), energy reserves and steroid hormones are clearly influenced by season in worms from both sites. Depleted steroid hormone levels were depicted in specimens exhibiting high sexual maturity stage and energy reserves. Intersite analysis has revealed all over the sampling period:--a sexual precocity in worms from Seine,--glycogen concentrations generally higher in worms from Authie,--no clear tendency for lipids,--no differences in steroid hormone levels. Sexual precocity and lower glycogen levels in Seine could be explained by a specific strategy above all devoted to reproduction in these worms. Chemical stress could be a possible explanation of these observations.

  10. Association of cigarette smoking with reproductive hormone levels and semen quality in healthy adult men in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Chen, Yi-Ling; Kantaria, Khyati N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of cigarette smoking with semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in 192 healthy men 20-65 years old, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Exposure to cigarette smoking was classified three ways based on: 1) smoking status (yes vs. no); 2) the number of cigarettes per day (0, 1-10, > 10); and 3) pack-years (0, 1-10, 11-20, > 20). Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and total estradiol (TE) were measured. Semen quality, including concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology, were assessed. Mean levels of smoking, semen quality, and hormones were compared using the multiple linear regression, while controlling for possible confounding factors, including age, body mass index (BMI), cadmium levels in seminal plasma, and alcohol consumption. Current smokers, who smoked 10 cigarettes per day, had a lower mean percentage of normal morphology (3.2% and 5.5% in nonsmokers, P = 0.040), and a higher mean level of TT (454.7 pmol/L and 439.8 pmol/L in nonsmokers, P = 0.048), as compared with nonsmokers. Also, current smokers at > 20 pack-year had a lower percentage of normal morphology and a lower mean level of TT as compared with nonsmokers; no significant difference was observed in LH, FSH, sperm concentration, vitality, and motility between smokers and nonsmokers based on the number of cigarette per day and the pack-year. Sperm vitality statistically correlated with FSH (β = -0.36 P = 0.015) and TE (β = 0.35, P = 0.018), while motility statistically correlated with TT (β = 0.228, P = 0.045). Normal morphology did not statistically correlated with all reproductive hormones.

  11. The meaning of anti-Müllerian hormone levels in patients at a high risk of poor ovarian response

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jong; Lee, Geun Ho; Gong, Du Sik; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of ovarian reserve play an important role in predicting the clinical results of assisted reproductive technology (ART). The ideal markers of ovarian reserve for clinical applications should have high specificity in order to determine genuine poor responders. Basal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, antral follicle count, and serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels have been suggested as ovarian reserve tests that may fulfill this requirement, with serum AMH levels being the most promising parameter. Serum AMH levels have been suggested to be a predictor of clinical pregnancy in ART for older women, who are at a high risk for decreased ovarian response. We reviewed the prognostic significance of ovarian reserve tests for patients undergoing ART treatment, with a particular focus on the significance of serum AMH levels in patients at a high risk of poor ovarian response. PMID:27689035

  12. Influence of abnormally high leptin levels during pregnancy on metabolic phenotypes in progeny mice.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Elena N; Chepeleva, Elena V; Panchenko, Polina E; Bazhan, Nadezhda M

    2013-12-01

    Maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in offspring, and obesity is accompanied by an increase in blood leptin levels. The "yellow" mutation at the mouse agouti locus (A(y)) increases blood leptin levels in C57BL preobese pregnant mice without affecting other metabolic characteristics. We investigated the influence of the A(y) mutation or leptin injection at the end of pregnancy in C57BL mice on metabolic phenotypes and the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) in offspring. In both C57BL-A(y) and leptin-treated mice, the maternal effect was more pronounced in male offspring. Compared with males born to control mothers, males born to A(y) mothers displayed equal food intake (FI) but decreased body weight (BW) gain after weaning, equal glucose tolerance, and enhanced FI-to-BW ratios on the standard diet but the same FI and BW on the high-fat diet. Males born to A(y) mothers were less responsive to the anorectic effect of exogenous leptin and less resistant to fasting (were not hyperphagic and gained less weight during refeeding after food deprivation) compared with males born to control mothers. However, all progeny displayed equal hypothalamic expression of Agouti gene-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and equal plasma leptin and glucose levels after food deprivation. Leptin injections in C57BL mice on day 17 of pregnancy decreased BW in both male and female offspring but inhibited FI and DIO only in male offspring. Our results show that hyperleptinemia during pregnancy has sex-specific long-term effects on energy balance regulation in progeny and does not predispose offspring to developing obesity.

  13. Brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women during normal aging and in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Emily R.; Chang, Lilly; Head, Elizabeth H.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Pike, Christian J.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationships between normal aging, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and brain levels of sex steroid hormones in men and women. In postmortem brain tissue from neuropathologically normal, postmenopausal women, we found no age-related changes in brain levels of either androgens or estrogens. In comparing women with and without AD at different ages, brain levels of estrogens and androgens were lower in AD cases aged 80 years and older but not significantly different in the 60–79 year age range. In male brains, we observed that normal aging was associated with significant decreases in androgens but not estrogens. Further, in men aged 60–79 years, brain levels of testosterone but not estrogens were lower in cases with mild neuropathological changes as well as those with advanced AD neuropathology. In male cases over age 80, brain levels hormones did not significantly vary by neuropathological status. To begin investigating the relationships between hormone levels and indices of AD neuropathology, we measured brain levels of soluble β-amyloid (Aβ). In male cases with mild neuropathological changes, we found an inverse relationship between brain levels of testosterone and soluble Aβ. Collectively, these findings demonstrate sex-specific relationships between normal, age-related depletion of androgens and estrogens in men and women, which may be relevant to development of AD. PMID:19428144

  14. Vitamin D deficiency in Korean children: prevalence, risk factors, and the relationship with parathyroid hormone levels

    PubMed Central

    Chung, In Hyuk; Kim, Hae Jung; Chung, Sochung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to investigate the relationship between serum vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels as well as to describe the prevalence and the risk factors of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in Korean children. Methods Participants were 1,212 children aged 4 to 15 years, who visited Bundang CHA Medical Center (located at 37°N) between March 2012 and February 2013. Overweight was defined as body mass index≥85th percentile. Participants were divided into 4 age groups and 2 seasonal groups. VDD was defined by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) <20 ng/mL. Results The level of 25OHD was significantly lower in overweight group than in normal weight group (17.1±5.1 ng/mL vs. 19.1±6.1 ng/mL, P<0.001). Winter-spring season (odds ratio [OR], 4.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.45-5.77), older age group (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.36-1.88), and overweight (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.62-3.01) were independently related with VDD. The PTH levels were significantly higher in VDD group compared to vitamin D insufficiency and sufficiency group (P<0.001). In normal weight children, 25OHD (β=-0.007, P<0.001) and ionized calcium (β=-0.594, P=0.007) were independently related with PTH, however, these associations were not significant in overweight children. Conclusion VDD is very common in Korean children and its prevalence increases in winter-spring season, in overweight children and in older age groups. Further investigation on the vitamin D and PTH metabolism according to adiposity is required. PMID:25077091

  15. Chronic exposure to hypergravity affects thyrotropin-releasing hormone levels in rat brainstem and cerebellum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, N. G.; Tang, F.; Corcoran, M. L.; Fox, R. A.; Man, S. Y.

    1998-01-01

    In studies to determine the neurochemical mechanisms underlying adaptation to altered gravity we have investigated changes in neuropeptide levels in brainstem, cerebellum, hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex by radioimmunoassay. Fourteen days of hypergravity (hyperG) exposure resulted in significant increases in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) content of brainstem and cerebellum, but no changes in levels of other neuropeptides (beta-endorphin, cholecystokinin, met-enkephalin, somatostatin, and substance P) examined in these areas were found, nor were TRH levels significantly changed in any other brain regions investigated. The increase in TRH in brainstem and cerebellum was not seen in animals exposed only to the rotational component of centrifugation, suggesting that this increase was elicited by the alteration in the gravitational environment. The only other neuropeptide affected by chronic hyperG exposure was met-enkephalin, which was significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex. However, this alteration in met-enkephalin was found in both hyperG and rotation control animals and thus may be due to the rotational rather than the hyperG component of centrifugation. Thus it does not appear as if there is a generalized neuropeptide response to chronic hyperG following 2 weeks of exposure. Rather, there is an increase only of TRH and that occurs only in areas of the brain known to be heavily involved with vestibular inputs and motor control (both voluntary and autonomic). These results suggest that TRH may play a role in adaptation to altered gravity as it does in adaptation to altered vestibular input following labyrinthectomy, and in cerebellar and vestibular control of locomotion, as seen in studies of ataxia.

  16. Renal Vein Thrombosis in a Newborn With Abnormal Factor VIII Level

    PubMed Central

    Szafranska, Agnieszka; Pajak, Agata; Kilis-Pstrusinska, Katarzyna; Królak-Olejnik, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) in neonates is a rare condition of low mortality but significant morbidity due to renal impairment. We report the case of a male term newborn with left RVT and elevated serum factor VIII (FVIII). The main symptoms of the patient and the important clinical findings: prompt diagnosis of RVT was possible because the classic clinical presentation of macroscopic hematuria, thrombocytopenia, and palpable flank mass were present in this newborn infant. The main diagnoses: finally, the reason of RVT was established when the infant was 3 months of age: the increased level of FVIII was confirmed. We discuss the diagnosis, therapy, and outcome of the patient and compare with the literature. Therapeutics interventions: however, despite anticoagulant therapy the left kidney developed areas of scarring and then atrophy. Conclusions and outcomes: Prothrombotic defects should be considered in all patients with perinatal RVT. Elevated factor VIII as a reason of RVT in neonatal period is particularly rare. Given a poor renal outcome in children associated with elevated levels of factor VIII, consideration could be given to more aggressive antithrombotic therapy in such cases. PMID:26252276

  17. The relationship between serum level of thyroid hormones, trace elements and antioxidant enzymes in dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Nazifi, S; Mansourian, M; Nikahval, B; Razavi, S M

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormones might be able to regulate the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The role of thyroid hormones in metabolic pathways and antioxidant enzyme activities are well known in many species. Nevertheless, there is no report describing probable relationship between thyroid hormones status, erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes and serum profiles of trace elements. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between these parameters in Iranian dromedary camels. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 30 clinically healthy Iranian dromedary camels under aseptic conditions during 6 consecutive days of summer. The serum was analyzed for serum profile of thyroid hormones, trace elements, SOD and GPX activity. There were no significant differences in serum thyroid hormones, serum level of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), selenium and antioxidant enzymes in different days (P > 0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between SOD and Fe (P < 0.01, r = -493). There was no significant correlation between other parameters. In case of copper deficiency likewise the present study, the copper was used to produce more SOD, so there was a decrease in Fe transportation, and it might be a cause of decrease in Fe amount. On the other hand, a relatively small quantity of Fe is present in tissue myoglobin, catalase, peroxidases, and cytochromes. So it might be another cause of decrease in Fe amount. The explanation for these finding is not possible at this moment and further investigations are needed to interpret these changes.

  18. Restraint-induced changes in serum luteinizing hormone, prolactin, growth hormone and corticosterone levels in rats: effect of superior cervical ganglionectomy.

    PubMed

    Martín, A I; López-Calderón, A; Tresguerres, J A; González-Quijano, M I; Cardinali, D P

    1995-02-01

    From about 10 to 36 h after superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx), peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals in the median eminence degenerate, nerve ending content is released, and a transient period of increased postsynaptic activity ensues. After this time, an irreversible, paralytic phase is established in the denervated territory. The present experiment was undertaken to examine, at single points during the wallerian degeneration phase (24 h after SCGx) and during the paralytic phase (10 days after denervation), the participation of peripheral sympathetic nerves in restraint-stress-induced changes of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and corticosterone levels. During the wallerian degeneration phase, serum LH did not augment after stress, as it did in sham-operated controls. In the paralytic phase, the poststress increases in LH attained similar values in sham-operated and SCGx rats. Immobilization stress augmented PRL levels to a similar extent in sham-operated and SCGx rats either 24 h or 10 days after surgery. During the wallerian degeneration phase, a decrease in serum GH levels was found in unrestrained rats. Immobilization stress decreased GH levels to 5-12% of unrestrained values in sham-operated and SCGx rats at both examination time points after surgery. Rats studied 24 h after SCGx exhibited significantly augmented serum corticosterone levels and failed to show restraint-stress-induced stimulation of corticosterone release. In rats subjected to SCGx 10 days earlier, both basal and poststress levels of corticosterone did not differ from sham-operated controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Alterations of growth plate and abnormal insulin-like growth factor I metabolism in growth-retarded hypokalemic rats: effect of growth hormone treatment.

    PubMed

    Gil-Peña, Helena; Garcia-Lopez, Enrique; Alvarez-Garcia, Oscar; Loredo, Vanessa; Carbajo-Perez, Eduardo; Ordoñez, Flor A; Rodriguez-Suarez, Julian; Santos, Fernando

    2009-09-01

    Hypokalemic tubular disorders may lead to growth retardation which is resistant to growth hormone (GH) treatment. The mechanism of these alterations is unknown. Weaning female rats were grouped (n = 10) in control, potassium-depleted (KD), KD treated with intraperitoneal GH at 3.3 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) during the last week (KDGH), and control pair-fed with KD (CPF). After 2 wk, KD rats were growth retarded compared with CPF rats, the osseous front advance (+/-SD) being 67.07 +/- 10.44 and 81.56 +/- 12.70 microm/day, respectively. GH treatment did not accelerate growth rate. The tibial growth plate of KD rats had marked morphological alterations: lower heights of growth cartilage (228.26 +/- 23.58 microm), hypertrophic zone (123.68 +/- 13.49 microm), and terminal chondrocytes (20.8 +/- 2.39 microm) than normokalemic CPF (264.21 +/- 21.77, 153.18 +/- 15.80, and 24.21 +/- 5.86 microm). GH administration normalized these changes except for the distal chondrocyte height. Quantitative PCR of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-I receptor, and GH receptor genes in KD growth plates showed downregulation of IGF-I and upregulation of IGF-I receptor mRNAs, without changes in their distribution as analyzed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. GH did not further modify IGF-I mRNA expression. KD rats had normal hepatic IGF-I mRNA levels and low serum IGF-I values. GH increased liver IGF-I mRNA, but circulating IGF-I levels remained reduced. This study discloses the structural and molecular alterations induced by potassium depletion on the growth plate and shows that the lack of response to GH administration is associated with persistence of the disturbed process of chondrocyte hypertrophy and depressed mRNA expression of local IGF-I in the growth plate.

  20. Pulling Rank: Military Rank Affects Hormone Levels and Fairness in an Allocation Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Siart, Benjamin; Pflüger, Lena S.; Wallner, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Status within social hierarchies has great effects on the lives of socially organized mammals. Its effects on human behavior and related physiology, however, is relatively little studied. The present study investigated the impact of military rank on fairness and behavior in relation to salivary cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) levels in male soldiers. For this purpose 180 members of the Austrian Armed Forces belonging to two distinct rank groups participated in two variations of a computer-based guard duty allocation experiment. The rank groups were (1) warrant officers (high rank, HR) and (2) enlisted men (low rank, LR). One soldier from each rank group participated in every experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, one participant was assigned to start standing guard and the other participant at rest. The participant who started at rest could choose if and when to relieve his fellow soldier and therefore had control over the experiment. In order to trigger perception of unfair behavior, an additional experiment was conducted which was manipulated by the experimenter. In the manipulated version both soldiers started in the standing guard position and were never relieved, believing that their opponent was at rest, not relieving them. Our aim was to test whether unfair behavior causes a physiological reaction. Saliva samples for hormone analysis were collected at regular intervals throughout the experiment. We found that in the un-manipulated setup high-ranking soldiers spent less time standing guard than lower ranking individuals. Rank was a significant predictor for C but not for T levels during the experiment. C levels in the HR group were higher than in the LR group. C levels were also elevated in the manipulated experiment compared to the un-manipulated experiment, especially in LR. We assume that the elevated C levels in HR were caused by HR feeling their status challenged by the situation of having to negotiate with an individual of lower military rank

  1. Pulling Rank: Military Rank Affects Hormone Levels and Fairness in an Allocation Experiment.

    PubMed

    Siart, Benjamin; Pflüger, Lena S; Wallner, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Status within social hierarchies has great effects on the lives of socially organized mammals. Its effects on human behavior and related physiology, however, is relatively little studied. The present study investigated the impact of military rank on fairness and behavior in relation to salivary cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) levels in male soldiers. For this purpose 180 members of the Austrian Armed Forces belonging to two distinct rank groups participated in two variations of a computer-based guard duty allocation experiment. The rank groups were (1) warrant officers (high rank, HR) and (2) enlisted men (low rank, LR). One soldier from each rank group participated in every experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, one participant was assigned to start standing guard and the other participant at rest. The participant who started at rest could choose if and when to relieve his fellow soldier and therefore had control over the experiment. In order to trigger perception of unfair behavior, an additional experiment was conducted which was manipulated by the experimenter. In the manipulated version both soldiers started in the standing guard position and were never relieved, believing that their opponent was at rest, not relieving them. Our aim was to test whether unfair behavior causes a physiological reaction. Saliva samples for hormone analysis were collected at regular intervals throughout the experiment. We found that in the un-manipulated setup high-ranking soldiers spent less time standing guard than lower ranking individuals. Rank was a significant predictor for C but not for T levels during the experiment. C levels in the HR group were higher than in the LR group. C levels were also elevated in the manipulated experiment compared to the un-manipulated experiment, especially in LR. We assume that the elevated C levels in HR were caused by HR feeling their status challenged by the situation of having to negotiate with an individual of lower military rank

  2. Relation between the testicular sperm assay and sex hormone level in patients with azoospermia induced by mumps

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuiwen; An, Yulin; Li, Junguo; Guo, Junhong; Zhou, Guoping; Li, Jianhua; Xu, Ye

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relation between the testicular sperm assay (TESA) and sex hormone level or testicular volume in patients with azoospermia induced by mumps. Samples from 52 patients with mumps-induced azoospermia were subjected to TESA, and then the sperm activity was observed microscopically. The sex hormone level was detected with an electrochemical assay, and ultrasound was used to calculate the testicular volume. Of the 52 azoospermia patients, 38 were found to have active sperms through testicular sperm extraction from the opened testis; furthermore, the serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone levels were obviously higher in the non-sperm group than in the sperm group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the testicular volume was smaller in the non-sperm group than in the sperm group; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). With the FSH value as a standard, the quantity of sperms was found to be within two times of, or more than two-fold of the normal range. With the testicular volume as a standard, sperms were found in testes with a volume of > 6 mL or < 6 mL. The FSH value and the testicular volume were indicators of the ability of the TESA to obtain sperms. To allow the performance of intracytoplasmic sperm injection, all patients need to undergo TESA. PMID:26885123

  3. Reproductive status of captive Loggerhead sea turtles based on serum levels of gonadal steroid hormones, corticosterone and thyroxin.

    PubMed

    Valente, Ana Luisa S; Velarde, Roser; Parga, Maria Luz; Marco, Ignasi; Lavin, Santiago; Alegre, Ferran; Cuenca, Rafaela

    2011-02-01

    Serum levels of gonadal steroid hormones, corticosterone and thyroxin (T(4)), were monitored monthly in two male and one female captive Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) over a period of 12 months in 2004 and 3 months in 2006. Ovary ultrasonography was performed in April and July 2006. The turtles were kept together in an outdoor sea pool in natural temperature and photoperiod conditions from May to November, then in separate indoor pools from December to April. Circulating hormone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Oestradiol levels in the female turtle surged significantly in July, as did the progesterone level in September. Total testosterone levels were different in both males, but both peaked in September. The peaks of oestradiol in the female and testosterone in the males did not coincide, both showing delay with respect to the hormone cycle described in free-ranging Loggerhead sea turtles. A seasonal pattern in T(4) levels was not observed. The three captive turtles showed very low corticosterone levels throughout the year, with a September peak coinciding with the peaks of progesterone in females and testosterone in males. The results suggested that conditions of captivity should be as close as possible to natural conditions throughout the entire year since the process of vitellogenesis in this species is protracted. Exposure to natural conditions for only a few months is insufficient to induce reproduction/oviposition.

  4. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  5. Effects of chronic exposure to low doses of trichloroethylene on steroid hormone and insulin levels in normal men.

    PubMed Central

    Goh, V H; Chia, S E; Ong, C N

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the serum levels of insulin and some adrenal steroid hormones in men chronically exposed to low doses of trichloroethylene (TCE). A total of 85 workers participated in this study. Each worker had urine collected and analyzed for trichloroacetic acids (UTCA) on the same day that a blood sample was taken for analyses of serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), androstenedione, cortisol, aldosterone, and insulin. The mean concentration of environmental TCE was 29.6 ppm and the mean UTCA was 22.4 mg/g creatinine (range 0.8-136.4). TCE exposure did not cause any significant changes to the adrenal steroid hormone productions. The results showed that UTCA was significantly correlated to serum insulin levels. Insulin and SHBG responded in tandem, with the highest levels found in workers exposed to TCE for less than 2 years; levels of both parameters were significantly lowered in those exposed for more than 2 years. A triphasic response in insulin levels to TCE, which depended on the duration of exposure, was noted. Initial exposure caused an acute rise in insulin levels. This was followed by a fall to normal levels in those exposed 2-4 years and then a slight rise in those exposed for more than 6 years. The mechanism for this pattern of response to TCE exposure is yet unknown. PMID:9417767

  6. Impact of Low-Level Thyroid Hormone Disruption Induced by Propylthiouracil on Brain Development and Function.*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The critical role of thyroid hormone (TH) in brain development is well established, severe deficiencies leading to significant neurological dysfunction. Much less information is available on more modest perturbations of TH on brain function. The present study induced varying degr...

  7. Association of serum organochlorine pesticides concentrations with reproductive hormone levels and polycystic ovary syndrome in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhizhun; Qiu, Huiling; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Lijun; Wang, Chonggang; Chen, Meng; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a total of 178 women were studied. The concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in serum were determined using Gas Chromatography Mass-Mass Spectrometer. No differences with statistical significance in the mean HCH, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE concentrations were observed between the patients with PCOS and the control group. Serum p,p'-DDT (P = 0.016) and o,p'-DDT (P = 0.000) levels were significantly higher in patients with PCOS compared with the control group. The results of the association between OCPs levels and hormone levels indicated that o,p'-DDT may play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS by affecting hormones levels. Further trials should be investigated with the findings in this study to obtain new pathogenesis of PCOS.

  8. The intellectual capacity of patients with Laron syndrome (LS) differs with various molecular defects of the growth hormone receptor gene. Correlation with CNS abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Shevah, O; Kornreich, L; Galatzer, A; Laron, Z

    2005-12-01

    The correlation between the molecular defects of the GH receptor (R), psychosocial development and brain abnormalities were evaluated in 10 patients with Laron syndrome (LS), in whom all data were available. The findings revealed that the intelligence quotient (IQ) and abnormalities in the brain of the patients with LS differ with various molecular defects of the GH-receptor. The most severe mental deficits and brain pathology occurred in patients with 3, 5, 6 exon deletion. Patients with point mutations in exons 2, 4 and 7 presented various degrees of medium to mild CNS abnormalities that correlated with the IQ. Notably, the patient with the E180 splice mutation in exon 6 had a normal IQ, which fits the report on normal IQ in a large Ecuadorian cohort with the same mutation. This is the first report to support a correlation between IQ, brain abnormalities and localization of the molecular defects in the GH-R gene. As all patients with LS are IGF-I-deficient, it must be assumed that other as yet unknown factors related to the molecular defects in the GH-R are the major cause of the differences in intellect and brain abnormalities.

  9. The association between prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and thyroid hormone levels in newborns in Yancheng, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengcheng; Cheng, Yibin; Tang, Quan; Lin, Shaobin; Li, Yonghong; Hu, Xiaojian; Nian, Juan; Gu, Heng; Lu, Yifu; Tang, Hong; Dai, Shougui; Zhang, Hongqun; Jin, Cong; Zhang, Haijing; Jin, Yuanyuan; Jin, Yinlong

    2014-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides can interfere with the thyroid hormones that play an important role in early neurodevelopment. Although organochlorine pesticides have been banned in China since 1983, their residues are still detectable in the environment. However, few studies have investigated the adverse health effects of prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticide residues on newborns in China. The present study, conducted in Yancheng City, Jiangsu Province, China, aimed to examine the association between the levels of organochlorine pesticides in maternal and cord sera and to assess the impact of prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides on thyroid hormone levels in cord serum. Eleven organochlorine pesticides in maternal and cord sera were measured in 247 mother-infant pairs recruited from Yancheng City between February 2010 and June 2010. The concentration of the thyroid hormones free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyrotropin (TSH) were determined in cord serum. Among the 11 tested organochlorine pesticides, the detectable levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocycolohexane (β-HCH) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) in both maternal and cord sera were above 50%. The levels of β-HCH and p,p'-DDE in maternal sera were positively associated with the levels in cord sera (r=0.421, P<0.01; r=0.288, P<0.01). After adjusting for confounders, the TSH level in cord serum samples was negatively associated with the HCB level (OR=0.535, 95% CI=(0.304-0.941)). Our data demonstrated that DDT, β-HCH and HCB residues bioconcentrate in maternal and cord sera. Moreover, the correlation analysis suggested that organochlorine pesticides in maternal blood can transfer through the placenta and affect newborn thyroid hormone levels.

  10. Differential hormonal and gene expression dynamics in two inbred sunflower lines with contrasting dormancy level.

    PubMed

    Roselló, Paula L; Vigliocco, Ana E; Andrade, Andrea M; Riera, Natalí V; Calafat, Mario; Molas, María L; Alemano, Sergio G

    2016-05-01

    Seed germination and dormancy are tightly regulated by hormone metabolism and signaling pathway. We investigated the endogenous content of abscisic acid (ABA), its catabolites, and gibberellins (GAs), as well as the expression level of certain ABA and GAs metabolic and signaling genes in embryo of dry and imbibed cypselas of inbred sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae) lines: B123 (dormant) and B91 (non-dormant). Under our experimental conditions, the expression of RGL2 gene might be related to the ABA peak in B123 line at 3 h of imbibition. Indeed, RGL2 transcripts are absent in dry and early embedded cypselas of the non-dormant line B91. ABA increase was accompanied by a significant ABA-Glucosyl ester (ABA-GE) and phaseic acid (PA) (two ABA catabolites) decrease in B123 line (3 h) which indicates that ABA metabolism seems to be more active in this line, and that it would be involved in the imposition and maintenance of sunflower seed dormancy, as it has been reported for many species. Finally, an increase of bioactive GAs (GA1 and GA3) occurs at 12 h of imbibition in both lines after a decrease in ABA content. This study shows the first report about the RGL2 tissue-specific gene expression in sunflower inbred lines with contrasting dormancy level. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that ABA and GAs content and differential expression of metabolism and signaling genes would be interacting in seed dormancy regulation through a mechanism of action related to embryo itself.

  11. Let-7 and MicroRNA-148 Regulate Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Secondary Hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Shilo, Vitali; Mor-Yosef Levi, Irit; Abel, Roy; Mihailović, Aleksandra; Wasserman, Gilad; Naveh-Many, Tally; Ben-Dov, Iddo Z

    2017-03-15

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism commonly complicates CKD and associates with morbidity and mortality. We profiled microRNA (miRNA) in parathyroid glands from experimental hyperparathyroidism models and patients receiving dialysis and studied the function of specific miRNAs. miRNA deep-sequencing showed that human and rodent parathyroids share similar profiles. Parathyroids from uremic and normal rats segregated on the basis of their miRNA expression profiles, and a similar finding was observed in humans. We identified parathyroid miRNAs that were dysregulated in experimental hyperparathyroidism, including miR-29, miR-21, miR-148, miR-30, and miR-141 (upregulated); and miR-10, miR-125, and miR-25 (downregulated). Inhibition of the abundant let-7 family increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in normal and uremic rats, as well as in mouse parathyroid organ cultures. Conversely, inhibition of the upregulated miR-148 family prevented the increase in serum PTH level in uremic rats and decreased levels of secreted PTH in parathyroid cultures. The evolutionary conservation of abundant miRNAs in normal parathyroid glands and the regulation of these miRNAs in secondary hyperparathyroidism indicates their importance for parathyroid function and the development of hyperparathyroidism. Specifically, let-7 and miR-148 antagonism modified PTH secretion in vivo and in vitro, implying roles for these specific miRNAs. These findings may be utilized for therapeutic interventions aimed at altering PTH expression in diseases such as osteoporosis and secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  12. Fat mass is an important predictor of parathyroid hormone levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew B; Ames, Ruth W; Horne, Anne M; Gamble, Greg D; Reid, Ian R

    2006-03-01

    Previously, we reported that people with elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels due to primary hyperparathyroidism have increased body weight compared to eucalcemic controls. We sought to determine whether the same relationship between PTH and body weight exists in eucalcemic healthy postmenopausal women, and to investigate the relationships between components of body weight, PTH, vitamin D metabolites, and metabolic indices. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 116 healthy community-dwelling postmenopausal women. Pearson correlation analysis was used to test for univariate linear relationships between variables, and stepwise multiple regression analysis to assess for multivariate relationships. We found that PTH was significantly positively correlated with body weight, regional and total fat mass, and percent body fat, and negatively correlated with activity levels, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), dietary calcium intake, and serum phosphate. On multivariate analysis, PTH was positively related to percent body fat (P = 0.020; partial r2 = 0.10) and negatively related to dietary calcium intake (P = 0.041; partial r2 = 0.03) and serum phosphate (P = 0.026; partial r2 = 0.04). Adjusting for vitamin D insufficiency or 25OHD levels did not affect the relationship between PTH and fat mass. For 25OHD, there were significant positive correlations with lumbar spine BMD and serum albumin, and significant negative correlations with PTH, total fat mass, trunk fat, and pelvic fat. On multivariate analysis, 25OHD was positively related to serum albumin (P = 0.008; partial r2 = 0.07) and negatively related to pelvic fat mass (P = 0.014; partial r2 = 0.05). Adjusting for PTH levels did not change the relationship between 25OHD and pelvic fat mass. We conclude that fat mass is a significant independent determinant of serum PTH levels, and that this relationship is independent of the inverse relationship between 25OHD and fat mass. This association between fat mass and PTH

  13. Metabolic hormones regulate basal and growth hormone-dependent igf2 mRNA level in primary cultured coho salmon hepatocytes: effects of insulin, glucagon, dexamethasone, and triiodothyronine.

    PubMed

    Pierce, A L; Dickey, J T; Felli, L; Swanson, P; Dickhoff, W W

    2010-03-01

    Igf1 and Igf2 stimulate growth and development of vertebrates. Circulating Igfs are produced by the liver. In mammals, Igf1 mediates the postnatal growth-promoting effects of growth hormone (Gh), whereas Igf2 stimulates fetal and placental growth. Hepatic Igf2 production is not regulated by Gh in mammals. Little is known about the regulation of hepatic Igf2 production in nonmammalian vertebrates. We examined the regulation of igf2 mRNA level by metabolic hormones in primary cultured coho salmon hepatocytes. Gh, insulin, the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (Dex), and glucagon increased igf2 mRNA levels, whereas triiodothyronine (T(3)) decreased igf2 mRNA levels. Gh stimulated igf2 mRNA at physiological concentrations (0.25x10(-9) M and above). Insulin strongly enhanced Gh stimulation of igf2 at low physiological concentrations (10(-11) M and above), and increased basal igf2 (10(-8) M and above). Dex stimulated basal igf2 at concentrations comparable to those of stressed circulating cortisol (10(-8) M and above). Glucagon stimulated basal and Gh-stimulated igf2 at supraphysiological concentrations (10(-7) M and above), whereas T(3) suppressed basal and Gh-stimulated igf2 at the single concentration tested (10(-7) M). These results show that igf2 mRNA level is highly regulated in salmon hepatocytes, suggesting that liver-derived Igf2 plays a significant role in salmon growth physiology. The synergistic regulation of igf2 by insulin and Gh in salmon hepatocytes is similar to the regulation of hepatic Igf1 production in mammals.

