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Sample records for abnormal hormone levels

  1. Hormone levels

    MedlinePlus

    Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

  2. Abnormal Bleeding During Menopause Hormone Therapy: Insights for Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Sebastião Freitas; Yamamoto, Márcia Marly Winck; Barbosa, Jacklyne Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to review the involved mechanisms and propose actions for controlling/treating abnormal uterine bleeding during climacteric hormone therapy. Methods A systemic search of the databases SciELO, MEDLINE, and Pubmed was performed for identifying relevant publications on normal endometrial bleeding, abnormal uterine bleeding, and hormone therapy bleeding. Results Before starting hormone therapy, it is essential to exclude any abnormal organic condition, identify women at higher risk for bleeding, and adapt the regimen to suit eachwoman’s characteristics. Abnormal bleeding with progesterone/progestogen only, combined sequential, or combined continuous regimens may be corrected by changing the progestogen, adjusting the progestogen or estrogen/progestogen doses, or even switching the initial regimen to other formulation. Conclusion To diminish the occurrence of abnormal bleeding during hormone therapy (HT), it is important to tailor the regimen to the needs of individual women and identify those with higher risk of bleeding. The use of new agents as adjuvant therapies for decreasing abnormal bleeding in women on HT awaits future studies. PMID:24665210

  3. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Hua Chiaho; Wu Shengjie; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  4. Systemic hormonal and physiological abnormalities in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Cameron, O G; Nesse, R M

    1988-01-01

    Among the studies of systemic hormonal and physiological abnormalities associated with anxiety disorders, the most consistent and extensive findings suggest (a) peripheral adrenergic hyperactivity (including increases in norepinephrine but not epinephrine) and functional dysregulation, (b) increased incidence of mitral valve prolapse in panic patients, and (c) normal suppressibility of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortical endocrine system with dexamethasone in panic patients. Other less-certain findings include (a) increased circulating concentrations of plasma ACTH and/or cortisol, and prolactin, in panic patients, (b) increased platelet monoamine oxidase activity in generalized anxiety and/or panic patients, (c) decreased gonadal axis activity in some anxious individuals, (d) decreased nighttime melatonin plasma concentrations in panic patients, and (e) peripheral alpha 2 and beta-adrenoreceptor down-regulation, with normal serotonin binding parameters. These findings, taken together, provide tentative support for dysfunction in adrenergic and GABAergic central nervous system mechanisms in people with anxiety disorders. Abnormal anxiety and normal stress both show evidence of adrenergic hyperactivity; however, there appear to be differences in hormonal profiles, especially the apparent lack of increase of epinephrine during panic attacks, as well as differences in the reactivity of the system, and in the "trigger" mechanisms which determine when the response occurs.

  5. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  6. Basal hormone levels in women with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Gürbüz, B; Yalti, S; Fiçicioğlu, C; Ozden, S; Yildirim, G; Sayar, C

    2003-08-01

    The potential role of endocrine abnormalities during the follicular phase in women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss was investigated in a retrospective study. Eighty women with recurrent pregnancy loss underwent routine work-up to exclude known associations with the condition. Following investigation, 58 women failed to reveal an identifiable cause, and were therefore classified as having unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss. The control group consisted of women with known causes of abortions, such as uterine septum and parental chromosomal abnormalities. Mean age, gravidity, parity, presence of infertility, previous number of miscarriages and duration of marriage were similar in both groups. Day-3 serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH) prolactin, total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were compared in the two groups. FSH, estradiol, LH, prolactin and DHEAS concentrations were significantly higher in the unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss group than in the explained recurrent pregnancy loss group, although serum concentrations of all hormones were within the normal range (p < 0.01). TSH and total testosterone levels were similar in the two groups (p > 0.05). There were no differences in the frequency of abnormal levels of hormones between the two groups (p > 0.05). We conclude that endocrine abnormalities in the follicular phase are not associated with recurrent pregnancy loss.

  7. [Psychiatric manifestations due to abnormal glucocorticoid levels].

    PubMed

    Lommerse, K M; Dijkstra, F N; Boeke, A J P; Eekhoff, E M W; Jacobs, G E

    2016-01-01

    This clinical case presentation describes the disease trajectory in two patients who presented with psychiatric symptoms as a result of abnormal serum glucocorticoid levels. One case involves a 58-year-old man with hypercortisolism, the other case concerns a 55-year-old woman with hypocortisolism. In both cases there was a considerable diagnostic delay in recognizing the underlying adrenal gland pathology. Abnormal glucocorticoid levels, caused by endocrine disorders, often results in psychiatric symptoms. Delay in diagnosis may have adverse consequences. Hyper- or hypocortisolism should be considered in patients who present with an atypical presentation of psychiatric symptoms. Moreover, the absence of specific physical signs or symptoms at first presentation in such patients does not exclude an underlying endocrinological cause. Therefore, physical and psychiatric reassessment of such patients should be considered at regular intervals. PMID:27507414

  8. Developmental abnormalities of the gonad and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators from contaminated and control lakes in Florida.

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, L J; Gross, T S; Masson, G R; Matter, J M; Percival, H F; Woodward, A R

    1994-01-01

    The reproductive development of alligators from a contaminated and a control lake in central Florida was examined. Lake Apopka is adjacent to an EPA Superfund site, listed due to an extensive spill of dicofol and DDT or its metabolites. These compounds can act as estrogens. Contaminants in the lake also have been derived from extensive agricultural activities around the lake that continue today and a sewage treatment facility associated with the city of Winter Garden, Florida. We examined the hypothesis that an estrogenic contaminant has caused the current failure in recruitment of alligators on Lake Apopka. Supporting data include the following: At 6 months of age, female alligators from Lake Apopka had plasma estradiol-17 beta concentrations almost two times greater than normal females from the control lake, Lake Woodruff. The Apopka females exhibited abnormal ovarian morphology with large numbers of polyovular follicles and polynuclear oocytes. Male juvenile alligators had significantly depressed plasma testosterone concentrations comparable to levels observed in normal Lake Woodruff females but more than three times lower than normal Lake Woodruff males. Additionally, males from Lake Apopka had poorly organized testes and abnormally small phalli. The differences between lakes and sexes in plasma hormone concentrations of juvenile alligators remain even after stimulation with luteinizing hormone. Our data suggest that the gonads of juveniles from Lake Apopka have been permanently modified in ovo, so that normal steroidogenesis is not possible, and thus normal sexual maturation is unlikely. Images p680-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 4. C Figure 4. D Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C PMID:7895709

  9. Role of abnormal anterior pituitary hormones-growth hormone and prolactin in active systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Xu, Jinhua; Li, Shujuan; Huang, Wen; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of anterior pituitary hormones in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains controversial. Aims and Objectives: We determined the expression levels of human growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and their receptors in subjects presenting with SLE, and modulation of disease severity. Materials and methods: Forty-seven subjects and ten healthy controls were assessed for possible association between SLE disease activity and levels of serum PRL, GH and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), specific binding and mRNA expression of receptors for GH (GHR), and PRL (PRLR) were determined by receptor-ligand binding assay (RLBA) and RT-PCR. PBMC of recruited subjects were treated with hPRL and rhGH to assess IgG production and antibodies against dsDNA. Results: In active SLE subjects we found elevated PRL and GH levels. Study subject PBMCs displayed augmented GHR and PRLR protein and mRNA expression. Study subjects also showed a positive correlation in serum PRL levels and specific antibodies against dsDNA, SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), and proteinuria. However, a negative correlation was found between serum PRL levels and complement component C3. We found a positive correlation between specific binding rates of PRLR and GHR and both SLE activity and dsDNA antibody titers. Enhanced IgG and anti-dsDNA secretion was observed in cultured PBMC stimulated by PRL or GH with/without PHA, PWM, IL-2 or IL-10. In active SLE, a close association was found between augmented PRL and GH levels, expression and specific binding activities of PRLR and GHR, and changes in the specific titer of anti-dsDNA. Conclusion: Anterior pituitary hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of SLE. High levels of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) play a role in pathogenesis of SLE, which is correlated with SLE disease activity and antibodies against dsDNA. The mechanism of GH and PRL in SLE was complicated and should

  10. The Study of Gonadal Hormonal Abnormalities and Sexual Dysfunction in HIV Positive Females: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Kallikadavil, Abithraj; Shivaswamy, Rajendraprasad; Menon, Vineetha Bharathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Every endocrine gland has been reported to be affected at varying rates in HIV. HIV is a highly stigmatized chronic disease with a substantial co-occurrence of mental and sexual health problems; however the sexual health problems in women have not been extensively studied. Aim To study the gonadal hormonal abnormalities and sexual dysfunction in HIV positive female patients and its possible association. Materials and Methods This descriptive/exploratory study was conducted in the Department of General Medicine at a tertiary care hospital from September 2013 to August 2015. The study group included 50 diagnosed HIV-positive patients. They were also subjected to specific questions regarding sexual dysfunction by female counselors using female sexual function index. Visits of the subjects were scheduled independent of the menstrual cycle. Hormonal levels (free testosterone, FSH, LH) were measured. Results Out of 50 patients, 26 patients in our study had sexual dysfunction (52%). Patients with age group between 30-39 years had the maximum sexual dysfunction compared to the other groups (<0.001). Patients with a CD4 count between 200 and 499 had the maximum sexual dysfunction (<0.02). Mean duration of HIV in the study was 30 months in sexual dysfunction group which was significant (p<0.005). Hormonal levels were found to be in normal range. All the study patients reported desire, arousal and lubrication problems whereas orgasm and satisfaction problems were noted in 60% patients with pain reported in 52%. Conclusion We identified that although the hormonal levels were in the normal range, they were comparatively in the lower range in the dysfunction group than the non-dysfunctional group. Both free testosterone and FSH levels were low indicating involvement of the pituitary rather than the gonads. We also conclude that duration of HIV and also level of CD4 count is related to sexual dysfunction. PMID:27190860

  11. Pituitary and placental hormone levels in pseudocyesis.

    PubMed

    Osotimehin, B O; Ladipo, O A; Adejuwon, C A; Otolorin, E O

    1981-10-01

    Twelve patients with clinical features of pseudocyesis were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of galactorrhea. The mean serum prolactin level of patients with galactorrhea was significantly higher than the normal values of the patients without galactorrhea. The mean serum levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were markedly elevated in patients without galactorrhea. This was especially true of luteinizing hormone. Serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin were undetectable in all patients. The significance of these observations is discussed.

  12. Abnormal luteinizing hormone response patterns to synthetic gonadotrophin releasing hormone in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Katz, M; Carr, P J

    1976-08-01

    Basal gonadotrophin and sex steroid levels and responses to an intravenous injection of 100 mug gonadotrophin releasing hormone (Gn-RH) have been studied in 15 patients with polycystic ovaries. Mean basal LH concentration was raised and an excessive, exaggerated and prolonged response was observed after Gn-RH treatment, but patients could further be subdivided into two functional groups on the basis of their basal LH values and LH response patterns. Evidence was also produced which suggested a breakdown in the negative feedback mechanism in these patients.

  13. Preadolescent and adolescent endocrinology: physiology and physiopathology. II. Hormonal changes during abnormal pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Sizonenko, P C

    1978-08-01

    Based on the knowledge of the physiology of regulation of gonadotropins and gonadal steroids, basal levels of these hormones might be indicative of the etiologic factors of abnormal pubertal development. In addition, stimulatory tests may help in the diagnosis of such conditions. It is interesting that the pubertal maturation of the adrenal cortex is independent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The role of the adrenal cortex for the pubertal development remains questionable: adrenal androgens are low in isosexual precocious puberty, low in delayed adolescence, and normal in hyper- or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The importance of this role is doubled in congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia. When the disease is untreated, although adrenal androgens in excess advance bone age and hypothalamic maturation, girls remain prepubertal. When the therapeutic control is good, normal puberty occurs. The action of the adrenal androgens on growth and puberty remains to be determined.

  14. Recurrent venous thromboembolism and abnormal uterine bleeding with anticoagulant and hormone therapy use

    PubMed Central

    Lensing, Anthonie W. A.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Levi, Marcel; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; van Bellen, Bonno; Bounameaux, Henri; Brighton, Timothy A.; Cohen, Alexander T.; Trajanovic, Mila; Gebel, Martin; Lam, Phuong; Wells, Philip S.; Prins, Martin H.

    2016-01-01

    Women receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) require adequate contraception because of the potential for fetal complications. It is unknown whether the use of hormonal therapy, especially those containing estrogens, is associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) during anticoagulation. Despite the absence of data, World Health Organization guidelines state that use of estrogen-containing contraceptives confers an “unacceptable health risk” during established anticoagulation for VTE. We compared the incidences of recurrent VTE and abnormal uterine bleeding with and without concomitant hormonal therapy in women aged <60 years who were receiving anticoagulation with rivaroxaban or enoxaparin/VKA for confirmed VTE. Incidence densities in percentage per year were computed for the on and off estrogen-containing or progestin-only therapy periods. Cox regression models were fitted, with hormonal therapy (on vs off) as a time-dependent variable to derive the hazard ratio (HR) for the effects on recurrent VTE and abnormal uterine bleeding. In total, 1888 women were included. VTE incidence densities on and off hormonal therapy were 3.7%/year and 4.7%/year (adjusted HR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-1.39), respectively, and were 3.7%/year and 3.8%/year, respectively, for estrogen-containing and progestin-only therapy. The adjusted HR for all abnormal uterine bleeding (on vs off hormonal therapy) was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.66-1.57). Abnormal uterine bleeding occurred more frequently with rivaroxaban than with enoxaparin/VKA (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.57-2.89). Hormonal therapy was not associated with an increased risk of recurrent VTE in women receiving therapeutic anticoagulation. The observed increased risk of abnormal uterine bleeding with rivaroxaban needs further exploration. PMID:26696010

  15. Abnormalities of Thyroid Hormone Metabolism during Systemic Illness: The Low T3 Syndrome in Different Clinical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Zantut-Wittmann, Denise Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone abnormalities are common in critically ill patients. For over three decades, a mild form of these abnormalities has been described in patients with several diseases under outpatient care. These alterations in thyroid hormone economy are a part of the nonthyroidal illness and keep an important relationship with prognosis in most cases. The main feature of this syndrome is a fall in free triiodothyronine (T3) levels with normal thyrotropin (TSH). Free thyroxin (T4) and reverse T3 levels vary according to the underlying disease. The importance of recognizing this condition in such patients is evident to physicians practicing in a variety of specialties, especially general medicine, to avoid misdiagnosing the much more common primary thyroid dysfunctions and indicating treatments that are often not beneficial. This review focuses on the most common chronic diseases already known to present with alterations in serum thyroid hormone levels. A short review of the common pathophysiology of the nonthyroidal illness is followed by the clinical and laboratorial presentation in each condition. Finally, a clinical case vignette and a brief summary on the evidence about treatment of the nonthyroidal illness and on the future research topics to be addressed are presented. PMID:27803712

  16. Acute Serum Hormone Levels: Characterization and Prognosis after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Emily H.; Niyonkuru, Christian; Ozawa, Haishin; Loucks, Tammy L.; Dobos, Julie A.; Brett, Christopher A.; Santarsieri, Martina; Dixon, C. Edward; Berga, Sarah L.; Fabio, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) studies report the neuroprotective effects of female sex steroids on multiple mechanisms of injury, with the clinical assumption that women have hormonally mediated neuroprotection because of the endogenous presence of these hormones. Other literature indicates that testosterone may exacerbate injury. Further, stress hormone abnormalities that accompany critical illness may both amplify or blunt sex steroid levels. To better understand the role of sex steroid exposure in mediating TBI, we 1) characterized temporal profiles of serum gonadal and stress hormones in a population with severe TBI during the acute phases of their injury; and 2) used a biological systems approach to evaluate these hormones as biomarkers predicting global outcome. The study population was 117 adults (28 women; 89 men) with severe TBI. Serum samples (n=536) were collected for 7 days post-TBI for cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Hormone data were linked with clinical data, including acute care mortality and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at 6 months. Hormone levels after TBI were compared to those in healthy controls (n=14). Group based trajectory analysis (TRAJ) was used to develop temporal hormone profiles that delineate distinct subpopulations in the cohort. Structural equations models were used to determine inter-relationships between hormones and outcomes within a multivariate model. Compared to controls, acute serum hormone levels were significantly altered after severe TBI. Changes in the post-TBI adrenal response and peripheral aromatization influenced hormone TRAJ profiles and contributed to the abnormalities, including increased estradiol in men and increased testosterone in women. In addition to older age and greater injury severity, increased estradiol and testosterone levels over time were associated with increased mortality and worse global

  17. Parathyroid hormone levels predict posttotal thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Rivere, Amy E; Brooks, Ashton J; Hayek, Genevieve A; Wang, Heng; Corsetti, Ralph L; Fuhrman, George M

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesized that parathyroid hormone (PTH) determination would be the most effective strategy to identify posttotal thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism (PTTHP) compared with other clinical and laboratory parameters. We retrospectively reviewed our recent experience with total thyroidectomy. We recorded demographics, malignancy, thyroid weight, parathyroid autotransplantation, hospital stay, use of postoperative calcium and hormonally active vitamin D3 (calcitriol), and postoperative serum calcium and PTH levels. Patients were divided into two groups depending on whether supplemental calcitriol was required to maintain eucalcemia and therefore reflecting the diagnosis of PTTHP. From October 2010 to June 2013, a total of 202 total thyroidectomies were performed. Twenty-four patients (12%) developed PTTHP and required calcitriol replacement. Logistic regression analysis revealed that only postoperative calcium levels (P = 0.02) and PTH levels (P < 0.0001) statistically significantly predicted PTTHP. Twenty-two of 29 patients with PTH 13 pg/mL or less had PTTHP. Only two of 173 patients with a PTH level greater than 13 pg/mL were diagnosed with PTTHP. We recommend using PTH levels after total thyroidectomy to determine which patients will have hypoparathyroidism requiring calcitriol therapy. An early determination of PTTHP allows for prompt management that can shorten hospital stay and improve outcomes.

  18. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated gonadotropin levels in women with premenstrual dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Smith, M J; Schmidt, P J; Su, T P; Rubinow, D R

    2004-12-01

    Despite consistent evidence that premenstrual dysphoria (PMD) is not characterized by abnormalities in basal ovarian hormone secretion, the possibility remains that PMD is associated with an abnormality in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. We studied HPO axis regulation in 11 women with prospectively confirmed PMD and 20 asymptomatic controls, during both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Plasma levels of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), were obtained before and after stimulation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) (100 microg intravenously). Potential diagnostic- and menstrual cycle phase-related diferences in basal and plasma hormone levels were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. No significant differences were observed between women with PMD and controls in either basal or stimulated levels of FSH and LH. Stimulated FSH was significantly increased and stimulated LH was significantly decreased during the follicular compared with the luteal phase in both women with PMD and controls. These data are consistent with prior findings of normal basal reproductive hormone levels in women with PMD. Our data suggest the absence in women with PMD of an abnormality of dynamic ovarian function as measured by GnRH stimulation.

  19. Interrelationships between postpartum events, hormonal therapy, reproductive abnormalities and reproductive performance in dairy cows: a path analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Etherington, W G; Martin, S W; Dohoo, I R; Bosu, W T

    1985-01-01

    Path analysis was used to determine the interrelationships between postpartum administration of gonadotrophin releasing hormone and cloprostenol and the occurrence of reproductive disease and reproductive performance in dairy cows. The data analysed were those collected on 226 Holstein-Friesian cows calving in a commercial dairy herd during a 17 month period (May 1, 1981 to October 1, 1982). Cows administered gonadotrophin releasing hormone at day 15 postpartum experienced an improved rate of uterine involution as determined by rectal palpation nine days later. Although this improved rate of uterine involution reduced the risk of pyometritis, it actually directly delayed conception. Also, gonadotrophin releasing hormone therapy directly resulted in an increased incidence of pyometritis which in turn resulted in an increase incidence of cystic ovarian disease and anestrus. The occurrence of these abnormalities resulted in increased intervals from calving to first observed estrus, first service and conception. In addition to this effect, the administration of gonadotrophin releasing hormone was also associated with increased plasma progesterone concentrations at days 24 and 28 postpartum which delayed conception. Cloprostenol therapy at day 24 postpartum resulted in a decreased plasma progesterone concentration at day 28 postpartum which was directly and indirectly associated with a decrease in the calving to conception interval. The indirect effects were mediated by a reduction in days to first estrus. Cloprostenol therapy also directly resulted in a decreased calving to first observed estrus interval for reasons not attributable to the level of progesterone at day 28. PMID:3899335

  20. High Prevalence of Chronic Pituitary and Target-Organ Hormone Abnormalities after Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Charles W.; Pagulayan, Kathleen F.; Petrie, Eric C.; Mayer, Cynthia L.; Colasurdo, Elizabeth A.; Shofer, Jane B.; Hart, Kim L.; Hoff, David; Tarabochia, Matthew A.; Peskind, Elaine R.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least 1 year after injury, in 25–50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP) to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI), an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least 1 year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and rehabilitation. PMID

  1. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I plasma levels in patients with hypophosphatemic rickets.

    PubMed

    Jasper, H; Cassinelli, H

    1993-01-01

    The cause of the growth retardation present in patients with hypophosphatemic rickets has not been totally elucidated. There has been a previous report of a growth hormone deficit in a group of these patients. To verify this abnormality we studied two groups of patients with hypophosphatemic rickets, one with (n = 6) and the other without (n = 7) treatment with calcitriol and oral phosphates. All patients in both groups showed a normal growth hormone response (> 10 micrograms/l) to standard stimulatory tests and normal IGF-I plasma levels. Mean IGF-I plasma levels were not significantly different (untreated 1.46 +/- 0.80 U/ml, treated 1.25 +/- 0.69 U/ml) and the mean logarithmic deviation of IGF-I plasma levels from both groups did not differ from normal. In summary, we found no abnormalities of the growth hormone-IGF-I axis in our patients with hypophosphatemic rickets.

  2. Mode of action: developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency--neurological abnormalities resulting from exposure to propylthiouracil.

    PubMed

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Crofton, Kevin M

    2005-01-01

    Because thyroid hormone is essential for normal brain development before and after birth, environmental chemicals that interfere with thyroid hormone signaling can adversely affect brain development. Adverse consequences of thyroid hormone insufficiency depend both on severity and developmental timing, indicating that environmental antithyroid factors may produce different effects at different developmental windows of exposure. Mechanistic studies can provide important insight into the potential impact of chemicals on human thyroid function, but relevance to humans must be systematically evaluated. This kind of analysis depends on data sets that include information about animals and humans. The drug 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) is used in animals to experimentally manipulate serum thyroid hormone levels, and in humans to treat patients, including pregnant women, with Graves' disease. A systematic analysis of the mode of action (MOA) of PTU in rats and in humans discloses similar modes of action. While the analysis predicts that PTU doses that produce thyroid hormone insufficiency in humans would adversely affect the developing brain, careful monitoring of PTU administration in pregnant and lactating humans keeps infant serum thyroid hormone levels within the normal range.

  3. Abnormal thyroid hormone metabolism in mice lacking the monocarboxylate transporter 8.

    PubMed

    Trajkovic, Marija; Visser, Theo J; Mittag, Jens; Horn, Sigrun; Lukas, Jan; Darras, Veerle M; Raivich, Genadij; Bauer, Karl; Heuer, Heike

    2007-03-01

    In humans, inactivating mutations in the gene of the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8; SLC16A2) lead to severe forms of psychomotor retardation combined with imbalanced thyroid hormone serum levels. The MCT8-null mice described here, however, developed without overt deficits but also exhibited distorted 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) serum levels, resulting in increased hepatic activity of type 1 deiodinase (D1). In the mutants' brains, entry of T4 was not affected, but uptake of T3 was diminished. Moreover, the T4 and T3 content in the brain of MCT8-null mice was decreased, the activity of D2 was increased, and D3 activity was decreased, indicating the hypothyroid state of this tissue. In the CNS, analysis of T3 target genes revealed that in the mutants, the neuronal T3 uptake was impaired in an area-specific manner, with strongly elevated thyrotropin-releasing hormone transcript levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and slightly decreased RC3 mRNA expression in striatal neurons; however, cerebellar Purkinje cells appeared unaffected, since they did not exhibit dendritic outgrowth defects and responded normally to T3 treatment in vitro. In conclusion, the circulating thyroid hormone levels of MCT8-null mice closely resemble those of humans with MCT8 mutations, yet in the mice, CNS development is only partially affected. PMID:17318265

  4. Increased levels of adrenocortical and gonadal hormones in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Rasmuson, Sigbritt; Näsman, Birgitta; Carlström, Kjell; Olsson, Tommy

    2002-01-01

    Hormonal changes during normal aging include decreasing levels of gonadal hormones and adrenal androgens. These hormones influence multiple nervous functions, including cognition and mood. Related to this, abnormalities at several levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) have been reported in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied steroid hormones in 33 patients with mild to moderate AD (12 men; 21 women, 76.4 +/- 7.8 years) and 22 healthy elderly controls (10 men; 12 women, 75.4 +/- 7.5 years old, respectively). Basal levels of serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione were significantly increased in AD patients. Women with AD had significantly higher levels of DHEA and androstenedione. Serum estradiol levels were non-significantly increased in women with AD. After adjustment for age and BMI women with AD had significantly increased levels of androstenedione and DHEA. Increased gonadal hormone levels in mild to moderate AD may reflect an increased secretion, and/or alterations in metabolism of these hormones. This may influence the symptomatology and progression of the disease.

  5. Genetic Polymorphisms, Hormone Levels, and Hot Flashes in Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Chrissy; Gallicchio, Lisa; Miller, Susan R.; Langenberg, Patricia; Zacur, Howard; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Hot flashes disrupt the lives of millions of women each year. Although hot flashes are a public health concern, little is known about risk factors that predispose women to hot flashes. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine whether sex steroid hormone levels and genetic polymorphisms in hormone biosynthesis and degradation enzymes are associated with the risk of hot flashes. Methods In a cross-sectional study design, midlife women aged 45 to 54 years (n=639) were recruited from Baltimore and its surrounding counties. Participants completed a questionnaire and donated a blood sample for steroid hormone analysis and genotyping. The associations between genetic polymorphisms and hormone levels, as well as the associations between genetic polymorphisms, hormone levels, and hot flashes were examined using statistical models. Results A polymorphism in CYP1B1 was associated with lower dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and progesterone levels, while a polymorphism in CYP19 (aromatase) was associated with higher testosterone and DHEA-S levels. Lower progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels, lower free estradiol index, and a higher ratio of total androgens to total estrogens were associated with the experiencing of hot flashes. A polymorphism in CYP1B1 and a polymorphism in 3βHSD were both associated with hot flashes. Conclusion Some genetic polymorphisms may be associated with altered levels of hormones in midlife women. Further, selected genetic polymorphisms and altered hormone levels may be associated with the risk of hot flashes in midlife women. PMID:17187946

  6. Serum Leptin and Insulin Hormone Level in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    PubMed Central

    Baban, Rayah S.; Ali, Noor M.; Al-Moayed, Hala A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To measure serum leptin and insulin levels in women with recurrent pregnancy loss using modified methods of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and to examine their influence on recurrent loss at different pregnancy trimesters. Methods A case control study was conducted from, 1 September 2008 to 30 December 2009 in the Obstetric and Gynecological Department-Al-Khadimiya Teaching Hospital. HPLC technique with new modified method was used to estimate serum leptin and insulin hormones in samples of women with recurrent pregnancy loss (patients group, n=64) and healthy pregnant women at the end of the third gestational trimester as a control group (n=51). Results Both serum leptin and insulin levels were high in women with pregnancy loss in their three trimesters. A significant correlation was found between age (r=0.535, p<0.018) and serum total leptin in women with RPL during the first trimester. Also, a highly significant correlation was found between serum total leptin and insulin in women with RPL during the first, second and third trimesters (r=0.894, r=0.931, and r =0.995) respectively. The number of women who lost their pregnancy during the first trimester was higher than those losing during other trimesters. Conclusion It can be concluded that recurrent pregnancy loss in women at different trimester is associated with endocrine abnormalities where serum leptin and insulin levels increase in a different way compared with normal healthy pregnant women. PMID:22043338

  7. Relation of thyroid hormone abnormalities with subclinical inflammatory activity in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Moura Neto, Arnaldo; Parisi, Maria Candida Ribeiro; Alegre, Sarah Monte; Pavin, Elizabeth Joao; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Zantut-Wittmann, Denise Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) abnormalities are common in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). These thyroid hormone abnormalities have been associated with inflammatory activity in several conditions but this link remains unclear in DM. We assessed the influence of subclinical inflammation in TH metabolism in euthyroid diabetic patients. Cross-sectional study involving 258 subjects divided in 4 groups: 70 patients with T2DM and 55 patients with T1DM and two control groups of 70 and 63 non-diabetic individuals, respectively. Groups were paired by age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). We evaluated the association between clinical and hormonal variables [thyrotropin, reverse T3 (rT3), total and free thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3)] with the inflammation markers C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Serum T3 and free T3 were lower in patients with diabetes (all P < 0.001) compared to the control groups. Interleukin-6 showed positive correlations with rT3 in both groups (P < 0.05). IL-6 was independently associated to FT3/rT3 (B = -0.193; 95% CI -0.31; -0.076; P = 0.002) and FT4/rT3 (B = -0.107; 95% CI -0.207; -0.006; P = 0.039) in the T1DM group. In the T2DM group, SAA (B = 0.18; 95% CI 0.089; 0.271; P < 0.001) and hs-CRP (B = -0.069; 95% CI -0.132; -0.007; P = 0.03) predicted FT3 levels. SAA (B = -0.16; 95% CI -0.26; -0.061; P = 0.002) and IL6 (B = 0.123; 95% CI 0.005; 0.241; P = 0.041) were related to FT4/FT3. In DM, differences in TH levels compared to non-diabetic individuals were related to increased subclinical inflammatory activity and BMI. Altered deiodinase activity was probably involved. These findings were independent of sex, age, BMI, and HbA1c levels.

  8. Evaluation of thyroid hormone levels in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Rajeev, Gandham; Chickballapur Rayappa, Wilma Delphine Silvia; Vijayalakshmi, Ravella; Swathi, Manchala; Kumar, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    We attempted in this study to determine the thyroid hormone levels in 45 adult chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and 45 ageand sex-matched healthy subjects as controls. The serum thyroid hormone levels were measured by a radioimmunoassay. Serum concentrations of creatinine, urea, electrolytes and total proteins and albumin were measured as well. There was a significant decrease in the levels of serum total T3, total T4 and total protein and albumin levels in CKD patients when compared with the controls. There was a significant increase in the level of thyroid stimulating hormone in the CKD patients compared with the controls. Our study suggests that CKD leads to significant changes in the thyroid hormone levels, which need to be interpreted carefully in these patients.

  9. Abnormal plasma prothrombin (PIVKA-II) levels in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Y

    1989-05-01

    The concentration of abnormal prothrombin, or the protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) in 102 patients with hepatic disorders was measured by an enzyme immunoassay method. The concentration of PIVKA-II in the plasma was elevated in 11 out of 18 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and also in a patient with hepatoblastoma. There was no correlation between serum alpha-fetoprotein and plasma PIVKA-II levels. The PIVKA-II level was normal in 11 patients who had metastatic carcinoma or cholangiocellular carcinoma. Moreover, benign diseases of the liver did not cause an elevation in PIVKA-II. PIVKA-II might be an useful marker of hepatocellular carcinoma because, like alpha-fetoprotein, its level changes in close relation to the effects of treatment.

  10. Lack of Correlation of Vaginal Impedance Measurements with Hormone Levels in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    SINGLETARY, SYLVIA J.; KIRSCH, ALAN J.; WATSON, JULIE; KARIM, BAKTIAR O.; HUSO, DAVID L.; HURN, PATRICIA D.; MURPHY, STEPHANIE J.

    2005-01-01

    Hormone levels vary in female rats depending on estrous cycle stage. Vaginal cytology is a reliable method of staging female rats, but vaginal impedance offers an alternative depending on application. We sought to correlate vaginal impedance in cycling female rats with hormone levels. Vaginal cytology was the standard for comparison and verification of estrous cycle stage. Female rats (n = 41) were evaluated twice daily for 15 days via vaginal cytology and impedance to evaluate two or three estrous cycles per rat. During the last 5 days of the study, selected anesthetized sampling groups (n = 3 or 4 rats per group) were bled terminally at each time point to allow hormone determinations concurrently with vaginal cytology and impedance. Rats with abnormal vaginal smears or discharges (n = 5) were evaluated for reproductive tract histology. Rats classified in estrus by vaginal cytology had significantly higher vaginal impedance values than did nonestrus rats, but vaginal impedance and estrous cycle stage as determined by vaginal cytology did not correlate. Because of small sampling size in nonproestrus groups, correlation between vaginal impedance and hormone levels was evaluated only in proestrus rats (n = 22) and was nonsignificant. No correlation occurred between vaginal impedance and hormone levels in unstaged rats (n = 41). Two animals evaluated for reproductive tract histology showed evidence of pseudopregnancy. Vaginal impedance may be useful in distinguishing estrus from nonestrus rats but may be limited for chronic estrous cycle monitoring because of the possible risk of inducing pseudo pregnancy. PMID:16370578

  11. Role of Serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Luteinizing Hormone, Testosterone and Prolactin Levels in Azoospermic Male Partner of Subfertile Couple.

    PubMed

    Begum, N; Anwary, S A; Alfazzaman, M; Mahzabin, Z; Nahar, K; Rahman, M M; Mostafa, M A

    2016-04-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out in the Infertility Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from January 2011 and June 2013. Eighty one (81) consecutive azoospermic male partner of married couple, aged 20-50 years with at least two years of subfertility and no known endocrinopathy and ejaculatory dysfunction were included in this study to find out their abnormal hormonal pattern. None of them had received any form of treatment within the last 3 months prior to hormonal evaluation. Men with hypertension, recent fever, chemo or radiation exposure were excluded from the study. Eight weeks interval two semen analyses were done in the Andrology Laboratory of above department following standard WHO guideline, 2004. Using standard ELISA technique, serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and prolactin were measured/assayed/estimated. The results of this study demonstrated that 40 (49.4%) men had normal endocrine pattern against 51 (50.6%) with endocrinopathy. The former may be related to obstructive azoospermia, which needs further analyses. Both the increased FSH (>11.1mIU/ml) and LH (>7.6mIU/ml) were observed in 25 (30.9%) men, only elevated FSH (>11.1mIU/ml) in 9(11.1%), and only elevated LH (>7.6mIU/ml) in 7(8.6%). Low testosterone level (<270ng/dl) was observed in 11(13.6%), low TSH (<0.4μIU/ml) in 1(1.2%) and low prolactin (<2.5ng/dl) in 5(6.2%).

  12. Serum hormone levels in men with severe acne.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, H; Niimura, M

    1992-07-01

    In order to evaluate the hormonal milieu in young men with severe acne, we measured serum estradiol (E2), total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in sixteen male patients aged 20-30 years with severe acne, including twelve cases of nodular-cystic acne, and in seventeen age-matched normal controls. There were no significant differences in the serum levels of T, FT, DHT, DHEA-S, or SHBG between the patients and the controls, but serum E2 was significantly higher in the patient population. Thus, the hemodynamics of serum androgens in male patients with acne do not seem to differ significantly from that of normal controls. Elevated E2 levels might affect the inflammatory response of acne vulgaris through the release of thymic hormones, as reported in the literature. PMID:1401498

  13. Effects of Anesthetic Agent Propofol on Postoperative Sex Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, H.; Ku, S.-Y.; Kim, H. C.; Suh, C. S.; Kim, S. H.; Choi, Y. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have found anesthetic agents including propofol in ovarian follicular fluid. However, little is known about the effect of anesthetic agents on ovarian function. We aimed to investigate whether there were differences in the postoperative levels of sex hormones when propofol was used as the anesthetic agent. Methods: A retrospective review was done of 80 patients who underwent ovarian surgery, with 72 infertile women serving as controls. Patients were included in the study if their serum estradiol (E2) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were measured during their first postoperative menstrual cycle. Results: Patients were grouped according to the use or non-use of propofol as follows: propofol group (n = 39) and non-propofol group (n = 41). The control group did not undergo surgery. Postoperative E2 levels did not differ between the three groups, but FSH levels were significantly higher in the patients who had undergone surgery compared to controls (p < 0.05). Post-hoc analysis of E2 and FSH levels in the propofol and non-propofol groups did not show any significant differences. Conclusions: The use of propofol did not result in any differences compared to other anesthetic agents in terms of postoperative sex hormone levels after gynecologic surgery. The type of anesthetic agent does not seem to affect the postoperative levels of female sex hormones. PMID:27134297

  14. Early parathyroid hormone laboratory abnormalities related to therapeutic radiation of neck: an Egyptian experience.

    PubMed

    Aboelnaga, Mohamed M; Aboelnaga, Engy M

    2015-05-01

    The effect of neck radiation on parathyroid hormone (PTH) is studied on concern as late effect of radiotherapy for benign or malignant diseases. However, the early effect on PTH is still in debate and need further evaluations. We aimed, in our study, to assess early effect of neck radiation on PTH, and related calcium and phosphorus levels. Patients diagnosed with breast or head and neck cancer who planned to received radiotherapy to neck as a definite or a part of their treatment enrolled in this prospective single-arm study from June 2012 to June 2013. Laboratory assessment of PTH, serum calcium, phosphorus and albumin was obtained before starting radiotherapy, 3 weeks and 3 months after radiation. Fifty-two patients included 24 (46.2 %) males and 28(53.8 %) females. Median age of diagnosis was 55 years. Thirty-six patients had head and neck cancer, while 16 patients were diagnosed as breast cancer. The difference in PTH and calcium levels before and after radiotherapy was statistically significant (P = 0.014 and P = 0.001 for 3 weeks and P = 0.015 and P = 0.004 for 3 months, respectively); even after correction of calcium level according to albumin level, the same results were obtained, while there was no significant difference in their levels after 3 weeks in comparison with 3 months after radiotherapy. The variation of level of phosphorus was not significant. PTH and calcium can be affected early with neck radiation, so follow-up of calcium and PTH level is mandatory for cases that will receive neck radiotherapy. PMID:25904502

  15. Prenatal Thyroxine Treatment Disparately Affects Peripheral and Amygdala Thyroid Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Pradeep K.; Sittig, Laura J.; Andrus, Brian M.; Schaffer, Daniel J.; Batra, Kanchi K.; Redei, Eva E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary A prenatal hypothyroid state is associated with behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats exhibit hypothyroidism and increased depressive and anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, the WKY could illuminate the mechanisms by which the reversal of developmental hypothyroidism in humans and animals results in adult behavioral improvement. We examined the outcome of maternal thyroxine (T4) treatment on thyroid hormone-regulated functions and adult behavior of the WKY offspring. Pregnant WKY dams completed gestation with and without T4 administration and their adult male offspring were tested. Measures included depressive and anxiety-like behaviors, and thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in both plasma and specific brain regions. In addition, the expression of two proteins affecting thyroid hormone trafficking and metabolism, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT-8) and iodothyronine deiodinase type III (Dio3), and of several behavior-altering molecules, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), prepro-thyrotropin releasing hormone (prepro-TRH) and corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), were determined in the hippocampus and amygdala of the offspring. Prenatal T4 treatment of WKYs did not affect adult depressive behavior but increased anxiety-like behavior and decreased plasma levels of THs. In the hippocampus of males treated with T4 in utero, Dio3 and MCT-8 protein levels were increased, while in the amygdala, there were increases of free T4, MCT-8, GR, prepro-TRH protein and CRH mRNA levels. These results show that T4 administration in utero programs adult peripheral and amygdalar thyroid hormone levels divergently, and that the resulting upregulation of anxiety-related genes in the amygdala could be responsible for the exacerbated anxiety-like behavior seen in WKYs after prenatal T4 treatment. PMID:20005050

  16. The Effect of Camphor on Sex Hormones Levels in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahabi, Sima; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali; Akbar Moghadamnia, Ali; Barghi, Effat; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Golsorkhtabar Amiri, Masoumeh; Maliji, Ghorban; Sohan Faraji, Alieh; Abdi Boora, Maryam; Ghazinejad, Neda; Shamsai, Hajar

    2014-01-01

    In some traditional therapies, it has been claimed that camphor (a crystalline ketone obtained from cinnamomum camphora) would be a suppressor of sexual behaviors and sex hormones. This study evaluated the effects of camphor on sex hormones, like luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone. In this experimental study, 56 male rats were divided into 5 groups, including control (n=12), sham (n=11) and three treatment groups (n=11) in three different doses. The sham groups received daily intra peritoneal (IP) injections of the vehicle (ethanol 10%) for 30 days. Three treatment groups received different daily IP injections of the camphor (1, 2 and 5 mg/Kg) for 30 days and the control groups didn’t received anything. Serums were used for assaying LH, FSH and testosterone. The level of LH significantly increased in all doses of camphor among the treatment groups as compared to the control (p<0.05), but camphor in doses 2 and 5 mg/Kg significantly reduced the FSH level as compared to control group (p<0.05). No significant changes were seen in testosterone levels. Camphor increased level of LH, decreased level of FSH, whereas it failed to change level of testosterone. The claim of inhibitory effect of camphor on sexual activity could not be confirmed by this study. More investigations in this field are suggested. PMID:24567939

  17. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment. PMID:26633522

  18. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment. PMID:26633522

  19. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-11-30

    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  20. Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone Levels in Ground Based Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, B. O.

    1972-01-01

    Baseline values of immunoreactive ACTH were established in the normal healthy adult. Normal levels of ACTH secretion were determined for both the male and the female in circulating plasma and serum. The data obtained in these studies are particularly significant in that the sampling was carefully controlled; only healthy employed individuals of both sexes were tested in a routine work situation that would not be considered conducive to stress. It has been found that alterations in the classically described circadian rhythm of ACTH secretion can occur when activities (such as work/rest cycles) are imposed on the individual studied. These changes can be demonstrated even when there is no appreciable change noted in the rhythm of hydrocortisone secretion.

  1. Regulation of hypothalamic somatostatin and growth hormone releasing hormone mRNA levels by inhibin.

    PubMed

    Carro, E; Señarís, R M; Mallo, F; Diéguez, C

    1999-03-20

    Although it is well established that inhibin plays a major role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, its influence in the regulation of other neuroendocrine functions is still poorly understood. Recent results indicate that inhibin suppresses plasma GH levels, but its site of action is yet unknown. Therefore, in the present work we investigated the effects of inhibin on somatostatin and growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) mRNA levels in the hypothalamus by 'in situ' hybridization. We found that inhibin administration (4, 12 and 24 h, i.c.v.) led to an increase in somatostatin mRNA levels in the periventricular nucleus, and to a decrease in GHRH mRNA content in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. These findings indicate that inhibin regulates the hypothalamic levels of somatostatin and GHRH mRNA.

  2. Sex steroid hormones and circulating IgE levels.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Mathur, R S; Goust, J M; Williamson, H O; Fudenberg, H H

    1977-12-01

    The possible influence of sex steroid hormones on circulating IgE levels in general and IgE anti-Candida antibodies in particular was studied by quantification of plasma levels of progesterone, estradiol and IgE (total and anti-Candida-specific) in females during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and during pregnancy. IgE levels during the follicular and luteal phases were not significantly different, although the mean values for the luteal phase were slightly lower. This trend was apparent in daily samples from two normal females during one menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, when the levels of circulating sex steroids were high, IgE levels were only slightly higher than in the follicular and luteal phases. In men and in gonadal dysgenetics, circulating progesterone levels were similar to those of women during the follicular phase (i.e., lower than in the luteal phase or in pregnancy), but the IgE levels were not different. The apparently low levels of IgE during the luteal phase may therefore be due to physiological factors other than fluctuations in the sex steroid hormones. From the present studies, it is apparent that sex steroid hormones have little or no effect on humoral IgE levels, in marked contrast to previously described correlations for other immunoglobulins, especially anti-Candida antibodies. PMID:606452

  3. Thyroid stimulating hormone assay as the first line biochemical parameter to determine thyroid gland abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Olooto, Wasiu Eniola; Adeleye, Adebambo Olufemi; Amballi, Adebayo Adetola; Mosuro, Ademola Oladipupo; Banjo, Taiwo Abayomi

    2014-01-01

    Increased cellular catabolic activities observed in hyperthyroid state had been established. This is consequent to excessive hormones secreted by the thyroid gland during this condition. A total of 60 subjects comprising of 45 females mean age 43.02 +/- 1.90 (range 22-70 years) and 15 males mean age 50.40 +/- 3.59 (range 25-68) and 60 controls comprising of 45 females mean age 41.18 +/- 1.68 (range 22-68 years) and 15 males mean age 40.53 +/- 2.88 (range 25-65) were recruited for the study. The plasma level of T4, T3 and TSH were determined in both the experiment group and the controls. A significant increase (p < 0.05) in plasma T4, T3 and a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in plasma TSH were observed in the experiment group in comparison to the controls. Also, an inverse relationship was noted to exist between the plasma T4 and T3; and TSH in primary hyperthyroid state.

  4. Thyroid hormones regulate levels of thyrotropin-releasing-hormone mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Koller, K.J.; Wolff, R.S.; Warden, M.K.; Zoeller, R.T.

    1987-10-01

    Cellular levels of messenger RNA encoding thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) were measured in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the reticular nucleus of the thalamus in male rats after chemical thyroidectomy and thyroid hormone, replacement. TRH mRNA levels were measured by quantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry using a /sup 35/S-labeled synthetic 48-base oligodeoxynucleotide probe and quantitative autoradiography. Chemical thyroidectomy, produced by the administration of 6-(n-propyl)-2-thiouracil (PrSur), reduced plasma thyroxine below detection limits and significantly increased TRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus. Treatments with exogenous L-triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) reduced TRH mRNA to the same level in both hypothyroid and euthyroid animals. Neither PrSur treatment nor T/sub 3/ replacement influenced TRH mRNA levels in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus. Blot hybridization analysis of electrophoretically fractionated total RNA from pituitaries of these animals indicated that thyrotropin-..beta.. mRNA levels were elevated after thyroidectomy and reduced by T/sub 3/ treatment, showing that the pituitary-thyroid axis was indeed stimulated by PrSur treatment. These results suggest that thyroid hormones are involved, either directly or indirectly, in regulating the biosynthesis of TRH in the thyrotropic center of the hypothalamus.

  5. Pituitary hormone level changes and hypxonatremia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    MAIMAITILI, AISHA; MAIMAITILI, MIJITI; REXIDAN, AIKEREMU; LU, JUNYI; AJIMU, KUERBAN; CHENG, XIAOJIANG; LUO, KUN; SAILIKE, DUISHANBAI; LIU, YUAN; KAHEERMAN, KADEER; TANG, CHANGJIU; ZHANG, TINGRONG

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in serum pituitary hormone levels and the mechanism of hyponatremia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Nuclear medical tests and serum electrolyte monitoring were performed in 49 aneurysmal SAH cases and 10 healthy volunteers. The levels of serum pituitary hormones were significantly higher in the SAH patients compared with the control group on days 1–3 and 7–9 after SAH onset (P<0.05). The peak value occurred on days 7–9. The rate of hyponatremia was 49.0% in the 49 SAH patients. The incidence of severe hyponatremia was significantly higher in Fisher grades III–IV and Hunt-Hess grades III–IV compared with Fisher grades I–II and Hunt-Hess grades I–II, respectively (P<0.05). There was no correlation between the site of aneurysm and the rate of hyponatremia. The incidence of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm was significantly higher in the hyponatremia group and Fisher grades III–IV compared with the normal serum sodium group and Fisher grades I–II, respectively. Serum pituitary hormone levels were positively correlated with blood loss and disease severity in patients with aneurysmal SAH. Hyponatremia may be considered an important indicator of SAH. SAH patients are likely to benefit from intense monitoring and regulation of serum sodium. PMID:23837049

  6. Effects of smoking cessation on hormonal levels in men.

    PubMed

    Hruškovičová, H; Dušková, M; Simůnková, K; Hill, M; Pospíšilová, H; Rácz, B; Králíková, E; Vondra, K; Stárka, L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic smoking can cause imbalance in endocrine homeostasis and impairment of fertility in both sexes. The male reproductive system is more resilient, still the literature provides conflicting results about the influence of smoking on the steroid hormone levels. The data about smoking cessation are limited; there has not yet been a study primarily focused on changes in steroids levels. In our study, we analyzed levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), cortisol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in male smokers and during smoking cessation. Monitored analytes were determined by RIA. The free testosterone index was calculated. Basal samples of men successful and unsuccessful in smoking cessation did not differ and monitored hormones could hardly predict success of smoking cessation. After one year without smoking, a significant BMI increase and SHBG decrease in former smokers was observed. The decrease in total testosterone was non-significant. Changes in SHBG and testosterone did not correlate with BMI, presumably due to the direct effect of smoking cessation.

  7. Co-ruminating increases stress hormone levels in women.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Craven, Jennifer; Geary, David C; Rose, Amanda J; Ponzi, Davide

    2008-03-01

    Same-sex friendships are an important source of social support and typically contribute to positive adjustment. However, there can be adjustment trade-offs if the friends co-ruminate (i.e., talk excessively about problems) in that co-rumination is related to having close friendships but also to increased internalizing symptoms. The current study utilized an experimental manipulation that elicited co-rumination in young women and thus mirrored an everyday response to stress. Observed co-rumination was associated with a significant increase in the stress hormone, cortisol (after controlling for self-reported co-rumination and for cortisol levels assessed before the discussion of problems). These findings suggest that co-rumination can amplify, rather than mitigate, the hormonal stress response to personal life stressors.

  8. Muscle strength and hormonal levels in adolescents: gender related differences.

    PubMed

    Ramos, E; Frontera, W R; Llopart, A; Feliciano, D

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study muscle strength in adolescents and its relationship to serum levels of testosterone and growth hormone in both genders. Thirty active adolescents (15 boys; age range 11 -12 y/o) participated in the first study. Isokinetic muscle strength of the dominant knee extensors (KE) was determined at 0, 12, 20, 30, 120, 180 and 240 deg/sec using a Cybex 340 dynamometer. The assessment of pubertal status was accomplished using the criteria of Tanner. Serum levels of total testosterone (T) and growth hormone (GH) were determined using radioimmunoassay techniques. Boys had higher (p< 0.001) T levels but no differences in muscle strength were detected between genders. Fifty-seven additional subjects representing three age groups (11-12 y/o, n=18; 13-14, n=21; 17-18, n=18) participated in the second study. A significant increase in peak torque (absolute and corrected for body weight) with age was observed in both genders. There were no significant gender differences in strength for the two youngest age groups, but boys were stronger than girls in the oldest age group (group 3). Testosterone and GH levels increased with age in boys but not in girls. Gender related differences in T were found in groups 2 and 3. A positive correlation (r=0,64 boys; r=0.46 girls) between testosterone levels and absolute muscle strength was seen in both genders. Our results suggest that increases in anabolic hormones precede muscle strength gains in adolescent males. In addition, gender related differences in muscle strength during adolescents cannot be explained solely on the basis of difference in body size or T levels. PMID:9877143

  9. Deletion of PTH rescues skeletal abnormalities and high osteopontin levels in Klotho-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Quan; Sato, Tadatoshi; Densmore, Michael; Saito, Hiroaki; Schüler, Christiane; Erben, Reinhold G; Lanske, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance of normal mineral ion homeostasis is crucial for many biological activities, including proper mineralization of the skeleton. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), Klotho, and FGF23 have been shown to act as key regulators of serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis through a complex feedback mechanism. The phenotypes of Fgf23(-/-) and Klotho(-/-) (Kl(-/-)) mice are very similar and include hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypervitaminosis D, suppressed PTH levels, and severe osteomalacia/osteoidosis. We recently reported that complete ablation of PTH from Fgf23(-/-) mice ameliorated the phenotype in Fgf23(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice by suppressing serum vitamin D and calcium levels. The severe osteomalacia in Fgf23(-/-) mice, however, persisted, suggesting that a different mechanism is responsible for this mineralization defect. In the current study, we demonstrate that deletion of PTH from Kl(-/-) (Kl(-/-)/PTH(-/-) or DKO) mice corrects the abnormal skeletal phenotype. Bone turnover markers are restored to wild-type levels; and, more importantly, the skeletal mineralization defect is completely rescued in Kl(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice. Interestingly, the correction of the osteomalacia is accompanied by a reduction in the high levels of osteopontin (Opn) in bone and serum. Such a reduction in Opn levels could not be observed in Fgf23(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice, and these mice showed sustained osteomalacia. This significant in vivo finding is corroborated by in vitro studies using calvarial osteoblast cultures that show normalized Opn expression and rescued mineralization in Kl(-/-)/PTH(-/-) mice. Moreover, continuous PTH infusion of Kl(-/-) mice significantly increased Opn levels and osteoid volume, and decreased trabecular bone volume. In summary, our results demonstrate for the first time that PTH directly impacts the mineralization disorders and skeletal deformities of Kl(-/-), but not of Fgf23(-/-) mice, possibly by regulating Opn expression. These are significant new perceptions

  10. Hormonal and behavioural abnormalities induced by stress in utero: an animal model for depression.

    PubMed

    Maccari, S; Darnaudery, M; Van Reeth, O

    2001-09-01

    Prenatal stress in rats can exert profound influence on the off spring's development, inducing abnormalities such as increased "anxiety", "emotionality" or "depression-like" behaviours.Prenatal stress has long-term effects on the development of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal(HPA) axis and forebrain cholinergic systems. These long-term neuroendocrinological effects are mediated, at least in part, by stress-induced maternal corticosterone increase during pregnancy and stress-induced maternal anxiety during the postnatal period. We have shown a significant phase advance in the circadian rhythms of corticosterone secretion and locomotor activity in prenatally-stressed (PNS) rats. When subjected to an abrupt shift in the light-dark(LD) cycle, PNS rats resynchronized their activity rhythm more slowly than control rats. In view of the data suggesting abnormalities in the circadian timing system in these animals, we have investigated the effects of prenatal stress on the sleep-wake cycle in adult male rats. PNS rats exhibited various changes in sleep-wake parameters, including a dramatic increase in the amount of paradoxical sleep. Taken together, our results indicate that prenatal stress can induce increased responses to stress and abnormal circadian rhythms and sleep in adult rats.Various clinical observations in humans suggest a possible pathophysiological link between depression and disturbances in circadian rhythmicity. Circadian abnormalities in depression can be related to those found in PNS rats. Interestingly, we have recently shown that the increased immobility in the forced swimming test observed in PNS rats can be corrected by chronic treatment with the antidepressant tianeptine, or with melatonin or S23478, a melatonin agonist. Those results reinforce the idea of the usefulness of PNS rats as an appropriate animal model to study human depression and support a new antidepressant-like effect of melatonin and the melatonin agonist S23478. PMID:22432138

  11. Vitamin D metabolites and bioactive parathyroid hormone levels during Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.; Schnoes, Heinrich K.; Deluca, Hector F.; Phelps, Mary E.; Klein, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of an 8-day space flight (Spacelab mission 2) on plasma levels of the vitamin D and parathyroid hormones is investigated experimentally in four crew members. The results are presented in tables and graphs and briefly characterized. Parathyroid hormone levels remained normal throughout the flight, whereas vitamin D hormone levels increased significantly on day 1 but returned to normal by day 7.

  12. Illness-induced changes in thyroid hormone metabolism: focus on the tissue level.

    PubMed

    Kwakkel, J; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

    2011-05-01

    During illness changes in thyroid hormone metabolism occur, collectively known as the non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterised by low serum thyroid hormone levels without the expected rise in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, indicating a major change in thyroid hormone feedback regulation. Recent studies have made clear that during NTIS differential changes in thyroid hormone metabolism occur in various tissues, the net effect of which may be either activation or inhibition of thyroid hormone action. In this review we discuss systemic and local changes in thyroid hormone metabolism during illness, highlighting their physiological implications in terms of disease course.

  13. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  14. Thyroid hormone levels and cigarette smoking in baboons.

    PubMed

    Sepkovic, D W; Marshall, M V; Rogers, W R; Cronin, P A; Colosimo, S G; Haley, N J

    1988-02-01

    Using a primate animal model, two studies were undertaken to examine the effects of cigarette smoking on thyroid hormone levels. In study 1, mean total triiodothyronine (total T3) and mean total thyroxine (total T4) levels were measured in two groups of baboons (Papio cynocephalus) who were taught to smoke cigarettes using operant conditioning techniques. The smokers were divided into established and naive smokers according to pack-years of exposure. A control group of never-smoker baboons was included for comparison. Blood sampling was done after long-term cigarette consumption and again 1 week after cigarette deprivation. In the naive smoker group, mean total T3 concentrations were reduced below control group values (P less than 0.05). After cigarette deprivation for 1 week, mean total T3 values returned to normal. No significant differences in total T4 levels were observed in either group. In study 2, we assessed some other indices of thyroid function. The same groups of baboons were divided into good and poor smokers by plasma cotinine and blood carboxyhemoglobin (% COHb) levels during 28 weeks of cigarette smoking activity. Immediate fluctuations and reductions in total T3 levels were observed that were not accompanied by reductions in total T4. The animals were then cigarette deprived for 1 week and blood samples were obtained every other day during this period. Significant increases in total T3 concentrations were observed in poor smokers immediately after cessation. Both groups also exhibited significant reductions (P less than 0.05) in T3 uptake and free T4 index (FT4I) when compared to control group values. These data suggest that poor smokers are more susceptible to thyroid hormone level shifts than more established smokers, since the established smokers become habituated to the compounds contained in cigarette smoke through repeated exposure.

  15. Concurrent and Predictive Relations between Hormone Levels and Social-Emotional Functioning in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nottelmann, Editha D.; And Others

    Hormone levels and changes in hormone levels were evaluated three times across a 1-year period as concurrent and predictive correlates of the socio-emotional functioning of 56 boys 10- to 14-years-old and 52 girls 9- to 14-years-old who represented the five stages of Tanner's criteria of pubertal development. The hormone measures were serum levels…

  16. Neurodevelopmental Consequences of Low-Level Thyroid Hormone Disruption Induced by Environmental Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inadequate levels of thyroid hormone during critical developmental periods lead to stunted growth, mental retardation, and neurological 'cretinism'. Animal models of developmental thyroid hormone deficiency mirror well the impact of severe insults to the thyroid system. However, ...

  17. Abnormally high serum ferritin levels among professional road cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Zotter, H; Robinson, N; Zorzoli, M; Schattenberg, L; Saugy, M; Mangin, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: An international, longitudinal medical follow up examination of male professional road cyclists revealed excessively elevated serum ferritin levels. Objective: To evaluate the importance of elevated ferritin values among professional cyclists, their relationship with age and nationality, and their evolution over 3 years. Methods: Over 1000 serum ferritin values were collected. Other parameters were included in order to exclude conditions which might have increased ferritin levels without changing body iron stores. Results: In 1999, over 45% of riders displayed ferritin values above 300 ng/ml and one fourth levels over 500 ng/ml. These percentages had decreased to 27% and 9%, respectively, 3 years later, while the overall average, which was above the normal limits in 1999, had decreased by 33% in 3 years. Older cyclists had higher ferritin values than younger cyclists. There was also a relationship between ferritin levels and the nationality of the cyclists. Analysis of 714 riders in 2000 and 2002 showed only a slight and insignificant decrease in the mean ferritin value although those with initially elevated iron stores had a much greater decrease. Conclusion: Professional road cyclists used excessive iron supplementation leading to high serum ferritin levels correlating with increased body iron stores. Although the situation progressively improved over 3 years, it remains worrying as increased body iron stores are related to health complications. Therefore, prevention in addition to the fight against doping should be a main goal of the UCI. Aggressive therapy for athletes with excessive ferritin values should be carried out at or before the end of their careers. PMID:15562163

  18. Relationship of thyroid hormone levels and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moura Neto, A; Parisi, M C R; Tambascia, M A; Pavin, E J; Alegre, S M; Zantut-Wittmann, D E

    2014-02-01

    Alterations in thyroid hormone levels are found associated with inflammation in patients with non-thyroidal illness (NTIS) and are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Inflammation has also been linked with development of cardiovascular events (CVE) in T2DM. Our objective was to assess whether thyroid hormone abnormalities typical of NTIS in patients with T2DM are related to inflammation and CVE. This was a cross-sectional study of 140 subjects; 70 with T2DM and 70 as a control group paired by age, sex and body mass index (BMI). We recorded age, sex, BMI, waist/hip ratio, diabetes duration, HbA1c, CVE history, serum amyloid A (SAA), TSH, total (T) and free (F) T4 and T3, reverse T3 (rT3) and TT3/rT3 ratio. Patients with T2DM had lower levels of TT4 (p = 0.012), TT3 (p < 0.001), FT3 (p < 0.001) and TT3/rT3 (p = 0.002). They also showed higher FT4 (p < 0.001) and similar TSH levels (p = 0.627) compared to the control group. SAA levels correlated positively with rT3 (r = 0.45; p < 0.001) and inversely with TT3/rT3 (r = -0.38; p = 0.001). Patients with T2DM and history of CVE had higher rT3 (p = 0.006) and lower TT3/rT3 (p = 0.002), along with higher SAA levels (p = 0.002) than patients without this characteristic. Multiple logistic regression showed that factors independently associated with CVE were older age (OR = 1.159, 95 % CI 1.011-1.329), male sex (OR = 4.391, 95 % CI 1.081-17.829) and higher TT3/rT3 (OR = 0.993, 95 % CI 0.987-0.999). We have confirmed the presence of NTIS in T2DM. We also showed that thyroid hormone abnormalities are associated to inflammatory activity and to CVE in these patients.

  19. [Obesity, hormonal and metabolic abnormalities in adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ságodi, László; Lombay, Béla; Vámosi, Ildikó; Barkai, László

    2013-08-01

    Bevezetés: A polycystás ovarium szindrómához metabolikus rendellenességek társulnak (dyslipidaemia, elhízás, glükózintolerancia), amelyek a metabolikus szindrómának is összetevői. A centrális elhízás és az inzulinrezisztencia úgy tűnik, hogy fontos szerepet játszik a polycystás ovarium szindróma patogenezisében, talán a következményes szteroidogenezis diszregulációja miatt. Célkitűzés: A metabolikus és hormonális rendellenességek felmérése a polycystás ovarium szindrómás serdülőkorú leányoknál. Módszer: 52, polycystás ovarium szindrómában szenvedő serdülőt a rotterdami kritériumok alapján diagnosztizáltak. Antropometriai, hormonális és metabolikus paramétereket értékeltek valamennyi személynél. Kontrollként 20 egészséges, azonos életkorú, nem elhízott, szabályosan menstruáló leányok adatait használták. Az 52 beteg között a kis súllyal születettek száma 15, az érett súllyal születettek száma 37 volt. Minden betegnél és kontrollszemélynél orális glükóztolerancia-tesztet végeztek. A betegek életkora 16,8±3,1 év, a kontrollok életkora 16,95±2,1 év volt. Eredmények: A szerzők vizsgálatai alapján a túlsúly és elhízás prevalenciája a polycystás ovarium szindrómában szenvedő serdülőknél 35% volt (18 személy). A betegeknél emelkedett éhomi vércukor egy esetben, csökkent glükóztolerancia nyolc esetben, inzulinrezisztencia 25 esetben és metabolikus szindróma 12 esetben fordult elő. A szérumtriglicerid-szint a betegek körében 1,4±0,8 mmol/l, a kontrollcsoportban 0,9±0,3 mmol/l volt (szignifikáns különbség.) Az éhomi vércukor-, teljeskoleszterin-, HDL- és LDL-koleszterin-értékek között nem találtak szignifikáns különbséget. A kis súllyal születettek csoportjában a metabolikus zavarok és elhízás súlyosabb volt és gyakrabban fordult elő, mint a normális súllyal születettek csoportjában. A kis súllyal születettek csoportj

  20. Favorable Impact of Growth Hormone Treatment on Cholesterol Levels in Turner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Yutaka; Ozono, Keiichi; Ohyama, Kenji; Ogawa, Masamichi; Osada, Hisao; Onigata, Kazumichi; Kanzaki, Susumu; Seino, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Tajima, Toshihiro; Tachibana, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Yoshikazu; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Fujieda, Kenji; Fujita, Keinosuke; Horikawa, Reiko; Yokoya, Susumu; Yorifuji, Toru; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patients with Turner syndrome (TS) are prone to having metabolic abnormalities, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, resulting in increased risks of developing atherosclerotic diseases. Objective: To determine the effect of growth hormone (GH) therapy on serum cholesterol levels in prepubertal girls with TS enrolled in the Turner syndrome Research Collaboration (TRC) in Japan. Patients and methods: Eighty-one girls with TS were enrolled in the TRC, and their total cholesterol (TC) levels before GH therapy were compared with reported levels of healthy school-aged Japanese girls. TC levels after 1, 2 and 3 yr of GH treatment were available for 28 of the 81 patients with TS. GH was administered by daily subcutaneous injections, 6 or 7 times/wk, with a weekly dose of 0.35 mg/kg body weight. Results: Baseline TC levels revealed an age-related increase in TS that was in contrast to healthy girls showing unchanged levels. During GH therapy, TC decreased significantly after 1 yr of GH treatment and remained low thereafter. Conclusions: Girls with untreated TS showed an age-related increase in TC that was a striking contrast to healthy girls, who showed unchanged levels. GH therapy in girls with TS brought about a favorable change in TC that indicates the beneficial impact of GH on atherogenic risk. PMID:23926408

  1. Two teenage males with hypocalcemia and elevated parathyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Ashley H; Bremer, Andrew A

    2012-04-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is not a rare disorder, particularly in minority groups. The Institute of Medicine recommends serum 25-hydroxyvitamin (OH)D levels >20 ng/mL and The Endocrine Society recommends levels >30 ng/mL for good health. In contrast, the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reported average total 25-(OH)D concentrations of 25.6 ± 0.4 ng/mL in whites, 19.5 ± 0.5 ng/mL in Mexican Americans, and 14.8 ± 0.4 ng/mL in blacks. Pediatric patients with vitamin D deficiency may be asymptomatic or may present either with rickets, hypocalcemia, or seizures. Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a rare disorder characterized by parathyroid hormone (PTH) resistance with (type 1a) or without (type 1b) the Albright Hereditary Os-teodystrophy (AHO) phenotype of short stature, brachydactyly, and mental retardation. Patients with PHP have elevated PTH levels and may have hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia. However, the same laboratory values can be seen in children with vitamin D deficiency, and diagnostic confusion is common. We report two cases of vitamin D deficiency with presentations suggestive of PHP.