  14. Levels of miRNA and Hormones in Thoracic Duct Lymph in Rats with Experimental Breast Cancer Induced by N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Lykov, A P; Kabakov, A V; Kazakov, O V; Bondarenko, N A; Poveshchenko, O V; Raiter, T V; Poveshchenko, A F; Strunkin, D N; Konenkov, V I

    2017-01-01

    We studied hormone levels in the thoracic duct lymph and expression of miRNA involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer induced in rats by intramammary injection of N-methyl-Nnitrosourea. The correlations between miRNA expression and hormone levels depended on the type of treatment.

  15. Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is linked to higher plasma levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin and lower serum levels of the satiety hormone leptin in older adults.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Christian; Axelsson, Tomas; Söderberg, Stefan; Larsson, Anders; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms through which common polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) drive the development of obesity in humans are poorly understood. Using cross-sectional data from 985 older people (50% females) who participated at age 70 years in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), circulating levels of ghrelin and leptin were measured after an overnight fast. In addition, subjects were genotyped for FTO rs17817449 (AA, n = 345 [35%]; AC/CA, n = 481 [48.8%]; CC, n = 159 [16.1%]). Linear regression analyses controlling for sex, self-reported physical activity level, fasting plasma glucose, and BMI were used. A positive relationship between the number of FTO C risk alleles and plasma ghrelin levels was found (P = 0.005; relative plasma ghrelin difference between CC and AA carriers = ∼ 9%). In contrast, serum levels of the satiety-enhancing hormone leptin were inversely linked to the number of FTO C risk alleles (P = 0.001; relative serum leptin difference between CC and AA carriers = ∼ 11%). These associations were also found when controlling for waist circumference. The present findings suggest that FTO may facilitate weight gain in humans by shifting the endocrine balance from the satiety hormone leptin toward the hunger-promoting hormone ghrelin.

  16. Levels of central oxytocin and glucocorticoid receptor and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xufeng; Yan, Yating; Tai, Fadao; Wu, Ruiyong; Hao, Ping; Fang, Qianqian; Zhang, Shuwei

    2014-11-01

    Sociability is the prerequisite to social living. Oxytocin and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis mediate various social behaviors across different social contexts in different rodents. We hypothesized that they also mediate levels of non-reproductive social behavior. Here we explored naturally occurring variation in sociability through a social preference test and compared central oxytocin, glucocorticoid receptors, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability. We found that low-social voles showed higher levels of anxiety-like behavior in open field tests, and had more serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone than high-social voles. High-social individuals had more glucocorticoid receptor positive neurons in the hippocampus and more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than low-social individuals. Within the same level of sociability, females had more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than males. These results indicate that naturally occurring social preferences are associated with higher levels of central oxytocin and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptor and lower levels of anxiety and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone.

  17. Modeled nitrate levels in well water supplies and prevalence of abnormal thyroid conditions among the Old Order Amish in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nitrate is a widespread contaminant of drinking water supplies, especially in agricultural areas. Nitrate intake from drinking water and dietary sources can interfere with the uptake of iodide by the thyroid, thus potentially impacting thyroid function. Methods We assessed the relation of estimated nitrate levels in well water supplies with thyroid health in a cohort of 2,543 Old Order Amish residing in Lancaster, Chester, and Lebanon counties in Pennsylvania for whom thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured during 1995-2008. Nitrate measurement data (1976-2006) for 3,613 wells in the study area were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey and we used these data to estimate concentrations at study participants' residences using a standard linear mixed effects model that included hydrogeological covariates and kriging of the wells' residuals. Nitrate levels estimated by the model ranged from 0.35 mg/L to 16.4 mg/L N-NO3-, with a median value of 6.5 mg/L, which was used as the cutpoint to define high and low nitrate exposure. In a validation analysis of the model, we calculated that the sensitivity of the model was 67% and the specificity was 93%. TSH levels were used to define the following outcomes: clinical hyperthyroidism (n = 10), clinical hypothyroidism (n = 56), subclinical hyperthyroidism (n = 25), and subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 228). Results In women, high nitrate exposure was significantly associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.11-2.32). Nitrate was not associated with subclinical thyroid disease in men or with clinical thyroid disease in men or women. Conclusions Although these data do not provide strong support for an association between nitrate in drinking water and thyroid health, our results do suggest that further exploration of this hypothesis is warranted using studies that incorporate individual measures of both dietary and drinking water nitrate intake. PMID:22339761

  18. Vaginal bleeding - hormonal

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding is caused by a hormone imbalance. DUB is more common in teenagers or in women who are approaching menopause. DUB is unpredictable. The bleeding may be very heavy or light and can occur often or randomly.

  19. Thyroid hormone transporters in the brain.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takehiro; Abe, Takaaki

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid hormone plays an essential role in proper mammalian development of the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Lack of sufficient thyroid hormone results in abnormal development of virtually all organ systems, a syndrome termed cretinism. In particular, hypothyroidism in the neonatal period causes serious damage to neural cells and leads to mental retardation. Although thyroxine is the major product secreted by the thyroid follicular cells, the action of thyroid hormone is mediated mainly through the deiodination of T(4) to the biologically active form 3,3', 5-triiodo-L-thyronine, followed by the binding of T(3) to a specific nuclear receptor. Before reaching the intracellular targets, thyroid hormone must cross the plasma membrane. Because of the lipophilic nature of thyroid hormone, it was thought that they traversed the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. However, in the past decade, a membrane transport system for thyroid hormone has been postulated to exist in various tissues. Several classes of transporters, organic anion transporter polypeptide (oatp) family, Na(+)/Taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (ntcp) and amino acid transporters have been reported to transport thyroid hormones. Monocarboxylate transporter8 (MCT8) has recently been identified as an active and specific thyroid hormone transporter. Mutations in MCT8 are associated with severe X-linked psycomotor retardation and strongly elevated serum T3 levels in young male patients. Several other molecules should be contributed to exert the role of thyroid hormone in the central nervous system.

  20. Both cell substratum regulation and hormonal regulation of milk protein gene expression are exerted primarily at the posttranscriptional level

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenstein, R.S.; Rosen, J.M.

    1988-08-01

    The mechanism by which individual peptide and steroid hormones and cell-substratum interactions regulate milk protein gene expression has been studied in the COMMA-D mammary epithelial cell line. In the presence of insulin, hydrocortisone, and prolactin, growth of COMMA-D cells on floating collagen gels in comparison with that on a plastic substratum resulted in a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in the relative rate of ..beta..-casein gene transcription but a 37-fold increase in ..beta..-casein mRNA accumulation. In contrast, whey acidic protein gene transcription was constitutive in COMMA-D cells grown on either substratum, but its mRNA was unstable and little intact mature mRNA was detected. Culturing COMMA-D cells on collagen also promoted increased expression of other genes expressed in differentiated mammary epithelial cells, including those encoding ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-casein, transferrin, malic enzyme, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase but decreased the expression of actin and histone genes. Using COMMA-D cells, the authors defined further the role of individual hormones in influencing ..beta..-casein gene transcription. With insulin alone, a basal level of ..beta..-casein gene transcription was detected in COMMA-D cells grown on floating collagen gels. Addition of prolactin but not hydrocortisone resulted in a 2.5- to 3.0-fold increase in ..beta..-casein gene transcription, but both hormones were required to elicit the maximal 73-fold induction in mRNA accumulation. The posttranscriptional effect of hormones on casein mRNA accummulation preceded any detectable changes in the relative rate of transcription. Thus, regulation by both hormones and cell substratum of casein gene expression is exerted primarily at the post transcriptional level.

  1. Anthropometric Measurements, Serum Reproductive Hormonal Levels and Sexual Development among Boys in the Rural Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jun; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel

    2016-01-01

    Data on growth and sexual maturation among boys from the rural Western Cape in South Africa is limited. A cross-sectional study of 269 school boys was conducted testing for serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2); height, weight and body mass index (BMI); sexual maturity (using Tanner Stages) and a questionnaire (demographic and medical history). The median age at pubertal onset (Tanner Stage 2) and Tanner Stage 5 was 11.6 and 14.7 years, respectively. The median testicular volume was 5.5 mL at Tanner Stage 2 increasing from 2.5 mL at Tanner Stage 1 to 14.7 mL at Tanner Stage 5. Height and weight measurements were <25th & 50th percentile references at Tanner Stages 1–3. Controlling for confounders, serum FSH and LH increased (p < 0.05) from Tanner Stage 1 to 4 (by 4.1 and 3 mL respectively), and serum testosterone and estradiol increased after Tanner Stage 2 (by 12.7 nmol/L and 59.5 pmol/L respectively). These results indicate some delays in pubertal development of boys in the rural Western Cape when compared to boys from other settings possibly due to nutritional, socio-economic and environmental exposures. Changes in serum hormone levels were consistent with other populations. Initiatives to improve nutrition amongst Western Cape rural communities are recommended. PMID:27916832

  2. Fasting ghrelin levels in physically active women: relationship with menstrual disturbances and metabolic hormones.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Mary Jane; Leidy, Heather J; O'Donnell, Emma; Lasley, Bill; Williams, Nancy I

    2004-07-01

    Recent findings support a role for ghrelin in the regulation of energy homeostasis and possibly reproductive function. The primary purpose of this study was to test whether differences in fasting ghrelin levels exist in exercising women with differing menstrual and metabolic status. Menstrual cycle status was defined as sedentary ovulatory (SedOvul; n = 10, cycles = 26), exercising ovulatory (ExOvul; n = 11, cycles = 22), exercising luteal phase defect/anovulatory (ExLPD/Anov; n = 11, cycle = 27), and exercising amenorrheic (ExAmen; n = 8, cycle = 16). Subjects were 27.7 +/- 1.2 yr of age, weighed 60.2 +/- 3.3 kg, and had menstrual cycle lengths of 28.4 +/- 0.9 d. Blood was collected during the follicular phase (d 2-9) of each menstrual cycle and analyzed for total ghrelin, insulin, total T(3), and leptin. Ghrelin was significantly elevated by approximately 85% in the ExAmen category (725.5 +/- 40.8 pmol/liter) when compared with all other categories (P < 0.001; SedOvul = 393.6 +/- 32.0 pmol/liter, ExOvul = 418.9 +/- 34.8 pmol/liter, and ExLPD/Anov = 381.1 +/- 314 pmol/liter). Leptin levels were lower in all groups vs. SedOvul (P < 0.001). Insulin was lower in both the ExLPD/Anov and ExAmen categories vs. SedOvul and ExOvul (P < 0.018), and total T(3) was lower in ExAmen compared with all other groups (P < 0.001), with concentrations in ExLPD/Anov and ExOvul exceeding those in SedOvul (P < 0.05). These data clearly indicate a metabolic hormonal profile consistent with chronic energy deficiency in exercising women across a range in menstrual status and introduces ghrelin as a potential supplementary indicator that uniquely discriminates amenorrheic athletes from athletes with other menstrual disturbances.

  3. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (DE-71) Interferes With Thyroid Hormone Action Independent of Effects on Circulating Levels of Thyroid Hormone in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ruby; Tighe, Daniel; Danai, Amin; Rawn, Dorothea F. K.; Gaertner, Dean W.; Arnold, Doug L.; Gilbert, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological studies is that PBDE effects on serum TH levels will reflect PBDE effects on TH action in tissues. To test whether this assumption is correct, we performed the following experiments. First, five concentrations of diphenyl ether (0–30 mg/kg) were fed daily to pregnant rats to postnatal day 21. PBDEs were measured in dam liver and heart to estimate internal dose. The results were compared with a separate study in which four concentrations of propylthiouracil (PTU; 0, 1, 2, and 3 ppm) was provided to pregnant rats in drinking water for the same duration as for diphenyl ether. PBDE exposure reduced serum T4 similar in magnitude to PTU, but serum TSH was not elevated by PBDE. PBDE treatment did not affect the expression of TH response genes in the liver or heart as did PTU treatment. PTU treatment reduced T4 in liver and heart, but PBDE treatment reduced T4 only in the heart. Tissue PBDEs were in the micrograms per gram lipid range, only slightly higher than observed in human fetal tissues. Thus, PBDE exposure reduces serum T4 but does not produce effects on tissues typical of low TH produced by PTU, demonstrating that the effects of chemical exposure on serum T4 levels may not always be a faithful proxy measure of chemical effects on the ability of thyroid hormone to regulate development and adult physiology. PMID:25060363

  4. Erectile Dysfunction and Sexual Hormone Levels in Men With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Efficacy of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Lin, Qi-Chang; Zeng, Hui-Qing; Jiang, Xing-Tang; Chen, Bo; Chen, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and serum sexual hormone levels were evaluated in men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In these patients, the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was determined. The 207 men (mean age 44.0 ± 11.1 years) enrolled in the study were stratified within four groups based on their apnea-hypopnea index score: simple snoring (n = 32), mild OSA (n = 29), moderate OSA (n = 38), and severe OSA (n = 108). The International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 (IIEF-5) score was obtained from each patient, and blood samples for the analysis of sexual hormones (prolactin, luteotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, progestin, and testosterone) were drawn in the morning after polysomnography. The IIEF-5 test and serum sexual hormone measurements were repeated after 3 months of CPAP treatment in 53 men with severe OSA. The prevalence of ED was 60.6 % in OSA patients overall and 72.2 % in those with severe OSA. Compared with the simple snoring group, patients with severe OSA had significantly lower testosterone levels (14.06 ± 5.62 vs. 17.02 ± 4.68, p = .018) and lower IIEF-5 scores (16.33 ± 6.50 vs. 24.09 ± 1.94, p = .001). The differences in the other sexual hormones between groups were not significant. After 3 months of CPAP treatment, there were no significant changes in sexual hormone levels, but the IIEF-5 score had improved significantly (18.21 ± 4.05 vs. 19.21 ± 3.86, p = .001). Severe OSA patients have low testosterone concentration and high ED prevalence. IIEF-5 scores increased significantly after CPAP treatment, but there was no effect on serum testosterone levels.

  5. Examination of Attention Level in Nurses Working Night Shifts in terms of the Relationship between Electrodermal Activity and Sex Hormones

    PubMed Central

    DOLU, Nazan; ELALMIŞ, Derya Deniz; KELOĞLAN, Seval

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an electrical activity of eccrine sweat gland stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. Skin conductance level (SCL) is measured with EDA. SCL and sweat gland activity increase in emotional situations, such as high activation, attention or stress. In this study, we investigated whether working in shifts affects attention level of nurses with EDA and explored the relationship between EDA and sex hormones. Method The study was carried out on nurses working night shifts (16.00–08.00 h) (n=22) and nurses working without a shift (08.00–16.00 h) (n=20). Firstly, The Epworth Sleepiness Scale which evaluates a person’s daytime sleepiness was applied to the subjects. For EDA measurement, Ag/AgCl electrodes were put on two fingers of their dominant hand. SCL was measured via MP30 system and GSR connection. The blood samples were analyzed for cortisol and ACTH hormone levels to investigate the changes in sleep and circadian rhythm. Result It was found that there was no statistically significant difference in skin conductance levels between the groups. Moreover, in the comparison of hormone values between the groups, the cortisol levels in night shift nurses were higher than in those working without a shift. Conclusion Night shift had no significant effect on the attention levels in the nurses. This situation is thought to be related to the fact that the nurses responsible for the night service raise their attention level to the highest point. The reason for higher level of cortisol in nurses working shifts may reflect that cortisol has no effect on the breadth of attention but reflects a high level of stress.

  6. UGT1A1∗28 relationship with abnormal total bilirubin levels in chronic hepatitis C patients

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Marcelo Moreira Tavares; Vaisberg, Victor Van; Abreu, Rodrigo Martins; Ferreira, Aline Siqueira; daSilvaFerreira, Camila; Nasser, Paulo Dominguez; Paschoale, Helena Scavone; Carrilho, Flair José; Ono, Suzane Kioko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gilbert syndrome (GS) is a frequent benign clinical condition, marked by intermittent unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, mostly due to the polymorphism uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1∗28 (UGT1A1∗28). Hyperbilirubinemia has been reported in a GS patient undergoing hepatitis C treatment, and other UGT isoforms polymorphisms have been linked to worse outcomes in viral hepatitis. Yet, little is known to GS contributions’ to the liver disease scenario. Our aim was to assess UGT1A1 genotypes’ frequency in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients and correlate with total bilirubin (TB). This is a case–control study in a large tertiary medical center. Cases were CHC patients confirmed by hepatitis C virus (HCV)–polymerase chain reaction. Exclusion criteria were hepatitis B virus or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. Control were healthy blood donors. UGT1A1 promoter region gene genotyping was performed, and bilirubin serum levels were available for HCV patients. Genotypes and alleles frequencies were similar in case (n = 585; P = 0.101) and control groups (n = 313; P = 0.795). Total bilirubin increase was noticed according to thymine–adenine repeats in genotypes (P < 0.001), and the TB greater than 1 mg/dL group had more UGT1A1∗28 subjects than in the group with TB values <1 mg/dL (18.3 vs 5.3; P < 0.001). Bilirubin levels are linked to the studied polymorphisms, and this is the first time that these findings are reported in a chronic liver disease sample. Among patients with increased TB levels, the frequency of UGT1A1∗28 is higher than those with normal TB. Personalized care should be considered to GS, regarding either abnormal bilirubin levels or drug metabolism. PMID:28296739

  7. [Anti-Müllerian hormone levels as a predictor of ovarian reserve in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: a review].

    PubMed

    Gasparin, Andrese Aline; Chakr, Rafael Mendonça da Silva; Brenol, Claiton Viegas; Palominos, Penélope Ester; Xavier, Ricardo Machado; Souza, Lucian; Brenol, João Carlos Tavares; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2015-01-01

    The anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is secreted from granulosa cells of growing ovarian follicles and appears to be the best endocrine marker capable of estimating ovarian reserve. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that predominantly affects women of reproductive age and may negatively affect their fertility due to disease activity and the treatments used. Recently, several studies assessed AMH levels to understand the real impact of SLE and its treatment on fertility.

  8. The relation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels with severity of obstructive sleep apnea and glucose metabolism abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, N Colak; Cakal, E; Sahin, M; Ozkaya, E Cakir; Firat, H; Delibasi, T

    2012-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 25-hydroxyvitamin-D₃ (25-OH-D) deficiency are two separate disorders associating with obesity, inflammation, and impaired glucose metabolism. We aimed to investigate the vitamin D status of OSA patients regarding to potential links between lower vitamin D levels and abnormal glucose metabolism, which is one of the main adverse outcomes of OSA. Study group is composed of 190 non-diabetic subjects who were suspected of having OSA. Subjects undergone polysomnography and were grouped due to apnea-hypopnea indices (AHI) as controls (AHI < 5, n = 47), mild OSA (5 ≤ AHI < 15, n = 46), moderate OSA (15 ≤ AHI < 30, n = 47), and severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30, n = 50). Serum 25-OH-D, HbA₁c, insulin levels were measured and 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Serum 25-OH-D level (ng/ml) of OSA patients were lower than control subjects (17.4 ± 6.9 vs. 19.9 ± 7.8), and decrement was parallel to severity of OSA; as 18.2 ± 6.4 (5 ≤ AHI < 15), 17.5 ± 7.4 (15 ≤ AHI < 30), and 16.3 ± 6.9 (AHI > 30), respectively (P = 0.097, r = -0.13). However, severe female OSA patients had significantly lower 25-OH-D levels (11.55 ng/ml), while control males had the highest mean value (21.7 ng/ml) (P < 0.001). Frequency of insulin resistance (IR) was 48%, prediabetes 41%, diabetes 16% in OSA patients. Mean 25-OH-D level of insulin resistant subjects (HOMA-IR ≥ 2.7, n = 77, AHI = 35.5) was lower than non-insulin resistant subjects (HOMA-IR < 2.7, n = 113, AHI = 19.8) as 16.18 ± 7.81 versus 19.2 ± 6.6, respectively (P = 0.004). 25-OH-D level of 91 non-diabetic subjects (n = 91, AHI = 19.7) was 19.5 ± 7.4, prediabetics (n = 75, AHI = 28.7) was 17.45 ± 6.9, and diabetics (n = 24, AHI = 46.3) was 13.8 ± 5.3 (P = 0.02). We showed that subjects with more severe OSA indices (AHI ≥ 15) tended to present lower vitamin D levels correlated to increased prevalence of IR, prediabetes, and diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency may play a role and/or worsen

  9. Gene Expression in Developing Brain is Altered by Modest Reductions in Circulating Levels of Thyroid Hormone.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis is a known effect of environmental contaminants. Although animal models of developmental TH deficiency can predict the impact of severe insults to the thyroid system, the effects of moderate TH insufficiencies have not been adequatel...

  10. Influence of sex hormone levels on gingival enlargement in adolescent patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hosadurga, Rajesh; Nabeel Althaf, M. S.; Hegde, Shashikanth; Rajesh, Kashyap S.; Arun Kumar, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sex hormones may be a modifying factor in the periodontal disease pathogenesis. Aim: The association between gingival enlargement and sex hormone levels in adolescent patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy needs to be determined. Settings and Design: This study was conducted in the Department of Periodontology in association with the Department of Orthodontics, Yenepoya Dental College, Yenepoya University, Mangaluru. Materials and Methods: A pilot study was conducted on 21 adolescent patients between the age group of 13–19 years, who had undergone fixed orthodontic therapy for at least 3 months. Apicocoronally, the gingival enlargement was assessed by the index described by Miller and Damm. Miranda and Brunet index was used to assess gingival overgrowth in the buccal–lingual direction in the interdental papilla. Furthermore, the patients were assigned to two groups - Group 1-GE and Group 2-non-GE. Sex hormones assessed were estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males in both groups. Results: 57.1% of the study population had enlargement of the gingiva. The mean plaque score was 0.59 and 0.56, respectively, in both groups. A statistically significant relationship was found between estradiol and testosterone levels with gingival enlargement. However, a significant relationship was not obtained for progesterone levels with the gingival enlargement. Conclusion: Direct correlation between estradiol, testosterone, and gingival enlargement was seen. PMID:27994419

  11. Short-Period Influence of Chronic Morphine Exposure on Serum Levels of Sexual Hormones and Spermatogenesis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadnia, Hasan; Akhavan Rezayat, Alireza; Hoseyni, Mahmood; Sharifi, Nooriye; Khajedalooee, Mohhamad; Akhavan Rezayat, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased rates of addiction and its broad societal complications are well known. One of the most important systems that may malfunction in drug abusers is the reproductive system, and evaluating patients for this potential risk may lead to increased awareness. Materials and Methods Thirty 60-day-old male rats were divided into control and target groups. The target group underwent 5 mg/kg intraperitoneal injections of morphine twice a day while the control group underwent normal saline injections (at the same dosage). After 60 days, the rats were anesthetized, and after blood sampling, they underwent bilateral orchiepididymectomy. Histological and hormonal evaluations were performed on the samples. Results Levels of sex hormonal features and spermatogenesis were significantly reduced in the target group compared to the control group. LH levels showed a meaningful decrease in the target group, but FSH and testosterone levels did not. On histological section analysis, mature sperm were meaningfully decreased in the target group. Conclusions Chronic use of opioids may lead to alterations in sexual features and sexual hormones. Therefore, opioids have the potential to cause infertility. These changes may result from the effect of the drugs on the hypophysis or hypothalamus, the direct effect of the drugs on the seminiferous tubules, or a combination of both. The findings suggest that public awareness about addiction may cause decreased infertility rates. PMID:27713869

  12. Premenopausal serum sex hormone levels in relation to breast cancer risk, overall and by hormone receptor status - results from the EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Kaaks, Rudolf; Tikk, Kaja; Sookthai, Disorn; Schock, Helena; Johnson, Theron; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure; Baglietto, Laura; Rinaldi, Sabina; Chajes, Veronique; Romieu, Isabelle; Boeing, Heiner; Schütze, Madlen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Mattiello, Amalia; Buckland, Genevieve; Ramón Quirós, Jose; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H; Andersson, Anne; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2014-04-15

    Results from prospective studies on premenopausal serum hormone levels in relation to breast cancer risk have been inconclusive, especially with regard to tumor subtypes. Using a case-control study nested within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (801 breast cancer cases and 1,132 matched control subjects), we analyzed the relationships of prediagnostic serum estradiol, free estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels with the risk of breast cancer by estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive and -negative breast tumors and by age at diagnoses. Higher prediagnostic serum levels of testosterone and free testosterone were associated with an increased overall risk of breast cancer [ORQ4-Q1  = 1.56 (95% CI 1.15-2.13), ptrend  = 0.02 for testosterone and ORQ4-Q1  = 1.33 (95% CI 0.99-1.79), ptrend  = 0.04 for free testosterone], but no significant risk association was observed for estradiol, free estradiol, progesterone and SHBG. Tests for heterogeneity between receptor-positive and -negative tumors were not significant. When analysis were stratified by age at tumor diagnosis, the odds ratios observed for estradiol were stronger and borderline significant for breast cancer diagnosed at age less than 50 [ORQ4-Q1  = 1.32 (95% CI 0.87-2.01), ptrend  = 0.05] compared to breast cancer diagnosed at age 50 or above [ORQ4-Q1  = 0.94 (95% CI 0.60-1.47), ptrend  = 0.34, phet  = 0.04]. In conclusion, our data indicate that higher premenopausal circulating testosterone levels are associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer, but do not show a significant association of estradiol or progesterone with breast cancer risk, overall, by menstrual cycle phase or by tumor receptor status, although a possible risk increase with higher estradiol levels for tumors diagnosed before age 50 was seen.

  13. Hormonal modulation of food intake in response to low leptin levels induced by hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A loss in fat mass is a common response to centrifugation and it results in low circulating leptin concentrations. However, rats adapted to hypergravity are euphagic. The focus of this study was to examine leptin and other peripheral signals of energy balance in the presence of a hypergravity-induced loss of fat mass and euphagia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were centrifuged for 14 days at gravity levels of 1.25, 1.5, or 2 G, or they remained stationary at 1 G. Urinary catecholamines, urinary corticosterone, food intake, and body mass were measured on Days 11 to 14. Plasma hormones and epididymal fat pad mass were measured on Day 14. Mean body mass of the 1.25, 1.5, and 2 G groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than controls, and no differences were found in food intake (g/day/100 g body mass) between the hypergravity groups and controls. Epididymal fat mass was 14%, 14%, and 21% lower than controls in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 G groups, respectively. Plasma leptin was significantly reduced from controls by 46%, 45%, and 65% in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2 G groups, respectively. Plasma insulin was significantly lower in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 G groups than controls by 35%, 38%, and 33%. No differences were found between controls and hypergravity groups in urinary corticosterone. Mean urinary epinephrine was significantly higher in the 1.5 and 2.0 G groups than in controls. Mean urinary norepinephrine was significantly higher in the 1.25, 1.5 and 2.0 G groups than in controls. Significant correlations were found between G load and body mass, fat mass, leptin, urinary epinephrine, and norepinephrine. During hypergravity exposure, maintenance of food intake is the result of a complex relationship between multiple pathways, which abates the importance of leptin as a primary signal.

  14. Ecdysteroids Regulate the Levels of Molt-Inhibiting Hormone (MIH) Expression in the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus

    PubMed Central

    Techa, Sirinart; Chung, J. Sook

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod molt is coordinated through the interplay between ecdysteroids and neuropeptide hormones. In crustaceans, changes in the activity of Y-organs during the molt cycle have been regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH). Little has been known of the mode of direct effects of ecdysteroids on the levels of MIH and CHH in the eyestalk ganglia during the molt cycle. This study focused on a putative feedback of ecdysteroids on the expression levels of MIH transcripts using in vitro incubation study with ecdysteroids and in vivo RNAi in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Our results show a specific expression of ecdysone receptor (EcR) in which EcR1 is the major isoform in eyestalk ganglia. The initial elevation of MIH expression at the early premolt stages is replicated by in vitro incubations of eyestalk ganglia with ecdysteroids that mimic the intrinsic conditions of D0 stage: the concentration (75 ng/ml) and composition (ponasterone A and 20-hydroxyecdysone at a 3:1 (w:w) ratio). Additionally, multiple injections of EcR1-dsRNA reduce MIH expression by 67%, compared to the controls. Our data provide evidence on a putative feedback mechanism of hormonal regulation during molting cycle, specifically how the molt cycle is repeated during the life cycle of crustaceans. The elevated concentrations of ecdysteroids at early premolt stage may act positively on the levels of MIH expression in the eyestalk ganglia. Subsequently, the increased MIH titers in the hemolymph at postmolt would inhibit the synthesis and release of ecdysteroids by Y-organs, resulting in re-setting the subsequent molt cycle. PMID:25849453

  15. Ecdysteroids regulate the levels of Molt-Inhibiting Hormone (MIH) expression in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Techa, Sirinart; Chung, J Sook

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod molt is coordinated through the interplay between ecdysteroids and neuropeptide hormones. In crustaceans, changes in the activity of Y-organs during the molt cycle have been regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH). Little has been known of the mode of direct effects of ecdysteroids on the levels of MIH and CHH in the eyestalk ganglia during the molt cycle. This study focused on a putative feedback of ecdysteroids on the expression levels of MIH transcripts using in vitro incubation study with ecdysteroids and in vivo RNAi in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Our results show a specific expression of ecdysone receptor (EcR) in which EcR1 is the major isoform in eyestalk ganglia. The initial elevation of MIH expression at the early premolt stages is replicated by in vitro incubations of eyestalk ganglia with ecdysteroids that mimic the intrinsic conditions of D0 stage: the concentration (75 ng/ml) and composition (ponasterone A and 20-hydroxyecdysone at a 3:1 (w:w) ratio). Additionally, multiple injections of EcR1-dsRNA reduce MIH expression by 67%, compared to the controls. Our data provide evidence on a putative feedback mechanism of hormonal regulation during molting cycle, specifically how the molt cycle is repeated during the life cycle of crustaceans. The elevated concentrations of ecdysteroids at early premolt stage may act positively on the levels of MIH expression in the eyestalk ganglia. Subsequently, the increased MIH titers in the hemolymph at postmolt would inhibit the synthesis and release of ecdysteroids by Y-organs, resulting in re-setting the subsequent molt cycle.

  16. Study on abnormal intra-field CD uniformity induced by Efese-tilt application upon complex leveling scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Guogui; Hao, Jingan; Cai, Boxiu; Xing, Bin; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Tianhui; Lin, Yi-Shih; Wu, Qiang; Shi, Xuelong

    2014-03-01

    Critical dimension uniformity (CDU) of hole layer is becoming more and more crucial and tightened alongside with the technology node being driven into 28 nm and beyond, since the critical dimension (CD) variation of 2-dimensional (2D) hole pattern is intrinsically harder to control than that of 1D pattern (line/space). As the process window becomes more marginal with the more advanced technology node, although at the cost of contrast loss, EFESE tilt (focus drilling method) is one handy trick for its DOF enhancement capability (1-3). We observed an abnormal up to 6 nm ADI CD trend-down in Y-direction (exposure scan direction) in the strictly repeated via-hole patterns within an about 8 mm x 6 mm chip in condition 1 wafer with pre-layer patterns (short as C1 wafer) where EFESE tilt is applied. No CD trend-down or trend up in X-direction. This C1 hole layer uses EFESE tilt to improve DOF. This CD trend-down phenomenon is thoroughly investigated and a model of "effective EFESE tilt" is proposed and verified. Based on the model, we made a further step into the assessment of another focus drilling method, i.e. EFESE High Range (HR) and evaluate its performance under the same complex leveling scheme. Through all this analysis, we give an insight of the safety zone for applying EFESE tilt for future reference.