  2. Nocturnal plasma melatonin and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone levels during exacerbation of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R; Awerbuch, G I

    1992-01-01

    The pineal gland has been implicated recently in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate this hypothesis further, we studied nocturnal plasma melatonin levels and the presence or absence of pineal calcification (PC) on CT scan in a cohort of 25 patients (5 men, 20 women; mean age: 41.1 years; SD = 11.1; range: 27-72) who were admitted to a hospital Neurology service for exacerbation of symptoms. Plasma alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) estimations were included in the study since there is evidence for a feedback inhibition between alpha-MSH and melatonin secretion. Abnormal melatonin levels were found in 13 patients (52.0%), 11 of whom had nocturnal levels which were below the daytime values (i.e., < 25 pg/ml). Although melatonin levels were unrelated to the patient's age and sex, there was a positive correlation with age of onset of symptoms (p < .0001) and an inverse correlation with the duration of illness (p < .05). PC was noted in 24 of 25 patients (96%) underscoring the pathogenetic relationship between MS and the pineal gland. Alpha-MSH levels were undetectable in 15 patients (60.0%), low in two patients (8.0%), normal in seven patients (28.0%), and elevated in one patient (4.0%). Collectively, abnormal alpha-MSH levels were found in over 70% of patients. These findings support the hypothesis that MS may be associated with pineal failure and suggest, furthermore, that alterations in the secretion of alpha-MSH also occur during exacerbation of symptoms. The relevance of these findings to the pathogenesis of MS are discussed. PMID:1305632

  3. Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone levels in patients with gout treated with inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Chinchilla, Sandra Pamela; Atxotegi, Joana; Urionagüena, Irati; Herrero-Beites, Ana Maria; Aniel-Quiroga, Maria Angeles

    2015-11-01

    Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels over the upper normal limit has been reported in a small percentage of patients treated with febuxostat in clinical trials, but a mechanistic explanation is not yet available. In an observational parallel longitudinal cohort study, we evaluated changes in TSH levels in patients with gout at baseline and during urate-lowering treatment with febuxostat. Patients to be started on allopurinol who had a measurement of TSH in the 6-month period prior to baseline evaluation were used for comparison. TSH levels and change in TSH levels at 12-month follow-up were compared between groups. Patients with abnormal TSH levels or previous thyroid disease or on amiodarone were not included for analysis. Eighty-eight patients treated with febuxostat and 87 with allopurinol were available for comparisons. Patients to be treated with febuxostat had higher urate levels and TSH levels, more severe gout, and poorer renal function, but were similar regarding other characteristics. A similar rise in TSH levels was observed in both groups (0.4 and 0.5 µUI/mL for febuxostat and allopurinol, respectively); at 12-mo, 7/88 (7.9 %) of patients on febuxostat and 4/87 (3.4 %) of patients on allopurinol showed TSH levels over 0.5 µUI/mL. Doses prescribed (corrected for estimated glomerular filtration rate in the case if patients on allopurinol) and baseline TSH levels were determinants of TSH levels at 12-month follow-up. No impact on free T4 (fT4) levels was observed. Febuxostat, but also allopurinol, increased TSH levels in a dose-dependent way, thus suggesting rather a class effect than a drug effect, but with no apparent impact on either clinical or fT4 levels. PMID:26342297

  4. Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone levels in patients with gout treated with inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Chinchilla, Sandra Pamela; Atxotegi, Joana; Urionagüena, Irati; Herrero-Beites, Ana Maria; Aniel-Quiroga, Maria Angeles

    2015-11-01

    Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels over the upper normal limit has been reported in a small percentage of patients treated with febuxostat in clinical trials, but a mechanistic explanation is not yet available. In an observational parallel longitudinal cohort study, we evaluated changes in TSH levels in patients with gout at baseline and during urate-lowering treatment with febuxostat. Patients to be started on allopurinol who had a measurement of TSH in the 6-month period prior to baseline evaluation were used for comparison. TSH levels and change in TSH levels at 12-month follow-up were compared between groups. Patients with abnormal TSH levels or previous thyroid disease or on amiodarone were not included for analysis. Eighty-eight patients treated with febuxostat and 87 with allopurinol were available for comparisons. Patients to be treated with febuxostat had higher urate levels and TSH levels, more severe gout, and poorer renal function, but were similar regarding other characteristics. A similar rise in TSH levels was observed in both groups (0.4 and 0.5 µUI/mL for febuxostat and allopurinol, respectively); at 12-mo, 7/88 (7.9 %) of patients on febuxostat and 4/87 (3.4 %) of patients on allopurinol showed TSH levels over 0.5 µUI/mL. Doses prescribed (corrected for estimated glomerular filtration rate in the case if patients on allopurinol) and baseline TSH levels were determinants of TSH levels at 12-month follow-up. No impact on free T4 (fT4) levels was observed. Febuxostat, but also allopurinol, increased TSH levels in a dose-dependent way, thus suggesting rather a class effect than a drug effect, but with no apparent impact on either clinical or fT4 levels.

  5. Anti-Mullerian-hormone levels during pregnancy and postpartum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The number of unintentionally childless couples is increasing as more couples seek to conceive for the first time in the third or fourth decade of the woman’s life. Determination of ovarian reserve is an essential component of infertility assessment. The Anti-Müllerian-Hormone (AMH) seems to be the most reliable predictor of ovarian reserve. In this study we analyzed AMH in a cohort of pregnant women without fertility impairment to determine age-dependent decline and possible AMH fluctuations during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods A total of 554 healthy women aged 16 to 47 years without history of infertility or previous surgery on the ovaries were enrolled in the study between 1995 and 2012. In 450 women, a single measurement of AMH was taken during pregnancy, allowing for cross sectional analysis of trimester- and age-related differences in AMH levels. For another 15 women longitudinal data on AMH levels for all trimesters was recorded. In addition, for 69 women AMH was measured at the time just before and after delivery, and for another 20 AMH was measured just before delivery and once on each of the first four days after delivery. We used AMH-Gen-II ELISA (Beckman Coulter, Immunotech, Webster, USA) for the assessment of AMH levels. Non-parametric statistical tests were used to compare AMH levels between age groups, trimesters and postpartum. Results Comparison between the trimesters revealed a significant difference in AMH values at each trimester (first trimester: 1.69 ng/ml (IQR 0.71–3.10), second trimester: 0.8 ng/ml (IQR 0.48–1.41), third trimester: 0.5 ng/ml (IQR 0.18–1.00)). AMH significantly dropped during the course of pregnancy and immediately after delivery, whereas an increase was observed over the first four days postpartum. Women, greater than or equal to 35 years, showed significant lower AMH levels than those <35 years across all trimesters. Conclusions AMH levels decrease during pregnancy. The decline in AMH levels during

  6. Hormone levels are associated with clinical markers and cytokine levels in human localized cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Baccan, Gyselle Chrystina; Oliveira, Fabiano; Sousa, Adenilma Duranes; Cerqueira, Natali Alexandrino; Costa, Jackson Mauricio Lopes; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina

    2011-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is a serious health problem in several parts of the world, and localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) is the most frequent presentation of the tegumentary form of this disease cluster. Clinical presentations of leishmaniasis are influenced by both parasite and host factors, with emphasis on the host immune response. Alterations in plasma hormone levels have been described in many infections, and changes in hormone levels could be related to an imbalanced cytokine profile. In the present work, we evaluated a group of patients with LCL to determine changes in plasma hormone levels (cortisol, DHEA-S, estradiol, prolactin and testosterone) and their association with clinical markers of disease (lesion size, dose used to reach cure and time to cure) and with cytokines produced by PBMC stimulated by SLA (IFN-γ, IL-10 and TNF-α). Individuals with LCL exhibited lower plasma levels of DHEA-S, prolactin and testosterone compared with sex-matched controls, whereas levels of cortisol and estradiol were similar between patients and controls. Plasma levels of cortisol, estradiol or prolactin positively correlated with at least one clinical parameter. Cortisol and prolactin levels exhibited a negative correlation with levels of IFN-γ, whereas no correlation was observed with IL-10 or TNF-α levels. A decrease in DHEA-S levels was observed in male LCL patients when compared to male healthy controls. No other differences between the sexes were observed. Our results indicate a role for neuroendocrine regulation that restricts Th1 responses in human LCL. It is possible that, although impairing parasite killing, such neuroimmunomodulation may contribute to limiting tissue damage.

  7. Serum Growth Hormone Levels and the Response of Diabetic Retinopathy to Pituitary Ablation*

    PubMed Central

    Wright, A. D.; Kohner, E. M.; Oakley, N. W.; Hartog, M.; Joplin, G. F.; Fraser, T. Russell

    1969-01-01

    Serum growth hormone levels were measured during insulin tolerance tests in 36 patients after yttrium-90 pituitary implantation for diabetic retinopathy. The response of the new blood vessels was more clearly related to loss of growth hormone function than was the improvement of retinal haemorrhages and microaneurysms. The overall response of the retinopathy was greatest when growth hormone function was lost. Since the loss of growth hormone function was related to the loss of other aspects of anterior pituitary function, a unique role of growth hormone in the response of diabetic retinopathy to pituitary ablation could not be established. PMID:5768460

  8. Brain glucose metabolism is associated with hormone level in Cushing's disease: A voxel-based study using FDG-PET.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Wang, Yinyan; Xu, Kaibin; Ping, Fan; Wang, Renzhi; Li, Fang; Cheng, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids can exert a neurotoxic effect in patients, possibly manifesting as molecular imaging alterations in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between brain metabolism and elevated hormone level using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. We retrospectively enrolled 92 consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of Cushing's disease. A voxel-based analysis was performed to investigate the association between cerebral (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and serum cortisol level. Relatively impaired metabolism of specific brain regions correlated with serum cortisol level was found. Specifically, notable correlations were found in the hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebellum, regions considered to be involved in the regulation and central action of glucocorticoids. Moreover, some hormone-associated regions were found in the frontal and occipital cortex, possibly mediating the cognitive changes seen in Cushing's disease. Our findings link patterns of perturbed brain metabolism relates to individual hormone level, thus presenting a substrate for cognitive disturbances seen in Cushing's disease patients, as well as in other conditions with abnormal cortisol levels.

  9. Brain glucose metabolism is associated with hormone level in Cushing's disease: A voxel-based study using FDG-PET.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Wang, Yinyan; Xu, Kaibin; Ping, Fan; Wang, Renzhi; Li, Fang; Cheng, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids can exert a neurotoxic effect in patients, possibly manifesting as molecular imaging alterations in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between brain metabolism and elevated hormone level using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. We retrospectively enrolled 92 consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of Cushing's disease. A voxel-based analysis was performed to investigate the association between cerebral (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and serum cortisol level. Relatively impaired metabolism of specific brain regions correlated with serum cortisol level was found. Specifically, notable correlations were found in the hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebellum, regions considered to be involved in the regulation and central action of glucocorticoids. Moreover, some hormone-associated regions were found in the frontal and occipital cortex, possibly mediating the cognitive changes seen in Cushing's disease. Our findings link patterns of perturbed brain metabolism relates to individual hormone level, thus presenting a substrate for cognitive disturbances seen in Cushing's disease patients, as well as in other conditions with abnormal cortisol levels. PMID:27622138

  10. Blockade of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 attenuates early-life stress-induced synaptic abnormalities in the neonatal hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xue-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Dun; Jia, Jiao; Li, Ji-Tao; Xie, Xiao-Meng; Su, Yun-Ai; Schmidt, Mathias V; Si, Tian-Mei; Wang, Xiao-Dong

    2014-05-01

    Adult individuals with early stressful experience exhibit impaired hippocampal neuronal morphology, synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. While our knowledge on the persistent effects of early-life stress on hippocampal structure and function and the underlying mechanisms has advanced over the recent years, the molecular basis of the immediate postnatal stress effects on hippocampal development remains to be investigated. Here, we reported that repeated blockade of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) ameliorated postnatal stress-induced hippocampal synaptic abnormalities in neonatal mice. Following the stress exposure, pups with fragmented maternal care showed retarded dendritic outgrowth and spine formation in CA3 pyramidal neurons and reduced hippocampal levels of synapse-related proteins. During the stress exposure, repeated blockade of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) by daily administration of RU486 (100 µg g(-1) ) failed to attenuate postnatal stress-evoked synaptic impairments. Conversely, daily administration of the CRHR1 antagonist antalarmin hydrochloride (20 µg g(-1) ) in stressed pups normalized hippocampal protein levels of synaptophysin, postsynaptic density-95, nectin-1, and nectin-3, but not the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A. Additionally, GR or CRHR1 antagonism attenuated postnatal stress-induced endocrine alterations but not body growth retardation. Our data indicate that the CRH-CRHR1 system modulates the deleterious effects of early-life stress on dendritic development, spinogenesis, and synapse formation, and that early interventions of this system may prevent stress-induced hippocampal maldevelopment.

  11. Serum levels of eleven steroid hormones following motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Stalla, G K; Doerr, H G; Bidlingmaier, F; Sippel, W G; von Restorff, W

    1985-10-01

    In order to grade motion sickness objectively, the following 11 adrenal hormones were investigated in subjects with different motion sickness susceptibility: Aldosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, progesterone, 17-OH-progesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, testosterone, androstendione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Motion sickness was induced by the coriolis effect on a rotary chair. Both severe kinetosis after short rotation time and mild motion sickness after 30 min of rotation occurred together with small hormonal changes. Androstendione and 11-deoxycortisol appear to be sensitive indicators of motion sickness if the rotation time is taken into consideration. A significant increase of all hormones except progesterone, cortisone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was observed when pronounced malaise had come after a long rotation stress (24.6 min). The changes in plasma aldosterone concentration appeared to correlate with time only. The present study demonstrates that hormonal analysis can be helpful in estimating the degree of motion sickness.

  12. Alterations in local cerebral glucose metabolism and endogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone levels in rolling mouse Nagoya and effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone tartrate.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, T; Nagai, Y

    1996-11-01

    To identify the brain region(s) responsible for the expression of ataxic gaits in an ataxic mutant mouse model, Rolling mouse Nagoya (RMN), changes in local cerebral glucose metabolism in various brain regions and the effect of thyrotropin-releasing hormone tartrate (TRH-T), together with alterations in endogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) levels in the brains of RMN, were investigated. Ataxic mice [RMN (rol/rol)] showed significant decreases in glucose metabolism in regions of the diencephalon: thalamic dorsomedial nucleus, lateral geniculate body and superior colliculus; brain stem: substantia nigra, raphe nucleus and vestibular nucleus; and cerebellar nucleus as compared with normal controls [RMN (+/+)]. When RMN (rol/rol) was treated with TRH-T (10 mg/kg, equivalent to 7 mg/kg free TRH), glucose metabolism was significantly increased in these regions. These results suggest that these regions may be responsible for ataxia. We also found that TRH levels in the cerebellum and brain stem of RMN (rol/rol) were significantly higher than those of RMN (+/+). These results suggest that ataxic symptoms in RMN (rol/rol) may relate to the abnormal metabolism of TRH and energy metabolism in the cerebellum and/or brain stem and that exogenously given TRH normalizes them.

  13. THYROID HORMONE INSUFFICIENCY AND BRAIN DEVELOPMENT -- DETERMINATION OF NEUROTOXICITY AT LOW LEVELS OF HORMONE DISRUPTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormone (TH) deficiencies during development produce deleterious effects on brain structure and function. The degree to which TH must be perturbed to induce neurotoxicity remains unclear. The present study was conducted as part of a Cooperative Agreement between US EPA, U...

  14. Abnormal parathyroid hormone stimulation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity in the hypophosphatemic mouse. Evidence for a generalized defect of vitamin D metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, T; Drezner, M K; Lobaugh, B

    1986-01-01

    Abnormal regulation of vitamin D metabolism is a feature of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets in man and of the murine homologue of the disease in the hypophosphatemic (Hyp)-mouse. We previously reported that mutant mice have abnormally low renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase (1 alpha-hydroxylase) activity for the prevailing degree of hypophosphatemia. To further characterize this defect, we examined whether Hyp-mouse renal 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity responds normally to other stimulatory and inhibitory controls of enzyme function. We studied stimulation by parathyroid hormone (PTH) using: (a) a calcium-deficient (0.02% Ca) diet to raise endogenous PTH; or (b) 24-h continuous infusion of 0.25 IU/h bovine PTH via osmotic minipump. In both cases enzyme activity of identically treated normal mice increased to greater levels than those attained by Hyp-mice. The relative inability of PTH to stimulate 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity is not a function of the hypophosphatemia in the Hyp-mouse since PTH-infused, phosphate-depleted normal mice sustained a level of enzyme activity greater than that of normal and Hyp-mice. In further studies we investigated inhibition of enzyme activity by using: (a) a calcium-loaded (1.2% Ca) diet to suppress endogenous PTH; or (b) 24-h continuous infusion of 0.2 ng/h 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). The 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity of normal and Hyp-mice was significantly reduced to similar absolute levels following maintenance on the calcium-loaded diet. Further, infusion of 1,25(OH)2D3 caused a comparable reduction of 1 alpha-hydroxylase activity in normal, Hyp-, and phosphate-depleted normal mice. These observations indicate that the inhibitory control of 1 alpha-hydroxylase by reduced levels of PTH or increased 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations is intact in the mutants. However, the inability of PTH and hypophosphatemia to stimulate enzyme activity in a manner analogous to that in normal and phosphate-depleted mice indicates

  15. Effects of sex steroid hormones, thyroid hormone levels, and insulin regulation on thyrotoxic periodic paralysis in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Li, Wang; Changsheng, Chen; Jiangfang, Fu; Bin, Gao; Nanyan, Zhang; Xiaomiao, Li; Deqiang, Li; Ying, Xing; Wensong, Zai; Qiuhe, Ji

    2010-12-01

    Our study is to determine the expression of thyroid hormone, sex hormone, insulin, and C-peptide in Chinese male patients with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP). This study covered 102 patients with hyperthyroidism from Xijing Hospital. According to whether occurrence of TPP or not, patients were divided into two groups (those that were hyperthyroid with and without TPP) that were, matched with age, blood pressure, urea, and creatinine. We found the body mass index (BMI) in patients with TPP was higher than that in pure hyperthyroidism patients. The levels of the total thyroxine (T4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4) were significantly lower in patients with TPP compared with pure hyperthyroidism patients, while serum testosterone levels were higher compared with pure hyperthyroidism patients. Moreover, after glucose administration, the concentration of insulin at 60, 120, and 180 min were significantly higher in patients with TPP than those in pure hyperthyroidism patients. The insulin area under the curve (AUC) was significantly increased in patients with TPP compared with pure hyperthyroidism patients. The levels of thyroid hormone, sex hormone, and insulin were different in Chinese male patients with TPP compared to those with only hyperthyroidism.

  16. Relations between Hormone Levels and Observational Measures of Aggressive Behavior of Young Adolescents in Family Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoff-Germain, Gale; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Relations between hormone levels and aggressive behavior of adolescents in family interactions were examined. Higher estradiol and androstenedione levels were associated with higher degrees of aggressive behaviors in girls. Findings for boys were sparse. (PCB)

  17. A case of Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis in a patient with abnormal levels of isolated immunological markers.

    PubMed

    Simsek, B; Guven, E; Gumral, R; Mert, G; Saracli, M A; Besirbellioglu, B; Yildiran, S T

    2016-09-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is considered rare in immunocompetent patients and is mainly a disease of immunocompromised patients. We report a case of cryptococcal meningitis, due to Cryptococcus neoformans, in an apparently healthy individual with abnormal levels of isolated immunological markers. Regardless of the patient's immune status, the result of the disease can be serious unless the disease is diagnosed early. PMID:27402508

  18. Anophthalmia, hearing loss, abnormal pituitary development and response to growth hormone therapy in three children with microdeletions of 14q22q23

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microdeletions of 14q22q23 have been associated with eye abnormalities and pituitary defects. Other phenotypic features in deletion carriers including hearing loss and response to growth hormone therapy are less well recognized. We studied genotype and phenotype of three newly identified children with 14q22q23 deletions, two girls and one boy with bilateral anophthalmia, and compared them with previously published deletion patients and individuals with intragenic defects in genes residing in the region. Results The three deletions were de novo and ranged in size between 5.8 and 8.9 Mb. All three children lacked one copy of the OTX2 gene and in one of them the deletion involved also the BMP4 gene. All three patients presented partial conductive hearing loss which tended to improve with age. Analysis of endocrine and growth phenotypes showed undetectable anterior pituitary, growth hormone deficiency and progressive growth retardation in all three patients. Growth hormone therapy led to partial catch-up growth in two of the three patients but just prevented further height loss in the third. Conclusions The pituitary hypoplasia, growth hormone deficiency and growth retardation associated with 14q22q23 microdeletions are very remarkable, and the latter appears to have an atypical response to growth hormone therapy in some of the cases. PMID:24581273

  19. Alterations in local thyroid hormone signaling in the hippocampus of the SAMP8 mouse at younger ages: association with delayed myelination and behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Sawano, Erika; Negishi, Takayuki; Aoki, Tomoyuki; Murakami, Masami; Tashiro, Tomoko

    2013-03-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) strains were established through selective inbreeding of the AKR/J strain based on phenotypic variations of aging and consist of senescence-prone (SAMP) and senescence-resistant (SAMR) strains. Among them, SAMP8 is considered as a model of neurodegeneration displaying age-associated learning and memory impairment and altered emotional status. Because adult hypothyroidism is one of the common causes of cognitive impairment and various psychiatric disorders, we examined the possible involvement of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in the pathological aging of SAMP8 using the senescence-resistant SAMR1 as control. Although plasma TH levels were similar in both strains, a significant decrease in type 2 deiodinase (D2) gene expression was observed in the SAMP8 hippocampus from 1 to 8 months of age, which led to a 35-50% reductions at the protein level and 20% reduction of its enzyme activity at 1, 3, and 5 months. D2 is responsible for local conversion of thyroxine into transcriptionally active 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), so the results suggest a reduction in T3 level in the SAMP8 hippocampus. Attenuation of local TH signaling was confirmed by downregulation of TH-dependent genes and by immunohistochemical demonstration of delayed and reduced accumulation of myelin basic protein, the expression of which is highly dependent on TH. Furthermore, we found that hyperactivity and reduced anxiety were not age-associated but were characteristic of young SAMP8 before they start showing impairments in learning and memory. Early alterations in local TH signaling may thus underlie behavioral abnormalities as well as the pathological aging of SAMP8. PMID:23224839

  20. Abnormal liver function in workers exposed to low levels of ethylene dichloride and vinyl chloride monomer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T J; Huang, M L; You, N C; Du, C L; Chau, T T

    1999-12-01

    We investigated whether exposure to ethylene dichloride (EDC) and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) resulted in increased risk of liver damage. Epidemiological information, including occupational, medical, smoking, and drinking history, was obtained by interview from 251 male workers. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were used as indicators of liver damage. Exposure to moderate or low levels of ECD and VCM resulted in a higher risk of developing abnormal ALT levels than did exposure to lower levels of the chemicals. Results were similar for AST. GGT was not associated with EDC or VCM exposure. Combined exposure to EDC and VCM showed a dose-response relationship in association with abnormal ALT levels. We concluded that relatively low concentrations of VCM and EDC cause liver damage.

  1. Prenatal and Neonatal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Levels and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Vincent M.; Lutsky, Marta; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Lasley, Bill; Kharrazi, Martin; Windham, Gayle; Gee, Nancy; Croen, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are critical for normal brain development. This study examined autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured in mid-pregnancy maternal serum and infant blood after birth. Three groups of children born in Orange County, CA in 2000-2001 were identified: ASD (n = 78), developmental delay…

  2. Luteinizing hormone levels are positively correlated with plasma amyloid-beta protein levels in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Verdile, Giuseppe; Yeap, Bu B; Clarnette, Roger M; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Burkhardt, Melanie S; Chubb, S A Paul; De Ruyck, Karl; Rodrigues, Mark; Mehta, Pankaj D; Foster, Jonathan K; Bruce, David G; Martins, Ralph N

    2008-06-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis during aging has been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline and developing dementia. Compared to controls, men with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been shown to have lower serum testosterone levels and higher serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. As serum free testosterone concentration is negatively correlated with LH in older men, the independent contributions of these hormones to the pathogenesis of AD warrants further clarification. To explore this notion, we measured plasma amyloid-beta (Abeta), serum testosterone, serum LH and other biochemical parameters in 40 cognitively normal elderly men. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum LH concentration is the only parameter that significantly correlates with plasma Abeta levels in these men (r=0.5, p=0.041). These results suggest that increased serum LH concentration, rather than lower serum free testosterone, is associated with the accumulation of Abeta in plasma. Larger, longitudinal human studies are needed to determine the significance of LH in the pathogenesis of AD.

  3. Data on copper level in the blood of patients with normal and abnormal angiography.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Leila; Movahed, Ali; Iranpour, Dariush; Ostovar, Afshin; Raeisi, Alireza; Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Hajian, Najmeh; Dobaradaran, Sina

    2016-12-01

    In this data article, we measured the levels of copper in the blood of patients undergoing coronary angiography. The samples were taken from patients with cardiovascular disease in Bushehr׳s university hospital, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups: normal angiography and abnormal angiography. After the chemical digestion of samples, the concentration levels of Cu in both groups were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES). PMID:27622204

  4. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kate C; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valerie A M; Martinez, Marni

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals.

  5. Positive Reinforcement Training Moderates Only High Levels of Abnormal Behavior in Singly Housed Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kate C.; Bloomsmith, Mollie; Neu, Kimberly; Griffis, Caroline; Maloney, Margaret; Oettinger, Brooke; Schoof, Valérie A. M.; Martinez, Marni

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline behavioral data on 30 adult males and 33 adult females compared with 3 treatment phases presented in counterbalanced order: 6 min per week of PRT, 20 or 40 min per week of PRT, and 6 min per week of unstructured human interaction (HI). Within-subject parametric tests detected no main or interaction effects involving experimental phase. However, among a subset of subjects with levels of abnormal in the top quartile of the range (n = 15), abnormal behavior was reduced from 35% to 25% of samples with PRT but not with HI. These results suggest that short durations of PRT applied as enrichment for this species and in this context may not in itself be sufficient intervention for abnormal behavior because levels remained high. However, it may be appropriate as an adjunct to other interventions and may be best targeted to the most severely affected individuals. PMID:20183477

  6. Effect of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Batool; Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Enayati, Ehsan; Maleki, Maryam; Rezaeei, Saeedeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Opioid consumption has been widely increasing across the globe; how- ever, it can cause adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid, can reduce sex hor- mones and fertility. Withania somnifera (WS) is a traditional herb used to improve sexual activities. This study strives to investigate the effect of WS on sex hormones and gonado- tropins in addicted male rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, forty-eight male National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI) rats were randomly divided into four groups: i. Control group, ii. WS-treated control group, iii. Addicted group, and iv. WS-treated addicted group. Wa- ter-soluble morphine was given to rats for 21 days to induce addiction, concurrently the treated groups (2 and 4) also received WS plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%). At the end of the treatment, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of the rats’ sera were deter- mined in all the groups. Results Except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropin and sex hormone levels. Whereas WS caused a considerable increase in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in the treated control group. Conclusion WS increased sex hormones and gonadotropins-especially testosterone, es- trogen, and luteinizing hormone-in the addicted male rats and even increased the proges- terone level, a stimulant of most sex hormones in addicted male rats. PMID:27441058

  7. Thyroid hormone level is associated with motor symptoms in de novo Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Umehara, Tadashi; Matsuno, Hiromasa; Toyoda, Chizuko; Oka, Hisayoshi

    2015-07-01

    Sympathetic denervation has been observed not only in the myocardium but also in the thyroid of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated whether sympathetic denervation as indicated by decreased cardiac (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine uptake is associated with the levels of thyroid hormones and whether the levels of thyroid hormones affect clinical manifestations in patients with PD. The subjects were 75 patients with de novo PD and 20 age-matched healthy controls. We examined the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine, and evaluated the associations of these levels with cardiac (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine uptake and motor symptoms. The results showed that the free triiodothyronine level was below the normal range in 29 patients (approximately 40 %) and was significantly lower in the patients with PD than in the controls. The decreased free triiodothyronine level was associated with akinetic-rigid motor subtype and washout ratio of cardiac (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. The free triiodothyronine level negatively correlated with disease severity. Thyroid-stimulating hormone level was within normal range. However, its level was lower in patients with tremor-dominant type or mixed type than in those with akinetic-rigid type. All correlations of these variables with the levels of thyroid hormones remained statistically significant on multiple regression analysis. Our results suggest that the thyroid hormone level, especially the free triiodothyronine level, is closely related to motor symptoms in patients with de novo PD. Further studies are needed to clarify whether the decreased hormone levels have functional roles in motor and non-motor symptoms. PMID:25987207

  8. Serum Sclerostin Levels Negatively Correlate with Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Free Estrogen Index in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Faryal S.; Padhi, I. Desmond; Raisz, Lawrence G.; Lorenzo, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Sclerostin is a negative regulator of bone formation. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare serum sclerostin levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and evaluate its relationship to estrogen, TH, bone turnover, and bone mass. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of healthy community-dwelling pre- and postmenopausal women. Intervention(s): There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measure(s): We compared serum sclerostin levels in pre- and postmenopausal women and correlated sclerostin levels with female sex hormones, calciotropic hormones, bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density. Results: Premenopausal women were 26.8 yr old, and postmenopausal women were 56.8 yr old. Postmenopausal women had lower values for estradiol (30 ± 23 vs. 10 ± 4 pg/ml; P < 0.001), estrone (61 ± 24 vs. 29 ± 10 pg/ml; P <0.001), and free estrogen index (FEI) (6 ± 4 vs. 3 ± 2 pmol/nmol; P = 0.008) and significantly lower bone mineral density at all sites compared to premenopausal women, with no significant differences in levels of PTH, 25-hydroxy or 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels. Postmenopausal women had significantly higher serum sclerostin levels (1.16 ± 0.38 ng/ml vs. 0.48 ± 0.15 ng/ml; P < 0.001). Because most of the premenopausal women were on oral contraceptives, subsequent analyses were limited to postmenopausal women. There were significant negative correlations between sclerostin and FEI and sclerostin and PTH in this group. Using multiple regression analysis, both FEI (β = −0.629; P = 0.002) and PTH (β = −0.554; P = 0.004) were found to be independent predictors of sclerostin levels in postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that serum sclerostin levels are regulated by both estrogens and PTH in postmenopausal women. These findings need to be explored further in larger prospective studies. PMID:20156921

  9. Temperature-induced variation in yolk androgen and thyroid hormone levels in avian eggs.

    PubMed

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Groothuis, Ton G G; Schaper, Sonja V; Darras, Veerle M; de Vries, Bonnie; Visser, Marcel E

    2016-09-01

    Global warming has substantially changed the environment, but the mechanisms to cope with these changes in animals, including the role of maternal effects, are poorly understood. Maternal effects via hormones deposited in eggs, have important environment-dependent effects on offspring development and fitness: thus females are expected to adjust these hormones to the environment, such as the ambient temperature. Longer-term temperature variation could function as a cue, predicting chick rearing conditions to which yolk hormone levels are adjusted, while short-term temperature variation during egg formation may causally affect hormone transfer to eggs. We studied the effects of ambient temperature on yolk androgens (testosterone and androstenedione) and thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) in great tits (Parus major) using data from unmanipulated clutches from a wild population and from aviary birds (ad libitum food) exposed to different experimental temperature treatments during five years. Both in the wild and in captivity, longer-term pre-laying ambient temperature was not associated with clutch mean yolk hormone levels, while the way androstenedione and thyroxine levels varied across the laying sequence did associate with pre-laying temperature in the wild. Yolk testosterone levels were positively correlated with short-term temperature (during yolk formation) changes within clutches in both wild and captivity. We also report, for the first time in a wild bird, that yolk thyroxine levels correlated with a key environmental factor: thyroxine levels were negatively correlated with ambient temperature during egg formation. Thus, yolk hormone levels, especially testosterone, seem to be causally affected by ambient temperature. These short-term effects might reflect physiological changes in females with changes in ambient temperature. The adaptive value of the variation with ambient temperatures pre-laying or during egg formation should be studied with

  10. Polysubstance and Alcohol Dependence: Unique Abnormalities of Magnetic Resonance-Derived Brain Metabolite Levels

    PubMed Central

    Abé, Christoph; Mon, Anderson; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Pennington, David L.; Schmidt, Thomas P.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although comorbid substance misuse is common in alcohol dependence, and polysubstance abusers (PSU) represent the largest group of individuals seeking treatment for drug abuse today, we know little about potential brain abnormalities in this population. Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of mono-substance use disorders (e.g., alcohol or cocaine) reveal abnormal levels of cortical metabolites (reflecting neuronal integrity, cell membrane turnover/synthesis, cellular bioenergetics, gliosis) and altered concentrations of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The concurrent misuse of several substances may have unique and different effects on brain biology and function compared to any mono-substance misuse. METHODS High field brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4 Tesla and neurocognitive testing were performed at one month of abstinence in 40 alcohol dependent individuals (ALC), 28 alcohol dependent PSU and 16 drug-free controls. Absolute metabolite concentrations were calculated in anterior cingulate (ACC), parieto-occipital (POC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC). RESULTS Compared to ALC, PSU demonstrated significant metabolic abnormalities in the DLPFC and strong trends to lower GABA in the ACC. Metabolite levels in ALC and light drinking controls were statistically equivalent. Within PSU, lower DLPFC GABA levels related to greater cocaine consumption. Several cortical metabolite concentrations were associated with cognitive performance. CONCLUSIONS While metabolite concentrations in ALC at one month of abstinence were largely normal, PSU showed persistent and functionally significant metabolic abnormalities, primarily in the DLPFC. Our results point to specific metabolic deficits as biomarkers in polysubstance misuse and as targets for pharmacological and behavioral PSU-specific treatment. PMID:23122599

  11. Radiographic abnormalities in Vermont granite workers exposed to low levels of granite dust.

    PubMed

    Graham, W G; Ashikaga, T; Hemenway, D; Weaver, S; O'Grady, R V

    1991-12-01

    The issue of whether low levels of granite dust exposure lead to radiographic abnormalities after a lifetime of exposure has not been settled. In 1983, we carried out a radiographic survey of the Vermont granite industry, consisting of quarry and stone shed workers who had been exposed to the low dust levels prevailing in the industry since 1938 to 1940. Films were read by three "B" readers, using the ILO classification system, which requires the identification of both rounded and irregular opacities, as well as combinations of both. X-ray films were taken of 972 workers, out of a total work force of approximately 1,400. Of these films, 28 (3 percent) were interpreted by either two or three of the three readers as showing abnormalities consistent with pneumoconiosis. Only seven films (or 0.7 percent of the entire cohort) showed nodular or rounded opacities of the type typically seen in uncomplicated silicosis. The remainder of the abnormal x-ray films showed irregular opacities, largely in the lower lung zones, which are of uncertain significance, but may be related to heavy cigarette smoking and aging, and possibly dust inhalation. In addition, total gravimetric dust concentrations in the workplace were measured; 417 respirable-size mass samples showed concentrations of 601 micrograms/cu m +/- 368 micrograms/cu m. Using previously published estimates of 10 percent quartz in granite dust, the average quartz concentration was 60 micrograms/cu m. Twelve percent of the samples exceeded 100 micrograms/cu m, the current OSHA standard for quartz. We conclude that control of quartz exposure in the Vermont granite industry to levels which are on average less than the current OSHA standard has essentially eliminated definite radiographic changes of silicosis. The significance of the irregular opacities in the lower lung zones seen on a majority of the 28 x-ray films judged to be abnormal is not clear.

  12. The MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels

    PubMed Central

    Oien, Derek B.; Osterhaus, Greg L.; Latif, Shaheen A.; Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA−/−) mouse. Here we show that MsrA−/− mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA−/− mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA−/− mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA−/− brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower level of dopamine was observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA−/− mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathway are impaired in MsrA−/− mice, which may contribute to their abnormal bio-behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18466776

  13. MsrA knockout mouse exhibits abnormal behavior and brain dopamine levels.

    PubMed

    Oien, Derek B; Osterhaus, Greg L; Latif, Shaheen A; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Fulks, Jenny; Johnson, Michael; Fowler, Stephen C; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2008-07-15

    Oxidative stress can cause methionine oxidation that has been implicated in various proteins malfunctions, if not adequately reduced by the methionine sulfoxide reductase system. Recent evidence has found oxidized methionine residues in neurodegenerative conditions. Previously, we have described elevated levels of brain pathologies and an abnormal walking pattern in the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout (MsrA(-/-)) mouse. Here we show that MsrA(-/-) mice have compromised complex task learning capabilities relative to wild-type mice. Likewise, MsrA(-/-) mice exhibit lower locomotor activity and altered gait that exacerbated with age. Furthermore, MsrA(-/-) mice were less responsive to amphetamine treatment. Consequently, brain dopamine levels were determined. Surprisingly, relative to wild-type mice, MsrA(-/-) brains contained significantly higher levels of dopamine up to 12 months of age, while lower levels of dopamine were observed at 16 months of age. Moreover, striatal regions of MsrA(-/-) mice showed an increase of dopamine release parallel to observed dopamine levels. Similarly, the expression pattern of tyrosine hydroxylase activating protein correlated with the age-dependent dopamine levels. Thus, it is suggested that dopamine regulation and signaling pathways are impaired in MsrA(-/-) mice, which may contribute to their abnormal behavior. These observations may be relevant to age-related neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  14. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie; Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Samsioe, Göran; Halldin, Krister; Åkesson, Agneta

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  15. Abnormally high level of CA-19-9 in a benign ovarian cyst

    PubMed Central

    Pyeon, Seung-Yeon; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    CA-19-9 antigen is mainly elevated in cases of gastrointestinal tract malignancy, including of the pancreas, colorectum, and biliary tract. CA 19-9 antigen can also be elevated in ovarian mucinous neoplasms, however, as well as in many benign conditions. Markedly raised levels of more than 10,000 U/mL were almost observed in advanced stage of malignancy. We report herein the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with an abnormally high level of CA 19-9 antigen associated with benign mucinous cystadenoma. PMID:26623421

  16. Abnormally high level of CA-19-9 in a benign ovarian cyst.

    PubMed

    Pyeon, Seung-Yeon; Park, Ji Young; Ki, Kyung-Do; Lee, Jong-Min

    2015-11-01

    CA-19-9 antigen is mainly elevated in cases of gastrointestinal tract malignancy, including of the pancreas, colorectum, and biliary tract. CA 19-9 antigen can also be elevated in ovarian mucinous neoplasms, however, as well as in many benign conditions. Markedly raised levels of more than 10,000 U/mL were almost observed in advanced stage of malignancy. We report herein the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with an abnormally high level of CA 19-9 antigen associated with benign mucinous cystadenoma.

  17. High-Cholesterol Diet Disrupts the Levels of Hormones Derived from Anterior Pituitary Basophilic Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Zhang, X; Liu, Z; Yuan, Z; Song, Y; Shao, S; Zhou, X; Yan, H; Guan, Q; Gao, L; Zhang, H; Zhao, J

    2016-03-01

    Emerging evidence shows that elevated cholesterol levels are detrimental to health. However, it is unclear whether there is an association between cholesterol and the pituitary. We investigated the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on pituitary hormones using in vivo animal studies and an epidemiological study. In the animal experiments, rats were fed a high-cholesterol or control diet for 28 weeks. In rats fed the high-cholesterol diet, serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; also known as thyrotrophin), luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) produced by the basophilic cells of the anterior pituitary were elevated in a time-dependent manner. Among these hormones, TSH was the first to undergo a significant change, whereas adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), another hormone produced by basophilic cells, was not changed significantly. As the duration of cholesterol feeding increased, cholesterol deposition increased gradually in the pituitary. Histologically, basophilic cells, and especially thyrotrophs and gonadotrophs, showed an obvious increase in cell area, as well as a potential increase in their proportion of total pituitary cells. Expression of the β-subunit of TSH, FSH and LH, which controls hormone specificity and activity, exhibited a corresponding increase. In the epidemiological study, we found a similar elevation of serum TSH, LH and FSH and a decrease in ACTH in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Significant positive correlations existed between serum total cholesterol and TSH, FSH or LH, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that the high-cholesterol diet affected the levels of hormones derived from anterior pituitary basophilic cells. This phenomenon might contribute to the pituitary functional disturbances described in hypercholesterolaemia.

  18. Neural correlates of erotic stimulation under different levels of female sexual hormones.

    PubMed

    Abler, Birgit; Kumpfmüller, Daniela; Grön, Georg; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia; Seeringer, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N = 12), and a different group of females (nC group; N = 12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results

  19. The relationship between bilateral oophorectomy and plasma hormone levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Shafrir, Amy L; Rice, Megan; Hankinson, Susan E; Eliassen, A Heather; Tworoger, Shelley S; Narod, Steven A

    2015-02-01

    Oophorectomy prior to natural menopause reduces breast cancer risk. We evaluated whether timing of oophorectomy (during premenopause vs. postmenopause) or hysterectomy was associated with hormone levels, specifically estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and prolactin, using data from the Nurses' Health Study. We included 2,251 postmenopausal women not using hormones who provided blood samples in 1989-1990 and/or 2000-2002, and who were controls in various nested case-control studies. We used multivariate linear mixed-effects models to assess geometric mean hormone levels by surgery status. Bilateral oophorectomy was associated with 25% lower testosterone levels versus women with natural menopause (20.8 vs. 15.5 ng/dL) (P < 0.0001) with no effect of timing of surgery (P = 0.80). SHBG levels were lower among women with a premenopausal oophorectomy (52.2 nmol/L) versus those with natural menopause (58.1 nmol/L) or a postmenopausal oophorectomy (62.0 nmol/L) (P = 0.02). There was no significant association of oophorectomy with estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, DHEAS, or prolactin levels (P ≥ 0.23). A simple hysterectomy was associated with a significant 8% lower testosterone (P = 0.03) and 14 % lower DHEAS (P = 0.02) levels compared with women with natural menopause but not with other hormone levels. Although limited by small numbers, our findings suggest no differential influence of timing of surgery on sex hormone levels. The reduction of testosterone levels in women with oophorectomy or hysterectomy suggests a possible role of this hormone in postmenopausal breast cancer development.

  20. Hormone levels in neonatal hair reflect prior maternal stress exposure during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Amita; Lubach, Gabriele R; Ziegler, Toni E; Coe, Christopher L

    2016-04-01

    Hormones present in hair provide summative information about endocrine activity while the hair was growing. Therefore, it can be collected from an infant after birth and still provide retrospective information about hormone exposure during prenatal development. We employed this approach to determine whether a delimited period of maternal stress during pregnancy affected the concentrations of glucocorticoids and gonadal hormones in the hair of neonatal rhesus monkeys. Hair from 22 infant monkeys exposed to 5 weeks of gestational disturbance was compared to specimens from 13 infants from undisturbed control pregnancies. Using an LC/MS/MS based technique, which permitted seven steroid hormones to be quantified simultaneously, we found 2 hormones were significantly different in infants from disturbed pregnancies. Cortisol and testosterone levels were lower in the hair of both male and female neonates. Maternal hair hormone levels collected on the same day after delivery no longer showed effects of the disturbance earlier during pregnancy. This study documents that a period of acute stress, lasting for 20% of gestation, has sustained effects on the hormones to which a developing fetus is exposed. PMID:26802598

  1. Abnormal glutathione and sulfate levels after interleukin 6 treatment and in tumor-induced cachexia.

    PubMed

    Hack, V; Gross, A; Kinscherf, R; Bockstette, M; Fiers, W; Berke, G; Dröge, W

    1996-08-01

    Excessive urea excretion associated with a negative nitrogen balance and massive loss of skeletal muscle mass (cachexia) is a frequent life threatening complication in malignancies and HIV infection. As these patients have often elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) and abnormally low cystine levels, we have now determined the intracellular levels of glutathione and other cysteine derivatives in the liver and muscle tissue of IL-6-treated or tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice. IL-6 treatment or inoculation of the MCA-105 fibrosarcoma caused a significant increase in hepatic gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase activity and a decrease in the sulfate level, glutamine/urea ratio, and glutamine/glutamate ratio, suggesting that a decrease of the proton generating cysteine catabolism in the liver may increase carbamoyl-phosphate synthesis and urea formation at the expense of net glutamine synthesis. Treatment with cysteine, conversely, caused an increase in sulfate, glutamine/urea ratios, and glutamine/glutamate ratios and may thus be a useful therapeutic tool in clinical medicine. In contrast to the liver, muscle tissue of tumor-bearing mice showed decreased glutathione and increased sulfate levels, suggesting that the cysteine pool may be drained by an increased cysteine catabolism in this tissue. The findings indicate that tumor cachexia is triggered initially by IL-6 and is later sustained by processes driven by an abnormal cysteine metabolism in different organs.-Hack, V., Gross, A., Kinscherf, R., Bockstette, M., Fiers, W., Berke, G., and Dröge, W. Abnormal glutathione and sulfate levels after interleukin 6 treatment and in tumor-induced cachexia.

  2. Biogas final digestive byproduct applied to croplands as fertilizer contains high levels of steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Björklund, Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Hansen, Martin

    2013-09-01

    In this study we evaluate and demonstrate the occurrence of nine natural and one synthetic steroid hormone, including estrogens, androgens and progestagens in biogas final digestate byproduct (digestion liquid) commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer. We investigated two biogas sites that utilize different anaerobic digestion technologies (mesophilic and thermophilic) from swine manure and other organic wastes. Individual hormone concentration levels were observed up to 1478 ng g(-1) dry weight or 22.5 mg kg(-1) N with estrone and progesterone reaching highest concentration levels. Evaluation of the potential environmental burden through the application in agriculture was also assessed on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations. This study indicates that the biogas digestion process does not completely remove steroid hormones from livestock manure and use of final digestate byproduct on croplands contributes to the environmental emission of hormones.

  3. MODE OF ACTION: NEUROTOXICITY INDUCED BY DEVELOPMENTAL THYROID HORMONE INSUFFICIENCY -- NEUROLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES RESULTING FROM EXPOSURE TO PROPYLTHIOURACIL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A manuscript summarizes a workshop aimed at developing a framework to determine the relevancy of animal modes-of-action for extrapolation to humans. This specific report used animal data on neurodevelopmental effects of thyroid hormone disruption to test the framework. Polyhaloge...

  4. Prader-Willi syndrome with elevated follicle stimulating hormone levels and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nagai, T; Mimura, N; Tomizawa, T; Monden, T; Mori, M

    1998-12-01

    A 21 -year-old man with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) was hospitalized due to hyperglycemia. After diet therapy and transient insulin administration, his blood glucose levels improved. Based on the fact that his urinary C-peptide levels increased, the diabetes mellitus may have been due to insulin resistance with obesity. In addition, his testes had become atrophied. Testosterone levels remained low even after human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administration. Luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were also low after LH releasing hormone (LHRH) administration. The LH response increased slightly after daily LHRH administration, indicating hypothalamic hypogonadism. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were, however, high and increased after LHRH administration. The selective FSH elevation may have been due to the accompanying idiopathic oligospermia. PMID:9932637

  5. Serum Vitamin B12 and thyroid hormone levels in Saudi patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khamis, Fahd A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Materials and Methods: One hundred and ten patients with MS were recruited for this study after Institutional Review Board approval. All patients signed a written informed consent form and donated a single blood sample. Plasma Vitamin B12 levels, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) hormone levels were measured. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: Analysis of Vitamin B12 levels in 110 patients with MS revealed that 65% had normal levels of Vitamin B12 (200–900 pg/ml), 30% had low levels of Vitamin B12 (<200 pg/ml), and 5% high levels of Vitamin B12 (higher than 900 pg/ml). Further analysis of patients with low levels of Vitamin B12 revealed that this cohort exhibited a significantly high number of patients with low levels of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) (P < 0.005). Conclusion: This study suggests a relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones. This opens the possibility that the use of therapies that increase triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels might be beneficial to patients with MS.

  6. Serum Vitamin B12 and thyroid hormone levels in Saudi patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khamis, Fahd A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Materials and Methods: One hundred and ten patients with MS were recruited for this study after Institutional Review Board approval. All patients signed a written informed consent form and donated a single blood sample. Plasma Vitamin B12 levels, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) hormone levels were measured. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: Analysis of Vitamin B12 levels in 110 patients with MS revealed that 65% had normal levels of Vitamin B12 (200–900 pg/ml), 30% had low levels of Vitamin B12 (<200 pg/ml), and 5% high levels of Vitamin B12 (higher than 900 pg/ml). Further analysis of patients with low levels of Vitamin B12 revealed that this cohort exhibited a significantly high number of patients with low levels of the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) (P < 0.005). Conclusion: This study suggests a relationship between Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid hormones. This opens the possibility that the use of therapies that increase triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels might be beneficial to patients with MS. PMID:27625581

  7. Seasonal changes in circulating levels of luteinizing hormone and growth hormone in the migratory Canada goose.

    PubMed

    John, T M; George, J C; Scanes, C G

    1983-07-01

    Seasonal changes in plasma levels of LH and GH in the Canada goose (Branta canadensis interior) have been studied. The population examined breeds in the Canadian subarctic region (Fort Churchill, Manitoba) and winters in the southern United States (Swan Lake Refuge, Missouri). Peak levels of LH were observed during spring postmigratory (nestbuilding, early May) and nesting (incubating, early June) periods, while no significant differences were observed during the other periods studied. The highest levels of GH were observed during molting (late July) and the immediately following fall premigratory (early September) period.

  8. Prenatal exposure to perfluorinated compounds affects thyroid hormone levels in newborn girls.

    PubMed

    Shah-Kulkarni, Surabhi; Kim, Byung-Mi; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Hae Soon; Kwon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Young Ju; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-09-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are ubiquitous in the environment and have been detected in humans and wildlife. Exposure to PFCs has decreased in the United States recently, while exposure to PFCs continues in Asian countries, which represents a public health concern. Various mechanisms by which PFCs affect fetal growth have been proposed, such as activation of peroxisome proliferators, disruption of thyroid hormones and changes in lipid metabolism. However, the overall evidence for an association with thyroid hormones is not strong. Therefore, we examined the effect of various prenatal PFCs on cord blood thyroid hormones: triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, and explored the endocrine disrupting effect of these PFCs on thyroid hormone levels in children according to gender. Two hundred and seventy-nine study participants were selected from among the enrolled participants in the Ewha Birth & Growth Retrospective Cohort, a retrospective birth cohort study conducted at Ewha Womans University Hospital, Seoul, Korea between 2006 and 2010. A generalized linear model was constructed to explore the association of PFCs and thyroid hormones. Further, an analysis stratified by gender was conducted. Our study shows that cord blood perfluoro n-pentanoic acid (PFPeA) was positively associated with cord blood T4 (p=0.01) level. Gender-specific analysis showed that prenatal PFCs: PFPeA and Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) exposure significantly increased T4 (p<0.01) and T3 (p=0.03), respectively, while perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) decreased TSH (p=0.04) concentration in newborn girls. Thus, prenatal PFC exposure may disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis. Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in fetal development and may have gender specific action. Hence, these results are of utmost importance in high-risk groups, such as pregnant women and children. PMID:27395336

  9. Abnormal White Matter Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent Signals in Chronic Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Astafiev, Serguei V; Shulman, Gordon L; Metcalf, Nicholas V; Rengachary, Jennifer; MacDonald, Christine L; Harrington, Deborah L; Maruta, Jun; Shimony, Joshua S; Ghajar, Jamshid; Diwakar, Mithun; Huang, Ming-Xiong; Lee, Roland R; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-08-15

    Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), can cause persistent behavioral symptoms and cognitive impairment, but it is unclear if this condition is associated with detectable structural or functional brain changes. At two sites, chronic mTBI human subjects with persistent post-concussive symptoms (three months to five years after injury) and age- and education-matched healthy human control subjects underwent extensive neuropsychological and visual tracking eye movement tests. At one site, patients and controls also performed the visual tracking tasks while blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although neither neuropsychological nor visual tracking measures distinguished patients from controls at the level of individual subjects, abnormal BOLD signals were reliably detected in patients. The most consistent changes were localized in white matter regions: anterior internal capsule and superior longitudinal fasciculus. In contrast, BOLD signals were normal in cortical regions, such as the frontal eye field and intraparietal sulcus, that mediate oculomotor and attention functions necessary for visual tracking. The abnormal BOLD signals accurately differentiated chronic mTBI patients from healthy controls at the single-subject level, although they did not correlate with symptoms or neuropsychological performance. We conclude that subjects with persistent post-concussive symptoms can be identified years after their TBI using fMRI and an eye movement task despite showing normal structural MRI and DTI.

  10. Abnormal secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status involved in quinestrol-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Jiliang; Zhou, Bianhua; Si, Lifang; Wei, Lan; Li, Xiang

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of quinestrol, a synthetic oestrogen homologue with reproductive toxicity, on the secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status in adult male rat. Our results showed that quinestrol exposure significantly decreased the weight of the testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle, and prostate, as well as the sperm counts in the cauda epididymis of rats. Quinestrol significantly reduced the size of seminiferous tubules and the total number of spermatogenic cells. Serum testosterone, follitropin, and lutropin were also significantly reduced in a dose-related manner after quinestrol exposure. Meanwhile, the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxide capacity significantly decreased, whereas the malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentrations significantly increased in the testes. These findings revealed that endocrine disorders of reproductive hormones and oxidative stress may be involved in reproductive toxicity induced by quinestrol in adult male rats. PMID:24183492

  11. Hypergravity and estrogen effects on avian anterior pituitary growth hormone and prolactin levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorindo, R. P.; Negulesco, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Developing female chicks with fractured right radii were maintained for 14 d at either earth gravity (1 g) or a hypergravity state (2 g). The birds at 1 g were divided into groups which received daily injections of (1) saline, (2) 200 micrograms estrone, and (3) 400 micrograms estrone for 14 d. The 2-g birds were divided into three similarly treated groups. All 2-g birds showed significantly lower body weights than did 1-g birds. Anterior pituitary (AP) glands were excised and analyzed for growth hormone and prolactin content by analytical electrophoresis. The 1-g chicks receiving either dose of daily estrogen showed increased AP growth hormone levels, whereas hypergravity alone did not affect growth hormone content. Chicks exposed to daily estrogen and hypergravity displayed reduced growth hormone levels. AP prolactin levels were slightly increased by the lower daily estrogen dose in 1-g birds, but markedly reduced in birds exposed only to hypergravity. Doubly-treated chicks displayed normal prolactin levels. Reduced growth in 2-g birds might be due, in part, to reduced AP levels of prolactin and/or growth hormone.

  12. Pesticide Exposure Alters Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Levels in Mexican Agricultural Workers

    PubMed Central

    Recio, Rogelio; Ocampo-Gómez, Guadalupe; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Borja-Aburto, Victor; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Uribe, Marisela; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Cebrián, Mariano E.

    2005-01-01

    Organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) are suspected of altering reproductive function by reducing brain acetylcholinesterase activity and monoamine levels, thus impairing hypothalamic and/or pituitary endocrine functions and gonadal processes. Our objective was to evaluate in a longitudinal study the association between OP exposure and serum levels of pituitary and sex hormones. Urinary OP metabolite levels were measured by gas–liquid chromatography, and serum pituitary and sex hormone levels by enzymatic immunoassay and radioimmunoassay in 64 men. A total of 147 urine and blood samples were analyzed for each parameter. More than 80% of the participants had at least one OP metabolite in their urine samples. The most frequent metabolite found was diethylthiophosphate (DETP; 55%), followed by diethylphosphate (DEP; 46%), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP; 32%), and dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP; 31%). However, the metabolites detected at higher concentrations were DMTP, DEP, DMDTP, and dimethylphosphate. There was a high proportion of individuals with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations outside the range of normality (48%). The average FSH serum levels were higher during the heavy pesticide spraying season. However, a multivariate analysis of data collected in all periods showed that serum FSH levels were negatively associated with urinary concentrations of both DMTP and DMDTP, whereas luteinizing hormone (LH) was negatively associated with DMTP. We observed no significant associations between estradiol or testosterone serum levels with OP metabolites. The hormonal disruption in agricultural workers presented here, together with results from experimental animal studies, suggests that OP exposure disrupts the hypothalamic–pituitary endocrine function and also indicates that FSH and LH are the hormones most affected. PMID:16140621

  13. Peripheral hormone levels in controls and patients with prostatic cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia: results from the Dutch-Japanese case-control study.

    PubMed

    de Jong, F H; Oishi, K; Hayes, R B; Bogdanowicz, J F; Raatgever, J W; van der Maas, P J; Yoshida, O; Schroeder, F H

    1991-07-01

    The possible relationship between changes in peripheral hormone levels and the occurrence of prostatic pathology was studied in a case-control study, involving estimation of various plasma hormones in 368 Dutch and 258 Japanese men, who were grouped as controls and patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, focal prostatic carcinoma, or clinically evident prostatic carcinoma. Results of a number of previous, smaller studies concerning interrelationships between hormone levels in elderly men were confirmed within the Dutch and Japanese groups. Plasma levels of testosterone and estradiol were significantly lower in the Japanese men, when compared with those in Dutch men. Probably as a result of this difference in testosterone levels, the ratio between serum levels of testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was decreased in the Japanese men, while the ratio between the concentrations of dihydrotestosterone and testosterone was increased. These differences were also found when results from Japanese subgroups (controls and patients with prostate pathology) were compared with those from the Dutch subgroups. There were no significant differences in plasma androgen levels between Japanese or Dutch prostate cancer cases and their respective control subgroups. These findings do not support a correlation between the lower plasma testosterone levels and a lower incidence of prostate cancer in the Japanese men. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between salivary levels of testosterone or the ratio between testosterone and SHBG in the various Dutch subgroups. In Japanese benign prostatic hyperplasia patients, the testosterone to SHBG ratio was significantly increased. In conclusion, the results of this retrospective, cross-sectional study do not indicate that hormonal levels play a primary role in the origin or promotion of prostatic abnormalities. The finding of a lower plasma testosterone in the Japanese men, however, remains suggestive

  14. The effects of physical therapeutic agents on serum levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Tönük, Şükrü Burak; Serin, Erdinc; Ayhan, Fikriye Figen; Yorgancioglu, Zeynep Rezan

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of physical agents on the levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis (OA).Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, hot packs, and therapeutic ultrasound were applied to the lumbar region and knees of patients with OA. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of the serum levels of glucose, insulin (INS), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), cortisol (COR), and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immediately before and after the 1st session, to investigate the acute effects of those physical agents on the endocrine system. The hormone levels were also measured every 5 sessions in a total of 10 sessions. The treatment response was also evaluated by using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) throughout the therapy period.After the 1st session, there was a decrease in INS levels and a mild decrease in PRL levels (P = 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Throughout the 10-session therapy period, the INS levels increased, whereas the ACTH and COR levels decreased (P < 0.05 for all). The VAS-spine, RMDQ, VAS-knee, and WOMAC scores decreased (P = 0.001 for VAS-spine and P < 0.001 for all others). A positive correlation was detected between the changes in serum COR and WOMAC-pain score (P < 0.05).Although the combination therapy caused changes in INS level accompanied with steady glucose levels, the application of physical agents did not adversely affect the hormone levels. The decrease in ACTH and COR levels may be attributed to the analgesic effect of agents and may be an indicator of patient comfort through a central action. PMID:27583888

  15. The effects of physical therapeutic agents on serum levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tönük, Şükrü Burak; Serin, Erdinc; Ayhan, Fikriye Figen; Yorgancioglu, Zeynep Rezan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the effects of physical agents on the levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, hot packs, and therapeutic ultrasound were applied to the lumbar region and knees of patients with OA. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of the serum levels of glucose, insulin (INS), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), cortisol (COR), and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immediately before and after the 1st session, to investigate the acute effects of those physical agents on the endocrine system. The hormone levels were also measured every 5 sessions in a total of 10 sessions. The treatment response was also evaluated by using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) throughout the therapy period. After the 1st session, there was a decrease in INS levels and a mild decrease in PRL levels (P = 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Throughout the 10-session therapy period, the INS levels increased, whereas the ACTH and COR levels decreased (P < 0.05 for all). The VAS-spine, RMDQ, VAS-knee, and WOMAC scores decreased (P = 0.001 for VAS-spine and P < 0.001 for all others). A positive correlation was detected between the changes in serum COR and WOMAC-pain score (P < 0.05). Although the combination therapy caused changes in INS level accompanied with steady glucose levels, the application of physical agents did not adversely affect the hormone levels. The decrease in ACTH and COR levels may be attributed to the analgesic effect of agents and may be an indicator of patient comfort through a central action. PMID:27583888

  16. Altered levels of circulating insulin and other neuroendocrine hormones associated with the onset of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Guest, Paul C; Schwarz, Emanuel; Krishnamurthy, Divya; Harris, Laura W; Leweke, F Markus; Rothermundt, Matthias; van Beveren, Nico J M; Spain, Michael; Barnes, Anthony; Steiner, Johann; Rahmoune, Hassan; Bahn, Sabine

    2011-08-01

    Recently, we showed that the circulating levels of insulin-related peptides and the secretory granule protein chromogranin A were increased in small cohorts of first onset schizophrenia patients. Assuming that this effect was associated with impaired insulin signalling, we investigated the possibility that secretion of other hormones is also affected in schizophrenia. Multiplex immunoassay analysis of 21 hormones and hormone-related molecules was carried out using sera from 236 first and recent onset schizophrenia patients and 230 matched controls. Serum concentrations of insulin and chromogranin A were increased in schizophrenia subjects, consistent with our previous study. In addition, we found elevated concentrations of pancreatic polypeptide, prolactin, progesterone and cortisol, and decreased levels of growth hormone. We also found that growth hormone levels were decreased in post-mortem pituitaries obtained from chronic schizophrenia patients. It will be important to determine whether any of these molecules are involved in the pathosphysiology of schizophrenia or if they reflect the associated insulin resistance. We conclude that function of multiple components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axis may be affected in schizophrenia. This could have important implications for future biomarker discovery efforts and personalized medicine strategies based on patient stratification for the treatment of this debilitating disorder.

  17. [The Effect of Maternal Exposure to Dioxins on the Level of Thyroid Hormone in Developing Pups].

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yukiko; Takeda, Tomoki; Taura, Junki; Kuroki, Hiroaki; Ishii, Yuji; Yamada, Hideyuki

    2015-05-01

    Maternal exposure to dioxins causes a number of developmental disorders in the offspring. Previous studies have suggested that lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodizenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) reduces the pup level of thyroid hormone after weaning, leading to the damage to their development including neural maturation. However, the specificity for age and dioxin congeners as well as dose dependency in terms of a reduction in pup thyroid hormone remains to be clarified. To address this issue, we investigated whether TCDD or 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PenCDF), one of the dioxins which caused 'Yusho' incident, affects the status of thyroid hormone during the fetal and neonatal periods. Treating pregnant rats at gestational day (GD)15 with 1 μg/kg TCDD scarcely affected the serum concentration of thyroxine, although a significant reduction by TCDD was detected at limited endpoints [GD21 and postnatal day (PND)21]. In addition, maternal exposure to TCDD (0.05-30 μg/kg) or PenCDF (1-1,000 μg/kg) did not have any change in the serum level of thyroxine in GD20 fetuses even at the maximum dose. Neither the expression of pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone β (TSHβ) nor hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone was sensitive to TCDD treatment. In pregnant dams, TCDD decreased the serum level of thyroxine at GD20 and 21, while the pituitary expression of TSHβ was induced. These results suggest that a single administration of dioxins to pregnant rats at GD15 have little effect on the level of thyroxine in the fetuses and infants, while a reduced level of this hormone observed in the offspring at GD21 and PND21 and pregnant dams at GD20 and 21.

  18. Levels of hormones and cytokines associated with growth in Honamlı and native hair goats.

    PubMed

    Devrim, A K; Elmaz, O; Mamak, N; Sudagidan, M

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess alterations of hormone and cytokine levels associated with growth period during puberty in Honamlı goats which were identified as a new goat breed and had one of the highest meat production potential among the other goat breeds in Turkey. Honamlı goats are originated from native hair goats, so parallel studies of sampling and analyzing were conducted also in native hair goats which have moderate meat production. Blood serum samples of Honamlı (n=90) and native hair goats (n=90) were obtained from the pure herds in Korkuteli and Ka districts of Anatolia. Concentrations of growth hormone (GH), myostatin (MSTN), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP), leptin, transforming growth factor-betal (TGF-β1) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) levels were measured by ELISA in each breed in the age groups of 4, 8 and 12 months. The present results indicate interesting correlations among the age groups and all the examined hormone and cytokine parameters exhibited significant (P<0.05 and P<0.001) differences. The parameters investigated were usually begun to increase after 4 months of age in the both breeds and sexes. Therefore, this paper supported the view that the beginning of hormonal alterations of goats could occur at 4th month of age. The results reported here emphasize the primary role played by GH, MSTN, IGF-1, leptin, GHRH, GHRP, TGF-βi and VEGF in the first year growth period of goats.

  19. Natural levels of abnormalities in the trilling frog (neobactrachus centralis) at the Olympic dam mine

    SciTech Connect

    Read, J.L. ); Tyler, M.J. )

    1994-07-01

    Frogs are more susceptible than most vertebrates to environmental contaminants. Unlike amniotes, the frog egg is not protected by a semi-impervious shell, and hence is readily exposed to pollutants. In addition, tadpoles develop in wetlands to which many noxious substances drain from the surrounding landscape. Coupled with this high exposure rate, frogs are also very sensitive to trace elements, some pesticides, heavy metals especially when coupled with exposure to low pH and ionizing radiation. Frogs commonly exhibit discernible deformities following exposure to teratogenic contaminants, and therefore are valuable indicators of the existence of noxious substances in the environment. The abundance and ease of sampling of frogs, along with their sensitivity to environmental contaminants, makes them ideal organisms for environmental monitoring in the Australian arid zone. The study of abnormalities in frogs has become an integral part of the Environmental Management Programme of the Olympic Dam Operations (ODO) copper-uranium-gold-silver mine in northern South Australia. The Trilling Frog (Neobatrachus centralis) is the only frog species which has been recorded at Olympic Dam. It is likely that these frogs, are relatively sedentary, thus enhancing their value as indicator organisms. A pilot survey in 1989 documented frog deformity levels comparable to those found at undisturbed sites in Australia and in other countries. This paper reports on larger study conducted in February and March 1992 when heavy rains provided another opportunity to survey the frog population. The low levels of abnormalities support the conclusion that N. centralis at Olympic Dam does not appear to be accumulating or being influenced by the very low levels of radionuclides present here.

  20. Plasma hormone levels and semen quality in male cats during non-breeding and breeding seasons.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, T; Onodera, F; Oba, H; Mizutani, T; Hori, T

    2009-07-01

    Female cats are known to be seasonal breeders and male cats annual breeders. Despite this, there are limited data on the influence of breeding season (BS) on hormone concentration and semen quality in the male cat. This study compared plasma concentrations of LH and testosterone (T), and semen quality during the non-breeding season (NBS) and BS in five male cats subject to natural hours of daylight but a constant environmental temperature. Plasma LH and T concentrations were higher during the BS in 2/35 and 3/5 cats, respectively, although when comparing both hormones combined, values were higher during the BS than the NBS in all cats (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the percentage of abnormal sperm between the cats. Overall, semen quality was superior during the BS with larger semen volume in 2/5, sperm motility in 2/5 and sperm viability in 3/5 cats. Although there was a clear seasonal effect on hormone secretion and semen quality, during the NBS all cats were likely to have been fertile.

  1. Protein- and tryptophan-restricted diets induce changes in rat gonadal hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Del Angel-Meza, A R.; Feria-Velasco, A; Ontiveros-Martínez, L; Gallardo, L; Gonzalez-Burgos, I; Beas-Zárate, C

    2001-04-01

    The release of gonadotrophic hormones starts at puberty and, along with the subsequent estral cyclicity, is subject to hormonal feedback systems and to the action of diverse neuroactive substances such as gamma amino butyric acid and catecholamines. This study shows the effect of the administration during 40 days of protein-restricted and corn-based (tryptophan- and lysine-deficient) diets on the serotonin concentration in medial hypothalamic fragments as well as in follicle-stimulating luteinizing hormones, 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels, and estral cyclicity in 60- and 100-day-old rats (young, mature, and in gestation). In young rats, a delay in vaginal aperture development, and a lengthening of the estral cycle to a continuous anestral state was observed, mainly in the group fed corn. This group showed a 25% decrease in the serotonin concentration compared with the protein-restricted group, which exhibited an increase of 9% over the control group. Luteinizing hormone levels decreased in 16% and 13%, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone increased in 13% and 5% in the young animals of restricted groups, respectively, compared with the control group. Serum progesterone levels decreased only in young restricted versus control animals, and no differences were seen among adult and gestational rats. Serum levels of 17-beta-estradiol in restricted animals showed different concentration patterns, mainly in the corn group, which was higher at the 20th gestational day, falling drastically postpartum. The results obtained in this study show serotonin to be a very important factor in the release of gonadotrophic hormones and the start of puberty.

  2. Seasonal variation in urinary and salivary reproductive hormone levels in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis).

    PubMed

    Amaral, Rodrigo S; Rosas, Fernando C W; da Silva, Vera M F; Graham, Laura H; Viau, Priscila; Nichi, Marcilio; Oliveira, Claudio A

    2015-09-01

    The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is a threatened aquatic mammal endemic to the Amazon basin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urinary and salivary reproductive hormone levels of captive Amazonian manatees collected during two seasons of the year. Salivary samples from four males and urinary and salivary samples from three females were collected during two seasons (March-June and September-November) over two consecutive years. Salivary testosterone in males was measured by radioimmunoassay and reproductive hormones in females (salivary progesterone and oestradiol and urinary progestogens, oestrogens and luteinising hormone) were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The data were analysed in a 2×2 factorial design, where the factors were year and season. There was no effect of year or season for salivary testosterone. All female hormones showed a seasonal effect (higher hormone levels during March-June than September-November) or an interaction between year and season (P<0.05). These results strongly indicate the existence of reproductive seasonality in Amazonian manatees; however, apparently only females exhibit reproductive quiescence during the non-breeding season. Further long-term studies are necessary to elucidate which environmental parameters are related to reproductive seasonality in T. inunguis and how this species responds physiologically to those stimuli.

  3. Changes of Some Hormones Levels in Patients With Hepatitis B Virus-Related Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Serin, Ayfer; Akarsu, Mesut; Akpinar, Hale; Simsek, Ilkay

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate some of the hormones in patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Methods The men patients with chronic hepatitis B (Group 1), liver cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis B (Group 2), were included in this study. Additionally, a control group of healthy volunteers (Group 3) was formed. We investigated serum levels of Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Total testosterone (T. TES), Free-testosterone (F. TES), Estradiol (E2), Androstenedione (ANDR), Dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), Progesterone (PPOGES), Prolactin (PRL), Sex hormone binding protein (SHGB) were measured by radioimmunoassay and chemiluminescent immunoassay methods. Result A total of 73 patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis were included in the study. Patients were grouped as cirrhosis (n = 28), chronic hepatitis B (n = 41) according to the type of their chronic liver disease. Serum F.TEST level in patient groups (group 1, group 2) was found to be lower than control group (P = 0.045, P = 0.047). Serum LH value was found to be higher in patient group (group 2) than control group (P = 0.048). Serum estradiol was higher in the group 2 compared to the control group (P = 0.046). Conclusions The described disturbances of some of the observed hormones (LH, E2, F. TES) are complex, particularly in their relationship by which the clinical picture of the hepatitis B related cirrhotic patients and chronic liver disease can be explained.

  4. Seasonal variation in urinary and salivary reproductive hormone levels in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis).

    PubMed

    Amaral, Rodrigo S; Rosas, Fernando C W; da Silva, Vera M F; Graham, Laura H; Viau, Priscila; Nichi, Marcilio; Oliveira, Claudio A

    2015-09-01

    The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is a threatened aquatic mammal endemic to the Amazon basin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urinary and salivary reproductive hormone levels of captive Amazonian manatees collected during two seasons of the year. Salivary samples from four males and urinary and salivary samples from three females were collected during two seasons (March-June and September-November) over two consecutive years. Salivary testosterone in males was measured by radioimmunoassay and reproductive hormones in females (salivary progesterone and oestradiol and urinary progestogens, oestrogens and luteinising hormone) were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The data were analysed in a 2×2 factorial design, where the factors were year and season. There was no effect of year or season for salivary testosterone. All female hormones showed a seasonal effect (higher hormone levels during March-June than September-November) or an interaction between year and season (P<0.05). These results strongly indicate the existence of reproductive seasonality in Amazonian manatees; however, apparently only females exhibit reproductive quiescence during the non-breeding season. Further long-term studies are necessary to elucidate which environmental parameters are related to reproductive seasonality in T. inunguis and how this species responds physiologically to those stimuli. PMID:24690451

  5. Exposure to difenoconazole causes changes of thyroid hormone and gene expression levels in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao; Yu, Liang; Gui, Wenjun; Zhu, Guonian

    2015-11-01

    Difenoconazole was believed to induce a large suite of symptoms during zebrafish development, but little is known about the negative invisible effect known as endocrine disruption. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to various concentrations of difenoconazole from fertilization to 120 h post-fertilization (hpf), and the whole body content of thyroid hormone and gene transcription in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were investigated. Results showed thyroxine (T4) levels were significantly decreased, while triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were not changed. Moreover, the mRNA transcription of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid-stimulating hormone (tshβ), transthyretin (ttr), thyronine deiodinase (dio1 and dio2), uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (ugt1ab) in the HPT axis were significantly up-regulated, but the transcriptions of thyroglobulin (tg), sodium/iodide symporter (nis) and thyroid hormone receptors trβ were not changed. The overall results showed that exposure to difenoconazole could alter thyroid hormone levels and gene transcription in zebrafish larvae, indicating thyroid endocrine disruption. PMID:26590868

  6. Effect of explosive noise on gastrointestinal transit and plasma levels of polypeptide hormones

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Zhen-Bin; Huang, Yu-Xin; Zhao, Bao-Min; Liu, Zhen-Xiong; Zhang, Bing-Hua; Wang, Qing-Li

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of firing noise on gastrointestinal transit and probe its mechanism by measuring the levels of plasma polypeptide hormones. METHODS: A total of 64 SD rats were randomly divided into a control group and three stimulating groups. Firing noise of different intensity by sub-machine guns was used as inflicting factor. The effect of firing noise on liquid substance gastrointestinal transit and solid substance gastrointestinal transit was observed by measuring the ratio of carbon powder suspension transmitting and barium sticks transmitting respectively. Plasma levels of polypeptide hormones were measured by radio-immunoassay. RESULTS: The noise accelerated gastrointestinal transit of solid food by more than 80 db;and accelerated gastrointestinal transit of liquid food significantly by more than 120 db. Meantime, plasma levels of plasma motilin (MTL)(157.47±16.08; 151.90±17.08), somatostatin (SS)(513.97±88.77; 458.25±104.30), substance P (SP)(115.52±20.70; 110.28±19.96) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) (214.21±63.17; 251.76±97.24) remarkably changed also. CONCLUSION: Within a certain intensity range, the firing noise changes the levels of rat plasma gastrointestinal hormones, but the gastrointestinal transit is still normal. Beyond the range, the noise induces plasma hormone levels disturbance and gastrointestinal transit disorder. PMID:16610038

  7. Dietary fat, fiber, and carbohydrate intake and endogenous hormone levels in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaohui; Rosner, Bernard; Willett, Walter C; Hankinson, Susan E

    2010-10-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the associations of fat, fiber, and carbohydrate intake with endogenous estrogen, androgen, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) levels among 595 premenopausal women. Overall, no significant associations were found between dietary intake of these macronutrients and plasma sex steroid hormone levels. Dietary fat intake was inversely associated with IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels. When substituting 5% of energy from total fat for the equivalent amount of energy from carbohydrate or protein intake, the plasma levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3, 5.3) and 1.6% (95% CI 0.4, 2.8) lower, respectively. Animal fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat intakes also were inversely associated with IGFBP-3 levels (P<0.05). Carbohydrates were positively associated with plasma IGF-I level. When substituting 5% of energy from carbohydrates for the equivalent amount of energy from fat or protein intake, the plasma IGF-I level was 2.0% (95% CI 0.1, 3.9%) higher. No independent associations between fiber intake and hormone levels were observed. The results suggest that a low-fat/high-fiber or carbohydrate diet is not associated with endogenous levels of sex steroid hormones, but it may modestly increase IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels among premenopausal women.

  8. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Paula I; Stapleton, Heather M; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Hauser, Russ; Meeker, John D

    2013-02-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octa- and deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men.

  9. Associations between brominated flame retardants in house dust and hormone levels in men

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Paula I.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Hauser, Russ; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are used in the manufacture of a variety of materials and consumer products in order to meet fire safety standards. BFRs may persist in the environment and have been detected in wildlife, humans and indoor dust and air. Some BFRs have demonstrated endocrine and reproductive effects in animals, but human studies are limited. In this exploratory study, we measured serum hormone levels and flame retardant concentrations [31 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 6 alternate flame retardants] in house dust from men recruited through a US infertility clinic. PBDE congeners in dust were grouped by commercial mixtures (i.e. penta-, octaand deca-BDE). In multivariable linear regression models adjusted by age and body mass index (BMI), significant positive associations were found between house dust concentrations of pentaBDEs and serum levels of free T4, total T3, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), along with an inverse association with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). There were also positive associations of octaBDE concentrations with serum free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and an inverse association of decaBDE concentrations with testosterone. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was associated with decreased SHBG and increased free androgen index. Dust concentrations of bis-tribromophenoxyethane (BTBPE) and tetrabromo-diethylhexylphthalate (TBPH) were positively associated with total T3. These findings are consistent with our previous report of associations between PBDEs (BDE 47, 99 and 100) in house dust and hormone levels in men, and further suggest that exposure to contaminants in indoor dust may be leading to endocrine disruption in men. PMID:23333513

  10. [THE EFFECT OF HORMONAL STIMULATION OF STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS L.) ON STEROID LEVELS IN TISSUE INCUBATES].

    PubMed

    Bayunova, L V

    2016-01-01

    Sex steroids and corticol levels in Leibovitz's L-15 media samples after incubation of intact female and male sterlet (Acipenser rhutenus L.) tissue fragments and those if fishes treated with a superactive analogue of mammalian luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH-A) were compared. 17,20β,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20βS) levels were significantly higher in the media samples after incubation of ovarian follicles taken from females 5 h after treatment with LH-RH-A in comparison with 20βS levels in intact female samples. 20βS levels also increased after 1 μM progesterone (P4) adding to the media before incubation of ovarian follicles. Cortisol and testosterone levels in the media samples demonstrated the same tendency. Significant elevation of cortisol levels was observed in the blood serum samples of females 5 h after LH-RH-A treatment. The androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone) levels after incubation of testicular and liver fragments were high in the media samples in males who had high serum levels of these androgens before hormonal stimulation. Sex steroids and cortisol production was stimulated by P4 adding to the media before incubation of gonad fragments. 20βS media levels increased after P4 adding before incubation of liver fragments. PMID:27220236

  11. Thyroid Hormone Levels and Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…

  12. PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT CAUSED BY BROMODICHLOROMETHANE: EFFECTS ON SERUM LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PREGNANCY LOSS IN THE F344 RAT CAUSED BY BROMODICHLOROMETHANE: EFFECTS ON SERUM LUTEINIZING HORMONE LEVELS
    Bielmeier1, S.R., D.S. Best2, and M.G. Narotsky2; 1University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Curriculum in Toxicology, 2Reproductive Toxicology Division, U.S. Enviro...

  13. Diets and hormonal levels in postmenopausal women with or without breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Hämäläinen, Esa; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2011-01-01

    The role of diet in breast cancer (BC) risk is unclear. Fiber could reduce BC risk, through the enterohepatic circulation of estrogens. We examined the relationship between diet and sex hormones in postmenopausal women with or without BC. Thirty-one postmenopausal women (10 omnivores, 11 vegetarians, and 10 BC omnivores) were recruited. Dietary records (5 days) and hormone levels (3 days) were evaluated on 4 occasions over 1 yr. Vegetarians showed a lower fat/fiber ratio, a higher intake of total and cereal fiber (g/d)/body weight (kg), a significantly lower level of plasma estrone-sulfate, estradiol, free-estradiol, free-testosterone, and ring D oxygenated estrogens, and a significantly higher level of sex-hormone-binding-globulin than BC subjects. Fiber was consumed in slightly larger amounts by omnivores than by BC subjects. Omnivores had significantly lower plasma testosterone and estrone-sulfate but higher sex-hormone-binding-globulin than BC subjects. No difference was found for the urinary 16-oxygenated estrogens. However, the 2-MeO-E1/2-OH-E1 ratio was significantly lower in omnivores than in BC group. This ratio is positively associated with the fat/fiber ratio. In conclusion, testosterone may contribute to causing alterations in the levels of catechol estrogens and 16-oxygenated estrogens. The fat/fiber ratio appears to be useful in evaluating dietary effects on estrogen metabolism.

  14. Exhaustive exercise and vitamins C and E modulate thyroid hormone levels at low and high altitudes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hashem, Fahaid; Alkhateeb, Mahmoud; Al-Ani, Bahjat; Sakr, Hussein; Khalil, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play an important role in cell growth and differentiation and regulation of oxygen consumption and thermogenesis. The effect of altitude and vitamin supplementation on thyroid hormone levels in animals or humans performing acute exhaustive exercise have not been investigated before. Therefore, we thought to test whether exhaustive exercise-induced stress with antioxidant supplementation was capable of modulating the level of thyroid hormones at different altitudes. Serum levels of T4 (Thyroxin), T3 (Triiodothyronine), and TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) were measured in rats (N=36) born and bred in low altitude (600 m above sea level) and high altitude (2200 m above sea level) following forced swimming with or without vitamins C and E (25 mg/kg) pre-treatments. Thyroid levels were significantly decreased in resting rats at high altitude compared to low altitude, and swimming exercise moderately increased T3 and TSH at both high and low altitudes, whereas T4 was markedly increased (62 %) at low altitude compared to a moderate high altitude increase (28 %). Co-administration of vitamins C and E augmented the observed forced swimming-induced thyroid release. However, the conversion of T4 to T3 was reduced in both altitude areas following swimming exercise and vitamin pre-treatment had no effect. We conclude that acute stress induced thyroidal hormones in rats, which was augmented by antioxidant drugs in both high and low altitude areas. These findings may play an important role in the human pathophysiology of thyroid gland at different altitudes. PMID:27540343

  15. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Sex Hormone Levels among Postmenopausal Women in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Mather, Kieren J.; Laughlin, Gail A.; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Randolph, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Sex hormones may differ by race/ethnicity in postmenopausal women. Whether racial/ethnic differences also exist among those who are overweight and glucose intolerant is not clear. Objectives: The objective of the study was to compare sex hormones by race/ethnicity [non-Hispanic white (NHW), Hispanic, African-American (AA)] in overweight, glucose-intolerant, postmenopausal women. Design: This was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Participants: Participants included postmenopausal glucose-intolerant women participating in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Interventions: Interventions included intensive lifestyle modification (consisting of diet and physical activity) or metformin 850 mg twice a day vs. placebo. Main Outcome Measures: Baseline levels and 1-yr intervention-related changes in SHBG, total and bioavailable estradiol (E2), total and bioavailable testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured. Results: At baseline, among women not using estrogen (n = 370), NHW had higher total and bioavailable E2 and testosterone levels than Hispanics independent of age, type of menopause, waist circumference, alcohol intake, and current smoking. NHW also had higher levels of bioavailable E2 and lower levels of SHBG than AA. At baseline, among estrogen users (n = 310), NHW had higher total and bioavailable E2 than Hispanics and higher levels of SHBG than AA after adjustment. At 1 yr, among women not using estrogen, NHW had larger declines in total E2 and bioavailable E2 levels than AA after adjustment for the above covariates, changes in waist circumference, and randomization arm. At 1 yr, among estrogen users, sex hormone changes did not differ by race/ethnicity. Conclusions: Among postmenopausal women, there were significant race/ethnicity differences in baseline sex hormones and changes in sex hormones. PMID:22879633

  16. Effects of horseback riding exercise therapy on hormone levels in elderly persons

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Hyoun; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Seon-Rye; Cho, Byung-Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of riding exercise on hormone levels in normal elderly people who were taught horseback riding for 8 weeks. [Subjects] Subjects were classified into an exercise group (n=10) and control group (n=10). [Methods] The two groups, horseback riding exercise group of 10 and control group of 10, were each tested for 15 minutes, 3 times, over 8 weeks. Post-exercise tests were implemented in both groups in the same way as pre-study tests. [Results] The horseback riding group showed a significant difference in the pre- and post-exercise serotonin and cortisol levels. Additionally, serotonin and cortisol levels showed significant differences between the two groups. [Conclusion] Serotonin and cortisol levels significantly increased in the experimental group, suggesting that horseback riding exercise is effective for improving the levels of these hormones. PMID:26311966

  17. Changes of thyroid hormone levels and related gene expression in zebrafish on early life stage exposure to triadimefon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaoying; Chang, Juhua; Zhao, Ying; Zhu, Guonian

    2011-11-01

    In this study, zebrafish was exposed to triadimefon. Thyroid hormones levels and the expression of related genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH-beta), deiodinases (dio1 and dio2) and the thyroid hormone receptor (thraa and thrb) were evaluated. After triadimefon exposure, increased T4 can be explained by increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH-beta). The conversion of T4 to T3 (deiodinase type I-dio1) was decreased, which reduced the T3 level. Thyroid hormone receptor beta (thrb) mRNA levels were significantly down-regulated, possibly as a response to the decreased T3 levels. The overall results indicated that triadimefon exposure could alter gene expression in the HPT axis and that mechanisms of disruption of thyroid status by triadimefon could occur at several steps in the synthesis, regulation, and action of thyroid hormones.

  18. Changes of thyroid hormone levels and related gene expression in zebrafish on early life stage exposure to triadimefon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaoying; Chang, Juhua; Zhao, Ying; Zhu, Guonian

    2011-11-01

    In this study, zebrafish was exposed to triadimefon. Thyroid hormones levels and the expression of related genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH-beta), deiodinases (dio1 and dio2) and the thyroid hormone receptor (thraa and thrb) were evaluated. After triadimefon exposure, increased T4 can be explained by increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH-beta). The conversion of T4 to T3 (deiodinase type I-dio1) was decreased, which reduced the T3 level. Thyroid hormone receptor beta (thrb) mRNA levels were significantly down-regulated, possibly as a response to the decreased T3 levels. The overall results indicated that triadimefon exposure could alter gene expression in the HPT axis and that mechanisms of disruption of thyroid status by triadimefon could occur at several steps in the synthesis, regulation, and action of thyroid hormones. PMID:22004968

  19. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulsatile administration restores luteinizing hormone pulsatility and normal testosterone levels in males with hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, P; Lagoguey, M; Brailly, S; Schaison, G

    1985-02-01

    Hyperprolactinemia in men is frequently associated with hypogonadism. Normalization of serum PRL levels is generally associated with an increase in serum testosterone (T) to normal. To determine the mechanism of the inhibitory effect of hyperprolactinemia on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, we studied the effect of intermittent pulsatile GnRH administration on LH pulsatility and T levels in four men with prolactinomas. All patients had high PRL values (100-3000 ng/ml), low LH (mean +/- SEM, 2.2 +/- 0.1 mIU/ml), and low T values (2.3 +/- 0.3 ng/ml), with no other apparent abnormality of pituitary function. GnRH was administered iv using a pump delivering a bolus dose of 10 micrograms every 90 min for 12 days. No LH pulses were detected before treatment. Pulsatile GnRH administration resulted in a significant increase in basal LH levels (6.7 +/- 0.6 mIU/ml; P less than 0.001) and restored LH pulsatility. In addition, T levels increased significantly to normal values in all patients (7.8 +/- 0.4 ng/ml; P less than 0.001) and were normal or supranormal as long as the pump was in use, although PRL levels remained elevated. These data, therefore, suggest that hyperprolactinemia produces hypogonadism primarily by interfering with pulsatile GnRH release.

  20. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-11-15

    abnormal changes in hormone levels.

  1. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, T. K.; Boiko, E. R.; Zenchenko, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work four examinations (January, March, June, October 1991-1992) of the blood concentration of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine T4) and their dependence on space and terrestrial weather parameters have been done for large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements). The aim of this study was to find the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to variations of external natural factors at high latitudes in three independent groups of people living in this region (miners and people working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women working on the ground (280 samples)). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of concentration of the three studied hormones is on the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA) - Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p < 0.05) increase in cortisol concentration in all three independent groups of people was observed. Range of increases in cortisol concentration in different groups were about 30% of the observed variation in the average intragroup concentration in June and from 16% to 38% in October. For T3 dependence was found only in June: drop in hormone secretion with increasing levels of GMA from 18 to 30% of the average range of intragroup variations. Thus it was shown for the first time that at high geographical latitudes with increased level of GMA a significant change in the level of secretion of several hormones leads to the type of adaptive stress reaction.

  2. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area--Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Breus, T K; Boiko, E R; Zenchenko, T A

    2015-01-01

    In the present work four examinations (January, March, June, October 1991-1992) of the blood concentration of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine T4) and their dependence on space and terrestrial weather parameters have been done for large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements). The aim of this study was to find the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to variations of external natural factors at high latitudes in three independent groups of people living in this region (miners and people working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women working on the ground (280 samples)). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of concentration of the three studied hormones is on the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA) - Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p<0.05) increase in cortisol concentration in all three independent groups of people was observed. Range of increases in cortisol concentration in different groups were about 30% of the observed variation in the average intragroup concentration in June and from 16% to 38% in October. For T3 dependence was found only in June: drop in hormone secretion with increasing levels of GMA from 18 to 30% of the average range of intragroup variations. Thus it was shown for the first time that at high geographical latitudes with increased level of GMA a significant change in the level of secretion of several hormones leads to the type of adaptive stress reaction. PMID:26177617

  3. Effects of dietary vitamin D on calcium and magnesium levels in mice with abnormal calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Spurlock, B.G.; West, W.L.; Knight, E.M. )

    1991-03-11

    In previous studies vitamin D has been used to induce cardiac calcium overload in laboratory animals. Interrelationships between calcium and magnesium metabolism are also documented. The authors have investigated the effect of varying vitamin D in the diet on calcium and magnesium levels in plasma, kidney and heart of DBA mice which exhibit genetic abnormalities in cardiac calcium metabolism. Weanling DBA mice were maintained for 28 days on an AIN-76 diet containing either 1,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet (control); 4,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet; or no vitamin D. When compared to controls, supplemented animals showed significantly higher plasma magnesium, kidney calcium and kidney magnesium levels; animals receiving the vitamin D-deficient diet exhibited increases in cardiac calcium levels. The authors results support previous findings that vitamin D deficiency increases cardiac calcium uptake and suggest a possible role of vitamin D in magnesium metabolism.

  4. Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J. |; Secord, A.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-12-31

    Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

  5. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone, prolactin, estradiol and progesterone in laying and nonlaying mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Bluhm, C K; Phillips, R E; Burke, W H

    1983-03-01

    Temporal changes of circulating serum hormones were measured to compare the reproductive endocrinology of laying and nonlaying mallards. In this study all sixteen control mallards left with their mates laid eggs, while only one of sixteen mallards stressed by daily movement into new pens, laid eggs. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, estradiol, and progesterone were significantly lower (P less than 0.05) in stressed nonlaying mallards than in laying mallards over the 7-week period. Within 1 week of the rotation treatment, LH concentrations in stressed mallards averaged (means +/- SEM) 2.72 +/- 0.19 ng/ml and were significantly lower (P less than 0.05) than LH levels in the controls (3.62 +/- 0.18 ng/ml). After 7 weeks, injections of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) induced a greater change in circulating LH levels in stressed mallards (2.1 +/- 0.3 ng/ml) than in breeding control mallards (0.9 +/- 0.2 ng/ml). These data demonstrate that the lack of reproduction in stressed mallards was associated with LHRH-sensitive pituitary pools of LH, despite their low concentrations of serum LH. These data suggest that the block in reproduction is a failure of the hypothalamus to produce or release releasing hormones. The serum hormone levels of the control mallards varied temporally with stages in the nesting cycle. LH levels increased with the onset of nesting activity, and showed marked fluctuations during the laying period. LH levels fell at the onset of incubation but increased after loss of clutch. Estradiol levels were highest prior to the laying of the first egg and their peak coincided with the initial nest building behavior of the females. Progesterone levels increased sharply with the laying of the 2nd-4th eggs, decreased sharply with the laying of the 6th egg, and then increased slightly at the end of the nesting cycle. Prolactin levels were initially low but gradually increased with laying and incubation activity, declined with loss of

  6. Effects of growth hormone and feeding level on endocrine measurements, hormone receptors, muscle growth and performance of prepubertal heifers.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, M; Purup, S; Frystyk, J; Løvendahl, P; Sørensen, M T; Riis, P M; Flint, D J; Sejrsen, K

    2003-09-01

    Prepubertal Friesian heifer calves (n = 24, initial BW = 195 +/- 5 kg) were assigned to a 2 x 2 factorial block design and used to evaluate the effects of daily GH treatment (0 or 15 mg/d) at either a low or a high feeding level in a 5-wk treatment period on endocrine measurements, hormone receptors, muscle growth, and overall performance. In the pretreatment period, a low feeding level was employed for all calves. During the treatment period, animals at the low feeding level had free access to a roughage-based mixture, whereas animals at the high feeding level had free access to a concentrate mixture and were offered 2 kg/d of the roughage-based mixture. Blood samples were collected weekly starting 3 wk before treatment. Longissimus (LM) and supraspinatus (SS) muscles were obtained at slaughter. Metabolizable energy intake was 81% higher, digestible CP intake was 140% higher, and ADG was 115% higher (all P < 0.001) at the high vs. low feeding level. Feed (DMI, ME, and protein) intake was not affected by GH treatment, but ADG was 18% higher (P < 0.13) in GH-treated than in control heifers at both feeding levels. Although of different magnitudes, the muscle anabolic effects of GH treatment and high vs. low feeding level were additive, and both treatments increased carcass weights (P < 0.02 and P < 0.001, respectively), LM (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001), and SS (P < 0.06 and P < 0.003). The anabolic effect of GH treatment was similar in both muscles, whereas the effect of feeding level was most pronounced in LM. Overall, GH treatment increased plasma GH, IGF-I (both P < 0.001), and IGFBP-3 (P < 0.02); however, GH treatment increased total IGF-I, free IGF-I, and IGFBP-3, and decreased IGFBP-2 mainly at the high feeding level (GH x feeding level interaction; P < 0.02, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.10, respectively). The high feeding level increased insulin, free and total IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 (all P < 0.001), but decreased GH and IGFBP-2 (both P < 0.001). High feeding increased type-1 IGF

  7. Plasma levels of DDT and their association with reproductive hormones in adult men from northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Asawasinsopon, R; Prapamontol, T; Prakobvitayakit, O; Vaneesorn, Y; Mangklabruks, A; Hock, B

    2006-02-15

    Historically, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was used in northern Thailand for malaria control and farming purposes. Several studies have investigated its effects on end points of adverse reproductive health outcomes. However, the few previous studies investigated hormonal effects in men and available data are inconclusive. The authors aimed to explore the main hypothesis that plasma DDT levels in adult men were associated with reproductive hormone levels. A cross-sectional study was performed of 97 adult men living in a highland village named Mae Sa Mai, 35 km north of Chiang Mai, Thailand. Venous blood samples were collected for measuring plasma levels of DDT and its metabolites and reproductive hormones, including 17beta-estradiol (E2), testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) were detected in all plasma samples. p,p'-DDE had the highest level with a median of 4057.7 ng/g lipids and a relatively higher level compared with most other studies. Plasma p,p'-DDT levels were positively associated with years of residence (beta+SE=0.472+0.208, P=0.028) and years of DDT usage for farming (beta+SE=0.177+0.084, P=0.04). The remarkable findings were the negative association of plasma E2 levels with plasma p,p'-DDE levels (beta+SE=-7.093+2.899, P=0.016) and the positive association with plasma 1,1-dichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophynyl)ethylene (o,p'-DDE) levels (beta+SE=16.381+5.596, P=0.008) after adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI). However, these associations were rather weak. Our results suggest that these associations may reflect their different mechanisms of hormonal activities and they would be warrant further detail investigations.

  8. Plasma TGF-β1 Levels Are Elevated in Down Syndrome Infants with Transient Abnormal Myelopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hajime; Go, Hayato; Imamura, Takashi; Sato, Maki; Momoi, Nobuo; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are at risk of developing a transient myeloproliferative disorder during the neonatal period, known as transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM). It is characterized by clonal myeloproliferation and is typically self-limiting. However, TAM can be a life-threatening disorder, when complicated by liver fibrosis. Here, we evaluated cytokine profiles in two male DS infants having TAM with or without liver dysfunction. The first patient, Patient 1, had hyperleukocytosis with cholestatic liver dysfunction, coagulopathy, and increased counts of blasts and was treated with exchange transfusion (ExT) due to the serious general condition. In Patient 1, serum interleukin (IL)-8 and plasma transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels were markedly elevated before ExT (1,518.2 pg/mL and 17,635 pg/mL, respectively). After ExT, serum IL-8 and plasma TGF-β1 levels decreased to 40.7 pg/mL and 6,847 pg/mL, respectively. However, Patient 1 died on day 56 due to cholestatic liver dysfunction; namely, this patient represents fatal TAM. The second patient, Patient 2, had hyperleukocytosis with increased counts of blasts without liver dysfunction and was treated with cytarabine. In Patient 2, plasma TGF-β1 levels, but not plasma IL-8, were elevated (9,068 pg/mL and 28 pg/mL, respectively). Patient 2 was discharged on day 47. In summary, plasma TGF-β1 levels were elevated in the two DS infants with TAM, regardless of the presence or absence of hepatic fibrosis. Importantly, fatal TAM is assoicated with the elevated serum level of IL-8. We thus propose that IL-8 may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. PMID:27546516

  9. Effects of substitution and high-dose thyroid hormone therapy on deiodination, sulfoconjugation, and tissue thyroid hormone levels in prolonged critically ill rabbits.

    PubMed

    Debaveye, Yves; Ellger, Björn; Mebis, Liese; Visser, Theo J; Darras, Veerle M; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2008-08-01

    To delineate the metabolic fate of thyroid hormone in prolonged critically ill rabbits, we investigated the impact of two dose regimes of thyroid hormone on plasma 3,3'-diiodothyronine (T(2)) and T(4)S, deiodinase type 1 (D1) and D3 activity, and tissue iodothyronine levels in liver and kidney, as compared with saline and TRH. D2-expressing tissues were ignored. The regimens comprised either substitution dose or a 3- to 5- fold higher dose of T(4) and T(3), either alone or combined, targeted to achieve plasma thyroid hormone levels obtained by TRH. Compared with healthy animals, saline-treated ill rabbits revealed lower plasma T(3) (P=0.006), hepatic T(3) (P=0.02), and hepatic D1 activity (P=0.01). Substitution-dosed thyroid hormone therapy did not affect these changes except a further decline in plasma (P=0.0006) and tissue T(4) (P=0.04). High-dosed thyroid hormone therapy elevated plasma and tissue iodothyronine levels and hepatic D1 activity, as did TRH. Changes in iodothyronine tissue levels mimicked changes in plasma. Tissue T(3) and tissue T(3)/reverse T(3) ratio correlated with deiodinase activities. Neither substitution- nor high-dose treatment altered plasma T(2). Plasma T(4)S was increased only by T(4) in high dose. We conclude that in prolonged critically ill rabbits, low plasma T(3) levels were associated with low liver and kidney T(3) levels. Restoration of plasma and liver and kidney tissue iodothyronine levels was not achieved by thyroid hormone in substitution dose but instead required severalfold this dose. This indicates thyroid hormone hypermetabolism, which in this model of critical illness is not entirely explained by deiodination or by sulfoconjugation. PMID:18450965

  10. Metal levels in the liver, muscle, gill, intestine, and gonad of Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarichi) with abnormal gonad.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Ahmet R; Yeltekin, Aslı

    2014-06-01

    Recently, an increasing number of studies have shown that Lake Van--the biggest soda lake in the world--is polluted due to an increasing population. Studies have shown abnormalities in the Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarichi), the sole fish species that inhabits the lake. Unlike the vitellogenic and mature oocytes in normal gonads, abnormal gonads show large amounts of connective tissue and young oocytes. In this study, metal levels (nickel [Ni], copper [Cu], cobalt [Co], iron [Fe], zinc [Zn], cadmium [Cd], lead [Pb], and manganese [Mn]) in the muscle, liver, gill, intestine, and gonad of Lake Van fish with normal and abnormal gonads were assessed. Further, the metal contents in the wastewater from the wastewater treatment facility situated near Lake Van in Van City were assessed. All the metal levels, except that of Zn, were high in the Lake Van environment (P<0.05). The highest metal content in the tissues was for Fe, while the lowest level was for Co. The Pb level was found to be very high in both fish groups. Cd was not found in the tissues of both fish groups. The levels of Fe, Cu, Pb, and Mn were not significant in the tissues of both normal and abnormal fish groups. Zn level was significantly high in the livers and gonads of fish with abnormal gonads, and Co level was significantly high only in the livers (P<0.05). Consequently, high levels of Zn in the liver and gonads and high levels of Co in the liver may be factors causing the abnormal gonads in the Lake Van fish.

  11. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormone levels and of motor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahabrach, Hanan; Piedrafita, Blanca; Ayad, Abdelmalik; El Mlili, Nisrin; Errami, Mohammed; Felipo, Vicente; Llansola, Marta

    2010-05-15

    Patients with liver cirrhosis may present hepatic encephalopathy with a wide range of neurological disturbances and alterations in sleep quality and in the sleep-wake circadian rhythm. Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to the neurological alterations in hepatic encephalopathy. We have assessed, in an animal model of chronic hyperammonemia without liver failure, the effects of hyperammonemia per se on the circadian rhythms of motor activity, temperature, and plasma levels of adrenal corticosteroid hormones. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and of cortisol and corticosterone levels in blood. Different types of motor activity are affected differentially. Hyperammonemia significantly alters the rhythm of spontaneous ambulatory activity, reducing strongly ambulatory counts and slightly average velocity during the night (the active phase) but not during the day, resulting in altered circadian rhythms. In contrast, hyperammonemia did not affect wheel running at all, indicating that it affects spontaneous but not voluntary activity. Vertical activity was affected only very slightly, indicating that hyperammonemia does not induce anxiety. Hyperammonemia abolished completely the circadian rhythm of corticosteroid hormones in plasma, completely eliminating the peaks of cortisol and corticosterone present in control rats at the start of the dark period. The data reported show that chronic hyperammonemia, similar to that present in patients with liver cirrhosis, alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormones and of motor activity. This suggests that hyperammonemia would be a relevant contributor to the alterations in corticosteroid hormones and in circadian rhythms in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  12. Magnetic storms and variations in hormone levels among residents of North Polar area - Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, Tamara; Zenchenko, Tatiana; Boiko, Evgeni

    It was previously shown that magnetic storms lead to an increase in the level of cortisol and noradrenalin in healthy and sick people with cardiovascular diseases [Breus Rapoport. 2003]. However, in the healthy group in the cited study was only 4 people and it seemed that these results need to be checked. In the present work the 4 examinations (January, March, June, October) of large groups of healthy inhabitants of high latitudes (Svalbard, the most northerly in the world year-round inhabited settlements) on the blood levels of adrenal hormones (cortisol) and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3 ) and thyroxine T4) have been done. The aim was to study the possible sensitivity of these biochemical parameters in three independent groups of people living in this region (men working underground (364 samples), the men working on the ground (274 samples) and women (280 samples)) to variations in external natural factors of high latitudes. For the analysis we used the following parameters of space and terrestrial weather :index of intensity of solar radio emission at a wavelength 10.7sm (RF10.7), planetary geomagnetic activity index - daily Kp index ( Kp) , the daily average Ap index ( Ap) , the maximum per every 3 -hour Kp index ) as well as the daily average indicators of flow rate of galactic cosmic rays neutron component (N), atmospheric pressure ( RATM ) and its rate of change ( the difference between the Ratm today and yesterday ) according to the geophysical station Oulu (Finland , http://cosmicrays.oulu.fi/). The obtained data indicate that the most expressed dependence of the level of studied three hormones is from the level of geomagnetic activity (GMA)-Kp, Ap, Kpmax - 3h. For two of the four seasons (June and October) with increasing levels of GMA a significant (p <0.05) increase in cortisol levels in all three independent groups of people was shown. Amplitude increases in cortisol levels in different groups were about 30% of the observed variation in the

  13. Serum Dioxin Concentrations and Thyroid Hormone Levels in the Seveso Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Chevrier, Jonathan; Warner, Marcella; Gunier, Robert B.; Brambilla, Paolo; Eskenazi, Brenda; Mocarelli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental contaminant. Although experimental evidence suggests that TCDD alters thyroid hormone levels in rodents, human data are inconsistent. In 1976, a trichlorophenol plant exploded in Seveso, Italy. Women living in highly exposed areas were followed through the Seveso Women's Health Study. TCDD concentrations were measured in 1976 (n = 981) and 1996 (n = 260), and levels of total thyroxine, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone were measured in 1996 (n = 909) and 2008 (n = 724). We used conditional multiple linear regression and marginal structural models with inverse-probability-of-treatment weights to evaluate associations and causal effects. TCDD concentration in 1976 was inversely associated with total thyroxine level in 1996 but not in 2008. Associations were stronger among women who had been exposed before menarche. Among these women, associations between total thyroxine and concurrent 1996 TCDD were slightly weaker than those with 1976 TCDD. A model including both 1976 and 1996 measurements strengthened the relationship between 1976 TCDD and total thyroxine but drove the association with 1996 TCDD to the null. TCDD exposure was not associated with levels of other thyroid hormones. TCDD exposure, particularly exposure before menarche, may have enduring impacts on women's total thyroxine levels. Initial exposure appears to be more influential than remaining body burden. PMID:25096280

  14. Urinary Bisphenol A Levels in Young Men: Association with Reproductive Hormones and Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Joensen, Ulla N.; Main, Katharina M.; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Juul, Anders; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few human studies have examined bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in men, and results are divergent. Objectives: We examined associations between urinary BPA concentration and reproductive hormones, as well as semen quality, in young men from the general population. Methods: Our study population consisted of 308 young men from the general population. Urinary BPA concentration was measured by isotope dilution TurboFlow-liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analysis to estimate associations between BPA concentration and reproductive hormones and semen quality, adjusting for confounding factors. Results: We found that 98% of the men had detectable urinary levels of BPA. Median (5th–95th percentiles) BPA concentration was 3.25 ng/mL (0.59–14.89 ng/mL). Men with BPA concentrations above the lowest quartile had higher concentrations of serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and free testosterone compared with the lowest quartile (ptrend ≤ 0.02). Men in the highest quartile of BPA excretion had on average 18% higher total testosterone (95% CI: 8, 28%), 22% higher LH (95% CI: 6, 39%), and 13% higher estradiol (95% CI: 4, 24%) compared with lowest quartile. Men in the highest quartile of BPA also had significantly lower percentage progressive motile spermatozoa compared with men in the lowest quartile (–6.7 percentage points, 95% CI: –11.76, –1.63). BPA was not associated with other semen parameters. Adjusting for dietary patterns did not influence the results. Conclusions: The pattern of associations between BPA and reproductive hormones could indicate an antiandrogenic or antiestrogenic effect, or both, of BPA on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal hormone feedback system, possibly through a competitive inhibition at the receptor level. However, additional research is needed to confirm our findings and to further test the suggested

  15. Luteinizing hormone (LH)-releasing hormone agonist reduces serum adrenal androgen levels in prostate cancer patients: implications for the effect of LH on the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Masahiro; Nomura, Masashi; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Koike, Hidekazu; Matsui, Hiroshi; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Ito, Kazuto; Oyama, Tetsunari; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Recently, adrenal androgens have been targeted as key hormones for the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer therapeutics. Although circulating adrenal androgens originate mainly from the adrenal glands, the testes also supply about 10%. Although widely used in androgen deprivation medical castration therapy, the effect of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist on adrenal androgens has not been fully studied. In this study, changes in testicular and adrenal androgen levels were measured and compared to adrenocorticotropic hormone levels. To assess the possible role of LH in the adrenal glands, immunohistochemical studies of the LH receptor in normal adrenal glands were performed. Forty-seven patients with localized or locally progressive prostate cancer were treated with LH-RH agonist with radiotherapy. Six months after initiation of treatment, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol levels were decreased by 90%-95%, and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione levels were significantly decreased by 26%-40%. The suppressive effect of LH-RH agonist at 12 months was maintained. Adrenocorticotropic hormone levels showed an increasing trend at 6 months and a significant increase at 12 months. LH receptors were positively stained in the cortex cells of the reticular layer of the adrenal glands. The long-term LH-RH agonist treatment reduced adrenal-originated adrenal androgens. LH receptors in the adrenal cortex cells of the reticular layer might account for the underlying mechanism of reduced adrenal androgens.

  16. Thyroid metabolism in the recessive sex-linked dwarf female chicken. 1. Age related changes in thyroid hormone synthesis and circulating thyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Grandhi, R R; Brown, R G

    1975-03-01

    Age related changes in the levels of circulating thyroid hormones as well as the type of hormones synthesized in the thyroid glands from normal and sex-linked recessive dwarf, female chickens were studied. The impact of the presence of the dwarf gene on the parameters measured was minimal but significant alterations in the types of hormones produced in the thyroid gland with increasing age were observed. As the birds approached sexual maturity, the synthesis of triiodothyronine increased sharply such that the ratio of triiodothyronine (T3): tetraiodothyronine (T4) was approximately 15:1. This was in contrast to the T3:T4 ratio of younger birds which was approximately 0.7:1.0. This shift in hormone synthesis was reflected in relatively more circulating T3 in laying hens when compared with younger birds. It was also noted that four week old dwarf birds had higher circulating T3 values than those found for the normals.

  17. Fetal and neonatal iron deficiency exacerbates mild thyroid hormone insufficiency effects on male thyroid hormone levels and brain thyroid hormone-responsive gene expression.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Thomas W; Prohaska, Joseph R; Georgieff, Michael K; Anderson, Grant W

    2014-03-01

    Fetal/neonatal iron (Fe) and iodine/TH deficiencies lead to similar brain developmental abnormalities and often coexist in developing countries. We recently demonstrated that fetal/neonatal Fe deficiency results in a mild neonatal thyroidal impairment, suggesting that TH insufficiency contributes to the neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with Fe deficiency. We hypothesized that combining Fe deficiency with an additional mild thyroidal perturbation (6-propyl-2-thiouracil [PTU]) during development would more severely impair neonatal thyroidal status and brain TH-responsive gene expression than either deficiency alone. Early gestation pregnant rats were assigned to 7 different treatment groups: control, Fe deficient (FeD), mild TH deficient (1 ppm PTU), moderate TH deficient (3 ppm PTU), severe TH deficient (10 ppm PTU), FeD/1 ppm PTU, or FeD/3 ppm PTU. FeD or 1 ppm PTU treatment alone reduced postnatal day 15 serum total T4 concentrations by 64% and 74%, respectively, without significantly altering serum total T3 concentrations. Neither treatment alone significantly altered postnatal day 16 cortical or hippocampal T3 concentrations. FeD combined with 1 ppm PTU treatment produced a more severe effect, reducing serum total T4 by 95%, and lowering hippocampal and cortical T3 concentrations by 24% and 31%, respectively. Combined FeD/PTU had a more severe effect on brain TH-responsive gene expression than either treatment alone, significantly altering Pvalb, Dio2, Mbp, and Hairless hippocampal and/or cortical mRNA levels. FeD/PTU treatment more severely impacted cortical and hippocampal parvalbumin protein expression compared with either individual treatment. These data suggest that combining 2 mild thyroidal insults during development significantly disrupts thyroid function and impairs TH-regulated brain gene expression.

  18. Fetal and Neonatal Iron Deficiency Exacerbates Mild Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency Effects on Male Thyroid Hormone Levels and Brain Thyroid Hormone-Responsive Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, Thomas W.; Prohaska, Joseph R.; Georgieff, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Fetal/neonatal iron (Fe) and iodine/TH deficiencies lead to similar brain developmental abnormalities and often coexist in developing countries. We recently demonstrated that fetal/neonatal Fe deficiency results in a mild neonatal thyroidal impairment, suggesting that TH insufficiency contributes to the neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with Fe deficiency. We hypothesized that combining Fe deficiency with an additional mild thyroidal perturbation (6-propyl-2-thiouracil [PTU]) during development would more severely impair neonatal thyroidal status and brain TH-responsive gene expression than either deficiency alone. Early gestation pregnant rats were assigned to 7 different treatment groups: control, Fe deficient (FeD), mild TH deficient (1 ppm PTU), moderate TH deficient (3 ppm PTU), severe TH deficient (10 ppm PTU), FeD/1 ppm PTU, or FeD/3 ppm PTU. FeD or 1 ppm PTU treatment alone reduced postnatal day 15 serum total T4 concentrations by 64% and 74%, respectively, without significantly altering serum total T3 concentrations. Neither treatment alone significantly altered postnatal day 16 cortical or hippocampal T3 concentrations. FeD combined with 1 ppm PTU treatment produced a more severe effect, reducing serum total T4 by 95%, and lowering hippocampal and cortical T3 concentrations by 24% and 31%, respectively. Combined FeD/PTU had a more severe effect on brain TH-responsive gene expression than either treatment alone, significantly altering Pvalb, Dio2, Mbp, and Hairless hippocampal and/or cortical mRNA levels. FeD/PTU treatment more severely impacted cortical and hippocampal parvalbumin protein expression compared with either individual treatment. These data suggest that combining 2 mild thyroidal insults during development significantly disrupts thyroid function and impairs TH-regulated brain gene expression. PMID:24424046

  19. Serum sex hormone levels in different severity of male adult obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in East Asians.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jia-Qi; Chen, Xiong; Xiao, Ying; Zhang, Rui; Niu, Xun; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a serious health issue, which can impact the hormone secretion. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between serum sex hormone concentrations and different severity degree of OSAHS, and to evaluate the influence of OSAHS on sex hormone levels. We enrolled 116 subjects who were subjected to polysomnography (PSG). They were divided into three groups: control group (n=10) [apnea hypopnea index (AHI) <5/h], mild-moderate OSAHS group (n=15) (5≤AHI<30/h), and severe OSAHS group (n=91) (AHI≥30/h). The patients in OSAHS group were subdivided into obesity and non-obesity subgroups. The parameters such as AHI, body mass index (BMI), lowest oxygen saturation (LSaO2), and mean oxygen saturation (MSaO2) were recorded. Serum levels of testosterone, polactin, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined in the morning immediately after waking up. Mean levels of hormones were compared among groups. The correlation between hormone levels and sleep-breathing parameters was analyzed. No significant differences in serum sex hormone levels were found among control, mild-moderate OSAHS, and severe OSAHS groups (P>0.05). There was no correlation between AHI and sex hormone levels (P>0.05). Testosterone was significantly negatively correlated with BMI (P<0.05). These results suggested that BMI might have a direct effect on testosterone level, and it might be an important factor affecting testosterone level in male OSAHS patients, and there may be no correlation between severity of OSAHS and sex hormones levels. PMID:26223926

  20. Effect of dietary protein levels on sex hormones in growing male rats kept under constant darkness.

    PubMed

    Hanai, Miho; Esashi, Takatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the effects of dietary protein levels on the gonadal development and sex hormones in male rats kept under constant darkness as a model of disturbed daily rhythm. Four-week-old male rats (Fischer 344 strain) were kept under constant darkness or normal lighting (12-h light/dark cycle). Two kinds of experimental diet were prepared, one with low dietary protein levels (9% casein) and one with normal levels (18% casein). Harper mineral mixture and Panvitan were used as mineral and vitamin sources, respectively. After 4 weeks, gonadal weight, serum testosterone, and other hormone contents were evaluated. The gonadal weight in the constant darkness groups (D-groups) was lower than that in the normal lighting groups (N-groups). Although the low-protein diet in the D-groups significantly reduced gonadal weight, the normal-protein diet mitigated the reduction of gonadal weight in rats kept under constant darkness. Serum testosterone and androstenedione concentrations were lower in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet. There were no effects of lighting condition or protein levels on serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH), or progesterone concentrations. These results indicate that the suppression of gonadal development in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet was caused by low testosterone, which we attribute to the inhibition of synthesized androstenedione, a precursor of testosterone. The present study showed that constant darkness and the low- protein diet inhibited the synthetic pathway from progesterone to androstenedione.

  1. Effect of dietary protein levels on sex hormones in growing male rats kept under constant darkness.

    PubMed

    Hanai, Miho; Esashi, Takatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the effects of dietary protein levels on the gonadal development and sex hormones in male rats kept under constant darkness as a model of disturbed daily rhythm. Four-week-old male rats (Fischer 344 strain) were kept under constant darkness or normal lighting (12-h light/dark cycle). Two kinds of experimental diet were prepared, one with low dietary protein levels (9% casein) and one with normal levels (18% casein). Harper mineral mixture and Panvitan were used as mineral and vitamin sources, respectively. After 4 weeks, gonadal weight, serum testosterone, and other hormone contents were evaluated. The gonadal weight in the constant darkness groups (D-groups) was lower than that in the normal lighting groups (N-groups). Although the low-protein diet in the D-groups significantly reduced gonadal weight, the normal-protein diet mitigated the reduction of gonadal weight in rats kept under constant darkness. Serum testosterone and androstenedione concentrations were lower in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet. There were no effects of lighting condition or protein levels on serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH), or progesterone concentrations. These results indicate that the suppression of gonadal development in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet was caused by low testosterone, which we attribute to the inhibition of synthesized androstenedione, a precursor of testosterone. The present study showed that constant darkness and the low- protein diet inhibited the synthetic pathway from progesterone to androstenedione. PMID:23095819

  2. Human hypocretin and melanin concentrating hormone levels are linked to emotion and social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Ashley M.; Fried, Itzhak; Wilson, Charles L.; Staba, Richard J.; Behnke, Eric J.; Lam, Hoa A.; Maidment, Nigel T.; Karlsson, Karl Æ.; Lapierre, Jennifer L.; Siegel, Jerome M.

    2013-01-01

    The neurochemical changes underlying human emotions and social behavior are largely unknown. Here we report on the changes in the levels of two hypothalamic neuropeptides, hypocretin-1 (Hcrt-1) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), measured in the human amygdala. We show that Hcrt-1 levels are maximal during positive emotion, social interaction, and anger, behaviors that induce cataplexy in human narcoleptics. In contrast, MCH levels are minimal during social interaction, but are increased after eating. Both peptides are at minimal levels during periods of postoperative pain despite high levels of arousal. MCH levels increase at sleep onset, consistent with a role in sleep induction, whereas Hcrt-1 levels increase at wake onset, consistent with a role in wake induction. Levels of these two peptides in humans are not simply linked to arousal, but rather to specific emotions and state transitions. Other arousal systems may be similarly emotionally specialized. PMID:23462990

  3. Associations of Circulating Gut Hormone and Adipocytokine Levels with the Spectrum of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Ping-Huei; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Liou, Jyh-Ming; Lee, Yi-Chia; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Lin, Jaw-Town; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is complex and poorly understood. We aim to investigate the association of various circulating peptide hormones with heterogenous manifestations of GERD. Methods One hundred and four patients that had experienced typical GERD symptoms (heartburn and/or acid regurgitation) for at least 3 episodes per week in the past 3 months were enrolled. All patients received a baseline assessment of symptom severity and frequency with the Reflux Disease Questionnaire and an upper endoscopy to classify GERD into erosive esophagitis (EE, n = 67), non-erosive esophagitis (NE, n = 37), and Barrett’s esophagus (BE, n = 8). Fifty asymptomatic subjects with an endoscopically normal esophagus were recruited as the control group. Complete anthropometric measures and blood biochemistry were obtained and fasting serum levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin) and gut hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY)) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all subjects. Results All circulating peptide hormone levels were not statistically different between the GERD and control groups. However, GERD patients appeared to have lower PYY levels [median (25th-75th percentile), 80.1 (49.8–108.3) vs. 99.4 (65.8–131.9) pg/ml, p = 0.057] compared with control subjects. Among the GERD patients, ghrelin levels were inversely associated with the frequency and severity of acid regurgitation. In male GERD patients, EE was associated with significantly higher PYY levels [107.0 (55.0–120.8) vs. 32.8 (28.7–84.5) pg/ml, p = 0.026] but lower adiponectin levels [6.7 (5.6–9.3) vs. 9.9 (9.6–10.6) μg/ml, p = 0.034] than NE. Patients with BE had significantly lower adiponectin levels [6.0 (5.1–9.2) vs. 9.2 (7.1–11.2) μg/ml, p = 0.026] than those without BE. Conclusions Humoral derangement of circulating peptide hormones might participate in inflammation and symptom perception in patients suffering from GERD

  4. Male patients with terminal renal failure exhibit low serum levels of antimüllerian hormone.

    PubMed

    Eckersten, Dag; Giwercman, Aleksander; Christensson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Male reproductive function is impaired during end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and therefore the regulation of sex hormones, is one of the major causes. Our focus was to include antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin B concentrations. Twenty male patients on hemodialysis, median age 40 (26-48) years, were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, estradiol, AMH and inhibin B levels. We used 144 proven fertile men, median age 32 (19-44) years as a control group and analyzed differences using multiple linear regression. Males with ESRD demonstrated higher mean values for prolactin, 742 versus normal 210 mIE l-1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 60.3, 729), LH, 8.87 versus normal 4.5 IE l-1 (95% CI: 2.75, 6.14), and estradiol 89.7 versus normal 79.0 pmol l-1 (95% CI: -1.31, -0.15). Mean value for AMH was lower, 19.5 versus normal 47.3 pmol l-1 (95% CI: -37.6, -11.6). There were no differences found for FSH, SHBG, inhibin B and testosterone. The most important difference was found for AMH, a marker of Sertoli cell function in the testes, which decreased by close to 60% when compared with controls. Combined with an increase in LH, these findings may indicate a dysfunction of Sertoli cells and an effect on Leydig cells contributing to a potential mechanism of reproductive dysfunction in men with ESRD.

  5. Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal.

    PubMed

    Macho, L; Kvetnansky, R; Vigas, M; Nemeth, S; Popova, I; Tigranian, R A; Noskov, V B; Serova, L; Grigoriev, I A

    1991-01-01

    An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the amino acid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this revcovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues. PMID:11537112

  6. Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, L.; Kvetňanský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, S.; Popova, I.; Tigranian, R. A.; Noskov, V. B.; Serova, L.; Grigoriev, I. A.

    An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the aminoacid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this recovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues.

  7. The relationship between circulating kisspeptin and sexual hormones levels in healthy females.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Kotani, Masato; Hirai, Tsuyoshi; Kagawa, Jiro

    2015-03-13

    The kisspeptin (metastin) is an endogenous peptide, which regulates human reproduction by modulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Kisspeptin was detected in peripheral blood, although GnRH was not. Previously, we measured plasma kisspeptin levels in male healthy subjects and patients with hypogonadism using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to elucidate a normal range in healthy males and clinical implications of kisspeptin in male hypogonadism. We suggested that the plasma kisspeptin levels were received feedback from testosterone. In this study, we focused female subjects and elucidated the relationship between menstrual cycle and plasma kisspeptin levels to understand kisspeptin-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. We measured plasma kisspeptin levels in eight female volunteers. The plasma kisspeptin levels in female are significantly higher than those in male. There are no significant correlation between plasma kisspeptin levels and sexual hormones. We revealed that the kisspeptin might stimulate a start of menstruation as a trigger, and progress menstruation covered for weakened ovarian function. We suggest that kisspeptin may be closely related with menstrual cycle and that the measurement of plasma kisspeptin levels is useful for understanding of reproductive system.

  8. Optimizing conditions for production of high levels of soluble recombinant human growth hormone using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Savari, Marzieh; Zarkesh Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Edalati, Masoud; Biria, Davoud

    2015-10-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is synthesized and stored by somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland and can effect on body metabolism. This protein can be used to treat hGH deficiency, Prader-Willi syndrome and Turner syndrome. The limitations in current technology for soluble recombinant protein production, such as inclusion body formation, decrease its usage for therapeutic purposes. To achieve high levels of soluble form of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) we used suitable host strain, appropriate induction temperature, induction time and culture media composition. For this purpose, 32 experiments were designed using Taguchi method and the levels of produced proteins in all 32 experiments were evaluated primarily by ELISA and dot blotting and finally the purified rhGH protein products assessed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. Our results indicate that media, bacterial strains, temperature and induction time have significant effects on the production of rhGH. The low cultivation temperature of 25°C, TB media (with 3% ethanol and 0.6M glycerol), Origami strain and a 10-h induction time increased the solubility of human growth hormone.

  9. Optimizing conditions for production of high levels of soluble recombinant human growth hormone using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Savari, Marzieh; Zarkesh Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Edalati, Masoud; Biria, Davoud

    2015-10-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is synthesized and stored by somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland and can effect on body metabolism. This protein can be used to treat hGH deficiency, Prader-Willi syndrome and Turner syndrome. The limitations in current technology for soluble recombinant protein production, such as inclusion body formation, decrease its usage for therapeutic purposes. To achieve high levels of soluble form of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) we used suitable host strain, appropriate induction temperature, induction time and culture media composition. For this purpose, 32 experiments were designed using Taguchi method and the levels of produced proteins in all 32 experiments were evaluated primarily by ELISA and dot blotting and finally the purified rhGH protein products assessed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. Our results indicate that media, bacterial strains, temperature and induction time have significant effects on the production of rhGH. The low cultivation temperature of 25°C, TB media (with 3% ethanol and 0.6M glycerol), Origami strain and a 10-h induction time increased the solubility of human growth hormone. PMID:26151869

  10. Levels of adipocytokines and vitamin D in a biracial sample of young metabolically healthy obese and metabolically abnormal obese women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Adipocytokines and vitamin D (vitD) concentrations may contribute to cardiometabolic risk profiles in obese populations. The purpose was to determine if levels of adipocytokines and vitD differ between young metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) black and ...

  11. Endogenous sex hormone levels in older adult men with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Barrett-Connor, E; Khaw, K T; Yen, S S

    1990-11-01

    In a Southern California population-based cohort of 985 men aged 40-79 years in 1972-1974, 110 men with diabetes had significantly lower mean levels of endogenous plasma testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin than did 875 nondiabetic men. Mean androstenedione, estrone, and estradiol levels did not differ significantly by diabetic status. The testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin differences were reduced but not eliminated after adjustment for age and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2). Twenty-one percent of diabetic men compared with 13% of nondiabetic men had testosterone levels below a categorically defined normal level of 3,500 pg/ml. Testosterone was inversely related to degree of glycemia in the whole cohort. Throughout the whole range of plasma glucose, there was a stepwise decrease in mean testosterone levels per categorical increase in fasting plasma glucose, apparent in both diabetics and nondiabetics. The clinical and physiologic implications of the reduced testosterone levels in diabetic men merit further investigation. PMID:2239904

  12. Change of anti-Mullerian-hormone levels during follicular phase in PCOS patients.

    PubMed

    Köninger, A; Koch, L; Enekwe, A; Birdir, C; Kasimir-Bauer, S; Kimmig, R; Strowitzki, T; Schmidt, B

    2015-01-01

    Anti-Mullerian-hormone (AMH) does not seem to fluctuate significantly during the menstrual cycle in healthy women. However, little is known about cycle fluctuations of AMH levels in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The purpose of this study was to examine AMH fluctuations during the follicular phase in PCOS patients receiving antiestrogens or recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). About 40 PCOS patients diagnosed according to Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group 2003 and 19 controls were prospectively enrolled. PCOS patients received either antiestrogens or recombinant FSH for monoovulation induction and controls received antiestrogens. AMH levels were determined (1) between the 2nd and the 5th day of follicular phase and (2) when a single large dominant follicle ≥18 mm had appeared. Our study shows that AMH levels do not change during follicular development in controls as well as in PCOS patients with AMH levels < 5 ng/ml, irrespective of antiestrogen or FSH therapy. However, in PCOS patients with AMH levels ≥5 ng/ml, AMH declines significantly during follicular development (p < 0.01). We conclude that AMH levels should be determined in the early follicular phase in PCOS patients without the influence of antiestrogens or exogenous FSH, because these interventions may lower AMH values in patients with high levels.

  13. Plasma. beta. -endorphin and stress hormone levels during adaptation and stress

    SciTech Connect

    Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Trifonova, Zh.V.; Tsibin, A.N.; Maslova, L.V.; Dement'eva, L.A.

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of ..beta..-endorphin and stress hormone levels in the blood plasma of rats during stress and adaptation. Immunoreactive ..beta..-endorphin in the blood plasma was assayed by means of a kit after preliminary isolation of the ..beta..-endorphin fraction by affinity chromatography on sepharose; ACTH was assayed with a kit and cortisol, insulin, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine by means of kits from Izotop. Determination of plasma levels of ..beta..-endorphin and other opioids could evidently be an important method of assessing the state of resistance of the organism to stress.

  14. Changes in gonadotrophin and ovarian hormone levels during the estrous cycle of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus).

    PubMed

    McKeown, B A; Sadleir, R M

    1978-01-01

    Daily blood samples over a fifteen day period were obtained from two adult female black-tailed deer and circulating levels of progesterone, estrogens, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin were measured by radioimmunoassay. LH levels showed an apogee at the time when there was observed estrous behaviour. The length of the estrous cycle appeared to be 7 days. Progesterone levels peaked just subsequent to the LH peak. High estrogen levels coincided with high progesterone and prolactin levels. FSH reached maximum levels prior to peak estrogen levels. LH and FSH levels reached maxima on different days. There were two steroid peaks between the LH apogees.

  15. Phytoestrogens enhance antioxidant enzymes after swimming exercise and modulate sex hormone plasma levels in female swimmers.

    PubMed

    Mestre-Alfaro, Antonia; Ferrer, Miguel D; Sureda, Antoni; Tauler, Pedro; Martínez, Elisa; Bibiloni, Maria M; Micol, Vicente; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2011-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects of diet supplementation with phytoestrogens on sex hormone levels, antioxidant adaptive responses and oxidative damage induced by exercise. Ten female swimmers participated for 26 days in a diet intervention with either a functional beverage rich in vitamins C and E or the same beverage but also supplemented with Lippia citriodora extract (PLX) containing 20 mg/100 ml verbascoside. After the intervention all subjects participated in a swimming session for 30 min maintaining the intensity at about 75-80% of their individual best performance time for a 50-m swim. In lymphocytes, the superoxide dismutase activity increased after exercise, with a higher increase in the PLX group. Swimming increased the erythrocyte activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the PLX group. Purified glutathione reductase activity increased after an in vitro incubation with PLX. No effects were observed on the lymphocyte levels of malondialdehyde and carbonyls, but exercise increased the percentage of high-damaged lymphocytes 2.8 times in the placebo group and 1.5 times in the PLX group. PLX decreased the levels of 17-β-estradiol and testosterone and increased the levels of the sex hormone binding globulin. In conclusion, supplementation with phytoestrogens enhances the glutathione-dependent enzyme activities in erythrocytes and the superoxide dismutase activity in lymphocytes in response to exercise. PLX also shows direct antioxidant properties, by increasing glutathione reductase enzyme activity in vitro. Supplementation with phytoestrogens also decreases the plasma steroid hormone levels, pointing towards a possible agonistic effect of verbascoside in the hypothalamic regulation of estradiol synthesis.

  16. Elevated hepatic gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity and abnormal sulfate levels in liver and muscle tissue may explain abnormal cysteine and glutathione levels in SIV-infected rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Gross, A; Hack, V; Stahl-Hennig, C; Dröge, W

    1996-11-20

    To establish whether the low cysteine and glutathione levels in HIV-infected patients and SIV-infected rhesus macaques may be consequences of an abnormal cysteine catabolism, we analyzed sulfate and glutathione levels in macaques. Muscle tissue (m. vastus lateralis and m. gastrocnemius) of SIV-infected macaques (n = 25) had higher sulfate and lower glutathione and glutamate levels than that of uninfected controls (n =9). Hepatic tissue, in contrast, showed decreased sulfate and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels, and increased gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) activity. These findings suggest drainage of the cysteine pool by increased cysteine catabolism in skeletal muscle tissue, and by increased hepatic glutathione biosynthesis. Cachectic macaques also showed increased urea levels and decreased glutamine/urea ratios in the liver, which are obviously related to the abnormal urea excretion and negative nitrogen balance commonly observed in cachexia. As urea production and net glutamine synthesis in the liver are strongly influenced by proton-generating processes, the abnormal hepatic urea production may be the direct consequence of the cysteine deficiency and the decreased catabolic conversion of cysteine into sulfate and protons in the liver.

  17. [Effects of castration and testosterone-replacement on hypothalamic and plasma luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone levels in the aged male rat].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z J; Ren, H M; Hu, H T; Ling, F D

    1992-06-01

    Hypothalamic and plasma luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) levels following orchidectomy (ORDX) and testosterone (T)-replacement were compared between young (2-3 months old) and aged (24-26 months old) male rats by radioimmunoassay. Plasma T level and hypothalamic LHRH content are markedly decreased in the aged rat as compared to those of the young rat, whereas plasma LHRH levels are similar in the two groups. Following ORDX and ORDX plus T-replacement, plasma T levels in both groups are about the same, whereas the rates of variation of hypothalamic and plasma LHRH levels in the aged rat are significantly lower than those in the young rat. These results suggest that the negative feedback mechanism of the hypothalamic LHRHergic system is impaired in the aged rat, which may be one of the important reasons causing age-dependent deterioration of the functional control of hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis.

  18. Elevated stress hormone levels relate to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress and spaceflight on levels of neuroendocrine hormones and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in astronauts. METHODS: Antiviral antibody titers and stress hormones were measured in plasma samples collected from 28 astronauts at their annual medical exam (baseline), 10 days before launch (L-10), landing day (R+0), and 3 days after landing (R+3). Urinary stress hormones were also measured at L-10 and R+0. RESULTS: Significant increases (p <.01) in EBV virus capsid antigen antibodies were found at all three time points (L-10, R+0, and R+3) as compared with baseline samples. Anti-EBV nuclear antigen antibodies were significantly decreased at L-10 (p <.05) and continued to decrease after spaceflight (R+0 and R+3, p <.01). No changes were found in antibodies to the nonlatent measles virus. The 11 astronauts who showed evidence of EBV reactivation had significant increases in urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine as compared with astronauts without EBV reactivation. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that physical and psychological stresses associated with spaceflight resulted in decreased virus-specific T-cell immunity and reactivation of EBV.