  17. A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navneet; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Verma, Pradhuman; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sachdeva, Suresh

    2014-01-03

    The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. The sample of 10 children of same age and socio-economic status residing in non endemic areas who did not have dental fluorosis form controls. Fluoride determination in drinking water, urine and blood was done with Ion 85 Ion Analyzer Radiometer with Hall et al. method. The thyroid gland functional test was done by Immonu Chemiluminiscence Micropartical Assay with Bayer Centaur Autoanalyzer. The significantly altered FT3, FT4 and TSH hormones level in both group1A and 1B school children were noted. The serum and urine fluoride levels were found to be increased in both the groups. A significant relationship of water fluoride to urine and serum fluoride concentration was seen. The serum fluoride concentration also had significant relationship with thyroid hormone (FT3/FT4) and TSH concentrations. The testing of drinking water and body fluids for fluoride content, along with FT3, FT4, and TSH in children with dental fluorosis is desirable for recognizing underlying thyroid derangements and its impact on fluorosis.

  18. The effects of heat stress on a number of hematological parameters and levels of thyroid hormones in foundry workers.

    PubMed

    Norloei, Sahar; Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Omidi, Leila; Khodakarim, Soheila; Bashash, Davood; Abdollahi, Mohammad Bagher; Jafari, Mina

    2016-11-24

    The objective of this research was to determine the effects of heat stress on some hematological parameters and thyroid hormones among foundry workers. This study was performed on 25 heat-acclimated subjects while 10 office workers were selected as the control group. Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) was determined to estimate the heat stress. Blood sampling was conducted before and after the daily work shift. The mean value of the WBGT index was 35 °C. The levels of plasma osmolality (p = 0.04) and white blood cells (p = 0.03) in the case group (before exposure to heat) were significantly higher than those in control group. No significant differences were observed between the average levels of T3 (p = 0.79) and T4 (p = 0.17) hormones between two groups. A positive relationship was found between the variation of some hematological parameters and thyroid hormones with WBGT index and air temperature.

  19. Seminal anti-Müllerian hormone levels during recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone treatment in men with idiopathic infertility undergoing assisted reproduction cycles.

    PubMed

    Caprio, F; De Franciscis, P; Trotta, C; Ianniello, R; Mele, D; Colacurci, N

    2015-09-01

    A prospective study was designed to investigate the effects of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (rhFSH) on seminal anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (iOAT), researching possible relationships between the seminal AMH behavior and the response to the treatment. Thirty-nine men who were candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) because of iOAT were enrolled. Patients were treated on alternately days with 150 IU of rhFSH for at least 3 months before assisted reproduction cycles. Main outcome measures were seminal AMH concentrations before and after rhFSH therapy. After treatment, 16 subjects (responders) showed an improvement in their sperm count compared to baseline (7.6 ± 2.9 vs. 19.3 ± 7.7, p < 0.01) whereas 23 men (non-responders) experienced no sperm modifications. Baseline seminal AMH concentrations were significantly higher in responders than in non-responders (53.0 ± 30.6 vs. 34.6 ± 18.5, p < 0.025). Following therapy, a greater increase in AMH levels was observed in responders compared to non-responders (Δ = 24.8 ± 36.4 vs. Δ = 6.4 ± 11.2, p < 0.028). Seminal AMH levels significantly and positively correlated with sperm count (after rhFSH treatment rho = 0.647, p < 0.001). Our study suggests that rhFSH improves sperm count in a quota of iOAT men, and the subjects who respond to the treatment have higher baseline seminal AMH concentrations than the patients who are not responsive. Seminal AMH could be helpful to select those infertile men who may benefit from rhFSH treatment.

  20. Ultrafine Angelica gigas powder normalizes ovarian hormone levels and has antiosteoporosis properties in ovariectomized rats: particle size effect.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Lee, Inae; Paik, Sae-Yeol-Rim; Kim, Dong Eun; Lim, Jung Dae; Kang, Wie-Soo; Ko, Sanghoon

    2012-10-01

    The root of Angelica gigas (Korean angelica) is traditionally used to treat women's ailments that are caused by an impairment of menstrual blood flow and cycle irregularities. This study evaluated the effect particle size of Korean angelica powder on its efficacy for treating estrogen-related symptoms of menopause. Initially, Korean angelica roots were pulverized into ultrafine powder, and orally administered to the rats at a concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks. The effects of Korean angelica powder particle size on extraction yield, contents of bioactive compounds (decursin and decursinol angelate), levels of serum ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone), reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), and experimental osteoporosis parameters (mineral density, strength, and histological features) were determined. A significant increase (fivefold) in the contents of decursin and decursinol angelate in the extract of the ultrafine Korean angelica powder was observed compared to coarse Korean angelica powder. Rats were divided into sham-operated or ovariectomized (OVX) groups that were fed coarse (CRS) or ultrafine (UF) ground Korean angelica root. The serum levels of estradiol in the OVX_UF group were 19.2% and 54.1% higher than that of OVX_CRS group. Serum bone-alkaline phosphatase/total-alkaline phosphatase index in the OVX_UF group was half that of the OVX_CRS group. In addition, less trabecular bone loss and thick cortical areas were observed in rats administered ultrafine powder. Therefore, ultrafine grinding may enhance the bioactivity of herbal medicines and be especially useful when their extracted forms lose bioactivity during processing, storage, and oral intake.

  1. Long-Term High Fat Diet Has a Profound Effect on Body Weight, Hormone Levels, and Estrous Cycle in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Tandra R; Donthireddy, Laxminarasimha; Adhikary, Debasis; Chakraborty, Sanjoy

    2016-05-12

    BACKGROUND Obesity causes several health complications along with disruption of the reproductive system. The aim of the current study was to determine how long-term intake of very high fat diet (VHFD) changes the hormonal milieu, affecting the cellular morphology and reproductive cycle in female mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS Mice were fed on normal diet (ND) and VHFD for 2 weeks, 12 weeks, and 25-27 weeks. We assessed changes in body weight, food consumption, energy intake, cellular and tissue morphology, hormonal levels (leptin, insulin, and estradiol), and vaginal smears were performed at various time points to determine the length and cellularity at each stage of the estrous cycle. RESULTS Mice fed on VHFD showed a significant increase in weight gain, reduction in food intake, and increase in energy intake compared to animals fed on ND, indicating that the caloric density of the diet is responsible for the differences in weight gain. Hormonal analysis showed hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, and increases in estrogen levels, along with increases in size of the islet of Langerhans and adipocytes. After 25-27 weeks, all animals fed on VHFD showed complete acyclicity; elongation of phases (e.g., diestrous), skipping of phases (e.g., metestrous), or a combination of both, indicating disruption in the reproductive cycle. Quantitative analysis showed that in the diestrous phase there was a 70% increase in cell count in VHFD compared to animals fed on ND. CONCLUSIONS The above results show that morphological and hormonal changes caused by VHFD probably act via negative feedback to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to shut down reproduction, which has a direct effect on the estrous cycle, causing acyclicity in mice.

  2. Ultrafine Angelica gigas Powder Normalizes Ovarian Hormone Levels and Has Antiosteoporosis Properties in Ovariectomized Rats: Particle Size Effect

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Lee, Inae; Paik, Sae-Yeol-Rim; Kim, Dong Eun; Lim, Jung Dae; Kang, Wie-Soo; Ko, Sanghoon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The root of Angelica gigas (Korean angelica) is traditionally used to treat women's ailments that are caused by an impairment of menstrual blood flow and cycle irregularities. This study evaluated the effect particle size of Korean angelica powder on its efficacy for treating estrogen-related symptoms of menopause. Initially, Korean angelica roots were pulverized into ultrafine powder, and orally administered to the rats at a concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks. The effects of Korean angelica powder particle size on extraction yield, contents of bioactive compounds (decursin and decursinol angelate), levels of serum ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone), reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), and experimental osteoporosis parameters (mineral density, strength, and histological features) were determined. A significant increase (fivefold) in the contents of decursin and decursinol angelate in the extract of the ultrafine Korean angelica powder was observed compared to coarse Korean angelica powder. Rats were divided into sham-operated or ovariectomized (OVX) groups that were fed coarse (CRS) or ultrafine (UF) ground Korean angelica root. The serum levels of estradiol in the OVX_UF group were 19.2% and 54.1% higher than that of OVX_CRS group. Serum bone-alkaline phosphatase/total-alkaline phosphatase index in the OVX_UF group was half that of the OVX_CRS group. In addition, less trabecular bone loss and thick cortical areas were observed in rats administered ultrafine powder. Therefore, ultrafine grinding may enhance the bioactivity of herbal medicines and be especially useful when their extracted forms lose bioactivity during processing, storage, and oral intake. PMID:23039111

  3. Steroid hormone levels in pregnancy and 1 year postpartum using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.; Guo, Tiedong; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena; Soldin, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish normal, trimester-specific reference intervals for serum 17β-estradiol, progesterone (P), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, androstenedione, DHEA, and DHEAS, measured simultaneously using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Design Sequential cohort study. Patient(s) Healthy women undergoing a normal pregnancy (age, 25–38 years; mean, 30 years) attending a prenatal well clinic at gestation weeks 12, 22, and 32 and approximately 1 year postpartum. Main Outcome Measure(s) Trimester-specific reference intervals of endogenous steroid hormones analyzed using an isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure photoionization source with deuterium-labeled internal standards. Result(s) Serum estradiol, P, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, and 11-deoxycortisol increased throughout pregnancy; cortisol increased up to the second trimester and then remained steady, while androstenedione increased by 80 percent by gestation week 12, then remained constant. Serum DHEA-S decreased by 50% by the third trimester. Conclusion(s) Trimester-specific reference intervals are reported for eight serum steroids. The ratios of individual serum hormone concentrations during pregnancy relative to their 1-year postpartum concentrations illustrate the expected normal trends of changes in hormone concentrations during pregnancy. PMID:16169406

  4. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (p<0.05), but the odds ratio for waist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI.

  5. Alveolar abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001093.htm Alveolar abnormalities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alveolar abnormalities are changes in the tiny air sacs in ...

  6. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... 2012:chap 71. Zaiac MN, Walker A. Nail abnormalities associated with systemic pathologies. Clin Dermatol . 2013;31: ...

  7. Relationship between psychosomatic complaints and circadian rhythm irregularity assessed by salivary levels of melatonin and growth hormone

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In university health care settings, students with psychosomatic complaints often have chronotypic problems. For this reason, we investigated a potential connection between psychosomatic complaints and circadian rhythm irregularity assessed by salivary levels of melatonin and growth hormone. Methods Fifteen healthy students between 21 and 22 years of age were examined for physiological parameters of chronotypes based on melatonin and growth hormone secretion patterns, using a fluorescence enzyme immunoassay. Salivary samples were collected from subjects at home five times each day (20:00, 24:00, 04:00, 08:00, and 12:00 h). In addition, the subjects rated their psychosomatic symptoms twice (at 08:00 and 20:00 h). Results A group with irregular circadian rhythm of melatonin (ICR) showed more psychosomatic complaints than a group with the regular circadian rhythm (RCR), especially for anxiety. Conclusion Psychosomatic symptoms, particularly anxiety, may be associated with irregularity in melatonin and growth hormone rhythms, which can be altered by basic lifestyle habits even in healthy students. PMID:21914213

  8. Light exposure leads to reorganization of microglomeruli in the mushroom bodies and influences juvenile hormone levels in the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Christina; Wang, Ying; Krischke, Markus; Mueller, Martin J; Amdam, Gro V; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    Honeybees show a remarkable behavioral plasticity at the transition from nursing inside the hive to foraging for nectar and/or pollen outside. This plasticity is important for age-related division of labor in honeybee colonies. The behavioral transition is associated with significant volume and synaptic changes in the mushroom bodies (MBs), brain centers for sensory integration, learning, and memory. We tested whether precocious sensory exposure to light leads to changes in the density of synaptic complexes [microglomeruli (MG)] in the MBs. The results show that exposure to light pulses over 3 days induces a significant decrease in the MG density in visual subregions (collar) of the MB. Earlier studies had shown that foragers have increased levels of juvenile hormone (JH) co-occurring with a decrease of vitellogenin (Vg). Previous work further established that RNAi-mediated knockdown of vg and ultraspiracle (usp) induced an upregulation of JH levels, which can lead to precocious foraging. By disturbing both Vg and JH pathways using gene knockdown of vg and usp, we tested whether the changes in the hormonal system directly affect MG densities. Our study shows that MG numbers remained unchanged when Vg and JH pathways were perturbed, suggesting no direct hormonal influences on MG densities. However, mass spectrometry detection of JH revealed that precocious light exposure triggered an increase in JH levels in the hemolymph (HL) of young bees. This suggests a dual effect following light exposure via direct effects on MG reorganization in the MB calyx and a possible positive feedback on HL JH levels.

  9. Leptin resistance is not the primary cause of weight gain associated with reduced sex hormone levels in female mice.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Regina P; Zampieri, Thais T; Pedroso, João A B; Nagaishi, Vanessa S; Ramos-Lobo, Angela M; Furigo, Isadora C; Câmara, Niels O; Frazão, Renata; Donato, Jose

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have shown that estrogens mimic leptin's effects on energy balance regulation. However, the findings regarding the consequences of reduced sex hormone levels on leptin sensitivity are divergent. In the present study, we employed different experimental paradigms to elucidate the interaction between estrogens, leptin, and energy balance regulation. We confirmed previous reports showing that ovariectomy caused a reduction in locomotor activity and energy expenditure leading mice to obesity and glucose intolerance. However, the acute and chronic anorexigenic effects of leptin were preserved in ovariectomized (OVX) mice despite their increased serum leptin levels. We studied hypothalamic gene expression at different time points after ovariectomy and observed that changes in the expression of genes involved in leptin resistance (suppressors of cytokine signaling and protein-tyrosine phosphatases) did not precede the early onset of obesity in OVX mice. On the contrary, reduced sex hormone levels caused an up-regulation of the long form of the leptin receptor (LepR), resulting in increased activation of leptin signaling pathways in OVX leptin-treated animals. The up-regulation of the LepR was observed in long-term OVX mice (30 d or 24 wk after ovariectomy) but not 7 days after the surgery. In addition, we observed a progressive decrease in the coexpression of LepR and estrogen receptor-α in the hypothalamus after the ovariectomy, resulting in a low percentage of dual-labeled cells in OVX mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that the weight gain caused by reduced sex hormone levels is not primarily caused by induction of a leptin-resistance state.

  10. Influence of Dietary Copper on Serum Growth-Related Hormone Levels and Growth Performance of Weanling Pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Guo, Yazhou; Wang, Zhe; Zhao, Baoyu; Yin, Yunhou; Liu, Guowen

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of dietary copper on serum growth-related hormones levels and growth performance, a total of 60 weanling pigs were randomly assigned to six groups each containing 10 pigs, fed on basal diets supplemented with 0 (control), 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg/kg copper sulfate for 80 days, respectively. The average daily gain (ADG), feed to gain ratio (F/G), feed intake and serum growth hormone (GH), insulin (INS), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels were detected at interval of 20 days. The results revealed that ADG, and serum GH, INS, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 concentrations were increased significantly in the pigs fed on diets added with 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg/kg copper sulfate. Meanwhile, in the pigs supplemented with 250 mg/kg copper sulfate, ADG was increased significantly from the 40th to the 60th day of the experiment (P < 0.01), and the levels of GH, INS, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 in serum were elevated significantly from the 20th to the 40th day of the experiment (P < 0.01). It is concluded that effects of copper supplemented in the diet on the growth of pigs were related to the increasing levels of GH, INS, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 in serum which were induced by copper. High dietary copper increase the concentrations of growth-related hormones in serum, resulting in improving the growth performance of weanling pigs.

  11. Abnormal expression levels of sMICA and NKG2D are correlated with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiong; Xu, Hong; Zhu, Xing-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Soluble major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A molecules (sMICA) and natural-killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) not only correlate with tumorigenesis and progression, but also with tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the correlation and prognostic significance of the differential expression of sMICA and NKG2D in pancreatic carcinoma and paracarcinoma tissues from 70 patients with pancreatic carcinomas. The results showed that sMICA expression was significantly (P<0.05) higher in tumor tissues (67.1%) than that in adjacent nontumor tissues (31.4%), whereas NKG2D expression was significantly (P<0.001) lower in tumor tissues (32.9%) than that in adjacent nontumor tissues (60.0%). Spearman’s rank correlation test showed a negative correlation between the expression of sMICA and that of NKG2D (r=−0.676, P<0.001). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that a high sMICA expression was significantly correlated with decreased disease-free survival (DFS) (P<0.001) and overall survival (OS) (P<0.001), while a high NKG2D expression was significantly associated with increased DFS (P=0.001) and OS (P=0.001) of the patients. Multivariate analysis showed that a high sMICA expression was an independent predictive factor for poor DFS (P<0.001) and OS (P=0.012); but low NKG2D expression was not an independent prognostic factor for poor DFS (P=0.238) and OS (P=0.574). In conclusion, our findings suggest that the expression levels of sMICA and NKG2D are abnormal and negatively correlated with one another in pancreatic carcinoma tissues; they may be considered as valuable biomarkers for the prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:26730197

  12. Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2001-09-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α; 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  13. Changes in appetite hormone (ghrelin) levels of saliva and serum in acute appendicitis cases before and after operation.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Ziya; Aydin, Suleyman; Cerrahoglu, Yusuf Z; Ayten, Refik; Erman, Fazilet; Aygen, Erhan

    2009-02-01

    This study was designed to measure the levels of serum and saliva ghrelin concentrations before and after surgery in an attempt to clarify whether this hormone plays any significant roles in acute appendicitis and cholelithiasis patients when compared with healthy controls. Samples were obtained from 20 patients with appendicitis, 10 patients with cholelithiasis before and after operation, and 16 healthy controls. The levels of ghrelin (acylated) were measured by means of a RIA assay. The results revealed that preoperative levels of ghrelin in saliva and serum were significantly decreased with respect to post-op in patients undergoing appendectomy, and control levels. This was also the case when the preoperative ghrelin concentrations in patients with appendicitis were compared with those having choelithiasis. Taken together, decreased ghrelin concentration in preoperative appendicitis might be a causative factor for the "loss of appetite" observed in an acute inflammatory condition such as acute appendicitis. However, further studies are necessary to reveal the exact mechanisms behind this observation.

  14. Bisphenol A Exposure, Ovarian Follicle Numbers, and Female Sex Steroid Hormone Levels: Results from a CLARITY-BPA Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shreya; Brehm, Emily; Gao, Liying; Rattan, Saniya; Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Flaws, Jodi A

    2017-03-16

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical found in thermal receipts, and food and beverage containers. Previous studies have shown that BPA can affect the numbers and health of ovarian follicles and the production of sex steroid hormones, but they often did not include a wide-range of doses of BPA, used a small sample size, focused on relatively short-term exposures to BPA, and/or did not examine the consequences of chronic BPA exposure on the ovaries or steroid levels. Thus, this study was designed to examine the effects of a wide range of doses of BPA on ovarian morphology and sex steroid hormone production. Specifically, this study tested the hypothesis that prenatal and continuous BPA exposure reduces ovarian follicle numbers and sex steroid hormone levels. To test this hypothesis, rats were dosed with vehicle, ethinyl estradiol (0.05 and 0.5 μg/kg bw/day), or BPA (2.5, 25, 250, 2,500, and 25,000 μg/kg bw/day) from gestation day 6 until 1 year as part of the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA). Ovaries and sera were collected on postnatal days 1, 21, 90, 6 months, and 1 year. The ovaries were subjected to histological evaluation of follicle numbers and the sera subjected to measurements of estradiol and progesterone. Collectively, these data indicate that BPA exposure at some doses and time-points affects ovarian follicle numbers and sex steroid levels, but these effects are different than those observed with ethinyl estradiol exposure and some previous studies on BPA.

  15. Improving Effect of the Acute Administration of Dietary Fiber-Enriched Cereals on Blood Glucose Levels and Gut Hormone Secretion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ky; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Lee-Kyung; Cho, Young Min

    2016-02-01

    Dietary fiber improves hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes through its physicochemical properties and possible modulation of gut hormone secretion, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We assessed the effect of dietary fiber-enriched cereal flakes (DC) on postprandial hyperglycemia and gut hormone secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirteen participants ate isocaloric meals based on either DC or conventional cereal flakes (CC) in a crossover design. DC or CC was provided for dinner, night snack on day 1 and breakfast on day 2, followed by a high-fat lunch. On day 2, the levels of plasma glucose, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were measured. Compared to CC, DC intake exhibited a lower post-breakfast 2-hours glucose level (198.5±12.8 vs. 245.9±15.2 mg/dL, P<0.05) and a lower incremental peak of glucose from baseline (101.8±9.1 vs. 140.3±14.3 mg/dL, P<0.001). The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose after breakfast was lower with DC than with CC (P<0.001). However, there were no differences in the plasma insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP levels. In conclusion, acute administration of DC attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia without any significant change in the representative glucose-regulating hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT 01997281).

  16. Changes in serum sodium, sodium balance, water balance, and plasma hormone levels as the result of pelvic surgery in women.

    PubMed

    Amede, Francis J; James, Kenneth A; Michelis, Michael F; Gleim, Gilbert W

    Postoperative hyponatremia in women has been associated with the development of serious neurological disorders and even death, with a predisposition for menstruant women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immediate hormonal, water and electrolyte responses to pelvic surgery in both pre and postmenopausal women. Of the twenty-five consecutive women studied, twenty were premenopausal while five were postmenopausal. Mean age was 45.4 +/- 1.6 years. Measurements of plasma renin activity, follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone showed no significant change pre to postoperatively. There was a significant decrease in pre to postoperative values of estrogen, 97.4 +/- 20.3 to 36.3 +/- 7.5 pg/mL (p < 0.05). There was also a significant decline in postoperative values for plasma aldosterone and plasma progesterone. Data were similar in pre and postmenopausal patients. Serum sodium levels decreased from 141.5 +/- 0.5 to 137.2 +/- 0.5 mEq/L (p < 0.01). During the twenty-four hours following surgery, mean net sodium balance was positive 122 mEq and mean measured fluid balance was positive 1108 mL. Ringers lactate or normal saline were used. On the first postoperative day, plasma arginine vasopressin levels were elevated at 4.0 +/- 0.8 pg/mL, with a mean urine osmolality of 504 +/- 29 mOsm/kg H2O. The data illustrate that women undergoing pelvic surgery decrease their serum sodium in the immediate postoperative period. Despite both positive sodium and water balance, there is a stronger tendency to conserve water. Decreased estrogen levels occur and this decrease may facilitate brain cell adaptation to plasma hypotonicity. Since the administration of isotonic fluid will not protect against the decrease in serum sodium, postoperative sodium concentration should be carefully monitored.

  17. Elderly men have low levels of anti-Müllerian hormone and inhibin B, but with high interpersonal variation: a cross-sectional study of the sertoli cell hormones in 615 community-dwelling men.

    PubMed

    Chong, Yih Harng; Dennis, Nicola A; Connolly, Martin J; Teh, Ruth; Jones, Gregory T; van Rij, Andre M; Farrand, Stephanie; Campbell, A John; McLennan, Ian S; Mlennan, Ian S

    2013-01-01

    The Sertoli cells of the testes secrete anti-Müllerian hormone (Müllerian inhibiting Substance, AMH) and inhibin B (InhB). AMH triggers the degeneration of the uterine precursor in male embryos, whereas InhB is part of the gonadal-pituitary axis for the regulation of sperm production in adults. However, both hormones are also putative regulators of homeostasis, and age-related changes in these hormones may therefore be important to the health status of elderly men. The levels of AMH in elderly men are unknown, with limited information being available about age-related changes in InhB. We have therefore used ELISAs to measure Sertoli cell hormone levels in 3 cohorts of community-dwelling men in New Zealand. In total, 615 men were examined, 493 of which were aged 65 or older. Serum AMH and InhB levels inversely correlated with age in men older than 50 years (p<0.001) but not in the younger men. A minority of elderly men had undetectable levels of AMH and InhB. The variation in hormone levels between similarly aged men increased with the age of men. AMH and InhB partially correlated with each other as expected (r = 0.48, p<0.001). However, the ratio of the two Sertoli hormones varied significantly between men, with this variation increasing with age. Elderly men selected for the absence of cardiovascular disease had AMH levels similar to those of young men whereas their InhB levels did not differ from aged-matched controls. These data suggests that Sertoli cell number and function changes with age, but with the extent and nature of the changes varying between men.

  18. [Acne and hormones].

    PubMed

    Faure, Michel

    2002-04-15

    Androgens stimulate sebum production which is necessary for the development of acne. Acne in women may thus be considered as a manifestation of cutaneous androgenization. Most of acnes may be related to an idiopathic skin hyperandrogenism due to in situ enzyme activity and androgen receptor hypersensitivity, as also noted in idiopathic hirsutism. Some acne may correspond to elevated ovarian or adrenal androgen secretion. The presence of acne in women may lead to a diagnosis of functional hyperandrogenism, either polycysticovary syndrome or nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Plasma level assays for testosterone, delta 4 androstenedione and 17-OH progesterone and ovarian echography are necessary to determine the possibility for an ovarian or adrenal hyperandrogenism, but not to better treat acne. The goal of hormonal therapy in acne is to oppose the effects of androgens on the sebaceous gland. Hormones may be used in female acne in the absence of endocrine abnormalities. Antiandrogens (cyproterone acetate or aldactone) may be useful in severe acne, hormonal contraceptives with cyproterone acetate or non androgenic progestins in mild or common acne often in association with other anti-acneic drugs. Glucocorticoids have to be administered in acne fulminans and other forms of acute, severe, inflammatory acne, for their anti-inflammatory properties.

  19. Are stress hormone levels a good proxy of foraging success? An experiment with king penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus.

    PubMed

    Angelier, Frédéric; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Bost, Charles-André; Le Bouard, Fabrice; Chastel, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    In seabirds, variations in stress hormone (corticosterone; henceforth CORT) levels have been shown to reflect changing marine conditions and, especially, changes in food availability. However, it remains unclear how CORT levels can be mechanistically affected by these changes at the individual level. Specifically, the influence of food acquisition and foraging success on CORT secretion is poorly understood. In this study, we tested whether food acquisition can reduce baseline CORT levels (;the food intake hypothesis') by experimentally reducing foraging success of King Penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Although CORT levels overall decreased during a foraging trip, CORT levels did not differ between experimental birds and controls. These results demonstrate that mass gain at sea is not involved in changes in baseline CORT levels in this species. The overall decrease in CORT levels during a foraging trip could result from CORT-mediated energy regulation (;the energy utilisation hypothesis'). Along with other evidence, we suggest that the influence of foraging success and food intake on CORT levels is complex and that the ecological meaning of baseline CORT levels can definitely vary between species and ecological contexts. Therefore, further studies are needed to better understand (1) how baseline CORT levels are functionally regulated according to energetic status and energetic demands and (2) to what extent CORT can be used to aid in the conservation of seabird populations.

  20. Effect of CPPU on Carbohydrate and Endogenous Hormone Levels in Young Macadamia Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chaozhong; Lin, Wenqiu; Zou, Minghong; Zhang, Hanzhou; Wan, Jifeng; Huang, Xuming

    2016-01-01

    N-(2-Chloro-4-pyridyl)-N′-phenylurea (CPPU) is a highly active cytokinin-like plant growth regulator that promotes chlorophyll biosynthesis, cell division, and cell expansion. It also increases fruit set and accelerates fruit enlargement. However, there has been no report about the effect of CPPU on fruit development and its physiological mechanism in macadamia. In this study, we investigated the effect of CPPU treatment at early fruit development via foliar spray or raceme soaking at 20 mg·L-1 on fruit set and related physiology in macadamia. Changes in carbohydrate contents and endogenous hormones in leaves, bearing shoots and fruit were also examined. Results showed that CPPU significantly reduced young fruit drop and delayed the wave of fruit drop by 1–2 weeks. The treatment significantly decreased the contents of total soluble sugars and starch in the leaves, but increased them in the bearing shoots and total soluble sugars in the husk (pericarp) and seeds. These findings suggested that CPPU promoted carbohydrate mobilization from the leaves to the fruit. In addition, CPPU increased the contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellin acid (GA3), and zeatin riboside (ZR) and decreased the abscisic acid (ABA) in the husk. Therefore, CPPU treatment reduced the early fruit drop by increasing carbohydrate availability and by modifying the balance among endogenous hormones. PMID:27387814

  1. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (DE-71)Interferes with Thyroid Hormone Action Independent Of Effects On Circulating Levels of Thyroid Hormone in Male Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological stud...

  2. Reduction in the level of antibodies against heat shock proteins 60 during different hormonal protocols in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kacalska-Janssen, Olga; Zmaczyński, Andrzej; Wyroba, Jakub; Tomczyk, Rita; Wiatr, Joanna; Gałuszka-Bednarczyk, Anna; Bereza, Tomasz; Milewicz, Tomasz; Krzysiek, Józef

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In current literature, the immune-inflammatory theory of atherosclerosis is widely discussed. The role of how heat shock proteins 60 (HSP60) lead to the development of the atheromatous plaque is especially underlined. The aim of the study is to estimate the influence of three hormonal protocols on behavior of antibodies against HSP60. It determines the state of endothelium in postmenopausal women. Material and methods The study was carried out on 90 women between 2007 and 2012. All the women were in their menopausal age (51 ± 3 years), from the south region of Poland, with a follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level above 25 mIU/ml, and with menopausal symptoms disturbing their normal daily activity. The study was done for a period of 6 months. Three groups of 30 randomized patients were formed. In the first group we used transdermal estrogen therapy in a 37.5 µg/24 h dose combined with a 10 mg dose of dydrogesterone. In the second group we applied transdermal estrogen therapy in a 50 µg/24 h dose with 2.5 mg of oral medroxyprogesterone. In both these groups, gestagens were administered continuously. In the third group, we prescribed continuous, oral, low-dose combined estrogen-gestagen therapy with 1 mg of ethinyl estradiol and 0.5 mg of norethisterone acetate. The control group consisted of 30 volunteers who were also from the south region of Poland, in good health, with menopausal symptoms, no menstrual period for the last 12 months, selected considering their age and weight, with an FSH level above 25 mIU/ml and with normal levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin. All patients treated and in the control group were seronegative to Chlamydia pneumonia for the entire duration of the study. In the analysis conducted, nonparametric tests were used (Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon test, Kruskal-Wallis test – ANOVA). Results After 6 months of hormonal therapy, we found that all schemes of treatment promote a significant reduction in

  3. The influence of medical education level on the Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum medical students' knowledge concerning oral hormonal contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Polak, Karina; Pityński, Kazimierz; Banaś, Tomasz; Bubel, Magdalena; Kałwa, Maria; Jamroga, Joanna; Knysak, Magdalena; Kusior, Magdalena; Truszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Oleksy, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In December 2014 the authors carried out a research among Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum medical students in a form of a questionnaire which consisted of two parts: personal information and multiple choice test concerning student's knowledge on OCPs. It showed that the level of medical education, defined as the year of study, increases student's knowledge about oral hormonal contraceptive pills. New program of study introduced from academic year 2012/2013 gives students wider knowledge on OCPs at earlier stage of education. Factors as female sex, usage of OCPs by student or his partner, positive attitude towards recommending OCPs to future patients show positive correlation with student's knowledge.