  19. Menstrual cycle characteristics and reproductive hormone levels in women exposed to atrazine in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Cragin, Lori A; Kesner, James S; Bachand, Annette M; Barr, Dana Boyd; Meadows, Juliana W; Krieg, Edward F; Reif, John S

    2011-11-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the U.S. and a wide-spread groundwater contaminant. Epidemiologic and laboratory evidence exists that atrazine disrupts reproductive health and hormone secretion. We examined the relationship between exposure to atrazine in drinking water and menstrual cycle function including reproductive hormone levels. Women 18-40 years old residing in agricultural communities where atrazine is used extensively (Illinois) and sparingly (Vermont) answered a questionnaire (n=102), maintained menstrual cycle diaries (n=67), and provided daily urine samples for analyses of luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol and progesterone metabolites (n=35). Markers of exposures included state of residence, atrazine and chlorotriazine concentrations in tap water, municipal water and urine, and estimated dose from water consumption. Women who lived in Illinois were more likely to report menstrual cycle length irregularity (odds ratio (OR)=4.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58-13.95) and more than 6 weeks between periods (OR=6.16; 95% CI: 1.29-29.38) than those who lived in Vermont. Consumption of >2 cups of unfiltered Illinois water daily was associated with increased risk of irregular periods (OR=5.73; 95% CI: 1.58-20.77). Estimated "dose" of atrazine and chlorotriazine from tap water was inversely related to mean mid-luteal estradiol metabolite. Atrazine "dose" from municipal concentrations was directly related to follicular phase length and inversely related to mean mid-luteal progesterone metabolite levels. We present preliminary evidence that atrazine exposure, at levels below the US EPA MCL, is associated with increased menstrual cycle irregularity, longer follicular phases, and decreased levels of menstrual cycle endocrine biomarkers of infertile ovulatory cycles.

  20. Y chromosome haplogroup D2a1 is significantly associated with high levels of luteinizing hormone in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Shinka, T; Nozawa, S; Yoshiike, M; Koh, E; Kanaya, J; Namiki, M; Matsumiya, K; Tsujimura, A; Komatsu, K; Itoh, N; Eguchi, J; Yamauchi, A; Iwamoto, T; Nakahori, Y

    2015-05-01

    The association between the Y chromosome haplogroup D2 and risk of azoospermia and low sperm motility has been previously studied, and it was indicated that haplogroups DE (YAP lineage) are associated with prostate cancer risk in Japanese males. Our assumption had been that Y chromosome haplogroups may be associated with sex hormone levels, because sex hormones have been deemed responsible for spermatogenesis and carcinogenesis. In this study, we assessed the association between Y chromosome haplogroups and sex hormone levels, including those of testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), inhibin-B, and calculated free testosterone (cFT), in 901 young men from the general Japanese population (cohort 1) and 786 Japanese men of proven fertility (cohort 2). We found that the haplogroup D2a1 was significantly associated with high LH levels in a combined analysis involving two cohorts (β = 0.068, SE = 0.025, p = 0.0075), following correction for multiple testing. To date, this result is the first evidence that implicates Y chromosome haplogroups in an association with sex hormone levels.

  1. Sex Hormones in Allergic Conjunctivitis: Altered Levels of Circulating Androgens and Estrogens in Children and Adolescents with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Sacchetti, Marta; Lambiase, Alessandro; Moretti, Costanzo; Bonini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a chronic allergic disease mainly affecting boys in prepubertal age and usually recovering after puberty. To evaluate a possible role of sex hormones in VKC, serum levels of sex hormones in children and adolescents with VKC were assessed. Methods. 12 prepubertal and 7 early pubertal boys with active VKC and 6 male patients with VKC in remission phase at late pubertal age and 48 healthy age and sex-matched subjects were included. Serum concentration of estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, total testosterone and free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), cortisol, delta-4-androstenedione, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex-hormones binding globuline (SHBG) were evaluated. Results. Serum levels of Estrone were significantly increased in all groups of patients with VKC when compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). Prepubertal and early pubertal VKC showed a significant decrease in DHT (P = 0.007 and P = 0.028, resp.) and SHBG (P = 0.01 and P = 0.002, resp.) when compared to controls and serum levels of SHBG were increased in late pubertal VKC in remission phase (P = 0.007). Conclusions and Relevance. VKC patients have different circulating sex hormone levels in different phases of the disease and when compared to nonallergic subjects. These findings suggest a role played by sex hormones in the pathogenesis and/or activity of VKC. PMID:25756057

  2. Effect of testosterone undecanoate hormone on sperm and its level in the hemolymph of male mud spiny lobster, Panulirus polyphagus.

    PubMed

    Fatihah, S N; Safiah, J; Abol-Munafi, A B; Ikhwanuddin, M

    2014-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of testosterone undecanoate hormone on sperm quality (sperm viability) and sperm quantity (sperm counts) and its levels in the hemolymph of male mud spiny lobster, Panulirus polyphagus. Male P. polyphagus was injected laterally in fifth abdominal segment of pure hormone, Testosterone Undecanoate (TU) and ethanol at days 1, 8, 15, 22 and 29. Hemolymph of P. polyphagus was taken every two weeks and checked with Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure hormone levels. The mean sperm quality and quantity were increased due to increase the TU dose and TU levels also increase. The sperm quality, quantity and hormone levels were relevance each others. These findings indicate that TU injection should be evaluated as a practical way of improving sperm quality and quantity in commercial operations. PMID:26035945

  3. Plasma levels of trace elements and exercise induced stress hormones in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Ansón, Miguel; López-Colón, José L; Escanero, Jesús F

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the variation and relationship of several trace elements, metabolic substrates and stress hormones activated by exercise during incremental exercise. Seventeen well-trained endurance athletes performed a cycle ergometer test: after a warm-up of 10 min at 2.0 W kg(-1), the workload was increased by 0.5 W kg(-1) every 10 min until exhaustion. Prior diet, activity patterns, and levels of exercise training were controlled, and tests timed to minimize variations due to the circadian rhythm. Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration, plasma ions (Zn, Se, Mn and Co), serum glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and several hormones were measured at rest, at the end of each stage and 3, 5 and 7 min post-exercise. Urine specific gravity was measured before and after the test, and participants drank water ad libitum. Significant differences were found in plasma Zn and Se levels as a function of exercise intensity. Zn was significantly correlated with epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.884, P < 0.01; r = 0.871, P < 0.01; and r = 0.808, P = 0.05); and Se showed significant positive correlations whit epinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.743, P < 0.05; and r = 0.776, P < 0.05). Neither Zn nor Se levels were associated with insulin or glucagon, and neither Mn nor Co levels were associated with any of the hormones or substrate metabolites studied. Further, while Zn levels were found to be associated only with lactate, plasma Se was significantly correlated with lactate and glucose (respectively for Zn: r = 0.891, P < 0.01; and for Se: r = 0.743, P < 0.05; r = 0.831, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggest that there is a positive correlation between the increases in plasma Zn or Se and stress hormones variations induced by exercise along different submaximal intensities in well-hydrated well-trained endurance athletes. PMID:26004901

  4. Plasma levels of trace elements and exercise induced stress hormones in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Ansón, Miguel; López-Colón, José L; Escanero, Jesús F

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the variation and relationship of several trace elements, metabolic substrates and stress hormones activated by exercise during incremental exercise. Seventeen well-trained endurance athletes performed a cycle ergometer test: after a warm-up of 10 min at 2.0 W kg(-1), the workload was increased by 0.5 W kg(-1) every 10 min until exhaustion. Prior diet, activity patterns, and levels of exercise training were controlled, and tests timed to minimize variations due to the circadian rhythm. Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration, plasma ions (Zn, Se, Mn and Co), serum glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and several hormones were measured at rest, at the end of each stage and 3, 5 and 7 min post-exercise. Urine specific gravity was measured before and after the test, and participants drank water ad libitum. Significant differences were found in plasma Zn and Se levels as a function of exercise intensity. Zn was significantly correlated with epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.884, P < 0.01; r = 0.871, P < 0.01; and r = 0.808, P = 0.05); and Se showed significant positive correlations whit epinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.743, P < 0.05; and r = 0.776, P < 0.05). Neither Zn nor Se levels were associated with insulin or glucagon, and neither Mn nor Co levels were associated with any of the hormones or substrate metabolites studied. Further, while Zn levels were found to be associated only with lactate, plasma Se was significantly correlated with lactate and glucose (respectively for Zn: r = 0.891, P < 0.01; and for Se: r = 0.743, P < 0.05; r = 0.831, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggest that there is a positive correlation between the increases in plasma Zn or Se and stress hormones variations induced by exercise along different submaximal intensities in well-hydrated well-trained endurance athletes.

  5. Results of a study to correlate serum prostate specific antigen and reproductive hormone levels in patients with localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, S.; Quadri, S. F.; Dong, L.; Ignacio, L.; Kathuria, I. N.; Sutton, H.; Halpern, H.

    1995-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine whether serum hormones (free testosterone, androstenedione, luteinizing hormone, or prolactin) have any influence on serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels in patients with stage A-C prostate cancer. Blood samples were collected prior to any treatment in 36 patients; in 19 (group 1), three blood samples were collected 10 minutes apart between 9:00 AM and 9:30 AM for each patient and pooled together to avoid diurnal and episodic variation in serum testosterone values. In the remaining patients, only one sample could be collected (group 2). Free testosterone, androstenedione, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and PSA levels were determined with appropriate radioimmunoassay techniques. Statistical analyses were performed separately for groups 1 and 2, and then with pooled data. None of the hormones in any of the analyses showed any association to serum PSA values except for prolactin for the pooled data and for group 2. This statistical significance for prolactin disappeared on multivariate analysis. There were 21 African-American men and 15 whites in the study; no racial differences in hormonal levels were found except for lower luteinizing hormone levels in African Americans in group 2 and pooled data. No differences were found between group 1 and group 2 in the mean serum prolactin and luteinizing hormone values. Serum free testosterone, androstenedione, and luteinizing hormone appeared to have no influence on serum PSA values in nonmetastatic cancer patients. Serum prolactin values were inversely associated with PSA values in univariate analysis for the pooled data; this disappeared in multivariate analysis. Unlike other studies that found higher serum testosterone levels in African-American college students than whites, no such differences were seen in this age group. Luteinizing hormone was lower in African-American men than in whites in the pooled study population. Further studies are needed to clarify

  6. Correlations between stress hormone levels in umbilical cord blood and duration of delivery.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yoko; Doi, Takayuki; Kikuchi, Suguru; Kawai, Kennta; Tanaka, Minoru

    2015-07-01

    Correlations between umbilical cord blood concentration of stress response hormone cortisol and prolactin, and delivery duration were examined. Thirty-three cases were selected in which both mothers and neonates were healthy, and the neonates were delivered at full term. The umbilical cord blood was collected at the time of delivery and concentrations of cortisol and prolactin were measured. The cortisol level was significantly higher after vacuum-assisted delivery than after spontaneous delivery (p=0.044). Significant positive correlations (p=0.0289) were observed between cortisol level and delivery duration. In particular, the duration of the second stage of delivery showed stronger positive correlation (p=0.0304) with the cortisol level. The prolactin level showed weak correlation with the duration of full delivery and the second stage of delivery. The findings suggest that foetuses may respond to stress by uterine contraction during delivery.

  7. Differences in neonatal exposure to estradiol or testosterone on ovarian function and hormonal levels.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Rodrigo R; Carvalho, Kátia C; Duarte, Daniele C; Garcia, Natália; Amaral, Vinícius C; Simões, Manuel J; Lo Turco, Edson G; Soares, José M; Baracat, Edmund C; Maciel, Gustavo A R

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to an excess of androgen or estrogen can induce changes in reproductive function in adult animals that resemble polycystic ovary syndrome in humans. However, considerable differences exist among several types of animal models. Little is known about the molecular features of steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis in the ovaries of rats exposed to different sex steroids as neonates. Here, we evaluated the impact of androgen and estrogen exposure on the ovaries of adult female rats during their neonatal period in the gene expression of Lhr and Cyp17a1, two key players of steroidogenesis. We also assessed hormone levels, folliculogenesis and the theca-interstitial cell population. The study was performed on the second postnatal day in thirty female Wistar rats that were sorted into the following three intervention groups: testosterone, estradiol and vehicle (control group). The animals were euthanized 90 days after birth. The main outcomes were hormone serum levels, ovary histomorphometry and gene expression of Lhr and Cyp17a1 as analyzed via quantitative real-time PCR. We found that exposure to excess testosterone in early life increased the LH and testosterone serum levels, the LH/FSH ratio, ovarian theca-interstitial area and gene expression of Lhr and Cyp17a1 in adult rats. Estrogen induced an increase in the ovarian theca-interstitial area, the secondary follicle population and gene expression of Lhr and Cyp17a1. All animals exposed to the sex steroids presented with closed vaginas. Our data suggest that testosterone resulted in more pronounced reproductive changes than did estrogen exposure. Our results might provide some insight into the role of different hormones on reproductive development and on the heterogeneity of clinical manifestations of conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome.

  8. Urinary Concentrations of Parabens and Serum Hormone Levels, Semen Quality Parameters, and Sperm DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, John D.; Yang, Tiffany; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Background Parabens are commonly used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and food and beverage processing. Widespread human exposure to parabens has been recently documented, and some parabens have demonstrated adverse effects on male reproduction in animal studies. However, human epidemiologic studies are lacking. Objective We investigated relationships between urinary concentrations of parabens and markers of male reproductive health in an ongoing reproductive epidemiology study. Methods Urine samples collected from male partners attending an infertility clinic were analyzed for methyl paraben (MP), propyl paraben (PP), butyl paraben (BP), and bisphenol A (BPA). Associations with serum hormone levels (n = 167), semen quality parameters (n = 190), and sperm DNA damage measures (n = 132) were assessed using multivariable linear regression. Results Detection rates in urine were 100% for MP, 92% for PP, and 32% for BP. We observed no statistically significant associations between MP or PP and the outcome measures. Categories of urinary BP concentration were not associated with hormone levels or conventional semen quality parameters, but they were positively associated with sperm DNA damage (p for trend = 0.03). When urinary BPA quartiles were added to the model, BP and BPA were both positively associated with sperm DNA damage (p for trend = 0.03). Assessment of paraben concentrations measured on repeated urine samples from a subset of the men (n = 78) revealed substantial temporal variability. Conclusions We found no evidence for a relationship between urinary parabens and hormone levels or semen quality, although intraindividual variability in exposure and a modest sample size could have limited our ability to detect subtle relationships. Our observation of a relationship between BP and sperm DNA damage warrants further investigation. PMID:20876036

  9. Dietary and hormonal interrelationships in premenopausal women: evidence for a relationship between dietary nutrients and plasma prolactin levels.

    PubMed

    Shultz, T D; Wilcox, R B; Spuehler, J M; Howie, B J

    1987-12-01

    To investigate possible differences in tissue exposures to reproductive hormones and to determine hormone-nutrient interrelationships, we studied 10 vegetarian and 10 nonvegetarian premenopausal Seventh-day Adventist women. Over 3 d in each of three consecutive menstrual cycles, we collected diet records, fasting midluteal phase blood, and 24-h urine samples. During each study period, we measured plasma and urinary estrogens, plasma free and protein bound-estradiol-17 beta, the binding capacity of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), androgens, progesterone, and prolactin levels. The omnivores consumed significantly more protein, total and saturated fatty acids, oleic and linoleic acids, and cholesterol than did the vegetarians. Hormonal status and binding capacity of SHBG were similar in both groups. However, for nonvegetarians, prolactin levels were positively correlated with dietary energy, protein, total and saturated fatty acids, and oleic acid. Further study delineating the effects of specific dietary nutrients on the basal level of prolactin secretion is warranted.

  10. Cortisol level measurements in fingernails as a retrospective index of hormone production.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shuhei; Miki, Keiichi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Mitani, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Toru; Fuchu, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Taiki; Togo, Fumiharu

    2015-04-01

    The cortisol level in fingernails may reflect the hormone's cumulative production over a long period, but the notions have not been fully established. In this study, we investigated the association of cortisol in fingernails with cortisol accumulation over a long period (hair cortisol) and over a relatively short period (salivary cortisol). In study 1, hair and fingernail samples were collected from 58 middle-aged and elderly men. The cortisol level in hair samples was moderately associated with the level in fingernail samples (r = 0.29, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.36, p < 0.01). In study 2, 37 workers provided 4 saliva samples over the course of one day (at awakening, 30 min after awakening, before lunch, and after work) and another set a month later. Further, the workers were asked to provide fingernail samples during a six-month period. We found that the cortisol level in saliva over the whole day (area under the curve for cortisol) was moderately associated with the cortisol level measured in fingernail samples that were collected 4 months (r = 0.43, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.50, p < 0.01) and 5 months later (r = 0.45, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.53, p < 0.01). These results indicated that the cortisol level in fingernail samples might retrospectively represent hormone production during a given period. The cortisol level in fingernail samples may be useful in the investigation of the link between psychosocial stress and health.

  11. Changes in Testosterone Levels and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels in Extremely Obese Men after Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Laichuthai, Nitchakarn; Suwannasrisuk, Preaw; Houngngam, Natnicha; Udomsawaengsup, Suthep; Snabboon, Thiti

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Obesity is a risk factor for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in men. Weight loss has been shown to improve hypogonadism in obese men. This study evaluated the early changes in sex hormones profile after bariatric surgery. Methods. This is a prospective study including 29 morbidly obese men. Main outcomes were changes in serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (cFT), SHBG, estradiol, adiponectin, and leptin at 1 and 6 months after surgery. Results. The mean age of patients was 31 ± 8 years and the mean BMI was 56.8 ± 11.7 kg/m2. Fifteen patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and 14 patients underwent sleeve gastrectomy. At baseline, 22 patients (75.9%) had either low TT levels (<10.4 nmol/L) or low cFT levels (<225 pmol/L). Total testosterone and SHBG levels increased significantly at 1 month after surgery (p ≤ 0.001). At 6 months after surgery, TT and cFT increased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) and 22 patients (75.9%) had normalized TT and cFT levels. There were no changes in estradiol levels at either 1 month or 6 months after surgery. Conclusions. Increases in TT and SHBG levels occurred early at 1 month after bariatric surgery while improvements in cFT levels were observed at 6 months after bariatric surgery. PMID:27725831

  12. Stress hormone levels in a freshwater turtle from sites differing in human activity.

    PubMed

    Polich, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone (CORT), commonly serve as a measure of stress levels in vertebrate populations. These hormones have been implicated in regulation of feeding behaviour, locomotor activity, body mass, lipid metabolism and other crucial behaviours and physiological processes. Thus, understanding how glucocorticoids fluctuate seasonally and in response to specific stressors can yield insight into organismal health and the overall health of populations. I compared circulating CORT concentrations between two similar populations of painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, which differed primarily in the level of exposure to human recreational activities. I measured basal CORT concentrations as well as the CORT stress response and did not find any substantive difference between the two populations. This similarity may indicate that painted turtles are not stressed by the presence of humans during the nesting season. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of CORT concentrations in freshwater reptiles, a group that is historically under-represented in studies of circulating hormone concentrations; specifically, studies that seek to use circulating concentrations of stress hormones, such as CORT, as a measure of the effect of human activities on wild populations. They also give insight into how these species as a whole may respond to human recreational activities during crucial life-history stages, such as the nesting season. Although there was no discernable difference between circulating CORT concentrations between the urban and rural populations studied, I did find a significant difference in circulating CORT concentrations between male and female C. picta. This important finding provides better understanding of the sex differences between male and female painted turtles and adds to our understanding of this species and other species of freshwater turtle. PMID:27293763

  13. Stress hormone levels in a freshwater turtle from sites differing in human activity

    PubMed Central

    Polich, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone (CORT), commonly serve as a measure of stress levels in vertebrate populations. These hormones have been implicated in regulation of feeding behaviour, locomotor activity, body mass, lipid metabolism and other crucial behaviours and physiological processes. Thus, understanding how glucocorticoids fluctuate seasonally and in response to specific stressors can yield insight into organismal health and the overall health of populations. I compared circulating CORT concentrations between two similar populations of painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, which differed primarily in the level of exposure to human recreational activities. I measured basal CORT concentrations as well as the CORT stress response and did not find any substantive difference between the two populations. This similarity may indicate that painted turtles are not stressed by the presence of humans during the nesting season. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of CORT concentrations in freshwater reptiles, a group that is historically under-represented in studies of circulating hormone concentrations; specifically, studies that seek to use circulating concentrations of stress hormones, such as CORT, as a measure of the effect of human activities on wild populations. They also give insight into how these species as a whole may respond to human recreational activities during crucial life-history stages, such as the nesting season. Although there was no discernable difference between circulating CORT concentrations between the urban and rural populations studied, I did find a significant difference in circulating CORT concentrations between male and female C. picta. This important finding provides better understanding of the sex differences between male and female painted turtles and adds to our understanding of this species and other species of freshwater turtle. PMID:27293763

  14. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels Are Independently Associated with the Hemoglobin A1c Level of Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients: The Dong-Gu Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Su; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Nam, Hae-Sung; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Kim, Hee Nam; Shin, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In type 2 diabetic patients, the relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels, and glycemic control, remain unclear. We evaluated associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and hemoglobin A1c levels after adjusting for other covariates, including log transformed 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and log transformed parathyroid hormone levels, in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. In total, 1,175 patients with type 2 diabetes were selected from 8,857 individuals who completed the baseline survey of the Dong-gu study, conducted in Korea from 2007 to 2010. After adjusting for other covariates, we found that the mean hemoglobin A1c level was inversely associated with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (Q1: 7.47% [7.30–7.63], Q2: 7.25% [7.09–7.40], Q3: 7.17% [7.02–7.32], Q4: 7.19% [7.02–7.35]; p for trend = 0.021, p for between groups = 0.050) and the parathyroid hormone level (Q1: 7.35% [7.19–7.51], Q2: 7.34% [7.19–7.50], Q3: 7.28% [7.13–7.43], Q4: 7.09% [6.94–7.24]; p for trend = 0.022, p for between groups = 0.048). However, the mean fasting glucose level was not associated with either the 25-hydroxyvitamin D or parathyroid hormone level. In conclusion, inverse associations were evident between hemoglobin A1c, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. The associations remained significant after adjusting for other covariates, including the log transformed 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and log transformed parathyroid hormone levels. PMID:27362844

  15. Type II deiodinase polymorphisms and serum thyroid hormone levels in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Luo, M; Zhou, X H; Zou, T; Keyim, K; Dong, L M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated type II deiodinase (DIO2) polymorphisms and serum thyroid hormone levels in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in a Uygur population. We studied the DIO2 Thr92Ala (rs225014) and ORFa-Gly3Asp (rs12885300) polymorphisms of 129 unrelated MCI cases and 131 matched controls. All subjects were genotyped using SNaPshot SNP genotyping assays. Serum thyroid hormone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Levels of serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine in the MCI group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Genotype and allele frequencies in the DIO2 gene between the MCI and control groups were not significantly different. There was no association in genotype and allele frequencies of Thr92Ala between genders in both groups. ORFa-Gly3Asp genotype and allele frequencies were significantly different in patients and controls by gender. The Asp allele was less frequent among male MCI patients compared to controls (odds ratio = 0.471, 95% confidence interval = 0.261-0.848). However, female Asp carriers were more frequent among MCI patients than among controls (odds ratio = 2.842, 95% confidence interval = 1.326-6.09). Serum levels of triiodothyronine and thyroxine were lower in individuals of the Ala/Ala genotype than in those with the Thr/Thr or Thr/Ala genotype. Serum levels of triiodothyronine were lower in male Gly/Gly carriers than in Gly/Asp or Asp/Asp carriers. Decreased serum levels of triiodothyronine and thyroxine may influence the incidence of MCI in the Uygur population. DIO2 gene polymorphisms may play a role in the incidence of MCI in male patients. PMID:26125736

  16. Alterations in Hormone Levels After Adjuvant Chemoradiation in Male Rectal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Frederick H.; Perera, Francisco Fisher, Barbara; Stitt, Larry

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone levels after postoperative chemoradiation in men with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-three men with rectal cancer had baseline and postchemoradiation FSH, LH, and testosterone measured. Adjuvant chemoradiation consisted of two 5-day cycles of bolus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) every 4 weeks at a dose of 500 mg/m{sup 2}/d followed by concurrent chemoradiation followed by two additional 5-day cycles of 5-FU at a dose of 450 mg/m{sup 2}/d. Continuous-infusion 5-FU at 225 mg/m{sup 2}/d was given during radiation. Pelvic radiation consisted of a three- or four-field technique with a median dose of 54.0 Gy in 30 fractions. Results: Median follow-up was 6.1 years. Mean baseline FSH levels increased from 5.3 to a peak of 23.9 IU/L (p < 0.001) 13-24 months after chemoradiation. Mean baseline LH levels increased from 4.3 to a peak of 8.5 IU/L (p < 0.001) within 6 months after chemoradiation. Mean testosterone levels decreased from 15.4 nmol/L at baseline to 8.0 nmol/L more than 4 years after chemoradiation. Mean testosterone to mean LH ratio decreased from 4.4 at baseline to 1.1 after 48 months posttreatment, suggesting a continued decrease in Leydig cell function with time. Testicular dose was measured in 5 patients. Median dose was 4 Gy (range, 1.5-8.9 Gy). Conclusions: Chemoradiation in men with rectal cancer causes persistent increases in FSH and LH levels and decreases in testosterone levels.

  17. Associations between Thyroid Hormones, Calcification Inhibitor Levels and Vascular Calcification in End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meuwese, Christiaan Lucas; Olauson, Hannes; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Ripsweden, Jonaz; Barany, Peter; Vermeer, Cees; Drummen, Nadja; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vascular calcification is a common, serious and elusive complication of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). As a pro-calcifying risk factor, non-thyroidal illness may promote vascular calcification through a systemic lowering of vascular calcification inhibitors such as matrix-gla protein (MGP) and Klotho. Methods and Material In 97 ESRD patients eligible for living donor kidney transplantation, blood levels of thyroid hormones (fT3, fT4 and TSH), total uncarboxylated MGP (t-ucMGP), desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA-II), and soluble Klotho (sKlotho) were measured. The degree of coronary calcification and arterial stiffness were assessed by means of cardiac CT-scans and applanation tonometry, respectively. Results fT3 levels were inversely associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores and measures of arterial stiffness, and positively with dp-ucMGP and sKlotho concentrations. Subfractions of MGP, PIVKA-II and sKlotho did not associate with CAC scores and arterial stiffness. fT4 and TSH levels were both inversely associated with CAC scores, but not with arterial stiffness. Discussion The positive associations between fT3 and dp-ucMGP and sKlotho suggest that synthesis of MGP and Klotho is influenced by thyroid hormones, and supports a link between non-thyroidal illness and alterations in calcification inhibitor levels. However, the absence of an association between serum calcification inhibitor levels and coronary calcification/arterial stiffness and the fact that MGP and Klotho undergo post-translational modifications underscore the complexity of this association. Further studies, measuring total levels of MGP and membrane bound Klotho, should examine this proposed pathway in further detail. PMID:26147960

  18. Oviductal morphology in relation to hormonal levels in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    PubMed

    Alkindi, A Y A; Mahmoud, I Y; Woller, M J; Plude, J L

    2006-02-01

    Microscopic and in situ visual observations were used to relate circulating hormone levels to morphological changes in the oviduct of the snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina throughout the ovarian cycle. Increase in levels of progesterone (P), estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) levels coincide with an increase in number and growth of endometrial glands, luminal epithelial cells and secretory droplets throughout the oviduct. Testosterone and estradiol levels rose significantly (P < 0.05) after the May-June period and remained high throughout the rest of the summer. Progesterone levels remained stable throughout the summer, with a brief decline in July due to luteolysis. Hormonal values declined significantly (P < 0.001) at the end of the ovarian cycle in the fall. In situ visual observation of fresh oviducts at different stages of gravidity in recently ovulated turtles revealed that proteinaceous like components from the endometrial glands were released into the lumen to form fibers. The morphological features of the oviduct remained active throughout the summer months even though the snapping turtle is a monoclutch species which deposits all the eggs in late-May to mid-June. The high steroid levels correlate with and may be responsible for the secretory activity present throughout the summer and their decline correlates with change to low secretory activity in the fall. Calcium deposition accompanied by morphological changes in luminal cells are suggestive of secretory activity. In the egg-bearing turtles, uterine Ca2+ concentrations measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed significantly higher Ca2+ concentrations (P < 0.001) in eggs with soft shell than eggs without shell. There was a significant increase in calcium granules and proteinaceous fibers in luminal surface of the uterus during the period of eggshelling. This supports the fact that in the snapping turtle like in other reptiles, eggshelling process occurs in the uterus. PMID

  19. Water stress, CO2 and photoperiod influence hormone levels in wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nan, Rubin; Carman, John G.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    'Super Dwarf' wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants have been grown from seed to maturity in the Mir space station where they were periodically exposed, because of microgravity and other constraints, to water deficit, waterlogging, high CO2 levels, and low light intensities. The plants produced many tillers, but none of them produced viable seed. Studies have been initiated to determine why the plants responded in these ways. In the present study, effects of the listed stresses on abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and isopentenyl adenosine ([9R]iP) levels in roots and leaves of plants grown under otherwise near optimal conditions on earth were measured. Hormones were extracted, purified by HPLC, and quantified by noncompetitive indirect ELISA. In response to water deficit, ABA levels increased in roots and leaves, IAA levels decreased in roots and leaves, and [9R]iP levels increased in leaves but decreased in roots. In response to waterlogging, ABA, IAA and [9R]iP levels briefly increased in roots and leaves and then decreased. When portions of the root system were exposed to waterlogging and/or water deficit, ABA levels in leaves increased while [9R]iP and IAA levels decreased. These responses were correlated with the percentage of the root system stressed. At a low photosynthetic photon flux (100 micromoles m-2 s-1), plants grown in continuous light had higher leaf ABA levels than plants grown using an 18 or 21 h photoperiod.

  20. Variation in levels of serum inhibin B, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin in monthly samples from healthy men during a 17-month period: possible effects of seasons.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Anna-Maria; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Skakkebaek, Niels Erik

    2003-02-01

    To obtain information on the scale of the intraindividual variation in testicular hormone, blood samples for inhibin B determination were collected monthly in 27 healthy male volunteers during a 17-month period. In addition, the traditional reproductive hormones FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol, and SHBG were measured. The intraindividual variation in inhibin B over the study period was, on the average, 10%, corresponding to the assay variation of the inhibin B assay, indicating that most of the observed day to day variation in inhibin B levels in men could be explained by assay variation. A seasonal variation was observed in LH and testosterone levels, but not in the levels of the other hormones. The seasonal variation in testosterone levels could be explained by the variation in LH levels. The seasonal variation in LH levels seemed to be related to the mean air temperature during the month before blood sampling, but not to the length of daylight or the hours of sunshine. In conclusion, our data showed that day to day levels of inhibin B are relatively constant in men and do not seem to be influenced by seasonal factors. In contrast, we found a seasonal variation in LH and testosterone levels in men. The peak levels of both LH and testosterone were observed during June-July, with minimum levels present during winter-early spring. Air temperature, rather than light exposure, seems to be a possible climatic variable explaining the seasonal variation in LH levels.

  1. Persistent organic contaminants and steroid hormones levels in Morelet's crocodiles from the Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Jauregui, Mauricio; Valdespino, Carolina; Salame-Méndez, Arturo; Aguirre-León, Gustavo; Rendón-Vonosten, Jaime

    2012-04-01

    Effects of endocrine disruptors on reproductive variables of top predators, such as alligators and crocodiles, have long been cited. Due to their long life span, these predators provide us with historic contaminant annals. In this study we tried to test whether lifestyle (free-ranging vs. farm animals) and reproductive age of Morelet's crocodiles in Campeche, Mexico, affect the bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Subsequently, we tested to see whether their concentration was related to steroid hormones (testosterone and estradiol-17β) levels once normal cyclic hormone variation and reproductive age had been taken into account. From the group of contaminants considered (analyzed as families), only frequency of hexachlorocyclohexanes (∑HCH) and ∑PCB permitted analyses. Whereas there was a greater concentration of ∑HCH bioaccumulated by free-ranging crocodiles, ∑PCB was found in equal quantities in free-ranging and farm animals. No difference was observed in relation to reproductive age for any of the contaminants. However, ∑PCB concentrations were related to testosterone levels among female crocodiles. This androgenic effect of ∑PCB has not been reported previously. Because testosterone promotes aggressive behavior in vertebrates, excessive aggression during the estrous season, or when female crocodiles should be caring for their young, could result in reproductive failure in Morelet's crocodiles and potential long-term decline of the population.

  2. Metabolic Syndrome, Hormone Levels, and Inflammation in Patients with Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Ángel; Arias-Santiago, Salvador; López-Carmona Pintado, Fernando; Merino-Salas, Sergio; Lahoz-García, Clara; Zuluaga-Gómez, Armando; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background. The end point of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MS in patients with ED in comparison with control subjects and to analyse the association with acute phase reactants (CRP, ESR) and hormone levels. Methods. This case-control study included 65 patients, 37 with erectile dysfunction, according to the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) from the Urology Department of San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain) and 28 healthy controls. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was calculated according to ATP-III criteria. Hormone levels and acute phase parameters were studied in samples drawn. Results. The ATP-III criteria for MS were met by 64.9% of the patients with ED and only 9.5% of the controls (P < 0.0001, OR = 17.53, 95% CI: 3.52–87.37). Binary logistic regression analysis showed a strong association between patients with ED and MS, even after additional adjustment for confounding factors (OR = 20.05, 95% CI: 1.24–32.82, P < 0.034). Patients with hypogonadism presented a significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that systolic BP and CRP predicted 0.46 (model R2) of IIEF changes. Conclusion. Chronic inflammation found in patients with ED might explain the association between ED and metabolic syndrome. PMID:22973171

  3. Early follicular testosterone level predicts preference for masculinity in male faces - but not for women taking hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Bobst, Cora; Sauter, Sabine; Foppa, Andrina; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2014-03-01

    It has been shown that women's preference for masculinity in male faces changes across the menstrual cycle. Preference for masculinity is stronger when conception probability is high than when it is low. These findings have been linked to cyclic fluctuations of hormone levels. The purpose of the present study is to further investigate the link between gonadal steroids (i.e. testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone) and masculinity preference in women, while holding the cycle phase constant. Sixty-two female participants were tested in their early follicular cycle phase, when conception probability is low. Participants were shown face pairs and where asked to choose the more attractive face. Face pairs consisted of a masculinized and feminized version of the same face. For naturally cycling women we found a positive relationship between saliva testosterone levels and masculinity preference, but there was no link between any hormones and masculinity preference for women taking hormonal contraception. We conclude that in naturally cycling women early follicular testosterone levels are associated with masculinity preference. However, these hormonal links were not found for women with artificially modified hormonal levels, that is, for women taking hormonal contraception.

  4. Maternal and cord-blood thyroid hormone levels and exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Abdelouahab, Nadia; Langlois, Marie-France; Lavoie, Laetiscia; Corbin, François; Pasquier, Jean-Charles; Takser, Larissa

    2013-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play a critical role in the growth of many organs, especially the brain. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) interact with the thyroid pathway and may disturb neurodevelopment. This prospective study was designed to examine associations between maternal blood PBDEs and PCBs in early pregnancy and levels of thyroid hormones in maternal and umbilical-cord blood. Levels of low-brominated PBDEs, 3 PCB congeners, total and free thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)), thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid peroxidase antibodies, iodine, selenium, and mercury were measured in 380 pregnant women in the first trimester who were recruited at the University Hospital Center of Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada) between September 2007 and December 2008. Thyroid hormone levels were also assessed at delivery and in cord blood (n = 260). Data were analyzed on both a volume basis and a lipid basis. At less than 20 weeks of pregnancy, no relationship was statistically significant in volume-based analysis. In lipid-based models, an inverse association between maternal PBDEs and total T3 and total T4 and a direct association with free T3 and free T4 were observed. At delivery, in both analyses, we observed negative associations between maternal total T4, free T3, cord-blood free T4, and PBDEs and between maternal free T3 and PCBs. Our results suggest that exposure to PBDEs and PCBs in pregnancy may interfere with thyroid hormone levels.

  5. Changes in plasma hormone levels correlate with fledging in nestling Leach's storm-petrels.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Corinne P; Mauck, Robert A; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Philipsborn, Jon; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2010-10-01

    Leach's storm-petrels accumulate large amounts of body mass throughout the nestling period. Approximately 4days before fledging, nestlings weigh 50-100% more than adults. In order to shed this excess mass, nestlings engage in behavioral anorexia, and leave the burrow when they are light enough to fly. During this prefledging period, we measured several plasma hormones (corticosterone, thyroxine, and testosterone) to determine whether the behavioral changes associated with fledging are correlated with endocrine changes. In several species, including petrels, corticosterone levels are known to increase near fledging. Reduced food consumption has been shown to elevate corticosterone levels and decrease thyroxine levels in nestling birds. In nestling storm-petrels, levels of both corticosterone and thyroxine increased. Storm-petrels were found to secrete measurable levels of testosterone, but levels did not change during the prefledging period. Increased corticosterone levels might be part of an endocrine signal that initiates changes in feeding behavior, or may result from reduced food intake. Elevated thyroxine levels may be related to metabolic changes involved in mass loss. Future experimental work is needed to ascertain whether the described endocrine changes are responsible for, or result from, prefledging changes in petrel feeding behavior. PMID:20688060

  6. Serum Spot 14 concentration is negatively associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone level

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Pei-Lung; Chi, Yu-Chao; Han, Der-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spot 14 (S14) is a protein involved in fatty acid synthesis and was shown to be induced by thyroid hormone in rat liver. However, the presence of S14 in human serum and its relations with thyroid function status have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to compare serum S14 concentrations in patients with hyperthyroidism or euthyroidism and to evaluate the associations between serum S14 and free thyroxine (fT4) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. We set up an immunoassay for human serum S14 concentrations and compared its levels between hyperthyroid and euthyroid subjects. Twenty-six hyperthyroid patients and 29 euthyroid individuals were recruited. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of S14 and fT4, TSH, or quartile of TSH. The hyperthyroid patients had significantly higher serum S14 levels than the euthyroid subjects (median [Q1, Q3]: 975 [669, 1612] ng/mL vs 436 [347, 638] ng/mL, P < 0.001). In univariate linear regression, the log-transformed S14 level (logS14) was positively associated with fT4 but negatively associated with creatinine (Cre), total cholesterol (T-C), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and TSH. The positive associations between logS14 and fT4 and the negative associations between logS14 and Cre, TG, T-C, or TSH remained significant after adjustment with sex and age. These associations were prominent in females but not in males. The logS14 levels were negatively associated with the TSH levels grouped by quartile (ß = −0.3020, P < 0.001). The association between logS14 and TSH quartile persisted after adjustment with sex and age (ß = −0.2828, P = 0.001). In stepwise multivariate regression analysis, only TSH grouped by quartile remained significantly associated with logS14 level. We developed an ELISA to measure serum S14 levels in human. Female patients with hyperthyroidism had higher serum S14 levels

  7. Hormone levels of world class cyclists during the Tour of Spain stage race

    PubMed Central

    Lucia, A; Diaz, B; Hoyos, J; Fernandez, C; Villa, G; Bandres, F; Chicharro, J

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To evaluate the hormonal response to strenuous endurance exercise performed by elite athletes. Methods—Nine professional cyclists (mean (SD) age 28 (1) years; mean (SD) VO2MAX 75.3 (2.3) ml/kg/min) who participated in a three week tour race (Vuelta a España 1999) were selected as subjects. Morning urinary levels of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) and morning serum levels of testosterone, follicle stimulating (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), and cortisol were measured in each subject at t0 (before the competition), t1 (end of first week), t2 (end of second week), and t3 (end of third week). Urine samples of aMT6s were also evaluated in the evening at t0, t1, t2, and t3. Results—Mean urinary aMT6s levels had increased significantly (p<0.01) during the day after each stage (1091 (33) v 683 (68) ng/ml at t1; 955 (19) v 473 (53) ng/ml at t2; 647 (61) v 337 (47) ng/ml at t3). Both morning and evening aMT6s levels decreased significantly during the study. A similar pattern was observed for morning serum levels of cortisol and testosterone. Conclusions—The results suggest that the basal activity of the pineal gland, adrenal glands, and testis may be decreased after consecutive days of intense, long term exercise. Key Words: melatonin; gonadotrophins; testosterone; cortisol; endurance exercise PMID:11726480

  8. Low level exposure to the flame retardant BDE-209 reduces thyroid hormone levels and disrupts thyroid signaling in fathead minnows

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, Pamela D.; Lema, Sean C.; Macaulay, Laura J.; Douglas, Nora K.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone regulation, neurodevelopment, and reproduction in some animals. However, effects of the most heavily used PBDE, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), on thyroid functioning remain unclear. This study examined low-dose effects of BDE-209 on thyroid hormone levels and signaling in fathead minnows. Adult males received dietary exposures of BDE-209 at a low dose (~3 ng/g bw-day) and high dose (~300 ng/g bw-day) for 28 days followed by a 14-day depuration to evaluate recovery. Compared to controls, fish exposed to the low dose for 28 days experienced a 53% and 46% decline in circulating total thyroxine (TT4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (TT3), respectively, while TT4 and TT3 deficits at the high dose were 59% and 62%. Brain deiodinase activity (T4-ORD) was reduced by ~65% at both doses. BDE-209 elevated the relative mRNA expression of genes encoding deiodinases, nuclear thyroid receptors, and membrane transporters in the brain and liver in patterns that varied with time and dose, likely in compensation to hypothyroidism. Declines in the gonadal-somatic index (GSI) and increased mortality were also measured. Effects at the low dose were consistent with the high dose, suggesting non-linear relationships between BDE-209 exposures and thyroid dysfunction. PMID:23899252

  9. [Cytological State of Gonads and Level of Thyroid and Sex Steroid Hormones in Black Sea Trout Salmo trutta labrax Pall].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, E D; Ganzha, E V; Kostin, V V; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    Cytological state of the gonads and hormonal state of hatchery Black Sea trout before differentiation into resident and anadromous forms (parr) at an age of 15 months have been examined. It has been shown that the hormonal changes associated with the choice of life strategy in the Black Sea trout females and males are pronounced to different degrees. As compared with the resident and anadromous individuals; the female parr display a low rate of oogenesis and similar hormonal status, while characteristic of the male parr are an intermediate rate of spermatogenesis, a low level of thyroid hormones and estradiol, and a medium testosterone level. As has been found, the undifferentiated Black Sea trout individuals predominantly develop into the resident form.

  10. Maternal iron deficiency alters circulating thyroid hormone levels in developing neonatal rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormone insufficiency and iron deficiency (FeD) during fetal and neonatal life are both similarly deleterious to mammalian development suggesting a possible linkage between iron and thyroid hormone insufficiencies. Recent published data from our laboratory demonstrate a r...

  11. Spatiotemporal modelling of hormonal crosstalk explains the level and patterning of hormones and gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and mutant roots.

    PubMed

    Moore, Simon; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Mudge, Anna; Rowe, James H; Topping, Jennifer F; Liu, Junli; Lindsey, Keith

    2015-09-01

    Patterning in Arabidopsis root development is coordinated via a localized auxin concentration maximum in the root tip, requiring the regulated expression of specific genes. However, little is known about how hormone and gene expression patterning is generated. Using a variety of experimental data, we develop a spatiotemporal hormonal crosstalk model that describes the integrated action of auxin, ethylene and cytokinin signalling, the POLARIS protein, and the functions of PIN and AUX1 auxin transporters. We also conduct novel experiments to confirm our modelling predictions. The model reproduces auxin patterning and trends in wild-type and mutants; reveals that coordinated PIN and AUX1 activities are required to generate correct auxin patterning; correctly predicts shoot to root auxin flux, auxin patterning in the aux1 mutant, the amounts of cytokinin, ethylene and PIN protein, and PIN protein patterning in wild-type and mutant roots. Modelling analysis further reveals how PIN protein patterning is related to the POLARIS protein through ethylene signalling. Modelling prediction of the patterning of POLARIS expression is confirmed experimentally. Our combined modelling and experimental analysis reveals that a hormonal crosstalk network regulates the emergence of patterns and levels of hormones and gene expression in wild-type and mutants. PMID:25906686

  12. CCR5 Expression Levels in HIV-Uninfected Women Receiving Hormonal Contraception.

    PubMed

    Sciaranghella, Gaia; Wang, Cuiwei; Hu, Haihong; Anastos, Kathryn; Merhi, Zaher; Nowicki, Marek; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Cohen, Mardge; Golub, Elizabeth T; Watts, D Heather; Alter, Galit; Young, Mary A; Tsibris, Athe M N

    2015-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity increases as receptor/coreceptor expression levels increase. We determined peripheral CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 expression levels in HIV-uninfected women who used depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA; n = 32), the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD; n = 27), oral contraceptive pills (n = 32), or no hormonal contraception (n = 33). The use of LNG-IUD increased the proportion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that expressed CCR5; increases in the magnitude of T-cell subset CCR5 expression were observed with DMPA and LNG-IUD use (P < .01 for all comparisons). LNG-IUD and, to a lesser extent, DMPA use were associated with increased peripheral T-cell CCR5 expression.

  13. Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone level is influenced by neonatal, maternal, and pregnancy factors.

    PubMed

    Trumpff, Caroline; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Vanderpas, Jean; Tafforeau, Jean; Van Oyen, Herman; De Schepper, Jean

    2015-11-01

    The percentage of newborns with a neonatal whole blood thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) greater than 5 mIU/L has been used as an indicator of iodine deficiency at the population level. However, TSH levels in newborns may be influenced by many factors other than iodine status. The objective of this study was to identify neonatal, maternal, and pregnancy-related determinants of neonatal TSH levels in a retrospective cohort study. The study sample included 313 Belgian mothers and their 4- to 5-year-old children. The children had a neonatal TSH concentration between 0 and 15 mIU/L at neonatal screening, and blood samples were collected 3 to 5 days after birth. Children with suspected congenital hypothyroidism (neonatal TSH level >15 mIU/L), prematurely born (i.e., <37 weeks), or with a low birth weight (i.e., <2500 g) were excluded. Information about maternal and birth-related determinants was collected from the neonatal screening center via a self-administered questionnaire filled in by the mother together with the child's health booklet. Higher TSH levels were found in spring and winter compared to summer and autumn (P = .011). Higher TSH levels were associated with lifetime smoking behavior (up to child birth) in the mother (P = .005), lower weight gain during pregnancy (P = .014), and longer pregnancies (P = .003). This study showed that several neonatal, maternal, and pregnancy-related determinants are influencing neonatal TSH level. PMID:26428622

  14. Changes in glucose, insulin, and growth hormone levels associated with bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Leach, C. S.; Winget, C. M.; Goodwin, A. L.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in plasma glucose, insulin, and growth hormone (HGH) resulting from exposure to 56 d of bedrest were determined in five healthy young male subjects. Changes in the daily levels of these factors for each subject were expressed as the mean of six blood samples per 24-h period. The level of HGH dropped after 10 d of bedrest, then showed a 1.5-fold increase at 20 d and subsequently decreased gradually reaching levels of 2.5 mg/ml/24 h, well below pre-bedrest controls of 4.2 mg/ml/24 h, by the 54th d. In spite of a marked increase in the daily plasma insulin levels during the first 30 d of bedrest, glucose levels remained unchanged. Beyond 30 d of bedrest, insulin began decreasing toward pre-bedrest levels and glucose followed with a similar reduction to below the control levels of 75 mg/100 ml/24 h on day 54. The daily mean changes reflect a change in the amplitude of the diurnal variation. The daily peak in plasma insulin shifted progressively to the late evening during the bedrest period.

  15. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Barber, Sarah J; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V; Mather, Mara

    2015-12-01

    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: (1) immediate handgrip arousal-isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, (2) residual handgrip arousal-isometric handgrip 15min prior to encoding, or (3) no handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10min after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal interacts

  16. Effects of waterborne cadmium on thyroid hormone levels and related gene expression in Chinese rare minnow larvae.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Lu; Wu, Yan-Hua; Li, Ping; Li, Yun-Feng; Ni, Zhao-Hui

    2014-04-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal abundant in the environment that can induce endocrine disorder and toxicity in aquatic organisms at low levels. However, its effects on the thyroid system in fish are still unclear. In this study, the thyroid hormone (TH) levels and the expression profiles of genes related to hypothalamic- pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid stimulating hormone beta (tshβ), solute carrier family 5 (sodium iodide symporter) member 5 (slc5a5), thyroglobulin (tg), thyroid hormone receptor alpha (trα) and thyroid hormone receptor beta (trβ), were determined in whole body of Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) larvae after exposure to different levels of Cd(2+) (0, 0.5 and 2.5mg/L) for 4days. And the 96-h lethal concentration of Cd(2+) on rare minnow larvae was determined as 2.59mg/L. The results showed that crh, slc5a5, tg and tshβ mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated in the larvae, but the gene expression of trα and trβ was down-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner. Besides, the THs levels decreased in the whole-body of fish, especially the thyroxine (T4) level. The above results indicated that Cd(2+) could alter gene expression in the HPT axis that might subsequently contribute to thyroid disruption.

  17. Plant proximity perception dynamically modulates hormone levels and sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bou-Torrent, Jordi; Galstyan, Anahit; Gallemí, Marçal; Cifuentes-Esquivel, Nicolás; Molina-Contreras, Maria José; Salla-Martret, Mercè; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Martínez-García, Jaime F

    2014-06-01

    The shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) refers to a set of plant responses initiated after perception by the phytochromes of light enriched in far-red colour reflected from or filtered by neighbouring plants. These varied responses are aimed at anticipating eventual shading from potential competitor vegetation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the most obvious SAS response at the seedling stage is the increase in hypocotyl elongation. Here, we describe how plant proximity perception rapidly and temporally alters the levels of not only auxins but also active brassinosteroids and gibberellins. At the same time, shade alters the seedling sensitivity to hormones. Plant proximity perception also involves dramatic changes in gene expression that rapidly result in a new balance between positive and negative factors in a network of interacting basic helix-loop-helix proteins, such as HFR1, PAR1, and BIM and BEE factors. Here, it was shown that several of these factors act as auxin- and BR-responsiveness modulators, which ultimately control the intensity or degree of hypocotyl elongation. It was deduced that, as a consequence of the plant proximity-dependent new, dynamic, and local balance between hormone synthesis and sensitivity (mechanistically resulting from a restructured network of SAS regulators), SAS responses are unleashed and hypocotyls elongate.

  18. Salivary Hormones Response to Preparation and Pre-competitive Training of World-class Level Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hanon, Christine; Gendreau, Nicolas; Bonneau, Dominique; Guével, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity, and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months) and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks) training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while IgA (+61%) and creatine kinase activity (+43%) increased, and chromogranin A decreased (−27%) during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15%) and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P < 0.05). None of the psycho-physiological parameters were significantly correlated to training load during the pre-competitive period. Results showed a lower adrenocortical response and autonomic activity, and an improvement of immunity status, in response to the reduction in training load and fatigue, without significant correlations of salivary hormones with training load. Our findings suggest that saliva composition is sensitive to training contents (season period) but could not be related to workload resulting from track and field athletics training. PMID:26635619

  19. Determination of steroid hormones in bovine milk by LC-MS/MS and their levels in Swiss Holstein cow milk.

    PubMed

    Goyon, Alexandre; Cai, Julia Zhenzhen; Kraehenbuehl, Karin; Hartmann, Christoph; Shao, Bing; Mottier, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic and natural steroid hormones have attracted some attention in recent years as endocrine active substances (EAS) that interact or interfere with the endocrine system. Endogenous hormones occur naturally in food of animal origin, among which bovine milk represents an important source. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of steroid hormones (oestrogens, androgens, progestogens and glucocorticoids) in cow's milk samples from three farms in Switzerland. An isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of 12 hormones in milk. Some hormonal levels from individual cows showed large variations. The average levels of the hormones analysed (17α-estradiol = 31 ng kg(-)(1), 17β-estradiol = 6 ng kg(-)(1), estrone = 159 ng kg(-)(1), 4-androstenedione = 684 ng kg(-)(1), progesterone = 15486 ng kg(-)(1), 17-hydroxyprogesterone = 214 ng kg(-)(1), cortisone = 112 ng kg(-)(1), and cortisol = 235 ng kg(-)(1)) were comparable with literature data. Estriol, testosterone and androstenediols were not detected at their respective limit of quantification. No significant differences of hormonal content among milk from cows at different lactation/calving numbers were evidenced, except for progesterone and 4-androstenedione. Due to confounding parameters linked to the physiological stage of the animal, like pregnancy and gestational stage (pregnancy trimester), the causal correlation between the variation of the levels for these two hormones and the lactation/calving number could not be unambiguously demonstrated. PMID:27055356

  20. What is the influence of hormone therapy on homocysteine and crp levels in postmenopausal women?

    PubMed Central

    Lakryc, Eli Marcelo; Machado, Rogério Bonassi; Soares, José Maria; Fernandes, César Eduardo; Baracat, Edmund Chada

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of estrogen therapy and estrogen-progestin therapy on homocysteine and C-reactive protein levels in postmenopausal women. METHODS: In total, 99 postmenopausal women were included in this double-blind, randomized clinical trial and divided into three groups: Group A used estrogen therapy alone (2.0 mg of 17β-estradiol), Group B received estrogen-progestin therapy (2.0 mg of 17 β-estradiol +1.0 mg of norethisterone acetate) and Group C received a placebo (control). The length of treatment was six months. Serum measurements of homocysteine and C-reactive protein were carried out prior to the onset of treatment and following six months of therapy. RESULTS: After six months of treatment, there was a 20.7% reduction in homocysteine levels and a 100.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels in the group of women who used estrogen therapy. With respect to the estrogen-progestin group, there was a 12.2% decrease in homocysteine levels and a 93.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that hormone therapy (unopposed estrogen or estrogen associated with progestin) may have a positive influence on decreasing cardiovascular risk due to a significant reduction in homocysteine levels. PMID:25789519

  1. The association between salivary hormone levels and children's inpatient aggression: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barzman, Drew H; Mossman, Douglas; Appel, Kacey; Blom, Thomas J; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Ekhator, Nosa N; Patel, Bianca; DelBello, Melissa P; Sorter, Michael; Klein, David; Geracioti, Thomas D

    2013-12-01

    Aggression is a common management problem for child psychiatry hospital units. We describe an exploratory study with the primary objective of establishing the feasibility of linking salivary concentrations of three hormones (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], and cortisol) with aggression. Between May 2011 and November 2011, we recruited 17 psychiatrically hospitalized boys (age 7-9 years). We administered the Brief Rating of Aggression by Children and Adolescents (BRACHA) and Predatory-Affective Aggression Scale (PAAS) upon admission. Saliva samples were collected from the participants during a 24-h period shortly after admission: immediately upon awakening, 30 min later, and again between 3:45 and 7:45 P.M. Nursing staff recorded Overt Aggression Scale ratings twice a day during hospitalization to quantify aggressive behavior. The salivary cortisol concentrations obtained from aggressive boys 30 min after awakening trended higher than levels from the non-aggressive boys (p = 0.06), were correlated with the number of aggressive incidents (p = 0.04), and trended toward correlation with BRACHA scores (p = 0.06). The aggressive boys also showed greater morning-to-evening declines in cortisol levels (p = 0.05). Awakening levels of DHEA and testosterone were correlated with the severity of the nearest aggressive incident (p < 0.05 for both). The BRACHA scores of the aggressive boys were significantly higher than scores of the non-aggressive boys (p < 0.001). Our data demonstrate the feasibility of collecting saliva from children on an inpatient psychiatric unit, affirm the utility of the BRACHA in predicting aggressive behavior, and suggest links between salivary hormones and aggression by children who undergo psychiatric hospitalization.

  2. Calcitropic hormone levels in polynesians: evidence against their role in interracial differences in bone mass.

    PubMed

    Reid, I R; Cullen, S; Schooler, B A; Livingston, N E; Evans, M C

    1990-05-01

    Blacks are known to have a higher bone mass than whites and have recently been found to have significantly different levels of calcitropic hormones and other biochemical indices of calcium metabolism. To assess the possible significance of these biochemical differences to interracial differences in bone mass, we have undertaken an assessment of indices of calcium metabolism in Polynesian subjects, since they also have a higher bone mass than whites. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were slightly lower in Polynesians than in whites (65 +/- 5 vs. 95 +/- 10 nmol/L; P less than 0.02), but there were no differences between the groups in serum levels of calcium (total and ionized), phosphate, magnesium, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, PTH, calcitonin, alkaline phosphatase activity, and bone gla-protein. Furthermore, urinary excretion of hydroxyproline, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, sodium, and potassium and the tubular maximum for the reabsorption of phosphate were not different between whites and Polynesians. Intestinal strontium absorption was similar in the two groups. In contrast, distal forearm bone mineral content was higher in Polynesians (P less than 0.01) and midupper arm muscle area was also increased in this group (P less than 0.005). It is concluded that the higher bone mass of Polynesians cannot be attributed to alterations in the basal levels of calcitropic hormones, but may be related to their greater muscle mass. It is probable that the previously observed black-white differences in the vitamin D endocrine system are secondary to the effects of skin color on vitamin D synthesis and are not contributory to the lower bone mass of whites. PMID:2335580

  3. The effect of liming on antibacterial and hormone levels in wastewater biosolids.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Jennifer M; Lozano, Nuria; Haines, Christine; Rice, Clifford P; Ramirez, Mark; Torrents, Alba

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of liming on levels of triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS), estrone (E1), and progesterone (P), two antimicrobial agents and two natural hormones, respectively. Factors studied include lime particle size, mixing time, and overall lime contact time. The study results suggest that coarse lime may be more active than fine lime due to less interaction with surrounding air. Both TCS and TCC concentrations were lower in coarse limed samples versus unlimed samples and the decrease was a function of time. A similar, but statistically insignificant trend in TCC and TCS levels was observed in fine lime samples with respect to unlimed samples. Liming was also found to decrease apparent E1 levels, with more notable decreases in samples amended with coarse lime. P-levels significantly increased after 1-day of contact time, stabilizing over the next 14 days of the study period. This increase and stabilization of P-levels was attributed to the pH and moisture-driven conversion of more chemically complex steroids into P. PMID:23485235

  4. Pre-emptive oral dexmethorphan reduces fentanyl-induced cough as well as immediate postoperative adrenocortico-tropic hormone and growth hormone level

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Avik; Kundu, Asim Kumar; Ghosh, Sudipta; Choudhuri, Rajat; Bandopadhyay, Bijoy Kumar; Dasgupta, Sugata

    2011-01-01

    Background: Fentanyl-induced cough is not always benign and brief and can be remarkably troublesome, spasmodic, and explosive. Dextromethorphan, an opioid derivative with an antitussive action, may be effective in reducing the fentanyl-induced cough. Dextromethorphan, a N-methyl D aspartate receptor antagonist, may have some effect on diminishing the stress response to surgery. This study was undertaken to determine whether preoperative dextromethorphan could effectively attenuate its incidence, severity, and effect on postoperative stress hormone levels. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and twenty patients of American society of anesthesiologists I-II, aged 18–60 years, undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy or appendicectomy were randomly allocated into two groups (Group C, control; Group D, dextromethorphan) consisting of 160 patients each. Patients in Group D received dextromethorphan 40 mg orally and in Group C received placebo tablets 60 minutes before induction of anesthesia. The incidence of cough was recorded for 1 minute after fentanyl injection and graded as none (0), mild (1–2), moderate (3–5), and severe (>5 cough). Blood samples were collected for estimation of stress hormone levels before surgery and again at 1 hour and 24 hours postoperatively and compared. The appearance of adverse reactions was recorded. Results: The incidence of reflex fentanyl cough was lower in dextromethorphan group (3.9%) in comparison to placebo (59.8%). Five patients developed mild and one moderate cough in the dextromethorphan group. In the control group, 31 patients developed mild, 29 moderate, and 32 severe cough. The stress hormones were significantly higher at 1 hour and 24 hours postoperatively in both groups in comparison to its preoperative values. However, at 1 hour postoperatively, adrenocorticotropic hormone, epinephrine, and growth hormone values were significantly low in the dextromethorphan group (61.5 ± 21.1 pg/ ml, 142.1 ± 11.2 pg

  5. Normalisation of plasma growth hormone levels improved cardiac dysfunction due to acromegalic cardiomyopathy with severe fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Fumiko; Arima, Hiroshi; Hirano, Miho; Uchikawa, Tomohiro; Inden, Yasuya; Nagatani, Tetsuya; Oiso, Yutaka

    2010-09-19

    A 51-year-old man was referred to the Department of Cardiology in our hospital due to severe congestive heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias in March 2008. He had repeated ventricular tachycardia for years and the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was 11% on admission. A myocardial biopsy revealed that over 50% cardiomyocytes were replaced by fibrosis. Due to the typical acromegalic features, he was referred to the endocrinology department and diagnosed as acromegaly. He was treated with octreotide for 8 months followed by trans-sphenoidal surgery. The plasma levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) decreased by octreotide and normalised by surgery after which the cardiac function improved drastically. The current case demonstrates that cardiac dysfunction in acromegaly could be recovered by normalisation of GH and IGF-1 even in the presence of severe fibrosis in the myocardium.

  6. The different surrogate measures of adiposity in relation to semen quality and serum reproductive hormone levels among Estonian fertile men.

    PubMed

    Ehala-Aleksejev, K; Punab, M

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relations of basic semen parameters and reproductive hormones with different surrogate measures of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Standard semen analysis was performed and serum levels of reproductive hormones were measured in 260 male partners of pregnant women at a university hospital andrology centres in Estonia. Quartile analysis revealed that all adiposity markers were negatively related to sex hormone-binding globulin and total testosterone levels. After adjustment for covariates a high BF%, WC and WHtR were negatively associated with total sperm count. The BF% was also negatively related to semen volume. These significant changes occurred from a BF% ≥ 23.4%, WC > 98 cm and WHtR > 0.54. Next to these changes the BMI was not related to sperm parameters. This study shows that semen quality is affected by central adiposity and confirms earlier findings that adiposity markedly changes serum sex hormone levels. Further studies are required to find out what is the best body composition marker showing most clearly the relationships between adiposity, semen characteristics and sex hormone levels.

  7. Ultrastructural changes in granulosa cells and plasma steroid levels after administration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in the Western painted turtle, Chrysemys picta.

    PubMed

    Al-Kindi, A Y; Mahmoud, Y; Woller, M J

    2001-08-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of treatment by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on the morphology and steroid release of ovarian tissues in the Western painted turtle, (Chrysemys picta). In Experiment I, four adult female turtles were injected with synthetic mammalian LHRH (i.p., 500 pg/g bodyweight) and four with saline 2-3 weeks prior to ovulation. Granulosa cells from LHRH-treated turtles vs controls contained both preovulatory follicles (16-20 mm in diameter) and small follicles (0.5-1.00mm in diameter) with increased RER, free ribosomes and mitochondria with swollen cristae. An increase in the amount of cytoskeletal material (microfilaments) was observed in granulosa cells of the experimental turtles compared to the controls. Cytoplasmic extensions of the oocyte and granulosa cells were longer in the small follicles of treated animals, accounting for the observed increase in the thickness of the zona pellucida (ZP) over the controls. In Experiment II, administration of LHRH (i.p.) to 10 turtles during the same period triggered a substantial increase in plasma progesterone and estradiol-17beta levels over the 10 saline-injected controls. This supports the idea that in this species, as in mammals, steroidogenic activity in the ovarian follicles are under the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The ultrastructure and hormonal levels of the experimental animals were typical of untreated turtles just prior to ovulation. In this species the development of follicles and steroidogenesis can be stimulated prematurely by a releasing hormone from a nonreptilian origin.

  8. Increased levels of invariant natural killer T lymphocytes worsen metabolic abnormalities and atherosclerosis in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Savitha; Turner, Michael S; Ding, Yilei; Goodspeed, Leela; Wang, Shari; Buckner, Jane H; O'Brien, Kevin; Getz, Godfrey S; Reardon, Catherine A; Chait, Alan

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is a chronic inflammatory state characterized by infiltration of adipose tissue by immune cell populations, including T lymphocytes. Natural killer T (NKT) cells, a specialized lymphocyte subset recognizing lipid antigens, can be pro- or anti-inflammatory. Their role in adipose inflammation continues to be inconclusive and contradictory. In obesity, the infiltration of tissues by invariant NKT (iNKT) cells is decreased. We therefore hypothesized that an excess iNKT cell complement might improve metabolic abnormalities in obesity. Vα14 transgenic (Vα14tg) mice, with increased iNKT cell numbers, on a LDL receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) background and control Ldlr(-/-) mice were placed on an obesogenic diet for 16 weeks. Vα14tg.Ldlr(-/-) mice gained 25% more weight and had increased adiposity than littermate controls. Transgenic mice also developed greater dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Increased macrophage Mac2 immunostaining and proinflammatory macrophage gene expression suggested worsened adipose inflammation. Concurrently, these mice had increased atherosclerotic lesion area and aortic inflammation. Thus, increasing the complement of iNKT cells surprisingly exacerbated the metabolic, inflammatory, and atherosclerotic features of obesity. These findings suggest that the reduction of iNKT cells normally observed in obesity may represent a physiological attempt to compensate for this inflammatory condition.

  9. Effects of organochlorine contaminants on thyroid hormone levels in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls, Larus hyperboreus.

    PubMed Central

    Verreault, Jonathan; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2004-01-01

    Studies on glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) breeding in the Barents Sea have reported that high blood levels of halogenated organic contaminants in this species might cause reproductive, behavioral, and developmental stress. However, potential endocrine system modulation caused by contaminant exposure has yet not been reported in this Arctic apical predator. In this present study we aimed to investigate whether the current levels of a selection of organochlorines (OCs) were associated with altered circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs) in free-ranging adult glaucous gulls breeding at Bear Island in the Barents Sea. Blood concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, and p,p' -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' -DDE) were quantified, in addition to free and total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in plasma of 66 glaucous gulls in the spring of 2001. Negative correlations were found between plasma levels of T4 and T4:T3 ratio, and blood levels of OCs in male glaucous gulls. Despite their relatively low contribution to the total OC fraction, HCB and oxychlordane were the most prominent compounds in terms of their negative effect on the variation of the T4:T3 ratio. Moreover, lower T4 levels and T4:T3 ratios were measured in glaucous gulls breeding in a colony exposed to high levels of OCs, compared with a less exposed colony. Levels of T3 were elevated in the high-OC-exposed colony. This may indicate that the glaucous gull is susceptible to changes to TH homeostasis mediated by exposure to halogenated organic contaminants. PMID:15064156

  10. Effects of butachlor on reproduction and hormone levels in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Chang, Juhua; Liu, Shaoying; Zhou, Shengli; Wang, Minghua; Zhu, Guonian

    2013-01-01

    Butachlor, a chloracetamide herbicide, is widely used in China. In the present study, paired adult male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to various concentrations of butachlor (0, 25, 50 and 100 μg/L) for 30 days, and the effects on reproduction and endocrine disruption were evaluated using fecundity, condition factor (CF), gonadosomatic index (GSI), liver somatic index (LSI), plasma vitellogenin (VTG), sex steroids and thyroid hormone levels as endpoints. Our results showed that the mean fecundity rates were significantly decreased at 50 and 100 μg/L butachlor during the 30-day exposure period. At the end of the exposure period, no significant changes were observed in CF and LSI in both females and males, while GSI was significantly reduced in males at 50 and 100 μg/L butachlor. At 100 μg/L butachlor, plasma testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels were significantly decreased in females, while plasma VTG level was significantly increased in males. Plasma thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels were significantly increased at 50 and 100 μg/L butachlor in males, and at 100 μg/L in females. This work demonstrated that butachlor adversely affected the normal reproductive success of zebrafish, and disrupted the thyroid and sex steroid endocrine systems, which provides the basis for the estimated ecological risk during butachlor exposure.

  11. Plasma hormone levels in human subject during stress loads in microgravity and at readaptation to Earth's gravity.

    PubMed

    Macho, L; Koska, J; Ksinantova, L; Vigas, M; Noskov, V B; Grigoriev, A I; Kvetnansky, R

    2001-07-01

    In great part of the investigations of endocrine system functions in astronauts during space flights the plasma levels of hormones and metabolites were determined only in resting conditions, usually from one blood sample collection. Such levels reflected the psychical and physical state and new hormonal homeostasis of organism at the time of blood collection, however, the functional capacity of neuroendocrine system to respond to various stress stimuli during space flight remained unknown. The aim of present investigations was to study dynamic changes of hormone levels during the stress and metabolic loads (insulin induced hypoglycemia, physical exercise and oral glucose tolerance test) at the exposure of human subject to microgravity on the space station MIR. The responses of sympatico-adrenomedullary system to these stress and workloads were presented by Kvetnansky et al. PMID:12650202

  12. High prevalence rate of pituitary incidentaloma: is it associated with the age-related decline of the sex hormones levels?

    PubMed

    Kastelan, Darko; Korsic, Mirko

    2007-01-01

    Incidental pituitary adenoma is the common finding during brain imaging. According to multistep model of pituitary tumourigenesis genetic alterations provide the initiating event that transforms cells while hormones play a role in promoting cell proliferation. Development of pituitary adenoma in a case of excessive hypophysiotrophic hormones production or reduced feedback suppression by target gland hormones emphasizes the importance of hormonal stimulation in pituitary tumourigenesis. Pituitary hyperplasia has been reported in pregnancy, hypothyroidism and conditions such as CRH or GHRH hypersecretion. Moreover, recent study reported one case of gonadotroph macroadenoma and two cases of gonadotroph cells hyperplasia in patients with Klinefelter syndrome probably due to protracted stimulation of gonadotroph cells because of lack of androgen feedback. Significant changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis occurred with aging. In females, after menopause, estradiol level decreases by 35-fold and estrone level by 20-fold that results in increased gonadotropins levels. Similarly, FSH, but not LH, level is increased with advancing age in men, too, although the age-related difference in the level is less in comparison with women. Regarding these data, we hypothesised that high prevalence rate of pituitary incidentaloma in the elderly is associated with age-related decline in sex hormones levels and subsequent lack of feedback suppression leading to permanent gonadotrophs stimulation which is the crucial step in the pituitary tumour development. According to previously mentioned multistep model of pituitary tumourigenesis, incidentaloma will develop only in persons with already present intrinsic pituitary cell defects. However, further studies have to answer the questions of whether the incidence of pituitary tumours is more frequent in elderly, whether women with late onset menopause or those taking long-term hormone replacement therapy have lower rate of

  13. Influence of dioxin exposure upon levels of prostate-specific antigen and steroid hormones in Vietnamese men.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian Liang; Kido, Teruhiko; Honma, Seijiro; Okamoto, Rie; Manh, Ho Dung; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nakano, Takeshi; Koh, Eitetsu; Takasuga, Takumi; Nhu, Dang Duc; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2016-04-01

    Most studies on the relationship between Agent Orange and prostate cancer have focused on US veterans of the Vietnam War. There have been few studies focusing on the relationship between levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and dioxins or steroid hormones in Vietnamese men. In 2009-2011, we collected blood samples from 97 men who had resided in a "dioxin hotspot" and 85 men from a non-sprayed region in Vietnam. Then levels of PSA, dioxins, and steroid hormones were analyzed. Levels of most dioxins, furans, and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls were higher in the hotspot than those in the non-sprayed region. Levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and estradiol differed significantly between the hotspot and the non-sprayed region, but there were no correlations between levels of PSA and steroid hormones and dioxins in either of the two regions. Our findings suggest that PSA levels in Vietnamese men are not associated with levels of dioxin or steroid hormones in these two regions. PMID:26758301

  14. Changes in Anti-Mullerian Hormone Levels in Early Pregnancy are Associated with Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Stegmann, Barbara J.; Santillan, Mark; Leader, Benjamin; Smith, Elaine; Santillan, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of preterm birth with anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels, both in isolation and in combination with other markers of feto-placental health commonly measured during Integrated Prenatal Screening (IPS) for aneuploidy. Design Retrospective case-control study Setting State of Iowa Patients All pregnant women in Iowa who elected to undergo IPS and who subsequently delivered in Iowa were eligible for inclusion. Cases included women giving birth at <37 weeks gestation, controls included those who delivered at ≥37 weeks gestation. Interventions none Main outcome measure(s) Probability of a preterm birth Results 2nd trimester AMH levels were not associated with preterm birth, either independently or after controlling for other markers of feto-placental health. AMH difference was not associated with preterm birth when modeled alone, but a statistically significant association was found after adjusting for maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and maternal weight change between the 1st and 2nd trimester. After stratifying the model by MSAFP level, most of the risk for preterm birth was identified in women with an MSAFP >1 Multiple of the Median (MoM) and who had a stable or rising AMH level in early pregnancy. Conclusions A lack of decline in the AMH level in early pregnancy can be used to identify women with a high probability for preterm birth, especially when MSAFP levels are >1 MoM. Monitoring changes in the AMH level between the 1st and 2nd trimesters of pregnancy may help identify women who would benefit from interventional therapies such as supplemental progesterone. PMID:26074093

  15. Evaluation of antimullerian hormone levels before and after laparoscopic management of endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Mostaejeran, Fatemeh; Hamoush, Zeinab; Rouholamin, Safoura

    2015-01-01

    Background: Serum antimullerian hormone (AMH) proposed to be a reliable marker of ovarian reserve; the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence and value of laparoscopic management in endometriosis as measured by serum AMH levels. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 33 infertile patients who referred to fertility - Infertility Center of Isfahan - with different stages of endometriosis managed by diagnostic operative laparoscopy and serum AMH levels were measured pre and one month postoperative laparoscopy. Main outcome measures were serum AMH levels in correlation with the type of infertility, stage of endometriosis, and type of surgery in infertile patients. Results: 33 infertile patients enrolled in the study with mean age 28.9 ± 5 years, and thus did not show a significant difference. Mean serum AMH levels was 4.23 ± 3.75 ng/ml and 2.2 ± 2.47 ng/ml, respectively, in primary and secondary infertility groups before and one month after laparoscopy, which shows a significant difference (P < 0.001). Median AMH level changes in Cauterization (0.67 ± 0.76 ng/ml), endometrioma excision 2 ± 0.6 ng/ml, both 2.18 ± 0.81 ng/ml and shows no significant differences. Mean serum AMH levels were definitely decreased in minimal/mild and severe stage endometriosis before and 1 month after laparoscopy, (1.84 ± 2.06 ng/ml and 2.18 ± 3.45 ng/ml), respectively. Also serum AMH according to ovarian appearance and evolvement showed no significant differences after laparoscopy: (5.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml and 2.76 ± 0.96 ng/ml) and (3.37 ± 2.2 ng/ml and 1.84 ± 1.5 ng/ml). Conclusion: Serum AMH levels clearly decreased 1 month after operative laparoscopy. PMID:26605221

  16. Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yeung Bae; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Byung Chan; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2013-05-01

    Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simultaneous exposure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF signals for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg (total 4.0 W/kg). At 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment began, each experimental group's 40 rats (male 20, female 20) were autopsied. Exposure for 8 weeks to simultaneous CDMA and WCDMA RF did not affect serum levels in rats of melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) as assessed by the ELISA method.

  17. The Effect of Oral Feeding of Tribulus terrestris L. on Sex Hormone and Gonadotropin Levels in Addicted Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Maleki, Maryam; Ahmad Abadi, Mohammad Esmail

    2013-01-01

    Background: Opioids can exert adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid drug, reduces hormone levels and fertility, and causes sexual activity disorders. Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a traditional herbal medicine used to enhance sexual activities. This study investigates the possible role of TT on sex hormones and gonadotropins with the intent to show its usefulness in treating fertility disorders in opioid users. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we randomly divided 48 rats into four groups: i. control, ii. TT-treated, iii. addicted and iv. TT-treated addicted. Watersoluble morphine was administrated orally for 21 days to induce addiction, after which the treated groups 2 and 4 received plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%) orally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of all rats’ sera were determined by radioimmunoassay and Elisa kits. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukey test. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The addicted group had a significantly lower luteinizing hormone (LH) level than the control group (p<0.027). LH levels increased significantly in the TT-treated addicted group (p<0.031). The testosterone level in the treated addicted group was lower than the treated control group. The addicted group had a significantly low testosterone level (p<0.001). The estrogen level was significantly (p<0.002) lower in the addicted group than in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference between the treated addicted group and the treated control group (p<0.048). The treated control group had a significant increase in its progesterone level (p<0.002). Overall, except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropins and sexual hormones. Whereas TT caused a considerable increase (p<0.05) in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a

  18. Candidate genes associated with testicular development, sperm quality, and hormone levels of inhibin, luteinizing hormone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 in Brahman bulls.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Marina R S; Reverter, Antonio; Hawken, Rachel J; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Lehnert, Sigrid A

    2012-09-01

    Bull fertility is an important target for genetic improvement, and early prediction using genetic markers is therefore a goal for livestock breeding. We performed genome-wide association studies to identify genes associated with fertility traits measured in young bulls. Data from 1118 Brahman bulls were collected for six traits: blood hormone levels of inhibin (IN) at 4 mo, luteinizing hormone (LH) following a gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge at 4 mo, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) at 6 mo, scrotal circumference (SC) at 12 mo, ability to produce sperm (Sperm) at 18 mo, and percentage of normal sperm (PNS) at 24 mo. All the bulls were genotyped with the BovineSNP50 chip. Sires and dams of the bull population (n = 304) were genotyped with the high-density chip (∼800 000 polymorphisms) to allow for imputation, thereby contributing detail on genome regions of interest. Polymorphism associations were discovered for all traits, except for Sperm. Chromosome 2 harbored polymorphisms associated with IN. For LH, associated polymorphisms were located in five different chromosomes. A region of chromosome 14 contained polymorphisms associated with IGF1 and SC. Regions of the X chromosome showed associations with SC and PNS. Associated polymorphisms yielded candidate genes in chromosomes 2, 14, and X. These findings will contribute to the development of genetic markers to help select cattle with improved fertility and will lead to better annotation of gene function in the context of reproductive biology.

  19. Pre-competition hormonal and psychological levels of elite hockey players: relationship to the "home advantage".

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin; Muir, Cameron; Belanger, Joey; Putnam, Susan K

    2006-10-30

    The home advantage is a robust phenomenon that occurs in the world of amateur and professional sport. Athletic teams have been shown to win significantly more games in their home venue as compared to their opponents' venue. Studies have suggested that the home advantage may be related to familiarity with the facility, increased crowd density and even pre-competition hormonal levels. The present study investigated pre-competition physiological and psychological states of elite hockey players in the home and away venues. Physiological measures included salivary cortisol and testosterone, which were assessed using enzyme immunoassays. In addition, pre-competition psychological states were assessed using the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. Physiological measures indicated that the players had significantly higher pre-game testosterone when playing in their home venue as compared to their opponents' venue (t(13)=2.29, p=0.04); however, this difference was not due to a pre-game rise in testosterone while competing at home. Furthermore, players showed a trend toward higher pre-game cortisol when playing in their home venue (t(13)=1.96, p=0.07). Psychological measures indicated that players were more self-confident when playing in their home venue (t(13)=2.8, p=0.008) and also had higher somatic (t(13)=2.3, p=0.02) and cognitive anxiety (t(13)=1.87, p=0.04) when playing in their opponents' venue. The present study supports the notion that there are differences in pre-competition hormonal and psychological states that may play a key role in the "home advantage".

  20. Effects of mental resilience on neuroendocrine hormones level changes induced by sleep deprivation in servicemen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xinyang; Dai, Xuyan; Yang, Tingshu; Song, Hongtao; Yang, Jialin; Bai, Jing; Zhang, Liyi

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mental resilience on the changes of serum rennin, angiotensin, and cortisol level induced by sleep deprivation in servicemen. By random cluster sampling, a total of 160 servicemen, aged from 18 to 30, were selected to undergo 24-hour total sleep deprivation and administered the military personnel mental resilience scale after the deprivation procedure. The sleep deprivation procedure started at 8 a.m. on Day 8 and ended at 8 a.m. on Day 9 after 7 days of normal sleep for baseline preparation. Blood samples were drawn from the 160 participants at 8 a.m. respectively on Day 8 and Day 9 for hormonal measurements. All blood samples were analyzed using radioimmunoassay. As hypothesized, serum rennin, angiotensin II, and cortisol level of the participants after sleep deprivation were significantly higher than those before (P < 0.05). The changes of serum rennin and cortisol in the lower mental resilience subgroup were significantly greater (P < 0.05); problem-solving skill and willpower were the leading influence factors for the increases of serum rennin and cortisol respectively induced by sleep deprivation. We conclude that mental resilience plays a significant role in alleviating the changes of neurohormones level induced by sleep deprivation in servicemen.

  1. Thyroid hormone regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor levels in mouse mammary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Vonderhaar, B.K.; Tang, E.; Lyster, R.R.; Nascimento, M.C.

    1986-08-01

    The specific binding of iodinated epidermal growth factor ((/sup 125/I)iodo-EGF) to membranes prepared from the mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors of euthyroid and hypothyroid mice was measured in order to determine whether thyroid hormones regulate the EGF receptor levels in vivo. Membranes from hypothyroid mammary glands of mice at various developmental ages bound 50-65% less EGF than those of age-matched euthyroid controls. Treatment of hypothyroid mice with L-T4 before killing restored binding to the euthyroid control level. Spontaneous breast tumors arising in hypothyroid mice also bound 30-40% less EGF than tumors from euthyroid animals even after in vitro desaturation of the membranes of endogenous growth factors with 3 M MgCl2 treatment. The decrease in binding in hypothyroid membranes was due to a decrease in the number of binding sites, not to a change in affinity of the growth factor for its receptor, as determined by Scatchard analysis of the binding data. Both euthyroid and hypothyroid membranes bound EGF primarily to a single class of high affinity sites (dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.7-1.8 nM). Euthyroid membranes bound 28.4 +/- (SE) 0.6 fmol/mg protein, whereas hypothyroid membranes bound 15.5 +/- 1.0 fmol/mg protein. These data indicate that EGF receptor levels in normal mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors in mice are subject to regulation by thyroid status.

  2. Longitudinal development of hormone levels and grey matter density in 9 and 12-year-old twins.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Koenis, M M G; Schnack, Hugo G; van Baal, G Caroline; van Soelen, Inge L C; Boomsma, Dorret I; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-05-01

    Puberty is characterized by major changes in hormone levels and structural changes in the brain. To what extent these changes are associated and to what extent genes or environmental influences drive such an association is not clear. We acquired circulating levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol and testosterone and magnetic resonance images of the brain from 190 twins at age 9 [9.2 (0.11) years; 99 females/91 males]. This protocol was repeated at age 12 [12.1 (0.26) years] in 125 of these children (59 females/66 males). Using voxel-based morphometry, we tested whether circulating hormone levels are associated with grey matter density in boys and girls in a longitudinal, genetically informative design. In girls, changes in FSH level between the age of 9 and 12 positively associated with changes in grey matter density in areas covering the left hippocampus, left (pre)frontal areas, right cerebellum, and left anterior cingulate and precuneus. This association was mainly driven by environmental factors unique to the individual (i.e. the non-shared environment). In 12-year-old girls, a higher level of circulating estradiol levels was associated with lower grey matter density in frontal and parietal areas. This association was driven by environmental factors shared among the members of a twin pair. These findings show a pattern of physical and brain development going hand in hand.

  3. Inhibition of serum androgen levels by chronic intranasal and subcutaneous administration of a potent luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist in adult men.

    PubMed

    Faure, N; Labrie, F; Lemay, A; Bélanger, A; Gourdeau, Y; Laroche, B; Robert, G

    1982-03-01

    The effect of chronic treatment with the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist Buserelin (Hoechst AG, Frankfurt/Main, West Germany) ([D-Ser(TBU)6,des-Gly-NH2(10)]LH-RH ethylamide) administrered by nasal spray (200 or 500 micrograms, twice daily) or subcutaneously (50 micrograms daily) for periods of 1 to 8 months was studied on serum sex steroids and LH levels in 18 patients with cancer of the prostate. Basal serum testosterone concentration decreases to 71.1 +/- 18.3 (NS) and 28.6 +/- 9.3%, (P less than 0.01) of control in patients receiving the 200-micrograms and 500-micrograms dose by nasal spray, respectively. In patients treated subcutaneously, a more rapid inhibition of serum testosterone levels to 19.6 +/- 6.4% of control (P less than 0.01) is observed. The finding of decreased levels of 17-OH-progesterone, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone in the presence of unchanged pregnenolone concentration indicates that the decrease in androgen biosynthesis induced by Buserelin treatment is due to a blockage at the level of 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-desmolase activities. The present data indicate that chronic administration of Buserelin could be a safe and effective means of reducing serum androgens in patients with cancer of the prostate.

  4. Chronic growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion induces reciprocal and reversible changes in mRNA levels from hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone and somatostatin neurons in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Bertherat, J; Timsit, J; Bluet-Pajot, M T; Mercadier, J J; Gourdji, D; Kordon, C; Epelbaum, J

    1993-01-01

    Effects of growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion on somatostatin-(SRIH) and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) were studied by in situ hybridization and receptor autoradiography in rats bearing a GH-secreting tumor. 6 and 18 wk after tumor induction, animals displayed a sharp increase in body weight and GH plasma levels; pituitary GH content was reduced by 47 and 55%, while that of prolactin and thyrotropin was unchanged. At 18 wk, hypothalamic GHRH and SRIH levels had fallen by 84 and 52%, respectively. In parallel, the density of GHRH mRNA per arcuate neuron was reduced by 52 and 50% at 6 and 18 wk, while SRIH mRNA levels increased by 71 and 83% in the periventricular nucleus (with no alteration in the hilus of the dentate gyrus). The numbers of GHRH- and SRIH-synthetizing neurons in the hypothalamus were not altered in GH-hypersecreting rats. Resection of the tumor restored hypothalamic GHRH and SRIH mRNAs to control levels. GH hypersecretion did not modify 125I-SRIH binding sites on GHRH neurons. Thus, chronic GH hypersecretion affects the expression of the genes encoding for GHRH and SRIH. The effect is long lasting, not desensitizable and reversible. Images PMID:8097209

  5. Hippocampal enlargement in Bassoon-mutant mice is associated with enhanced neurogenesis, reduced apoptosis, and abnormal BDNF levels.

    PubMed

    Heyden, Alexandra; Ionescu, Mihai-Constantin S; Romorini, Stefano; Kracht, Bettina; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Calabresi, Paolo; Seidenbecher, Constanze; Angenstein, Frank; Gundelfinger, Eckart D

    2011-10-01

    Mice mutant for the presynaptic protein Bassoon develop epileptic seizures and an altered pattern of neuronal activity that is accompanied by abnormal enlargement of several brain structures, with the strongest size increase in hippocampus and cortex. Using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, an abnormal brain enlargement was found, which is first detected in the hippocampus 1 month after birth and amounts to an almost 40% size increase of this structure after 3 months. Stereological quantification of cell numbers revealed that enlargement of the dentate gyrus and the hippocampus proper is associated with larger numbers of principal neurons and of astrocytes. In search for the underlying mechanisms, an approximately 3-fold higher proportion of proliferation and survival of new-born cells in the dentate gyrus was found to go hand in hand with similarly larger numbers of doublecortin-positive cells and reduced numbers of apoptotic cells in the dentate gyrus and the hippocampus proper. Enlargement of the hippocampus and of other forebrain structures was accompanied by increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These data show that hippocampal overgrowth in Bassoon-mutant mice arises from a dysregulation of neurogenesis and apoptosis that might be associated with unbalanced BDNF levels.

  6. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  7. Copper and zinc levels in serum from patients with abnormalities of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Grail, A; Norval, M

    1986-01-01

    Serum copper and zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in 110 women with varying degrees of cervical dysplasia up to carcinoma-in-situ and in 9 women with invasive carcinoma of the cervix, and compared with levels in 21 women with no evidence of cervical dysplasia. The average serum copper and zinc levels in the control group were 1.25 mg/l and 1.02 mg/l (respectively). The mean serum copper level increased with dysplasia to 1.4 mg/l and with invasive carcinoma to 1.47 mg/l. The mean serum zinc levels were decreased in cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 1 to 0.81 mg/l and in invasive carcinoma to 0.73 mg/l. The copper:zinc ratios varied significantly between controls, patients with cervical dysplasia and patients with invasive carcinoma (p less than 0.01). Measurement of serum ceruloplasmin revealed no significant differences among the control group and the groups of patients.

  8. The steroid hormone antagonist RU486. Mechanism at the cellular level and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Baulieu, E E

    1991-12-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanism of RU486, a steroid hormone antagonist, is discussed in detail. Principally, RU486 opposes the action of two types of hormones: progesterone and glucocorticosteroids. The clinical applications are also described, as well as the future outlook.

  9. Effect of a 4-week weight maintenance diet on circulating hormone levels: implications for clinical weight loss trials.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, A; Evans, I R; Wood, R E; Seimon, R V; King, N A; Hills, A P; Byrne, N M

    2015-04-01

    The majority of weight loss studies fail to standardize conditions such as diet and exercise via a weight maintenance period prior to commencement of the trial. This study aimed to determine whether a weight stabilization period is necessary to establish stable baseline hormone concentrations. Fifty-one obese male participants with a body mass index of 30-40 kg m(-2) and aged 25-54 years underwent 4 weeks on an energy balance diet that was designed to achieve weight stability. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state at commencement and completion of the 4-week period, and circulating concentrations of 18 commonly measured hormones were determined. During the 4-week weight maintenance period, participants achieved weight stability within -1.5 ± 0.2 kg (-1.4 ± 0.2%) of their initial body weight. Significant reductions in serum insulin (by 18 ± 6.5%) and leptin (by 21 ± 6.0%) levels occurred, but no significant changes were observed for gut-derived appetite-regulating hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY), nor thyroid, adrenal, gonadal or somatotropic hormones. There were no significant correlations between the change in body weight and the change in circulating concentrations of insulin or leptin over the 4-week period, indicating that the observed changes were not due to weight loss, albeit significant negative correlations were observed between the changes in body weight and plasma ghrelin and peptide YY levels. This study demonstrates the need for baseline weight maintenance periods to stabilize serum levels of insulin and leptin in studies specifically investigating effects on these parameters in the obese. However, this does not apply to circulating levels of gut-derived appetite-regulating hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY), nor thyroid, adrenal, gonadal or somatotropic hormones.

  10. Association between several persistent organic pollutants and thyroid hormone levels in serum among the pregnant women of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2013-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are of global concern because of their widespread contamination and adverse health effects. Potential endocrine disruption, especially of thyroid status by PCBs has been repeatedly suggested in both experimental and epidemiological studies. However the associations with PBDEs or OCPs have been arguable especially in human populations. We investigated the associations between major groups of POPs and thyroid hormone balances among pregnant women. One hundred five pregnant women at delivery were recruited from four cities of Korea in 2011 and were investigated. Blood samples were collected within a day before delivery. Serum was then analyzed for 19 PCBs, 19 PBDEs, and 19 OCPs, along with five thyroid hormones (free and total T3 and T4, and TSH). Several PCBs such as PCB28, 52, and 118 showed negative associations with T3 or T4. BDE47 and total PBDEs showed significant associations with T3 or T4. For OCPs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were generally associated with reduction of T3 or T4. The thyroid hormone levels of all subjects were within the reference range, however exposure to several target POPs were clearly related with potential for disrupting thyroid hormone balance among pregnant women, at the current level of exposure. Although subtle, the changes in thyroid hormones should be seen with caution because even minor changes within pregnant women may have significant consequences especially on sensitive population like fetus. PMID:23928038

  11. Effect of confinement stress on circulating levels of growth hormone and two prolactins in freshwater-adapted tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Auperin, B; Baroiller, J F; Ricordel, M J; Fostier, A; Prunet, P

    1997-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess a potential link between confinement stress and prolactin (PRL), the hormone responsible for adaptation to a hypoosmotic environment in freshwater-adapted tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The effect of stress on plasma levels of the two tilapia PRL forms, tiPRLI (or tiPRL188) and tiPRLII (or tiPRL177), was examined along with the effects on plasma levels of cortisol and growth hormone (GH). In a preliminary study, various sampling protocols (immediate sampling; sampling one by one; anesthesia at 0.5, 1, 2 ml/liter phenoxyethanol) were tested for their ability to modify basal plasma PRL and cortisol. In fish sampled within 1 min of capture (immediate sampling), no changes in the plasma levels of these hormones were observed, whereas when fish were sampled one at a time, PRL levels did not change but cortisol levels were modified. The immediate sampling protocol was used to study the effects of 1 hr confinement stress, which induced a large increase in plasma cortisol levels as well as increases tiPRLI and tiPRLII levels with kinetics similar to those of cortisol. In contrast, plasma tiGH levels significantly decreased after 1 hr confinement. When this stress situation was removed, plasma cortisol and tiPRL levels decreased and plasma GH levels increased. Two and one-half hours later, values were not significantly different from those measured in control fish. In tilapia exposed to 24 hr confinement stress, similar changes in hormone levels were observed. However, after 24 hr confinement, only cortisol levels were significantly different from those measured in control fish. None of these stress conditions significantly changed plasma chloride levels. Together, these results indicate that both PRL and GH have important roles in the adaptive response of freshwater-adapted tilapia to confinement stress.

  12. Sex steroid levels, oocyte maturation and spawning performance in Waigieu seaperch (Psammoperca waigiensis) exposed to thyroxin, human chorionic gonadotropin, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone and carp pituitary extract.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hung Quoc; Nguyen, Anh Tuong; Nguyen, Mao Dinh; Arukwe, Augustine

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the sex steroid hormone levels, oocyte maturation and spawning performance in Waigieu seaperch (Psammoperca waigiensis) exposed to different doses (0, (control), 0.05, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg fish) of thyroxin (T(4)) both through diet (continuously) and injection (single injection). In addition, we also studied plasma steroid hormone levels and spawning performances in female fish injected with a single dose of D-Ala(6), Pro(9)-Net-mGnRH (LHRHa: 50 microg/kg), human chronic gonadotropin (HCG: 1,500 IU/kg) and carp pituitary extract (CPE: 10 mg/kg). In all experiments, samples were collected at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after exposure. T4 exposure via dietary route produced differential and enhanced effects, compared with when the compound was injected to the broodstock. A significant association between exposure to dietary T4, elevated plasma steroid hormone levels, maturation-, spawning-, fertilization- and hatching rate, egg diameter, embryogenesis and larval growth were observed. Interestingly, we observed that broodstock groups fed with T4 doses spawned 20 days earlier than the control group. Thus, we propose that these differences may be attributed to higher systemic availability of T4 due to dietary exposure that is easily transferable to eggs and embryos, as opposed to injection that require absorption to increase bioavailability. Furthermore, our results show that LHRHa, CPE and HCG produced significant increase in spawning rate, but significantly reduced fertilization- and hatching rates. Waigieu seaperch is a new candidate for marine aquaculture in Vietnam and relatively little is known about the reproductive biology and endocrinology of this species. Therefore, the present study forms an integral basis for understanding the reproductive endocrinology of a tropical marine finfish with increasing aquaculture prospects and may also contribute in the development of sustainable aquaculture of this species in a developing

  13. Gastric emptying and plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones in patients with peptic ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Li, Jun-Man; Li, Xue-Hui; Hao, Hong-Sheng; Fu, Shu-Hua

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To study the plasma level of gastrointestinal hormones and the time of gastric emptying in patients with peptic ulcer. METHODS: Thirty patients with gastric ulcer (GU), 29 patients with duodenal ulcer (DU), and 12 healthy controls were studied. Plasma levels of somatostatin (SS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P (SP) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Gastric emptying half-time (GET1/2) was measured by the TC-99m resin/solid meal method. RESULTS: GET1/2 was significantly longer in the GU patients than that in the healthy controls (65.9 ± 14.8 min vs 53.3 ± 4.3 min, P < 0.01) and plasma VIP levels were significantly higher (37.5 ± 10.7 ng/L vs 18.4 ± 5.9 ng/L, P < 0.05).There was a significant positive correlation between GET1/2 and plasma VIP levels (r = 0.55, P < 0.01). No significant differences were found in SS and SP levels when GU patients were compared with healthy controls (P > 0.05). GET1/2 was markedly shorter in the DU patients than in the healthy controls (41.7 ± 10.2 min vs 53.3 ± 4.3 min, P < 0.01) and plasma SS levels were significantly lower (6.4 ± 2.5 ng/L vs 11.9 ± 3.4 ng/L, P < 0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between GET1/2 and SS levels (r = 0.56, P < 0.01). Plasma SP levels in the DU patients were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls (54.4 ± 12.7 ng/L vs 41.6 ± 5.8 ng/L, P < 0.01). There was a significant negative correlation between GET1/2 and SP levels (r = -0.68, P < 0.01). No significant differences were found in the plasma VIP levels when DU patient were compared to healthy controls (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Elevation in VIP may contribute to occurrence of GU and its associated delay in GET1/2. Increased SP and reduced SS may play important roles in GET1/2 acceleration and in the pathogensis of DU. PMID:27053894

  14. Fasting upregulates adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase levels and phosphorylation in mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Marvyn, Phillip M; Bradley, Ryan M; Button, Emily B; Mardian, Emily B; Duncan, Robin E

    2015-06-01

    Circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) rise during fasting and are taken up by the kidneys, either directly from the plasma or during re-uptake of albumin from glomerular filtrate, and are stored as triacylglycerol (TAG). Subsequent utilization of stored fatty acids requires their hydrolytic release from cellular lipid droplets, but relatively little is known about renal lipolysis. We found that total [(3)H]triolein hydrolase activity of kidney lysates was significantly increased by 15% in the fasted state. Adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl) mRNA expression was time-dependently increased by fasting, along with other fatty acid metabolism genes (Pparα, Cd36, and Aox). ATGL and HSL protein levels were also significantly induced (by 239 ± 7% and 322 ± 8%, respectively). Concomitant with changes in total protein levels, there was an increase in ATGL phosphorylation at the AMPK-regulated serine 406 site in the 14-3-3 binding motif, and an increase in HSL phosphorylation at serines 565 and 660 that are regulated by AMPK and PKA, respectively. Using immunofluorescence, we further demonstrate nearly ubiquitous expression of ATGL in the renal cortex with a concentration on the apical/lumenal surface of some cortical tubules. Our findings suggest a role for ATGL and HSL in kidney lipolysis.

  15. Fasting upregulates adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase levels and phosphorylation in mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Marvyn, Phillip M; Bradley, Ryan M; Button, Emily B; Mardian, Emily B; Duncan, Robin E

    2015-06-01

    Circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) rise during fasting and are taken up by the kidneys, either directly from the plasma or during re-uptake of albumin from glomerular filtrate, and are stored as triacylglycerol (TAG). Subsequent utilization of stored fatty acids requires their hydrolytic release from cellular lipid droplets, but relatively little is known about renal lipolysis. We found that total [(3)H]triolein hydrolase activity of kidney lysates was significantly increased by 15% in the fasted state. Adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) and hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl) mRNA expression was time-dependently increased by fasting, along with other fatty acid metabolism genes (Pparα, Cd36, and Aox). ATGL and HSL protein levels were also significantly induced (by 239 ± 7% and 322 ± 8%, respectively). Concomitant with changes in total protein levels, there was an increase in ATGL phosphorylation at the AMPK-regulated serine 406 site in the 14-3-3 binding motif, and an increase in HSL phosphorylation at serines 565 and 660 that are regulated by AMPK and PKA, respectively. Using immunofluorescence, we further demonstrate nearly ubiquitous expression of ATGL in the renal cortex with a concentration on the apical/lumenal surface of some cortical tubules. Our findings suggest a role for ATGL and HSL in kidney lipolysis. PMID:25879679

  16. Endogenous hormone levels affect the regeneration ability of callus derived from different organs in barley.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Takakazu; Mori, Izumi C; Yamane, Miki; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Hordeum vulgare (barley) is an important agricultural crop worldwide. A simple and efficient transformation system is needed to analyze the functions of barley genes and generate lines with improved agronomic traits. Currently, Golden Promise and Igri are the most amenable barley cultivars for stable transformation. Here we evaluated the regeneration ratios and endogenous hormone levels of calli derived from various malting barley cultivars, including Golden Promise, Haruna Nijo, and Morex. We harvested samples not only from immature embryos, but also from different explants of juvenile plants, cotyledons, coleoptiles, and roots. The callus properties differed among genotypes and explant types. Calli derived from the immature embryos of Golden Promise, which showed the highest ratio of regeneration of green shoots, had the highest contents of indoleacetic acid, trans-zeatin, and cis-zeatin. By contrast, calli derived from the cotyledons of Morex and the immature embryos of Haruna Nijo had elevated levels of salicylic acid and abscisic acid, respectively. We thus propose that the former phytohormones are positively associated with the regeneration ability of callus but the later phytohormones are negatively associated. PMID:26735586

  17. Personality, adrenal steroid hormones, and resilience in maltreated children: A multi-level perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2012-01-01

    In this multi-level investigation, resilience in adaptive functioning among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 677) was examined in relation to the regulation of two stress-responsive adrenal steroid hormones, cortisol and dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA), as well as the personality constructs of ego resiliency and ego control. Maltreatment status was not related to differences in average levels of morning or afternoon cortisol or DHEA. However, lower morning cortisol was related to higher resilient functioning, but only in nonmaltreated children. In contrast, among physically abused children, high morning cortisol was related to higher resilient functioning. Morning and afternoon DHEA was negatively related to resilient functioning. Although diurnal change in cortisol was not related to resilience, for DHEA, maltreated children with high resilience showed an atypical rise in DHEA from morning to afternoon. Morning and afternoon cortisol/DHEA ratios were positively related to resilient functioning, but did not interact with maltreatment status. Ego resiliency and ego control strongly differentiated maltreated and nonmaltreated children, and the personality variables were substantially predictive of resilience. When considered together, demonstrated effects of personality, cortisol, and DHEA maintained independent contributions in predicting resilience among high-risk youth. PMID:17705903

  18. High Parathyroid Hormone Level and Osteoporosis Predict Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Patients on Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Malluche, Hartmut H; Blomquist, Gustav; Monier-Faugere, Marie-Claude; Cantor, Thomas L; Davenport, Daniel L

    2015-10-01

    Coronary artery calcifications (CACs) are observed in most patients with CKD on dialysis (CKD-5D). CACs frequently progress and are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular events, the major cause of death in these patients. A link between bone and vascular calcification has been shown. This prospective study was designed to identify noninvasive tests for predicting CAC progression, including measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) and novel bone markers in adult patients with CKD-5D. At baseline and after 1 year, patients underwent routine blood tests and measurement of CAC, BMD, and novel serum bone markers. A total of 213 patients received baseline measurements, of whom about 80% had measurable CAC and almost 50% had CAC Agatston scores>400, conferring high risk for cardiovascular events. Independent positive predictors of baseline CAC included coronary artery disease, diabetes, dialysis vintage, fibroblast growth factor-23 concentration, and age, whereas BMD of the spine measured by quantitative computed tomography was an inverse predictor. Hypertension, HDL level, and smoking were not baseline predictors in these patients. Three quarters of 122 patients completing the study had CAC increases at 1 year. Independent risk factors for CAC progression were age, baseline total or whole parathyroid hormone level greater than nine times the normal value, and osteoporosis by t scores. Our results confirm a role for bone in CKD-associated CAC prevalence and progression. PMID:25838468

  19. Relationship of drinking water disinfectants to plasma cholesterol and thyroid hormone levels in experimental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, N.W.; McCauley, P.; Bull, R.; Holdsworth, G.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of drinking water containing 2 or 15 ppm chlorine (pH 6.5 and 8.5), chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine on thyroid function and plasma cholesterol were studied because previous investigators have reported cardiovascular abnormalities in experimental animals exposed to chlorinated water. Plasma thyroxine (T4) levels, as compared to controls, were significantly decreased in pigeons fed a normal or high-cholesterol diet and drinking water containing these drinking water disinfectants at a concentration of 15 ppm (the exception was chlorine at pH 6.5) for 3 months. In most of the treatment groups, T4 levels were significantly lower following the exposure to drinking water containing the 2 ppm dose. Increase in plasma cholesterol were frequently observed in the groups with lower T4 levels. This association was most evident in pigeons fed the high-cholesterol diet and exposed to these disinfectants at a dose of 15 ppm. The factor(s) associated with the effect of these disinfectants on plasma T4 and cholesterol is not known. The authors suggest however that these effects are probably mediated by products formed when these disinfectants react with organic matter in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

  20. LRRK2 phosphorylation level correlates with abnormal motor behaviour in an experimental model of levodopa-induced dyskinesias.

    PubMed

    Stanic, Jennifer; Mellone, Manuela; Cirnaru, Maria Daniela; Perez-Carrion, Maria; Zianni, Elisa; Di Luca, Monica; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Piccoli, Giovanni

    2016-05-11

    Levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) represent the major side effect in Parkinson's disease (PD) therapy. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations account for up to 13 % of familial cases of PD. LRRK2 N-terminal domain encompasses several serine residues that undergo phosphorylation influencing LRRK2 function. This work aims at investigating whether LRRK2 phosphorylation/function may be involved in the molecular pathways downstream D1 dopamine receptor leading to LIDs. Here we show that LRRK2 phosphorylation level at serine 935 correlates with LIDs induction and that inhibition of LRRK2 induces a significant increase in the dyskinetic score in L-DOPA treated parkinsonian animals. Our findings support a close link between LRKK2 functional state and L-DOPA-induced abnormal motor behaviour and highlight that LRRK2 phosphorylation level may be implicated in LIDs, calling for novel therapeutic strategies.

  1. Temporal trends and determinants of longitudinal change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Berger, Claudie; Greene-Finestone, Linda S; Langsetmo, Lisa; Kreiger, Nancy; Joseph, Lawrence; Kovacs, Christopher S; Richards, J Brent; Hidiroglou, Nick; Sarafin, Kurtis; Davison, K Shawn; Adachi, Jonathan D; Brown, Jacques; Hanley, David A; Prior, Jerilynn C; Goltzman, David

    2012-06-01

    Vitamin D is essential for facilitating calcium absorption and preventing increases in parathyroid hormone (PTH), which can augment bone resorption. Our objectives were to examine serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and PTH, and factors related to longitudinal change in a population-based cohort. This is the first longitudinal population-based study looking at PTH and 25(OH)D levels. We analyzed 3896 blood samples from 1896 women and 829 men in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study over a 10-year period starting in 1995 to 1997. We fit hierarchical models with all available data and adjusted for season. Over 10 years, vitamin D supplement intake increased by 317 (95% confidence interval [CI] 277 to 359) IU/day in women and by 193 (135 to 252) IU/day in men. Serum 25(OH)D (without adjustment) increased by 9.3 (7.3 to 11.4) nmol/L in women and by 3.5 (0.6 to 6.4) nmol/L in men but increased by 4.7 (2.4 to 7.0) nmol/L in women and by 2.7 (-0.6 to 6.2) nmol/L in men after adjustment for vitamin D supplements. The percentage of participants with 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L was 29.7% (26.2 to 33.2) at baseline and 19.8% (18.0 to 21.6) at year 10 follow-up. PTH decreased over 10 years by 7.9 (5.4 to 11.3) pg/mL in women and by 4.6 (0.2 to 9.0) pg/mL in men. Higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with summer, younger age, lower body mass index (BMI), regular physical activity, sun exposure, and higher total calcium intake. Lower PTH levels were associated with younger age and higher 25(OH)D levels in both women and men and with lower BMI and participation in regular physical activity in women only. We have observed concurrent increasing 25(OH)D levels and decreasing PTH levels over 10 years. Secular increases in supplemental vitamin D intake influenced both changes in serum 25(OH)D and PTH levels.

  2. Temporal trends and determinants of longitudinal change in 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Berger, Claudie; Greene-Finestone, Linda S; Langsetmo, Lisa; Kreiger, Nancy; Joseph, Lawrence; Kovacs, Christopher S; Richards, J Brent; Hidiroglou, Nick; Sarafin, Kurtis; Davison, K Shawn; Adachi, Jonathan D; Brown, Jacques; Hanley, David A; Prior, Jerilynn C; Goltzman, David

    2012-06-01

    Vitamin D is essential for facilitating calcium absorption and preventing increases in parathyroid hormone (PTH), which can augment bone resorption. Our objectives were to examine serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and PTH, and factors related to longitudinal change in a population-based cohort. This is the first longitudinal population-based study looking at PTH and 25(OH)D levels. We analyzed 3896 blood samples from 1896 women and 829 men in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study over a 10-year period starting in 1995 to 1997. We fit hierarchical models with all available data and adjusted for season. Over 10 years, vitamin D supplement intake increased by 317 (95% confidence interval [CI] 277 to 359) IU/day in women and by 193 (135 to 252) IU/day in men. Serum 25(OH)D (without adjustment) increased by 9.3 (7.3 to 11.4) nmol/L in women and by 3.5 (0.6 to 6.4) nmol/L in men but increased by 4.7 (2.4 to 7.0) nmol/L in women and by 2.7 (-0.6 to 6.2) nmol/L in men after adjustment for vitamin D supplements. The percentage of participants with 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L was 29.7% (26.2 to 33.2) at baseline and 19.8% (18.0 to 21.6) at year 10 follow-up. PTH decreased over 10 years by 7.9 (5.4 to 11.3) pg/mL in women and by 4.6 (0.2 to 9.0) pg/mL in men. Higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with summer, younger age, lower body mass index (BMI), regular physical activity, sun exposure, and higher total calcium intake. Lower PTH levels were associated with younger age and higher 25(OH)D levels in both women and men and with lower BMI and participation in regular physical activity in women only. We have observed concurrent increasing 25(OH)D levels and decreasing PTH levels over 10 years. Secular increases in supplemental vitamin D intake influenced both changes in serum 25(OH)D and PTH levels. PMID:22407786

  3. Yolk hormone levels in the eggs of snapping turtles and painted turtles.

    PubMed

    Elf, P K; Lang, J W; Fivizzani, A J

    2002-06-01

    Although yolk steroids appear to play important roles in the development, growth, and behavior of some birds, their effects in oviparous reptiles are largely unknown. These investigations were initiated to determine initial levels of steroid hormones in the yolks of eggs from two turtle species. Clutches of snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) and of painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) eggs were collected and individual egg yolks were analyzed for estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and testosterone (T) using specific RIAs. E(2) and T levels differed significantly between species, the mean E(2) value in snapping turtles was 2.78+/-0.095 (ng/g) compared to 0.89+/-0.064 (ng/g) for painted turtles, and the mean value for T in snapping turtle yolks was 2.56+/-0.098 (ng/g) compared to 0.68+/-0.045 (ng/g) for painted turtles. In addition, E(2) levels were greater than T levels in both species. Within each species, there were significant differences among clutches from different females. E(2) levels in the snapping turtle yolks varied from a clutch mean of 1.38 to 4.55 ng/g and in painted turtles, the clutch means for E(2) varied from 0.34 to 1.34 ng/g. T levels demonstrated similar phenomena within species, with levels in snapping turtles varying from a clutch mean of 0.68 to 4.71 ng/g. Painted turtle levels of T varied from a clutch mean of 0.22 to 0.72 ng/g. There were also significant differences in the E(2)/T ratio, however, E(2)/T ratios did not differ between species. Painted turtle follicles of different sizes showed significant differences in levels of both E(2) and T, and these differences may reflect differing deposition patterns of these steroids in the egg yolk of this turtle during vitellogenesis. The differences in E(2) and T concentration reported here could have important implications for development, growth, and behavior in oviparous reptilian species. PMID:12161198

  4. Lack of association of acute phase response proteins with hormone levels and antidepressant medication in perimenopausal depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depression is associated with higher plasma levels of positive acute-phase proteins, as well as with lower plasma levels of negative acute-phase proteins. The aim of this study is to examine the levels of acute-phase response proteins and whether these levels are influenced by reproductive hormones and antidepressant medication in the perimenopausal depression. Methods Sixty-five women (age range: 40–58 years old) participated in this study. All women were in the perimenopausal phase. The diagnosis of depression was made through a psychiatric interview and with the aid of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17 (HAM-D 17). The acute-phase response proteins, such as haptoglobin (HP), transferrine (TRf), α1-antitrypsin, complement protein 3 (C3), complement protein 4 (C4) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and the reproductive hormones, for example follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E2), were analyzed using standard laboratory methods. Pearson’s correlations were applied to evaluate the relationship between acute-phase proteins and hormones. Results Perimenopausal women were divided into three groups. The first group consisted of normal controls, the second one involved depressed perimenopausal women, who were taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and the third one included depressed women that were not treated with SSRIs. Depressed women in perimenopause, when being compared to non-depressed women, did not differ as to serum levels of acute-phase proteins. There was a positive correlation between HP and E2 in depressed perimenopausal women, who were not taking SSRIs. Conclusions The lack of association between acute-phase proteins and depressive mood mentioned in this study does not support previous findings in patients with major depression. This negative finding in perimenopausal depression indicates either the absence or a more complex nature of the interactions between acute-phase proteins

  5. Alterations of growth plate and abnormal insulin-like growth factor I metabolism in growth-retarded hypokalemic rats: effect of growth hormone treatment.

    PubMed

    Gil-Peña, Helena; Garcia-Lopez, Enrique; Alvarez-Garcia, Oscar; Loredo, Vanessa; Carbajo-Perez, Eduardo; Ordoñez, Flor A; Rodriguez-Suarez, Julian; Santos, Fernando

    2009-09-01

    Hypokalemic tubular disorders may lead to growth retardation which is resistant to growth hormone (GH) treatment. The mechanism of these alterations is unknown. Weaning female rats were grouped (n = 10) in control, potassium-depleted (KD), KD treated with intraperitoneal GH at 3.3 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) during the last week (KDGH), and control pair-fed with KD (CPF). After 2 wk, KD rats were growth retarded compared with CPF rats, the osseous front advance (+/-SD) being 67.07 +/- 10.44 and 81.56 +/- 12.70 microm/day, respectively. GH treatment did not accelerate growth rate. The tibial growth plate of KD rats had marked morphological alterations: lower heights of growth cartilage (228.26 +/- 23.58 microm), hypertrophic zone (123.68 +/- 13.49 microm), and terminal chondrocytes (20.8 +/- 2.39 microm) than normokalemic CPF (264.21 +/- 21.77, 153.18 +/- 15.80, and 24.21 +/- 5.86 microm). GH administration normalized these changes except for the distal chondrocyte height. Quantitative PCR of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-I receptor, and GH receptor genes in KD growth plates showed downregulation of IGF-I and upregulation of IGF-I receptor mRNAs, without changes in their distribution as analyzed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. GH did not further modify IGF-I mRNA expression. KD rats had normal hepatic IGF-I mRNA levels and low serum IGF-I values. GH increased liver IGF-I mRNA, but circulating IGF-I levels remained reduced. This study discloses the structural and molecular alterations induced by potassium depletion on the growth plate and shows that the lack of response to GH administration is associated with persistence of the disturbed process of chondrocyte hypertrophy and depressed mRNA expression of local IGF-I in the growth plate.

  6. The Effect of Abdominal Radical Trachelectomy on Ovarian Reserve: Serial Changes in Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Muraji, Miho; Sudo, Tamotsu; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Ueno, Sayaka; Wakahashi, Senn; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Kiyoshi; Nishimura, Ryuichiro

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of abdominal radical trachelectomy on ovarian reserve and compare it with abdominal radical hysterectomy and a control group that did not have surgery. Method: We enrolled eighteen women who had abdominal radical trachelectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and sixteen patients who had abdominal radical hysterectomy for this study. Ten thousand one hundred eighty-six women were also included as a control group for comparison. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of patient characteristics and comparison of serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels between the three groups. Results: Serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels in patients with abdominal radical trachelectomy were significantly higher than those of patients with abdominal radical hysterectomy (P<0.05). Serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels in the abdominal radical hysterectomy group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P=0.02), with no significant difference between the abdominal radical trachelectomy and control groups. These data indicated that abdominal radical trachelectomy did not affect ovarian function with respect to ovarian reserve and the response to ovarian stimulation. Conclusions: Serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels could be useful as a marker of ovarian reserve after abdominal radical trachelectomy. It is important to avoid postoperative complications causing a reduction in ovarian function to accomplish fertility-sparing surgery. PMID:22606208

  7. Linking steroid hormone levels to sexual maturity index and energy reserves in Nereis diversicolor from clean and polluted estuaries.

    PubMed

    Durou, C; Mouneyrac, C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare seasonal variations of reproduction physiology of the ragworm Nereis diversicolor --a key species in estuarine ecosystems--originating from a clean (Authie) and multi-polluted (Seine) estuaries. A particular attention was carried out in female worms, on relationships between sexual maturity stages, energy reserves (glycogen and lipids) and steroid hormone levels (progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and testosterone). Sexual maturity index (SMI), energy reserves and steroid hormones are clearly influenced by season in worms from both sites. Depleted steroid hormone levels were depicted in specimens exhibiting high sexual maturity stage and energy reserves. Intersite analysis has revealed all over the sampling period:--a sexual precocity in worms from Seine,--glycogen concentrations generally higher in worms from Authie,--no clear tendency for lipids,--no differences in steroid hormone levels. Sexual precocity and lower glycogen levels in Seine could be explained by a specific strategy above all devoted to reproduction in these worms. Chemical stress could be a possible explanation of these observations.

  8. [Serum hormonal levels in diamond-extracting industry workers of Yakutia, with surface and underground type of work].

    PubMed

    Seliatitskaia, V G; Kuz'minova, O I; Nikolaev, Iu A; Galanova, Zh M

    2011-01-01

    The authors studied influence of work type (surface or underground) on serum hormonal levels in male workers of "International" mine within diamond-extracting complex of Yakutia-Sakha Republic. The results obtained show compensation and adaptation changes of endocrine system in males engaged into underground work vs. those of surface work.

  9. Pharmacodynamics of aqueous leuprolide acetate stimulation testing in girls: correlation between clinical diagnosis and time of peak luteinizing hormone level.

    PubMed

    Chi, Carolyn H; Durham, Eileen; Neely, E Kirk

    2012-10-01

    We assessed the pharmacodynamics of a 3-hour leuprolide stimulation test in 11 girls with precocious puberty to determine an optimal single sampling time. Luteinizing hormone level following leuprolide stimulation was near maximum by 30 minutes in girls with central precocious puberty, whereas it continued to rise slowly in girls with nonprogressive puberty.

  10. Association of cigarette smoking with reproductive hormone levels and semen quality in healthy adult men in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Chen, Yi-Ling; Kantaria, Khyati N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of cigarette smoking with semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in 192 healthy men 20-65 years old, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Exposure to cigarette smoking was classified three ways based on: 1) smoking status (yes vs. no); 2) the number of cigarettes per day (0, 1-10, > 10); and 3) pack-years (0, 1-10, 11-20, > 20). Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and total estradiol (TE) were measured. Semen quality, including concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology, were assessed. Mean levels of smoking, semen quality, and hormones were compared using the multiple linear regression, while controlling for possible confounding factors, including age, body mass index (BMI), cadmium levels in seminal plasma, and alcohol consumption. Current smokers, who smoked 10 cigarettes per day, had a lower mean percentage of normal morphology (3.2% and 5.5% in nonsmokers, P = 0.040), and a higher mean level of TT (454.7 pmol/L and 439.8 pmol/L in nonsmokers, P = 0.048), as compared with nonsmokers. Also, current smokers at > 20 pack-year had a lower percentage of normal morphology and a lower mean level of TT as compared with nonsmokers; no significant difference was observed in LH, FSH, sperm concentration, vitality, and motility between smokers and nonsmokers based on the number of cigarette per day and the pack-year. Sperm vitality statistically correlated with FSH (β = -0.36 P = 0.015) and TE (β = 0.35, P = 0.018), while motility statistically correlated with TT (β = 0.228, P = 0.045). Normal morphology did not statistically correlated with all reproductive hormones.

  11. Effect of mirabegron on plasma gonadotropic and steroidal hormone levels in rats after two weeks of oral administration.

    PubMed

    Yuno, Koichiro; Onishi, Yuko; Arima, Akihiro; Zaizen, Kinuko; Aoki, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Soichi; Schneidkraut, Marlowe J; Miyamae, Yoichi

    2014-06-01

    The effects of mirabegron on plasma gonadotropic and steroidal hormone levels in rats were investigated, when administered orally once daily for two weeks to male and female rats at doses of 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg/day, in order to elucidate a potential mechanism for findings in the reproductive system observed in toxicity studies in rats. Significantly decreased body weight gain and food consumption were observed in males and females at 100 mg/kg/day on Days 1 to 4 of dosing. A significantly prolonged estrous interval was observed in females at 100 mg/kg/day and increased liver weights were noted in females at 30 mg/kg/day or greater. No histopathological changes were observed in the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, liver, testes, epididymides, prostate, seminal vesicle, ovaries, uterus, or vagina at any dose. In males, no treatment-related changes in levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were observed at any dose. Corticosterone levels in males increased in a dose-dependent manner at 30 mg/kg/day or greater. In females, no treatment-related changes in levels of LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol, progesterone, or corticosterone were observed at any dose in any stage of the estrous cycle. Taken together, these results suggest that mirabegron has no effect on gonadotropic or sex steroidal hormone levels in either sex at doses up to 100 mg/kg/day. In contrast, adrenocortical hormone levels were increased in males at mirabegron doses of 30 mg/kg/day or greater. PMID:24849685

  12. The meaning of anti-Müllerian hormone levels in patients at a high risk of poor ovarian response.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jong; Lee, Geun Ho; Gong, Du Sik; Yoon, Tae Ki; Lee, Woo Sik

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of ovarian reserve play an important role in predicting the clinical results of assisted reproductive technology (ART). The ideal markers of ovarian reserve for clinical applications should have high specificity in order to determine genuine poor responders. Basal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, antral follicle count, and serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels have been suggested as ovarian reserve tests that may fulfill this requirement, with serum AMH levels being the most promising parameter. Serum AMH levels have been suggested to be a predictor of clinical pregnancy in ART for older women, who are at a high risk for decreased ovarian response. We reviewed the prognostic significance of ovarian reserve tests for patients undergoing ART treatment, with a particular focus on the significance of serum AMH levels in patients at a high risk of poor ovarian response. PMID:27689035

  13. The meaning of anti-Müllerian hormone levels in patients at a high risk of poor ovarian response

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jong; Lee, Geun Ho; Gong, Du Sik; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of ovarian reserve play an important role in predicting the clinical results of assisted reproductive technology (ART). The ideal markers of ovarian reserve for clinical applications should have high specificity in order to determine genuine poor responders. Basal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, antral follicle count, and serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels have been suggested as ovarian reserve tests that may fulfill this requirement, with serum AMH levels being the most promising parameter. Serum AMH levels have been suggested to be a predictor of clinical pregnancy in ART for older women, who are at a high risk for decreased ovarian response. We reviewed the prognostic significance of ovarian reserve tests for patients undergoing ART treatment, with a particular focus on the significance of serum AMH levels in patients at a high risk of poor ovarian response. PMID:27689035

  14. The meaning of anti-Müllerian hormone levels in patients at a high risk of poor ovarian response

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jong; Lee, Geun Ho; Gong, Du Sik; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of ovarian reserve play an important role in predicting the clinical results of assisted reproductive technology (ART). The ideal markers of ovarian reserve for clinical applications should have high specificity in order to determine genuine poor responders. Basal follicle-stimulating hormone levels, antral follicle count, and serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels have been suggested as ovarian reserve tests that may fulfill this requirement, with serum AMH levels being the most promising parameter. Serum AMH levels have been suggested to be a predictor of clinical pregnancy in ART for older women, who are at a high risk for decreased ovarian response. We reviewed the prognostic significance of ovarian reserve tests for patients undergoing ART treatment, with a particular focus on the significance of serum AMH levels in patients at a high risk of poor ovarian response.

  15. Influence of abnormally high leptin levels during pregnancy on metabolic phenotypes in progeny mice.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Elena N; Chepeleva, Elena V; Panchenko, Polina E; Bazhan, Nadezhda M

    2013-12-01

    Maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in offspring, and obesity is accompanied by an increase in blood leptin levels. The "yellow" mutation at the mouse agouti locus (A(y)) increases blood leptin levels in C57BL preobese pregnant mice without affecting other metabolic characteristics. We investigated the influence of the A(y) mutation or leptin injection at the end of pregnancy in C57BL mice on metabolic phenotypes and the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) in offspring. In both C57BL-A(y) and leptin-treated mice, the maternal effect was more pronounced in male offspring. Compared with males born to control mothers, males born to A(y) mothers displayed equal food intake (FI) but decreased body weight (BW) gain after weaning, equal glucose tolerance, and enhanced FI-to-BW ratios on the standard diet but the same FI and BW on the high-fat diet. Males born to A(y) mothers were less responsive to the anorectic effect of exogenous leptin and less resistant to fasting (were not hyperphagic and gained less weight during refeeding after food deprivation) compared with males born to control mothers. However, all progeny displayed equal hypothalamic expression of Agouti gene-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and equal plasma leptin and glucose levels after food deprivation. Leptin injections in C57BL mice on day 17 of pregnancy decreased BW in both male and female offspring but inhibited FI and DIO only in male offspring. Our results show that hyperleptinemia during pregnancy has sex-specific long-term effects on energy balance regulation in progeny and does not predispose offspring to developing obesity.

  16. Renal Vein Thrombosis in a Newborn With Abnormal Factor VIII Level: Clinical Case Report.

    PubMed

    Szafranska, Agnieszka; Pajak, Agata; Kilis-Pstrusinska, Katarzyna; Królak-Olejnik, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) in neonates is a rare condition of low mortality but significant morbidity due to renal impairment.We report the case of a male term newborn with left RVT and elevated serum factor VIII (FVIII).The main symptoms of the patient and the important clinical findings: prompt diagnosis of RVT was possible because the classic clinical presentation of macroscopic hematuria, thrombocytopenia, and palpable flank mass were present in this newborn infant.The main diagnoses: finally, the reason of RVT was established when the infant was 3 months of age: the increased level of FVIII was confirmed. We discuss the diagnosis, therapy, and outcome of the patient and compare with the literature.Therapeutics interventions: however, despite anticoagulant therapy the left kidney developed areas of scarring and then atrophy.Conclusions and outcomes: Prothrombotic defects should be considered in all patients with perinatal RVT. Elevated factor VIII as a reason of RVT in neonatal period is particularly rare. Given a poor renal outcome in children associated with elevated levels of factor VIII, consideration could be given to more aggressive antithrombotic therapy in such cases.

  17. Factors associated with serum levels of estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin among premenopausal Japanese women.

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, C; Kaneda, N; Kabuto, M; Shimizu, H

    1997-01-01

    We measured serum levels of estradiol (E(2)) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) among 50 healthy premenopausal Japanese women in 1994 in Gifu, Japan, to investigate the relationships between potential risk factors for breast cancer and hormone levels. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we collected data on body size, physical activity, and previous disease history, as well as menstrual and reproductive histories of the woman and her mother. Blood samples were drawn from each subject on the 11th and 22nd days of her menstrual cycle. Higher serum E(2) levels were observed for women with shorter menstrual cycles. Age as well as cycle length were included in the regression models to determine the associations between hormone levels and study variables. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to SHBG level measured at the 11th day of the cycle, after adjusting for age and cycle length (r = -0.33; p = 0. 03). Women born in spring/summer had higher levels of E(2) on the 22nd day (p = 0.07) and higher levels of SHBG on both the 11th and 22nd days of the cycle (p = 0.01 and p = 0.06, respectively) than those born in other seasons. Physical activity at 13-15 years of age was inversely related to E(2) level on the 11th day of the cycle after controlling for age, cycle length, BMI, and birth month (r = -0.35; p = 0.04). PMID:9300929

  18. Chronic exposure to hypergravity affects thyrotropin-releasing hormone levels in rat brainstem and cerebellum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, N. G.; Tang, F.; Corcoran, M. L.; Fox, R. A.; Man, S. Y.

    1998-01-01

    In studies to determine the neurochemical mechanisms underlying adaptation to altered gravity we have investigated changes in neuropeptide levels in brainstem, cerebellum, hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex by radioimmunoassay. Fourteen days of hypergravity (hyperG) exposure resulted in significant increases in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) content of brainstem and cerebellum, but no changes in levels of other neuropeptides (beta-endorphin, cholecystokinin, met-enkephalin, somatostatin, and substance P) examined in these areas were found, nor were TRH levels significantly changed in any other brain regions investigated. The increase in TRH in brainstem and cerebellum was not seen in animals exposed only to the rotational component of centrifugation, suggesting that this increase was elicited by the alteration in the gravitational environment. The only other neuropeptide affected by chronic hyperG exposure was met-enkephalin, which was significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex. However, this alteration in met-enkephalin was found in both hyperG and rotation control animals and thus may be due to the rotational rather than the hyperG component of centrifugation. Thus it does not appear as if there is a generalized neuropeptide response to chronic hyperG following 2 weeks of exposure. Rather, there is an increase only of TRH and that occurs only in areas of the brain known to be heavily involved with vestibular inputs and motor control (both voluntary and autonomic). These results suggest that TRH may play a role in adaptation to altered gravity as it does in adaptation to altered vestibular input following labyrinthectomy, and in cerebellar and vestibular control of locomotion, as seen in studies of ataxia.

  19. Cardiac Function in Newborns with Congenital Hypothyroidism: Association with Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels

    PubMed Central

    Öner, Taliha; Özdemir, Rahmi; Doksöz, Önder; Yozgat, Yılmaz; Karadeniz, Cem; Demirpençe, Savaş; Yılmazer, Murat Muhtar; Büyükinan, Muammer; Meşe, Timur; Tavlı, Vedide

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to demonstrate ventricular function changes in patients with congenital hypothyroidism and to investigate whether there is an association between any such changes and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels using M-mode and Doppler electrocardiography (ECG) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Methods: Twenty-seven patients 5-30 days of age with congenital hypothyroidism who were scheduled to receive L-thyroxine treatment and 20 healthy newborns were included in this study. Twelve-lead ECG and M-mode TDI recordings of the patient and healthy groups were obtained. The patient group was divided into two subgroups according to TSH level (>100 uIU/mL or <100 uIU/mL), which were then compared on all parameters. Results: Decreases were observed in the ejection fraction (EF), shortening fraction (SF), and mitral lateral annulus, mitral septal annulus, and tricuspid lateral annulus systolic velocity (Sa) on TDI, whereas left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESd) and corrected QT interval (QTc) dispersion were significantly increased in the patient group compared with the control group. No significant differences between the groups were found in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd) or heart rate. When the two patient subgroups (TSH >100 uIU/mL and <100 uIU/mL) were compared, TDI septal annulus Sa wave length and heart rate were significantly lower in the TSH >100 group. Conclusion: Impairment in left ventricular systolic function and increased risk of arrhythmia were observed in newborn infants with congenital hypothyroidism. TSH level was associated with heart rate and interventricular septum velocity. PMID:26777042

  20. Impact of Low-Level Thyroid Hormone Disruption Induced by Propylthiouracil on Brain Development and Function.*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The critical role of thyroid hormone (TH) in brain development is well established, severe deficiencies leading to significant neurological dysfunction. Much less information is available on more modest perturbations of TH on brain function. The present study induced varying degr...

  1. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  2. Acromegalic gigantism with low serum level of growth hormone and elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-I.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, R; Yoshida, T; Sakane, N; Yasuda, T; Umekawa, T; Kondo, M; Shimatsu, A; Hizuka, N; Sano, T

    1995-03-01

    In a case of acromegalic gigantism with hyperprolactinemia is reported, the basal serum growth hormone (GH) levels ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 ng/ml. Serum GH response to either insulin-induced hypoglycemia or GH-releasing hormone was blunted. Frequent blood sampling showed non-pulsatile GH secretion. Serum prolactin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were elevated. After unsuccessful surgery, bromocriptine treatment normalized serum prolactin without affecting serum GH and IGF-I levels. Combined administration of octreotide with bromocriptine reduced serum GH and IGF-I levels. In this case, non-pulsatile GH secretion and enhanced tissue sensitivity to GH may induce hypersecretion of IGF-I and cause clinical acromegalic gigantism. PMID:7787324

  3. Radioimmunoassay for 6-D-tryptophan analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: measurement of serum levels after administration of long-acting microcapsule formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mason-Garcia, M.; Vigh, S.; Comaru-Schally, A.M.; Redding, T.W.; Somogyvari-Vigh, A.; Horvath, J.; Schally, A.V.

    1985-03-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for (6-D-tryptophan)luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ((D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH) was developed and used for following the rate of liberation of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH from a long-acting delivery systems based on a microcapsule formulation. Rabbit antibodies were generated against (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH conjugated to bovine serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. Crossreactivity with LH-RH was less than 1%; there was no significant cross-reactivity with other peptides. The minimal detectable dose of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH was 2 pg per tube. In tra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 8% and 10%, respectively. The radioimmunoassay was suitable for direct determination of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH in serum, permitting the study of blood levels of the analog after single injections into normal men and after one-a-month administration of microcapsules to rats. In men, 90 min after subcutaneous injection of 250 ..mu..g of the peptide, serum (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH rose to 6-12 ng/ml. Luteinizing hormone was increased 90 min and 24 hr after the administration of the analog. Several batches of microcapsules were tested in rats and the rate of release of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH was followed. The improved batch of microcapsules of (D-Trp/sup 6/)LH-RH increased serum concentrations of the analog for 30 days or longer after intramuscular injection.

  4. Differential hormonal and gene expression dynamics in two inbred sunflower lines with contrasting dormancy level.

    PubMed

    Roselló, Paula L; Vigliocco, Ana E; Andrade, Andrea M; Riera, Natalí V; Calafat, Mario; Molas, María L; Alemano, Sergio G

    2016-05-01

    Seed germination and dormancy are tightly regulated by hormone metabolism and signaling pathway. We investigated the endogenous content of abscisic acid (ABA), its catabolites, and gibberellins (GAs), as well as the expression level of certain ABA and GAs metabolic and signaling genes in embryo of dry and imbibed cypselas of inbred sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae) lines: B123 (dormant) and B91 (non-dormant). Under our experimental conditions, the expression of RGL2 gene might be related to the ABA peak in B123 line at 3 h of imbibition. Indeed, RGL2 transcripts are absent in dry and early embedded cypselas of the non-dormant line B91. ABA increase was accompanied by a significant ABA-Glucosyl ester (ABA-GE) and phaseic acid (PA) (two ABA catabolites) decrease in B123 line (3 h) which indicates that ABA metabolism seems to be more active in this line, and that it would be involved in the imposition and maintenance of sunflower seed dormancy, as it has been reported for many species. Finally, an increase of bioactive GAs (GA1 and GA3) occurs at 12 h of imbibition in both lines after a decrease in ABA content. This study shows the first report about the RGL2 tissue-specific gene expression in sunflower inbred lines with contrasting dormancy level. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that ABA and GAs content and differential expression of metabolism and signaling genes would be interacting in seed dormancy regulation through a mechanism of action related to embryo itself.