  4. Environmental prenatal stress eliminates brain and maternal behavioral sex differences and alters hormone levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Del Cerro, M C R; Ortega, E; Gómez, F; Segovia, S; Pérez-Laso, C

    2015-07-01

    Environmental prenatal stress (EPS) has effects on fetuses that are long-lasting, altering their hormone levels, brain morphology and behavior when they reach maturity. In previous research, we demonstrated that EPS affects the expression of induced maternal behavior (MB), the neuroendocrine system, and morphology of the sexually dimorphic accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) involved in reproductive behavior patterns. The bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) is another vomeronasal (VN) structure that plays an inhibitory role in rats in the expression of induced maternal behavior in female and male virgins. In the present study, we have ascertained whether the behavioral, neuroendocrine, and neuromorphological alterations of the AOB found after EPS also appear in the BAOT. After applying EPS to pregnant rats during the late gestational period, in their female offspring at maturity we tested induced maternal behavior, BAOT morphology and plasma levels of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (Cpd B). EPS: a) affected the induction of MB, showed a male-like pattern of care for pups, b) elevated plasma levels of Cpd B and reduced E2 in comparison with the controls, and c) significantly increased the number of BAOT neurons compared to the control females and comparable to the control male group. These findings provide further evidence that stress applied to pregnant rats produces long-lasting behavioral, endocrine and neuroanatomical alterations in the female offspring that are evident when they become mature.

  5. Hormonal relations of radiation-induced tumors of Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Campell, B.R.; Persinger, S.M.; Town, C.D. )

    1989-04-01

    When gamma-irradiated Arabidopsis seed was germinated, tumors appeared on hypocotyls and apical meristems of the resulting plants. Several tumors have been cultured on hormone free medium for over two years since excision from the plants. The tumor lines display a range of phenotypes suggestive of abnormal hormone balance. To determine whether hormone overproduction or hypersensitivity is involved in tumorigenesis, we are measuring hormone levels in the tumor lines and characterizing their response to exogenously supplied growth regulators. Growth of two tumor lines is stimulated by either NAA or BAP, one is stimulated by NAA only, two by BAP only, and one is stimulated by neither. Growth of all lines tested thus far is inhibited by gibberellic acid, ethephon and ACC. The tumor lines appear more sensitive to ACC than normal callus tissue. Most tumors studied to date appear unlikely to have arisen due to increased hormone sensitivity. Experiments are in progress to determine auxin and cytokinin levels in the tumor lines.

  6. Effects of different spawning agents on serum levels of reproductive steroid hormones and cortisol level in adult female Barbus sharpeyi (Gunther, 1874).

    PubMed

    Mohammadian, Takavar; Malekpouri, Pedram; Zare, Mojtaba; Zainodini, Mohammad Anwar

    2015-12-01

    The question of whether, as hormone therapies, spawning agents differ from each other to induce physiological pathways of gametogenesis and oocyte maturation in fish remains important, because it could modify undesirable changes, regulated by endocrine systems of individual fish. A series of experimental treatments were applied to investigate the underlying mechanism(s) in which female bunnei (Barbus sharpeyi) fish respond differently to hormone therapies. Female broodstocks were injected twice (with 12 h interval) by three different treatments namely A, B and C. The treatment A received carp pituitary extract (CPE) + luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs (LHRHα2) (0.5 mg CPE kg(-1) BW for first injection and 2 mg CPE kg(-1) BW + 10 µg LHRHα2 kg(-1) for second injection), treatment B received CPE (0.5 and 3.5 mg kg(-1) BW), and treatment C received ovaprim (0.1 and 0.15 ml kg(-1) BW). Blood samples were collected at four different time intervals, including prior to injections, 6 h after first injection, 6 h after second injection and at the time of spawning, and serum steroid hormones, including testosterone, progesterone and estradiol-17β as well as cortisol, were measured. Results showed significant increases in serum estradiol-17β following all treatments, but the most profound response was found in treatments A and B. Testosterone was higher in larger broodfish than in small-sized broodfish (>1.5 vs. <1.5 kg) in all treatments. CPE led to higher concentration of testosterone rather than two other treatments. CPE also increases the progesterone following first injection and approximately remains unchanged till the end of experiment. Change in progesterone level was only significant after second injection of ovaprim as well as after spawning compared with previous time. Linear regression analyses indicated that cortisol had adverse effects on progesterone and testosterone levels of weight group <1.5 kg. These results suggest that among inducing

  7. Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone Levels in Precocious Puberty Girls according to Stage of GnRH Agonist Treatment.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyo Kyoung; Kim, Hye Ryun; Rhie, Young Jun; Lee, Kee Hyoung

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment on the reproductive function of central precocious puberty (CPP) girls. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the ovarian function by analyzing the serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels of CPP girls. Our study included 505 CPP girls subdivided into 5 groups according to the GnRH agonist treatment stage: group A (before treatment, n = 98), group B (3 months after initiation, n = 103), group C (12 months after initiation, n = 101), group D (24 months after initiation, n = 101), and group E (6 months after discontinuation, n = 102). We compared the serum AMH levels of the CPP girls with those of 100 bone age-matched controls (before treatment: n = 55; after discontinuation: n = 45). At baseline, the mean AMH level of the CPP girls was 5.9 ± 3.6 ng/mL. The mean AMH level after 3 months of the GnRH agonist treatment was lower (4.7 ± 3.2 ng/mL, P = 0.047) than that at baseline and recovered after 12 months of treatment. Six months after discontinuation, the AMH levels were similar to those at pre-treatment. Before and after the GnRH agonist treatment, the AMH levels were similar to those of the bone age-matched controls. In the precocious puberty girls, the AMH levels based on the GnRH agonist treatment stage were all within the normal reference range. The results of this study suggest that GnRH agonist treatment has no adverse effects on the reproductive function.

  8. Steroid hormone receptor gene expression in human breast cancer cells: inverse relationship between oestrogen and glucocorticoid receptor messenger RNA levels.

    PubMed

    Hall, R E; Lee, C S; Alexander, I E; Shine, J; Clarke, C L; Sutherland, R L

    1990-12-15

    The relative expression in human breast cancer cells of messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNA) encoding different steroid hormone receptors is unknown. Accordingly, mRNA levels in total RNA extracted from 13 human breast cancer cell lines were measured by Northern analysis employing complementary DNA probes for the human oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), androgen (AR), vitamin D3 (VDR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR). The 7 ER+ lines expressed a single 6.4 kilobases (kb) ER mRNA. Interestingly, low concentrations of ER mRNA were detected in the ER- cell lines, MDA-MB-330 and BT 20. PR mRNA, predominantly a 13.5 kb species, was expressed in the 6 lines known to be ER+, PR+ by radioligand binding; however, one ER+ cell line, MDA-MB-134, failed to express PR mRNA. A 10.5 kb AR mRNA was expressed at significantly higher levels in ER+ than ER- cell lines. All cell lines expressed a single 4.6 kb mRNA for VDR and a single 7.4 kb mRNA for GR. ER and PR mRNA levels were positively correlated (p = 0.011) and each was positively correlated with androgen receptor (AR) mRNA levels (p less than or equal to 0.009). ER, PR and AR mRNAs were negatively associated with GR levels (p less than or equal to 0.012), while ER and AR mRNA levels were negatively correlated with mRNA for the epidermal growth factor receptor. In contrast, levels of VDR mRNA were unrelated to the concentration of any other steroid receptor mRNA. Our data demonstrate the coordinate expression of ER, PR and AR genes, and an inverse relationship between sex steroid hormone receptor and GR gene expression in human breast cancer cell lines.

  9. Genetic evidence that raised sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Perry, John R.B.; Weedon, Michael N.; Langenberg, Claudia; Jackson, Anne U.; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Sparsø, Thomas; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Grallert, Harald; Ferrucci, Luigi; Maggio, Marcello; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Walker, Mark; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Payne, Felicity; Young, Elizabeth; Herder, Christian; Narisu, Narisu; Morken, Mario A.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Owen, Katharine R.; Shields, Beverley; Knight, Beatrice; Bennett, Amanda; Groves, Christopher J.; Ruokonen, Aimo; Jarvelin, Marjo Riitta; Pearson, Ewan; Pascoe, Laura; Ferrannini, Ele; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Stringham, Heather M.; Scott, Laura J.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Nilsson, Peter; Neptin, Malin; Gjesing, Anette P.; Pisinger, Charlotta; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbaek, Annelli; Sampson, Mike; Zeggini, MAGIC, Ele; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Hansen, Torben; Schwarz, Peter; Illig, Thomas; Laakso, Markku; Stefansson, Kari; Morris, Andrew D.; Groop, Leif; Pedersen, Oluf; Boehnke, Michael; Barroso, Inês; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Frayling, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions of epidemiological associations because genotypes are much less likely to be confounded, biased or influenced by disease processes. Using this Mendelian randomization principle, we selected a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the SHBG gene, rs1799941, that is strongly associated with SHBG levels. We used data from this SNP, or closely correlated SNPs, in 27 657 type 2 diabetes patients and 58 481 controls from 15 studies. We then used data from additional studies to estimate the difference in SHBG levels between type 2 diabetes patients and controls. The SHBG SNP rs1799941 was associated with type 2 diabetes [odds ratio (OR) 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.97; P = 2 × 10−5], with the SHBG raising allele associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. This effect was very similar to that expected (OR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96), given the SHBG-SNP versus SHBG levels association (SHBG levels are 0.2 standard deviations higher per copy of the A allele) and the SHBG levels versus type 2 diabetes association (SHBG levels are 0.23 standard deviations lower in type 2 diabetic patients compared to controls). Results were very similar in men and women. There was no evidence that this variant is associated with diabetes-related intermediate traits, including several measures of insulin secretion and resistance. Our results, together with those from another recent genetic study, strengthen evidence that SHBG and sex hormones are involved in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes. PMID:19933169

  10. Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone Levels in Precocious Puberty Girls according to Stage of GnRH Agonist Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment on the reproductive function of central precocious puberty (CPP) girls. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the ovarian function by analyzing the serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels of CPP girls. Our study included 505 CPP girls subdivided into 5 groups according to the GnRH agonist treatment stage: group A (before treatment, n = 98), group B (3 months after initiation, n = 103), group C (12 months after initiation, n = 101), group D (24 months after initiation, n = 101), and group E (6 months after discontinuation, n = 102). We compared the serum AMH levels of the CPP girls with those of 100 bone age-matched controls (before treatment: n = 55; after discontinuation: n = 45). At baseline, the mean AMH level of the CPP girls was 5.9 ± 3.6 ng/mL. The mean AMH level after 3 months of the GnRH agonist treatment was lower (4.7 ± 3.2 ng/mL, P = 0.047) than that at baseline and recovered after 12 months of treatment. Six months after discontinuation, the AMH levels were similar to those at pre-treatment. Before and after the GnRH agonist treatment, the AMH levels were similar to those of the bone age-matched controls. In the precocious puberty girls, the AMH levels based on the GnRH agonist treatment stage were all within the normal reference range. The results of this study suggest that GnRH agonist treatment has no adverse effects on the reproductive function. PMID:28145651

  11. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level and relation with size of hippocampus in patients with mild cognitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Daghighi, Mohammad-Hossein; Poureisa, Masoud; Ahmadi, Pegah; Reshadatjoo, Mahmoud; Golestani, Sahar; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Karkon-Shayan, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive disorders and dementia are common problems, and Alzheimer's disease is one of the major leading causes of death worldwide. Thyroid hormone disorders as a common problem effect on hippocampus size which as a prognostic factor in dementia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level and the size of hippocampus in patients with mild cognitive disorders. Materials and Methods: In a descriptive-analytical study, 41 patients with symptoms of mild cognitive disorders whom referred to take the brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) in a radiology center under the direction of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Tabriz, Iran) were evaluated. The right and left hippocampal and brain volume was calculated by MRI at coronal T1-weighted. Serum TSH level was also measured in these patients. Correlation between serum TSH level and hippocampal volume size was evaluated. Results: Male to female ratio was 1.05:1 with mean age of 54.09 ± 3.11 years. Mean serum TSH level of patients was 1.55 ± 1.45 uU/ml. The right and left hippocampal volumes were 1.61 ± 0.42 and 1.62 ± 0.39 ml, respectively. There were slight negative correlations between the right and left hippocampal volumes with TSH level (r = −0.133 and r = −0.092, respectively). Correlations between the right and left hippocampal volumes with TSH level were not statistically significant (P = 0.406, P = 0.566, respectively). Conclusion: Based on findings of the present study, there was a weak negative correlation between serum level of TSH with the right and left hippocampal and brain volume ratio, but the correlation was not statistically significant. It seems that controlling of clinical or subclinical hypothyroidism may have a role in slowing of dementia progression and also have a preventive role. PMID:27942104

  12. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was

  13. The effect of low and high plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on the morphology of major organs: studies of Laron dwarf and bovine growth hormone transgenic (bGHTg) mice.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Sylwia J; Wiszniewska, Barbara; Laszczyńska, Maria; Słuczanowska-Głabowska, Sylwia; Havens, Aaron M; Kopchick, John J; Bartke, Andrzej; Taichman, Russel S; Kucia, Magda; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2013-10-01

    It is well known that somatotrophic/insulin signaling affects lifespan in experimental animals. To study the effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plasma level on the morphology of major organs, we analyzed lung, heart, liver, kidney, bone marrow, and spleen isolated from 2-year-old growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-KO) Laron dwarf mice (with low circulating plasma levels of IGF-1) and 6-month-old bovine growth hormone transgenic (bGHTg) mice (with high circulating plasma levels of IGF-1). The ages of the two mutant strains employed in our studies were selected based on their overall ~50% survival (Laron dwarf mice live up to ~4 years and bGHTg mice up to ~1 year). Morphological analysis of the organs of long-living 2-year-old Laron dwarf mice revealed a lower biological age for their organs compared with normal littermates, with more brown adipose tissue (BAT) surrounding the main body organs, lower levels of steatosis in liver, and a lower incidence of leukocyte infiltration in different organs. By contrast, the organs of 6-month-old, short-living bGHTg mice displayed several abnormalities in liver and kidney and a reduced content of BAT around vital organs.

  14. Ascorbic acid treatment elevates follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone plasma levels and enhances sperm quality in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Utuk, Ikponoabasi Ibanga

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility issues have been linked to the effect of oxidative reaction in the reproductive system. This study evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid, on fertility parameters of male albino Wistar rats was studied. Materials and Methods: Eighteen albino Wistar rats weighed between 178 g and 241 g were used, randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 was the control group; oral gavaged 5 ml of distilled water; Groups 2 and 3 were administered medium dose (250 mg/kg) and high dose of ascorbic acid (400 mg/kg), respectively; twice daily for 21 days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture, and blood serum was obtained for hormonal assay, and the testes were harvested for sperm analysis. Results: Follicle stimulating hormone levels significantly increased in the high-dose group as compared to both the control and medium dose groups. Luteinizing hormone levels in the medium dose group decreased significantly as compared to the control group. Testosterone significantly increased in both the medium- and high-dose groups as compared to the control group. Sperm motility increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to both control and medium-dose groups. Percentage sperm concentration decreased significantly in the medium-dose group when compared to the control and increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to the medium-dose group. For percentage normal morphology, there was a dose-dependent increase in the test groups when compared to control group. Conclusion: These results are indicative of a positive influence of ascorbic acid on male fertility modulators and may therefore, serve as a potential adjuvant treatment for male infertility cases. PMID:27185976

  15. Growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) increases free arachidonate levels in the pituitary: a role for lipoxygenase products

    SciTech Connect

    Canonico, P.L.; Speciale, C.; Sortino, M.A.; Cronin, M.J.; MacLeod, R.M.; Scapagnini, U.

    1986-01-20

    GRF, a specific stimulator of GH release, increased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner pituitary (/sup 3/H)-arachidonate levels in vitro. This effect was antagonized by 100 nM somatostatin. Exogenous arachidonate also stimulated GH release in vitro. Quinacrine, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor, reduced both basal and GRF-stimulated free arachidonate levels as well as GH release. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin was ineffective, while BW755c, which also inhibits the lipoxygenase pathway, produced a further increase in the levels of the fatty acid stimulated by GRF and potently reduced GH release. These results provide additional evidence for the involvement of arachidonate metabolism in the hormone-releasing effect of GRF at the somatotroph. 14 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  16. Influence of age and juvenile hormone on brain dopamine level in male honeybee (Apis mellifera): association with reproductive maturation.

    PubMed

    Harano, Ken-ichi; Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi; Sasaki, Masami

    2008-05-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a major functional biogenic amine in insects and has been suggested to regulate reproduction in female honeybees. However, its function has not been investigated in male drones. To clarify developmental changes of DA in drones, brain DA levels were investigated at various ages and showed a similar pattern to the previously reported juvenile hormone (JH) hemolymph titer. The DA level was lowest at emergence and peaked at day 7 or 8, followed by decline. Application of JH analog increased brain DA levels in young drones (2-4-days-old), suggesting regulation of DA by JH in drones. In young drones, maturation of male reproductive organs closely matched the increase in brain DA. The dry weight of testes decreased and that of seminal vesicles increased from emergence to day 8. The dry weight of mucus glands increased up to day 4. Consequently, DA regulated by JH might have reproductive behavior and/or physiological functions in drones.

  17. Influence of genetic abnormalities on semen quality and male fertility: A four-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Elfateh, Fadlalla; Wang, Ruixue; Zhang, Zhihong; Jiang, Yuting; Chen, Shuang; Liu, Ruizhi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wide range of disorders ranging from genetic disorders to coital difficulties can influence male fertility. In this regard, genetic factors are highlighted as the most frequent, contributed to 10-15%, of male infertility causes. Objective: To investigate the influence of genetic abnormalities on semen quality and reproductive hormone levels of infertile men from Northeast China. Materials and Methods: 2034 infertile men including 691 patients with abnormal sperm parameters were investigated retrospectively. Semen analysis was performed according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Y chromosome micro deletions were detected by polymerase chain reaction assays. Chromosome analysis was performed using G-banding. Results: The incidence of abnormal chromosomal karyotype in the patients with abnormal sperm parameters was 12.01% (83/691). The most frequent cause was Klinefelter's syndrome 37.35% (31/83). As the same as chromosomal abnormalities group, the volumes of testes (p=0.000 and 0.000, respectively) and the levels of testosterone (T) (p=0.000), and testosterone/ luteinizing hormone (T/LH) (p=0.000) of patients with Y chromosome micro deletions were significantly lower than those of fertile group. In addition, the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (p=0.000), and luteinizing hormone (LH) (p=0.000) were significantly higher in patients with Y chromosome micro deletions than those in the fertile group. Translocation abnormalities displayed slight effect on sperm motility. Conclusion: Y chromosome micro deletions and sex chromosome disorders particularly Klinefelter’s (47, XXY), have severe adverse influence on normal hormone levels, testicular volume and sperm count, whereas translocation abnormalities may inversely correlate with sperm motility. PMID:24799866

  18. Oral phosphorus supplementation secondarily increases circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 levels at least partially via stimulation of parathyroid hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Takasugi, Satoshi; Akutsu, Miho; Nagata, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Oral phosphorus supplementation stimulates fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secretion; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in increased plasma FGF23 levels after oral phosphorus supplementation in rats. Rats received single dose of phosphate with concomitant subcutaneous injection of saline or human PTH (1-34) after treatment with cinacalcet or its vehicle. Cinacalcet is a drug that acts as an allosteric activator of the calcium-sensing receptor and reduces PTH secretion. Plasma phosphorus and PTH levels significantly increased 1 h after oral phosphorus administration and returned to basal levels within 3 h, while plasma FGF23 levels did not change up to 2 h post-treatment, but rather significantly increased at 3 h after administration and maintained higher levels for at least 6 h compared with the 0 time point. Plasma PTH and FGF23 levels were significantly lower in the cinacalcet-treated rats than in the vehicle-treated rats. Plasma phosphorus levels were significantly higher in the cinacalcet-treated rats than in the vehicle-treated rats at 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after oral phosphorus administration. Furthermore, rats treated with cinacalcet+human PTH (1-34) showed transiently but significantly higher plasma FGF23 levels at 3 h after oral phosphorus administration compared with cinacalcet-treated rats. These results suggest that oral phosphorus supplementation secondarily increases circulating FGF23 levels at least partially by stimulation of PTH secretion.

  19. Dependency of maximum goitrogenic response on some minimal level of thyroid hormone production

    SciTech Connect

    March, B.E.; Poon, R.

    1981-04-01

    Thyroidal activity was studied in chicks given dietary thiouracil in conjunction with daily doses of thyroxine and with diets adequate and deficient in iodine. DL-thyroxine administered at doses up to 1.0 microgram per day for 10 to 12 days had no effect or slightly increased thyroid weight. Both the epithelial and colloid components of the thyroid gland were increased in response to thiouracil and to thiouracil in combination with low dosages of exogenous thyroxine. Radioiodine uptake was increased above the control with thiouracil and with thiouracil in conjunction with .5 and 1.0 microgram DL-thyroxine given daily. Birds receiving thiouracil, with and without exogenous thyroxine, showed a different pattern of radioiodine uptake and release than the control birds. Thiouracil-treated birds showed a rapid uptake of iodine following its administration, which was followed by a rapid decline immediately after peak accumulation, whereas in control birds thyroidal radioiodine concentration reached a plateau at the maximum concentration attained. The goitrogenic response to thiouracil was much greater when the diet was supplemented with iodine than when the diet was iodine-deficient. Thyroids under iodine deficiency contained greater percentages of epithelial tissue than with iodine-supplemented diets. Thyroid glands of chicks given thiouracil in an iodine-supplemented diet contained much more colloid than glands from iodine-deficient chicks with or without thiouracil. DL-thyroxine at a dosage of .5 microgram per day to chicks given thiouracil in an iodine-adequate diet increased, whereas higher dosages decreased thyroidal colloid. It is concluded that some minimal concentration of thyroid hormone is required for maximum goitrogenic response. It is not clear whether the response is entirely due to an effect on thyrotropin production or whether there is an effect of thyroid hormone on the thyroid gland itself.

  20. Treatment with N- and C-Terminal Peptides of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Partly Compensate the Skeletal Abnormalities in IGF-I Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Lozano, Daniel; Cediel, Rafael; Esbrit, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency causes growth delay, and IGF-I has been shown to partially mediate bone anabolism by parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is abundant in bone, and has osteogenic features by poorly defined mechanisms. We here examined the capacity of PTHrP (1–36) and PTHrP (107–111) (osteostatin) to reverse the skeletal alterations associated with IGF-I deficiency. Igf1-null mice and their wild type littermates were treated with each PTHrP peptide (80 µg/Kg/every other day/2 weeks; 2 males and 4 females for each genotype) or saline vehicle (3 males and 3 females for each genotype). We found that treatment with either PTHrP peptide ameliorated trabecular structure in the femur in both genotypes. However, these peptides were ineffective in normalizing the altered cortical structure at this bone site in Igf1-null mice. An aberrant gene expression of factors associated with osteoblast differentiation and function, namely runx2, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ratio, Wnt3a, cyclin D1, connexin 43, catalase and Gadd45, as well as in osteocyte sclerostin, was found in the long bones of Igf1-null mice. These mice also displayed a lower amount of trabecular osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis than those in wild type mice. These alterations in Igf1-null mice were only partially corrected by each PTHrP peptide treatment. The skeletal expression of Igf2, Igf1 receptor and Irs2 was increased in Igf1-null mice, and this compensatory profile was further improved by treatment with each PTHrP peptide related to ERK1/2 and FoxM1 activation. In vitro, PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin were effective in promoting bone marrow stromal cell mineralization in normal mice but not in IGF-I-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin can exert several osteogenic actions even in the absence of IGF-I in the mouse bone. PMID:24503961

  1. Effects of aqueous extract from Asparagus officinalis L. roots on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels and the number of ovarian follicles in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Karimi Jashni, Hojatollah; Kargar Jahromi, Hossein; Ghorbani Ranjbary, Ali; Kargar Jahromi, Zahra; Khabbaz Kherameh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asparagus is a plant with high nutritional, pharmaceutical, and industrial values. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of asparagus roots on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and oogenesis in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups, which consist 8 rats. Groups included control, sham and three experimental groups receiving different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/bw) of aqueous extract of asparagus roots. All dosages were administered orally for 28 days. Blood samples were taken from rats to evaluate serum levels of Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinal hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone hormones. The ovaries were removed, weighted, sectioned, and studied by light microscope. Results: Dose-dependent aqueous extract of asparagus roots significantly increased serum levels of GnRH, FSH, LH, estrogen, and progestin hormones compared to control and sham groups. Increase in number of ovarian follicles and corpus luteum in groups treated with asparagus root extract was also observed (p<0.05). Conclusion: Asparagus roots extract stimulates secretion of hypothalamic- pituitary- gonadal axis hormones. This also positively affects oogenesis in female rats. PMID:27200420

  2. Abnormal epigenetic regulation of the gene expression levels of Wnt2b and Wnt7b: Implications for neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Bai, Baoling; Chen, Shuyuan; Zhang, Qin; Jiang, Qian; Li, Huili

    2016-01-01

    The association between Wnt genes and neural tube defects (NTDs) is recognized, however, it remains to be fully elucidated. Our previous study demonstrated that epigenetic mechanisms are affected in human NTDs. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate whether Wnt2b and Wnt7b are susceptible to abnormal epigenetic modification in NTDs, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays to evaluate histone enrichments and the MassARRAY platform to detect the methylation levels of target regions within Wnt genes. The results demonstrated that the transcriptional activities of Wnt2b and Wnt7b were abnormally upregulated in mouse fetuses with NTDs and, in the GC‑rich promoters of these genes, histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) acetylation was enriched, whereas H3K27 trimethylation was reduced. Furthermore, several CpG sites in the altered histone modification of target regions were significantly hypomethylated. The present study also detected abnormal epigenetic modifications of these Wnt genes in human NTDs. In conclusion, the present study detected abnormal upregulation in the levels of Wnt2b and Wnt7b, and hypothesized that the alterations may be due to the ectopic opening of chromatin structure. These results improve understanding of the dysregulation of epigenetic modification of Wnt genes in NTDs.

  3. Effects of maintenance lithium treatment on serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels: a retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Umberto; De Cori, David; Aguglia, Andrea; Barbaro, Francesca; Lanfranco, Fabio; Bogetto, Filippo; Maina, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study was to evaluate the effects of maintenance lithium treatment on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels. Methods A retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study design was used. Data were collected from the database of a tertiary psychiatric center covering the years 2010–2014. Included were bipolar patients who had never been exposed to lithium and had lithium started, and who had PTH, and total and ionized calcium levels available before and during lithium treatment. Paired t-tests were used to analyze changes in PTH and calcium levels. Linear regressions were performed, with mean lithium level and duration of lithium exposure as independent variables and change in PTH levels as dependent variable. Results A total 31 patients were included. The mean duration of lithium treatment was 18.6±11.4 months. PTH levels significantly increased during lithium treatment (+13.55±14.20 pg/mL); the rate of hyperparathyroidism was 12.9%. Neither total nor ionized calcium increased from baseline to follow-up; none of our patients developed hypercalcemia. Linear regressions analyses did not show an effect of duration of lithium exposure or mean lithium level on PTH levels. Conclusion Lithium-associated stimulation of parathyroid function is more common than assumed to date. Among parameters to be evaluated prior to lithium implementation, calcium and PTH should be added. PMID:26229473

  4. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Córdova, A; Vega, K; Chung, A; Villena, A; Góñez, C

    2003-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a Peruvian hypocotyl that grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m in the central Andes. Maca is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing properties. This study was a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel trial in which active treatment with different doses of Maca Gelatinizada was compared with a placebo. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that Maca has no effect on serum reproductive hormone levels in apparently healthy men when administered in doses used for aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing properties. Men aged between 21 and 56 Years received 1500 mg or 3000 mg Maca. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and 17-beta estradiol were measured before and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment with placebo or Maca (1.5 g or 3.0 g per day). Data showed that compared with placebo Maca had no effect on any of the hormones studied nor did the hormones show any changes over time. Multiple regression analysis showed that serum testosterone levels were not affected by treatment with Maca at any of the times studied (P, not significant). In conclusion, treatment with Maca does not affect serum reproductive hormone levels.

  5. Effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist on gonadotropin levels in Masu salmon and Sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Amano, Masafumi; Ikuta, Kazumasa; Kitamura, Shoji

    2007-09-01

    The salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) is considered to be involved in gonadal maturation via gonadotropin (GTH) secretion in salmonid fishes. However, there is no direct evidence for endogenous sGnRH-stimulated GTH secretion in salmonids. In this study, to clarify whether endogenous sGnRH stimulates GTH secretion, we examined the effects of the mammalian GnRH (mGnRH) antagonist [Ac-Delta(3)-Pro(1), 4FD-Phe(2), D-Trp(3,6)]-mGnRH on luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in 0-year-old masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou and sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. First, the effects of the GnRH antagonist on LH release were examined in 0-year-old precocious male masu salmon. GnRH antagonist treatment for 3 hr significantly inhibited an increase in plasma LH levels that was artificially induced by exogenous sGnRH administration, indicating that the GnRH antagonist is effective in inhibiting LH release from the pituitary. Subsequently, we examined the effect of the GnRH antagonist on LH synthesis in 0-year-old immature sockeye salmon that were pretreated with exogenous testosterone for 42 days to increase the pituitary LH contents; the testosterone treatment did not affect the plasma LH levels. GnRH antagonist treatment slightly but significantly inhibited an increase in the testosterone-stimulated pituitary LH content levels. However, no significant differences in the plasma LH levels were observed between the GnRH antagonist-treated and control groups. These results suggest that endogenous sGnRH is involved in LH secretion in salmonid fishes.

  6. Event-related brain potentials to emotional images and gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia and paired controls

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Julie; Mendrek, Adrianna; Germain, Martine; Hot, Pascal; Lavoie, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Prominent disturbances in the experience, expression, and emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia have been relatively well documented over the last few years. Furthermore, sex differences in behavior and brain activity, associated with the processing of various emotions, have been reported in the general population and in schizophrenia patients. Others proposed that sex differences should be rather attributed to testosterone, which may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Also, it had been suggested that estradiol may play a protective role in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, few studies investigating this pathology have focused on both brain substrates and gonadal steroid hormone levels, in emotional processing. In the present study, we investigated electrocortical responses related to emotional valence and arousal as well as gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia. Event-Related Potentials (ERP) were recorded during exposition to emotional pictures in 18 patients with schizophrenia and in 24 control participants paired on intelligence, manual dominance and socioeconomic status. Given their previous sensitivity to emotional and attention processes, the P200, N200 and the P300 were selected for analysis. More precisely, emotional valence generally affects early components (N200), which reflect early process of selective attention, whereas emotional arousal and valence both influences the P300 component, which is related to memory context updating, and stimulus categorization. Results showed that, in the control group, the amplitude of the N200 was significantly more lateralized over the right hemisphere, while there was no such lateralization in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, significantly smaller anterior P300 amplitude was observed to the unpleasant, compared to the pleasant. That anterior P300 reduction was also correlated with negative symptoms. The N200 and P300 amplitudes were positively

  7. Changes in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels induced by intracerebroventricular injection of histamine and its related compounds in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, S; Kamei, C; Yoshida, T; Tasaka, K

    1993-08-01

    Changes in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels induced by intracerebroventricular injection of histamine (H(i)) were studied in dogs. Intracerebroventricular administration of Hi at doses of 5 and 10 micrograms/kg caused a significant increase in plasma ACTH, while more rapid and more marked increase in plasma cortisol was noticed after Hi injection at doses of 2-10 micrograms/kg. Similar results were obtained when 2-methylhistamine was injected; remarkable increases in both plasma ACTH and cortisol levels were observed at doses of 25 and 50 micrograms/kg. However, no such effect was elicited by 4-methylhistamine even at a dose of 50 micrograms/kg. The rate of plasma cortisol increase induced by either Hi or 2-methylhistamine was significantly faster than that of plasma ACTH. Simultaneous application of pyrilamine (intracerebroventricularly) with H(i) resulted in the significant inhibition of H(i)-induced hormone secretions, but in similar administration neither ACTH nor cortisol were affected by cimetidine. In hypophysectomized dogs, a significant increase in plasma cortisol level was also observed after H(i) injection at a dose of 5 micrograms/kg. Intravenous infusion of hexamethonium continued before and after H(i) injection failed to inhibit the increase in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels induced by H(i). From these findings, it can be concluded that intracerebroventricular injection of H(i) caused an increase in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels via H1-receptor, and it is suggested that to some extent, the cortisol release elicited by H(i) is certainly produced without participation of ACTH.

  8. Ping-pong amplification of a retroviral vector achieves high-level gene expression: human growth hormone production.

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, S L; Kabat, D

    1990-01-01

    Retroviral vectors offer major advantages for gene transfer studies but have not been useful for producing proteins in large quantities. This deficiency has resulted in part from interference to superinfection, which limits the numbers of active proviruses in cells. Recently, we found that these vectors amplify when they are added as calcium phosphate precipitates to cocultures of cells that package retroviruses into ecotropic and amphotropic host range envelopes. Helper-free virions from either cell type can infect the other without interference, resulting in theoretically limitless back-and-forth (ping-pong) vector replication. In initial studies, however, amplifications of a vector that contained the human growth hormone gene ceased when the hormone produced was 0.3% or less of cellular protein synthesis. This limit was caused by two factors. First, recombinant shutoff viruses that are replication defective and encode envelope glycoproteins form at a low probability during any round of the vector replication cycle and these spread in cocultures, thereby establishing interference. Single cells in shutoff cocultures therefore synthesize both ecotropic and amphotropic envelope glycoproteins, and they release promiscuous (presumably hybrid) virions. The probability of forming shutoff viruses before the vector had amplified to a high multiplicity was reduced by using small cocultures. Second, cells with large numbers of proviruses are unhealthy and their proviral expression can be unstable. Stable expresser cell clones were obtained by selection. Thereby, cell lines were readily obtained that stably produce human growth hormone as 4 to 6% of the total protein synthesis. A ping-pong retroviral vector can be used for high-level protein production in vertebrate cells. Images PMID:2352330

  9. Hormonal causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL).

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Nicola; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Wenger, Jean Marie; Petignat, Patrick; Streuli, Isabelle; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disorders play a major role in approximately 8% to 12% of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Indeed, the local hormonal milieu is crucial in both embryo attachment and early pregnancy. Endocrine abnormalities, including thyroid disorders, luteal phase defects, polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperprolactinaemia and diabetes have to be evaluated in any case of RPL. Moreover, elevated androgen levels and some endocrinological aspects of endometriosis are also factors contributing to RPL. In the present article, we review the significance of endocrine disease on RPL.

  10. Phylogeny of suckermouth catfishes (Mochokidae: Chiloglanis) from Kenya: the utility of Growth Hormone introns in species level phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ray C; Bart, Henry L; Nyingi, Dorothy Wanja; Gichuki, Nathan Ndegwa

    2014-10-01

    African suckermouth catfishes (Mochokidae: Chiloglanis) occur in freshwater throughout tropical Africa. Specimens from all major drainages across Kenya were collected over three field seasons. Here we present a phylogeny inferred from both mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) and introns of the nuclear Growth Hormone gene (GH). The phylogeny inferred from introns is largely congruent with the results from an analysis of cyt b. The length and variability of GH introns make them ideal species level nuclear markers without the problem of introgression commonly encountered with mitochondrial genes. This analysis confirmed the presence of two previously known undescribed Chiloglanis species and also suggests the presence of previously unknown diversity within the Athi River system. The resulting phylogeny also indicates the presence of two separate lineages within C. brevibarbis. The historical biogeography of Chiloglanis within Kenya is discussed. The utility of GH intron for species level phylogenies of Siluriformes is compared to that in other groups.

  11. Plasma hormone levels in the green turtles Chelonia mydas during peak period of nesting at Ras Al-Hadd-Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Habsi, A A; Alkindi, A Y A; Mahmoud, I Y; Owens, D W; Khan, T; Al-Abri, Aisha

    2006-10-01

    Circulating estradiol (E(2)), progesterone (Pro), testosterone, and corticosterone (B) levels were monitored in the green turtles Chelonia mydas during different nesting phases. Successful nesting includes emergence from sea, chamber and nest excavation, oviposition, burying the nest, and returning to sea. Unsuccessful nesting includes chamber and nest excavations but without oviposition. Blood samples were taken from the cervical sinus and collected within 5-min of capture to minimize stress. The samples were collected between 2000 and 0100 h during the peak season (May-October). High-performance liquid chromatography using a u.v. detection system coupled with tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry was used to measure B. Plasma B levels were significantly higher in successful and unsuccessful phases over emergence and excavation phases. However, B levels in successful versus unsuccessful or emergence versus excavation phases were not significantly different. Plasma steroid levels were measured by the Coat-A-Count RIA technique. Pro levels were significantly higher (P<0.005) in successful over unsuccessful turtles and also successful turtles over turtles in the other phases (P<0.01). The Pro levels immediately after nesting were found to be higher than that reported previously. Plasma testosterone values were higher in successful turtles but not significantly different from the turtles in other phases. Estrogen levels were undetected in all phases. Overall, the hormone values during different phases of nesting may play a major role in formulating the nesting behavior and physiology of the nesting activities in the green turtle.

  12. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Interrelationship between feeding level and the metabolic hormones leptin, ghrelin and obestatin in control of chicken egg laying and release of ovarian hormones.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Grossmann, Roland

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present experiment is to examine the role of nutritional status, metabolic hormones and their interrelationships in the control of chicken ovarian ovulatory and secretory activity. For this purpose, we identified the effect of food restriction, administration of leptin, ghrelin 1-18, obestatin and combinations of food restriction with these hormones for 3days on chicken ovulation (egg laying) rate and ovarian hormone release. The release of progesterone (P), testosterone (T), estradiol (E) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) by isolated and cultured ovarian fragments was determined by EIA. It was observed that food restriction significantly reduced the egg-laying rate, T, E and AVT release and promoted P output by ovarian fragments. Leptin, administrated to ad libitum-fed chickens, did not change these parameters besides promoting E release. Nevertheless, administration of leptin was able to prevent the effect of food restriction on ovulation, T and E (but not P or AVT) release. Ghrelin 1-18 administration to ad libitum-fed birds did not affect the measured parameters besides a reduction in P release. Ghrelin 1-18 administration prevented the food restriction-induced decrease in ovarian T, E and AVT, but it did not change P output or egg laying. Obestatin administrated to control chicken promoted their ovarian P, E and inhibited ovarian AVT release but did not affect egg laying. It was able to promote the effect of food restriction on P, T and AVT, but not E release or egg laying. Our results (1) confirm an inhibitory effect of food restriction on chicken ovulation rate; (2) shows that food restriction-induced reduction in egg laying is associated with a decrease in ovarian T, E and AVT and an increase in ovarian P release; (3) confirm the involvement of metabolic hormones leptin, ghrelin and obestatin in the control of chicken ovarian hormones output; and (4) the ability of metabolic hormones to mimic/antagonize or prevent/promote the effects of food

  14. Impact of 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure on main male reproductive hormone levels: a Rattus norvegicus model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Saeb, Mehdi; Nazifi, Saeed; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Jelodar, Gholamali; Saeb, Saeedeh

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure on the reproductive system of male rats, assessed by measuring circulating levels of FSH, LH, inhibin B, activin B, prolactin, and testosterone. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (180 ± 10 g) were exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMF in four equal separated groups. The duration of exposure was 1, 2, and 4 h/day over a period of 30 days and sham-exposed animals were kept under the same environmental conditions as the exposed group except with no RF-EMF exposure. Before the exposure, at 15 and 30 days of exposure, determination of the abovementioned hormone levels was performed using ELISA. At the end of the experiment, FSH and LH values of the long time exposure (LTE) group were significantly higher than the sham-exposed group ( p < 0.05). Serum activin B and prolactin in the LTE group showed significant increase and inhibin B showed significant decrease than sham and short time exposed (STE) groups after 30 days RF-EMF exposure ( p < 0.05). Also, a significant decrease in serum testosterone levels in the LTE group was found compared to short and moderate time exposed (MTE) groups after 30 days RF-EMF exposure ( p < 0.05). Results suggest that reproductive hormone levels are disturbed as a result of RF-EMF exposure and it may possibly affect reproductive functions. However, testosterone and inhibin B concentrations as a fertility marker and spermatogenesis were decreased significantly.

  15. Hormonal modulators of glial ABCA1 and apoE levels[S

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianjia; Shimizu, Yoko; Chan, Jeniffer; Wilkinson, Anna; Ito, Ayaka; Tontonoz, Peter; Dullaghan, Edie; Galea, Liisa A. M.; Pfeifer, Tom; Wellington, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is the major lipid carrier in the central nervous system. As apoE plays a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and also mediates repair pathways after several forms of acute brain injury, modulating the expression, secretion, or function of apoE may provide potential therapeutic approaches for several neurological disorders. Here we show that progesterone and a synthetic progestin, lynestrenol, significantly induce apoE secretion from human CCF-STTG1 astrocytoma cells, whereas estrogens and the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone have negligible effects. Intriguingly, lynestrenol also increases expression of the cholesterol transporter ABCA1 in CCF-STTG1 astrocytoma cells, primary murine glia, and immortalized murine astrocytes that express human apoE3. The progesterone receptor inhibitor RU486 attenuates the effect of progestins on apoE expression in CCF-STTG1 astrocytoma cells but has no effect on ABCA1 expression in all glial cell models tested, suggesting that the progesterone receptor (PR) may participate in apoE but does not affect ABCA1 regulation.These results suggest that selective reproductive steroid hormones have the potential to influence glial lipid homeostasis through liver X receptor-dependent and progesterone receptor-dependent pathways. PMID:23999864

  16. [Effect of the geographic factor and technological regimen on thyroid hormone levels in Camborough hybrid pigs].

    PubMed

    Georgiev, P; Petkov, P I

    1986-01-01

    Qualitative analyses were carried out of the thyroid hormones (T-3, T-4, and FT-4 indices) with a total of 380 pigs of the Camborough hybrid at the age of one to four months, raised at the nucleus base of a swine-breeding complex. Analyzed was the effect of the technologic regime, the geographic location of swine-breeding complexes, and the economic purpose of the animals on the quantitative changes in the indices studied. Based on the statistical analysis the reliable intervals of the physiologic values of the T-3, T-4, and FT-4 under the conditions of the individual complexes were found to be 0.52-0.82, 0.7-1.8: 0.62-1.1, 0.61-0.99, and 0.74-1.26; 5-12, 3.6-8.9, 3.16, 2.0-10.0, and 3.8-7.7 ng/100 ml; 0.60-1.3, 0.7-1.17, 0.69-1.18, 0.73-1.03, and 0.86-1.13.

  17. Hormone therapy in acne.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2013-01-01

    Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  18. Comparative analysis of endogenous hormones level in two soybean (Glycine max L.) lines differing in waterlogging tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon-Ha; Hwang, Sun-Joo; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul L.; Lee, Joon-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Nguyen, Henry T.; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogged condition due to flooding is one of the major abiotic stresses that drastically affect the soybean growth and yield around the world. As a result, many breeders have focused on the development of waterlogging tolerance in soybean varieties, and thus, several tolerant varieties were developed. However, the physiological mechanism of waterlogging tolerance is not yet fully understood. We particularly studied the endogenous hormones regulation during waterlogging in two contrasting soybean genotypes. According to our results, adventitious roots were better developed in the waterlogging tolerant line (WTL) than in the waterlogging susceptible line (WSL). Endogenous hormones also showed significant differences between WTL and WSL. The ethylene production ratio was higher in WTL than in WSL, and methionine was higher in WTL than in WSL. Other endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) contents were lower in WTL than in WSL. Conversely, gibberellic acid (GA) showed a tendency to be high in WTL, especially the levels of the bioactive GA4. The ratio of total GA and ABA was significantly higher in WTL than in WSL. Anatomical study of the root revealed that aerenchyma cells in the stele were better developed in WTL than in WSL. PMID:26442028

  19. Influence of blood collection in plastic vs. glass evacuated serum-separator tubes on hormone and tumour marker levels.

    PubMed

    Smets, Eva M L; Dijkstra-Lagemaat, Josien E; Blankenstein, Marinus A

    2004-04-01

    Introduction of preanalytical automation in our laboratory required the use of plastic blood collection tubes. Because of possible interference caused by adsorption of components to the plastic wall and because there is virtually no literature on this subject, we investigated the influence of collection of serum in plastic tubes on the results of nearly all our immunoassays for hormones and tumour markers. Blood from healthy volunteers was collected simultaneously in glass and plastic tubes, or sera prepared from blood collected in glass tubes were brought into the plastic tubes under investigation. Hormone and tumour marker levels were measured in the pairs thus obtained. Results were analysed using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed rank tests. We found small but statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between glass and plastic for free triiodothyronine, progesterone, prolactin, prostate-specific antigen and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A. Non-significant trends (0.05

  20. Endogenous prostaglandin E2 and insulin-like growth factor 1 can modulate the levels of parathyroid hormone receptor in human osteoarthritic osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Hilal, G; Massicotte, F; Martel-Pelletier, J; Fernandes, J C; Pelletier, J P; Lajeunesse, D

    2001-04-01

    Subchondral bone sclerosis may be important for the onset and/or progression of cartilage loss/damage in human osteoarthritis (OA). OA osteoblasts are resistant to parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulation, which could explain bone sclerosis via the inhibition of PTH-dependent catabolism. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for reduced PTH-dependent cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis in OA subchondral osteoblasts. Although cholera toxin (CTX) increased basal cAMP formation in these cells, it failed to stimulate PTH-dependent cAMP synthesis, whereas pertussis toxin (PTX) did not inhibit basal cAMP, yet diminished PTH-dependent cAMP production. Binding of 125I-PTH indicated lower PTH receptor levels in OA than in normal osteoblasts (-50.5 +/- 9.5%). This could be attributed to either reduced expression of the PTH receptor (PTH-R) or altered recycling of existing pools of receptors. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis indicated decreased PTH-R messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in OA cells that were highly variable (ranging from -10% to -60%), a situation that reflects disease severity. Interestingly, OA osteoblasts produced more prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) than normal osteoblasts, and using naproxen, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, increased PTH-dependent cAMP formation to a level similar to normal osteoblasts. Because heterologous desensitization can explain a decrease in PTH binding but cannot account for reduced PTH-R expression, we looked at the possible effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on this parameter. Blocking IGF-1 signaling with a neutralizing receptor antibody increased 125I-PTH binding in both normal and OA osteoblasts. Conversely, treatments with IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) antibody only slightly increased the levels of PTH-R mRNA whereas the addition of IGF-1 significantly reduced PTH-R mRNA levels (-24.1 +/- 7.1%), yet neither PGE2 nor naproxen modified PTH-R levels. These results suggest that

  1. Aminoaciduria, but normal thyroid hormone levels and signalling, in mice lacking the amino acid and thyroid hormone transporter Slc7a8.

    PubMed

    Braun, Doreen; Wirth, Eva K; Wohlgemuth, Franziska; Reix, Nathalie; Klein, Marc O; Grüters, Annette; Köhrle, Josef; Schweizer, Ulrich

    2011-10-15

    LAT2 (system L amino acid transporter 2) is composed of the subunits Slc7a8/Lat2 and Slc3a2/4F2hc. This transporter is highly expressed along the basolateral membranes of absorptive epithelia in kidney and small intestine, but is also abundant in the brain. Lat2 is an energy-independent exchanger of neutral amino acids, and was shown to transport thyroid hormones. We report in the present paper that targeted inactivation of Slc7a8 leads to increased urinary loss of small neutral amino acids. Development and growth of Slc7a8(-/-) mice appears normal, suggesting functional compensation of neutral amino acid transport by alternative transporters in kidney, intestine and placenta. Movement co-ordination is slightly impaired in mutant mice, although cerebellar development and structure remained inconspicuous. Circulating thyroid hormones, thyrotropin and thyroid hormone-responsive genes remained unchanged in Slc7a8(-/-) mice, possibly because of functional compensation by the thyroid hormone transporter Mct8 (monocarboxylate transporter 8), which is co-expressed in many cell types. The reason for the mild neurological phenotype remains unresolved.

  2. The effect of maternal nutrition level during the periconception period on fetal muscle development and plasma hormone concentrations in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sen, U; Sirin, E; Yildiz, S; Aksoy, Y; Ulutas, Z; Kuran, M

    2016-10-01

    The effect of maternal nutrition level during the periconception period on the muscle development of fetus and maternal-fetal plasma hormone concentrations in sheep were examined. Estrus was synchronized in 55 Karayaka ewes and were either fed ad libitum (well-fed, WF, n=23) or 0.5×maintenance (under-fed, UF, n=32) 6 days before and 7 days after mating. Non-pregnant ewes (WF, n=13; UF, n=24) and ewes carrying twins (WF, n=1) and female (WF, n=1; UF, n=3) fetuses were removed from the experiment. The singleton male fetuses from well-fed (n=8) and under-fed (n=5) ewes were collected on day 90 of gestation and placental characteristics, fetal BWs and dimensions, fetal organs and muscles weights were recorded. Maternal (on day 7 after mating) and fetal (on day 90 of pregnancy) blood samples were collected to analyze plasma hormone concentrations. Placental characteristics, BW and dimensions, organs and muscles weights of fetuses were not affected by maternal feed intake during the periconception period. Maternal nutrition level did not affect fiber numbers and the muscle cross-sectional area of the fetal longissimus dorsi (LD), semitendinosus (ST) muscles, but the cross-sectional area of the secondary fibers in the fetal LD and ST muscles from the UF ewes were higher than those from the WF ewes (P<0.05). Also, the ratio of secondary to primary fibers in the ST muscle were tended to be lower in the fetuses from the UF ewes (P=0.07). Maternal nutrition level during the periconception period did not cause any significant changes in fetal plasma insulin and maternal and fetal plasma IGF-I, cortisol, progesterone, free T3 and T4 concentrations. However, maternal cortisol concentrations were lower while insulin concentrations were higher in the WF ewes than those in the UF ewes (P<0.05). These results indicate that the reduced maternal feed intake during the periconception period may alter muscle fiber diameter without affecting fiber types, fetal weights and organ

  3. The relationship of PTH Bst BI polymorphism, calciotropic hormone levels, and dental fluorosis of children in China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shibao; Li, Anqi; Cui, Liuxin; Huang, Qi; Chen, Hongyang; Guo, Xiaoyi; Luo, Yixin; Hao, Qianyun; Hou, Jiaxiang; Ba, Yue

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association of parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene Bst BI polymorphism, calciotropic hormone levels, and dental fluorosis of children. A case-control study was conducted in two counties (Kaifeng and Tongxu) in Henan Province, China in 2005-2006. Two hundred and twenty-five children were recruited and divided into three groups including dental fluorosis group (DFG), non-dental fluorosis group (NDFG) from high fluoride areas, and control group (CG). Urine fluoride content was determined using fluoride ion selective electrode; PTH Bst BI were genotyped using PCR-RFLP; osteocalcin (OC) and calcitonin (CT) levels in serum were detected using radioimmunoassay. Genotype distributions were BB 85.3% (58/68), Bb 14.7% (10/68) for DFG; BB 77.6% (52/67), Bb 22.4% (15/67) for NDFG; and BB 73.3% (66/90), Bb 27.7% (24/90) for CG. No significant difference of Bst BI genotypes was observed among three groups (P > 0.05). Serum OC and urine fluoride of children were both significantly higher in DFG and NDFG than in CG (P < 0.05, respectively), while a similar situation was not observed between DFG and NDFG in high fluoride areas (P > 0.05). Serum OC level of children with BB genotype was significantly higher compared to those with Bb genotype in high fluoride areas (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference of serum CT or calcium (Ca) was observed. In conclusion, there is no correlation between dental fluorosis and PTH Bst BI polymorphism. Serum OC might be a more sensitive biomarker for detecting early stages of dental fluorosis, and further studies are needed.

  4. [Rational hormonal diagnosis of oligomenorrhea].

    PubMed

    Weise, H C; Moltz, L; Bispink, G; Leidenberger, F

    1989-08-01

    In a study, conducted by two clinics in Berlin and Hamburg, specializing in reproductive endocrinology, the anamnestic, clinical, and laboratory data of 170 oligomenorrheic patients (menstrual intervals between 35 and 90 days) were evaluated in order to determine the frequency of possible causes of oligomenorrhea. Pathological hormone levels were found in two thirds of all patients. The order of frequency of abnormal hormone levels was as follows: hyperandrogenemia (testosterone and/or DHEA-sulfate) in 41.8%, hyperprolactinemia in 25.9%, abnormal thyroid function (TSH and/or TRH-induced TSH) in 21.7%, and hypergonadotropic FSH levels in 3.5% of all patients. There was an overlap of between two or more pathological conditions in one third of all patients. This study confirms results of a previous study in amenorrheic patients (Moltz et al., 1987 - see reference list), documenting hyperandrogenemia as the most frequent abnormality found in this group, followed by hyperprolactinemia. As can be expected, the percentage of women with no discernible abnormality was higher in oligomenorrheic patients when compared with the amenorrheic group (32.3% vs 7.7%). Furthermore, overweight patients were overrepresented in the oligomenorrheic group, while underweight patients were seen more frequently in the amenorrheic group. In view of these results of our study we recommend a detailed diagnostic follow-up in all younger patients with ovarian disorders who need to preserve their reproductive potential. This follow-up should include hyperprolactinemia, hypo-/hyperthyroidism, hyperandrogenemic and hypoestrogenemic states and exclusion of primary ovarian failure. In contrast to recommendations of WHO, issued in 1976, such diagnostic work allows an etiology oriented therapy decision and a therapy risk assessment in subgroups of patients, such as hyperandrogenemic patients, who receive clomiphene or gonadotropin treatment. Furthermore, it permits prophylactic considerations, for

  5. Parenting styles and hormone levels as predictors of physical and indirect aggression in boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Sagastizabal, Eider; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Braza, Francisco; Vergara, Ana I; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parenting style, androgen levels, and measures of physical and indirect aggression. Peer ratings of aggression were obtained from 159 eight-year-old children (89 boys and 70 girls). Parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian or permissive) were assessed using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ).Saliva samples were obtained from children and assayed for testosterone and androstenedione concentrations. A regression analysis revealed that high testosterone levels were associated with a higher level of physical aggression in boys with authoritarian mothers. Testosterone was also found to moderate the relationship between father's authoritarian parenting and physical aggression in girls, with both moderate and high levels being significant. In relation to indirect aggression, moderate and high levels of testosterone were associated with higher levels of this type of aggression in girls with permissive mothers. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the interaction of biological and psychosocial variables when investigating aggressive behavior.

  6. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between serum sexual hormone levels and internal derangement of temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Madani, A S; Shamsian, A A; Hedayati-Moghaddam, M R; Fathi-Moghadam, F; Sabooni, M R; Mirmortazavi, A; Golmohamadi, M

    2013-08-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are defined as clinical conditions that involve the masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or both. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum 17β-oestradiol and progesterone levels in menstruating women affected by internal derangement of the TMJ. A total of 142 women (mean age 30·2 ± 6·7) who referred to medical diagnostic laboratory of Iranian Academic Centre for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, were enrolled during 2007 and 2008. Forty-seven individuals had disc displacement with reduction (Group IIa) according to Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC)/TMD Axis I diagnosis. Radioimmunoassay was used for the detection of serum 17β-oestradiol and progesterone levels in all 142 subjects. The mean progesterone level was significantly higher in control group (11·6 ± 10·4 ng mL(-1) ) compared to women with TMD (8·4 ± 6·8 ng mL(-1) , P = 0·03). No significant difference was found in two groups regarding 17β-oestradiol level. Lower progesterone level in women with TMD can suggest the more important role of this hormone in the development of the disorder.

  7. Sex and Hormonal Variations in the Development of At-level Allodynia In a Rat Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Hubscher, Charles H.; Fell, Jason D.; Gupta, Daya S.

    2010-01-01

    The development of central neuropathic pain varies among patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The factors contributing to the development and perpetuation of segmental pain (at-level allodynia) has been the focus of ongoing experiments in our laboratory. One such factor is hormonal status. We have shown previously, using a male rat model of SCI, that a severe contusion injury is necessary for the development of allodynia in trunk regions at and just above the level of a T8 injury. In this study, we examined at-level sensitivity for SCI ovariectomized (ovx) and cycling female rats as well as for SCI males implanted with either a placebo pellet or one that slowly releases 17β-estradiol. The proportion of ovx SCI female rats and placebo-treated SCI males displaying pain-like behaviors to touch/pressure of at-level dermatomes up to six weeks post-injury (67% and 75%, respectively) was similar to our previous studies on SCI males (69%). In contrast, significantly fewer cycling SCI female rats and 17β-estradiol treated SCI male rats showed sensitivity to touch at-level (26% and 30%, respectively). These results implicate 17β-estradiol as a potential target that can readily be modulated to prevent segmental pain following SCI. PMID:20434524

  8. Synchronous vitellogenin expression and sexual maturation during migration are negatively correlated with juvenile hormone levels in Mythimna separata

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hai-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Annual migration of pests between different seasonal habitats can lead to serious crop damage. Reproductive immaturity is generally associated with the migratory process (oogenesis-flight syndrome), but the mechanism of reproductive development during migration varies unpredictably. Here, the vitellogenin gene (MsVg) and three key regulatory enzyme genes (MsJhamt, MsJheh and MsJhe) related to juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and degradation were identified and characterized in Mythimna separata. The relative expression of MsVg varied significantly in response to seasonal changes and was significantly correlated with stages of ovarian development. The relatively low levels of JH titer did not differ significantly in male moths but slightly increased in female adults during the migratory season, which was consistent with changes in mRNA levels for MsJhamt, MsJheh and MsJhe. JH titer was negatively associated with relative seasonal levels of vitellogenin mRNA transcripts and with ovarian development in migrating M. separata. The synchrony of MsVg expression with sexual maturation highlighted the potential of MsVg transcript levels to serve as an index to monitor the adult reproductive status. In addition, the level of JH and sexual maturity were correlated with the extent of JH in regulating the MsVg expression and reproduction during seasonal northern and southern migration. PMID:27629246

  9. The effect of liming on antibacterial and hormone levels in wastewater biosolids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to meet Class B quality requirements, wastewater biosolids are regulated for pathogen levels, metal concentrations, and vector attraction. One common method to decrease pathogen levels in these solids is to stabilize them by lime addition (CaO), which raises the pH and temperature of the m...

  10. Exposure to Hypoxia at High Altitude (5380 m) for 1 Year Induces Reversible Effects on Semen Quality and Serum Reproductive Hormone Levels in Young Male Adults.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Cui, Jianhua; Wang, Rui; Gao, Liang; Gao, Xiaokang; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Qiong; Cao, Jinjun; Yu, Wuzhong

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypoxia at high altitude on the semen quality and the serum reproductive hormone levels in male adults. A total of 52 male soldiers were enrolled in this cohort study. They were exposed to hypoxia at high altitude (5380 m) for 12 months when undergoing a service. After exposure, they were followed up for 6 months. The samples of semen and peripheral blood were collected at 1 month before exposure (M0), 6 months of exposure (M6), 12 months of exposure (M12), and 6 months after exposure (M18). The semen quality was assessed with computer-assisted analysis system, and the serum levels of reproductive hormones, including prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were analyzed by ELISA. Compared with those at M0, total sperm count, sperm density, motility, survival rate, and serum levels of LH, PRL and testosterone were significantly decreased, whereas the liquefaction time was significantly prolonged and serum FSH level was significantly increased at M6 (p<0.05). At M12, total sperm count and sperm density increased, whereas sperm motility, survival rate, and the liquefaction time further decreased. Sperm velocities, progression ratios, and lateral head displacements were also decreased. Serum FSH level decreased while serum LH, PRL, and testosterone levels increased. Compared with those at M6, the changes in these detected parameters of semen and hormone at M12 were significant (p<0.05). At M18, all these detected parameters except testosterone level returned to levels comparable to those before exposure. In conclusion, hypoxia at high altitude causes adverse effects on semen quality and reproductive hormones, and these effects are reversible.

  11. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  12. High Postnatal Growth Hormone Levels Are Related to Cognitive Deficits in a Group of Children Born Very Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Scratch, Shannon E.; Doyle, Lex W.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Ahmadzai, Zohra M.; Greaves, Ronda F.; Inder, Terrie E.; Hunt, Rodney W.

    2015-01-01

    Context and Objectives: Little is known regarding the influence of GH on brain development, especially in infants born very preterm (VP; <30 weeks' gestation). Preterm infants are thought to have higher levels of GH in the first days of life compared with full-term infants. VP infants experience cognitive difficulties in childhood and have a diffuse pattern of structural brain abnormalities. This study aimed to explore the relationship between postnatal GH concentrations following VP birth and its association with cognitive functioning and brain volumes at age 7 years. Methods: Eighty-three infants born VP had GH concentrations measured at eight time points postnatally, and 2- and 6-week area under the curve (AUC) summary measures were calculated. Followup at age 7 years included neuropsychological assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Univariable and multivariable regression modeling were used where AUC for GH was the main predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome at age 7 years. Results: Univariable modeling revealed that higher GH levels (2-week AUC) were related to poorer performance on a verbal working memory (P = .04) and shifting attention task (P = .01). These relationships persisted on multivariable modeling and when the 6-week AUC was analyzed; working memory (P = .03), immediate spatial memory (P = .02), and delayed spatial memory (P = .03) deficits were found. Higher GH levels were also associated with larger amygdala volumes after adjustment for potential confounders (P = .002, 2-week AUC; P = .03, 6-week AUC). Conclusions: Higher postnatal GH levels may potentially contribute to the documented neurodevelopmental abnormalities seen in children born VP at school age. PMID:25974734

  13. The effects of moderate alcohol consumption on female hormone levels and reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Gill, J

    2000-01-01

    Studies that have investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the level of oestrogens and progesterone in both pre- and post-menopausal women are reviewed. It is concluded that several lines of evidence point to an alcohol-induced rise in natural or synthetic oestrogen levels in women. Proposed mechanisms include an increased rate of aromatization of testosterone or a decreased rate of oxidation of oestradiol to oestrone. Moderate alcohol consumption has also been linked to decreased progesterone levels in pre-menopausal women. The relevance of these findings to female health, fertility and the timing of the menopause is considered.

  14. A higher response of plasma neuropeptide Y, growth hormone, leptin levels and extracellular glycerol levels in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue to Acipimox during exercise in patients with bulimia nervosa: single-blind, randomized, microdialysis study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important central orexigenic hormone predominantly produced by the hypothalamus, and recently found to be secreted in adipose tissue (AT). Acipimox (Aci) inhibits lipolysis in AT and reduces plasma glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) levels. Exercise and Aci are enhancers of growth hormone (GH) and NPY secretion and exercise may alter leptin levels. We expect to find abnormal neuropeptidergic response in plasma and AT in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN). We hypothesize that Aci influences these peptides via a FFA-independent mechanism and that Aci inhibits lipolysis through a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent pathway. Dysregulations of the AT-brain axis peptides might be involved in binge eating as is the case in BN. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the responses of plasma NPY, GH, leptin, FFA and glycerol levels to exercise in BN patients and healthy women (C) given the anti-lipolytic drug Aci or placebo. The secondary objective of this study was to compare the responses of extracellular glycerol levels and plasma glycerol levels to exercise alone or together with Aci administration in BN patients and C women. Extracellular glycerol was measured in vivo in subcutaneous (sc) abdominal AT using microdialysis. Eight BN and eight C women were recruited for this single-blind, randomized study. Aci or placebo was given 1 hour before the exercise (45 min, 2 W/kg of lean body mass [LBM]). NPY, GH, leptin, FFA, glycerol plasma and AT glycerol levels were measured using commercial kits. Results The primary outcome of this study was that the exercise with Aci administration resulted in plasma NPY and GH increase (after a 45-minute exercise) and leptin (after a 90-minute post-exercise recovering phase) increased more in BN patients. The secondary outcomes of this study were that the exercise with Aci administration induced a higher decrease of extracellular glycerol in BN patients compared to the C group

  15. Treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy is associated with elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Hannerfors, A-K; Hellgren, C; Schijven, D; Iliadis, S I; Comasco, E; Skalkidou, A; Olivier, J D A; Sundström-Poromaa, I

    2015-08-01

    Treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) has been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, but causality remains unclear. While placental CRH production is correlated with gestational length and preterm birth, it has been difficult to establish if psychological stress or mental health problems are associated with increased CRH levels. This study compared second trimester CRH serum concentrations in pregnant women on SSRI treatment (n=207) with untreated depressed women (n=56) and controls (n=609). A secondary aim was to investigate the combined effect of SSRI treatment and CRH levels on gestational length and risk for preterm birth. Women on SSRI treatment had significantly higher second trimester CRH levels than controls, and untreated depressed women. CRH levels and SSRI treatment were independently associated with shorter gestational length. The combined effect of SSRI treatment and high CRH levels yielded the highest risk estimate for preterm birth. SSRI treatment during pregnancy is associated with increased CRH levels. However, the elevated risk for preterm birth in SSRI users appear not to be mediated by increased placental CRH production, instead CRH appear as an independent risk factor for shorter gestational length and preterm birth.