  5. Differential hormonal and gene expression dynamics in two inbred sunflower lines with contrasting dormancy level.

    PubMed

    Roselló, Paula L; Vigliocco, Ana E; Andrade, Andrea M; Riera, Natalí V; Calafat, Mario; Molas, María L; Alemano, Sergio G

    2016-05-01

    Seed germination and dormancy are tightly regulated by hormone metabolism and signaling pathway. We investigated the endogenous content of abscisic acid (ABA), its catabolites, and gibberellins (GAs), as well as the expression level of certain ABA and GAs metabolic and signaling genes in embryo of dry and imbibed cypselas of inbred sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae) lines: B123 (dormant) and B91 (non-dormant). Under our experimental conditions, the expression of RGL2 gene might be related to the ABA peak in B123 line at 3 h of imbibition. Indeed, RGL2 transcripts are absent in dry and early embedded cypselas of the non-dormant line B91. ABA increase was accompanied by a significant ABA-Glucosyl ester (ABA-GE) and phaseic acid (PA) (two ABA catabolites) decrease in B123 line (3 h) which indicates that ABA metabolism seems to be more active in this line, and that it would be involved in the imposition and maintenance of sunflower seed dormancy, as it has been reported for many species. Finally, an increase of bioactive GAs (GA1 and GA3) occurs at 12 h of imbibition in both lines after a decrease in ABA content. This study shows the first report about the RGL2 tissue-specific gene expression in sunflower inbred lines with contrasting dormancy level. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that ABA and GAs content and differential expression of metabolism and signaling genes would be interacting in seed dormancy regulation through a mechanism of action related to embryo itself. PMID:26934102

  6. Metabolic hormones regulate basal and growth hormone-dependent igf2 mRNA level in primary cultured coho salmon hepatocytes: effects of insulin, glucagon, dexamethasone, and triiodothyronine.

    PubMed

    Pierce, A L; Dickey, J T; Felli, L; Swanson, P; Dickhoff, W W

    2010-03-01

    Igf1 and Igf2 stimulate growth and development of vertebrates. Circulating Igfs are produced by the liver. In mammals, Igf1 mediates the postnatal growth-promoting effects of growth hormone (Gh), whereas Igf2 stimulates fetal and placental growth. Hepatic Igf2 production is not regulated by Gh in mammals. Little is known about the regulation of hepatic Igf2 production in nonmammalian vertebrates. We examined the regulation of igf2 mRNA level by metabolic hormones in primary cultured coho salmon hepatocytes. Gh, insulin, the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (Dex), and glucagon increased igf2 mRNA levels, whereas triiodothyronine (T(3)) decreased igf2 mRNA levels. Gh stimulated igf2 mRNA at physiological concentrations (0.25x10(-9) M and above). Insulin strongly enhanced Gh stimulation of igf2 at low physiological concentrations (10(-11) M and above), and increased basal igf2 (10(-8) M and above). Dex stimulated basal igf2 at concentrations comparable to those of stressed circulating cortisol (10(-8) M and above). Glucagon stimulated basal and Gh-stimulated igf2 at supraphysiological concentrations (10(-7) M and above), whereas T(3) suppressed basal and Gh-stimulated igf2 at the single concentration tested (10(-7) M). These results show that igf2 mRNA level is highly regulated in salmon hepatocytes, suggesting that liver-derived Igf2 plays a significant role in salmon growth physiology. The synergistic regulation of igf2 by insulin and Gh in salmon hepatocytes is similar to the regulation of hepatic Igf1 production in mammals.

  7. Effects of feeding two levels of propionibacteria to dairy cows on plasma hormones and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Mayte M; Stein, Dan R; Allen, Dustin T; Perry, Emily; Lehloenya, Keneuoe V; Rehberger, Thomas G; Mertz, Keith J; Jones, David A; Spicer, Leon J

    2007-05-01

    To determine the effect of feeding propionibacteria on metabolic indicators during lactation, multiparous and primiparous Holstein cows were fed one of three dietary treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial design from 2 weeks prepartum to 30 weeks post partum: (1) Control (primiparous n=5, multiparous n=8) fed a total mixed ration (TMR); (2) high-dose group (primiparous n=6, multiparous n=5) fed TMR plus 6 x 10 (11) cfu/head daily (high-dose P169) of propionibacterium strain P169; or (3) low-dose group (primiparous n=8, multiparous n=6) fed TMR plus 6 x 10(10) cfu/head daily (low-dose P169) of P169. Blood samples were collected weekly and analysed for plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), leptin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and cholesterol. Between weeks 25 and 30, all groups received bovine somatotropin (bST) every 2 weeks. Low-dose P169 multiparous cows had lower (P<0.05) plasma insulin and glucose concentrations than high-dose P169 multiparous cows, whereas high-dose P169 primiparous cows had lower glucose but greater insulin concentartions than low-dose P169 primiparous cows (P<0.05). Plasma insulinratioglucose molar ratios were 13-18% lower (P<0.05) in low-dose P169 cows than in control or high-dose P169 cows. Plasma IGF-I, NEFA and leptin levels did not differ among diet groups between weeks 1 and 25. Low-dose P169 multiparous cows had 25% greater plasma cholesterol levels than high-dose P169 and control multiparous cows, but cholesterol levels in primiparous cows did not differ. During bST treatment, high-dose P169 multiparous cows and low-dose P169 primiparous cows had lower IGF-I levels than their respective controls and, regardless of parity, high-dose P169 cows had greater NEFA than control cows. Although supplemental feeding of P169 altered plasma hormones and metabolites, the particular effects were dependent on dose of P169 and parity of cows.

  8. Effect of dietary estrogens from bovine milk on blood hormone levels and reproductive organs in mice.

    PubMed

    Grgurevic, N; Koracin, J; Majdic, G; Snoj, T

    2016-08-01

    Cows are often milked until 60 d before their next expected calving. Milk from cows in the third trimester of pregnancy contains up to 20 times more estrogens than milk from nonpregnant cows. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure to known doses of estrogens from bovine milk could affect blood hormone levels in mice and influence their reproductive organs. This study was performed with 30 intact male and 30 ovariectomized female mice. Mice of each sex were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups, each with 6 animals of each sex, and a control group with 12 animals of each sex. The first experimental group received 4mL of milk each day from a pregnant cow with natural estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) in concentrations 0.093 and 0.065ng/mL, respectively. The second experimental group received 4mL of the same milk each day, with an added 10ng/mL of both E1 and E2. The third experimental group received 4mL of the same milk each day, with an added 100ng/mL of both E1 and E2. The control group received no milk. After 8 d of treatment, mice were euthanized, blood was collected, and the uteruses, testes, and seminal vesicles were weighed. The results of our study demonstrated that consumption of native milk from a pregnant cow did not affect plasma E1 and E2 levels in either sex; uterine weight in females; or testosterone levels and testes and seminal vesicle weights in males. Similarly, we found no changes in the group that received the milk with an added 10ng/mL of E1 and E2. We did observe elevated plasma estrogens in both sexes, increased uterus weight in females, and decreased plasma testosterone levels in males from the group that received milk with an added 100ng/mL of E1 and E2. However, concentrations in the third group exceeded the physiological concentration of milk estrogens by 1,000 times, so it would be extremely unlikely to find such concentrations in native cow milk. PMID:27265162

  9. Testosterone-induced increase of insulin-like growth factor I levels depends upon normal levels of growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Saggese, G; Cesaretti, G; Franchi, G; Startari, L

    1996-08-01

    Pubertal development is associated with a rise in plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels that is related both to the increase in sex steroids and/or to the sex steroid-induced augmentation in endogenous growth hormone (GH) secretion. In order to investigate the relationship between IGF-I, GH and testosterone, we examined 42 male subjects with various clinical conditions (classical GH deficiency (CGHD, N = 5), non-classical GH deficiency (NCGHD, N = 7), short idiopathic stature (N = 6), nutritional obesity (N = 8), GH-treated CGHD (N = 4), GH-treated NCGHD (N = 5) and normal stature (N = 7)) in which , for evaluation of hypogonadism (i.e. the absence of one or both testes from the scrotal sac), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) tests were performed. We measured IGF-I, total and free testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) by radioimmunoassays before and 48 and 96 h after the start of the test. The values of IGF-I were lower (0.001 < p < 0.005) in CGHD and NCGHD than in the other groups. In comparison to basal levels, IGF-I values increased (0.005 < p < 0.05) both 48 and 96 h after the start of the hCG test in short idiopathic and normal stature children and in GH-treated subjects with NCGHD, but only 96 h in subjects with untreated NCGHD and GH-treated CGHD. No difference was demonstrated in basal values of total testosterone among any of the groups, while basal free testosterone levels were higher (0.001 < p < 0.05) in GH-treated subjects with NCGHD than in all the other groups except nutritional obesity; furthermore, free testosterone was higher (p < 0.05) in nutritional obesity than in CGHD. The values of total and free testosterone obtained both 48 and 96 h after the start of the hCG test were higher (0.001 < p < 0.05) than basal values in all groups. The DHEAS values did not show any significant change during the hCG test. Basal values were higher (0.01 < p < 0.05) in nutritional obesity than in the other groups. Considering all

  10. Effects of age on plasma levels of calcium-regulating hormones and bone status in male SAMP8 mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Wang, Ming-Fu; Liu, Mei-Hui; Lin, Wu-Ting; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2004-03-31

    This study was undertaken to examine whether the plasma levels of calcium-regulating hormones and bone status alter with age in male senescence accelerated mice (SAM), SAMP8. Age-matched senescence-resistant mice, SAMR1, were used as controls. The blood and femur samples were collected at 2.5 months of age (M) and then monthly from 3 to 12 M for physicochemical analyses, biochemical analyses, and the determination of hormones by radioimmunoassay. With advancing age, the plasma calcitonin (CT) levels decreased progressively, and the plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3) levels increased in both SAMR1 and SAMP8. The plasma calcium concentrations were maintained within a narrow range throughout the experimental period, while the plasma phosphorus (P) concentrations decreased with age in both strains. In contrast to SAMR1, the curves of age-related changes in the plasma CT levels and P concentrations were lower, and those in the plasma PTH levels were higher in SAMP8. The femoral bone densities and calcium contents increased gradually with age from the beginning of the experiment and peaked at 6 M in both strains, then declined. Those peaks were lower in SAMP8 than in SAMR1. These results indicate that the male SAMP8 develops osteoporotic signs earlier than SAMR1, and is proved to be a satisfactory animal model for longitudinal studies related to osteoporosis for men. PMID:15239589

  11. Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... based lubricants include petroleum jelly, baby oil, or mineral oil. Oil-based types should not be used ... caused by low levels of these hormones. Hysterectomy: Removal of the uterus. Menopause: The time in a ...

  12. Modeled nitrate levels in well water supplies and prevalence of abnormal thyroid conditions among the Old Order Amish in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nitrate is a widespread contaminant of drinking water supplies, especially in agricultural areas. Nitrate intake from drinking water and dietary sources can interfere with the uptake of iodide by the thyroid, thus potentially impacting thyroid function. Methods We assessed the relation of estimated nitrate levels in well water supplies with thyroid health in a cohort of 2,543 Old Order Amish residing in Lancaster, Chester, and Lebanon counties in Pennsylvania for whom thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured during 1995-2008. Nitrate measurement data (1976-2006) for 3,613 wells in the study area were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey and we used these data to estimate concentrations at study participants' residences using a standard linear mixed effects model that included hydrogeological covariates and kriging of the wells' residuals. Nitrate levels estimated by the model ranged from 0.35 mg/L to 16.4 mg/L N-NO3-, with a median value of 6.5 mg/L, which was used as the cutpoint to define high and low nitrate exposure. In a validation analysis of the model, we calculated that the sensitivity of the model was 67% and the specificity was 93%. TSH levels were used to define the following outcomes: clinical hyperthyroidism (n = 10), clinical hypothyroidism (n = 56), subclinical hyperthyroidism (n = 25), and subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 228). Results In women, high nitrate exposure was significantly associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.11-2.32). Nitrate was not associated with subclinical thyroid disease in men or with clinical thyroid disease in men or women. Conclusions Although these data do not provide strong support for an association between nitrate in drinking water and thyroid health, our results do suggest that further exploration of this hypothesis is warranted using studies that incorporate individual measures of both dietary and drinking water nitrate intake. PMID:22339761

  13. Resting metabolic rate in healthy adults: relation to growth hormone status and leptin levels.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, J O; Vahl, N; Dall, R; Christiansen, J S

    1998-09-01

    Studies in patients with acromegaly and growth hormone (GH) deficiency, and administration of GH in normal and obese subjects and in patients with GH deficiency, suggest that GH increases resting metabolic rate (RMR) independently of changes in body composition. To test whether endogenous GH status determines RMR, we studied 38 healthy adults (18 women and 18 men) in two age groups (young, 30+/-0 years (n=18); older, 51+/-1 years [n=18]) with indirect calorimetry, deconvolution analysis of 24-hour GH secretion, arginin stimulation test, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) measurement, lean and fat tissue distribution (computed tomography [CT] and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), assessment of physical fitness (maximal oxygen consumption [VO2max]), thyroid status, and serum leptin levels. RMR was higher in men compared with women, whereas RMR per lean body mass (LBM) (kcal x 24 h(-1) x kg(-1)) was higher in women (30.0+/-0.5 v 33.0 2/3 0.8; P=.003). GH secretion was higher in women and in young people. Total-body fat (TBF) was higher in women, whereas LBM and abdominal fat were higher in men. Older people had significantly more TBF and abdominal fat as compared with younger people. VO2max was higher in younger people. Leptin levels were higher in women and in older people. Thyroid status was narrowly within the normal range in all subjects. RMR was strongly correlated with LBM (r=.90, P < .001). RMR/LBM correlated strongly with TBF (r=.49, P < .01) and leptin (r=.56, P < .001), but not with GH status. By multiple regression analysis, sex and TBF were the strongest predictors of RMR/LBM. However, in the young subgroup, GH production rate was a positive determinant of RMR/LBM. In the male subgroup, leptin was a stronger predictor than TBF of RMR/LBM (P < .001). Neither age, physical fitness, nor thyroid status contributed independently to predict RMR/LBM. In conclusion, (1) LBM was the most important determinant of RMR; (2) RMR/LBM was higher in women and depended

  14. Relationships of sex steroid hormone levels in benign and cancerous breast tissue and blood: A critical appraisal of current science.

    PubMed

    Stanczyk, Frank Z; Mathews, Brett W; Sherman, Mark E

    2015-07-01

    A systematic review of the literature on sex steroid measurement in breast tissue identified only 19 articles meeting the following criteria: menopausal status given; steroids measured in tissue homogenates by conventional RIA with a purification step or by mass spectrometry; and values reported per g tissue or per g protein. Twelve articles were analyzed in detail for: ratios of sex steroid hormone levels in cancerous or benign tissues to blood levels, stratified by menopausal status; ratios between the different hormone levels within tissues or within blood; and difference in these ratios between tissue and blood compartments. Estrogen and androgen concentrations varied greatly in benign and cancerous tissues and in blood between individuals. Postmenopausal, but not premenopausal, estradiol concentrations were significantly higher in cancerous compared to benign breast tissue. The estradiol/estrone ratio was lowest in premenopausal benign tissue, and substantially higher in premenopausal cancerous tissue and postmenopausal benign and cancerous tissues. Estradiol and estrone levels were considerably higher in tissue than in plasma in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Androgen levels were generally higher in the benign than the cancerous tissue, and tissue androgen levels were higher than in plasma, suggesting in situ aromatization of androgens to estrogens in breast cancer tissue. Limited available data on levels of hydroxylated estrogens in breast tissue compared to corresponding levels in plasma or urine were reviewed, but due to the paucity of studies no conclusions can presently be drawn regarding the relationship of the 2-hydroxyestrone:16α-hydroxyestrone ratio to breast cancer risk and genotoxic effects of 4-hydroxylated estrogens. Finally, data on hormone levels in breast adipose tissue were analyzed; high levels of androstenedione and testosterone and significant estrone and estradiol levels in breast adipocytes from postmenopausal breast

  15. Both cell substratum regulation and hormonal regulation of milk protein gene expression are exerted primarily at the posttranscriptional level

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenstein, R.S.; Rosen, J.M.

    1988-08-01

    The mechanism by which individual peptide and steroid hormones and cell-substratum interactions regulate milk protein gene expression has been studied in the COMMA-D mammary epithelial cell line. In the presence of insulin, hydrocortisone, and prolactin, growth of COMMA-D cells on floating collagen gels in comparison with that on a plastic substratum resulted in a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in the relative rate of ..beta..-casein gene transcription but a 37-fold increase in ..beta..-casein mRNA accumulation. In contrast, whey acidic protein gene transcription was constitutive in COMMA-D cells grown on either substratum, but its mRNA was unstable and little intact mature mRNA was detected. Culturing COMMA-D cells on collagen also promoted increased expression of other genes expressed in differentiated mammary epithelial cells, including those encoding ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-casein, transferrin, malic enzyme, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase but decreased the expression of actin and histone genes. Using COMMA-D cells, the authors defined further the role of individual hormones in influencing ..beta..-casein gene transcription. With insulin alone, a basal level of ..beta..-casein gene transcription was detected in COMMA-D cells grown on floating collagen gels. Addition of prolactin but not hydrocortisone resulted in a 2.5- to 3.0-fold increase in ..beta..-casein gene transcription, but both hormones were required to elicit the maximal 73-fold induction in mRNA accumulation. The posttranscriptional effect of hormones on casein mRNA accummulation preceded any detectable changes in the relative rate of transcription. Thus, regulation by both hormones and cell substratum of casein gene expression is exerted primarily at the post transcriptional level.

  16. Masturbation Frequency and Sexual Function Domains Are Associated With Serum Reproductive Hormone Levels Across the Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huiyong; Avis, Nancy E.; Greendale, Gail A.; Harlow, Siobán D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether reproductive hormones are related to sexual function during the menopausal transition. Design: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a multiethnic cohort study of the menopausal transition located at seven US sites. At baseline, the 3302 community-based participants, aged 42–52, had an intact uterus and at least one ovary and were not using exogenous hormones. Participants self-identified as White, Black, Hispanic, Chinese, or Japanese. At baseline and at each of the 10 follow-up visits, sexual function was assessed by self-administered questionnaires, and blood was drawn to assay serum levels of T, estradiol, FSH, SHBG, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported frequency of masturbation, sexual desire, sexual arousal, orgasm, and pain during intercourse. Results: Masturbation, sexual desire, and arousal were positively associated with T. Masturbation, arousal, and orgasm were negatively associated with FSH. Associations were modest. Estradiol was not related to any measured sexual function domain. Pain with intercourse was not associated with any hormone. Conclusions: Reproductive hormones were associated with sexual function in midlife women. T was positively associated, supporting the role of androgens in female sexual function. FSH was negatively associated, supporting the role of menopausal status in female sexual function. The modest associations in this large study suggest that the relationships are subtle and may be of limited clinical significance. PMID:25412335

  17. Effect of the Combined Extracts of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi on Sex Hormone Functional Levels in Osteoporosis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Xue; Nian, HongLei; Yang, XinWei; Shi, HaoTian; Wang, XiuJuan

    2015-01-01

    The combination of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi has been used to treat osteoporosis for almost 50 years by Professor Shizeng Li, a famous doctor of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, it is unclear whether the combination of the effective constituents of the two herbs may have a protective influence on the skeleton. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the combination extracts of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi on rat model of osteoporosis induced by retinoic acid by gavage. With administrations of the combination extracts of the two herbs (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day) via oral gavage for 3 weeks, bone mineral density (BMD), femur histomorphometry, some sex hormones, and sex hormone receptors were measured. Results showed that the combined extracts could increase BMD, affect bone histomorphometry, coordinate the sex hormones at the level of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis, and increase the protein and mRNA expressions of sex hormone receptors. The findings suggested that the combination extracts of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi might be beneficial as an alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25648166

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (DE-71) interferes with thyroid hormone action independent of effects on circulating levels of thyroid hormone in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ruby; Tighe, Daniel; Danai, Amin; Rawn, Dorothea F K; Gaertner, Dean W; Arnold, Doug L; Gilbert, Mary E; Zoeller, R Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological studies is that PBDE effects on serum TH levels will reflect PBDE effects on TH action in tissues. To test whether this assumption is correct, we performed the following experiments. First, five concentrations of diphenyl ether (0-30 mg/kg) were fed daily to pregnant rats to postnatal day 21. PBDEs were measured in dam liver and heart to estimate internal dose. The results were compared with a separate study in which four concentrations of propylthiouracil (PTU; 0, 1, 2, and 3 ppm) was provided to pregnant rats in drinking water for the same duration as for diphenyl ether. PBDE exposure reduced serum T4 similar in magnitude to PTU, but serum TSH was not elevated by PBDE. PBDE treatment did not affect the expression of TH response genes in the liver or heart as did PTU treatment. PTU treatment reduced T4 in liver and heart, but PBDE treatment reduced T4 only in the heart. Tissue PBDEs were in the micrograms per gram lipid range, only slightly higher than observed in human fetal tissues. Thus, PBDE exposure reduces serum T4 but does not produce effects on tissues typical of low TH produced by PTU, demonstrating that the effects of chemical exposure on serum T4 levels may not always be a faithful proxy measure of chemical effects on the ability of thyroid hormone to regulate development and adult physiology. PMID:25060363

  19. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Verges, B; Chavanet, P; Desgres, J; Kisterman, J P; Waldner, A; Vaillant, G; Portier, H; Brun, J M; Putelat, R

    The finding of endocrine gland lesions at pathological examination in AIDS and reports of several cases of endocrine disease in patients with this syndrome have prompted us to study endocrine functions in 63 patients (51 men, 12 women) with HIV-1 infection. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) classification system, 13 of these patients were stage CDC II, 27 stage CDC III and 23 stage CDC IV. We explored the adrenocortical function (ACTH, immediate tetracosactrin test) and the thyroid function (free T3 and T4 levels, TRH on TSH test) in all 63 patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (testosterone levels, LHRH test) and prolactin secretion (THR test) were explored in the 51 men. The results obtained showed early peripheral testicular insufficiency at stage CDC II and early pituitary gland abnormalities with hypersecretion of ACTH and prolactin also at stage CDC II. On the other hand, adrenocortical and pituitary abnormalities were not frequently found. The physiopathology of the endocrine abnormalities observed in HIV-1-infected patients remains unclear, but one may suspect that it involves interleukin-1 since this protein factor has recently been shown to stimulate the corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion and to act directly on the glycoprotein capsule of the virus (gp 120) whose structure is similar to that of some neurohormones.

  20. Prolonged suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in hyperthyroidism in a neonate born to a mother with Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Hojo, M; Momotani, N; Ikeda, N; Ueda, A; Uno, K; Ishikita, T; Ishiguro, A; Shimbo, T

    1998-10-01

    We report here a case of neonatal hyperthyroidism born to a mother, whose pregnancy was complicated by poorly controlled Graves' disease. The patient demonstrated exophthalmos and marked goiter at birth, indicating the existence of thyrotoxicosis in utero. The mother's Graves' disease was well controlled in the third trimester, resulting in a slightly lower level of free thyroxine (FT4) in the umbilical cord blood serum; however, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was undetectable. Thyroid-stimulating hormone remained undetectable for 2 months, while FT4 levels varied in the course. This case suggests that severe and prolonged thyrotoxicosis in utero, due to poor control of pregnancy with Graves' disease, might induce unresponsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary system in the newborn.

  1. Erectile Dysfunction and Sexual Hormone Levels in Men With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Efficacy of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Lin, Qi-Chang; Zeng, Hui-Qing; Jiang, Xing-Tang; Chen, Bo; Chen, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and serum sexual hormone levels were evaluated in men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In these patients, the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was determined. The 207 men (mean age 44.0 ± 11.1 years) enrolled in the study were stratified within four groups based on their apnea-hypopnea index score: simple snoring (n = 32), mild OSA (n = 29), moderate OSA (n = 38), and severe OSA (n = 108). The International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 (IIEF-5) score was obtained from each patient, and blood samples for the analysis of sexual hormones (prolactin, luteotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, progestin, and testosterone) were drawn in the morning after polysomnography. The IIEF-5 test and serum sexual hormone measurements were repeated after 3 months of CPAP treatment in 53 men with severe OSA. The prevalence of ED was 60.6 % in OSA patients overall and 72.2 % in those with severe OSA. Compared with the simple snoring group, patients with severe OSA had significantly lower testosterone levels (14.06 ± 5.62 vs. 17.02 ± 4.68, p = .018) and lower IIEF-5 scores (16.33 ± 6.50 vs. 24.09 ± 1.94, p = .001). The differences in the other sexual hormones between groups were not significant. After 3 months of CPAP treatment, there were no significant changes in sexual hormone levels, but the IIEF-5 score had improved significantly (18.21 ± 4.05 vs. 19.21 ± 3.86, p = .001). Severe OSA patients have low testosterone concentration and high ED prevalence. IIEF-5 scores increased significantly after CPAP treatment, but there was no effect on serum testosterone levels.

  2. Correlation of plasma nitrite/nitrate levels and inducible nitric oxide gene expression among women with cervical abnormalities and cancer.

    PubMed

    Sowjanya, A Pavani; Rao, Meera; Vedantham, Haripriya; Kalpana, Basany; Poli, Usha Rani; Marks, Morgan A; Sujatha, M

    2016-01-30

    Cervical cancer is caused by infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a soluble factor involved in chronic inflammation, may modulate cervical cancer risk among HPV infected women. The aim of the study was to measure and correlate plasma nitrite/nitrate levels with tissue specific expression of iNOS mRNA among women with different grades of cervical lesions and cervical cancer. Tissue biopsy and plasma specimens were collected from 120 women with cervical neoplasia or cancer (ASCUS, LSIL, HSIL and invasive cancer) and 35 women without cervical abnormalities. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA from biopsy and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels of the same study subjects were measured. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed on the promoter region and Ser608Leu (rs2297518) in exon 16 of the iNOS gene. Differences in iNOS gene expression and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were compared across disease stage using linear and logistic regression analysis. Compared to normal controls, women diagnosed with HSIL or invasive cancer had a significantly higher concentration of plasma nitrite/nitrate and a higher median fold-change in iNOS mRNA gene expression. Genotyping of the promoter region showed three different variations: A pentanucleotide repeat (CCTTT) n, -1026T > G (rs2779249) and a novel variant -1153T > A. These variants were associated with increased levels of plasma nitrite/nitrate across all disease stages. The higher expression of iNOS mRNA and plasma nitrite/nitrate among women with pre-cancerous lesions suggests a role for nitric oxide in the natural history of cervical cancer. PMID:26435258

  3. Correlation of plasma nitrite/nitrate levels and inducible nitric oxide gene expression among women with cervical abnormalities and cancer.

    PubMed

    Sowjanya, A Pavani; Rao, Meera; Vedantham, Haripriya; Kalpana, Basany; Poli, Usha Rani; Marks, Morgan A; Sujatha, M

    2016-01-30

    Cervical cancer is caused by infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a soluble factor involved in chronic inflammation, may modulate cervical cancer risk among HPV infected women. The aim of the study was to measure and correlate plasma nitrite/nitrate levels with tissue specific expression of iNOS mRNA among women with different grades of cervical lesions and cervical cancer. Tissue biopsy and plasma specimens were collected from 120 women with cervical neoplasia or cancer (ASCUS, LSIL, HSIL and invasive cancer) and 35 women without cervical abnormalities. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA from biopsy and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels of the same study subjects were measured. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed on the promoter region and Ser608Leu (rs2297518) in exon 16 of the iNOS gene. Differences in iNOS gene expression and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were compared across disease stage using linear and logistic regression analysis. Compared to normal controls, women diagnosed with HSIL or invasive cancer had a significantly higher concentration of plasma nitrite/nitrate and a higher median fold-change in iNOS mRNA gene expression. Genotyping of the promoter region showed three different variations: A pentanucleotide repeat (CCTTT) n, -1026T > G (rs2779249) and a novel variant -1153T > A. These variants were associated with increased levels of plasma nitrite/nitrate across all disease stages. The higher expression of iNOS mRNA and plasma nitrite/nitrate among women with pre-cancerous lesions suggests a role for nitric oxide in the natural history of cervical cancer.

  4. Effects of commercial formulations of deltamethrin and/or thiacloprid on thyroid hormone levels in rat serum.

    PubMed

    Sekeroglu, V; Sekeroglu, Z Atli; Demirhan, Es

    2014-02-01

    Deltamethrin (DEL) and thiacloprid (THIA) are the two commonly used synthetic insecticides applied either separately or as a mixture. The aim of this study was to assess thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the serum levels of thyroid hormones exposure to these compounds in rats. The animals were orally gavaged with a single dose of DEL (15 mg/kg), THIA (112.5 mg/kg) or DEL + THIA (15 + 112.5 mg/kg) for 24 h (acute treatments) or DEL (3 mg/kg per day), THIA (22.5 mg/kg per day) or DEL + THIA (3 + 22.5 mg/kg per day) for 30 days (subacute treatments). Although all independent and combined treatments with DEL and THIA changed the levels of TSH, these alterations were not significant. Statistically significant increases in free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) serum hormone levels were observed in the independent treatment with THIA and the combined treatment with DEL and THIA for 30 days. The results of this study suggest that in vivo exposure to subacute treatments of commercial formulations of THI and mixture of DEL + THIA increased serum FT3 and FT4 levels in rats. Further studies are required to determine the effects of endocrine disruptors and potential health risks of these insecticides in human, especially in children because of the importance of these hormones during growth and development.

  5. Effects of commercial formulations of deltamethrin and/or thiacloprid on thyroid hormone levels in rat serum.

    PubMed

    Sekeroglu, V; Sekeroglu, Z Atli; Demirhan, Es

    2014-02-01

    Deltamethrin (DEL) and thiacloprid (THIA) are the two commonly used synthetic insecticides applied either separately or as a mixture. The aim of this study was to assess thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the serum levels of thyroid hormones exposure to these compounds in rats. The animals were orally gavaged with a single dose of DEL (15 mg/kg), THIA (112.5 mg/kg) or DEL + THIA (15 + 112.5 mg/kg) for 24 h (acute treatments) or DEL (3 mg/kg per day), THIA (22.5 mg/kg per day) or DEL + THIA (3 + 22.5 mg/kg per day) for 30 days (subacute treatments). Although all independent and combined treatments with DEL and THIA changed the levels of TSH, these alterations were not significant. Statistically significant increases in free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) serum hormone levels were observed in the independent treatment with THIA and the combined treatment with DEL and THIA for 30 days. The results of this study suggest that in vivo exposure to subacute treatments of commercial formulations of THI and mixture of DEL + THIA increased serum FT3 and FT4 levels in rats. Further studies are required to determine the effects of endocrine disruptors and potential health risks of these insecticides in human, especially in children because of the importance of these hormones during growth and development. PMID:22677783

  6. [Anti-Müllerian hormone levels as a predictor of ovarian reserve in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: a review].

    PubMed

    Gasparin, Andrese Aline; Chakr, Rafael Mendonça da Silva; Brenol, Claiton Viegas; Palominos, Penélope Ester; Xavier, Ricardo Machado; Souza, Lucian; Brenol, João Carlos Tavares; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2015-01-01

    The anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is secreted from granulosa cells of growing ovarian follicles and appears to be the best endocrine marker capable of estimating ovarian reserve. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that predominantly affects women of reproductive age and may negatively affect their fertility due to disease activity and the treatments used. Recently, several studies assessed AMH levels to understand the real impact of SLE and its treatment on fertility.

  7. Gene Expression in Developing Brain is Altered by Modest Reductions in Circulating Levels of Thyroid Hormone.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis is a known effect of environmental contaminants. Although animal models of developmental TH deficiency can predict the impact of severe insults to the thyroid system, the effects of moderate TH insufficiencies have not been adequatel...

  8. Short-Period Influence of Chronic Morphine Exposure on Serum Levels of Sexual Hormones and Spermatogenesis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadnia, Hasan; Akhavan Rezayat, Alireza; Hoseyni, Mahmood; Sharifi, Nooriye; Khajedalooee, Mohhamad; Akhavan Rezayat, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background Increased rates of addiction and its broad societal complications are well known. One of the most important systems that may malfunction in drug abusers is the reproductive system, and evaluating patients for this potential risk may lead to increased awareness. Materials and Methods Thirty 60-day-old male rats were divided into control and target groups. The target group underwent 5 mg/kg intraperitoneal injections of morphine twice a day while the control group underwent normal saline injections (at the same dosage). After 60 days, the rats were anesthetized, and after blood sampling, they underwent bilateral orchiepididymectomy. Histological and hormonal evaluations were performed on the samples. Results Levels of sex hormonal features and spermatogenesis were significantly reduced in the target group compared to the control group. LH levels showed a meaningful decrease in the target group, but FSH and testosterone levels did not. On histological section analysis, mature sperm were meaningfully decreased in the target group. Conclusions Chronic use of opioids may lead to alterations in sexual features and sexual hormones. Therefore, opioids have the potential to cause infertility. These changes may result from the effect of the drugs on the hypophysis or hypothalamus, the direct effect of the drugs on the seminiferous tubules, or a combination of both. The findings suggest that public awareness about addiction may cause decreased infertility rates. PMID:27713869

  9. Possible Effect of Extended Use of Hormonal Contraception on Increased Levels of Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Ulcova-Gallova, Z.; Bibkova, K.; Micanova, Z.; Losan, P.; Babcova, K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Increased levels of antiphosholipid antibodies (aPLs) are associated with the autoimmune disorder antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and are known to play a role in infertility. We investigated the possible effect of prolonged use of hormonal contraception (HC) on autoimmunity after discontinuing HC in women with infertility problems. Material and Methods: We analyzed hormonal status including ovulation and the humoral autoimmune response to eight phospholipids detected by ELISA in 1190 infertile women aged 21–46 (mean age: 29.3) years. Results: Long-term HC did not affect ovulation, but in the absence of ovulation HC masked the hormonal disorders. The majority of patients taking HC for more than 10 years with fertility failure had significantly higher levels of aPLs of the IgG isotype against phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine (p > 0.001) than against β2-glycoprotein I and annexin V. Discussion: Thus, high levels of aPLs are significant for the anticoagulant treatment before and during pregnancy to prevent pregnancy loss. PMID:25914418

  10. Circadian variations in plasma levels of hypophyseal, adrenocortical and testicular hormones in men infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Villette, J M; Bourin, P; Doinel, C; Mansour, I; Fiet, J; Boudou, P; Dreux, C; Roue, R; Debord, M; Levi, F

    1990-03-01

    Alterations in the circadian time structure of the secretion of several hormones were investigated in 13 male patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Seven were asymptomatic (classified CDC II, according to the criteria of the Atlanta Centers for Disease Control), and 6 had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (CDC IV). Ten healthy males volunteered as controls. Plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEA-S), cortisol, testosterone, ACTH, and beta-endorphin were determined by RIA in blood samples obtained every 4 h from 0830-0830 h the next morning. Data were analyzed both by two-way analysis of variance and the cosinor method. Circadian rhythms were statistically validated for each of the six hormones in each of the three groups of subjects. Compared with the control subjects, mesors (24-h adjusted means) were significantly higher for cortisol and lower for DHEA, DHEA-S, and ACTH (P less than 0.001 for all four hormones) in all HIV-infected patients. Plasma testosterone mesors were similar in controls and CDC II patients, but decreased significantly in the CDC IV patient group (P less than 0.05). Analysis of the circadian rhythms of plasma hormone levels clearly indicated an altered adrenal hormonal state in HIV-infected male patients, even during the asymptomatic period of the infection. For instance, plasma cortisol at 0430 h was more than twice as high in HIV-infected patients as it was in time-qualified controls. Although patients already had elevated plasma cortisol and lowered adrenal androgen levels at this stage, hypogonadism was not observed, as gauged by plasma testosterone concentrations. We speculate that the primary hormonal defect in HIV-infected patients is increased cortisol secretion resulting from circadian-varying stimulation of the adrenal cortex by a factor other than pituitary ACTH. This factor might be a stimulating substance secreted primarily by infected immune cells. Excess cortisol would lower

  11. Hormonal modulation of food intake in response to low leptin levels induced by hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A loss in fat mass is a common response to centrifugation and it results in low circulating leptin concentrations. However, rats adapted to hypergravity are euphagic. The focus of this study was to examine leptin and other peripheral signals of energy balance in the presence of a hypergravity-induced loss of fat mass and euphagia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were centrifuged for 14 days at gravity levels of 1.25, 1.5, or 2 G, or they remained stationary at 1 G. Urinary catecholamines, urinary corticosterone, food intake, and body mass were measured on Days 11 to 14. Plasma hormones and epididymal fat pad mass were measured on Day 14. Mean body mass of the 1.25, 1.5, and 2 G groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than controls, and no differences were found in food intake (g/day/100 g body mass) between the hypergravity groups and controls. Epididymal fat mass was 14%, 14%, and 21% lower than controls in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 G groups, respectively. Plasma leptin was significantly reduced from controls by 46%, 45%, and 65% in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2 G groups, respectively. Plasma insulin was significantly lower in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 G groups than controls by 35%, 38%, and 33%. No differences were found between controls and hypergravity groups in urinary corticosterone. Mean urinary epinephrine was significantly higher in the 1.5 and 2.0 G groups than in controls. Mean urinary norepinephrine was significantly higher in the 1.25, 1.5 and 2.0 G groups than in controls. Significant correlations were found between G load and body mass, fat mass, leptin, urinary epinephrine, and norepinephrine. During hypergravity exposure, maintenance of food intake is the result of a complex relationship between multiple pathways, which abates the importance of leptin as a primary signal.

  12. Hormonal modulation of food intake in response to low leptin levels induced by hypergravity.

    PubMed

    Moran, M M; Stein, T P; Wade, C E

    2001-09-01

    A loss in fat mass is a common response to centrifugation and it results in low circulating leptin concentrations. However, rats adapted to hypergravity are euphagic. The focus of this study was to examine leptin and other peripheral signals of energy balance in the presence of a hypergravity-induced loss of fat mass and euphagia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were centrifuged for 14 days at gravity levels of 1.25, 1.5, or 2 G, or they remained stationary at 1 G. Urinary catecholamines, urinary corticosterone, food intake, and body mass were measured on Days 11 to 14. Plasma hormones and epididymal fat pad mass were measured on Day 14. Mean body mass of the 1.25, 1.5, and 2 G groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than controls, and no differences were found in food intake (g/day/100 g body mass) between the hypergravity groups and controls. Epididymal fat mass was 14%, 14%, and 21% lower than controls in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 G groups, respectively. Plasma leptin was significantly reduced from controls by 46%, 45%, and 65% in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2 G groups, respectively. Plasma insulin was significantly lower in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 G groups than controls by 35%, 38%, and 33%. No differences were found between controls and hypergravity groups in urinary corticosterone. Mean urinary epinephrine was significantly higher in the 1.5 and 2.0 G groups than in controls. Mean urinary norepinephrine was significantly higher in the 1.25, 1.5 and 2.0 G groups than in controls. Significant correlations were found between G load and body mass, fat mass, leptin, urinary epinephrine, and norepinephrine. During hypergravity exposure, maintenance of food intake is the result of a complex relationship between multiple pathways, which abates the importance of leptin as a primary signal.

  13. Serum inhibin B in healthy pubertal and adolescent boys: relation to age, stage of puberty, and follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, and estradiol levels.

    PubMed

    Andersson, A M; Juul, A; Petersen, J H; Müller, J; Groome, N P; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-12-01

    Inhibin B levels were measured in serum from 400 healthy Danish prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent males, aged 6-20 yr, in a cross-sectional study using a recently developed immunoassay that is specific for inhibin B, the physiologically important inhibin form in men. In addition, serum levels of FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol levels were measured. Serum levels of inhibin B, FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol all increased significantly between stages I and II of puberty. From stage II of puberty the inhibin B level was relatively constant, whereas the FSH level continued to increase between stages II and III. From stage III of puberty the FSH level was also relatively constant, although there was a nonsignificant trend of slightly decreased FSH levels at pubertal stage V compared to stage IV. The levels of serum LH, testosterone, and estradiol increased progressively throughout puberty. In prepubertal boys younger than 9 yr, there were no correlation between inhibin B and the other three hormones. In prepubertal boys older than 9 yr, a significant positive correlation was observed between inhibin B and FSH, LH, and testosterone. However, at this pubertal stage, each hormone correlated strongly with age, and when the effect of age was taken into account, only the partial correlation between inhibin B and LH/testosterone remained statistically significant. At stage II of puberty, the positive partial correlation between inhibin B and LH/testosterone was still present. At stage III of puberty, an negative partial correlation between inhibin B and FSH, LH, and estradiol was present, whereas no correlation between inhibin B and testosterone could be observed from stage III onward. The negative correlation between inhibin B and FSH persisted from stage III of puberty onward, whereas the correlation between inhibin B and LH and between inhibin B and estradiol was nonsignificant at stages IV and V of puberty. In conclusion, in boys, serum inhibin B levels

  14. Ecdysteroids regulate the levels of Molt-Inhibiting Hormone (MIH) expression in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Techa, Sirinart; Chung, J Sook

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod molt is coordinated through the interplay between ecdysteroids and neuropeptide hormones. In crustaceans, changes in the activity of Y-organs during the molt cycle have been regulated by molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH). Little has been known of the mode of direct effects of ecdysteroids on the levels of MIH and CHH in the eyestalk ganglia during the molt cycle. This study focused on a putative feedback of ecdysteroids on the expression levels of MIH transcripts using in vitro incubation study with ecdysteroids and in vivo RNAi in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Our results show a specific expression of ecdysone receptor (EcR) in which EcR1 is the major isoform in eyestalk ganglia. The initial elevation of MIH expression at the early premolt stages is replicated by in vitro incubations of eyestalk ganglia with ecdysteroids that mimic the intrinsic conditions of D0 stage: the concentration (75 ng/ml) and composition (ponasterone A and 20-hydroxyecdysone at a 3:1 (w:w) ratio). Additionally, multiple injections of EcR1-dsRNA reduce MIH expression by 67%, compared to the controls. Our data provide evidence on a putative feedback mechanism of hormonal regulation during molting cycle, specifically how the molt cycle is repeated during the life cycle of crustaceans. The elevated concentrations of ecdysteroids at early premolt stage may act positively on the levels of MIH expression in the eyestalk ganglia. Subsequently, the increased MIH titers in the hemolymph at postmolt would inhibit the synthesis and release of ecdysteroids by Y-organs, resulting in re-setting the subsequent molt cycle.

  15. Association between Several Persistent Organic Pollutants and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Cord Blood Serum and Bloodspot of the Newborn Infants of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-01-01

    Current knowledge on adverse endocrine disruption effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) among newborn infants is limited and often controversial. To investigate the associations between prenatal exposure to major POPs and thyroid hormone levels among newborn infants, both cord serum or maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were compared with five thyroid hormones in cord serum of newborn infants as well as TSH in bloodspot collected at 2 day after birth (n=104). Since cord serum thyroid hormones could be affected by those of mothers, thyroid hormone concentrations of the matching mothers at delivery were adjusted. In cord serum, BDE-47, -99, and Σchlordane (CHD) showed significant positive associations with cord or bloodspot TSH. At the same time, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorbenzene (HCB) showed negative associations with total T3 and total T4 in cord serum, respectively. Maternal exposure to β-hexachlorhexane (β-HCH), ΣCHD, ΣDDT, or p,p'-DDE were also associated with neonatal thyroid hormones. Although the sample size is small and the thyroid hormone levels of the subjects were within the reference range, our observation supports thyroid disrupting potential of several POPs among newborn infants, at the levels occurring in the general population. Considering the importance of thyroid hormones during gestation and early life stages, health implication of thyroid hormone effects by low level POPs exposure deserves further follow up investigations. PMID:25965908

  16. Association between Several Persistent Organic Pollutants and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Cord Blood Serum and Bloodspot of the Newborn Infants of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-01-01

    Current knowledge on adverse endocrine disruption effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) among newborn infants is limited and often controversial. To investigate the associations between prenatal exposure to major POPs and thyroid hormone levels among newborn infants, both cord serum or maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were compared with five thyroid hormones in cord serum of newborn infants as well as TSH in bloodspot collected at 2 day after birth (n=104). Since cord serum thyroid hormones could be affected by those of mothers, thyroid hormone concentrations of the matching mothers at delivery were adjusted. In cord serum, BDE-47, -99, and Σchlordane (CHD) showed significant positive associations with cord or bloodspot TSH. At the same time, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorbenzene (HCB) showed negative associations with total T3 and total T4 in cord serum, respectively. Maternal exposure to β-hexachlorhexane (β-HCH), ΣCHD, ΣDDT, or p,p'-DDE were also associated with neonatal thyroid hormones. Although the sample size is small and the thyroid hormone levels of the subjects were within the reference range, our observation supports thyroid disrupting potential of several POPs among newborn infants, at the levels occurring in the general population. Considering the importance of thyroid hormones during gestation and early life stages, health implication of thyroid hormone effects by low level POPs exposure deserves further follow up investigations.

  17. Association between Several Persistent Organic Pollutants and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Cord Blood Serum and Bloodspot of the Newborn Infants of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho

    2015-01-01

    Current knowledge on adverse endocrine disruption effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) among newborn infants is limited and often controversial. To investigate the associations between prenatal exposure to major POPs and thyroid hormone levels among newborn infants, both cord serum or maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were compared with five thyroid hormones in cord serum of newborn infants as well as TSH in bloodspot collected at 2 day after birth (n=104). Since cord serum thyroid hormones could be affected by those of mothers, thyroid hormone concentrations of the matching mothers at delivery were adjusted. In cord serum, BDE-47, -99, and Σchlordane (CHD) showed significant positive associations with cord or bloodspot TSH. At the same time, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorbenzene (HCB) showed negative associations with total T3 and total T4 in cord serum, respectively. Maternal exposure to β-hexachlorhexane (β-HCH), ΣCHD, ΣDDT, or p,p'-DDE were also associated with neonatal thyroid hormones. Although the sample size is small and the thyroid hormone levels of the subjects were within the reference range, our observation supports thyroid disrupting potential of several POPs among newborn infants, at the levels occurring in the general population. Considering the importance of thyroid hormones during gestation and early life stages, health implication of thyroid hormone effects by low level POPs exposure deserves further follow up investigations. PMID:25965908

  18. Exposure to2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) alters thyroid hormone levels and thyroid hormone-regulated gene transcription in manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Song, Ying; Miao, Jingjing; Pan, Luqing; Wang, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have the potential to disturb the thyroid endocrine system in vertebrates, but little is known about the disruptive effects of PBDEs on marine bivalves. In this study, we first examined the effects of BDE-47 exposure on growth of juvenile manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum. The result showed that 1.0 and 10 μg L(-1) BDE-47 had adverse effects on 14-d shell-length growth of juvenile clams. Then, one-year-old adult clams were exposed to 0, 0.1 and 1 μg L(-1) BDE-47 for 15 d. BDE-47 (1 μg L(-1)) exposure caused significant decreases of total T4 (thyroxine) by 40% and T3 (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine) by 75% concentrations in haemolymph of the clams. Transcription of genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism were also studied by quantitative RT-PCR. Gene expression levels of sodium iodide symporter (rp-NIS), iodothyronine deiodinase (rp-Deio) and thyroid peroxidase (rp-TPO) were increased in a dose-dependent manner at day 5 and day 10, while monocarboxylate transporter 8 (rp-Mct8) was downregulated at day 5, day 10 and day 15. The effect and preliminary mechanism observed in the present study were consistent with the results from previous studies on rodent and fish, implying that exposure to BDE-47 may pose threat to thyroid hormone homeostasis in bivalves through thyroid synthesis and metabolism pathways. This study may provide a first step towards understanding of the thyroid function disruptive effects of PBDEs on marine bivalves and the underlying mechanism across taxonomic groups and phyla. PMID:26943874

  19. Diminution of prolactin and increase of thyrotrophin response to thyrotrophin releasing hormone occurring independently of changes in basal level of these hormones during treatment of hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    van Groenendael, J H; Fischer, H R; Hackeng, W H; Schopman, W; Silberbusch, J

    1983-08-01

    In order to study the effect of rising thyroid hormone levels in hypothyroidism upon prolactin responses to TRH, in relation to changes in basal prolactin concentration and to changes in TSH responses, we followed 18 patients by performing TRH tests before and after 14, 28, 42 and 56 d on gradually increasing levothyroxine dosages, plus a final test when euthyroidism was achieved. Basal prolactin rose initially, at day 14, followed by a return on days 28, 42 and 56 to a level similar to the pretherapeutic value, while at euthyroidism prolactin had fallen below the original value. The area under the prolactin response curve on TRH stimulation was unchanged at 14 d, notwithstanding the rise of basal prolactin concentration. At 28, 42 and 56 d the responses declined progressively along with basal prolactin concentrations that remained equivalent to the pretreatment level. The TSH response to TRH rose at 14, 28, and 42 d along with a continuous downward course of basal TSH. Thus, substitution with L-thyroxine inhibited the responsivity of prolactin but enhanced that of TSH to TRH. The fact that these changes occurred in opposite directions, appears to rule out a negative feed-back effect of T4 on hypothalamic TRH secretion. The effects on responses were shown to occur independently of those on basal secretion of prolactin and TSH. PMID:6411393

  20. Variations in some of the body fluid hormone levels currently used for endocrine monitoring during the third trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pedretti, E; Capitanio, G L; Casadio, M; Lanera, P; Conte, N

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated the variability of four hormonal parameters used for the endocrine monitoring of the third trimester of pregnancy (E3, E4, HPL, SP1). We have observed no circadian rhythm of Estriol, Estetrol, HPL, and SP1. The within-a-day and the day-to-day variations are much greater for E4 than for E3 and for HPL than for SP1. The standard deviations were great for the steroids, especially for E4 and much less for the protein hormones, especially SP1. This implies that it is necessary to have serial assays of the steroids to have any confidence in the levels, while good monitoring could be guaranteed with a smaller number of assays for HPL, and SP1. PMID:6971326

  1. A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navneet; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Verma, Pradhuman; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sachdeva, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. The sample of 10 children of same age and socio-economic status residing in non endemic areas who did not have dental fluorosis form controls. Fluoride determination in drinking water, urine and blood was done with Ion 85 Ion Analyzer Radiometer with Hall et al. method. The thyroid gland functional test was done by Immonu Chemiluminiscence Micropartical Assay with Bayer Centaur Autoanalyzer. The significantly altered FT3, FT4 and TSH hormones level in both group1A and 1B school children were noted. The serum and urine fluoride levels were found to be increased in both the groups. A significant relationship of water fluoride to urine and serum fluoride concentration was seen. The serum fluoride concentration also had significant relationship with thyroid hormone (FT3/FT4) and TSH concentrations. The testing of drinking water and body fluids for fluoride content, along with FT3, FT4, and TSH in children with dental fluorosis is desirable for recognizing underlying thyroid derangements and its impact on fluorosis.

  2. Effects of portal vein ligation on sex hormone metabolism in male rats: relationship to lowered hepatic cytochrome P450 levels.

    PubMed

    Farrell, G C; Koltai, A; Zaluzny, L; Murray, M

    1986-02-01

    Hepatic cytochrome P450 levels in male rats fall after portal vein ligation, a procedure that produces total hepatic bypass of portal blood. The present study was undertaken to examine whether changes in sex hormone metabolism could account for these lowered cytochrome P450 levels. Portal vein ligation resulted in testicular atrophy and low serum testosterone concentrations. Serum luteinizing hormone levels were also reduced, suggesting that testicular atrophy was secondary to suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Serum estrone and estradiol concentrations were significantly increased after portal vein ligation, while the magnitude and delayed onset of increases in urinary total estrogen excretion suggested that this was due largely to increased estrogen production. In male rats, both castration (at 12 wk) and exogenous estrogen administration resulted in changes in hepatic cytochrome P450 levels and ethylmorphine N-demethylase activity that were qualitatively similar to those seen after portal vein ligation. In female and castrated male rats, however, cytochrome P450 was not affected by portal vein ligation. Testosterone supplementation corrected the changes of cytochrome P450 levels in castrated male rats but did not have this effect in portal vein-ligated male rats. It is concluded that changes in sex hormone metabolism do occur after portal vein ligation and may contribute to alterations in cytochrome P450 and drug-metabolizing enzyme activity. Decreased levels of serum testosterone, however, do not alone account for the changes in hepatic drug metabolism in this model, and suppression of a hypothalamic-pituitary factor appears to be important.

  3. Effect of acrylamide on neurotransmitter metabolism and neuropeptide levels in several brain regions and upon circulating hormones.

    PubMed

    Ali, S F; Hong, J S; Wilson, W E; Uphouse, L L; Bondy, S C

    1983-01-01

    The effect of acute and subchronic acrylamide treatment on levels of dopamine, serotonin, and their metabolites was determined in several brain regions of the rat. Concentrations of several neuropeptides and circulating hormones were also measured. Both a single and repeated doses of acrylamide resulted in elevated levels of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid in all regions studied (frontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus, brain stem, and hypothalamus). Changes in regional content of other monoamines were much less pronounced. Turnover studies following pargyline blockage of monoamine oxidase, suggested results were due to increased rates of serotonin turnover in acrylamide-treated rats. Changes in neuropeptide levels were only detected in the hypothalamus where a single acrylamide treatment caused elevated levels of beta-endorphin and substance P, and in frontal cortex where met-enkephalin levels were higher after repeated acrylamide injection. Such repeated injection caused a major depression in plasma levels of testosterone and prolactin.

  4. Ultrafine Angelica gigas Powder Normalizes Ovarian Hormone Levels and Has Antiosteoporosis Properties in Ovariectomized Rats: Particle Size Effect

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Lee, Inae; Paik, Sae-Yeol-Rim; Kim, Dong Eun; Lim, Jung Dae; Kang, Wie-Soo; Ko, Sanghoon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The root of Angelica gigas (Korean angelica) is traditionally used to treat women's ailments that are caused by an impairment of menstrual blood flow and cycle irregularities. This study evaluated the effect particle size of Korean angelica powder on its efficacy for treating estrogen-related symptoms of menopause. Initially, Korean angelica roots were pulverized into ultrafine powder, and orally administered to the rats at a concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks. The effects of Korean angelica powder particle size on extraction yield, contents of bioactive compounds (decursin and decursinol angelate), levels of serum ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone), reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), and experimental osteoporosis parameters (mineral density, strength, and histological features) were determined. A significant increase (fivefold) in the contents of decursin and decursinol angelate in the extract of the ultrafine Korean angelica powder was observed compared to coarse Korean angelica powder. Rats were divided into sham-operated or ovariectomized (OVX) groups that were fed coarse (CRS) or ultrafine (UF) ground Korean angelica root. The serum levels of estradiol in the OVX_UF group were 19.2% and 54.1% higher than that of OVX_CRS group. Serum bone-alkaline phosphatase/total-alkaline phosphatase index in the OVX_UF group was half that of the OVX_CRS group. In addition, less trabecular bone loss and thick cortical areas were observed in rats administered ultrafine powder. Therefore, ultrafine grinding may enhance the bioactivity of herbal medicines and be especially useful when their extracted forms lose bioactivity during processing, storage, and oral intake. PMID:23039111

  5. Ultrafine Angelica gigas powder normalizes ovarian hormone levels and has antiosteoporosis properties in ovariectomized rats: particle size effect.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Lee, Inae; Paik, Sae-Yeol-Rim; Kim, Dong Eun; Lim, Jung Dae; Kang, Wie-Soo; Ko, Sanghoon

    2012-10-01

    The root of Angelica gigas (Korean angelica) is traditionally used to treat women's ailments that are caused by an impairment of menstrual blood flow and cycle irregularities. This study evaluated the effect particle size of Korean angelica powder on its efficacy for treating estrogen-related symptoms of menopause. Initially, Korean angelica roots were pulverized into ultrafine powder, and orally administered to the rats at a concentration of 500 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks. The effects of Korean angelica powder particle size on extraction yield, contents of bioactive compounds (decursin and decursinol angelate), levels of serum ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone), reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), and experimental osteoporosis parameters (mineral density, strength, and histological features) were determined. A significant increase (fivefold) in the contents of decursin and decursinol angelate in the extract of the ultrafine Korean angelica powder was observed compared to coarse Korean angelica powder. Rats were divided into sham-operated or ovariectomized (OVX) groups that were fed coarse (CRS) or ultrafine (UF) ground Korean angelica root. The serum levels of estradiol in the OVX_UF group were 19.2% and 54.1% higher than that of OVX_CRS group. Serum bone-alkaline phosphatase/total-alkaline phosphatase index in the OVX_UF group was half that of the OVX_CRS group. In addition, less trabecular bone loss and thick cortical areas were observed in rats administered ultrafine powder. Therefore, ultrafine grinding may enhance the bioactivity of herbal medicines and be especially useful when their extracted forms lose bioactivity during processing, storage, and oral intake.

  6. Long-Term High Fat Diet Has a Profound Effect on Body Weight, Hormone Levels, and Estrous Cycle in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Tandra R.; Donthireddy, Laxminarasimha; Adhikary, Debasis; Chakraborty, Sanjoy

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity causes several health complications along with disruption of the reproductive system. The aim of the current study was to determine how long-term intake of very high fat diet (VHFD) changes the hormonal milieu, affecting the cellular morphology and reproductive cycle in female mice. Material/Methods Mice were fed on normal diet (ND) and VHFD for 2 weeks, 12 weeks, and 25–27 weeks. We assessed changes in body weight, food consumption, energy intake, cellular and tissue morphology, hormonal levels (leptin, insulin, and estradiol), and vaginal smears were performed at various time points to determine the length and cellularity at each stage of the estrous cycle. Results Mice fed on VHFD showed a significant increase in weight gain, reduction in food intake, and increase in energy intake compared to animals fed on ND, indicating that the caloric density of the diet is responsible for the differences in weight gain. Hormonal analysis showed hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, and increases in estrogen levels, along with increases in size of the islet of Langerhans and adipocytes. After 25–27 weeks, all animals fed on VHFD showed complete acyclicity; elongation of phases (e.g., diestrous), skipping of phases (e.g., metestrous), or a combination of both, indicating disruption in the reproductive cycle. Quantitative analysis showed that in the diestrous phase there was a 70% increase in cell count in VHFD compared to animals fed on ND. Conclusions The above results show that morphological and hormonal changes caused by VHFD probably act via negative feedback to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to shut down reproduction, which has a direct effect on the estrous cycle, causing acyclicity in mice. PMID:27171231

  7. The impact of an aromatase inhibitor on body composition and gonadal hormone levels in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    van Londen, G J; Perera, S; Vujevich, K; Rastogi, P; Lembersky, B; Brufsky, A; Vogel, V; Greenspan, S L

    2011-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have become the standard adjuvant therapy of postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. AIs induce a reduction of bioavailable estrogens by inhibiting aromatase, which would be expected to induce alterations in body composition, more extensive than induced by menopause. The objectives are to examine the impact of AIs on (1) DXA-scan derived body composition and (2) gonadal hormone levels. This is a sub-analysis of a 2-year double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of 82 women with nonmetastatic breast cancer, newly menopausal following chemotherapy, who were randomized to risedronate (35 mg once weekly) versus placebo, and stratified for their usage of AI versus no AI. Outcomes included DXA-scan derived body composition and gonadal hormone levels. As a group, total body mass increased in women over 24 months. Women on AIs gained a significant amount of lean body mass compared to baseline as well as to no-AI users (P < 0.05). Women not on an AI gained total body fat compared to baseline and AI users (P < 0.05). Free testosterone significantly increased and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) significantly decreased in women on AIs compared to no AIs at 24 months (P < 0.01) while total estradiol and testosterone levels remained stable. Independent of AI usage, chemotherapy-induced postmenopausal breast cancer patients demonstrated an increase of total body mass. AI users demonstrated maintenance of total body fat, an increase in lean body mass and free testosterone levels, and a decrease in SHBG levels compared to no-AI users. The mechanisms and implications of these changes need to be studied further.

  8. The impact of an aromatase inhibitor on body composition and gonadal hormone levels in women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Perera, S.; Vujevich, K.; Rastogi, P.; Lembersky, B.; Brufsky, A.; Vogel, V.; Greenspan, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have become the standard adjuvant therapy of postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. AIs induce a reduction of bioavailable estrogens by inhibiting aromatase, which would be expected to induce alterations in body composition, more extensive than induced by menopause. The objectives are to examine the impact of AIs on (1) DXA-scan derived body composition and (2) gonadal hormone levels. This is a sub-analysis of a 2-year double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of 82 women with nonmetastatic breast cancer, newly menopausal following chemotherapy, who were randomized to risedronate (35 mg once weekly) versus placebo, and stratified for their usage of AI versus no AI. Outcomes included DXA-scan derived body composition and gonadal hormone levels. As a group, total body mass increased in women over 24 months. Women on AIs gained a significant amount of lean body mass compared to baseline as well as to no-AI users (P < 0.05). Women not on an AI gained total body fat compared to baseline and AI users (P < 0.05). Free testosterone significantly increased and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) significantly decreased in women on AIs compared to no AIs at 24 months (P < 0.01) while total estradiol and testosterone levels remained stable. Independent of AI usage, chemotherapy-induced postmenopausal breast cancer patients demonstrated an increase of total body mass. AI users demonstrated maintenance of total body fat, an increase in lean body mass and free testosterone levels, and a decrease in SHBG levels compared to no-AI users. The mechanisms and implications of these changes need to be studied further. PMID:21046232

  9. The impact of an aromatase inhibitor on body composition and gonadal hormone levels in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    van Londen, G J; Perera, S; Vujevich, K; Rastogi, P; Lembersky, B; Brufsky, A; Vogel, V; Greenspan, S L

    2011-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have become the standard adjuvant therapy of postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. AIs induce a reduction of bioavailable estrogens by inhibiting aromatase, which would be expected to induce alterations in body composition, more extensive than induced by menopause. The objectives are to examine the impact of AIs on (1) DXA-scan derived body composition and (2) gonadal hormone levels. This is a sub-analysis of a 2-year double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of 82 women with nonmetastatic breast cancer, newly menopausal following chemotherapy, who were randomized to risedronate (35 mg once weekly) versus placebo, and stratified for their usage of AI versus no AI. Outcomes included DXA-scan derived body composition and gonadal hormone levels. As a group, total body mass increased in women over 24 months. Women on AIs gained a significant amount of lean body mass compared to baseline as well as to no-AI users (P < 0.05). Women not on an AI gained total body fat compared to baseline and AI users (P < 0.05). Free testosterone significantly increased and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) significantly decreased in women on AIs compared to no AIs at 24 months (P < 0.01) while total estradiol and testosterone levels remained stable. Independent of AI usage, chemotherapy-induced postmenopausal breast cancer patients demonstrated an increase of total body mass. AI users demonstrated maintenance of total body fat, an increase in lean body mass and free testosterone levels, and a decrease in SHBG levels compared to no-AI users. The mechanisms and implications of these changes need to be studied further. PMID:21046232

  10. Adrenocortical Production Is Associated with Higher Levels of Luteinizing Hormone in Nonobese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Gláucia; Pereira, Andrea Z.; Tufik, Sérgio; Zanella, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Insulin resistance (IR) and ovarian and adrenal hyperandrogenism are a common finding in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of the present study was to access possible differences in insulin resistance, gonadotropins, and androgens production in obese and nonobese PCOS women. Study Design. We studied 37 PCOS women (16 nonobese and 21 obese) and 18 nonobese controls. Fasting glucose, insulin, androgens, and gonadotropins levels were determined. Salivary cortisol was measured basal and in the morning after dexamethasone (DEX) 0.25 mg. Results. Nonobese PCOS women showed higher basal salivary cortisol and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels than controls and obese PCOS. These hormones levels did not differ between the obese and control groups. After DEX administration no differences were found between the three groups. In PCOS women, salivary cortisol levels showed negative correlation with BMI (r = −0.52; P = 0.001) and insulin (r = −0.47; P = 0.003) and positive correlation with LH (r = 0.40; P = 0.016). Conclusion. Our results show an increased adrenocortical production in nonobese PCOS women, not related to IR and associated with a normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal suppression. Higher LH levels might be involved in this event. PMID:24895496

  11. Serum hepatic enzyme activity in relation to semen quality and serum reproductive hormone levels among Estonian fertile Men.

    PubMed

    Ehala-Aleksejev, K; Punab, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations of basic semen parameters and reproductive hormones with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). In addition, to examine possible interaction between adiposity, alcohol consumption, and liver tests in relation to male reproductive health, standard semen analysis was performed and serum levels of reproductive hormones and liver tests were measured in 245 male partners of pregnant women at a University Hospital Andrology Centres in Estonia. Quartile analysis revealed that after adjustment for covariates GGT was negatively related to sperm concentration and total sperm count. These significant changes appeared from a GGT >35.5 U/L. Next to these changes ALT was not related to sperm parameters. Both enzymes, GGT and ALT, were not related to reproductive hormones. Alcohol consumption was positively related to GGT and in cases with elevated GGT alcohol use was negatively related to sperm concentration and total sperm count. Alcohol consumption was positively related to body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Our findings also confirm results of previous studies that BMI and WC are associated positively with ALT and GGT. According to the study, increased GGT activity might represent a possible connection between adiposity, alcohol consumption, and semen quality.

  12. The effect of the menstrual cycle on anterior cruciate ligament injuries in women as determined by hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Wojtys, Edward M; Huston, Laura J; Boynton, Melbourne D; Spindler, Kurt P; Lindenfeld, Thomas N

    2002-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury rates are reported to be two to eight times higher in women than in men within the same sport. Because the menstrual cycle with its monthly hormonal fluctuations is one of the most basic differences between men and women, we investigated the association between the distribution of confirmed anterior cruciate ligament tears and menstrual cycle phase. Sixty-nine female athletes who sustained an acute anterior cruciate ligament injury were studied within 24 hours of injury at four centers. The mechanism of injury, menstrual cycle details, use of oral contraceptives, and history of previous injury were recorded. Urine samples were collected to validate menstrual cycle phase by measurement of estrogen, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone metabolites and creatinine levels at the time of the anterior cruciate ligament tear. Results from the hormone assays indicate that the women had a significantly greater than expected percentage of anterior cruciate ligament injuries during midcycle (ovulatory phase) and a less than expected percentage of those injuries during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Oral contraceptive use diminished the significant association between anterior cruciate ligament tear distribution and the ovulatory phase.