  16. Molt-associated changes in hematologic and plasma biochemical values and stress hormone levels in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Mazzaro, Lisa M; Meegan, Jenny; Sarran, Delphine; Romano, Tracy A; Bonato, Vinicius; Deng, Shibing; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2013-12-01

    Handling, including blood collection, has often been discouraged in molting penguins because it is considered an additional stress imposed on birds already experiencing major physiologic stress associated with molting. To evaluate the degree of physiologic stress posed by molting, we compared the hematologic and plasma biochemical values and hormone levels of molting and nonmolting African penguins, Spheniscus demersus. Five male and 5 female penguins randomly chosen were given complete physical examinations, were weighed, and blood samples were taken at 7 time points before, during, and after the molt. Data were analyzed by linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Throughout the study, behavior and appetite remained normal. Catecholamine levels were highly variable within and among subjects, whereas mean corticosterone levels were significantly different between baseline, molt, and postmolt values. Significant differences from baseline values were observed in many of the hematologic analytes; however, only decreases in hematocrit and red blood cell count values were considered clinically significant. Anemia due to experimentally induced blood loss as a possible cause of the significant hematologic changes was ruled out based on results of a follow-up control study during the nonmolt season, which showed no significant changes in hematocrit level or total red blood cell counts when using similar sampling protocols, which indicates that these changes were associated with molt.

  17. Enhanced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in bulimia nervosa: relationships to psychiatric comorbidity, psychopathology and hormonal variables.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Santonastaso, Paolo; Pannuto, Marilena; Favaro, Angela; Caregaro, Lorenza; Castaldo, Eloisa; Zanetti, Tatiana; Maj, Mario

    2005-04-30

    Increased levels of cholesterol have been reported in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), but all but one of the published studies were performed on non-fasting subjects, which limits the interpretation of this finding. Moreover, the relationships between serum lipids and comorbid psychiatric disorders or bulimic psychopathology have scarcely been investigated. We measured serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, 17beta-estradiol and thyroid hormones in 75 bulimic women and 64 age-matched healthy females after an overnight fast. Compared with healthy women, bulimic patients exhibited significantly enhanced serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, but similar values of glucose, 17beta-estradiol, FT3 and FT4. No significant differences emerged in these variables between patients with or without comorbid depression, borderline personality disorder or lifetime anorexia nervosa. Circulating cholesterol was positively correlated to the patients' drive for thinness, ineffectiveness, enteroceptive awareness and impulse regulation sub-item scores of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2. These findings confirm that BN is associated with increased levels of serum lipids. This alteration may be involved in the pathophysiology of certain psychopathological characteristics of BN and cannot be explained by the co-occurrence of other psychiatric disorders.

  18. Effect of toremifene on clinical chemistry, hematology and hormone levels at different doses in healthy postmenopausal volunteers: phase I study.

    PubMed

    Kivinen, S; Mäenpää, J

    1990-06-22

    Toremifene was given within the dose range of 3-680 mg as a single dose or on five consecutive days to 72 postmenopausal volunteers. Blood samples for clinical chemistry were taken hourly up to 7 h and 1, 2, 3, 7, 10 and 15 days after the last dose of toremifene. The concentrations of serum bilirubin, creatinine, amylase, free thyroxine, cortisol, prolactin, electrolytes and blood glucose remained unchanged at all dose levels. A statistically significant decrease was observed in liver enzymes (ASAT, ALAT, ALP) at the dose levels of 220-680 mg, whereas gamma-GT remained unchanged. A decrease in the concentration of LH and FSH was observed at the dose levels of 46 mg or higher and 220 mg or higher, respectively. These hormonal changes including the increase of SHBG at the dose levels of 220-680 mg and the decrease of antithrombin III (220-680 mg) may be attributed to a weak estrogen-like effect of toremifene. Side effects were minimal: pulse rate, blood pressure and ECG remained unchanged during the test period. Only two patients on 680 mg dose suffered from nausea and vertigo, and one of them discontinued the medication.

  19. Induction of Embryogenesis in Brassica Napus Microspores Produces a Callosic Subintinal Layer and Abnormal Cell Walls with Altered Levels of Callose and Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Vega, Verónica; Corral-Martínez, Patricia; Rivas-Sendra, Alba; Seguí-Simarro, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The induction of microspore embryogenesis produces dramatic changes in different aspects of the cell physiology and structure. Changes at the cell wall level are among the most intriguing and poorly understood. In this work, we used high pressure freezing and freeze substitution, immunolocalization, confocal, and electron microscopy to analyze the structure and composition of the first cell walls formed during conventional Brassica napus microspore embryogenesis, and in cultures treated to alter the intracellular Ca2+ levels. Our results revealed that one of the first signs of embryogenic commitment is the formation of a callose-rich, cellulose-deficient layer beneath the intine (the subintinal layer), and of irregular, incomplete cell walls. In these events, Ca2+ may have a role. We propose that abnormal cell walls are due to a massive callose synthesis and deposition of excreted cytoplasmic material, and the parallel inhibition of cellulose synthesis. These features were absent in pollen-like structures and in microspore-derived embryos, few days after the end of the heat shock, where abnormal cell walls were no longer produced. Together, our results provide an explanation to a series of relevant aspects of microspore embryogenesis including the role of Ca2+ and the occurrence of abnormal cell walls. In addition, our discovery may be the explanation to why nuclear fusions take place during microspore embryogenesis. PMID:26635844

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TUBERCULOSIS AND FEMALE HORMONE LEVELS IN POST-MENOPAUSAL WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Erbay, Gulru; Senol, Gunes; Anar, Ceyda; Meral, Ali Riza; Tuzel, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an intracellular infection controlled by T-lymphocyte. After menopause, T-lymphocyte cells counts increase suggesting a possible link between T-lymphocyte cell counts and estrogen and progesterone levels. In this study we compared post-menopausal women with and without TB to determine any differences in estrogen and progesterone levels between the two groups. The study group consisted of 38 post-menapausal women hospitalized for TB at Dr Suat Seren Chest Diseases and Surgery Training and Research Hospital for Tuberculosis, in Izmir, Turkey. The control group consisted of 30 post-menopausal women without TB. Both groups were selected from patients without immunosuppressive diseases or malignancies in whom PPD testing was not contraindicated. The mean progesterone level in the control group was 0.3896 ± 0.2014 ng/ml and in the study group was 0.3607 ± 0.3006 ng/ml (p = 0.638). The mean estrogen level in the control group was 18.9873 ± 6.5332 pg/ml and in the study group was 26.2768 ± 14.3418 pg/ml; the difference was significant (p = 0.007). The body mass index in the study group was significantly (p = 0.034) lower than in the study group. In post-menopausal women, the mean estrogen level was significantly higher in participants with TB than those without TB.

  1. Study of the correlation between growth hormone deficiency and serum leptin, adiponectin, and visfatin levels in adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Z-P; Zhang, M; Gao, J; Zhou, G-Y; Li, S-Q; An, Z-M

    2014-02-14

    We aimed to determine the significance and changes in leptin, adiponectin (ADP), and visfatin levels in adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Forty adults (19 men, 21 women) who had been diagnosed with GHD comprised the observation group, while 36 healthy adults (18 men, 18 women) were used as the control group. Fasting venous blood was collected to detect leptin, ADP, and visfatin levels. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) between the GHD group and the control group in terms of gender ratio, age, and body mass index. The waist-to-hip ratio (0.894 ± 0.061 vs 0.830 ± 0.481), cholesterol (4.99 ± 1.046 vs 4.18 ± 0.683), triglyceride (1.97 ± 1.428 vs 1.08 ± 0.403), LDL (2.91 ± 0.980 vs 2.29 ± 0.540), leptin (3.00 ± 1.233 vs 1.89 ± 1.554), ADP (15.26 ± 6.449 vs 10.24 ± 7.608), and visfatin levels (10.42 ± 3.715 vs 5.87 ± 3.90) in the GHD group were significantly higher than those in the control group (all P < 0.05). The levels of growth hormone (1.68 ± 1.67 vs 15.53 ± 6.23), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, 22.64 ± 16.41 vs 61.85 ± 28.48), IGF-binding protein-3 (4889 ± 2962 vs 6866 ± 3823), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (1.466 ± 1.804 vs 6.000 ± 2.767) in the GHD group were significantly lower than those in the control group (all P < 0.05). Correlation analysis demonstrated that leptin level was positively correlated to ADP and visfatin in both the GHD and control groups and negatively correlated to IGF-1 (r = 0.332, P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that leptin, ADP, and visfatin were independent risk factors for adults with GHD.

  2. Prolactin levels during short- and long-term cross-sex hormone treatment: an observational study in transgender persons.

    PubMed

    Nota, N M; Dekker, M J H J; Klaver, M; Wiepjes, C M; van Trotsenburg, M A; Heijboer, A C; den Heijer, M

    2016-08-25

    The cause of prolactin alterations in transgender persons is often assigned to oestrogens, but the precise cause and time course during different phases of cross-sex hormone treatment (CHT) remain unclear. In this study, we prospectively examined prolactin levels in 55 female-to-males (FtMs) and 61 male-to-females (MtFs) during the first year of CHT. Because long-term prolactin data were not available in this population, we studied these levels in a retrospective population of 25 FtMs and 38 MtFs who underwent gonadectomy. FtMs were treated with testosterone and MtFs with estradiol, with or without the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate (CPA) (after gonadectomy CPA is cessated). During the first year of CHT, prolactin decreased with 25% (95CI: -33%, -12%) in FtMs and increased with 193% (95CI: 156%, 219%) in MtFs. Eighteen MtFs developed hyperprolactinemia (≥0.6 IU L(-1) ). In the retrospective population, post-gonadectomy levels in FtMs were lower than baseline levels (-39%; 95CI: -51%, -20%) while in MtFs post-gonadectomy levels and baseline levels were comparable (-6%; 95CI: -24%, 15%). No hyperprolactinemia was found after gonadectomy. In conclusion, in FtMs, prolactin decreased consistently during CHT and in MtFs, prolactin increased during pre-surgical CHT but normalised after gonadectomy. It is likely that CPA induces increasing prolactin levels in MtFs.

  3. In situ relationship between energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in Nereis diversicolor (O.F. Müller) from clean and contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Mouneyrac, C; Pellerin, J; Moukrim, A; Ait Alla, A; Durou, C; Viault, N

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in situ, the temporal effects of urban effluent discharge on energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in the intrasedimentary worm Nereis diversicolor. Results have shown no differences in energy reserves (glycogen, lipids) in organisms originating from a contaminated site (Oued Souss) and a comparatively clean site (Oualidia). Both sites are located on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. In contrast, steroid hormone (progesterone, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol) levels were significantly decreased in animals from Oued Souss. The differences in the responses suggest that organisms from the polluted site have been exposed to endocrine disruptors.

  4. Effects of artificial social stimuli on the reproductive schedule and hormone levels of yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes).

    PubMed

    Setiawan, Alvin N; Davis, Lloyd S; Darby, John T; Lokman, P Mark; Young, Graham; Blackberry, Margaret A; Cannell, Belinda L; Martin, Graeme B

    2007-01-01

    The effects of social stimuli on avian reproductive behaviors such as breeding schedules and courtship behaviors are well known due to numerous field studies. However, studies that have simultaneously examined the effects of social stimuli on reproductive behavior and the mediating endocrine mechanisms have been largely restricted to captive populations, which may not be representative of free-living populations. This study, conducted over two breeding seasons, aimed to simultaneously measure the effects of experimentally increasing auditory stimuli on the breeding schedule and endocrinology (levels of total androgen, estradiol, progesterone and prolactin) on free-living yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes). The yellow-eyed penguin is the least colonial of all penguins, nesting far apart from each other under dense vegetation, and, therefore, is presumed to experience much lower levels of social stimuli than other penguins. Egg laying was significantly more synchronous and tended to be earlier when birds were exposed to playbacks of the calls of conspecifics in 1 year of the study. We also found that levels of total androgen and estradiol of males in 1 year, and prolactin in another year, were proportionally higher among treated birds compared control birds that received no artificial auditory stimuli. These results show that even among supposedly solitary nesters, social stimuli could still play a role in influencing reproductive behavior and physiology. For the first time in free-living seabirds, we have demonstrated that behavioral responses to increased social stimuli are associated with hormonal changes.

  5. Changes in growth, hormones levels and essential oil content of Ammi visnaga L. plants treated with some bioregulators

    PubMed Central

    Talaat, Iman M.; Khattab, Hemmat I.; Ahmed, Aisha M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of foliar application of different concentrations of amino acids (tyrosine and phenylalanine) and phenolic acids (trans-cinnamic acid, benzoic acid and salicylic acid) on growth, pigment content, hormones levels and essential oil content of Ammi visnaga L were carried out during two successive seasons. It is clear that foliar application of either amino acids or phenolics significantly promoted the growth parameters in terms of shoot height, fresh and dry biomass, number of branches and number of umbels per plant. The increment of growth parameter was associated with elevated levels of growth promoters (IAA, GA3, total cytokinins) and low level of ABA. The greatest increase in the previously mentioned parameters was measured in plants exposed to different concentrations of phenols particularly in benzoic acid-treated plants. Such effect was concentration dependent. All treatments led to significant increments in yield seeds and oil content. Moreover, gas liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that the main identified components of essential oil were 2,2-dimethyl butanoic acid, isobutyl isobutyrate, α-isophorone, thymol, fenchyl acetate and linalool. Phenolics and amino acid treatments resulted in qualitative differences in these components of essential oil. PMID:25183946

  6. Urinary Perchlorate and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Adolescent and Adult Men and Women Living in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Blount, Benjamin C.; Pirkle, James L.; Osterloh, John D.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Caldwell, Kathleen L.

    2006-01-01

    Background Perchlorate is commonly found in the environment and known to inhibit thyroid function at high doses. Assessing the potential effect of low-level exposure to perchlorate on thyroid function is an area of ongoing research. Objectives We evaluated the potential relationship between urinary levels of perchlorate and serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and total thyroxine (T4) in 2,299 men and women, ≥ 12 years of age, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 2001–2002. Methods We used multiple regression models of T4 and TSH that included perchlorate and covariates known to be or likely to be associated with T4 or TSH levels: age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, estrogen use, menopausal status, pregnancy status, premenarche status, serum C-reactive protein, serum albumin, serum cotinine, hours of fasting, urinary thiocyanate, urinary nitrate, and selected medication groups. Results Perchlorate was not a significant predictor of T4 or TSH levels in men. For women overall, perchlorate was a significant predictor of both T4 and TSH. For women with urinary iodine < 100 μg/L, perchlorate was a significant negative predictor of T4 (p < 0.0001) and a positive predictor of TSH (p = 0.001). For women with urinary iodine ≥ 100 μg/L, perchlorate was a significant positive predictor of TSH (p = 0.025) but not T4 (p = 0.550). Conclusions These associations of perchlorate with T4 and TSH are coherent in direction and independent of other variables known to affect thyroid function, but are present at perchlorate exposure levels that were unanticipated based on previous studies. PMID:17185277

  7. Effect of parathyroid hormone on serum magnesium levels: the neglected relationship in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Fang, Li; Tang, Bing; Hou, Dawei; Meng, Meijuan; Xiong, Mingxia; Yang, Junwei

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is an important complication in patients with end-stage renal disease. Since recent studies have shown that magnesium (Mg) disturbance plays an important role in CKD-MBD and cardiovascular mortality, the interest on magnesium has grown recently. Although much concern focused on the effect of Mg on parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, however, the influence of PTH on serum Mg levels is nearly unexplored. To evaluate the effect of PTH on serum Mg levels, we first described the relationship between serum Mg and PTH in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Besides, we also monitored the changes of serum Mg concentration after parathyroidectomy (PTX) in 23 patients. In our study, we found that hypermagnesemia (>2.5 mg/dL) occurred in up to 44% of cases and hypomagnesemia did not present. No statistically significant correlations were found between serum Mg levels and PTH (r = -0.143, p = 0.134). Correlation analysis and regression analysis suggested that the derangement of magnesium homeostasis was consistent with the derangement of calcium/phosphorus homeostasis. However, after PTX, serum magnesium levels dropped immediately after the surgery, minimally at the first day and gradually restored from the third day. The changes of serum Mg after surgery was positive correlated with the changes of serum phosphate (r = 0.558, p = 0.003). Taken altogether, our data suggested that the therapeutic strategies to achieve optimum serum magnesium levels in CKD-MBD should take into account the varying stages of disease development since PTH could also influence magnesium metabolism and this problem might be important in severe secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  8. Age and anti-Müllerian hormone levels predict the success of in vitro maturation of cat oocytes.

    PubMed

    Snoeck, F; Sarrazin, S; Wydooghe, E; Van Soom, A

    2016-11-15

    Up to date, in vitro maturation (IVM) rates of oocytes are highly variable between individual cats. This study was carried out to investigate the predictive value of age and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration in relation to capacity for IVM of cat oocytes. Ovaries were collected from 33 cats, which were divided into three age groups: (i) 0-3 months (pre-pubertal); (ii) 3-12 months (peripubertal); and (iii) older than 12 months (pubertal). The cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured and subsequently stained to check nuclear maturation status, and blood was taken for AMH analysis. Increasing age was significantly associated with decreasing AMH levels, and mean AMH levels differed significantly between all age categories: group 1: mean AMH 18.71 μg/L; group 2: mean AMH 9.27 μg/L; and group 3: mean AMH 4.13 μg/L. Moreover, the probability of maturation was more likely in groups 2 and 3 compared to group 1. Between categories 2 and 3, no significant difference in maturation probability was found (p = .31). Finally, the probability of oocyte maturation decreased significantly with increasing AMH levels. In age group 2, oocytes with a higher AMH level were less likely to mature. In age groups 1 and 3, no significant association between the AMH level and the proportion of maturated COC was found. We can conclude that if a higher probability of nuclear maturation is required, it is preferable to use cats with lower AMH levels and older than 3 months of age to improve cat IVM.

  9. Blood levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites in Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica): emphasis on interspecies comparison, gender difference and association with blood thyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Imaeda, Daisuke; Nomiyama, Kei; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Tsydenova, Oyuna; Amano, Masao; Petrov, Evgeny A; Batoev, Valeriy B; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica) are still being exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the population is at risk. In the present study, we measured the residue levels of PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in the blood of Baikal seals and assessed the impact of OH-PCBs on the thyroid function. Blood concentrations of PCBs and OH-PCBs were in the range of 2.8-130 ng g(-1)wet wt. and 0.71-4.6 ng g(-1)wetwt., respectively. Concentrations of higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs (hexa- to octa-PCBs) were more than 70% to total OH-PCB concentrations, indicating Baikal seals are mostly risked by higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs. High levels of 4OH-CB146 and 4OH-CB187 and low levels of 4OH-CB107/4'OH-CB108 found in Baikal seals were different from those in other phocidae species, suggesting the unique drug-metabolizing enzyme activities and/or contamination sources in this species. Concentrations of some OH-PCBs in males were significantly higher than those in females. These results suggest that these isomers may be preferentially transferred from mother to pup via cord blood. However, concentrations of almost all the isomers were not significantly correlated with the levels of blood total T3 and T4, implying less impact of PCB-related compounds on the thyroid hormone circulation.

  10. From stem cell to erythroblast: regulation of red cell production at multiple levels by multiple hormones.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Harvey; Flygare, Johan; Chou, Song

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews the regulation of production of red blood cells at several levels: (1) the ability of erythropoietin and adhesion to a fibronectin matrix to stimulate the rapid production of red cells by inducing terminal proliferation and differentiation of committed erythroid CFU-E progenitors; (2) the regulated expansion of the pool of earlier BFU-E erythroid progenitors by glucocorticoids and other factors that occurs during chronic anemia or inflammation; and (3) the expansion of thehematopoietic cell pool to produce more progenitors of all hematopoietic lineages.

  11. Effects of monochromatic light sources on sex hormone levels in serum and on semen quality of ganders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shen-Chang; Zhuang, Zi-Xuan; Lin, Min-Jung; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Lin, Tsung-Yi; Jea, Yu-Shine; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Light is an essential external factor influencing various physiological processes, including reproductive performance, in birds. Although several attempts have been made to understand the effect of light on poultry production, the effect of light of a particular wavelength (color) on the reproductive function in geese remains unclear. This study evaluated the effect of various monochromatic light sources on the levels of sex hormone and on semen quality of ganders. Of 30 male White Roman geese in their third reproductive season (average age=3 years), 27 were divided into three groups receiving monochromatic white or red or blue lights. The birds were kept in an environmentally controlled house with a lighting photoperiod of 7L:17D for six weeks as the adaptation period. The photoperiod was subsequently changed to 9L:15D and maintained for 24 weeks. Three ganders at the beginning of the study and three from each group at the end of the adjusting period and the 20th and 30th week of the study period were sacrificed, and their testes and blood samples were collected for determining the sex hormone levels. Semen samples were collected for determining semen quality parameters, including the semen collection index, sperm concentration, semen volume, sperm motility, sperm viability, sperm morphology, and semen quality factor. The results showed that the testosterone and estradiol levels remained unchanged in all three groups at all time points. The ratio of testosterone to estradiol of ganders exposed to white light was significantly higher than that of ganders exposed to red light at the 30th week (P<0.05). Semen collection index and sperm viability of ganders exposed to blue light were significantly the lowest (P<0.05). Moreover, sperm motility, sperm viability, and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa of ganders in white light were the highest (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that artificial illumination with white light may

  12. Prediction of metaphase II oocytes according to different serum Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in antagonist ICSI cycles

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Joyce B; Panaino, Tatiana R; Tamm, Maria A; Lira, Paloma; Arêas, Patricia C F; Mancebo, Ana C A; de Souza, Marcelo M; Antunes, Roberto A; de Souza, Maria do Carmo B

    2016-01-01

    Objective This paper aims to assess a qualitative aspect of ovarian response in terms of metaphase II oocytes according to different serum Anti-Müllerian hormone levels in antagonist ICSI cycles. A prediction index might contribute to the individualization of care. Methods This observational study looked into 287 antagonist ICSI cycles carried out with patients treated in a single center between January of 2012 and January of 2016. Serum AMH and subgroup analyses were performed based on five AMH ranges (≤ 0.3 ng/mL;> 0.3 and ≤ 0.7 ng/mL; > 0.7 and ≤ 1.0 ng/mL; > 1.0 and < 3.0 ng/mL; ≥ 3.0 ng/mL). The variables analyzed included patient age; serum FSH and antral follicle count at the start of the cycle; number of stimulation days and number follicles ≥ 15 mm on hCG day; number of oocytes retrieved and number of metaphase II oocytes. Results AMH is a better predictor of ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation than AFC or serum FSH, while age is an independent marker. AMH levels ≤0.70 (patients with poor prognosis) were observed in 140 patients (48.7%). Patients within this AMH level range accounted for 92% of the 24 failed cycles (cancelled cycles, no oocytes or immature oocytes retrieved). Conclusion AMH predicts the quality of ovarian response to stimulation, regardless of patient age. Women with AMH levels ≥1.0 and ≤3.0 ng/mL are probably normal responders with good prognosis. Clinical application relies on the examination of the data from each individual center and on the establishment of correlations between AMH levels and ovarian response in the form of metaphase II oocytes. PMID:28050957

  13. Aberrant alternative splicing of thyroid hormone receptor in a TSH-secreting pituitary tumor is a mechanism for hormone resistance.

    PubMed

    Ando, S; Sarlis, N J; Krishnan, J; Feng, X; Refetoff, S; Zhang, M Q; Oldfield, E H; Yen, P M

    2001-09-01

    Patients with TSH-secreting pituitary tumors (TSHomas) have high serum TSH levels despite elevated thyroid hormone levels. The mechanism for this defect in the negative regulation of TSH secretion is not known. We performed RT-PCR to detect mutations in TRbeta from a surgically resected TSHoma. Analyses of the RT-PCR products revealed a 135-bp deletion within the sixth exon that encodes the ligand-binding domain of TRbeta2. This deletion was caused by alternative splicing of TRbeta2 mRNA, as near-consensus splice sequences were found at the junction site and no deletion or mutations were detected in the tumoral genomic DNA. This TRbeta variant (TRbeta2spl) lacked thyroid hormone binding and had impaired T3-dependent negative regulation of both TSHbeta and glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit genes in cotransfection studies. Furthermore, TRbeta2spl showed dominant negative activity against the wild-type TRbeta2. These findings strongly suggest that aberrant alternative splicing of TRbeta2 mRNA generated an abnormal TR protein that accounted for the defective negative regulation of TSH in the TSHoma. This is the first example of aberrant alternative splicing of a nuclear hormone receptor causing hormonal dysregulation. This novel posttranscriptional mechanism for generating abnormal receptors may occur in other hormone-resistant states or tumors in which no receptor mutation is detected in genomic DNA.

  14. Ghrelin is independently associated with anti-mullerian hormone levels in obese but not non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garin, Margaret C; Butts, Samantha F; Sarwer, David B; Allison, Kelly C; Senapati, Suneeta; Dokras, Anuja

    2017-03-01

    Ghrelin is an endogenous appetite stimulant that may have a role in ovarian function. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have anovulation and frequently weight management issues; however the associations between ghrelin and hormonal markers in polycystic ovary syndrome have not been well studied. In order to characterize the association between total ghrelin levels and ovarian function and the possible modification of this relationship by obesity, we examined total ghrelin levels and anti-mullerian hormone, total testosterone, and insulin in obese and non-obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. Total ghrelin levels were lower in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (n = 45) compared to obese controls (n = 33) (p = 0.005), but similar in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (n = 20) compared to non-obese controls (n = 21) (p = NS). In the obese polycystic ovary syndrome group, anti-mullerian hormone was associated with ghrelin levels independent of age, insulin, and total testosterone (p = 0.008). There was no association between total ghrelin and anti-mullerian hormone levels in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome, non-obese controls, or obese controls (p = NS). Our results provide evidence for a potential relationship between ghrelin and ovarian function in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome that was not observed in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome or controls.

  15. Seasonal Changes in Plasma Levels of Sex Hormones in the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American Ratite with a Complex Mating System

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Diego J.; Vera Cortez, Marilina; Della Costa, Natalia S.; Lèche, Alvina; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L.; Martella, Mónica B.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July), whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes). Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the “Challenge Hypothesis”. In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period. PMID:24837464

  16. Seasonal changes in plasma levels of sex hormones in the greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American Ratite with a complex mating system.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Diego J; Vera Cortez, Marilina; Della Costa, Natalia S; Lèche, Alvina; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L; Martella, Mónica B

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July), whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes). Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the "Challenge Hypothesis". In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period.

  17. Social support reduces stress hormone levels in wild chimpanzees across stressful events and everyday affiliations

    PubMed Central

    Wittig, Roman M.; Crockford, Catherine; Weltring, Anja; Langergraber, Kevin E.; Deschner, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a major cause of poor health and mortality in humans and other social mammals. Close social bonds buffer stress, however much of the underlying physiological mechanism remains unknown. Here, we test two key hypotheses: bond partner effects occur only during stress (social buffering) or generally throughout daily life (main effects). We assess urinary glucocorticoids (uGC) in wild chimpanzees, with or without their bond partners, after a natural stressor, resting or everyday affiliation. Chimpanzees in the presence of, or interacting with, bond partners rather than others have lowered uGC levels across all three contexts. These results support the main effects hypothesis and indicate that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis regulation is mediated by daily engagement with bond partners both within and out of stressful contexts. Regular social support with bond partners could lead to better health through daily ‘micro-management' of the HPA axis, a finding with potential medical implications for humans. PMID:27802260

  18. [Effect of anabolic preparation fenobolin on blood, reproductive system and hormone levels in blood serum of fractionally irradiated male rats].

    PubMed

    Vereshchako, G G; Gorokh, G A; Fedosenko, O L; Gun'kova, N V; Iakushev, D L; Konoplia, E F

    2011-01-01

    Influence of anabolic drug (phenobolin) injection at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg on some indexes of blood, reproductive system, the level of thyroid hormones, corticosterone and testosterone in blood serum of the male rats exposed to a fractional irradiation at the total dose of 2.0 Gy have been studied. A significant decrease in the quantity of leucocytes and lymphocytes after a fractional irradiation without and with phenobolin introduction was determined. Introduction of anabolic drug resulted in a significant drop of relative mass of testes and, particularly, epididymes, and also in a sharp decrease of the number of mature germ cells isolated from epididymes. A combined action of phenobolin and fractional irradiation (2.0 Gy) led to a significant reduction (3-5 times) in the quantity of mature germ cells in an epididymis. In some cases phenobolin influenced the level of testosterone in blood serum of the intact and irradiated animals. The anabolic steroid drug affects negatively the state of reproductive system of male rats.

  19. Low antimullerian hormone levels may be associated with cardiovascular risk markers in women with diminished ovarian reserve.

    PubMed

    Verit, Fatma Ferda; Akyol, Hurkan; Sakar, Mehmet Nafi

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) may be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the study was to investigate whether there was any relationship between antimullerian hormone (AMH) and CVD risk markers in the study. Ninety women with DOR and 90 women with normal ovarian reserve (NOR) attending the infertility unit at XXXX, were enrolled in the study. CVD risk markers such as insulin resistance [defined by the homeostasis model assessment ratio (HOMA-IR)], C-reactive protein (CRP), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) were assessed. HOMA-IR, CRP, TG, LDL levels were higher and HDL and AMH were lower among patients with DOR compared with controls (p < 0.05, for all). There were positive associations between low AMH and HOMA-IR, CRP, TG, LDL levels and a negative correlation with HDL (p < 0.05, for all). However, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that HOMA-IR, CRP, TG and HDL were independent variables that were associated with low AMH. There was a close relationship between low AMH and CVD risk markers in the study. Further studies with larger groups are needed to investigate the nature of this link in these patients.

  20. Unexpected rates of chromosomal instabilities and alterations of hormone levels in Namibian uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Zaire, R.; Notter, M.; Thiel, E.

    1997-05-01

    A common problem in determining the health consequences of radiation exposure is factoring out other carcinogenic influences. The conditions in Namibia provide a test case for distinguishing the effects of long-term low-dose exposure to uranium from the other environmental factors because of good air quality and the lack of other industries with negative health effects. Present records indicate a much higher prevalence of cancer among male workers in the open-pit uranium mine in Namibia compared with the general population. The objective of the present study was to determine whether long-term exposure to low doses of uranium increases the risk of a biological radiation damage which would lead to malignant diseases and to derive a dose-response model for these miners. To investigate this risk, we measured uranium excretion in urine, neutrophil counts and the serum level of FSH, LH and testosterone and analyzed chromosome aberrations in whole blood cells using fluorescence in situ hybridization. A representative cohort of 75 non-smoking, HIV-negative miners was compared to a control group of 31 individuals with no occupational history in mining. A sixfold increase in uranium excretion among the miners compared to the controls was recorded (P < 0.001). Furthermore, we determined a significant reduction in testosterone levels (P < 0.008) and neutrophil count (P < 0.0001). Most remarkably, cells with multiple aberrations such as {open_quotes}rogue{close_quotes} cells were observed for the first time in miners; these cells had previously been found only after short-term high-dose radiation exposure, e.g. from the Hiroshima atomic bomb or the Chernobyl accident. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Hormonal correlates of acne and hirsutism.

    PubMed

    Lucky, A W

    1995-01-16

    Acne is a multifactorial disorder reflecting the role of infection, abnormal keratinization and immunologic reaction, as well as hormonal influences, on the pilosebaceous unit. Clinical studies have correlated elevated levels of androgens, originating in both the adrenal glands and ovaries, with acne. These include total and free testosterone, delta 4-androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, and low levels of sex hormone binding globulin. The pathogenesis of acne initiation in childhood has been linked to rising serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Hirsutism has been more directly correlated with increased levels of serum androgens, notably free testosterone. Underlying causes of elevated androgens in both disorders include very rare tumors, partial or late-onset forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, developmental adrenal abnormalities and, most commonly, polycystic ovary syndrome. Early acne treatment may include topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and tretinoin. More severe disease can be treated systemically (with antibiotics and/or isotretinoin). Very-low-dose corticosteroids can be used to eliminate the adrenal component of hyperandrogenism. Oral contraceptives, especially those that contain low-androgenic progestins, can reduce excessive androgens from any source and specifically suppress the ovary in polycystic ovary syndrome. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, with or without estrogen supplementation, and systemic or topical antiandrogens may play a more important role in the future.

  2. Improving Cotton Embryo Culture by Simulating In Ovulo Nutrient and Hormone Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Fuller; Vincent Liddiard; J. Hess; John Carman

    2011-06-01

    Plant ovules provide zygotes with a physicochemical environment that supports embryo differentiation, growth, and maturation. The exact nature of this embryogenesis-enabling environment is not well characterized, as evidenced by failed attempts to induce normal embryony from zygotes or proembryos (precotyledonary) on defined media. To identify factors required for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) zygotic embryony in vitro, we previously performed chemical and dissolved oxygen tension analyses of cotton ovule fluids and tissues at multiple stages of embryony in situ. Based on these analyses, we report herein the development of procedures that normalize embryo differentiation, growth, maturation, and germination in vitro, starting with proembryos. Our medium differed from Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium as follows (percentage of MS): N (30%, mostly from ten amino acids), P (815%), K (237%), Mg (85%), Ca (267%), S (506%), Fe (88%), and myoinositol (883%). Levels of other MS nutrients and vitamins, except sucrose, were kept at MS levels. Additionally, we included 100 mg L-1 casein hydrolysate plus the following (mmol L-1): d-glucose (1.8), fructose (4.7), sucrose (62.0), arabinose (7.1), melibiose (3.5), malic acid (11.6), and citric acid (3.8). Mannitol was added to achieve a medium osmotic potential of -1.10 MPa, and an atmospheric O2 tension of 3.3 mol m-3 at the surface of embryos was maintained during culture. When cultured on medium containing 8.0 µmol L-1 indole-3-acetic acid, 80-90% of proembryos (as small as 100 cells) of cultivars HS-26 and B-27 increased four- to eightfold in surface area during the first 18 d in culture and germinated thereafter to produce viable plants. Increases in surface area of proembryos cultured on a modified MS medium previously used for somatic embryogenesis were from 0.2- to 0.6-fold. The described embryo culture medium should be useful for studying nutritional and molecular aspects of early embryony and possibly for plant zygote

  3. Associations of Serum Levels of Sex Hormones in Follicular and Luteal Phases of the Menstrual Cycle with Breast Tissue Characteristics in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Monica; Dunn, Sheila; Martin, Lisa; Chavez, Sonia; Stanitz, Greg; Huszti, Ella; Minkin, Salomon; Boyd, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Background In previous work in young women aged 15–30 years we measured breast water and fat using MR and obtained blood for hormone assays on the same day in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Only serum growth hormone levels and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly associated with percent breast water after adjustment for covariates. The sex hormones estradiol, progesterone and testosterone were not associated with percent water in the breast in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. In the present study we have examined the association of percent breast water with serum levels of sex hormones in both follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Methods In 315 healthy white Caucasian young women aged 15–30 with regular menstrual cycles who had not used oral contraceptives or other hormones in the previous 6 months, we used MR to determine percent breast water, and obtained blood samples for hormone assays within 10 days of the onset of the most recent menstrual cycle (follicular phase) of the cycle on the same day as the MR scan, and a second blood sample on days 19–24 of the cycle. Serum progesterone levels of > = 5 mmol/L in days 19–24 were used to define the 225 subjects with ovulatory menstrual cycles, whose data are the subject of the analyses shown here. Results SHBG was positively associated with percent water in both follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Total and free estradiol and total and free testosterone were not associated with percent water in the follicular phase, but in young women with ovulatory cycles, were all negatively associated with percent water in the luteal phase. Conclusions Our results from young women aged 15–30 years add to the evidence that the extent of fibroglandular tissue in the breast that is reflected in both mammographic density and breast water is associated positively with higher serum levels of SHBG, but not with higher levels of sex hormones. PMID

  4. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  5. Effects of irradiation and semistarvation on rat thyrotropin beta subunit messenger ribonucleic acid, pituitary thyrotropin content, and thyroid hormone levels

    SciTech Connect

    Litten, R.Z. ); Carr, F.E. ); Fein, H.G.; Smallridge, R.C. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of radiation-induced anorexia on serum thyrotropin (TSH), pituitary TSH-{beta} mRNA, pituitary TSH content, serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), and serum 3,5,3{prime}-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) was investigated using feed-matched controls. Rats received 10 Gy gamma whole-body irradiation and were examined 1-3 days postirradiation. Feed-matched and untreated controls were also studied. The average food intake of the irradiated and feed-matched groups was approximately 18% of the untreated controls. Over the three day period both the irradiated and feed-matched groups lost a significant amount of body weight. The serum T{sub 4} levels of both the irradiated and feed-matched groups were not significantly different from each other, but were significantly depressed when compared to the untreated control group. The serum TSH and T{sub 3} were, however, significantly greater in the irradiated than the feed-matched groups at day 3 posttreatment. To determine if the difference in the serum TSH level between the two groups was due to a pretranslational alteration in TSH production, we measured the TSH-{beta} mRNA using an RNA blot hybridization assay. We found that the TSH-{beta} mRNA level was the same in the irradiated and feed-matched groups, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the radiation-induced increase in the serum TSH level is posttranscriptional. Pituitary TSH content in the irradiated rats was significantly less than in pair-fed controls, suggesting that irradiation may permit enhanced secretion of stored hormone.

  6. Are neuropsychological impairments in children with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) related to white matter abnormalities or elevated phenylalanine levels?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter J; Wood, Stephen J; Francis, Dorothy E; Coleman, Lee; Anderson, Vicki; Boneh, Avihu

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance our understanding of neuropsychological functioning in children with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) and assess the relative impact of white matter abnormalities (WMA) and neurotransmitter deficiencies on cognitive functions in this population. The study consisted of 33 children with early-treated PKU and 34 healthy control children aged between 7 to 18 years. All children had a neuropsychological evaluation that included measures of general intelligence, attention, processing speed, memory and learning, executive function, and academic achievement. Children in the PKU group also had a magnetic resonance (MR) brain scan. When compared with the control group, the PKU group exhibited global cognitive impairment including lower IQ, attention problems, slow information processing, reduced learning capacity, mild executive impairments, and educational difficulties. Children in the PKU group with extensive WMA (n = 14) displayed significant impairments across all cognitive domains. Metabolic control correlated weakly to moderately with attention, executive, and memory/learning factors. Within the PKU group, regressions revealed that executive function and attention factors were independently related to severity of WM pathology and age, while the memory and learning factor was independently related to metabolic control and age. It is concluded that children with early-treated PKU exhibit a global pattern of impairment, with a particular deficit in processing speed. WM pathology extending into frontal and subcortical regions correlates with the greatest deficits and a profile of impairment consistent with diffuse WM damage. Our findings also offer some support for dopamine depletion in the prefrontal cortex, however adverse consequences as a result of norepinephrine and serotonin deficiencies should not be discounted.

  7. Effects of transdermal application of 7-oxo-DHEA on the levels of steroid hormones, gonadotropins and lipids in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Sulcová, J; Hill, M; Masek, Z; Ceska, R; Novácek, A; Hampl, R; Stárka, L

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 7-oxo-DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) on the serum levels of steroid sexual hormones, gonadotropins, lipids and lipoproteins in men. 7-oxo-DHEA was applied onto the skin as a gel to 10 volunteers aged 27 to 72 years for 5 consecutive days. The single dose contained 25 mg 7-oxo-DHEA. Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, cortisol, androstenedione, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A-I and B and lipoprotein(a) were measured before the beginning and shortly after the end of the steroid application. After the treatment, we noted the following significant changes: a decline of testosterone and estradiol levels, increase of LH, HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I levels. The decrease of total cholesterol levels was of the borderline significance. A slight but significant increase was found in apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein(a). The most expressive was the fall of the atherogenic index. We suggest that the gel containing 7-oxo-DHEA might be a suitable drug for improving the composition of the steroid and lipid parameters in elderly men.

  8. The Effect of a Mutation in the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor (TSHR) on Development, Behaviour and TH Levels in Domesticated Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Svemer, Frida; Eriksson, Jonas; Darras, Veerle M.; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) has been suggested to be a “domestication locus” in the chicken, due to a strong selective sweep over the gene found in domesticated chickens, differentiating them from their wild ancestor the Red Junglefowl (RJF). We investigated the effect of the mutation on development (incubation time), behaviour and thyroid hormone levels in intercross chickens homozygous for the mutation (d/d), wild type homozygotes (w/w) or heterozygotes (d/w). This allowed an assessment of the effect of genotype at this locus against a random mix of RJF and WL genotypes throughout the rest of the genome, controlling for family effects. The d/d genotype showed a longer incubation time, less fearful behaviours, lower number of aggressive behaviours and decreased levels of the thyroid hormone T4, in comparison to the w/w genotype. The difference between TSHR genotypes (d/d vs. w/w) in these respects mirrors the differences in development and behaviour between pure domesticated White Leghorns and pure RJF chickens. Higher individual T3 and T4 levels were associated with more aggression. Our study indicates that the TSHR mutation affects typical domestication traits, possibly through modifying plasma levels of thyroid hormones, and may therefore have been important during the evolution of the domestic chicken. PMID:26053744

  9. Development of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) after Onyx embolisation of a cavernous carotid fistula.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsinsue; Kalani, M Yashar S; Ducruet, Andrew F; Albuquerque, Felipe C; McDougall, Cameron G

    2017-01-01

    Patients with cavernous carotid fistulas (CCFs) can present with pituitary hypoperfusion and hypopituitarism; however, there are no previous reports of pituitary or hormonal abnormalities developing after CCF embolisation in an asymptomatic patient. We describe a patient with no hormonal abnormalities who developed syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion after CCF embolisation. The patient had bilateral indirect CCFs, which were completely embolised via a transvenous approach, and was neurologically stable postoperatively and discharged. In the subsequent 2 weeks the patient was readmitted twice for acute hyponatraemia and a tonic-clonic seizure. Laboratory studies revealed severe SIADH. Clinical status and sodium levels improved after treatment. One year later the patient was weaned off all medications and remained neurologically stable. SIADH may be a delayed phenomenon after CCF embolisation. Given the proximity of embolised vessels to the pituitary's vascular supply, CCF treatment may result in flow disturbance, ischaemia and hormonal abnormalities.

  10. Development of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) after Onyx embolisation of a cavernous carotid fistula.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsinsue; Kalani, M Yashar S; Ducruet, Andrew F; Albuquerque, Felipe C; McDougall, Cameron G

    2016-03-21

    Patients with cavernous carotid fistulas (CCFs) can present with pituitary hypoperfusion and hypopituitarism; however, there are no previous reports of pituitary or hormonal abnormalities developing after CCF embolisation in an asymptomatic patient. We describe a patient with no hormonal abnormalities who developed syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion after CCF embolisation. The patient had bilateral indirect CCFs, which were completely embolised via a transvenous approach, and was neurologically stable postoperatively and discharged. In the subsequent 2 weeks the patient was readmitted twice for acute hyponatraemia and a tonic-clonic seizure. Laboratory studies revealed severe SIADH. Clinical status and sodium levels improved after treatment. One year later the patient was weaned off all medications and remained neurologically stable. SIADH may be a delayed phenomenon after CCF embolisation. Given the proximity of embolised vessels to the pituitary's vascular supply, CCF treatment may result in flow disturbance, ischaemia and hormonal abnormalities.

  11. Serum levels of gonadotropins, prolactin, and progesterone in infertile female Africans.

    PubMed

    Kuku, S F; Akinyanju, P A; Ojeifo, J O

    1987-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of hormonal abnormalities in infertile African women, serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, and progesterone were estimated using radioimmunoassay techniques during the midluteal phase in 2,047 female partners of infertile relationships. Of the patients investigated, 1,085 (53%) had abnormal serum levels of one or more of the hormones studied. Hyperprolactinemia, found in 537 (26.2%) of the patients, was the commonest hormonal abnormality. Serum progesterone level of 3 ng/mL or below which is indicative of anovulation was found in 235 (11.5%) patients, while the value of 5 ng/mL or below, suggestive of inadequate luteal functions, was found in another 121 (5.9%) patients. Since hyperprolactinemia, anovulation, and defective luteal function are treatable endocrine disorders, routine endocrine evaluation of infertile females in African societies is suggested.

  12. Extraordinary level of hormone and number of ghrelin cells in the stomach and duodenum of an obese woman.

    PubMed

    Kasacka, Irena; Arciszewski, Maciej; Łebkowski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major metabolic disorder, in which ghrelin plays a significant role. The objective of this study was to characterize the morphology of ghrelin cells in the stomach and duodenum and the levels of ghrelin and leptin in the serum of a 52-year-old obese woman. Material for the study was obtained from the stomachs and duodenum, of obese and control women. Each subject had been treated at the Intensive Care Unit of the Clinical University Hospital in Białystok, due to brain damage, due to primary cardiac arrest. After brain death was diagnosed and individual death was confirmed by doctors, stomach and duodenum samples were collected from each body. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and processed for immunolocalization of ghrelin. The density of ghrelin cells in each part of the gastrointestinal tract was estimated under a light microscope with a digital camera. Ghrelin-IR cells were also analyzed in terms of morphometric features such as length, width and area. The ghrelin and leptin concentrations in each blood sample were measured by ELISA. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a small number of ghrelin cells in the stomach and duodenum which did not reflect the high level of hormone. The obese woman had lower number of ghrelin cells in the stomach and duodenum and elevated ghrelin and leptin levels in serum. It can therefore be assumed that additional source of ghrelin and probably changes in activity of ghrelin o-acylotransferase, are responsible for the high concentration of ghrelin in the obese woman.

  13. Serum Lipid Transfer Proteins in Hypothyreotic Patients Are Inversely Correlated with Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Levels.

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Wołyniec, Maria; Rogala, Natalia; Szuba, Andrzej; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna

    2016-11-30

    BACKGROUND Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity is often decreased in patients with hypothyroidism, whereas less is known about the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). We aimed to evaluate simultaneously serum CETP and PLTP activity in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism. MATERIAL AND METHODS The selection criteria for control group members (without thyroid dysfunction) in this case to case study were levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides similar to those in study group patients (101 patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism). Serum CETP and PLTP activities were measured by homogenous fluorometric assays using synthetic donor particle substrates. RESULTS Serum CETP and PLTP activities in hypothyreotic patients were lower (p<0.001) compared with those in healthy subjects. This lowering was associated with significant changes in HDL-C subclasses: decrease in HDL2- and increase in HDL3 cholesterol levels. Multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking habits, and alcohol drinking showed a strong association between hypothyroidism and activity of lipid transfer proteins. A linear inverse relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and CETP (r=-0.21; p<0.01) and between TSH and PLTP (r=-0.24; p<0.001) was shown. There also was a positive correlation (p<0.001) between CETP and HDL2 cholesterol (r=0.27) and between PLTP and HDL2 cholesterol (r=0.37). A negative correlation between CETP and HDL3 cholesterol (r=-0.22: p<0.01) and between PLTP and HDL3 cholesterol (r=-0.24; p<0.001) has been demonstrated as well. CONCLUSIONS The decreased HDL2 and increased HDL3 cholesterol levels in subjects with hypothyroidism are consequences of decreased activity of lipid transfer proteins. These changes are early symptoms of lipid disturbances in hypothyroidism.

  14. Serum Lipid Transfer Proteins in Hypothyreotic Patients Are Inversely Correlated with Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Levels

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Wołyniec, Maria; Rogala, Natalia; Szuba, Andrzej; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    Background Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity is often decreased in patients with hypothyroidism, whereas less is known about the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). We aimed to evaluate simultaneously serum CETP and PLTP activity in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism. Material/Methods The selection criteria for control group members (without thyroid dysfunction) in this case to case study were levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides similar to those in study group patients (101 patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism). Serum CETP and PLTP activities were measured by homogenous fluorometric assays using synthetic donor particle substrates. Results Serum CETP and PLTP activities in hypothyreotic patients were lower (p<0.001) compared with those in healthy subjects. This lowering was associated with significant changes in HDL-C subclasses: decrease in HDL2- and increase in HDL3 cholesterol levels. Multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking habits, and alcohol drinking showed a strong association between hypothyroidism and activity of lipid transfer proteins. A linear inverse relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and CETP (r=−0.21; p<0.01) and between TSH and PLTP (r=−0.24; p<0.001) was shown. There also was a positive correlation (p<0.001) between CETP and HDL2 cholesterol (r=0.27) and between PLTP and HDL2 cholesterol (r=0.37). A negative correlation between CETP and HDL3 cholesterol (r=−0.22: p<0.01) and between PLTP and HDL3 cholesterol (r=−0.24; p<0.001) has been demonstrated as well. Conclusions The decreased HDL2 and increased HDL3 cholesterol levels in subjects with hypothyroidism are consequences of decreased activity of lipid transfer proteins. These changes are early symptoms of lipid disturbances in hypothyroidism. PMID:27899788

  15. Effect of recombinant growth hormone on expression of growth hormone receptor, insulin-like growth factor mRNA and serum level of leptin in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingfu; Zhao, Zhihui; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian; Chen, Jie

    2003-04-01

    Sixteen Large White x Landrace castrated male pigs were allotted into treatment and control group. The treatment group was injected intramuscularly with recombinant porcine growth hormone (rpGH, 4 mg d(-1)) and the control group with vehicle for 28 days. Animals were slaughtered 4 h after final injection for liver, longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and blood sampling. Serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) and leptin were determined by RIA. The total RNA was extracted from tissues to measure the abundance of growth hormone receptor (GHR), IGF-I mRNA by RT-PCR with 18S rRNA internal standard. Results showed that rpGH enhanced the average daily weight gain by 26.1% (P < 0.05), the serum IGF-I concentration by 70.94% (P < 0.01), decreased serum leptin by 34.8% (P < 0.01). The relative abundance of GHR and IGF-I mRNA in liver were increased by 24.45% (P < 0.05) and 45.30% (P < 0.01), respectively, but no difference of GHR (P > 0.05) and IGF-I mRNA (P > 0.05) in LD between GH treated and control group was found. These results suggest that rpGH can up-regulate hepatic GHR and IGF-I gene expression and improve animal growth. However the effect of rpGH on GHR and IGF-I gene expression are tissue-specific.

  16. High-level expression and purification of recombinant human growth hormone produced in soluble form in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Levarski, Zdenko; Šoltýsová, Andrea; Krahulec, Ján; Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turňa, Ján

    2014-08-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) was one of the first recombinant proteins approved for the treatment of human growth disorders. Its small size (191 amino acids), possession of only 2 disulphide bonds and absence of posttranslational modifications make Escherichia coli the host of choice for its production on any scale. In this work, we have utilized an efficient T7 based expression system to produce high levels of soluble thioredoxin-hGH (Trx-hGH) fusion protein. We outline a relatively simple three step purification process employing two immobilized metal-affinity chromatography and one anion-exchange steps and removal of fusion partner by enterokinase cleavage yielding native hGH. The ability of cell populations to produce quantities of up to 1 g/L of the soluble Trx-hGH fusion protein has been tested in flask cultivations as well as in batch and fed-batch bioreactor runs. The sequence and structure of derived hGH were confirmed by mass spectrometry and circular dichroism and its native function, to induce cell proliferation, was confirmed by employing a Nb2 cell line proliferation assay.

  17. Effect of methomyl on sex steroid hormone and vitellogenin levels in serum of male tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and recovery pattern.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shun-Long; Qiu, Li-Ping; Hu, Geng-Dong; Fan, Li-Min; Song, Chao; Zheng, Yao; Wu, Wei; Qu, Jian-Hong; Li, Dan-Dan; Chen, Jia-Zhang; Xu, Pao

    2017-03-02

    Tilapia were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of 0, 0.2, 2, 20 or 200 μg/L for 30 days, then transferred to methomyl-free water for 18 days. E2 , T, 11-KTand VTG in serum were examined. There were no significant changes in all the parameters in serum of tilapia exposed to 0.2 μg/L and 2 μg/L methomyl compared to the control. However, 20 μg/L and 200 μg/L have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system of male tilapia, as shown by its ability to increase VTG and E2 and decrease T and 11-KT in serum. Thus it would appear the no observed adverse effect level for sexual steroid hormones of methomyl is lower than 2 μg/L. Recovery data showed that the effects produced by 20μg/L were reversible but not at 200μg/L. Furthermore, the sensitivity of above parameters to methomyl followed the order of VTG>E2 >11-KT>T>GSI, suggesting VTG being the better biomarkers.

  18. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sustarsic, Elahu G.; Junnila, Riia K.; Kopchick, John J.

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Most cancer types of the NCI60 have sub-sets of cell lines with high GHR expression. •GHR is highly expressed in melanoma cell lines. •GHR is elevated in advanced stage IV metastatic tumors vs. stage III. •GH treatment of metastatic melanoma cell lines alters growth and cell signaling. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence implicates the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in carcinogenesis. While multiple studies show evidence for expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR mRNA in human cancer tissue, there is a lack of quantification and only a few cancer types have been investigated. The National Cancer Institute’s NCI60 panel includes 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer: breast, CNS, colon, leukemia, melanoma, non-small cell lung, ovarian, prostate and renal. We utilized this panel to quantify expression of GHR, GH, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and prolactin (PRL) mRNA with real-time RT qPCR. Both GHR and PRLR show a broad range of expression within and among most cancer types. Strikingly, GHR expression is nearly 50-fold higher in melanoma than in the panel as a whole. Analysis of human metastatic melanoma biopsies confirmed GHR gene expression in melanoma tissue. In these human biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found that human metastatic melanoma tumors express GHR and cell lines possess active GHRs that can modulate multiple signaling pathways and alter cell proliferation. Based on

  19. Arginine and ornithine supplementation increases growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 serum levels after heavy-resistance exercise in strength-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanisław; Zebrowska, Aleksandra; Chalimoniuk, Małgorzata; Langfort, Jozef

    2010-04-01

    This placebo-controlled double-blind study was designed to investigate the effect of arginine and ornithine (arg and orn) supplementation during 3-week heavy-resistance training on serum growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1/insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (GH/IGF-1/IGFBP-3), testosterone, cortisol, and insulin levels in experienced strength-trained athletes. The subjects were randomly divided between a placebo group (n = 8) and the l-Arg/l-Orn-supplemented group (n = 9), and performed pre and posttraining standard exercise tests with the same absolute load, which consisted of the same exercise schedule as that applied in the training process. Fasting blood samples were obtained at rest, 2 minutes after the cessation of the strength exercise protocol, and after 1 hour of recovery. The resting concentrations of the investigated hormones and IGFBP-3 did not differ significantly between the study groups. In response to exercise test, all the hormones were elevated (p < 0.05) at both time points. Significant increases (p < 0.05) were observed in both GH and IGF-1 serum levels after arg and orn supplementation at both time points, whereas a significant decrease was seen in IGFBP-3 protein during the recovery period. Because there was no between-group difference in the remaining hormone levels, it appears that the GH/IGF-1/IGFBP-3 complex may be the major player in muscle tissue response to short-term resistance training after arg and orn supplementation.

  20. Second to fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) and adult sex hormone levels: new data and a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Hönekopp, Johannes; Bartholdt, Luise; Beier, Lothar; Liebert, Andreas

    2007-05-01

    The relative length of the second (index) to the fourth (ring) finger (2D:4D) is a putative negative correlate of prenatal testosterone (T) exposure. Therefore, 2D:4D (and to a lesser extent D(r-l), the difference between 2D:4D in the right hand and in the left hand) has often been used to study effects of prenatal androgenization on human behavior and cognition. However, evidence suggests that 2D:4D may also be related to levels of circulating sex hormones in adults. This would question the validity of 2D:4D as a means of studying the effects of prenatal sex hormones. Here we present new data from two non-clinical samples (64 women and 102 men) regarding the relationships of 2D:4D and D(r-l) with circulating sex hormone levels. We then present a meta-analytic review of all the present evidence regarding this issue. The results suggest that, in the normal population, 2D:4D and D(r-l) are not associated with adult sex hormone levels. The findings from this current study add to the growing body of evidence demonstrating that 2D:4D is a suitable tool to study the effects of prenatal androgenization on human behavior and cognition.

  1. Low plasma adiponectin level, white blood cell count and Helicobacter pylori titre independently predict abnormal pancreatic beta-cell function.

    PubMed

    So, Wing-Yee; Tong, Peter C; Ko, Gary T; Ma, Ronald C; Ozaki, Risa; Kong, Alice P; Yang, Xilin; Ho, Chung-Shun; Lam, Christopher C; Chan, Juliana C

    2009-11-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocytokine with insulin sensitizing effect while chronic inflammation damages pancreatic beta-cells leading to reduced insulin response. We aimed to prove the hypothesis that adiponectin levels and inflammatory markers (white blood cell counts [WCC], Helicobacter pylori [HP] titers, high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) may interact to affect risk of diabetes. We studied 288 Chinese men (age-median: 41.0 years, IQR: 35.3-46.0 years) being recruited from the community in Hong Kong. The mean adiponectin level was 5.39+/-2.81 microg/ml and 40.9% (n=107) had low adiponectin level (<4 microg/ml). On multiple regression analysis, adiponectin was negatively associated with diabetes, HOMA insulin resistance top quartile, plasma glucose (PG) and 2h insulin; and positively associated with HOMA insulin sensitivity index. WCC was independently associated with PG and 15' insulin, and negatively associated with HOMA insulin sensitivity top quartile. HP titre was associated with 30' PG level and diabetes. hs-CRP did not enter the multivariable model. In conclusion, adiponectin, WCC and HP titer are independent predictors for hyperglycemia and reduced insulin sensitivity in Chinese men. These findings may explain the high risk for diabetes in Chinese population despite their relatively low adiposity.

  2. The effects of palm vitamin E on stress hormone levels and gastric lesions in stress-induced rats

    PubMed Central

    Aziz Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel; Kamisah, Yusof; Nafeeza, Mohd Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study examines the effects of palm vitamin E (PVE) or α-tocopherol (α-TF) supplementation on adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), corticosterone and gastric lesions in rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS). Material and methods Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were divided into three groups. Group I: 20 rats as a control group were given a normal diet. Group II: 20 rats received oral supplementation of PVE at 60 mg/kg body weight. Group III: 20 rats received oral supplementation of α-TF at 60 mg/kg body weight. After the treatment period of 28 days, each group was further subdivided into two groups: 10 rats not exposed to stress, and the other 10 rats subjected to WIRS for 3.5 h. Blood samples were taken to measure the ACTH and corticosterone levels. The rats were then sacrificed and the stomach excised and opened along the greater curvature and examined for lesions. Results Rats exposed to WIRS had lesions in their stomach mucosa. Our findings showed that dietary supplementation of PVE or α-TF was able to reduce gastric lesions significantly in comparison to the stressed controls. The WIRS increased plasma ACTH and corticosterone significantly. Palm vitamin E and α-TF treatments reduced these parameters significantly compared to the stressed controls. Conclusions Supplementation with either PVE or α-TF reduces the formation of gastric lesions, probably by inhibiting the elevation of ACTH and corticosterone levels induced by stress. PMID:22457670

  3. Brain and gonadal aromatase activity and steroid hormone levels in female and polymorphic males of the peacock blenny Salaria pavo.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Teles, Magda; Alpedrinha, João; Oliveira, Rui F

    2008-11-01

    In the peacock blenny Salaria pavo large males with well-developed secondary sexual characters establish nests and attract females while small "sneaker" males mimic female sexual displays in order to approach the nests of larger males and parasitically fertilize eggs. These alternative reproductive tactics are sequential, as sneakers irreversibly switch into nesting males. This transition involves major morphologic and behavioral changes and is likely to be mediated by hormones. This study focuses on the role of aromatase, an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of androgens into estrogens, in the regulation of male sexual polymorphism in S. pavo. For this, sex steroid plasma levels and aromatase activity (AA) in gonads, whole brain and brain macroareas were determined in sneakers, transitional males (i.e. sneakers undergoing the transition into nesting males), nesting males and females collected in the field. AA was much higher in ovarian tissue than in testicular tissue and accordingly circulating estradiol levels were highest in females. This supports the view that elevated AA and estradiol levels are associated with the development of a functional ovary. Transitional males are in a non-reproductive phase and had underdeveloped testes when compared with sneakers and nesting males. Testicular AA was approximately 10 times higher in transitional males when compared with sneakers and nesting males, suggesting high AA has a suppressive effect on testicular development. Nesting males had significantly higher plasma levels of both testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone when compared with the other male morphs and previous studies demonstrated that these androgens suppress female-like displays in sneakers. In the brain, AA was highest in macroareas presumably containing hypothalamic nuclei traditionally associated with the regulation of reproductive behaviors. Overall, females presented the highest levels of brain AA. In male morphs AA increased from sneakers, to

  4. Perchlorate disrupts embryonic androgen synthesis and reproductive development in threespine stickleback without changing whole-body levels of thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Ann M; Dillon, Danielle; Bernhardt, Richard R; Torunsky, Roberta; Postlethwait, John H; von Hippel, Frank A; Loren Buck, C; Cresko, William A

    2015-01-01

    Perchlorate, an environmental contaminant, disrupts normal functioning of the thyroid. We previously showed that perchlorate disrupts behavior and gonad development, and induces external morphological changes in a vertebrate model organism, the threespine stickleback. Whether perchlorate alters these phenotypes via a thyroid-mediated mechanism, and the extent to which the effects depend on dose, are unknown. To address these questions, we chronically exposed stickleback to control conditions and to three concentrations of perchlorate (10, 30 and 100ppm) at various developmental stages from fertilization to reproductive maturity. Adults chronically exposed to perchlorate had increased numbers of thyroid follicles and decreased numbers of thyrocytes. Surprisingly, T4 and T3 levels in larval, juvenile, and adult whole fish chronically exposed to perchlorate did not differ from controls, except at the lowest perchlorate dose, suggesting a non-monotonic dose response curve. We found no detectable abnormalities in external phenotype at any dose of perchlorate, indicating that the increased number of thyroid follicles compensated for the disruptive effects of these doses. In contrast to external morphology, gonadal development was altered substantially, with the highest dose of perchlorate causing the largest effects. Perchlorate increased the number both of early stage ovarian follicles in females and of advanced spermatogenic stages in males. Perchlorate also disrupted embryonic androgen levels. We conclude that chronic perchlorate exposure may not result in lasting adult gross morphological changes but can produce lasting modifications to gonads when compensation of T3 and T4 levels occurs by thyroid follicle hyperplasia. Perchlorate may therefore affect vertebrate development via both thyroidal and non-thyroidal mechanisms.