  13. Abnormal expression levels of sMICA and NKG2D are correlated with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiong; Xu, Hong; Zhu, Xing-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Soluble major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A molecules (sMICA) and natural-killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) not only correlate with tumorigenesis and progression, but also with tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the correlation and prognostic significance of the differential expression of sMICA and NKG2D in pancreatic carcinoma and paracarcinoma tissues from 70 patients with pancreatic carcinomas. The results showed that sMICA expression was significantly (P<0.05) higher in tumor tissues (67.1%) than that in adjacent nontumor tissues (31.4%), whereas NKG2D expression was significantly (P<0.001) lower in tumor tissues (32.9%) than that in adjacent nontumor tissues (60.0%). Spearman’s rank correlation test showed a negative correlation between the expression of sMICA and that of NKG2D (r=−0.676, P<0.001). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that a high sMICA expression was significantly correlated with decreased disease-free survival (DFS) (P<0.001) and overall survival (OS) (P<0.001), while a high NKG2D expression was significantly associated with increased DFS (P=0.001) and OS (P=0.001) of the patients. Multivariate analysis showed that a high sMICA expression was an independent predictive factor for poor DFS (P<0.001) and OS (P=0.012); but low NKG2D expression was not an independent prognostic factor for poor DFS (P=0.238) and OS (P=0.574). In conclusion, our findings suggest that the expression levels of sMICA and NKG2D are abnormal and negatively correlated with one another in pancreatic carcinoma tissues; they may be considered as valuable biomarkers for the prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:26730197

  14. Association of Hormonal Contraceptive Use With Reduced Levels of Depressive Symptoms: A National Study of Sexually Active Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Westhoff, Carolyn; Heim, Christine M.; Haloossim, Michelle; Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 80% of sexually active young women in the United States use hormonal contraceptives during their reproductive years. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and mood disturbances remain understudied, despite the hypothesis that estrogen and progesterone play a role in mood problems. In this study, we used data from 6,654 sexually active nonpregnant women across 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994–2008), focusing on women aged 25–34 years. Women were asked about hormonal contraceptive use in the context of a current sexual partnership; thus, contraceptive users were compared with other sexually active women who were using either nonhormonal contraception or no contraception. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. At ages 25–34 years, hormonal contraceptive users had lower mean levels of concurrent depressive symptoms (β = −1.04, 95% confidence interval: −1.73, −0.35) and were less likely to report a past-year suicide attempt (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.14, 0.95) than women using low-efficacy contraception or no contraception, in models adjusted for propensity scores for hormonal contraceptive use. Longitudinal analyses indicated that associations between hormonal contraception and depressive symptoms were stable. Hormonal contraception may reduce levels of depressive symptoms among young women. Systematic investigation of exogenous hormones as a potential preventive factor in psychiatric epidemiology is warranted. PMID:24043440

  15. Light exposure leads to reorganization of microglomeruli in the mushroom bodies and influences juvenile hormone levels in the honeybee.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Christina; Wang, Ying; Krischke, Markus; Mueller, Martin J; Amdam, Gro V; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    Honeybees show a remarkable behavioral plasticity at the transition from nursing inside the hive to foraging for nectar and/or pollen outside. This plasticity is important for age-related division of labor in honeybee colonies. The behavioral transition is associated with significant volume and synaptic changes in the mushroom bodies (MBs), brain centers for sensory integration, learning, and memory. We tested whether precocious sensory exposure to light leads to changes in the density of synaptic complexes [microglomeruli (MG)] in the MBs. The results show that exposure to light pulses over 3 days induces a significant decrease in the MG density in visual subregions (collar) of the MB. Earlier studies had shown that foragers have increased levels of juvenile hormone (JH) co-occurring with a decrease of vitellogenin (Vg). Previous work further established that RNAi-mediated knockdown of vg and ultraspiracle (usp) induced an upregulation of JH levels, which can lead to precocious foraging. By disturbing both Vg and JH pathways using gene knockdown of vg and usp, we tested whether the changes in the hormonal system directly affect MG densities. Our study shows that MG numbers remained unchanged when Vg and JH pathways were perturbed, suggesting no direct hormonal influences on MG densities. However, mass spectrometry detection of JH revealed that precocious light exposure triggered an increase in JH levels in the hemolymph (HL) of young bees. This suggests a dual effect following light exposure via direct effects on MG reorganization in the MB calyx and a possible positive feedback on HL JH levels.

  16. Relationship between cognitive function, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I plasma levels in aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Rollero, A; Murialdo, G; Fonzi, S; Garrone, S; Gianelli, M V; Gazzerro, E; Barreca, A; Polleri, A

    1998-01-01

    Basal growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) as well as GH responses to GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) were studied in 22 subjects (7 females, 15 males), aged between 65 and 86 years. The study was aimed at investigating the possible correlations between the age-dependent GH-IGF-I axis decline and the cognitive function - assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). The relationship between hormonal data, cognition and age, body weight, body mass index (BMI), some nutritional indices (triceps skinfolds, TSF, mid-arm circumference, MAC), and physical activity - quantified by the physical functioning index (PFI)--were also analyzed. GH basal levels were within the normal range, while GH responses to GHRH were blunted in most cases. GH peaks after GHRH were directly correlated with GH basal values. IGF-I serum levels were found to be in the lower part of the reference range for adult subjects or below it. GH responses to GHRH, but not GH and IGF-I basal levels, were inversely correlated with subject age. GH secretion areas after GHRH were inversely correlated with BMI, but no further correlations between GH data and clinical or nutritional parameters were found. MMSE values directly correlated with MAC and PFI values. IGF-I levels were directly correlated with MMSE scores, being lowered in patients with more advanced cognitive deterioration, and with MAC values--the decrease of which is thought to reflect protein caloric malnutrition--but not with body weight, BMI, TSF and PFI. MMSE-related protein caloric malnutrition and decreased physical activity possibly take part in affecting IGF- I function in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and, reciprocally, IGF-I decrement might affect neuronal function. PMID:9732206

  17. Multiple hormone deficiencies in children with hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Oerter, K E; Kamp, G A; Munson, P J; Nienhuis, A W; Cassorla, F G; Manasco, P K

    1993-02-01

    Patients with thalassemia major require multiple blood transfusions leading to hemochromatosis. These patients often have pubertal delay and growth failure, the etiology of which has not been fully elucidated. We performed an extensive endocrine evaluation which included measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, GH, thyroid hormone, and adrenal hormones in 17 patients between the ages of 12 and 18 yr with hemochromatosis receiving desferoxamine therapy. All of the 17 patients had at least one endocrine abnormality, and 12 had more than one abnormality. Abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis were the most common. Six patients had clinical evidence of delayed puberty with spontaneous and stimulated gonadotropin and sex steroid levels appropriate for their delayed pubertal stage. All 14 children in puberty LH pulsatility index below the mean for pubertal stage compared to normal children. Six of the 14 had LH pulsatility index more than 2 SD below the mean for pubertal stage. This may be an indicator of abnormal pituitary function. Six patients failed either the provocative GH tests (peak GH < 7 micrograms/L) or had a mean spontaneous GH less than 1 microgram/L. The 4 patients who failed provocative tests had growth velocities more than 2 SD below the mean for bone age. Three patients had evidence of primary hypothyroidism. We conclude that all patients with hemochromatosis need periodic careful endocrine evaluations because the incidence of endocrine dysfunction is substantial and they may benefit from hormonal therapy.

  18. Correlation of vitamin D, bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone levels in adults with low bone density

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sunil; Jammula, Sruti; Kota, Siva; Meher, Lalit; Modi, Kirtikumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bone mineral densiy (BMD) is known to be affected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. Indian data pertinent to above observation is scant. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Adults with or without fragility fractures with low BMD at the hip or lumbar spine were evaluated clinically along with laboratory investigations. T-scores of the hip and spine were derived from BMD-DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between serum 25(OH) D, iPTH and BMD. Results: Total of 102 patients (male:female = 38:64) with a mean age of 62.5 ± 6.4 years were included in the study. Forty-four patients had osteopenia. Osteoporosis was present in 58 patients. The mean values for serum 25(OH) D and iPTH levels were 21.3 ± 0.5 ng/ml and 53.1 ± 22.3 pg/ml, respectively. In 84.3% of patients, serum 25(OH) D levels were below 30 ng/ml (Normal = 30-74 ng/ml), confirming vitamin D deficiency. There was no association between 25(OH) D levels and BMD at the hip or lumbar spine (P = 0.473 and 0.353, respectively). Both at the hip and lumbar spine; iPTH levels, male gender, body mass index (BMI) and age were found to be significant predictors of BMD. Patients with higher BMI had significantly lower BMD and T-score. At levels <30 ng/ml, 25(OH) D was negatively associated with iPTH (P = 0.041). Conclusion: Among our cohort of patients with low BMD, no direct relationship between serum 25(OH) D levels and BMD was observed. However, a negative correlation between iPTH and 25(OH) D at serum 25(OH) D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Serum iPTH levels showed a significant negative association with BMD at the hip and lumbar spine. Our findings underscore the critical role of

  19. Multiglandular Hormone Deficiency in a Patient with Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Then, Cornelia; Ritzel, Katrin; Seibold, Christa; Mann, Johannes F. E.; Reincke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is a rare but potentially fatal disorder characterized by a loss of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space leading to intravascular hypovolemia up to the point of hypovolemic shock. We report the case of a 64-year-old man with SCLS and multiple hormone abnormalities (primary hypothyroidism, hypoadrenalism, and hypogonadism), deficiency of hormone binding globulins, and hypogammaglobulinemia. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulins, theophylline, and terbutaline. Strikingly, with the dissolution of peripheral edema, hormone levels improved. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of SCLS associated with polyglandular abnormalities. PMID:25685157

  20. Hormonal relations of radiation-induced tumors of Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect

    Campell, B.R.; Persinger, S.M.; Town, C.D. )

    1989-04-01

    When gamma-irradiated Arabidopsis seed was germinated, tumors appeared on hypocotyls and apical meristems of the resulting plants. Several tumors have been cultured on hormone free medium for over two years since excision from the plants. The tumor lines display a range of phenotypes suggestive of abnormal hormone balance. To determine whether hormone overproduction or hypersensitivity is involved in tumorigenesis, we are measuring hormone levels in the tumor lines and characterizing their response to exogenously supplied growth regulators. Growth of two tumor lines is stimulated by either NAA or BAP, one is stimulated by NAA only, two by BAP only, and one is stimulated by neither. Growth of all lines tested thus far is inhibited by gibberellic acid, ethephon and ACC. The tumor lines appear more sensitive to ACC than normal callus tissue. Most tumors studied to date appear unlikely to have arisen due to increased hormone sensitivity. Experiments are in progress to determine auxin and cytokinin levels in the tumor lines.

  1. Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels in relation to inflammatory response and disease severity in children with meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    van Woensel, J B; Biezeveld, M H; Alders, A M; Eerenberg, A J; Endert, E; Hack, E C; von Rosenstiel, I A; Kuijpers, T W

    2001-12-15

    This prospective observational study investigated the relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to inflammatory markers and to disease severity in children with meningococcal disease. In total, 32 children were studied: 10 with distinct meningococcal meningitis (MM), 10 with MM and septic shock, and 12 with fulminant meningococcal septicemia (FMS). Levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were lowest in the MM group and dramatically elevated in the FMS group. Cortisol and C-reactive protein levels were highest in the MM group and relatively low in the FMS group. Levels of ACTH and inflammatory markers decreased within the first 24 h of admission, but cortisol levels did not fluctuate. Cortisol was significantly inversely correlated with IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 (P < or =.04). These results suggest that the adrenal reserve in children is insufficient to handle the extreme conditions and stress associated with severe meningococcal disease.

  2. Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2001-09-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α; 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  3. Elderly men have low levels of anti-Müllerian hormone and inhibin B, but with high interpersonal variation: a cross-sectional study of the sertoli cell hormones in 615 community-dwelling men.

    PubMed

    Chong, Yih Harng; Dennis, Nicola A; Connolly, Martin J; Teh, Ruth; Jones, Gregory T; van Rij, Andre M; Farrand, Stephanie; Campbell, A John; McLennan, Ian S; Mlennan, Ian S

    2013-01-01

    The Sertoli cells of the testes secrete anti-Müllerian hormone (Müllerian inhibiting Substance, AMH) and inhibin B (InhB). AMH triggers the degeneration of the uterine precursor in male embryos, whereas InhB is part of the gonadal-pituitary axis for the regulation of sperm production in adults. However, both hormones are also putative regulators of homeostasis, and age-related changes in these hormones may therefore be important to the health status of elderly men. The levels of AMH in elderly men are unknown, with limited information being available about age-related changes in InhB. We have therefore used ELISAs to measure Sertoli cell hormone levels in 3 cohorts of community-dwelling men in New Zealand. In total, 615 men were examined, 493 of which were aged 65 or older. Serum AMH and InhB levels inversely correlated with age in men older than 50 years (p<0.001) but not in the younger men. A minority of elderly men had undetectable levels of AMH and InhB. The variation in hormone levels between similarly aged men increased with the age of men. AMH and InhB partially correlated with each other as expected (r = 0.48, p<0.001). However, the ratio of the two Sertoli hormones varied significantly between men, with this variation increasing with age. Elderly men selected for the absence of cardiovascular disease had AMH levels similar to those of young men whereas their InhB levels did not differ from aged-matched controls. These data suggests that Sertoli cell number and function changes with age, but with the extent and nature of the changes varying between men.

  4. Elderly Men Have Low Levels of Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Inhibin B, but with High Interpersonal Variation: A Cross-Sectional Study of the Sertoli Cell Hormones in 615 Community-Dwelling Men

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Yih Harng; Dennis, Nicola A.; Connolly, Martin J.; Teh, Ruth; Jones, Gregory T.; van Rij, Andre M.; Farrand, Stephanie; Campbell, A. John; MLennan, Ian S.

    2013-01-01

    The Sertoli cells of the testes secrete anti-Müllerian hormone (Müllerian inhibiting Substance, AMH) and inhibin B (InhB). AMH triggers the degeneration of the uterine precursor in male embryos, whereas InhB is part of the gonadal-pituitary axis for the regulation of sperm production in adults. However, both hormones are also putative regulators of homeostasis, and age-related changes in these hormones may therefore be important to the health status of elderly men. The levels of AMH in elderly men are unknown, with limited information being available about age-related changes in InhB. We have therefore used ELISAs to measure Sertoli cell hormone levels in 3 cohorts of community-dwelling men in New Zealand. In total, 615 men were examined, 493 of which were aged 65 or older. Serum AMH and InhB levels inversely correlated with age in men older than 50 years (p<0.001) but not in the younger men. A minority of elderly men had undetectable levels of AMH and InhB. The variation in hormone levels between similarly aged men increased with the age of men. AMH and InhB partially correlated with each other as expected (r = 0.48, p<0.001). However, the ratio of the two Sertoli hormones varied significantly between men, with this variation increasing with age. Elderly men selected for the absence of cardiovascular disease had AMH levels similar to those of young men whereas their InhB levels did not differ from aged-matched controls. These data suggests that Sertoli cell number and function changes with age, but with the extent and nature of the changes varying between men. PMID:23940675

  5. Thyroid hormones and bone development.

    PubMed

    Combs, C E; Nicholls, J J; Duncan Bassett, J H; Williams, G R

    2011-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are critical determinants of postnatal skeletal development. Thyroid hormone deficiency or excess in children results in severe abnormalities of linear growth and bone maturation. These clinical observations have been recapitulated in mutant mice and these models have facilitated studies of the mechanisms of thyroid hormone action in the developing skeleton. In this review, we consider in detail the direct and indirect effects of thyroid hormone on bone and the molecular mechanisms involved.

  6. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (DE-71)Interferes with Thyroid Hormone Action Independent Of Effects On Circulating Levels of Thyroid Hormone in Male Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological stud...

  7. Improving Effect of the Acute Administration of Dietary Fiber-Enriched Cereals on Blood Glucose Levels and Gut Hormone Secretion

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber improves hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes through its physicochemical properties and possible modulation of gut hormone secretion, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We assessed the effect of dietary fiber-enriched cereal flakes (DC) on postprandial hyperglycemia and gut hormone secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirteen participants ate isocaloric meals based on either DC or conventional cereal flakes (CC) in a crossover design. DC or CC was provided for dinner, night snack on day 1 and breakfast on day 2, followed by a high-fat lunch. On day 2, the levels of plasma glucose, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were measured. Compared to CC, DC intake exhibited a lower post-breakfast 2-hours glucose level (198.5±12.8 vs. 245.9±15.2 mg/dL, P<0.05) and a lower incremental peak of glucose from baseline (101.8±9.1 vs. 140.3±14.3 mg/dL, P<0.001). The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose after breakfast was lower with DC than with CC (P<0.001). However, there were no differences in the plasma insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP levels. In conclusion, acute administration of DC attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia without any significant change in the representative glucose-regulating hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT 01997281). PMID:26839476

  8. Serum sex hormone and growth arrest-specific protein 6 levels in male patients with coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rui; Li, Yan; Dai, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of low serum testosterone levels in men with cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the tyrosine kinase receptor Axl, the ligand of which is growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6), is expressed in the vasculature, and serum GAS6 levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular events. Testosterone regulates GAS6 gene transcription directly, which inhibits calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells and provides a mechanistic insight into the cardioprotective action of androgens. This study was designed to determine the correlation between serum GAS6 and testosterone levels in male patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We recruited 225 patients with CHD and 102 apparently healthy controls. Serum concentrations of GAS6 and soluble Axl were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, testosterone, estradiol, and other routine biochemical markers were also measured. Testosterone decreased from 432.69 ± 14.40 to 300.76 ± 6.23 ng dl−1 (P < 0.001) and GAS6 decreased from 16.20 ± 0.31 to 12.51 ± 0.19 ng ml−1 (P < 0.001) in patients with CHD, compared with control subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum testosterone and GAS6 levels were positively associated in male patients with CHD. Alterations in GAS6 levels may influence the development of CHD. Downregulation of GAS6/Axl signaling in the presence of low sex hormone levels during disease progression is a potential mechanism by which GAS6 affects CHD. This study provides novel results regarding the influence of sex hormones on serum GAS6 levels in patients with CHD. PMID:26924277

  9. Effect of CPPU on Carbohydrate and Endogenous Hormone Levels in Young Macadamia Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chaozhong; Lin, Wenqiu; Zou, Minghong; Zhang, Hanzhou; Wan, Jifeng; Huang, Xuming

    2016-01-01

    N-(2-Chloro-4-pyridyl)-N′-phenylurea (CPPU) is a highly active cytokinin-like plant growth regulator that promotes chlorophyll biosynthesis, cell division, and cell expansion. It also increases fruit set and accelerates fruit enlargement. However, there has been no report about the effect of CPPU on fruit development and its physiological mechanism in macadamia. In this study, we investigated the effect of CPPU treatment at early fruit development via foliar spray or raceme soaking at 20 mg·L-1 on fruit set and related physiology in macadamia. Changes in carbohydrate contents and endogenous hormones in leaves, bearing shoots and fruit were also examined. Results showed that CPPU significantly reduced young fruit drop and delayed the wave of fruit drop by 1–2 weeks. The treatment significantly decreased the contents of total soluble sugars and starch in the leaves, but increased them in the bearing shoots and total soluble sugars in the husk (pericarp) and seeds. These findings suggested that CPPU promoted carbohydrate mobilization from the leaves to the fruit. In addition, CPPU increased the contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellin acid (GA3), and zeatin riboside (ZR) and decreased the abscisic acid (ABA) in the husk. Therefore, CPPU treatment reduced the early fruit drop by increasing carbohydrate availability and by modifying the balance among endogenous hormones. PMID:27387814

  10. Are stress hormone levels a good proxy of foraging success? An experiment with king penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus.

    PubMed

    Angelier, Frédéric; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Bost, Charles-André; Le Bouard, Fabrice; Chastel, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    In seabirds, variations in stress hormone (corticosterone; henceforth CORT) levels have been shown to reflect changing marine conditions and, especially, changes in food availability. However, it remains unclear how CORT levels can be mechanistically affected by these changes at the individual level. Specifically, the influence of food acquisition and foraging success on CORT secretion is poorly understood. In this study, we tested whether food acquisition can reduce baseline CORT levels (;the food intake hypothesis') by experimentally reducing foraging success of King Penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Although CORT levels overall decreased during a foraging trip, CORT levels did not differ between experimental birds and controls. These results demonstrate that mass gain at sea is not involved in changes in baseline CORT levels in this species. The overall decrease in CORT levels during a foraging trip could result from CORT-mediated energy regulation (;the energy utilisation hypothesis'). Along with other evidence, we suggest that the influence of foraging success and food intake on CORT levels is complex and that the ecological meaning of baseline CORT levels can definitely vary between species and ecological contexts. Therefore, further studies are needed to better understand (1) how baseline CORT levels are functionally regulated according to energetic status and energetic demands and (2) to what extent CORT can be used to aid in the conservation of seabird populations. PMID:19684217

  11. Reduction in the level of antibodies against heat shock proteins 60 during different hormonal protocols in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Kacalska-Janssen, Olga; Zmaczyński, Andrzej; Wyroba, Jakub; Tomczyk, Rita; Wiatr, Joanna; Gałuszka-Bednarczyk, Anna; Bereza, Tomasz; Milewicz, Tomasz; Krzysiek, Józef

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In current literature, the immune-inflammatory theory of atherosclerosis is widely discussed. The role of how heat shock proteins 60 (HSP60) lead to the development of the atheromatous plaque is especially underlined. The aim of the study is to estimate the influence of three hormonal protocols on behavior of antibodies against HSP60. It determines the state of endothelium in postmenopausal women. Material and methods The study was carried out on 90 women between 2007 and 2012. All the women were in their menopausal age (51 ± 3 years), from the south region of Poland, with a follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level above 25 mIU/ml, and with menopausal symptoms disturbing their normal daily activity. The study was done for a period of 6 months. Three groups of 30 randomized patients were formed. In the first group we used transdermal estrogen therapy in a 37.5 µg/24 h dose combined with a 10 mg dose of dydrogesterone. In the second group we applied transdermal estrogen therapy in a 50 µg/24 h dose with 2.5 mg of oral medroxyprogesterone. In both these groups, gestagens were administered continuously. In the third group, we prescribed continuous, oral, low-dose combined estrogen-gestagen therapy with 1 mg of ethinyl estradiol and 0.5 mg of norethisterone acetate. The control group consisted of 30 volunteers who were also from the south region of Poland, in good health, with menopausal symptoms, no menstrual period for the last 12 months, selected considering their age and weight, with an FSH level above 25 mIU/ml and with normal levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin. All patients treated and in the control group were seronegative to Chlamydia pneumonia for the entire duration of the study. In the analysis conducted, nonparametric tests were used (Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon test, Kruskal-Wallis test – ANOVA). Results After 6 months of hormonal therapy, we found that all schemes of treatment promote a significant reduction in

  12. Environmental prenatal stress eliminates brain and maternal behavioral sex differences and alters hormone levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Del Cerro, M C R; Ortega, E; Gómez, F; Segovia, S; Pérez-Laso, C

    2015-07-01

    Environmental prenatal stress (EPS) has effects on fetuses that are long-lasting, altering their hormone levels, brain morphology and behavior when they reach maturity. In previous research, we demonstrated that EPS affects the expression of induced maternal behavior (MB), the neuroendocrine system, and morphology of the sexually dimorphic accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) involved in reproductive behavior patterns. The bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) is another vomeronasal (VN) structure that plays an inhibitory role in rats in the expression of induced maternal behavior in female and male virgins. In the present study, we have ascertained whether the behavioral, neuroendocrine, and neuromorphological alterations of the AOB found after EPS also appear in the BAOT. After applying EPS to pregnant rats during the late gestational period, in their female offspring at maturity we tested induced maternal behavior, BAOT morphology and plasma levels of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (Cpd B). EPS: a) affected the induction of MB, showed a male-like pattern of care for pups, b) elevated plasma levels of Cpd B and reduced E2 in comparison with the controls, and c) significantly increased the number of BAOT neurons compared to the control females and comparable to the control male group. These findings provide further evidence that stress applied to pregnant rats produces long-lasting behavioral, endocrine and neuroanatomical alterations in the female offspring that are evident when they become mature. PMID:26163152

  13. Environmental prenatal stress eliminates brain and maternal behavioral sex differences and alters hormone levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Del Cerro, M C R; Ortega, E; Gómez, F; Segovia, S; Pérez-Laso, C

    2015-07-01

    Environmental prenatal stress (EPS) has effects on fetuses that are long-lasting, altering their hormone levels, brain morphology and behavior when they reach maturity. In previous research, we demonstrated that EPS affects the expression of induced maternal behavior (MB), the neuroendocrine system, and morphology of the sexually dimorphic accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) involved in reproductive behavior patterns. The bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) is another vomeronasal (VN) structure that plays an inhibitory role in rats in the expression of induced maternal behavior in female and male virgins. In the present study, we have ascertained whether the behavioral, neuroendocrine, and neuromorphological alterations of the AOB found after EPS also appear in the BAOT. After applying EPS to pregnant rats during the late gestational period, in their female offspring at maturity we tested induced maternal behavior, BAOT morphology and plasma levels of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (Cpd B). EPS: a) affected the induction of MB, showed a male-like pattern of care for pups, b) elevated plasma levels of Cpd B and reduced E2 in comparison with the controls, and c) significantly increased the number of BAOT neurons compared to the control females and comparable to the control male group. These findings provide further evidence that stress applied to pregnant rats produces long-lasting behavioral, endocrine and neuroanatomical alterations in the female offspring that are evident when they become mature.

  14. Influence of chronic dopamine transporter inhibition by RTI-336 on motor behavior, sleep, and hormone levels in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Monica L; Sawyer, Eileen K; Carroll, F Ivy; Howell, Leonard L

    2012-04-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors have been developed as a promising treatment approach for cocaine dependence. However, the stimulant effects of DAT inhibitors have the potential to disrupt sleep patterns, and the influence of long-term treatment on dopamine neurochemistry is still unknown. The objectives of this study were to (1) explore the stimulant-related effects of chronic DAT inhibitor (RTI-336) treatment on motor activity and sleep-like measures in male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n = 4) and (2) to determine the effect of drug treatment on prolactin and cortisol levels. Subjects were fitted with a collar-mounted activity monitor to evaluate their motor activity, with 4 days of baseline recording preceding 21 days of daily saline or RTI-336 (1 mg/kg/day; intramuscular) injections. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to and following chronic treatment to assess hormone levels. RTI-336 produced a significant increase in locomotor activity at the end of the daytime period compared to saline administration. During the 3-week treatment period, sleep efficiency was decreased and the fragmentation index and latency to sleep onset were significantly increased. Hormone levels were not changed throughout the study. Chronic treatment with RTI-336 has a mild but significant stimulant effect, as evidenced by the significant increase in activity during the evening period which may cause minor disruptions in sleep measures. PMID:22023668

  15. Treatment with N- and C-Terminal Peptides of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Partly Compensate the Skeletal Abnormalities in IGF-I Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Lozano, Daniel; Cediel, Rafael; Esbrit, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency causes growth delay, and IGF-I has been shown to partially mediate bone anabolism by parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is abundant in bone, and has osteogenic features by poorly defined mechanisms. We here examined the capacity of PTHrP (1–36) and PTHrP (107–111) (osteostatin) to reverse the skeletal alterations associated with IGF-I deficiency. Igf1-null mice and their wild type littermates were treated with each PTHrP peptide (80 µg/Kg/every other day/2 weeks; 2 males and 4 females for each genotype) or saline vehicle (3 males and 3 females for each genotype). We found that treatment with either PTHrP peptide ameliorated trabecular structure in the femur in both genotypes. However, these peptides were ineffective in normalizing the altered cortical structure at this bone site in Igf1-null mice. An aberrant gene expression of factors associated with osteoblast differentiation and function, namely runx2, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ratio, Wnt3a, cyclin D1, connexin 43, catalase and Gadd45, as well as in osteocyte sclerostin, was found in the long bones of Igf1-null mice. These mice also displayed a lower amount of trabecular osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis than those in wild type mice. These alterations in Igf1-null mice were only partially corrected by each PTHrP peptide treatment. The skeletal expression of Igf2, Igf1 receptor and Irs2 was increased in Igf1-null mice, and this compensatory profile was further improved by treatment with each PTHrP peptide related to ERK1/2 and FoxM1 activation. In vitro, PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin were effective in promoting bone marrow stromal cell mineralization in normal mice but not in IGF-I-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin can exert several osteogenic actions even in the absence of IGF-I in the mouse bone. PMID:24503961

  16. Treatment with N- and C-terminal peptides of parathyroid hormone-related protein partly compensate the skeletal abnormalities in IGF-I deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-de la Rosa, Lourdes; López-Herradón, Ana; Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Lozano, Daniel; Cediel, Rafael; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Esbrit, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency causes growth delay, and IGF-I has been shown to partially mediate bone anabolism by parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is abundant in bone, and has osteogenic features by poorly defined mechanisms. We here examined the capacity of PTHrP (1-36) and PTHrP (107-111) (osteostatin) to reverse the skeletal alterations associated with IGF-I deficiency. Igf1-null mice and their wild type littermates were treated with each PTHrP peptide (80 µg/Kg/every other day/2 weeks; 2 males and 4 females for each genotype) or saline vehicle (3 males and 3 females for each genotype). We found that treatment with either PTHrP peptide ameliorated trabecular structure in the femur in both genotypes. However, these peptides were ineffective in normalizing the altered cortical structure at this bone site in Igf1-null mice. An aberrant gene expression of factors associated with osteoblast differentiation and function, namely runx2, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ratio, Wnt3a , cyclin D1, connexin 43, catalase and Gadd45, as well as in osteocyte sclerostin, was found in the long bones of Igf1-null mice. These mice also displayed a lower amount of trabecular osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis than those in wild type mice. These alterations in Igf1-null mice were only partially corrected by each PTHrP peptide treatment. The skeletal expression of Igf2, Igf1 receptor and Irs2 was increased in Igf1-null mice, and this compensatory profile was further improved by treatment with each PTHrP peptide related to ERK1/2 and FoxM1 activation. In vitro, PTHrP (1-36) and osteostatin were effective in promoting bone marrow stromal cell mineralization in normal mice but not in IGF-I-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that PTHrP (1-36) and osteostatin can exert several osteogenic actions even in the absence of IGF-I in the mouse bone.

  17. The effect of low and high plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on the morphology of major organs: studies of Laron dwarf and bovine growth hormone transgenic (bGHTg) mice.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Sylwia J; Wiszniewska, Barbara; Laszczyńska, Maria; Słuczanowska-Głabowska, Sylwia; Havens, Aaron M; Kopchick, John J; Bartke, Andrzej; Taichman, Russel S; Kucia, Magda; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2013-10-01

    It is well known that somatotrophic/insulin signaling affects lifespan in experimental animals. To study the effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plasma level on the morphology of major organs, we analyzed lung, heart, liver, kidney, bone marrow, and spleen isolated from 2-year-old growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-KO) Laron dwarf mice (with low circulating plasma levels of IGF-1) and 6-month-old bovine growth hormone transgenic (bGHTg) mice (with high circulating plasma levels of IGF-1). The ages of the two mutant strains employed in our studies were selected based on their overall ~50% survival (Laron dwarf mice live up to ~4 years and bGHTg mice up to ~1 year). Morphological analysis of the organs of long-living 2-year-old Laron dwarf mice revealed a lower biological age for their organs compared with normal littermates, with more brown adipose tissue (BAT) surrounding the main body organs, lower levels of steatosis in liver, and a lower incidence of leukocyte infiltration in different organs. By contrast, the organs of 6-month-old, short-living bGHTg mice displayed several abnormalities in liver and kidney and a reduced content of BAT around vital organs.

  18. The effect of low and high plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on the morphology of major organs: studies of Laron dwarf and bovine growth hormone transgenic (bGHTg) mice.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Borkowska, Sylwia J; Wiszniewska, Barbara; Laszczyńska, Maria; Słuczanowska-Głabowska, Sylwia; Havens, Aaron M; Kopchick, John J; Bartke, Andrzej; Taichman, Russel S; Kucia, Magda; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2013-10-01

    It is well known that somatotrophic/insulin signaling affects lifespan in experimental animals. To study the effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plasma level on the morphology of major organs, we analyzed lung, heart, liver, kidney, bone marrow, and spleen isolated from 2-year-old growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-KO) Laron dwarf mice (with low circulating plasma levels of IGF-1) and 6-month-old bovine growth hormone transgenic (bGHTg) mice (with high circulating plasma levels of IGF-1). The ages of the two mutant strains employed in our studies were selected based on their overall ~50% survival (Laron dwarf mice live up to ~4 years and bGHTg mice up to ~1 year). Morphological analysis of the organs of long-living 2-year-old Laron dwarf mice revealed a lower biological age for their organs compared with normal littermates, with more brown adipose tissue (BAT) surrounding the main body organs, lower levels of steatosis in liver, and a lower incidence of leukocyte infiltration in different organs. By contrast, the organs of 6-month-old, short-living bGHTg mice displayed several abnormalities in liver and kidney and a reduced content of BAT around vital organs. PMID:23613169

  19. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was

  20. Endocrine abnormalities of obesity.

    PubMed

    Björntorp, P

    1995-09-01

    Studies have shown that patients with central obesity have increased cortisol secretion, probably because they have increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. A high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is associated with low production of sex steroids, such as testosterone in men, and a low rate of secretion of growth hormone. High levels of cortisol and insulin combined with low levels of growth hormone and sex steroid can cause lipid accumulation. These hormonal changes probably produce more deposition of visceral than subcutaneous fat. Patients who are deficient in either testosterone or growth hormone show a reduction in visceral adiposity when their hormone levels are normalized. Stress has been shown to activate the HPA axis and may cause the hormonal changes associated with obesity. Individuals with elevated WHR have indications of high levels of stress and anxiety. Monkeys that were stressed by social disruption were found to have increased cortisol levels and low sex steroid levels. Many of these animals had insulin resistance and visceral adiposity. Stimulants, such as alcohol and smoking, also increase the activity of the HPA axis.

  1. Influence of age and juvenile hormone on brain dopamine level in male honeybee (Apis mellifera): association with reproductive maturation.

    PubMed

    Harano, Ken-ichi; Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi; Sasaki, Masami

    2008-05-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a major functional biogenic amine in insects and has been suggested to regulate reproduction in female honeybees. However, its function has not been investigated in male drones. To clarify developmental changes of DA in drones, brain DA levels were investigated at various ages and showed a similar pattern to the previously reported juvenile hormone (JH) hemolymph titer. The DA level was lowest at emergence and peaked at day 7 or 8, followed by decline. Application of JH analog increased brain DA levels in young drones (2-4-days-old), suggesting regulation of DA by JH in drones. In young drones, maturation of male reproductive organs closely matched the increase in brain DA. The dry weight of testes decreased and that of seminal vesicles increased from emergence to day 8. The dry weight of mucus glands increased up to day 4. Consequently, DA regulated by JH might have reproductive behavior and/or physiological functions in drones.

  2. Blood supply to the brain and. beta. -endorphin and acth levels under the influence of thyrotrophin releasing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzoyan, R.S.; Ganshina, T.S.; Mirzoyan, R.A.; Ragimov, K.S.

    1985-08-01

    The authors studied beta-endorphin because of its possible mediator role in terms of the cerebrovascular effects of thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH), and also because of data in the literature on antagonistic relations between TRH and the endogenous opioid system of the brain. Beta-endorphin was determined by radioimmunoassay; its level was determined after its separation from the beta-lipotrophin fraction. The investigation showed that TRH has a marked depressant effect on cerebrovascular vasoconstrictor refleces. Elevation of the blood ACTH level causes an increase in BP and in the tone of the cerebral vessels. An absence of correlation between the beta-endorphin and ACTH levels in the blood and CSF under the influence of TRH is shown.

  3. Hormone therapy effects on social behavior and activity levels of surgically postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shively, Carol A; Wood, Charles E; Register, Thomas C; Willard, Stephanie L; Lees, Cynthia J; Chen, Haiying; Sitruk-Ware, Regine L; Tsong, Yun-Yen; Cline, J Mark

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments reported here was to investigate central nervous system effects of commonly prescribed postmenopausal hormone therapies in a primate model, the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). The results of two experiments are reported. In the first, ovariectomized adult cynomolgus monkeys were treated for eight weeks each with oral micronized 17beta-estradiol (E2) (n=23), E2+medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (n=23), E2+progesterone (P4) (n=23), and placebo (n=23) using a crossover design. In the second, ovariectomized adult cynomolgus monkeys were treated for eight weeks with oral micronized E2+oral micronized P4 (n=10), or E2+intravaginal micronized P4 delivered via a Silastic ring (n=8), or oral placebo and intravaginal placebo (n=5), using a parallel arm design. Behavior was recorded during weeks two through four. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood were sampled, and 24h heart rate recorded by telemetry during weeks five through seven. Monoaminergic metabolites were assayed in CSF, and cortisol was assayed in serum. There were no significant effects of treatment on CSF monoaminergic metabolites or heart rate. E2+MPA increased cortisol concentrations. While there were some differences in effects between experiments, both progestogens and both routes of administration increased time spent resting, particularly resting in body contact, resulting in increased passive affiliative interaction. Thus, synthetic progestogens appear to be as sedating as progesterone, and the ring delivery system does not appear to protect the central nervous system from effects of progestogens. Further research is needed to explore social context as an important feature of behavioral response to steroid hormone regimens and to verify and extend knowledge of systemic effects of vaginal ring-delivered progestogens.

  4. Thyroid Hormone Levels and TSH Activity in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bielicki, P; Przybyłowski, T; Kumor, M; Barnaś, M; Wiercioch, M; Chazan, R

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is characterized by complete cessation of inspiratory flow (apnea) or upper airway airflow limitation (hypopnea) with increased respiratory muscle activity, which is repeatedly observed during sleep. Hypothyroidism has been described as a rare cause of OSAS, but it is considered to be the main cause of breathing disorders during sleep in patients in whom an improvement of OSAS is observed after thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Nevertheless, euthyreosis due to thyroxine replacement in patients with OSAS often does not improve the breathing disorder and treatment with continuous positive airway pressure is usually applied. The aim of this study was to assess thyroid function in patients with OSAS. We studied 813 patients in whom severe OSAS was diagnosed; the mean apnea-hypopnea index was 44.0. Most of the patients were obese (mean BMI 33.1 ± 6.6 kg/m2) and had excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS 12.8 ± 6.6). With the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration as the major criterion, hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 38 (4.7%) and hyperthyroidism was diagnosed in 31 (3.8%) patients. Analysis of basic anthropometric data, selected polysomnography results, and TSH, fT3, and fT4 values did not reveal any significant correlations. In conclusion, the incidence of thyroid function disorders seems to be no different in OSAS than that in the general population. We did not find correlations between TSH activity and the severity of breathing disorders during sleep. PMID:26542600

  5. Effects of Carthamus tinctorius on Semen Quality and Gonadal Hormone Levels in Partially Sterile Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Zahra; Panjehshahin, Mohamad Reza; Hoballah, Hassan; Kassas, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Traditional herbal medicine is just one of the many different approaches using plants in the remedy of diseases. Carthamus tinctorius (CT) or safflower is a popular plant that is used for coloring and flavoring in food industries. The effect of CT on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters has been reported in traditional medicine but has not yet been confirmed scientifically. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the effects of CT on spermatogenesis and the male reproductive system in an animal model. Materials and Methods Sixty male rats were divided into five groups. Four groups were injected with 5 mg/kg of busulfan as a model of partial infertility. Then, the experimental groups were treated with 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 50 mg/kg of CT extract for 35 days. The control was treated with busulfan (infertile control) or distilled water only. After this period, the animals were sacrificed and blood samples were taken for hormonal assay. The semen was collected from the epididymis and the reproductive organs were assessed. Sperm count and motility were measured and smears were prepared for assessment of the other parameters. Results The results indicated that the percentage of sperm with good morphology, motility, and count increased significantly in the group treated with 10 mg/kg CT (p=0.002, p=0.03, and p=0.00001, respectively). The effects on hormonal changes and genital organ weights were also positive. Conclusions It is probable that the CT extract affects spermatogenesis and as a result sperm quality. Further studies are needed. PMID:23136631

  6. [Pattern of plasma sex steroid hormone levels during the breeding season of male and female skink: Eumeces chinensis].

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian Rao; Du, Ji Zeng; Ji, Xiang

    2004-12-01

    Changes in gonadal activity and plasma sex steroid hormone levels in male and female Eumece chinensis during the breeding season were described. The results showed that: The vitellogensis of follicles of female Eumeces chinensis needed the stimulation of 17beta-estradiol (E2). As ovary masses reached peak values between late April and mid-May, E2 levels rose to the top value by late March, and then sharply declined but went up again before preovulation; The physiological functions of plasma progesterone (P) consisted in its oviductal egg retention, embryo development, and eggshell formation. P levels fluctuated near the basic value between mid-March and late April. In mid-May, with the onset of ovulation, plasma P levels rose rapidly, reached peak value by late May and declined sharply after ovulation. Plasma E2 levels declined as plasma P levels rose, showing an inverse relationship between them; In males, plasma Testosterone (T) levels were closely correlated with the maintenance of spermatogenesis activities, male and male combat, sexual display, and mating. Plasma T levels tended to rise after the termination of hibernation, and reached peak value by mid-April. After mid-May, with the testis aggressing, plasma T levels gradually went down and reached bottom value by late June.

  7. Oral phosphorus supplementation secondarily increases circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 levels at least partially via stimulation of parathyroid hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Takasugi, Satoshi; Akutsu, Miho; Nagata, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Oral phosphorus supplementation stimulates fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secretion; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in increased plasma FGF23 levels after oral phosphorus supplementation in rats. Rats received single dose of phosphate with concomitant subcutaneous injection of saline or human PTH (1-34) after treatment with cinacalcet or its vehicle. Cinacalcet is a drug that acts as an allosteric activator of the calcium-sensing receptor and reduces PTH secretion. Plasma phosphorus and PTH levels significantly increased 1 h after oral phosphorus administration and returned to basal levels within 3 h, while plasma FGF23 levels did not change up to 2 h post-treatment, but rather significantly increased at 3 h after administration and maintained higher levels for at least 6 h compared with the 0 time point. Plasma PTH and FGF23 levels were significantly lower in the cinacalcet-treated rats than in the vehicle-treated rats. Plasma phosphorus levels were significantly higher in the cinacalcet-treated rats than in the vehicle-treated rats at 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after oral phosphorus administration. Furthermore, rats treated with cinacalcet+human PTH (1-34) showed transiently but significantly higher plasma FGF23 levels at 3 h after oral phosphorus administration compared with cinacalcet-treated rats. These results suggest that oral phosphorus supplementation secondarily increases circulating FGF23 levels at least partially by stimulation of PTH secretion.

  8. Effects of aqueous extract from Asparagus officinalis L. roots on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels and the number of ovarian follicles in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Karimi Jashni, Hojatollah; Kargar Jahromi, Hossein; Ghorbani Ranjbary, Ali; Kargar Jahromi, Zahra; Khabbaz Kherameh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asparagus is a plant with high nutritional, pharmaceutical, and industrial values. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of asparagus roots on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and oogenesis in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups, which consist 8 rats. Groups included control, sham and three experimental groups receiving different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/bw) of aqueous extract of asparagus roots. All dosages were administered orally for 28 days. Blood samples were taken from rats to evaluate serum levels of Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinal hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone hormones. The ovaries were removed, weighted, sectioned, and studied by light microscope. Results: Dose-dependent aqueous extract of asparagus roots significantly increased serum levels of GnRH, FSH, LH, estrogen, and progestin hormones compared to control and sham groups. Increase in number of ovarian follicles and corpus luteum in groups treated with asparagus root extract was also observed (p<0.05). Conclusion: Asparagus roots extract stimulates secretion of hypothalamic- pituitary- gonadal axis hormones. This also positively affects oogenesis in female rats. PMID:27200420

  9. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Abnormal epigenetic regulation of the gene expression levels of Wnt2b and Wnt7b: Implications for neural tube defects

    PubMed Central

    BAI, BAOLING; CHEN, SHUYUAN; ZHANG, QIN; JIANG, QIAN; LI, HUILI

    2016-01-01

    The association between Wnt genes and neural tube defects (NTDs) is recognized, however, it remains to be fully elucidated. Our previous study demonstrated that epigenetic mechanisms are affected in human NTDs. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate whether Wnt2b and Wnt7b are susceptible to abnormal epigenetic modification in NTDs, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays to evaluate histone enrichments and the MassARRAY platform to detect the methylation levels of target regions within Wnt genes. The results demonstrated that the transcriptional activities of Wnt2b and Wnt7b were abnormally upregulated in mouse fetuses with NTDs and, in the GC-rich promoters of these genes, histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) acetylation was enriched, whereas H3K27 trimethylation was reduced. Furthermore, several CpG sites in the altered histone modification of target regions were significantly hypomethylated. The present study also detected abnormal epigenetic modifications of these Wnt genes in human NTDs. In conclusion, the present study detected abnormal upregulation in the levels of Wnt2b and Wnt7b, and hypothesized that the alterations may be due to the ectopic opening of chromatin structure. These results improve understanding of the dysregulation of epigenetic modification of Wnt genes in NTDs. PMID:26548512

  11. Association of size at birth with adolescent hormone levels, body size and age at menarche: relevance for breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Opdahl, S; Nilsen, T I L; Romundstad, P R; Vanky, E; Carlsen, S M; Vatten, L J

    2008-07-01

    Birth size has been positively associated with age at menarche and height in adolescence and adulthood, but the relevant biological mechanisms remain unclear. Among 262 Norwegian term-born singleton girls, birth size measures (weight, length, ponderal index, head circumference and subscapular skin-fold thickness) were analysed in relation to adolescent hormone levels (oestradiol, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione and free testosterone index), age at menarche and adolescent (ages 12.7-15.5 years) and body size (height, weight, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio) using survival analysis and general linear modelling. The results were adjusted for gestational age at birth, age and menarcheal status at measurement in adolescence and maternal age at menarche. Birth weight, birth length and head circumference were positively associated with adolescent weight and height, and small birth size was associated with earlier age at menarche. Subscapular skin-fold thickness at birth was not associated with adolescent body size, but low fold-thickness was associated with earlier age at menarche. Measures of birth size were inversely related to circulating levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in adolescence, but there was no clear association with other hormones. These results suggest that physical and sexual development in puberty and adolescence is influenced by prenatal factors, and in combination, these factors may influence health and disease later in life. PMID:18594544

  12. Effects of maintenance lithium treatment on serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels: a retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Umberto; De Cori, David; Aguglia, Andrea; Barbaro, Francesca; Lanfranco, Fabio; Bogetto, Filippo; Maina, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study was to evaluate the effects of maintenance lithium treatment on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels. Methods A retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study design was used. Data were collected from the database of a tertiary psychiatric center covering the years 2010–2014. Included were bipolar patients who had never been exposed to lithium and had lithium started, and who had PTH, and total and ionized calcium levels available before and during lithium treatment. Paired t-tests were used to analyze changes in PTH and calcium levels. Linear regressions were performed, with mean lithium level and duration of lithium exposure as independent variables and change in PTH levels as dependent variable. Results A total 31 patients were included. The mean duration of lithium treatment was 18.6±11.4 months. PTH levels significantly increased during lithium treatment (+13.55±14.20 pg/mL); the rate of hyperparathyroidism was 12.9%. Neither total nor ionized calcium increased from baseline to follow-up; none of our patients developed hypercalcemia. Linear regressions analyses did not show an effect of duration of lithium exposure or mean lithium level on PTH levels. Conclusion Lithium-associated stimulation of parathyroid function is more common than assumed to date. Among parameters to be evaluated prior to lithium implementation, calcium and PTH should be added. PMID:26229473

  13. Psychoneuroendocrine research in depression. I. Hormone levels of different neuroendocrine axes and the dexamethasone suppression test.

    PubMed

    Rupprecht, R; Lesch, K P

    1989-01-01

    Psychoneuroendocrinology is of major importance in the biological research of depression. Most studies have focussed on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis but other endocrine systems such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT), hypothalamic-pituitary-somatotropic (HPS), and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis have also been shown to be involved in the psychobiology of depression. There are close interrelations between various endocrine axes which possibly are affected during depressive illness. A variety of neuroendocrine abnormalities has been detected in depressive disorder but the pathophysiology of these derangements remains still unclear. Although the currently used neuroendocrine tests are not of diagnostic validity they may help to clarify the pathophysiological significance of the complex regulatory mechanisms of different neuroendocrine axes in affective disorders. Neuroendocrine regulation is determined both by peripheral and central mechanisms which both have to be adequately considered as well as potent interactions between various endocrine systems in further neuroendocrine depression research.

  14. Event-related brain potentials to emotional images and gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia and paired controls

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Julie; Mendrek, Adrianna; Germain, Martine; Hot, Pascal; Lavoie, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Prominent disturbances in the experience, expression, and emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia have been relatively well documented over the last few years. Furthermore, sex differences in behavior and brain activity, associated with the processing of various emotions, have been reported in the general population and in schizophrenia patients. Others proposed that sex differences should be rather attributed to testosterone, which may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Also, it had been suggested that estradiol may play a protective role in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, few studies investigating this pathology have focused on both brain substrates and gonadal steroid hormone levels, in emotional processing. In the present study, we investigated electrocortical responses related to emotional valence and arousal as well as gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia. Event-Related Potentials (ERP) were recorded during exposition to emotional pictures in 18 patients with schizophrenia and in 24 control participants paired on intelligence, manual dominance and socioeconomic status. Given their previous sensitivity to emotional and attention processes, the P200, N200 and the P300 were selected for analysis. More precisely, emotional valence generally affects early components (N200), which reflect early process of selective attention, whereas emotional arousal and valence both influences the P300 component, which is related to memory context updating, and stimulus categorization. Results showed that, in the control group, the amplitude of the N200 was significantly more lateralized over the right hemisphere, while there was no such lateralization in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, significantly smaller anterior P300 amplitude was observed to the unpleasant, compared to the pleasant. That anterior P300 reduction was also correlated with negative symptoms. The N200 and P300 amplitudes were positively

  15. Clinical Effect of Switching from a Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonist to an Antagonist in Patients with Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer and Serum Testosterone Level ≥ 20 ng/dl

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Norihito; Kageyama, Takumi; Ogura, Yuji; Yamada, Tomomi; Hayashi, Norio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The efficacy of conversion from a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist to an antagonist was evaluated prospectively in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Materials and Methods From October 2012 to December 2014, 8 cases with a serum testosterone level ≥ 20 ng/dl during following androgen deprivation therapy were enrolled and received degarelix monthly. The primary end-pointgoal was to determine the effective prostate-specific antigen response rate. The secondary end-pointgoal was to assess the proportion of cases with a decrease in serum testosterone level to < 20 ng/ml. Results One patient achieved a complete response, with a prostate-specific antigen level of 0.02 ng/ml at the nadirend of the study. The effective response rate was 25.0% (2/8), and the proportion of cases with prostate-specific antigen decline was 62.5% (5/8). In 5/8 cases (5/8, 62.5%), serum testosterone levels declined to < 20 ng/dl. Conclusion Switching to a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist in patients with testosterone levels ≥ 20 ng/dl may be an option in sequential androgen deprivation therapy for some patients. PMID:26989369

  16. Variation in the levels of pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein in maternal serum from chromosomally abnormal pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Graham, G W; Crossley, J A; Aitken, D A; Connor, J M

    1992-06-01

    Human pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein (SP1) was assayed retrospectively in stored maternal serum (MS) samples from 82 chromosomally abnormal pregnancies and 377 matched controls. The median MSSP1 concentration in 48 Down's syndrome pregnancies was significantly elevated at 1.17 multiples of the control median (MOM), and significantly reduced (0.5 MOM) in a group of eight cases of unbalanced translocations. There was no significant difference in median SP1 concentrations in cases of trisomy 18, trisomy 13, balanced translocations, or sex chromosome abnormalities. A comparison with human chorionic gonadotrophin results in the same series of samples indicates that SP1 is a less sensitive predictor of Down's syndrome pregnancies. PMID:1387478

  17. Hormone therapy in acne.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2013-01-01

    Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  18. Active immunization against gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in Chinese male pigs: effects of dose on antibody titer, hormone levels and sexual development.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xian Y; Turkstra, Johan A; Meloen, Rob H; Liu, Xian Y; Chen, Fa Q; Schaaper, Wim M M; Oonk, H B; Guo, Da Z; van de Wiel, Dick F M

    2002-04-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal dose of a GnRH vaccine for immunocastration of Chinese male pigs, based on immune, endocrine and testicular responses. Forty-two crossbred (Chinese Yanan x Large White) male pigs were randomly assigned to one of the five treatments as follows: (I) 0 microg (control, n=8); (II) 10 microg (n=8); (III) 62.5 microg (n=8); (IV) 125 microg (n=8); (V) 250 microg (n=10), D-Lys6-GnRH tandem dimer (TDK) peptide equivalent of conjugate (TDK-OVA), using Specol as the adjuvant. Pigs were immunized at 13 and 21 weeks of age and were slaughtered at 31 weeks of age. Blood samples for antibody titer and hormone assays were collected at 13, 21, 24 and 31 weeks of age. At these time-points, testis size was also measured. At slaughter, testis weight was recorded and fat samples were collected for androstenone assay. Four animals, one out of each immunized group, responded poorly to the immunization (non-responders). At slaughter, serum testosterone and LH levels, fat androstenone levels and testis size/weight of these non-responders were similar to those in control animals. Antibody titers of non-responders were substantially lower (P<0.05) than in other immunized pigs. For the animals that responded well to the immunization (immunocastrated pigs), serum testosterone and LH levels, fat androstenone levels and testis size or weight were reduced (P<0.05) as compared to either controls or non-responders, at all doses tested. There was a significant effect of dose of TDK-OVA on antibody titers. The overall mean antibody titers in the 62.5 or 125 microg dose group (53.6 and 50.5% binding, respectively) were significantly higher than in the 10 or 250 microg group (39.2 and 40.24% binding, respectively). At slaughter, there was a significant dose effect on testis size or weight and on serum testosterone levels, but there was no dose effect on serum LH levels and fat androstenone levels. Testis size or weight in the 10 microg group was

  19. Assessing the presence of abnormal regulation of cortisol secretion by membrane hormone receptors: in vivo and in vitro studies in patients with functioning and non-functioning adrenal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Dall'Asta, C; Ballarè, E; Mantovani, G; Ambrosi, B; Spada, A; Barbetta, L; Colombo, P; Travaglini, P; Loli, P; Beck-Peccoz, P

    2004-08-01

    Regulation of cortisol secretion by aberrant hormone receptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome. In this study, the topic was evaluated by combining in vivo and in vitro approaches. Cortisol responses to various stimuli (standard meal, GnRH + TRH, cisapride, vasopressin, glucagon) were assessed in 6 patients with clinical or subclinical adrenal Cushing's syndrome, and non-functioning adrenal adenoma in two cases. Abnormal responses were observed in three patients with Cushing's syndrome; one patient showed a gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)-dependent cortisol rise after meal, together with responses after GnRH and cisapride; the second patient showed an LH-dependent cortisol response to GnRH, and in the third cortisol rose after cisapride. The pattern of receptor expression performed by RT-PCR showed that while GIP-R was only expressed in tumor from the responsive patient, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 4 receptor and LH-R were also present in normal adrenal tissues and tissues from non-responsive patients. Interestingly, an activating mutation of Gsalpha gene was identified in one of these tumors. Therefore, cortisol responses to agents operating via Gs protein coupled receptors (in one case associated with Gsalpha mutation) were found in Cushing's patients, while these responses were absent in the others. The finding of receptor expression in normal and non-responsive tumors suggests that different mechanisms are probably involved in inducing in vivo cortisol responses. PMID:15326569

  20. Relationship of Thyroid Hormone Levels to Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Lead, p,p′- DDE, and Other Toxicants in Akwesasne Mohawk Youth

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Lawrence M.; Gallo, Mia V.; Denham, Melinda; Ravenscroft, Julia; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Carpenter, David O.

    2008-01-01

    Background It is well documented that acute exposure to high levels of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p′-dichlorophenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), can affect human health including thyroid function. Chronic exposure to multiple toxicants is common but difficult to analyze, and most prior studies have focused on adults or newborns, creating a gap in our understanding of multitoxicant effects among adolescents. Objective We investigated whether levels of PCBs, p,p′-DDE, HCB, mirex, lead, and mercury reflecting past chronic exposure are associated with alterations in levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (TT4), and free thyroxine (FT4) among older children and adolescents. Methods The sample consists of youth from the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation (n = 232) who reside in proximity to several industries that have contaminated the local environment. We used multiple regression analysis to examine the effect of PCB groupings, p,p′-DDE, HCB, lead, and mercury on thyroid hormones after adjusting for sociodemographic covariates and controlling for all other toxicants. Results Exposure to PCBs affects the thyroid hormone profile in adolescents. The group of persistent PCBs was positively associated with TSH but inversely related to FT4. Nonpersistent PCBs were significantly and negatively related to FT4 only. HCB was negatively associated with T4, and lead was positively associated with T3. Breast-fed adolescents had higher levels of persistent PCBs and p,p′-DDE but not of nonpersistent PCBs or any other toxicant when compared with non-breast-fed adolescents. Though having lower levels of persistent PCBs and p,p′-DDE, non-breast-fed adolescents exhibited significant relationships between persistent PCBs and TSH and FT4, but breast-fed adolescents did not. It appears that PCBs from breast milk obscure the relationship between prenatal PCB exposure and

  1. Interrelationship between feeding level and the metabolic hormones leptin, ghrelin and obestatin in control of chicken egg laying and release of ovarian hormones.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Grossmann, Roland

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present experiment is to examine the role of nutritional status, metabolic hormones and their interrelationships in the control of chicken ovarian ovulatory and secretory activity. For this purpose, we identified the effect of food restriction, administration of leptin, ghrelin 1-18, obestatin and combinations of food restriction with these hormones for 3days on chicken ovulation (egg laying) rate and ovarian hormone release. The release of progesterone (P), testosterone (T), estradiol (E) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT) by isolated and cultured ovarian fragments was determined by EIA. It was observed that food restriction significantly reduced the egg-laying rate, T, E and AVT release and promoted P output by ovarian fragments. Leptin, administrated to ad libitum-fed chickens, did not change these parameters besides promoting E release. Nevertheless, administration of leptin was able to prevent the effect of food restriction on ovulation, T and E (but not P or AVT) release. Ghrelin 1-18 administration to ad libitum-fed birds did not affect the measured parameters besides a reduction in P release. Ghrelin 1-18 administration prevented the food restriction-induced decrease in ovarian T, E and AVT, but it did not change P output or egg laying. Obestatin administrated to control chicken promoted their ovarian P, E and inhibited ovarian AVT release but did not affect egg laying. It was able to promote the effect of food restriction on P, T and AVT, but not E release or egg laying. Our results (1) confirm an inhibitory effect of food restriction on chicken ovulation rate; (2) shows that food restriction-induced reduction in egg laying is associated with a decrease in ovarian T, E and AVT and an increase in ovarian P release; (3) confirm the involvement of metabolic hormones leptin, ghrelin and obestatin in the control of chicken ovarian hormones output; and (4) the ability of metabolic hormones to mimic/antagonize or prevent/promote the effects of food

  2. Long-term impact of maternal substance use during pregnancy and extrauterine environmental adversity: stress hormone levels of preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Charles R; Lambert, Brittany L; Bann, Carla M; Lester, Barry M; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Whitaker, Toni M; Lagasse, Linda L; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2011-08-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with blunted stress responsivity within the extrauterine environment. This study investigated the association between PCE and diurnal salivary cortisol levels in preadolescent children characterized by high biological and/or social risk (n = 725). Saliva samples were collected at their home. Analyses revealed no group differences in basal evening or morning cortisol levels; however, children with higher degrees of PCE exhibited blunted overnight increases in cortisol, controlling for additional risk factors. Race and caregiver depression were also associated with diurnal cortisol patterns. Although repeated PCE may contribute to alterations in the normal or expected stress response later in life, sociodemographic and environmental factors are likewise important in understanding hormone physiology, especially as more time elapses from the PCE. Anticipating the potential long-term medical, developmental, or behavioral effects of an altered ability to mount a normal protective cortisol stress response is essential in optimizing the outcomes of children with PCE.

  3. Hereditary central diabetes insipidus: plasma levels of antidiuretic hormone in a family with a possible osmoreceptor defect.

    PubMed Central

    Toth, E L; Bowen, P A; Crockford, P M

    1984-01-01

    A large Canadian kindred of Irish extraction extending from Quebec to British Columbia with autosomal dominant diabetes insipidus responsive to exogenous antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is described. Out of 121 individuals 34 have been identified as affected in seven generations. The disorder is characterized by variability in age at onset and in severity, and by apparently spontaneous abatement in old age. The affected subjects do not appear to manifest hypertension or its sequelae. In three individuals tested the plasma ADH level was very low in spite of adequate osmotic stimulation. However, the level rose in two of them when they were given furosemide, which suggests an osmoreceptor defect and a normal ADH response to volume change. PMID:6498676

  4. Impact of 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure on main male reproductive hormone levels: a Rattus norvegicus model.

    PubMed

    Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Saeb, Mehdi; Nazifi, Saeed; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Jelodar, Gholamali; Saeb, Saeedeh

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure on the reproductive system of male rats, assessed by measuring circulating levels of FSH, LH, inhibin B, activin B, prolactin, and testosterone. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (180 ± 10 g) were exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMF in four equal separated groups. The duration of exposure was 1, 2, and 4 h/day over a period of 30 days and sham-exposed animals were kept under the same environmental conditions as the exposed group except with no RF-EMF exposure. Before the exposure, at 15 and 30 days of exposure, determination of the abovementioned hormone levels was performed using ELISA. At the end of the experiment, FSH and LH values of the long time exposure (LTE) group were significantly higher than the sham-exposed group (p < 0.05). Serum activin B and prolactin in the LTE group showed significant increase and inhibin B showed significant decrease than sham and short time exposed (STE) groups after 30 days RF-EMF exposure (p < 0.05). Also, a significant decrease in serum testosterone levels in the LTE group was found compared to short and moderate time exposed (MTE) groups after 30 days RF-EMF exposure (p < 0.05). Results suggest that reproductive hormone levels are disturbed as a result of RF-EMF exposure and it may possibly affect reproductive functions. However, testosterone and inhibin B concentrations as a fertility marker and spermatogenesis were decreased significantly.

  5. Impact of 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure on main male reproductive hormone levels: a Rattus norvegicus model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Saeb, Mehdi; Nazifi, Saeed; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Jelodar, Gholamali; Saeb, Saeedeh

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure on the reproductive system of male rats, assessed by measuring circulating levels of FSH, LH, inhibin B, activin B, prolactin, and testosterone. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (180 ± 10 g) were exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMF in four equal separated groups. The duration of exposure was 1, 2, and 4 h/day over a period of 30 days and sham-exposed animals were kept under the same environmental conditions as the exposed group except with no RF-EMF exposure. Before the exposure, at 15 and 30 days of exposure, determination of the abovementioned hormone levels was performed using ELISA. At the end of the experiment, FSH and LH values of the long time exposure (LTE) group were significantly higher than the sham-exposed group ( p < 0.05). Serum activin B and prolactin in the LTE group showed significant increase and inhibin B showed significant decrease than sham and short time exposed (STE) groups after 30 days RF-EMF exposure ( p < 0.05). Also, a significant decrease in serum testosterone levels in the LTE group was found compared to short and moderate time exposed (MTE) groups after 30 days RF-EMF exposure ( p < 0.05). Results suggest that reproductive hormone levels are disturbed as a result of RF-EMF exposure and it may possibly affect reproductive functions. However, testosterone and inhibin B concentrations as a fertility marker and spermatogenesis were decreased significantly.

  6. Relationship between disease activity and serum levels of vitamin D metabolites and parathyroid hormone in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Lange, U; Jung, O; Teichmann, J; Neeck, G

    2001-12-01

    Vertebral fractures due to osteoporosis are a common but frequently unrecognized complication of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and various factors may contribute to the development of osteoporosis in AS. It is known that inflammatory activity in rheumatic disease (i.e., proinflammatory cytokines) itself plays a possible role in the pathophysiology of bone loss. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) seems to be another possible candidate for mediatory function in regulating both the inflammatory process and bone turnover. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between disease activity, bone turnover and calciotropic hormones. In 70 patients with established AS and an age- and sex-matched control group, the relation between disease activity (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index), and serum levels of vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) and urinary pyridinium cross-links were determined. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 (p<0.01) and PTH (p<0.01) were negatively correlated with disease activity, the excretion of urinary pyridinium crosslinks showed a positive correlation with disease activity (p<0.01), and 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTH were positively correlated with bAP (p<0.01). These results indicate that high disease activity in AS is associated with an alteration in vitamin D metabolism and increased bone resorption. Furthermore, the decreased levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 may contribute to a negative calcium balance and inhibition of bone formation. Our results suggest further research is necessary to determine whether low levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 as an endogenous immune modulator suppressing activated T cells and cell proliferation may accelerate the inflammation process in AS. PMID:11846329

  7. Effect of crambe meal on performance, reproduction, and thyroid hormone levels in gestating and lactating beef cows.

    PubMed

    Anderson, V L; Caton, J S; Kirsch, J D; Redmer, D A

    2000-09-01

    Crambe meal was compared to a combination of sunflower and soybean meal as a protein supplement for mature beef cows in two experiments. In Exp. 1, cows (n = 80, average BW 651+/-14.4 kg) were fed crambe meal at 9.86% of dry matter intake (DMI) during the last trimester of gestation. No differences (P < .05) were detected due to treatment for cow weight, condition score, thyroid hormones, calf birth weight, or calving interval. In Exp. 2, cows (n = 100, average BW 566+/-6.82 kg) were fed crambe meal at 7.44% of DMI during the last trimester of gestation and at 8.33% of DMI during early lactation (53+/-6 d of lactation). Gains were greater during gestation (P = .09) and throughout the supplementation period (P = .06), and days to first estrus were reduced (P < .01) for cows fed crambe meal. During lactation, serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations did not decline as much (P = .03) in cows fed crambe meal as in cows fed sunflower-soybean meal-based supplements. No differences (P > .10) were apparent for condition score, birth weight, calf growth rate, weaning weight, thyroid hormones during gestation, or calving interval. These data indicate that crambe meal fed at the levels used in this experiment can be used as a protein supplement for beef cows without negatively affecting cows' performance.

  8. Comparative analysis of endogenous hormones level in two soybean (Glycine max L.) lines differing in waterlogging tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon-Ha; Hwang, Sun-Joo; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul L.; Lee, Joon-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Nguyen, Henry T.; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogged condition due to flooding is one of the major abiotic stresses that drastically affect the soybean growth and yield around the world. As a result, many breeders have focused on the development of waterlogging tolerance in soybean varieties, and thus, several tolerant varieties were developed. However, the physiological mechanism of waterlogging tolerance is not yet fully understood. We particularly studied the endogenous hormones regulation during waterlogging in two contrasting soybean genotypes. According to our results, adventitious roots were better developed in the waterlogging tolerant line (WTL) than in the waterlogging susceptible line (WSL). Endogenous hormones also showed significant differences between WTL and WSL. The ethylene production ratio was higher in WTL than in WSL, and methionine was higher in WTL than in WSL. Other endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) contents were lower in WTL than in WSL. Conversely, gibberellic acid (GA) showed a tendency to be high in WTL, especially the levels of the bioactive GA4. The ratio of total GA and ABA was significantly higher in WTL than in WSL. Anatomical study of the root revealed that aerenchyma cells in the stele were better developed in WTL than in WSL. PMID:26442028

  9. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  10. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  11. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  12. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  13. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  14. L-asparaginase-induced abnormality in plasma glucose level in patients of acute lymphoblastic leukemia admitted to a tertiary care hospital of Odisha

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Mousumee; Swain, Trupti Rekha; Jena, Rabindra Kumar; Panigrahi, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate any abnormal change in plasma glucose levels in patients treated with L-asparaginase (L-Asp)-based chemotherapy regimen in patients of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Materials and Methods: This retrospective, hospital-based study was conducted in patients of ALL, admitted to the Clinical Haematology Department of a tertiary care hospital of Odisha from August 2014 to July 2015. Indoor records of 146 patients on multi-centered protocol-841 were evaluated for any alteration in plasma glucose level, time of onset of hypo/hyperglycemia, and persistence of plasma glucose alteration. Results: Twenty-one percent of patients showed abnormal plasma glucose level. Most of these patients developed hypoglycemia and were of lower age group. Most of these patients developed hypoglycemia and were of lower age group, whereas a majority of higher age group patients developed hyperglycemia. In majority of the cases, abnormal glucose developed after three doses of L-Asp. Hypoglycemia subsided whereas hyperglycemia persisted till the end of our observation period. Conclusions: L-Asp produces more incidences of hypoglycemia than hyperglycemia in a good number of ALL patients towards which clinicians should be more vigilant. However, hyperglycemia persists for a longer duration than hypoglycemia. PMID:27721550

  15. The effect of maternal nutrition level during the periconception period on fetal muscle development and plasma hormone concentrations in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sen, U; Sirin, E; Yildiz, S; Aksoy, Y; Ulutas, Z; Kuran, M

    2016-10-01

    The effect of maternal nutrition level during the periconception period on the muscle development of fetus and maternal-fetal plasma hormone concentrations in sheep were examined. Estrus was synchronized in 55 Karayaka ewes and were either fed ad libitum (well-fed, WF, n=23) or 0.5×maintenance (under-fed, UF, n=32) 6 days before and 7 days after mating. Non-pregnant ewes (WF, n=13; UF, n=24) and ewes carrying twins (WF, n=1) and female (WF, n=1; UF, n=3) fetuses were removed from the experiment. The singleton male fetuses from well-fed (n=8) and under-fed (n=5) ewes were collected on day 90 of gestation and placental characteristics, fetal BWs and dimensions, fetal organs and muscles weights were recorded. Maternal (on day 7 after mating) and fetal (on day 90 of pregnancy) blood samples were collected to analyze plasma hormone concentrations. Placental characteristics, BW and dimensions, organs and muscles weights of fetuses were not affected by maternal feed intake during the periconception period. Maternal nutrition level did not affect fiber numbers and the muscle cross-sectional area of the fetal longissimus dorsi (LD), semitendinosus (ST) muscles, but the cross-sectional area of the secondary fibers in the fetal LD and ST muscles from the UF ewes were higher than those from the WF ewes (P<0.05). Also, the ratio of secondary to primary fibers in the ST muscle were tended to be lower in the fetuses from the UF ewes (P=0.07). Maternal nutrition level during the periconception period did not cause any significant changes in fetal plasma insulin and maternal and fetal plasma IGF-I, cortisol, progesterone, free T3 and T4 concentrations. However, maternal cortisol concentrations were lower while insulin concentrations were higher in the WF ewes than those in the UF ewes (P<0.05). These results indicate that the reduced maternal feed intake during the periconception period may alter muscle fiber diameter without affecting fiber types, fetal weights and organ

  16. The relationship of PTH Bst BI polymorphism, calciotropic hormone levels, and dental fluorosis of children in China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shibao; Li, Anqi; Cui, Liuxin; Huang, Qi; Chen, Hongyang; Guo, Xiaoyi; Luo, Yixin; Hao, Qianyun; Hou, Jiaxiang; Ba, Yue

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association of parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene Bst BI polymorphism, calciotropic hormone levels, and dental fluorosis of children. A case-control study was conducted in two counties (Kaifeng and Tongxu) in Henan Province, China in 2005-2006. Two hundred and twenty-five children were recruited and divided into three groups including dental fluorosis group (DFG), non-dental fluorosis group (NDFG) from high fluoride areas, and control group (CG). Urine fluoride content was determined using fluoride ion selective electrode; PTH Bst BI were genotyped using PCR-RFLP; osteocalcin (OC) and calcitonin (CT) levels in serum were detected using radioimmunoassay. Genotype distributions were BB 85.3% (58/68), Bb 14.7% (10/68) for DFG; BB 77.6% (52/67), Bb 22.4% (15/67) for NDFG; and BB 73.3% (66/90), Bb 27.7% (24/90) for CG. No significant difference of Bst BI genotypes was observed among three groups (P > 0.05). Serum OC and urine fluoride of children were both significantly higher in DFG and NDFG than in CG (P < 0.05, respectively), while a similar situation was not observed between DFG and NDFG in high fluoride areas (P > 0.05). Serum OC level of children with BB genotype was significantly higher compared to those with Bb genotype in high fluoride areas (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference of serum CT or calcium (Ca) was observed. In conclusion, there is no correlation between dental fluorosis and PTH Bst BI polymorphism. Serum OC might be a more sensitive biomarker for detecting early stages of dental fluorosis, and further studies are needed.

  17. Parenting styles and hormone levels as predictors of physical and indirect aggression in boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Sagastizabal, Eider; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Braza, Francisco; Vergara, Ana I; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parenting style, androgen levels, and measures of physical and indirect aggression. Peer ratings of aggression were obtained from 159 eight-year-old children (89 boys and 70 girls). Parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian or permissive) were assessed using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ).Saliva samples were obtained from children and assayed for testosterone and androstenedione concentrations. A regression analysis revealed that high testosterone levels were associated with a higher level of physical aggression in boys with authoritarian mothers. Testosterone was also found to moderate the relationship between father's authoritarian parenting and physical aggression in girls, with both moderate and high levels being significant. In relation to indirect aggression, moderate and high levels of testosterone were associated with higher levels of this type of aggression in girls with permissive mothers. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the interaction of biological and psychosocial variables when investigating aggressive behavior. PMID:24954610

  18. Parenting styles and hormone levels as predictors of physical and indirect aggression in boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Sagastizabal, Eider; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Braza, Francisco; Vergara, Ana I; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parenting style, androgen levels, and measures of physical and indirect aggression. Peer ratings of aggression were obtained from 159 eight-year-old children (89 boys and 70 girls). Parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian or permissive) were assessed using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ).Saliva samples were obtained from children and assayed for testosterone and androstenedione concentrations. A regression analysis revealed that high testosterone levels were associated with a higher level of physical aggression in boys with authoritarian mothers. Testosterone was also found to moderate the relationship between father's authoritarian parenting and physical aggression in girls, with both moderate and high levels being significant. In relation to indirect aggression, moderate and high levels of testosterone were associated with higher levels of this type of aggression in girls with permissive mothers. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the interaction of biological and psychosocial variables when investigating aggressive behavior.

  19. Combined effects of levonorgestrel and quinestrol on reproductive hormone levels and receptor expression in females of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaohui; Shi, Dazhao

    2012-01-01

    The effects of treatment with a combination of levonorgestrel and quinestrol (EP-1; ratio of 2:1) on reproductive hormone levels and the expression of their receptors in female Mongolian gerbils were examined. We show that serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) decreased, whereas serum estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) increased after EP-1 treatment. EP1 down-regulated mRNA expression of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and the estrogen receptor (ER) βin the ovary. EP-1 up-regulated the mRNA expression of the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and the progesterone receptor (PR) in the ovary as well as ERα and PR in the uterus of Mongolian gerbils. The effects were time-dependent and dose-dependent. EP-1 had no obvious effects on ERα mRNA expression in the ovary. The current study demonstrates that the effect of EP-1 on the expression of ER subtypes is tissue-specific in Mongolian gerbils. EP-1 disrupted the reproductive endocrinology of the Mongolian gerbil. These findings suggest that the effects of EP-1 on reproductive hormone levels and their receptor expression in Mongolian gerbils may be the result of synergistic actions of levonorgestrel and quinestrol, with quinestrol playing the major role. PMID:22233494

  20. Synchronous vitellogenin expression and sexual maturation during migration are negatively correlated with juvenile hormone levels in Mythimna separata

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hai-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Annual migration of pests between different seasonal habitats can lead to serious crop damage. Reproductive immaturity is generally associated with the migratory process (oogenesis-flight syndrome), but the mechanism of reproductive development during migration varies unpredictably. Here, the vitellogenin gene (MsVg) and three key regulatory enzyme genes (MsJhamt, MsJheh and MsJhe) related to juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and degradation were identified and characterized in Mythimna separata. The relative expression of MsVg varied significantly in response to seasonal changes and was significantly correlated with stages of ovarian development. The relatively low levels of JH titer did not differ significantly in male moths but slightly increased in female adults during the migratory season, which was consistent with changes in mRNA levels for MsJhamt, MsJheh and MsJhe. JH titer was negatively associated with relative seasonal levels of vitellogenin mRNA transcripts and with ovarian development in migrating M. separata. The synchrony of MsVg expression with sexual maturation highlighted the potential of MsVg transcript levels to serve as an index to monitor the adult reproductive status. In addition, the level of JH and sexual maturity were correlated with the extent of JH in regulating the MsVg expression and reproduction during seasonal northern and southern migration. PMID:27629246

  1. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between serum sexual hormone levels and internal derangement of temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Madani, A S; Shamsian, A A; Hedayati-Moghaddam, M R; Fathi-Moghadam, F; Sabooni, M R; Mirmortazavi, A; Golmohamadi, M

    2013-08-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are defined as clinical conditions that involve the masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or both. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum 17β-oestradiol and progesterone levels in menstruating women affected by internal derangement of the TMJ. A total of 142 women (mean age 30·2 ± 6·7) who referred to medical diagnostic laboratory of Iranian Academic Centre for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, were enrolled during 2007 and 2008. Forty-seven individuals had disc displacement with reduction (Group IIa) according to Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC)/TMD Axis I diagnosis. Radioimmunoassay was used for the detection of serum 17β-oestradiol and progesterone levels in all 142 subjects. The mean progesterone level was significantly higher in control group (11·6 ± 10·4 ng mL(-1) ) compared to women with TMD (8·4 ± 6·8 ng mL(-1) , P = 0·03). No significant difference was found in two groups regarding 17β-oestradiol level. Lower progesterone level in women with TMD can suggest the more important role of this hormone in the development of the disorder.

  2. High thyroid-stimulating hormone level is associated with the risk of developing atherosclerosis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Gao, C X; Yang, B; Guo, Q; Wei, L H; Tian, L M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the potential role of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the risk of developing atherosclerosis in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). A cohort of 240 SCH patients and 150 euthyroid volunteers were recruited for the study. SCH patients were stratified into 2 groups according to TSH levels (group A: TSH<10 mIU/l; group B: TSH>10 mIU/l). All subjects were examined for clinical and biochemical parameters. Visfatin, omentin-1, and circulating endothelial biomarkers were measured. Patients in group B received l-thyroxine replacement to achieve euthyroidism; after 6 months of euthyroidism all measurements were repeated. Patients with SCH had higher total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and lower nitric oxide (NO) and omentin-1 levels compared to euthyroid subjects (all p<0.05). TC, LDL-C, and CRP decreased significantly, while NO and omentin-1 levels increased significantly after l-thyroxine replacement. Based on multivariate liner stepwise regression analysis, omentin-1 was independently correlated with BMI and TSH; NO was independently correlated with age, TSH, LDL-C, and omentin-1. High TSH level contributes to endothelial dysfunction in SCH, while TSH-induced decrease of omentin-1 provides a new link between SCH and atherogenic risk.

  3. Synchronous vitellogenin expression and sexual maturation during migration are negatively correlated with juvenile hormone levels in Mythimna separata.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hai-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Annual migration of pests between different seasonal habitats can lead to serious crop damage. Reproductive immaturity is generally associated with the migratory process (oogenesis-flight syndrome), but the mechanism of reproductive development during migration varies unpredictably. Here, the vitellogenin gene (MsVg) and three key regulatory enzyme genes (MsJhamt, MsJheh and MsJhe) related to juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and degradation were identified and characterized in Mythimna separata. The relative expression of MsVg varied significantly in response to seasonal changes and was significantly correlated with stages of ovarian development. The relatively low levels of JH titer did not differ significantly in male moths but slightly increased in female adults during the migratory season, which was consistent with changes in mRNA levels for MsJhamt, MsJheh and MsJhe. JH titer was negatively associated with relative seasonal levels of vitellogenin mRNA transcripts and with ovarian development in migrating M. separata. The synchrony of MsVg expression with sexual maturation highlighted the potential of MsVg transcript levels to serve as an index to monitor the adult reproductive status. In addition, the level of JH and sexual maturity were correlated with the extent of JH in regulating the MsVg expression and reproduction during seasonal northern and southern migration. PMID:27629246

  4. Exposure to Hypoxia at High Altitude (5380 m) for 1 Year Induces Reversible Effects on Semen Quality and Serum Reproductive Hormone Levels in Young Male Adults.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Cui, Jianhua; Wang, Rui; Gao, Liang; Gao, Xiaokang; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Qiong; Cao, Jinjun; Yu, Wuzhong

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypoxia at high altitude on the semen quality and the serum reproductive hormone levels in male adults. A total of 52 male soldiers were enrolled in this cohort study. They were exposed to hypoxia at high altitude (5380 m) for 12 months when undergoing a service. After exposure, they were followed up for 6 months. The samples of semen and peripheral blood were collected at 1 month before exposure (M0), 6 months of exposure (M6), 12 months of exposure (M12), and 6 months after exposure (M18). The semen quality was assessed with computer-assisted analysis system, and the serum levels of reproductive hormones, including prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were analyzed by ELISA. Compared with those at M0, total sperm count, sperm density, motility, survival rate, and serum levels of LH, PRL and testosterone were significantly decreased, whereas the liquefaction time was significantly prolonged and serum FSH level was significantly increased at M6 (p<0.05). At M12, total sperm count and sperm density increased, whereas sperm motility, survival rate, and the liquefaction time further decreased. Sperm velocities, progression ratios, and lateral head displacements were also decreased. Serum FSH level decreased while serum LH, PRL, and testosterone levels increased. Compared with those at M6, the changes in these detected parameters of semen and hormone at M12 were significant (p<0.05). At M18, all these detected parameters except testosterone level returned to levels comparable to those before exposure. In conclusion, hypoxia at high altitude causes adverse effects on semen quality and reproductive hormones, and these effects are reversible.

  5. The effect of liming on antibacterial and hormone levels in wastewater biosolids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to meet Class B quality requirements, wastewater biosolids are regulated for pathogen levels, metal concentrations, and vector attraction. One common method to decrease pathogen levels in these solids is to stabilize them by lime addition (CaO), which raises the pH and temperature of the m...

  6. Variation in levels of luteinizing hormone and reproductive photoresponsiveness in a population of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Heideman, Paul D; Pittman, Julian T; Schubert, Kristin A; Dubois, Christen M R; Bowles, Jennifer; Lowe, Sean M; Price, Matthew R

    2010-06-01

    Natural genetic variation in reproduction and life history strategies is a manifestation of variation in underlying regulatory neuronal and endocrine systems. A test of the hypothesis that genetic variation in luteinizing hormone (LH) level could be related to a life history trait, seasonal reproduction, was conducted on artificial selection lines from a wild-source population of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus). Variation exists in the degree of suppression of reproduction by winter short-day photoperiods (SD) in wild-source individuals and in the laboratory population. In this population, most individuals from a photoperiod-responsive (R) artificial selection line are strongly suppressed reproductively in SD, while most individuals from a photoperiod-nonresponsive (NR) artificial selection line are only weakly reproductively suppressed in SD. We assayed levels of LH to test for genetic variation between lines that could contribute to variation in reproductive status in SD. Females from both lines were raised in long-day photoperiods (LD) or SD, ovariectomized under isoflurane anesthesia, and given estradiol implants. Levels of LH were significantly higher in the NR line than in the R line, indicating genetic variation for levels of LH. Levels of LH were higher in LD than in SD, indicating that levels of LH were sensitive to photoperiod treatment even with a controlled level of estradiol negative feedback. The results indicate that there is genetic variation in levels of LH that could be functionally important both in the laboratory in SD and in the wild population in winter. Thus genetic variation in levels of LH is a plausible causal factor determining winter reproductive phenotype in the wild population. PMID:20357020

  7. Maternal deprivation has sexually dimorphic long-term effects on hypothalamic cell-turnover, body weight and circulating hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Viveros, María-Paz; Llorente, Ricardo; Díaz, Francisca; Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y; Bermudez-Silva, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2010-11-01

    Maternal deprivation (MD) has numerous outcomes, including modulation of neuroendocrine functions. We previously reported that circulating leptin levels are reduced and hypothalamic cell-turnover is affected during MD, with some of these effects being sexually dimorphic. As leptin modulates the development of hypothalamic circuits involved in metabolic control, we asked whether MD has long-term consequences on body weight, leptin levels and the expression of neuropeptides involved in metabolism. Rats were separated from their mother for 24h starting on postnatal day (PND) 9 and sacrificed at PNDs 13, 35 and 75. In both sexes MD reduced body weight, but only until puberty, while leptin levels were unchanged at PND 35 and significantly reduced at PND 75. Adiponectin levels were also reduced at PND 75 in females, while testosterone levels were reduced in males. At PND 13, MD modulated cell-turnover markers in the hypothalamus of males, but not females and increased nestin, a marker of immature neurons, in both sexes, with males having higher levels than females and a significantly greater rise in response to MD. There was no effect of MD on hypothalamic mRNA levels of the leptin receptor or metabolic neuropeptides or the mRNA levels of leptin and adiponectin in adipose tissue. Thus, MD has long-term effects on the levels of circulating hormones that are not correlated with changes in body weight. Furthermore, these endocrine outcomes are different between males and females, which could be due to the fact that MD may have sexually dimorphic effects on hypothalamic development.

  8. Variation in levels of luteinizing hormone and reproductive photoresponsiveness in a population of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Heideman, Paul D; Pittman, Julian T; Schubert, Kristin A; Dubois, Christen M R; Bowles, Jennifer; Lowe, Sean M; Price, Matthew R

    2010-06-01

    Natural genetic variation in reproduction and life history strategies is a manifestation of variation in underlying regulatory neuronal and endocrine systems. A test of the hypothesis that genetic variation in luteinizing hormone (LH) level could be related to a life history trait, seasonal reproduction, was conducted on artificial selection lines from a wild-source population of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus). Variation exists in the degree of suppression of reproduction by winter short-day photoperiods (SD) in wild-source individuals and in the laboratory population. In this population, most individuals from a photoperiod-responsive (R) artificial selection line are strongly suppressed reproductively in SD, while most individuals from a photoperiod-nonresponsive (NR) artificial selection line are only weakly reproductively suppressed in SD. We assayed levels of LH to test for genetic variation between lines that could contribute to variation in reproductive status in SD. Females from both lines were raised in long-day photoperiods (LD) or SD, ovariectomized under isoflurane anesthesia, and given estradiol implants. Levels of LH were significantly higher in the NR line than in the R line, indicating genetic variation for levels of LH. Levels of LH were higher in LD than in SD, indicating that levels of LH were sensitive to photoperiod treatment even with a controlled level of estradiol negative feedback. The results indicate that there is genetic variation in levels of LH that could be functionally important both in the laboratory in SD and in the wild population in winter. Thus genetic variation in levels of LH is a plausible causal factor determining winter reproductive phenotype in the wild population.

  9. Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor levels and binding affinity in the thyroid gland of growth-retarded mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kenichi; Sato, Mirei; Machida, Takeo; Kobayashi, Tetsuya

    2005-09-01

    Growth-retarded (grt/grt) mice are congenitally primary hypothyroid. Our previous study indicated that thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) responsiveness was defective in the grt/grt thyroid gland. We now report additional studies of impaired grt/grt thyroid function. Semiquantitative RT-PCR confirmed that TSH receptor (TSHR) mRNA expression in the grt/grt thyroid was significantly decreased compared with +/+ thyroids. Scatchard analysis revealed that grt/grt and +/+ mice have only one type of TSH binding site. grt/grt thyroids had fewer TSH binding sites, although this did not apparently affect the affinity of TSH for its receptor. The present data suggest that reduced TSHR levels or defects in TSHR signaling could be one of the possible defective sites in the grt/grt thyroid gland.

  10. Induction of Embryogenesis in Brassica Napus Microspores Produces a Callosic Subintinal Layer and Abnormal Cell Walls with Altered Levels of Callose and Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Vega, Verónica; Corral-Martínez, Patricia; Rivas-Sendra, Alba; Seguí-Simarro, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The induction of microspore embryogenesis produces dramatic changes in different aspects of the cell physiology and structure. Changes at the cell wall level are among the most intriguing and poorly understood. In this work, we used high pressure freezing and freeze substitution, immunolocalization, confocal, and electron microscopy to analyze the structure and composition of the first cell walls formed during conventional Brassica napus microspore embryogenesis, and in cultures treated to alter the intracellular Ca2+ levels. Our results revealed that one of the first signs of embryogenic commitment is the formation of a callose-rich, cellulose-deficient layer beneath the intine (the subintinal layer), and of irregular, incomplete cell walls. In these events, Ca2+ may have a role. We propose that abnormal cell walls are due to a massive callose synthesis and deposition of excreted cytoplasmic material, and the parallel inhibition of cellulose synthesis. These features were absent in pollen-like structures and in microspore-derived embryos, few days after the end of the heat shock, where abnormal cell walls were no longer produced. Together, our results provide an explanation to a series of relevant aspects of microspore embryogenesis including the role of Ca2+ and the occurrence of abnormal cell walls. In addition, our discovery may be the explanation to why nuclear fusions take place during microspore embryogenesis. PMID:26635844

  11. Effect of 2 month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormone levels in healthy postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H.; Spicer, Darcy; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Yang, Chung S.; Pike, Malcolm C.

    2013-01-01

    There have been no controlled intervention studies to investigate the effects of green tea on circulating hormone levels, an established breast cancer risk factor. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the effect of the main green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), taken in a green tea extract, Polyphenon E (PPE). Postmenopausal women (n=103) were randomized into three arms: placebo, 400 mg EGCG as PPE, or 800 mg EGCG as PPE as capsules per day for 2 months. Urinary tea catechin and serum estrogen, androgen, lipid, glucose-related markers, adiponectin, and growth factor levels were measured at baseline and at the end of months 1 and 2 of intervention. Based on urinary tea catechin concentrations, compliance was excellent. Supplementation with PPE did not produce consistent patterns of changes in estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), or testosterone (T) levels. Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased significantly in both PPE groups but was unchanged in the placebo group; the change in LDL-cholesterol differed between the placebo and PPE groups (P=0.02). Glucose and insulin levels decreased nonsignificantly in the PPE groups but increased in the placebo group; statistically significant differences in changes in glucose (P=0.008) and insulin (P=0.01) were found. In summary, green tea (400 and 800 mg EGCG as PPE; ~5–10 cups) supplementation for 2 months had suggestive beneficial effects on LDL cholesterol concentrations and glucose-related markers. PMID:22246619

  12. Molt-associated changes in hematologic and plasma biochemical values and stress hormone levels in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Mazzaro, Lisa M; Meegan, Jenny; Sarran, Delphine; Romano, Tracy A; Bonato, Vinicius; Deng, Shibing; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2013-12-01

    Handling, including blood collection, has often been discouraged in molting penguins because it is considered an additional stress imposed on birds already experiencing major physiologic stress associated with molting. To evaluate the degree of physiologic stress posed by molting, we compared the hematologic and plasma biochemical values and hormone levels of molting and nonmolting African penguins, Spheniscus demersus. Five male and 5 female penguins randomly chosen were given complete physical examinations, were weighed, and blood samples were taken at 7 time points before, during, and after the molt. Data were analyzed by linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Throughout the study, behavior and appetite remained normal. Catecholamine levels were highly variable within and among subjects, whereas mean corticosterone levels were significantly different between baseline, molt, and postmolt values. Significant differences from baseline values were observed in many of the hematologic analytes; however, only decreases in hematocrit and red blood cell count values were considered clinically significant. Anemia due to experimentally induced blood loss as a possible cause of the significant hematologic changes was ruled out based on results of a follow-up control study during the nonmolt season, which showed no significant changes in hematocrit level or total red blood cell counts when using similar sampling protocols, which indicates that these changes were associated with molt. PMID:24640930

  13. Molt-associated changes in hematologic and plasma biochemical values and stress hormone levels in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Mazzaro, Lisa M; Meegan, Jenny; Sarran, Delphine; Romano, Tracy A; Bonato, Vinicius; Deng, Shibing; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2013-12-01

    Handling, including blood collection, has often been discouraged in molting penguins because it is considered an additional stress imposed on birds already experiencing major physiologic stress associated with molting. To evaluate the degree of physiologic stress posed by molting, we compared the hematologic and plasma biochemical values and hormone levels of molting and nonmolting African penguins, Spheniscus demersus. Five male and 5 female penguins randomly chosen were given complete physical examinations, were weighed, and blood samples were taken at 7 time points before, during, and after the molt. Data were analyzed by linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Throughout the study, behavior and appetite remained normal. Catecholamine levels were highly variable within and among subjects, whereas mean corticosterone levels were significantly different between baseline, molt, and postmolt values. Significant differences from baseline values were observed in many of the hematologic analytes; however, only decreases in hematocrit and red blood cell count values were considered clinically significant. Anemia due to experimentally induced blood loss as a possible cause of the significant hematologic changes was ruled out based on results of a follow-up control study during the nonmolt season, which showed no significant changes in hematocrit level or total red blood cell counts when using similar sampling protocols, which indicates that these changes were associated with molt.

  14. Effect of 2-month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormone levels in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anna H; Spicer, Darcy; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Yang, Chung S; Pike, Malcolm C

    2012-03-01

    There have been no controlled intervention studies to investigate the effects of green tea on circulating hormone levels, an established breast cancer risk factor. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study to investigate the effect of the main green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), taken in a green tea extract, polyphenon E (PPE). Postmenopausal women (n = 103) were randomized into three arms: placebo, 400-mg EGCG as PPE, or 800-mg EGCG as PPE as capsules per day for 2 months. Urinary tea catechin and serum estrogen, androgen, lipid, glucose-related markers, adiponectin, and growth factor levels were measured at baseline and at the end of months 1 and 2 of intervention. On the basis of urinary tea catechin concentrations, compliance was excellent. Supplementation with PPE did not produce consistent patterns of changes in estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), or testosterone (T) levels. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol decreased significantly in both PPE groups but was unchanged in the placebo group; the change in LDL-cholesterol differed between the placebo and PPE groups (P = 0.02). Glucose and insulin levels decreased nonsignificantly in the PPE groups but increased in the placebo group; statistically significant differences in changes in glucose (P = 0.008) and insulin (P = 0.01) were found. In summary, green tea (400- and 800-mg EGCG as PPE; ∼5-10 cups) supplementation for 2 months had suggestive beneficial effects on LDL-cholesterol concentrations and glucose-related markers.

  15. Human sexuality, sex hormones, and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Morris, George L; Vanderkolk, Colleen

    2005-12-01

    The function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), including the production of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and prolactin, and the concentrations and metabolism of its end products, such as estrogen, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone, appear to be modified in many people with epilepsy. Effects of the disorder itself and effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) both appear to contribute to these hormonal alterations, which may be associated with sexual dysfunction. Focal epileptic discharges from the temporal lobe may affect HPA function, as is suggested by the normalization of androgen levels seen in men with temporal lobe epilepsy who become seizure-free after surgery. Hepatic enzyme-inducing AEDs such as carbamazepine and phenytoin may be most clearly linked to altered metabolism of sex steroid hormones, but valproic acid, an enzyme inhibitor, has also been implicated in the causation of reproductive endocrine abnormalities. Polycystic ovaries and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are widely believed to be common in women with epilepsy, but the actual prevalence and the pathogenesis of PCOS in this population are disputed. Hormonal changes and sexual dysfunction need to be addressed in any comprehensive approach to epilepsy management, as well as any comprehensive epilepsy research program. Avoidance of enzyme-inducing AEDs and achievement of freedom from seizures as the goal of treatment are strongly recommended.

  16. Correlation Analysis of Exercise-Induced Changes in Plasma Trace Element and Hormone Levels During Incremental Exercise in Well-Trained Athletes.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; Anson, Miguel; Escanero, Jesús F

    2016-03-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between hormonal changes induced by exercise and variations in trace elements associated with oxidative stress during incremental exercise. Nineteen well-trained endurance athletes performed a cycle ergometer test: after a warm-up of 10 min at 2.0 W kg(-1), workload increased by 0.5 W kg(-1) every 10 min until exhaustion. The analysis was controlled for prior diet and activity patterns, levels of exercise training, and time of day (circadian rhythms). Whole blood lactate concentration and plasma concentrations of ions (Zn, Se, Mn, and Co), insulin, glucagon, aldosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), calcitonin, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured at rest; at the end of each stage; and 3, 5, and 7 min post-exercise. The statistical analysis involved paired non-parametric tests and correlation coefficients. No significant differences were found in Mn or Co levels as a function of exercise intensity. Zn and Se levels at the end of the exercise protocol and over the recovery time were significantly different to baseline. Further, Zn levels were significantly correlated with aldosterone, calcitonin, and PTH levels, while Se levels were associated with aldosterone, calcitonin, and TSH levels. Our results indicate several different patterns of association between acute changes in hormone concentrations and variations in trace element concentrations related to oxidative stress during submaximal exercise.

  17. Levels of lutenizing hormone, estradiol and progesterone in serum during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in the beagle bitch (38491).

    PubMed

    Nett, T M; Akbar, A M; Phemister, R D; Holst, P A; Reichert, L E; niswender, G D

    1975-01-01

    Levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol-17 beta and progesterone were determined by specific radioimmunoassays in sera obtained from Beagle bitches during proestrus, estrus and diestrus. Concentrations of LH (expressed as NIH-LH-SI equivalents) were 2.8 plus or minus 0.1 ng/ml in proestrus, 35.5 plus or minus 10.0 ng/ml during early estrus and 2.2 plus or minus 0.1 ng/ml in early diestrus. Peak levels of estradiol-17beta (68.9 plus or minus 11.0 ng/ml) were detected 24 hr prior to the LH peak, declined rapidly and reached basal levels (17.8 plus or minus 6.3 ng/ml) by five days following the LH peak. Levels of progesterone were 1.7 plus or minus 0.3 ng/ml during proestrus, 3.5 plus or minus 0.3 ng/ml during early estrus and 23.3 plus or minus 2.8 ng/ml on day 5 after the LH peak . Progesterone levels remained elevated through day 28 of diestrus and pregnancy. A significant decrease (p smaller than 0.05) in levels of prosgesterone occurred between day 28 of pregnancy and one day prior to shelping (3.3 plus or minus 1.2 ng/ml, with a further decrease on the day of whelping (1.1 plus or minus 0.2 ng/ml). Levels of estradiol-17beta and LH did not change significantly (p smaller than 0.0k) during diestrus or pregnancy.

  18. Association between thyroid hormone levels and insulin resistance and body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Neval; Yeler, Mustafa Taner; Ayan, Nilhan Nurlu; Ozkeskin, Ali; Ozkan, Zeynep; Serin, N.Ozden

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have shown an association between thyroid function and insulin resistance and obesity. We compared insulin resistance and body mass index (BMI) in patients with normal TSH levels (2.5–4.2 µIU/mL), patients diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism, and healthy control subjects. Methods: The study included 104 subjects and was conducted at the Taksim Education and Research Hospital. The subjects were divided into three groups according to TSH levels: Group 1 (high-normal), TSH levels were 2.5–4.2 µIU/mL (n=33); Group 2 (subclinical hypothyroidism), TSH levels were 4.2–10 µIU/mL (n=42); and Group 3 (healthy control), TSH levels were 0.27–2.5 µIU/mL (n=29). The fT3 and fT4 levels were within normal limits in all groups. Insulin resistance and BMI were compared among groups. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to estimate insulin resistance. Results: HOMA-IR and BMI were not significantly different among groups (p>0.05). A significant positive correlation was found between BMI and HOMA-IR in the high-normal TSH (p>0.059) and subclinical hypothyroidism (p>0.05) groups. Conclusions: HOMA-IR and BMI are important for the assessment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We found no significant difference in HOMA-IR and BMI values among the three TSH reference range groups. PMID:26870107

  19. The effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone on inflammation due to tuberculin hypersensitivity and turpentine and on circulating antibody levels.

    PubMed

    OSGOOD, C K; FAVOUR, C B

    1951-11-01

    The treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone of guinea pigs sensitized with heat-killed tubercle bacilli caused suppression of their skin reactivity to tuberculin. Similar animals treated with saline did not show this change. Normal guinea pigs treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone showed suppression of inflammation, but not necrosis, produced by intracutaneous oil of turpentine. There was slight, but probably not significant, diminution of inflammation during saline administration. Tuberculin complement-fixing antibody titers were not altered by either adrenocorticotropic hormone or saline administration. Adrenocorticotropic hormone produced marked eosinopenia and lymphopenia in guinea pigs.

  20. THE EFFECT OF ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE ON INFLAMMATION DUE TO TUBERCULIN HYPERSENSITIVITY AND TURPENTINE AND ON CIRCULATING ANTIBODY LEVELS

    PubMed Central

    Osgood, Charles K.; Favour, Cutting B.

    1951-01-01

    The treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone of guinea pigs sensitized with heat-killed tubercle bacilli caused suppression of their skin reactivity to tuberculin. Similar animals treated with saline did not show this change. Normal guinea pigs treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone showed suppression of inflammation, but not necrosis, produced by intracutaneous oil of turpentine. There was slight, but probably not significant, diminution of inflammation during saline administration. Tuberculin complement-fixing antibody titers were not altered by either adrenocorticotropic hormone or saline administration. Adrenocorticotropic hormone produced marked eosinopenia and lymphopenia in guinea pigs. PMID:14888823

  1. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  2. In situ relationship between energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in Nereis diversicolor (O.F. Müller) from clean and contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Mouneyrac, C; Pellerin, J; Moukrim, A; Ait Alla, A; Durou, C; Viault, N

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in situ, the temporal effects of urban effluent discharge on energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in the intrasedimentary worm Nereis diversicolor. Results have shown no differences in energy reserves (glycogen, lipids) in organisms originating from a contaminated site (Oued Souss) and a comparatively clean site (Oualidia). Both sites are located on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. In contrast, steroid hormone (progesterone, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol) levels were significantly decreased in animals from Oued Souss. The differences in the responses suggest that organisms from the polluted site have been exposed to endocrine disruptors.

  3. Plasma levels on thyroid hormones in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) decrease before spawning.

    PubMed

    Biddiscombe, S; Idler, D R

    1983-12-01

    Blood samples were taken from mature sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) at various stages in their upstream migration to spawn at Adam's River in British Columbia, Canada. Plasma T3 and T4 levels decreased significantly in both males and females between time of entry into fresh water and postspawning.

  4. Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane) Inhibits Cell Proliferation, Induces Apoptosis, and Decreases Hormone Levels and Secretion in Pituitary Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Matthew; Chen, Shenglin; Woodliff, Jeffrey; Kansra, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    Prolactinomas are the most prevalent functional pituitary adenomas. Dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) agonists, such as bromocriptine are the first line of therapy; however, drug intolerance/resistance to D2R agonists exists. Apart from D2R agonists, there is no established medical therapy for prolactinomas; therefore, identifying novel therapeutics is warranted. Curcumin, a commonly used food additive in South Asian cooking, inhibits proliferation of several tumor cell lines; however, its effect on pituitary tumor cell proliferation has not been determined. Our objectives were to: 1) determine whether curcumin inhibits proliferation of pituitary tumor cell lines; 2) identify the signaling intermediaries that mediate the effect of curcumin; 3) examine whether curcumin inhibited pituitary hormone production and release; and 4) examine whether curcumin could enhance the growth-inhibitory effect of bromocriptine. Using rat lactotroph cell lines, GH3 and MMQ cells, we report that curcumin had a robust dose and time-dependent inhibitory effect on GH3 and MMQ cell proliferation. Inhibitory effects of curcumin persisted, even on removal of curcumin, and curcumin also blocked colony formation ability of pituitary tumor cells. The growth-inhibitory effect of curcumin was accompanied by decreased expression of cyclin D3 and ser 780 phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. In addition, curcumin also induced apoptosis in both GH3 and MMQ cells. Furthermore, curcumin suppresses intracellular levels and release of both prolactin and GH. Finally, we show that low concentrations of curcumin enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of bromocriptine on MMQ cell proliferation. Taken together we demonstrate that curcumin inhibits pituitary tumor cell proliferation, induces apoptosis, and decreases hormone production and release, and thus, we propose developing curcumin as a novel therapeutic tool in the management of prolactinomas. PMID:18450960

  5. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) inhibits cell proliferation, induces apoptosis, and decreases hormone levels and secretion in pituitary tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew; Chen, Shenglin; Woodliff, Jeffrey; Kansra, Sanjay

    2008-08-01

    Prolactinomas are the most prevalent functional pituitary adenomas. Dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) agonists, such as bromocriptine are the first line of therapy; however, drug intolerance/resistance to D2R agonists exists. Apart from D2R agonists, there is no established medical therapy for prolactinomas; therefore, identifying novel therapeutics is warranted. Curcumin, a commonly used food additive in South Asian cooking, inhibits proliferation of several tumor cell lines; however, its effect on pituitary tumor cell proliferation has not been determined. Our objectives were to: 1) determine whether curcumin inhibits proliferation of pituitary tumor cell lines; 2) identify the signaling intermediaries that mediate the effect of curcumin; 3) examine whether curcumin inhibited pituitary hormone production and release; and 4) examine whether curcumin could enhance the growth-inhibitory effect of bromocriptine. Using rat lactotroph cell lines, GH3 and MMQ cells, we report that curcumin had a robust dose and time-dependent inhibitory effect on GH3 and MMQ cell proliferation. Inhibitory effects of curcumin persisted, even on removal of curcumin, and curcumin also blocked colony formation ability of pituitary tumor cells. The growth-inhibitory effect of curcumin was accompanied by decreased expression of cyclin D3 and ser 780 phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. In addition, curcumin also induced apoptosis in both GH3 and MMQ cells. Furthermore, curcumin suppresses intracellular levels and release of both prolactin and GH. Finally, we show that low concentrations of curcumin enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of bromocriptine on MMQ cell proliferation. Taken together we demonstrate that curcumin inhibits pituitary tumor cell proliferation, induces apoptosis, and decreases hormone production and release, and thus, we propose developing curcumin as a novel therapeutic tool in the management of prolactinomas.

  6. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment.

    PubMed

    Sustarsic, Elahu G; Junnila, Riia K; Kopchick, John J

    2013-11-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in carcinogenesis. While multiple studies show evidence for expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR mRNA in human cancer tissue, there is a lack of quantification and only a few cancer types have been investigated. The National Cancer Institute's NCI60 panel includes 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer: breast, CNS, colon, leukemia, melanoma, non-small cell lung, ovarian, prostate and renal. We utilized this panel to quantify expression of GHR, GH, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and prolactin (PRL) mRNA with real-time RT qPCR. Both GHR and PRLR show a broad range of expression within and among most cancer types. Strikingly, GHR expression is nearly 50-fold higher in melanoma than in the panel as a whole. Analysis of human metastatic melanoma biopsies confirmed GHR gene expression in melanoma tissue. In these human biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found that human metastatic melanoma tumors express GHR and cell lines possess active GHRs that can modulate multiple signaling pathways and alter cell proliferation. Based on this data, GH could be a new therapeutic target in melanoma. PMID:24134847

  7. Changes in growth, hormones levels and essential oil content of Ammi visnaga L. plants treated with some bioregulators

    PubMed Central

    Talaat, Iman M.; Khattab, Hemmat I.; Ahmed, Aisha M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of foliar application of different concentrations of amino acids (tyrosine and phenylalanine) and phenolic acids (trans-cinnamic acid, benzoic acid and salicylic acid) on growth, pigment content, hormones levels and essential oil content of Ammi visnaga L were carried out during two successive seasons. It is clear that foliar application of either amino acids or phenolics significantly promoted the growth parameters in terms of shoot height, fresh and dry biomass, number of branches and number of umbels per plant. The increment of growth parameter was associated with elevated levels of growth promoters (IAA, GA3, total cytokinins) and low level of ABA. The greatest increase in the previously mentioned parameters was measured in plants exposed to different concentrations of phenols particularly in benzoic acid-treated plants. Such effect was concentration dependent. All treatments led to significant increments in yield seeds and oil content. Moreover, gas liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that the main identified components of essential oil were 2,2-dimethyl butanoic acid, isobutyl isobutyrate, α-isophorone, thymol, fenchyl acetate and linalool. Phenolics and amino acid treatments resulted in qualitative differences in these components of essential oil. PMID:25183946

  8. Some hormone, cytokine and chemokine levels that change across lifespan vary by cognitive status in male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Scheinert, Rachel B; Asokan, Aditya; Rani, Asha; Kumar, Ashok; Foster, Thomas C; Ormerod, Brandi K

    2015-10-01

    We trained and tested young (6-8months; n=13), middle-aged (12-14months; n=41), and aged (22-24months; n=24) male Fischer 344 rats in a rapid acquisition water maze task and then quantified 27 stress hormones, cytokines and chemokines in their serum, hippocampi and frontal cortices using bead assay kits and xMAP technology. Middle-aged and aged rats learned the location of the hidden platform over training trials more slowly than their young counterparts. After training, young rats outperformed middle-aged and aged rats on both immediate and 24h retention probe trials and about half of the middle-aged and aged (aging) rats exhibited impaired performances when tested on the retention probe trial 24h later. The concentrations of many serum, hippocampal and cortical analytes changed with age often in networks that may represent age-sensitive signaling pathways and the concentrations of some of these analytes correlated with water maze learning and/or memory scores. Serum GRO/KC and RANTES levels, hippocampal GM-CSF levels and cortical IL-9 and RANTES levels were significantly higher in rats categorized as memory-impaired versus elite agers based upon their 24h probe trial performances. Our data add to the emerging picture of how age-related changes in immune and neuroimmune system signaling impacts cognition.

  9. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels as a predictor of the ovarian response and IVF outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min Hye; Yoo, Ji Hee; Cha, Sun Hwa; Park, Chan Woo; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok; Koong, Mi Kyoung; Kang, Inn Soo

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels could be predict ovarian poor/hyper response and IVF cycle outcome. Methods Between May 2010 and January 2011, serum AMH levels were evaluated with retrospective analysis. Three hundred seventy infertile women undergoing 461 IVF cycles between the ages of 20 and 42 were studied. We defined the poor response as the number of oocytes retrieved was equal or less than 3, and the hyper response as more than 25 oocytes retrieved. Serum AMH was measured by commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results The number of oocytes retrieved was more correlated with the serum AMH level (r=0.781, p<0.01) than serum FSH (r=-0.412, p<0.01). The cut-off value of serum AMH levels for poor response was 1.05 ng/mL (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curves/area under the curve [AUC], ROCAUC=0.85, sensitivity 74%, specificity 87%). Hyper response cut-off value was 3.55 ng/mL (ROCAUC=0.91, sensitivity 94%, specificity 81%). When the study group was divided according to the serum AMH levels (low: <1.05 ng/mL, middle: 1.05 ng/mL - 3.55 ng/mL, high: >3.55 ng/mL), the groups showed no statistical differences in mature oocyte rates (71.6% vs. 76.5% vs. 74.8%) or fertilization rates (76.9% vs. 76.6% vs. 73.8%), but showed significant differences in clinical pregnancy rates (21.7% vs. 24.1% vs. 40.8%, p=0.017). Conclusion The serum AMH level can be used to predict the number of oocytes retrieved in patients, distinguishing poor and high responders. PMID:22384435

  10. Urinary Perchlorate and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Adolescent and Adult Men and Women Living in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Blount, Benjamin C.; Pirkle, James L.; Osterloh, John D.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Caldwell, Kathleen L.

    2006-01-01

    Background Perchlorate is commonly found in the environment and known to inhibit thyroid function at high doses. Assessing the potential effect of low-level exposure to perchlorate on thyroid function is an area of ongoing research. Objectives We evaluated the potential relationship between urinary levels of perchlorate and serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and total thyroxine (T4) in 2,299 men and women, ≥ 12 years of age, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 2001–2002. Methods We used multiple regression models of T4 and TSH that included perchlorate and covariates known to be or likely to be associated with T4 or TSH levels: age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, estrogen use, menopausal status, pregnancy status, premenarche status, serum C-reactive protein, serum albumin, serum cotinine, hours of fasting, urinary thiocyanate, urinary nitrate, and selected medication groups. Results Perchlorate was not a significant predictor of T4 or TSH levels in men. For women overall, perchlorate was a significant predictor of both T4 and TSH. For women with urinary iodine < 100 μg/L, perchlorate was a significant negative predictor of T4 (p < 0.0001) and a positive predictor of TSH (p = 0.001). For women with urinary iodine ≥ 100 μg/L, perchlorate was a significant positive predictor of TSH (p = 0.025) but not T4 (p = 0.550). Conclusions These associations of perchlorate with T4 and TSH are coherent in direction and independent of other variables known to affect thyroid function, but are present at perchlorate exposure levels that were unanticipated based on previous studies. PMID:17185277

  11. Human chorionic gonadotropin (a luteinizing hormone homologue) decreases spatial memory and increases brain amyloid-β levels in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Anne S.; Tomidokoro, Yasushi; Ghiso, Jorge; Thornton, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that estradiol (E) improves spatial memory as female rats with E perform better than those without E. However there is an inverse relationship between E and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels and LH could play a role. We examined whether treatment with the LH homologue human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), would impair spatial memory of adult E-treated female rats. In the Object Location Memory Task, ovariectomized (ovxed) rats treated with E and either a single high dose (400IU/kg) or a lower repeated dose of hCG (75 IU/kg hourly for 8 hours) showed spatial memory disruption compared to ovxed rats treated with estradiol alone. Impairment was attributed to memory disruption as performance improved with shortened delay between task exposure and testing. Tests on another spatial memory task, the Barnes maze, confirmed that hCG (400IU/kg) can impair memory: although E + veh treated animals made significantly fewer hole errors across time, E + hCG treated did not. In humans, high LH levels have been correlated with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Because brain amyloid-beta (Aβ) species have been implicated as a toxic factor thought to cause memory loss in AD, we analyzed whether hCG-treated animals had increased Aβ levels. Levels of Aβ from whole brains or hippocampi were assessed by Western Blot. hCG treatment to E-implanted females significantly increased soluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels. These results indicate that high levels of LH/hCG can impair spatial memory, and an increase in brain Aβ species may account for the memory impairment in hCG-treated rats. PMID:18413150

  12. Blood levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites in Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica): emphasis on interspecies comparison, gender difference and association with blood thyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Imaeda, Daisuke; Nomiyama, Kei; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Tsydenova, Oyuna; Amano, Masao; Petrov, Evgeny A; Batoev, Valeriy B; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica) are still being exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the population is at risk. In the present study, we measured the residue levels of PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in the blood of Baikal seals and assessed the impact of OH-PCBs on the thyroid function. Blood concentrations of PCBs and OH-PCBs were in the range of 2.8-130 ng g(-1)wet wt. and 0.71-4.6 ng g(-1)wetwt., respectively. Concentrations of higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs (hexa- to octa-PCBs) were more than 70% to total OH-PCB concentrations, indicating Baikal seals are mostly risked by higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs. High levels of 4OH-CB146 and 4OH-CB187 and low levels of 4OH-CB107/4'OH-CB108 found in Baikal seals were different from those in other phocidae species, suggesting the unique drug-metabolizing enzyme activities and/or contamination sources in this species. Concentrations of some OH-PCBs in males were significantly higher than those in females. These results suggest that these isomers may be preferentially transferred from mother to pup via cord blood. However, concentrations of almost all the isomers were not significantly correlated with the levels of blood total T3 and T4, implying less impact of PCB-related compounds on the thyroid hormone circulation.

  13. From stem cell to erythroblast: regulation of red cell production at multiple levels by multiple hormones.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Harvey; Flygare, Johan; Chou, Song

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews the regulation of production of red blood cells at several levels: (1) the ability of erythropoietin and adhesion to a fibronectin matrix to stimulate the rapid production of red cells by inducing terminal proliferation and differentiation of committed erythroid CFU-E progenitors; (2) the regulated expansion of the pool of earlier BFU-E erythroid progenitors by glucocorticoids and other factors that occurs during chronic anemia or inflammation; and (3) the expansion of thehematopoietic cell pool to produce more progenitors of all hematopoietic lineages.

  14. Paradoxical Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Thyroid Hormone Levels: A Study Using Mendelian Randomization

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Rebecca; Davies, Neil; Sayers, Adrian; Stevenson, Kirsty; Woltersdorf, Wolfram; Taylor, Andrew; Groom, Alix; Northstone, Kate; Ring, Susan; Okosieme, Onyebuchi; Rees, Aled; Nitsch, Dorothea; Williams, Graham R.; Smith, George Davey; Gregory, John W.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tobias, Jonathan H.; Dayan, Colin M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Free T3 (FT3) has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI) in cross-sectional studies in healthy individuals. This is difficult to reconcile with clinical findings in pathological thyroid dysfunction. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether childhood adiposity influences FT3 levels. Design: Mendelian randomization using genetic variants robustly associated with BMI. Setting: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a population-based birth cohort. Participants: A total of 3014 children who had thyroid function measured at age 7, who also underwent dual x-ray absorptiometry scans at ages 9.9 and 15.5 years and have genetic data available. Main Outcome Measures: FT3. Results: Observationally at age 7 years, BMI was positively associated with FT3: β-standardized (β-[std]) = 0.12 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.08, 0.16), P = 4.02 × 10−10; whereas FT4 was negatively associated with BMI: β-(std) = −0.08 (95% CI: −0.12, −0.04), P = 3.00 × 10−5. These differences persisted after adjustment for age, sex, and early life environment. Genetic analysis indicated 1 allele change in BMI allelic score was associated with a 0.04 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.04) SD increase in BMI (P = 6.41 × 10−17). At age 7, a genetically determined increase in BMI of 1.89 kg/m2 was associated with a 0.22 pmol/L (95% CI: 0.07, 0.36) increase in FT3 (P = .004) but no substantial change in FT4 0.01 mmol/L, (95% CI: −0.37, 0.40), P = .96. Conclusion: Our analysis shows that children with a genetically higher BMI had higher FT3 but not FT4 levels, indicating that higher BMI/fat mass has a causal role in increasing FT3 levels. This may explain the paradoxical associations observed in observational analyses. Given rising childhood obesity levels, this relationship merits closer scrutiny. PMID:26595101

  15. Effects of monochromatic light sources on sex hormone levels in serum and on semen quality of ganders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shen-Chang; Zhuang, Zi-Xuan; Lin, Min-Jung; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Lin, Tsung-Yi; Jea, Yu-Shine; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Light is an essential external factor influencing various physiological processes, including reproductive performance, in birds. Although several attempts have been made to understand the effect of light on poultry production, the effect of light of a particular wavelength (color) on the reproductive function in geese remains unclear. This study evaluated the effect of various monochromatic light sources on the levels of sex hormone and on semen quality of ganders. Of 30 male White Roman geese in their third reproductive season (average age=3 years), 27 were divided into three groups receiving monochromatic white or red or blue lights. The birds were kept in an environmentally controlled house with a lighting photoperiod of 7L:17D for six weeks as the adaptation period. The photoperiod was subsequently changed to 9L:15D and maintained for 24 weeks. Three ganders at the beginning of the study and three from each group at the end of the adjusting period and the 20th and 30th week of the study period were sacrificed, and their testes and blood samples were collected for determining the sex hormone levels. Semen samples were collected for determining semen quality parameters, including the semen collection index, sperm concentration, semen volume, sperm motility, sperm viability, sperm morphology, and semen quality factor. The results showed that the testosterone and estradiol levels remained unchanged in all three groups at all time points. The ratio of testosterone to estradiol of ganders exposed to white light was significantly higher than that of ganders exposed to red light at the 30th week (P<0.05). Semen collection index and sperm viability of ganders exposed to blue light were significantly the lowest (P<0.05). Moreover, sperm motility, sperm viability, and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa of ganders in white light were the highest (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that artificial illumination with white light may

  16. Seasonal changes in plasma levels of sex hormones in the greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American Ratite with a complex mating system.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Diego J; Vera Cortez, Marilina; Della Costa, Natalia S; Lèche, Alvina; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L; Martella, Mónica B

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July), whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes). Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the "Challenge Hypothesis". In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period. PMID:24837464

  17. Seasonal Changes in Plasma Levels of Sex Hormones in the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American Ratite with a Complex Mating System

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Diego J.; Vera Cortez, Marilina; Della Costa, Natalia S.; Lèche, Alvina; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L.; Martella, Mónica B.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July), whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes). Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the “Challenge Hypothesis”. In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period. PMID:24837464

  18. Seasonal changes in plasma levels of sex hormones in the greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American Ratite with a complex mating system.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Diego J; Vera Cortez, Marilina; Della Costa, Natalia S; Lèche, Alvina; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L; Martella, Mónica B

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July), whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes). Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the "Challenge Hypothesis". In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period.

  19. Effects of sauna and glucose intake on TSH and thyroid hormone levels in plasma of euthyroid subjects.

    PubMed

    Strbák, V; Tatár, P; Angyal, R; Strec, V; Aksamitová, K; Vigas, M; Jánosová, H

    1987-05-01

    The effect of sauna on thyroid function parameters and its modification by glucose was studied in young euthyroid male volunteers. A 30-minute stay in sauna resulted in an increase in plasma TSH; the response was exaggerated if glycemia had been increased by oral glucose intake at the beginning of the experiment. Plasma rT3 also increased in sauna, this response was, however, blunted by the higher glycemia. TSH response to sauna was definitely present in young men (aged 20 to 25) and absent in middle-aged ones (50 to 55). To explore the mechanism of the effect of increased glycemia, TRH tests were performed and dopamine infusions were administered with and without glucose pretreatment. Increased glycemia did not affect TSH and T3 response to TRH in young volunteers; however, 90 minutes after the administration, plasma rT3 levels were significantly lower in glucose pretreated subjects than in those receiving TRH injections after water pretreatment. Simultaneous infusion of glucose prevented the inhibitory effect of dopamine infusion on plasma TSH. It was concluded that glucose directly modulates the effect of sauna on plasma TSH at a suprapituitary level, while the inhibiting effect of glucose on plasma rT3 response to sauna and TRH is probably mediated by the insulin effect on thyroid hormone metabolism. PMID:3106755

  20. Relationships among Vitamin D Levels, Parathyroid Hormone, and Calcium Absorption in Young Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Steven A.; Griffin, Ian J.; Hawthorne, Keli M.; Gunn, Sheila K.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Carpenter, Thomas O.

    2005-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that vitamin D status in adults, as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), is positively associated with calcium absorption fraction and inversely associated with serum PTH. Few comparable pediatric data exist. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships among vitamin D status, PTH, and calcium absorption in mid-pubertal boys and girls. Methods Calcium absorption was measured as part of an evaluation of the effects of prebiotics (inulin-type fructans) using a stable isotope method in 93 young adolescents, 12.7 ± 1.0 yr of age, receiving diets averaging approximately 900 mg/d calcium. Results A significant positive relation to calcium absorption was found for serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(P = 0.048) and PTH(P = 0.007), but not for 25-OHD (P = 0.77). PTH was significantly inversely related to 25-OHD and was positively related to serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and osteocalcin. PTH was marginally significantly inversely related to lumbar spinal, but not whole body, bone mineral density. Conclusions These data suggest that in adolescents, especially in the presence of vitamin D insufficiency, PTH secretion increases to adapt to higher rates of bone formation associated with growth. This results in higher serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations and increased calcium absorption results. Vitamin D status, as reflected by the serum 25-OHD level, is not closely related to calcium absorption. Whether adaptation to low serum 25-OHD is adequate under physiologically stressful situations, including those leading to very low serum 25-OHD levels, is unknown. PMID:16076940

  1. Influence of perinatal factors on thyroid stimulating hormone level in cord blood

    PubMed Central

    Armanian, Amir-Mohammad; Hashemipour, Mahin; Esnaashari, Azadeh; Kelishadi, Roya; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of various perinatal factors on cord blood TSH among newborns in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive–analytic cross sectional study which performed in Isfahan Iran. During a period of four months, since February to May 2012 a total number of 440 newborns delivered in Alzahra and Shahid beheshti hospitals were enrolled in the study. For all newborns one mL blood sample from umbilical vein was obtained by one of the project investigators and sent to laboratory for further examinations. Cord blood TSH and birth body weight (BBW), gestational age, history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), apgar at one minute, apgar at five minute, newborn gender and the mother's age were documented. Differences considered statistically significant if P < 0.01. Results: 440 newborns enrolled in the study, 221 (50.2%) were male and 219 (49.8%) were female. Among study parameters, method of delivery had statistically significant relation with cord blood TSH (P < 0.001), and other factors such as BBW, gestational age, GDM, apgar at one minute, apgar at five minute, newborn gender and the mother's age didn’t have statistically significant relationship with cord TSH level. Conclusion: In conclusion we deduce that the only factor that can affect cord blood TSH was method of delivery. Infant with vaginal delivery has higher TSH level in cord blood. Other factors that were evaluated in this study didn’t have any statistically significant relationship. PMID:24516848

  2. Relationship between serum growth hormone binding protein levels and height in young men.

    PubMed

    Codner, E; Mericq, M V; Maheshwari, H G; Iñguez, G; Capurro, M T; Salazar, T; Baumann, G; Cassorla, F; Codner, D E

    2000-01-01

    The biochemical mediators responsible for variations in stature among normal subjects are largely unknown. To obtain some initial information about potential endocrine factors, we measured the serum concentrations of GH, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and GHBP in healthy young men shorter than 159 cm and taller than 187 cm. We studied 14 volleyball and basketball players (tall group), and 14 jockey students from a horse racetrack (short group). A careful medical history was taken, including dietary intake, and physical examination with special attention to the possible presence of genetic stigmata was performed. Serum prealbumin was determined as an index of nutritional status. A buccal smear was performed to exclude Klinefelter's syndrome. The BMI and serum prealbumin levels were comparable in both groups of individuals. The nutritional survey, however, revealed that the tall subjects had a higher intake of calories (42.2+/-11.2 vs. 30.1+/-15.15 kcal/kg, p<0.05), and protein (1.5+/-0.6 vs. 0.8+/-0.4 mg/kg, p<0.01). Serum concentrations of GHBP did not differ in the two groups (0.95+/-0.37 nmol/l in the tall, and 0.95+/-0.53 nmol/l in the short group), and did not correlate with height, serum IGF-I levels, or BMI. We observed a significant difference in the serum concentrations of IGF-I in the two groups of individuals (42.02+/-9.37 nmol/l in the tall and 31.79+/-3.18 nmol/l in the short group, p<0.05), and this growth factor showed a positive correlation with height (r = 0.5, p<0.01). These preliminary findings suggest that final height differences in young men do not appear to be mediated by variations in GHBP concentrations.

  3. Development of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) after Onyx embolisation of a cavernous carotid fistula.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsinsue; Kalani, M Yashar S; Ducruet, Andrew F; Albuquerque, Felipe C; McDougall, Cameron G

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cavernous carotid fistulas (CCFs) can present with pituitary hypoperfusion and hypopituitarism; however, there are no previous reports of pituitary or hormonal abnormalities developing after CCF embolisation in an asymptomatic patient. We describe a patient with no hormonal abnormalities who developed syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion after CCF embolisation. The patient had bilateral indirect CCFs, which were completely embolised via a transvenous approach, and was neurologically stable postoperatively and discharged. In the subsequent 2 weeks the patient was readmitted twice for acute hyponatraemia and a tonic-clonic seizure. Laboratory studies revealed severe SIADH. Clinical status and sodium levels improved after treatment. One year later the patient was weaned off all medications and remained neurologically stable. SIADH may be a delayed phenomenon after CCF embolisation. Given the proximity of embolised vessels to the pituitary's vascular supply, CCF treatment may result in flow disturbance, ischaemia and hormonal abnormalities. PMID:27001597

  4. Associations of Serum Levels of Sex Hormones in Follicular and Luteal Phases of the Menstrual Cycle with Breast Tissue Characteristics in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Monica; Dunn, Sheila; Martin, Lisa; Chavez, Sonia; Stanitz, Greg; Huszti, Ella; Minkin, Salomon; Boyd, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Background In previous work in young women aged 15–30 years we measured breast water and fat using MR and obtained blood for hormone assays on the same day in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Only serum growth hormone levels and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly associated with percent breast water after adjustment for covariates. The sex hormones estradiol, progesterone and testosterone were not associated with percent water in the breast in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. In the present study we have examined the association of percent breast water with serum levels of sex hormones in both follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Methods In 315 healthy white Caucasian young women aged 15–30 with regular menstrual cycles who had not used oral contraceptives or other hormones in the previous 6 months, we used MR to determine percent breast water, and obtained blood samples for hormone assays within 10 days of the onset of the most recent menstrual cycle (follicular phase) of the cycle on the same day as the MR scan, and a second blood sample on days 19–24 of the cycle. Serum progesterone levels of > = 5 mmol/L in days 19–24 were used to define the 225 subjects with ovulatory menstrual cycles, whose data are the subject of the analyses shown here. Results SHBG was positively associated with percent water in both follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Total and free estradiol and total and free testosterone were not associated with percent water in the follicular phase, but in young women with ovulatory cycles, were all negatively associated with percent water in the luteal phase. Conclusions Our results from young women aged 15–30 years add to the evidence that the extent of fibroglandular tissue in the breast that is reflected in both mammographic density and breast water is associated positively with higher serum levels of SHBG, but not with higher levels of sex hormones. PMID

  5. Improving Cotton Embryo Culture by Simulating In Ovulo Nutrient and Hormone Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney Fuller; Vincent Liddiard; J. Hess; John Carman

    2011-06-01

    Plant ovules provide zygotes with a physicochemical environment that supports embryo differentiation, growth, and maturation. The exact nature of this embryogenesis-enabling environment is not well characterized, as evidenced by failed attempts to induce normal embryony from zygotes or proembryos (precotyledonary) on defined media. To identify factors required for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) zygotic embryony in vitro, we previously performed chemical and dissolved oxygen tension analyses of cotton ovule fluids and tissues at multiple stages of embryony in situ. Based on these analyses, we report herein the development of procedures that normalize embryo differentiation, growth, maturation, and germination in vitro, starting with proembryos. Our medium differed from Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium as follows (percentage of MS): N (30%, mostly from ten amino acids), P (815%), K (237%), Mg (85%), Ca (267%), S (506%), Fe (88%), and myoinositol (883%). Levels of other MS nutrients and vitamins, except sucrose, were kept at MS levels. Additionally, we included 100 mg L-1 casein hydrolysate plus the following (mmol L-1): d-glucose (1.8), fructose (4.7), sucrose (62.0), arabinose (7.1), melibiose (3.5), malic acid (11.6), and citric acid (3.8). Mannitol was added to achieve a medium osmotic potential of -1.10 MPa, and an atmospheric O2 tension of 3.3 mol m-3 at the surface of embryos was maintained during culture. When cultured on medium containing 8.0 µmol L-1 indole-3-acetic acid, 80-90% of proembryos (as small as 100 cells) of cultivars HS-26 and B-27 increased four- to eightfold in surface area during the first 18 d in culture and germinated thereafter to produce viable plants. Increases in surface area of proembryos cultured on a modified MS medium previously used for somatic embryogenesis were from 0.2- to 0.6-fold. The described embryo culture medium should be useful for studying nutritional and molecular aspects of early embryony and possibly for plant zygote

  6. High-fructose corn syrup and sucrose have equivalent effects on energy-regulating hormones at normal human consumption levels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiping; Lowndes, Joshua; Rippe, James

    2013-12-01

    Intake of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been suggested to contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity, whereas a number of studies and organizations have reported metabolic equivalence between HFCS and sucrose. We hypothesized that HFCS and sucrose would have similar effects on energy-regulating hormones and metabolic substrates at normal levels of human consumption and that these values would not change over a 10-week, free-living period at these consumption levels. This was a randomized, prospective, double-blind, parallel group study in which 138 adult men and women consumed 10 weeks of low-fat milk sweetened with either HFCS or sucrose at levels of the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentile population consumption of fructose (the equivalent of 40, 90, or 150 g of sugar per day in a 2000-kcal diet). Before and after the 10-week intervention, 24-hour blood samples were collected. The area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, insulin, leptin, active ghrelin, triglyceride, and uric acid was measured. There were no group differences at baseline or posttesting for all outcomes (interaction, P > .05). The AUC response of glucose, active ghrelin, and uric acid did not change between baseline and posttesting (P > .05), whereas the AUC response of insulin (P < .05), leptin (P < .001), and triglyceride (P < .01) increased over the course of the intervention when the 6 groups were averaged. We conclude that there are no differences in the metabolic effects of HFCS and sucrose when compared at low, medium, and high levels of consumption.

  7. High-fructose corn syrup and sucrose have equivalent effects on energy-regulating hormones at normal human consumption levels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiping; Lowndes, Joshua; Rippe, James

    2013-12-01

    Intake of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been suggested to contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity, whereas a number of studies and organizations have reported metabolic equivalence between HFCS and sucrose. We hypothesized that HFCS and sucrose would have similar effects on energy-regulating hormones and metabolic substrates at normal levels of human consumption and that these values would not change over a 10-week, free-living period at these consumption levels. This was a randomized, prospective, double-blind, parallel group study in which 138 adult men and women consumed 10 weeks of low-fat milk sweetened with either HFCS or sucrose at levels of the 25th, 50th, and 90th percentile population consumption of fructose (the equivalent of 40, 90, or 150 g of sugar per day in a 2000-kcal diet). Before and after the 10-week intervention, 24-hour blood samples were collected. The area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, insulin, leptin, active ghrelin, triglyceride, and uric acid was measured. There were no group differences at baseline or posttesting for all outcomes (interaction, P > .05). The AUC response of glucose, active ghrelin, and uric acid did not change between baseline and posttesting (P > .05), whereas the AUC response of insulin (P < .05), leptin (P < .001), and triglyceride (P < .01) increased over the course of the intervention when the 6 groups were averaged. We conclude that there are no differences in the metabolic effects of HFCS and sucrose when compared at low, medium, and high levels of consumption. PMID:24267044

  8. Effects of irradiation and semistarvation on rat thyrotropin beta subunit messenger ribonucleic acid, pituitary thyrotropin content, and thyroid hormone levels

    SciTech Connect

    Litten, R.Z. ); Carr, F.E. ); Fein, H.G.; Smallridge, R.C. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of radiation-induced anorexia on serum thyrotropin (TSH), pituitary TSH-{beta} mRNA, pituitary TSH content, serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), and serum 3,5,3{prime}-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) was investigated using feed-matched controls. Rats received 10 Gy gamma whole-body irradiation and were examined 1-3 days postirradiation. Feed-matched and untreated controls were also studied. The average food intake of the irradiated and feed-matched groups was approximately 18% of the untreated controls. Over the three day period both the irradiated and feed-matched groups lost a significant amount of body weight. The serum T{sub 4} levels of both the irradiated and feed-matched groups were not significantly different from each other, but were significantly depressed when compared to the untreated control group. The serum TSH and T{sub 3} were, however, significantly greater in the irradiated than the feed-matched groups at day 3 posttreatment. To determine if the difference in the serum TSH level between the two groups was due to a pretranslational alteration in TSH production, we measured the TSH-{beta} mRNA using an RNA blot hybridization assay. We found that the TSH-{beta} mRNA level was the same in the irradiated and feed-matched groups, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the radiation-induced increase in the serum TSH level is posttranscriptional. Pituitary TSH content in the irradiated rats was significantly less than in pair-fed controls, suggesting that irradiation may permit enhanced secretion of stored hormone.