  5. Thymidine Kinase 2 Deficiency-Induced Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Causes Abnormal Development of Adipose Tissues and Adipokine Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Villarroya, Joan; Dorado, Beatriz; Vilà, Maya R.; Garcia-Arumí, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta; Hirano, Michio; Villarroya, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Mammal adipose tissues require mitochondrial activity for proper development and differentiation. The components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain/oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) are encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The maintenance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a key element for a functional mitochondrial oxidative activity in mammalian cells. To ascertain the role of mtDNA levels in adipose tissue, we have analyzed the alterations in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues in thymidine kinase 2 (Tk2) H126N knockin mice, a model of TK2 deficiency-induced mtDNA depletion. We observed respectively severe and moderate mtDNA depletion in TK2-deficient BAT and WAT, showing both tissues moderate hypotrophy and reduced fat accumulation. Electron microscopy revealed altered mitochondrial morphology in brown but not in white adipocytes from TK2-deficient mice. Although significant reduction in mtDNA-encoded transcripts was observed both in WAT and BAT, protein levels from distinct OXPHOS complexes were significantly reduced only in TK2-deficient BAT. Accordingly, the activity of cytochrome c oxidase was significantly lowered only in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. The analysis of transcripts encoding up to fourteen components of specific adipose tissue functions revealed that, in both TK2-deficient WAT and BAT, there was a consistent reduction of thermogenesis related gene expression and a severe reduction in leptin mRNA. Reduced levels of resistin mRNA were found in BAT from TK2-deficient mice. Analysis of serum indicated a dramatic reduction in circulating levels of leptin and resistin. In summary, our present study establishes that mtDNA depletion leads to a moderate impairment in mitochondrial respiratory function, especially in BAT, causes substantial alterations in WAT and BAT development, and has a profound impact in the endocrine properties of adipose tissues. PMID:22216345

  6. Serum levels of sex hormones and expression of their receptors in thyroid tissue in female patients with various types of thyroid neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Chen, Guang; Meng, Xian-Ying; Liu, Zhong-Hui; Dong, Su

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in thyroid cancer; however, little is known regarding the levels of estrogen, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in serum and the expression of ER, PR, FSH receptor (FSHR), and LH receptor (LHR) in thyroid tissues of patients with different types of thyroid neoplasms. Serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH were measured by chemiluminescence, and expression of ER, PR, FSHR, and LHR in thyroid tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry in female patients with thyroid adenoma (n = 70), nodular goiter (n = 73), thyroid papillary cancer (n = 149), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (n = 12), or undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (n = 8) and in normal controls (n = 60). The positive rates of serum estrogen level and ERα expression were significantly greater in patients with various types of thyroid neoplasms than in normal controls. The positive rates of ERβ expression were significantly less in various types of thyroid neoplasms than in normal thyroid tissues, especially in poorly differentiated carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma. The negative rates of serum progesterone level and positive rates of PR expression in thyroid tissue were significantly greater in patients with thyroid adenoma, nodular goiter, or thyroid papillary cancer than in normal controls. The positive rates of serum FSH and LH levels and FSHR and LHR expression were significantly greater in the thyroid adenoma group than in other groups. Our findings suggest that thyroid neoplasms might be sex hormone-dependent. The positive expression of ERα and PR often indicates thyroid papillary carcinoma, and the ERβ expression status is important for the diagnosis of poorly differentiated carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma. In addition, thyroid adenoma is often accompanied by an increase in serum FSH and LH levels, as well as

  7. Metabolic and Hormonal Derangements in Pulmonary Hypertension: From Mouse to Man

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Meredith E.; Hemnes, Anna R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a complex disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Recent animal and human studies have highlighted abnormalities in regulation and metabolism of insulin, sex hormones, adipokines, and lipids that may play a role in disease development. Mouse studies suggest features of the metabolic syndrome including insulin resistance, deficiencies in PPARγ and apolipoprotein E, and low adiponectin are linked to development of PAH. In humans, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein have been associated with PAH. In addition, abnormal metabolism of estrogens has been demonstrated in human and animal models of PAH, suggesting an important relationship of sex hormones and pulmonary vascular disease. Improved understanding of how metabolic and hormonal derangements relate to development and progression of pulmonary hypertension may lead to better disease therapies and understanding of potential risk factors. This review will focus on the animal and human data regarding metabolic and sex hormone derangements in PAH. PMID:20939841

  8. Training-overtraining: performance, and hormone levels, after a defined increase in training volume versus intensity in experienced middle- and long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, M; Gastmann, U; Petersen, K G; Bachl, N; Seidel, A; Khalaf, A N; Fischer, S; Keul, J

    1992-12-01

    Performance and hormones were determined in eight middle- and nine long-distance runners after an increase in training volume (ITV, February 1989) or intensity (ITI, February 1990). Seven runners participated in both studies. The objective was to cause an overtraining syndrome. The mean training volume of 85.9 km week-1 increased within 3 weeks to 176.6 km week-1 during ITV and 96-98% of training volume was performed as long-distance runs at mean(s.d.) 67(8)% of maximum capacity. Speed endurance, high-speed and interval runs averaging 9 km week-1 increased within 3 weeks to 22.7 km during ITI, and the total volume increased from 61.6 to 84.7 km. A plateau in endurance performance and decrease in maximum performance occurred during ITV, probably due to overtraining, with performance incompetence over months. Nocturnal catecholamine excretion decreased markedly (47-53%), contrary to exercise-related plasma catecholamine responses, which increased. Resting and exercise-related cortisol and aldosterone levels decreased. Improvement in endurance and maximum performance occurred during ITI indicating a failure to cause an overtraining syndrome in ITI. Decrease in noctural catecholamine excretion was clearly lower (9-26%), exercise-related catecholamine responses showed a significant decrease, cortisol and aldosterone levels remained almost constant, exercise-related prolactin levels decreased slightly. There were no differences in insulin, C-peptide, free testosterone, somatotropic hormone (STH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). The decrease in nocturnal catecholamine excretion during ITV might indicate a decrease in intrinsic sympathetic activity in exhausted sportsmen. But it remains open whether this reflected a central nervous system incompetence.

  9. Evidence of chemical stimulation of hepatic metabolism by an experimental acetanilide (FOE 5043) indirectly mediating reductions in circulating thyroid hormone levels in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Christenson, W R; Becker, B D; Wahle, B S; Moore, K D; Dass, P D; Lake, S G; Van Goethem, D L; Stuart, B P; Sangha, G K; Thyssen, J H

    1996-02-01

    N-(4-Fluorophenyl)-N-(1-methylethyl)-2-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3, 4-thiadiazol-2-yl]oxy]acetamide (FOE 5043) is a new acetanilide-type herbicide undergoing regulatory testing. Previous work in this laboratory suggested that FOE 5043-induced reductions in serum thyroxine (T4) levels were mediated via an extrathyroidal site of action. The possibility that the alterations in circulating T4 levels were due to chemical induction of hepatic thyroid hormone metabolism was investigated. Treatment with FOE 5043 at a rate of 1000 ppm as a dietary admixture was found to significantly increase the clearance of [125I]T4 from the serum, suggesting an enhanced excretion of the hormone. In the liver, the activity of hepatic uridine glucuronosyl transferase, a major pathway of thyroid hormone biotransformation in the rat, increased in a statistically significant and dose-dependent manner; conversely, hepatic 5'-monodeiodinase activity trended downward with dose. Bile flow as well as the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of [125I]T4 were increased following exposure to FOE 5043. Thyroidal function, as measured by the discharge of iodide ion in response to perchlorate, and pituitary function, as measured by the capacity of the pituitary to secrete thyrotropin in response to an exogenous challenge by hypothalamic thyrotropin releasing hormone, were both unchanged from the controlled response. These data suggest that the functional status of the thyroid and pituitary glands has not been altered by treatment with FOE 5043 and that reductions in circulating levels of T4 are being mediated indirectly through an increase in the biotransformation and excretion of thyroid hormone in the liver.

  10. [Revaluation of the concept of developmental abnormality: the importance of faulty perinatal imprinting].

    PubMed

    Csaba, György

    2015-07-12

    The classic definition of developmental abnormalities referred to malformations observed at birth. Later the functional teratogenicity was also recognized and accepted, which can be revealed in functional abnormalities caused by harms during the intrauterine development and can be manifested at any time of life. However, the ontogeny is not closed with the birth, because some systems or organs are developing for a long time after it, and can be influenced by different factors. From this aspect the perinatal period is especially important when the mutual adjustment of the receptor-hormone system is taking place and the hormonal imprinting develops. If this is faulty, it influences the hormone binding capacity of receptors that has consequences for life. The faulty hormonal imprinting is functionally teratogen; it provokes a fault up to the level of a malformation and aggravated with its heredity to the progenies. False imprinting is provoked (in animal experiments, proportioning to human doses) by drugs acting at receptor level, as oxytocin, steroid hormone analogues (pregnancy protectors, oral contraceptives, surfactants), vitamin A and D, environmental pollutant endocrine disruptors (benzpyrene, bisphenol A, pesticides, herbicides) and certain soybean components, etc. From this aspect these are functional teratogens, and their evasion in prevention as well as therapy seems to be vital. This means that the concept of developmental abnormality must be broadened, as developmental abnormalities: 1.) can originate not only in the intrauterine period, but also perinatally or even later, 2.) it can be manifested at any time of life, 3.) it can be present in a latent form which can be activated by inner or outer environmental factors, 4.) the faulty hormonal imprinting is a teratogen factor.

  11. Comparative Study of Alterations in Tri-iodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) Hormone Levels in Breast and Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Mahmood; Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Zaigham, Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Riaz, Naila; Alam, Rabail; Manan, Abdul; Sheikh, Ishfaq Ahmed; Asif, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective : The present study was designed to investigate variations in the levels of thyroid hormones (T3, T4) in breast and ovarian cancers patients. Methods : A total 120 subjects were recruited (without thyroid history) divided into three groups; A, B and C. Group A as control with healthy individuals. While group B and group C were consisting of breast cancer and ovarian cancer patient respectively. Blood samples (5 ml) were taken and analyzed to estimate the levels of serum T3 (tri-iodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxin) hormones. R esults : Statistically significant difference (P=0.000* and P=0.017*) was obtained among all groups. A significant increase in T3 (P=0.000*) and T4 (0.005*) levels was observed among breast cancer patients as compared to healthy controls. While for ovarian cancer patients conflicting results were found for T3 and T4 levels in the serum i.e. insignificant difference was found in T3 (P=0.209) and T4 (P=0.050) as compared to control. Our results showed that in the breast cancer and ovarian cancer patients the thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) level has been altered from the normal ranges as compared to the normal healthy individuals. Conclusion : We conclude that hyperthyroidism has profound effects on breast cancer and ovarian cancer cells proliferation.

  12. Pituitary protein 7B2 plasma levels in patients with liver disease: Comparisons with other hormones and neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    VENETIKOU, MARIA S.; MELEAGROS, LUKE; GHATEI, MOHHAMMAD A.; BLOOM, STEPHEN R.

    2013-01-01

    7B2, a protein initially isolated from the porcine pituitary gland, has been identified in numerous animal and human tissues, with the highest concentrations in the pituitary and hypothalamus. The 7B2 molecule is highly evolutionarily conserved and is considered to be indispensable in the function and regulation of proprotein convertase 2 (PC2). In the present study, the plasma 7B2 immunoreactivity (7B2-IR) of 18 patients with liver disease was studied. Of these patients, seven (three male and four female), aged 37–67 [54.6±13.5 (SD)] years, suffered from liver cirrhosis of cryptogenic (n=2) or alcoholic (n=5) aetiology. The remaining 11 patients (four male and seven female), aged 22–76 [56.1±17.6 (SD)] years, suffered from miscellaneous liver abnormalities. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed in the majority of patients by the histological examination of a percutaneous liver biopsy or by appropriate radiological investigations. Plasma bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, prothrombin time, electrolytes, urea and creatinine were measured. The plasma 7B2-IR levels were estimated using a sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA), and the elution position of 7B2-IR was verified by gel chromatography. The mean plasma 7B2-IR concentration in patients with liver disease was 99.44±15.9 pmol/l. In the patients with hepatocellular damage due to metastatic tumours [Ca bronchus, carcinoid (n=6)], the 7B2-IR concentrations were significantly higher [185±36.9 pmol/l, (P<0.05)] compared with the overall subjects with liver damage. The results of the present study demonstrate that 7B2-IR is increased in liver disease, with the highest levels detected in patients with tumourous liver conditions. PMID:24137355

  13. Association of E-selectin with hematological, hormonal levels and plasma proteins in children with end stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Meamar, Rokhsareh; Shafiei, Mohammad; Abedini, Amin; Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza Aghaye; Roomizadeh, Peyman; Taheri, Shahram; Gheissari, Alaleh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypercoagulable state is a common serious problem in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). ESRD patients are in a condition of chronic inflammation. An increased level of E-selectin, “a key adhesion molecule that regulates leukocyte bindings to endothelium at damaged sites,” accompanies the higher risk of inflammation in ESRD patients. We aimed to investigate the possible correlation among E-selectin as an adhesion molecule, coagulation factors, and inflammatory factors in children with ESRD. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five child patients with ESRD who had been on regular dialysis treatment were registered in our study. Nighteen sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers were used as the control group. Laboratory tests were requested for the evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters, and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and for coagulation state; fibrinogen, protein C, and protein S were measured. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Biomerica, CA, and IDS, UK). for serum E-selectin assay was provided by R and D Systems (Abingdon, UK). Results: Hemoglubolin (Hb), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, calcium, PTH, triglyceride (TG) concentrations in serum as well as E-selectin showed significant difference between the two study groups, as indeed was expected. Serum E-selectin was significantly higher (P value = 0.033) in dialysis patients than in healthy subjects. E-selectin was positively correlated only with phosphorus in ESRD children (r = 0.398, P = 0.018). No association was found for other parameters. Conclusion: Although in our study circulating E-selectin concentration “as an inflammatory maker” is independently positively associated with limited blood markers, for better evaluation, well-designed cohort studies should be examined in ESRD children. PMID:27563628

  14. How well does the capillary thyroid-stimulating hormone test for newborn thyroid screening predict the venous free thyroxine level?

    PubMed Central

    Pokrovska, Tzveta; Jones, Jeremy; Shaikh, M Guftar; Smith, Sarah; Donaldson, Malcolm D C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine, in newborn infants referred with elevated capillary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a threshold below which a frankly subnormal venous free thyroxine (fT4) level of <10 pmol/L is unlikely, so that treatment with levo-thyroxine (L-T4) might be deferred until venous thyroid function tests (TFTs) become available. Subjects and methods All infants referred in Scotland since 1979 with capillary TSH elevation were studied, with particular focus on infants screened using the AutoDELFIA assay between 2002 and 2013. Results Of the 321 infants referred with capillary TSH elevation using AutoDELFIA, 35 were excluded (fT4/TSH unavailable (12), venous sample either preceding or >10 days after capillary sampling (13, 10)), leaving 286 eligible for analysis (208 definite/probable hypothyroidism, 61 transient TSH elevation, 17 of uncertain thyroid status). Capillary TSH and venous T4 were strongly correlated (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient −0.707355). The optimal capillary TSH threshold for predicting a venous fT4 of <10 pmol/L was found to be >40 mU/L (90.3% sensitivity and 65.9% specificity compared with 90.25% and 59.1% for >35 mU/L and 88.3% and 68.2% for >45 mU/L). 93 infants (32.5%) had capillary TSH ≤40 mU/L at referral of whom 15 (9.7%) had venous fT4 <10 pmol/L, comprising seven with true congenital hypothyroidism, five with transient TSH elevation and three with uncertain status, two of whom died. Conclusion For infants in whom capillary TSH is ≤40 mU/L, it is reasonable to defer L-T4 treatment until venous TFT results are known provided that the latter become available quickly. PMID:26966265

  15. Lower Serum Vitamin D Metabolite Levels in Relation to Circulating Cytokines/Chemokines and Metabolic Hormones in Pregnant Women with Hypertensive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Adela, Ramu; Borkar, Roshan M.; Mishra, Navneeta; Bhandi, Murali Mohan; Vishwakarma, Gayatri; Varma, B. Aparna; Ragampeta, Srinivas; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether lower serum vitamin D metabolite levels were associated with altered cytokine/chemokine and metabolic hormone levels in three different hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP). Healthy pregnancy (n = 30) and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) (n = 30), i.e., gestational hypertension (GH), preeclampsia (PE), and eclampsia (EC) subjects were enrolled. Vitamin D metabolites were measured by UPLC/APCI/HRMS method. Circulatory 27 cytokines/chemokines and 10 metabolic hormones were measured. Significantly decreased 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels were observed in HDP. The levels of 25(OH)D were significantly lower in PE and EC, whereas the serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D significantly decreased only in EC subjects. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels were negatively correlated with systolic- and diastolic blood pressure, creatinine, and uric acid levels. Serum interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-13 decreased, and GIP levels were increased in gestational hypertensive subjects. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB and IL-8 levels were increased and macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta levels were decreased in EC subjects. IL-8 and IL-10 increased, and rantes and GIP levels decreased in the EC group as compared with the GH group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that eotaxin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, 25(OH)D, and 1,25(OH)2D were predictors of HDP. Our analyses suggest that lower vitamin D metabolites are associated with altered cytokines/chemokines and metabolic hormones in HDP. PMID:28348564

  16. Long-term exposure to abnormal glucose levels alters drug metabolism pathways and insulin sensitivity in primary human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Matthew D.; Ballinger, Kimberly R.; Khetani, Salman R.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress to inflammation, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding how chronic hyperglycemia affects primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) can facilitate the development of therapeutics for these diseases. Conversely, elucidating the effects of hypoglycemia on PHHs may provide insights into how the liver adapts to fasting, adverse diabetes drug reactions, and cancer. In contrast to declining PHH monocultures, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) of PHHs and 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts maintain insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism for several weeks. Here, we exposed MPCCs to hypo-, normo- and hyperglycemic culture media for ~3 weeks. While albumin and urea secretion were not affected by glucose level, hypoglycemic MPCCs upregulated CYP3A4 enzyme activity as compared to other glycemic states. In contrast, hyperglycemic MPCCs displayed significant hepatic lipid accumulation in the presence of insulin, while also showing decreased sensitivity to insulin-mediated inhibition of glucose output relative to a normoglycemic control. In conclusion, we show for the first time that PHHs exposed to hypo- and hyperglycemia can remain highly functional, but display increased CYP3A4 activity and selective insulin resistance, respectively. In the future, MPCCs under glycemic states can aid in novel drug discovery and mechanistic investigations. PMID:27312339

  17. Long-term exposure to abnormal glucose levels alters drug metabolism pathways and insulin sensitivity in primary human hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Matthew D.; Ballinger, Kimberly R.; Khetani, Salman R.

    2016-06-01

    Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress to inflammation, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding how chronic hyperglycemia affects primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) can facilitate the development of therapeutics for these diseases. Conversely, elucidating the effects of hypoglycemia on PHHs may provide insights into how the liver adapts to fasting, adverse diabetes drug reactions, and cancer. In contrast to declining PHH monocultures, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) of PHHs and 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts maintain insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism for several weeks. Here, we exposed MPCCs to hypo-, normo- and hyperglycemic culture media for ~3 weeks. While albumin and urea secretion were not affected by glucose level, hypoglycemic MPCCs upregulated CYP3A4 enzyme activity as compared to other glycemic states. In contrast, hyperglycemic MPCCs displayed significant hepatic lipid accumulation in the presence of insulin, while also showing decreased sensitivity to insulin-mediated inhibition of glucose output relative to a normoglycemic control. In conclusion, we show for the first time that PHHs exposed to hypo- and hyperglycemia can remain highly functional, but display increased CYP3A4 activity and selective insulin resistance, respectively. In the future, MPCCs under glycemic states can aid in novel drug discovery and mechanistic investigations.

  18. Effect of combined hormonal and insulin therapy on the steroid hormone receptors and growth factors signalling in diabetic mice prostate

    PubMed Central

    Fávaro, Wagner J; Cagnon, Valéria H A

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes causes harmful effects on prostatic morphology and function. However, there still are doubts about the occurrence of various diseases in the prostate, as well as abnormal angiogenesis in relation to diabetes. Thus, the aim of this study was to correlate and quantify the level of the steroid hormone receptors and the angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors in non-obese diabetic mice (Nod) after combined hormonal and insulin therapy. Sixty mice were divided into six groups after 20 days of diabetes: the control group received 0.9% NaCl, as did the diabetic group. The diabetic-insulin group received insulin, the diabetic-testosterone group received testosterone cypionate, the diabetic-oestrogen group received 17β-oestradiol, and the diabetic-insulin–testosterone–oestrogen group received insulin, testosterone and oestrogen simultaneously. After 20 days, the ventral lobe was processed for immunocytochemical and hormonal analyses. The results showed that the lowest serum testosterone and androgen receptor levels were found in the diabetic group and the highest testosterone and androgen receptor levels in the diabetic-insulin–testosterone–oestrogen group. The serum oestrogen level and its receptor showed changes opposite to those of testosterone and its receptor. The endostatin reactivity was mainly decreased in diabetic mice. The greatest IGFR-1 and VEGF reactivities occurred in diabetic mice. Thus, diabetes led to the prostatic hormonal imbalance, affecting molecular dynamics and angiogenesis in this organ. Combined insulin and steroid hormone therapy partially restored the hormonal and angiogenic imbalance caused by diabetes. PMID:21039986

  19. Effect of combined hormonal and insulin therapy on the steroid hormone receptors and growth factors signalling in diabetic mice prostate.

    PubMed

    Fávaro, Wagner J; Cagnon, Valéria H A

    2010-12-01

    Diabetes causes harmful effects on prostatic morphology and function. However, there still are doubts about the occurrence of various diseases in the prostate, as well as abnormal angiogenesis in relation to diabetes. Thus, the aim of this study was to correlate and quantify the level of the steroid hormone receptors and the angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors in non-obese diabetic mice (Nod) after combined hormonal and insulin therapy. Sixty mice were divided into six groups after 20 days of diabetes: the control group received 0.9% NaCl, as did the diabetic group. The diabetic-insulin group received insulin, the diabetic-testosterone group received testosterone cypionate, the diabetic-oestrogen group received 17β-oestradiol, and the diabetic-insulin-testosterone-oestrogen group received insulin, testosterone and oestrogen simultaneously. After 20 days, the ventral lobe was processed for immunocytochemical and hormonal analyses. The results showed that the lowest serum testosterone and androgen receptor levels were found in the diabetic group and the highest testosterone and androgen receptor levels in the diabetic-insulin-testosterone-oestrogen group. The serum oestrogen level and its receptor showed changes opposite to those of testosterone and its receptor. The endostatin reactivity was mainly decreased in diabetic mice. The greatest IGFR-1 and VEGF reactivities occurred in diabetic mice. Thus, diabetes led to the prostatic hormonal imbalance, affecting molecular dynamics and angiogenesis in this organ. Combined insulin and steroid hormone therapy partially restored the hormonal and angiogenic imbalance caused by diabetes.

  20. Dynamics of vitellogenin and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone levels in adult and subadult whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: relation to molting and eyestalk ablation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong Jung; Okutsu, Tomoyuki; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Shinji, Junpei; Bae, Sun-Hye; Wilder, Marcy N

    2014-01-01

    Levels of vitellogenin (VG) and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) in the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in relation to the molting cycle and ovarian maturation induced by eyestalk ablation. During the molt cycle, VG mRNA expression levels and VG concentrations showed similar patterns of fluctuation. VG levels increased significantly at early intermolt (stage C0) in adults, but not in subadults. Unilateral and bilateral eyestalk ablation increased VG levels in adults, whereas only bilateral eyestalk ablation affected subadults. VIH levels showed contrasting patterns between adults and subadults. In adults, levels were high in late postmolt adults (stage B) and then low thereafter, whereas they increased from postmolt (stage A) to intermolt (stage C0) in subadults and remained high. Unilateral eyestalk ablation increased VIH levels 10 days following ablation in adults, after which levels decreased at 20 days. VIH levels decreased from 10 to 20 days after bilateral ablation. Both unilateral and bilateral ablation led to increased VIH levels in subadults. Eyestalk ablation induced ovarian maturation, but did not reduce VIH concentrations in the hemolymph. This phenomenon was perhaps due to other crustacean hyperglycemic hormone peptides having cross-reactivity with VIH antibodies. This is the first report to quantify concentrations of VG and VIH together in L. vannamei hemolymph, and to examine their relative dynamics.

  1. Abnormalities in apolipoprotein and lipid levels in an HIV-infected Brazilian population under different treatment profiles: the relevance of apolipoprotein E genotypes and immunological status.

    PubMed

    Malavazi, Iran; Abrão, Emiliana P; Mikawa, Angela Y; Landgraf, Viviane O; da Costa, Paulo I

    2004-05-01

    HIV infection is associated with disturbances in lipid metabolism due to a host's response mechanism and the current antiretroviral therapy. The pathological appearance and progression of atherosclerosis is dependent on the presence of injurious agents in the vascular endothelium and variations in different subsets of candidate genes. Therefore, the Hha I polymorphism in the apolipoprotein E gene was evaluated in addition to triglycerides, total cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and apolipoprotein (apo) Al, B and E levels in 86 Brazilian HIV-infected patients and 29 healthy controls. The allele frequency for apoE in the HIV-infected group and controls was in agreement with data on the Brazilian population. Dyslipidemia was observed in the HIV group and verified by increased levels of triglycerides, VLDL and apoE, and decreased levels of HDL and apoAl. The greatest abnormalities in these biochemical variables were shown in the HIV-infected individuals whose immune function was more compromised. The effect of the genetic variation at the APOE gene on biochemical variables was more pronounced in the HIV-infected individuals who carried the apoE2/3 genotype. The highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)-receiving group presented increased levels of total cholesterol and apoE. Dyslipidemia was a predictable consequence of HIV infection and the protease inhibitors intensified the increase in apoE values.

  2. Relationship between long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water and the prevalence of abnormal blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanwu; Mao, Guangyun; He, Suxia; Yang, Zuopeng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Qiu, Wenting; Ta, Na; Cao, Li; Yang, Hui; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic increases the risk and incidence of cardiovascular disease. To explore the impact of long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water on blood pressure including pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in which the blood pressure of 405 villagers was measured, who had been drinking water with an inorganic arsenic content <50 μg/L. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), alcohol consumption and smoking, the odds ratios showed a 1.45-fold (95%CI: 0.63-3.35) increase in the group with >30-50 years of arsenic exposure and a 2.95-fold (95%CI: 1.31-6.67) increase in the group with >50 years exposure. Furthermore, the odds ratio for prevalence of abnormal PP and MAP were 1.06 (95%CI: 0.24-4.66) and 0.87 (95%CI: 0.36-2.14) in the group with >30-50 years of exposure, and were 2.46 (95%CI: 0.87-6.97) and 3.75 (95%CI: 1.61-8.71) for the group with >50 years exposure, compared to the group with arsenic exposure ≤ 30 years respectively. Significant trends for Hypertension (p<0.0001), PP (p<0.0001) and MAP (p=0.0016) were found. The prevalence of hypertension and abnormal PP as well as MAP is marked among a low-level arsenic exposure population, and significantly increases with the duration of arsenic exposure.

  3. Receptor-level interrelationships of amino acids and the adequate amino acid type hormones in Tetrahymena: a receptor evolution model.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Darvas, Z

    1986-01-01

    Histidine stimulates the phagocytosis of Tetrahymena to the same extent as histamine, and also stimulates its division, which histamine does not. Tyrosine and diiodotyrosine equally stimulate the growth of the Tetrahymena. Both amino acids inhibit the characteristic influence of the adequate amino acid hormone when added to Tetrahymena culture 72 h in advance of it. Primary interaction with diiodotyrosine and tyrosine notably increases the cellular growth rate. Histamine has a similar, although less notable effect than histidine. In the light of these experimental observations there is reason to postulate that the receptors of the amino acid hormones have developed from amino acid receptors.

  4. Summer/winter differences in the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone levels of Japanese women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Nashimoto, Mitsue; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] is produced in the skin in response to exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and is a good indicator of vitamin D nutritional status. The aim of this study was to determine summer/winter differences in serum 25(OH)D3 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in Japanese women and how the summer and winter values are related. The subjects were 122 healthy Japanese women aged 45-81 years (average age: 65.7 years). They were medically examined twice, in September 1997 and February 1999. Serum 25(OH)D3 and intact PTH were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and a two-site immunoradiometric assay respectively. Lifestyle information was obtained through an interview. The seasonal differences (winter minus summer) in 25(OH)D3 [Δ25(OH)D3] and intact PTH concentrations were -18.8 nmol/l (SD 19.2, P<0.0001) and 0.98pmol/l (SD 1.02, P<0.0001) respectively. The correlation coefficient between summer (x) and winter (y) 25(OH)D3 levels was 0.462 (P<0.0001), with a linearly fitted line of y=0.42x+26.4. This relationship was interpreted as subjects with higher summer 25(OH)D3 values having greater reductions in winter 25(OH)D3 concentrations. There were inter-individual differences in Δ25(OH)D3, although the summer and winter 25(OH)D3 concentrations were well-correlated. Since Δ25(OH)D3 was not associated with any of the lifestyle factors, seasonal differences in the 25(OH)D3 concentrations of an individual appeared to reflect her ability to produce 25(OH)D3 photochemically in the skin. Sun bathing would be a less effective means of attaining adequate vitamin D nutritional status in a person with a small seasonal difference in 25(OH)D3, i.e., one with a low 25(OH)D3 level.

  5. The effect of serum and follicular fluid anti-Mullerian hormone level on the number of oocytes retrieved and rate of fertilization and clinical pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Bolat, Seda Eymen; Ozdemirci, Safak; Kasapoglu, Taner; Duran, Bulent; Goktas, Levent; Karahanoglu, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between oocyte yield, fertilization, and clinical pregnancy (CP), and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level in serum and follicular fluid during in vitro fertilization treatment. METHODS: Forty-four infertile women who underwent IVF treatment using multiagonist protocol were included in this study. Baseline level of AMH in serum and follicular fluid was measured on third day of menstrual cycle. AMH level in serum and follicular fluid was then measured again on day of oocyte pick-up. Pearson correlation and binary regression tests were used for statistical analysis. For Type 1 error, p=5% was selected as cut-off value for statistical significance. RESULTS: Serum AMH level was positively correlated with total number of oocytes retrieved and rate of fertilization and CP (r=0.397, p=0.008; r=0.401, p=0.007; and r=0.382, p=0.011, respectively). There was significantly negative correlation between serum level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and fertilization rate (r=-0.320; p=0.034), as well as serum FSH level and CP rate (r=-0.308; p=0.042). There were no significant correlations between AMH level in follicular fluid and IVF treatment outcomes. CONCLUSION: Serum AMH levels may be more reliable for prediction of total number of oocytes retrieved and rate of fertilization and CP than AMH levels in follicular fluid. PMID:28058394

  6. Thyroglobulin levels measured at the time of remnant ablation to predict response to treatment in differentiated thyroid cancer after thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human TSH.

    PubMed

    Pitoia, Fabian; Abelleira, Erika; Cross, Graciela

    2017-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of stimulated thyroglobulin levels at the moment of remnant ablation for predicting an initial excellent or a structural incomplete response to treatment according to the risk of recurrence in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Patients were divided into two groups according to the preparation mode for remnant ablation (thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human TSH). We included 219 patients followed-up for at least for 24 months after remnant ablation. The primary endpoint was the best response to initial therapy assessed in the first 9-18 months of follow-up. An excellent response was observed in 45.1 % of patients prepared after recombinant human TSH compared to 44.6 % of patients prepared after thyroid hormone withdrawal (P = NS). The cutoff value of thyroglobulin <